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Sample records for abelson helper integration

  1. Tyrosine hydroxylase down-regulation after loss of Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) promotes depression via the circadian clock pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongkai; Zhang, Shun; Sun, Hongyang; Xu, Xingyun; Hao, Zongbing; Mu, Chenchen; Xu, Xingshun; Wang, Guanghui; Ren, Haigang

    2018-04-06

    Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) is associated with several neuropsychiatric and brain developmental disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, autism, and Joubert syndrome. Ahi1 deficiency in mice leads to behaviors typical of depression. However, the mechanisms by which AHI1 regulates behavior remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that down-regulation of expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), in the midbrains of Ahi1- knockout (KO) mice is responsible for Ahi1 -deficiency-mediated depressive symptoms. We also found that Rev-Erbα, a TH transcriptional repressor and circadian regulator, is up-regulated in the Ahi1- KO mouse midbrains and Ahi1 -knockdown Neuro-2a cells. Moreover, brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1 (BMAL1), the Rev-Erb α transcriptional regulator, is also increased in the Ahi1- KO mouse midbrains and Ahi1 -knockdown cells. Our results further revealed that AHI1 decreases BMAL1/Rev-Erbα expression by interacting with and repressing retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α, a nuclear receptor and transcriptional regulator of circadian genes. Of note, Bmal1 deficiency reversed the reduction in TH expression induced by Ahi1 deficiency. Moreover, microinfusion of the Rev-Erbα inhibitor SR8278 into the ventral midbrain of Ahi1- KO mice significantly increased TH expression in the ventral tegmental area and improved their depressive symptoms. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for a link between AHI1-related behaviors and the circadian clock pathway, indicating an involvement of circadian regulatory proteins in AHI1-regulated mood and behavior. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Abelson Helper Integration Site-1 Gene Variants on Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Stefano; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Masand, Prakash S.; Balzarro, Beatrice; Alberti, Siegfried; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to explore whether 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the AHI1 gene could be associated with major depressive disorder (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD), and whether they could predict clinical outcomes in mood disorders. Methods One hundred and eighty-four (184) patients with MD, 170 patients with BD and 170 healthy controls were genotyped for 4 AHI1 SNPs (rs11154801, rs7750586, rs9647635 and rs9321501). Baseline and final clinical measures for MD patients were assessed through the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Allelic and genotypic frequencies in MD and BD subjects were compared with those of each disorder and healthy group using the χ2 statistics. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test possible influences of SNPs on treatment efficacy. Results The rs9647635 A/A was more represented in subjects with BD as compared with MD and healthy subjects together. The rs9647635 A/A was also more presented in patients with MD than in healthy subjects. With regard to the allelic analysis, rs9647635 A allele was more represented in subjects with BD compared with healthy subjects, while it was not observed between patients with MD and healthy subjects. Conclusion Our findings provide potential evidence of an association between some variants of AHI1 and mood disorders susceptibility but not with clinical outcomes. However, we will need to do more adequately-powered and advanced association studies to draw any conclusion due to clear limitations. PMID:25395981

  3. Helper Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Special clothing is worn by "community helpers" such as police officers, nurses, firefighters, cafeteria workers, dentists, and waste management workers as they do their jobs. The special clothing allows workers to be safe. Therefore, exploring how hats help community workers do their jobs can be a way to introduce the idea of how the shape or…

  4. Abelson-interactor-1 promotes WAVE2 membrane translocation and Abelson-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation required for WAVE2 activation.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yan; Zhang, Jinyi; Badour, Karen; Arpaia, Enrico; Freeman, Spencer; Cheung, Pam; Siu, Michael; Siminovitch, Katherine

    2005-01-25

    WAVE2 is a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins shown to link Rac activation to actin remodeling via induction of Arp 2/3 activity. WAVE2 is thought to be regulated by its positioning in a macromolecular complex also containing the Abelson-(Abl) interactor-1 (Abi-1) adaptor, but the molecular basis and biologic relevance of WAVE2 inclusion in this complex are ill defined. Here we show that Abi-1 binding to WAVE2 is mediated by discrete motifs in the Abi-1 coiled-coil and WAVE2 WAVE-homology domains and increases markedly in conjunction with Abi-1-WAVE2 translocation and colocalization at the leading edge in B16F1 cells after fibronectin stimulation. Abi-1 also couples WAVE2 to Abl after cell stimulation, an interaction that triggers Abl membrane translocation with WAVE2, Abi-1, and activated Rac, as well as Abl-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation and WAVE2 activation. By contrast, mutation of tyrosine residue Y150, identified here as the major site of Abl-mediated WAVE2 tyrosine phosphorylation, as well as disruption of WAVE2-Abi-1 binding, impairs induction of WAVE2-driven actin polymerization and its membrane translocation in association with activated Rac. Similarly, WAVE2 tyrosine phosphorylation and induction of membrane actin rearrangement are abrogated in fibroblasts lacking the Abl family kinase. Together, these data reveal that Abi-1-mediated coupling of Abl to WAVE2 promotes Abl-evoked WAVE2 tyrosine phosphorylation required to link WAVE2 with activated Rac and with actin polymerization and remodeling at the cell periphery.

  5. Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Amanda; Vetrini, Francesco; Ng, Philip

    2011-10-29

    Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors are devoid of all viral coding sequences, possess a large cloning capacity, and can efficiently transduce a wide variety of cell types from various species independent of the cell cycle to mediate long-term transgene expression without chronic toxicity. These non-integrating vectors hold tremendous potential for a variety of gene transfer and gene therapy applications. Here, we review the production technologies, applications, obstacles to clinical translation and their potential resolutions, and the future challenges and unanswered questions regarding this promising gene transfer technology.

  6. Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Rosewell, Amanda; Vetrini, Francesco; Ng, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors are devoid of all viral coding sequences, possess a large cloning capacity, and can efficiently transduce a wide variety of cell types from various species independent of the cell cycle to mediate long-term transgene expression without chronic toxicity. These non-integrating vectors hold tremendous potential for a variety of gene transfer and gene therapy applications. Here, we review the production technologies, applications, obstacles to clinical translation and their potential resolutions, and the future challenges and unanswered questions regarding this promising gene transfer technology. PMID:24533227

  7. Clinical Laboratory Helper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szucs, Susan C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides competencies and tasks for the position of clinical laboratory helper; it serves as both a career exploration experience and/or entry-level employment training. A list of 25 validated competencies and tasks covers careers from entry level to those that must be mastered to earn an associate degree in clinical…

  8. DaCHS: Data Center Helper Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, Markus

    2018-04-01

    DaCHS, the Data Center Helper Suite, is an integrated package for publishing astronomical data sets to the Virtual Observatory. Network-facing, it speaks the major VO protocols (SCS, SIAP, SSAP, TAP, Datalink, etc). Operator-facing, many input formats, including FITS/WCS, ASCII files, and VOTable, can be processed to publication-ready data. DaCHS puts particular emphasis on integrated metadata handling, which facilitates a tight integration with the VO's Registry

  9. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hallock, Peter T; Burden, Steven J

    2017-12-12

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but as a consequence of expansion of the diaphragm muscle, the diaphragm central tendon is reduced in size, likely contributing to reduced stamina of Abl2 mutant mice. Ectopic muscle islands, each composed of myofibers of uniform length and orientation, form within the central tendon of Abl2 +/- mice. Specialized tendon cells, resembling tendon cells at myotendinous junctions, form at the ends of these muscle islands, suggesting that myofibers induce differentiation of tendon cells, which reciprocally regulate myofiber length and orientation.

  10. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 regulates myoblast proliferation and controls muscle fiber length

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hallock, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but as a consequence of expansion of the diaphragm muscle, the diaphragm central tendon is reduced in size, likely contributing to reduced stamina of Abl2 mutant mice. Ectopic muscle islands, each composed of myofibers of uniform length and orientation, form within the central tendon of Abl2+/− mice. Specialized tendon cells, resembling tendon cells at myotendinous junctions, form at the ends of these muscle islands, suggesting that myofibers induce differentiation of tendon cells, which reciprocally regulate myofiber length and orientation. PMID:29231808

  11. Mycorrhiza helper bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Deveau, Aurelie; Labbe, Jessy

    This chapter focuses on the Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB), a generic name given to bacteria which stimulate the formation of mycorrhizal symbiosis. By extension, some bacterial strains that positively impact the functioning of mycorrhizal symbiosis are also called MHB. These bacteria have applicative interests, as they indirectly improve the health and growth of tree seedlings. MHB are not restricted to a specific type of ecosystem, but are rather generalist in the way that they associate with both herbaceous and woody mycorrhizal plants from boreal, temperate, arid and tropical ecosystems. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms and their specificities will help usmore » to know more about the ecology of the MHB. The process of acquisition varies between fungal species; while ectomycorrhizal fungi most probably recurrently acquire them from the environment, the association between bacterial endosymbionts and Glomeromycota probably dates back to very ancient times, and has since been vertically transmitted.« less

  12. Decreased Virus Population Diversity in p53-Null Mice Infected with Weakly Oncogenic Abelson Virus

    PubMed Central

    Marchlik, Erica; Kalman, Richard; Rosenberg, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    The Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV), like other retroviruses that contain v-onc genes, arose following a recombination event between a replicating retrovirus and a cellular oncogene. Although experimentally validated models have been presented to address the mechanism by which oncogene capture occurs, very little is known about the events that influence emerging viruses following the recombination event that incorporates the cellular sequences. One feature that may play a role is the genetic makeup of the host in which the virus arises; a number of host genes, including oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, have been shown to affect the pathogenesis of many murine leukemia viruses. To examine how a host gene might affect an emerging v-onc gene-containing retrovirus, we studied the weakly oncogenic Ab-MLV-P90A strain, a mutant that generates highly oncogenic variants in vivo, and compared the viral populations in normal mice and mice lacking the p53 tumor suppressor gene. While variants arose in both p53+/+ and p53−/− tumors, the samples from the wild-type animals contained a more diverse virus population. Differences in virus population diversity were not observed when wild-type and null animals were infected with a highly oncogenic wild-type strain of Ab-MLV. These results indicate that p53, and presumably other host genes, affects the selective forces that operate on virus populations in vivo and likely influences the evolution of oncogenic retroviruses such as Ab-MLV. PMID:16140739

  13. Helper-Free Foamy Virus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    TROBRIDGE, GRANT D.; RUSSELL, DAVID W.

    2010-01-01

    Retroviral vectors based on human foamy virus (HFV) have been developed and show promise as gene therapy vehicles. Here we describe a method for the production of HFV vector stocks free of detectable helper virus. The helper and vector plasmid constructs used both lack the HFV bel genes, so recombination between these constructs cannot create a wild-type virus. A fusion promoter that combines portions of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early and HFV long terminal repeat (LTR) promoters was used to drive expression of both the helper and vector constructs. The CMV–LTR fusion promoter allows for HFV vector production in the absence of the Bel-1 trans-activator protein, which would otherwise be necessary for efficient transcription from the HFV LTR. Vector stocks containing either neomycin phosphotransferase or alkaline phosphatase reporter genes were produced by transient transfection at titers greater than 105 transducing units/ml. G418-resistant BHK-21 cells obtained by transduction with neo vectors contained randomly integrated HFV vector proviruses without detectable deletions or rearrangements. The vector stocks generated were free of replication-competent retrovirus (RCR), as determined by assays for LTR trans-activation and a marker rescue assay developed here for the detection of Bel-independent RCR. OVERVIEW SUMMARY Vectors based on human foamy virus have been developed but low titers and the presence of replication-competent retrovirus (RCR) in vector stocks have prevented their use in preclinical animal experiments. We have developed a transient transfection method that can be used to produce replication-incompetent HFV vector stocks at titers greater than 105/ml, and that does not produce contaminating RCR. The use of CMV-HFV LTR fusion promoters in the helper and vector constructs has circumvented the requirement for the HFV Bel-1 trans-activator protein. Consequently, the potential for generating wild-type HFV by recombination between helper and

  14. Low expression of Abelson interactor-1 is linked to acquired drug resistance in Bcr-Abl induced leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chorzalska, Anna; Salloum, Ibrahem; Shafqat, Hammad; Khan, Saad; Marjon, Philip; Treaba, Diana; Schorl, Christoph; Morgan, John; Bryke, Christine R.; Falanga, Vincent; Zhao, Thing C.; Reagan, John; Winer, Eric; Olszewski, Adam; Al-Homsi, Samer; Kouttab, Nicola; Dubielecka, Patrycja M.

    2014-01-01

    The basis for persistence of leukemic stem cells in the bone marrow microenvironment (BMME) remains poorly understood. We present evidence that signaling crosstalk between α4 integrin and Abelson interactor-1 (Abi-1) is involved in acquisition of an anchorage-dependent phenotype and drug resistance in Bcr-Abl positive leukemia cells. Comparison of Abi-1 (ABI-1) and α4 integrin (ITGA4) gene expression in relapsing Bcr-Abl positive CD34+ progenitor cells demonstrated a reduction in Abi-1 and an increase in α4 integrin mRNA in the absence of Bcr-Abl mutations. This inverse correlation between Abi-1 and α4 integrin expression, as well as linkage to elevated phospho-Akt and phospho-Erk signaling, was confirmed in imatinib mesylate (IM) resistant leukemic cells. These results indicate that the α4-Abi-1 signaling pathway may mediate acquisition of the drug resistant phenotype of leukemic cells. PMID:24699303

  15. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  2. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement...

  5. Peer Helpers in Hungary: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Jozsef; Lacko, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    Hungary is a country in transition that has no real tradition of peer helping. A qualitative study was carried out involving 13 peer helpers of two kinds (a) age-based peers, and (b) way-of-life-based peers (fellow helpers). The motivations for and the processes of becoming a peer helper were analyzed. Results showed the largest difference being…

  6. The Hem protein mediates neuronal migration by inhibiting WAVE degradation and functions opposite of Abelson tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zengrong; Bhat, Krishna Moorthi

    2011-01-01

    In the nervous system, neurons form in different regions, then they migrate and occupy specific positions. We have previously shown that RP2/sib, a well-studied neuronal pair in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord (VNC), has a complex migration route. Here, we show that the Hem protein, via the WAVE complex, regulates migration of GMC-1 and its progeny RP2 neuron. In Hem or WAVE mutants, RP2 neuron either abnormally migrates, crossing the midline from one hemisegment to the contralateral hemisegment, or does not migrate at al and fail to send out its axon projection. We report that Hem regulates neuronal migration through stabilizing WAVE. Since Hem and WAVE normally form a complex, our data argues that in the absence of Hem, WAVE, which is presumably no longer in a complex, becomes susceptible to degradation. We also find that Abelson Tyrosine kinase affects RP2 migration in a similar manner as Hem and WAVE, and appears to operate via WAVE. However, while Abl negatively regulates the levels of WAVE, it regulates migration via regulating the activity of WAVE. Our results also show that during the degradation of WAVE, Hem function is opposite to that of and downstream of Abl. PMID:21726548

  7. Corrective recombination of mouse immunoglobulin kappa alleles in Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed pre-B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Feddersen, R M; Van Ness, B G

    1990-01-01

    Previous characterization of mouse immunoglobulin kappa gene rearrangement products cloned from murine plasmacytomas has indicated that two recombination events can take place on a single kappa allele (R. M. Feddersen and B. G. Van Ness, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:4792-4797, 1985; M. A. Shapiro and M. Weigert, J. Immunol. 139:3834-3839, 1987). To determine whether multiple recombinations on a single kappa allele can contribute to the formation of productive V-J genes through corrective recombinations, we have examined several Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed pre-B-cell clones which rearrange the kappa locus during cell culture. Clonal cell lines which had rearranged one kappa allele nonproductively while maintaining the other allele in the germ line configuration were grown, and secondary subclones, which subsequently expressed kappa protein, were isolated and examined for further kappa rearrangement. A full spectrum of rearrangement patterns was observed in this sequential cloning, including productive and nonproductive recombinations of the germ line allele and secondary recombinations of the nonproductive allele. The results show that corrective V-J recombinations, with displacement of the nonproductive kappa gene, occur with a significant frequency (6 of 17 kappa-producing subclones). Both deletion and maintenance of the primary (nonfunctional) V-J join, as a reciprocal product, were observed. Images PMID:2153918

  8. General pathologist-helper: The new medical app about general pathology.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Vega, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) have become increasingly prevalent in medicine. Due to most pathologists, pathology trainees, technicians, and medical students use smartphones; apps can be a different way for general pathology education. "General pathologist-helper (GP-HELPER)" is a novel app developed as a reference tool in general pathology and especially for general pathologists, developed for Android and iOS platforms. "GP-HELPER," was created using Mobincube website platform. This tool also integrates "FORUM GP-HELPER," an external website created using Miarroba website (http://forum-gp-helper.mboards.com) and "COMMUNITY GP-HELPER" a multichannel chat created using Chatango website platform. The application was released in July 2015, and it is been periodically updated since then. The app has permanent information (offline data) about different pathology protocols (TNM latest edition, protocols regarding management of tumors of unknown primary origin, and flowcharts for some of the most difficult tumors to diagnose) and a database with more than 5000 immunohistochemistry results from different tumors. Online data have links to more than 1100 reference pathology video lectures, 250 antibodies information, more than 70 pathology association websites, 46 pathology providers, and 78 outstanding pathology journal websites. Besides this information, the app has two interactive places such as "FORUM GP-HELPER" and "COMMUNITY GP-HELPER" that let users to stay in touch everywhere and every time. Expert consult section is also available. "GP-HELPER" pretends to integrate offline and online data about pathology with two interactive external places in order to represent a reference tool for general pathologists and associate members.

  9. Abelson Kinase Inhibitors Are Potent Inhibitors of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Christopher M.; Sisk, Jeanne M.; Mingo, Rebecca M.; Nelson, Elizabeth A.; White, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cause significant morbidity and morality. There is currently no approved therapeutic for highly pathogenic coronaviruses, even as MERS-CoV is spreading throughout the Middle East. We previously screened a library of FDA-approved drugs for inhibitors of coronavirus replication in which we identified Abelson (Abl) kinase inhibitors, including the anticancer drug imatinib, as inhibitors of both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in vitro. Here we show that the anti-CoV activity of imatinib occurs at the early stages of infection, after internalization and endosomal trafficking, by inhibiting fusion of the virions at the endosomal membrane. We specifically identified the imatinib target, Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2), as required for efficient SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV replication in vitro. These data demonstrate that specific approved drugs can be characterized in vitro for their anticoronavirus activity and used to identify host proteins required for coronavirus replication. This type of study is an important step in the repurposing of approved drugs for treatment of emerging coronaviruses. IMPORTANCE Both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are zoonotic infections, with bats as the primary source. The 2003 SARS-CoV outbreak began in Guangdong Province in China and spread to humans via civet cats and raccoon dogs in the wet markets before spreading to 37 countries. The virus caused 8,096 confirmed cases of SARS and 774 deaths (a case fatality rate of ∼10%). The MERS-CoV outbreak began in Saudi Arabia and has spread to 27 countries. MERS-CoV is believed to have emerged from bats and passed into humans via camels. The ongoing outbreak of MERS-CoV has resulted in 1,791 cases of MERS and 640 deaths (a case fatality rate of 36%). The emergence of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV provides evidence that coronaviruses are currently spreading from zoonotic

  10. Distinct Effects of Abelson Kinase Mutations on Myocytes and Neurons in Dissociated Drosophila Embryonic Cultures: Mimicking of High Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijuan; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) is known to regulate axon guidance, muscle development, and cell-cell interaction in vivo. The Drosophila primary culture system offers advantages in exploring the cellular mechanisms mediated by Abl with utilizing various experimental manipulations. Here we demonstrate that single-embryo cultures exhibit stage-dependent characteristics of cellular differentiation and developmental progression in neurons and myocytes, as well as nerve-muscle contacts. In particular, muscle development critically depends on the stage of dissociated embryos. In wild-type (WT) cultures derived from embryos before stage 12, muscle cells remained within cell clusters and were rarely detected. Interestingly, abundant myocytes were spotted in Abl mutant cultures, exhibiting enhanced myocyte movement and fusion, as well as neuron-muscle contacts even in cultures dissociated from younger, stage 10 embryos. Notably, Abl myocytes frequently displayed well-expanded lamellipodia. Conversely, Abl neurons were characterized with fewer large veil-like lamellipodia, but instead had increased numbers of filopodia and darker nodes along neurites. These distinct phenotypes were equally evident in both homo- and hetero-zygous cultures (Abl/Abl vs. Abl/+) of different alleles (Abl1 and Abl4) indicating dominant mutational effects. Strikingly, in WT cultures derived from stage 10 embryos, high temperature (HT) incubation promoted muscle migration and fusion, partially mimicking the advanced muscle development typical of Abl cultures. However, HT enhanced neuronal growth with increased numbers of enlarged lamellipodia, distinct from the characteristic Abl neuronal morphology. Intriguingly, HT incubation also promoted Abl lamellipodia expansion, with a much greater effect on nerve cells than muscle. Our results suggest that Abl is an essential regulator for myocyte and neuron development and that high-temperature incubation partially mimics the faster muscle development

  11. Expression of Abelson Interactor 1 (Abi1) Correlates with Inflammation, KRAS Mutation and Adenomatous Change during Colonic Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Steinestel, Konrad; Brüderlein, Silke; Steinestel, Julie; Märkl, Bruno; Schwerer, Michael J.; Arndt, Annette; Kraft, Klaus; Pröpper, Christian; Möller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Abelson interactor 1 (Abi1) is an important regulator of actin dynamics during cytoskeletal reorganization. In this study, our aim was to investigate the expression of Abi1 in colonic mucosa with and without inflammation, colonic polyps, colorectal carcinomas (CRC) and metastases as well as in CRC cell lines with respect to BRAF/KRAS mutation status and to find out whether introduction of KRAS mutation or stimulation with TNFalpha enhances Abi1 protein expression in CRC cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We immunohistochemically analyzed Abi1 protein expression in 126 tissue specimens from 95 patients and in 5 colorectal carcinoma cell lines with different mutation status by western immunoblotting. We found that Abi1 expression correlated positively with KRAS, but not BRAF mutation status in the examined tissue samples. Furthermore, Abi1 is overexpressed in inflammatory mucosa, sessile serrated polyps and adenomas, tubular adenomas, invasive CRC and CRC metastasis when compared to healthy mucosa and BRAF-mutated as well as KRAS wild-type hyperplastic polyps. Abi1 expression in carcinoma was independent of microsatellite stability of the tumor. Abi1 protein expression correlated with KRAS mutation in the analyzed CRC cell lines, and upregulation of Abi1 could be induced by TNFalpha treatment as well as transfection of wild-type CRC cells with mutant KRAS. The overexpression of Abi1 could be abolished by treatment with the PI3K-inhibitor Wortmannin after KRAS transfection. Conclusions/Significance Our results support a role for Abi1 as a downstream target of inflammatory response and adenomatous change as well as oncogenic KRAS mutation via PI3K, but not BRAF activation. Furthermore, they highlight a possible role for Abi1 as a marker for early KRAS mutation in hyperplastic polyps. Since the protein is a key player in actin dynamics, our data encourages further studies concerning the exact role of Abi1 in actin reorganization upon enhanced KRAS/PI3K

  12. A novel packaging system for the generation of helper-free oncolytic MVM vector stocks.

    PubMed

    Brandenburger, A; Russell, S

    1996-10-01

    MVM-based autonomous parvoviral vectors have been shown to target the expression of heterologous genes in neoplastic cells and are therefore of interest for cancer gene therapy. The traditional method for production of parvoviral vectors requires the cotransfection of vector and helper plasmids into MVM-permissive cell lines, but recombination between the cotransfected plasmids invariably gives rise to vector stocks that are heavily contaminated with wild-type MVM. Therefore, to minimise recombination between the vector and helper genomes we have utilised a cell line in which the MVM helper functions are expressed inducibly from a modified MVM genome that is stably integrated into the host cell chromosome. Using this MVM packaging cell line, we could reproducibly generate MVM vector stocks that contained no detectable helper virus.

  13. A Peer Helpers Code of Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rosenroll, David A.

    This document presents a guide for developing a peer helpers code of behavior. The first section discusses issues relevant to the trainers. These issues include whether to give a model directly to the group or whether to engender "ownership" of the code by the group; timing of introduction of the code; and addressing the issue of…

  14. Electrician's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, Danny

    This guide is designed to assist teacher-coordinators supervising cooperative education programs for electrician's helpers in helping students complete a set of individualized, competency-based training activities dealing with electricity and electrical circuits and equipment. The first part of the manual includes a progress chart, a study guide…

  15. Bricklayer's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bill

    This individualized, competency-based study guide is designed to assist teacher-coordinators supervising cooperative education programs for bricklayer's helpers in providing students with general information for immediate reinforcement on the job and developing an understanding of the job prior to employment. A progress chart is provided to allow…

  16. Using Peer Helpers for Tuberculosis Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCue, Maureen; Afifi, Larry Anna

    1996-01-01

    Describes a peer helper program initiated by the University of Iowa Student Health Services to prevent active tuberculosis development among foreign national students. Before instituting the program, compliance with tuberculosis prevention efforts for those students was less than 5%. Since the peer program was instituted, compliance has risen to…

  17. Plumber's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traylor, Charles R.

    This individualized, competency-based study guide is designed to assist teacher-coordinators supervising cooperative education programs for plumber's helpers in providing students with general information for immediate reinforcement on the job and developing an understanding of the job prior to employment. A progress chart is provided to allow the…

  18. Helper effects on breeder allocations to direct care.

    PubMed

    Kushnick, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Mothers receive childcare and productive assistance from allomaternal helpers in many societies. Although much effort has been aimed toward showing helper effects on maternal reproductive success, less has been directed toward highlighting the full range of potential effects on breeder behavior. I present a model of optimal maternal care with helpers, and tests of derived hypotheses with data collected among the Karo Batak-a group of Indonesian agriculturalists. To test the model's predictions I compared the effect of women receiving help from patrilateral versus matrilateral kin because those kin may provide help with different maternal responsibilities. The model predicts a decrease in maternal allocation to care that is substitutable with the helper contribution and the helper assists with that type of care; it predicts an increase in care that is nonsubstitutable with the helper contribution or substitutable care when the helper assists with other responsibilities. With the exception of one other, most models have failed to account for an increase. Analyses of time spent carrying children supported the model. With matrilateral helpers, women increased carrying; with patrilateral helpers, they decreased it. Time spent farmworking showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that matrilateral helpers effectively decrease costs, nudging optimal maternal care upward. Patterns of breastfeeding provided little support for the model. The results do, however, suggest potential proximate mechanisms by which helpers influence maternal reproductive success in cooperative breeding societies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Beyond Helper Phage: Using "Helper Cells" to Select Peptide Affinity Ligands.

    PubMed

    Phipps, M Lisa; Lillo, Antoinetta M; Shou, Yulin; Schmidt, Emily N; Paavola, Chad D; Naranjo, Leslie; Bemdich, Sara; Swanson, Basil I; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Martinez, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are important affinity ligands for microscopy, biosensing, and targeted delivery. However, because they can have low affinity for their targets, their selection from large naïve libraries can be challenging. When selecting peptidic ligands from display libraries, it is important to: 1) ensure efficient display; 2) maximize the ability to select high affinity ligands; and 3) minimize the effect of the display context on binding. The "helper cell" packaging system has been described as a tool to produce filamentous phage particles based on phagemid constructs with varying display levels, while remaining free of helper phage contamination. Here we report on the first use of this system for peptide display, including the systematic characterization and optimization of helper cells, their inefficient use in antibody display and their use in creating and selecting from a set of phage display peptide libraries. Our libraries were analyzed with unprecedented precision by standard or deep sequencing, and shown to be superior in quality than commercial gold standards. Using our helper cell libraries, we have obtained ligands recognizing Yersinia pestis surface antigen F1V and L-glutamine-binding periplasmic protein QBP. In the latter case, unlike any of the peptide library selections described so far, we used a combination of phage and yeast display to select intriguing peptide ligands. Based on the success of our selections we believe that peptide libraries obtained with helper cells are not only suitable, but preferable to traditional phage display libraries for selection of peptidic ligands.

  20. Diverse functions of miR-17-92 cluster microRNAs in T helper cells.

    PubMed

    Baumjohann, Dirk

    2018-06-01

    T helper (Th) cells are critically involved in adaptive immune responses against various pathogens. In contrast, dysregulated T helper cell responses are associated with a variety of diseases, including autoimmunity, allergies, and cancer. Differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into effector T helper cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg, and T follicular helper (Tfh), requires precise dosing of signaling molecules and transcription factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small endogenously expressed RNAs that regulate gene expression, play important roles in these processes. The miR-17-92 cluster, a miRNA polycistron also known as oncomiR-1, has emerged as a central integrator of gene expression events that govern T helper cell differentiation pathways. The complexity of miR-17-92-mediated gene regulation lies in the nature of this miRNA cluster, which consists of six different miRNAs. Individual miR-17-92 miRNAs, albeit initially transcribed as one transcript, can have cooperative or opposing effects on biological processes. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular regulation of miR-17-92 and its downstream networks will provide important insights into T helper cell differentiation and diversity that may be harnessed for the design of advanced T cell-targeting therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased concentration of an apparently identical cellular protein in cells transformed by either Abelson murine leukemia virus or other transforming agents.

    PubMed

    Rotter, V; Boss, M A; Baltimore, D

    1981-04-01

    Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV)-transformed cells, simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed cells, and chemically transformed cells all have increased levels of a 50,000-molecular-weight host cell protein. The protein was detected with sera raised to the A-MuLV-transformed and chemically transformed cells and was tightly bound to T-antigen in extracts of SV40-transformed cells. Partial protease digests showed that the proteins from all three sources were indistinguishable. The three proteins were phosphorylated in cells, and the linkage of phosphate to the A-MuLV-associated P50 was to a serine residue. By immunofluorescence methods, P50-related protein was found on the surface of both normal lymphoid cells and A-MuLV-transformed lymphoid cells, but cell fractionation showed that the majority of P50 was free in the cytoplasm of the transformed cells. Immunofluorescence also showed that P50 was found in granules in the cytoplasm of both untransformed and SV40-transformed fibroblasts. Other cells gave indistinct patterns. Cocapping experiments showed that the A-MuLV-specified P120 protein is weakly associated with the surface P50-related protein of lymphoid cells, but no association of P120 and P50 could be demonstrated by immunoprecipitation methods. Although a monoclonal antiserum to P50 was used in many of these studies, the identity of the bulk P50 protein with the molecules that are reactive at the cell surface requires further study.

  2. A job analysis of care helpers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Sook; Jeong, Seungeun; Kim, Seulgee; Park, Hyeung-Keun; Seok, Jae Eun

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the roles of care helpers through job analysis. To do this, this study used the Developing A Curriculum Method (DACUM) to classify job content and a multi-dimensional study design was applied to identify roles and create a job description by looking into the appropriateness, significance, frequency, and difficulty of job content as identified through workshops and cross-sectional surveys conducted for appropriateness verification. A total of 418 care helpers working in nursing facilities and community senior service facilities across the country were surveyed. The collected data were analyzed using PASW 18.0 software. Six duties and 18 tasks were identified based on the job model. Most tasks were found to be "important task", scoring 4.0 points or above. Physical care duties, elimination care, position changing and movement assistance, feeding assistance, and safety care were identified as high frequency tasks. The most difficult tasks were emergency prevention, early detection, and speedy reporting. A summary of the job of care helpers is providing physical, emotional, housekeeping, and daily activity assistance to elderly patients with problems in independently undertaking daily activities due to physical or mental causes in long-term care facilities or at the client's home. The results of this study suggest a task-focused examination, optimizing the content of the current standard teaching materials authorized by the Ministry of Health and Welfare while supplementing some content which was identified as task elements but not included in the current teaching materials and fully reflecting the actual frequency and difficulty of tasks. PMID:22323929

  3. Strategic growth decisions in helper cichlids.

    PubMed Central

    Heg, Dik; Bender, Nicole; Hamilton, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that group-living subordinate clownfish Amphiprion percula increase their growth rate after acquiring the dominant breeder male position in the group. Evidence was found for strategic growth adjustments of subordinate fishes depending on the threat of eviction, i.e. subordinates adjust their growth rates so they remain smaller than the dominant fish and thereby limit the threat of being expelled from the territory. However, it is impossible to exclude several alternative factors that potentially could have influenced the observed changes in growth, owing to the nature of that experiment (removing the second-ranking fish--the breeder male--caused the third-ranking fish to change sex to become breeder male and change rank). We studied strategic growth decisions in the group-living Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher under controlled laboratory conditions with ad libitum food availability. First, we show that male breeders grow faster than subordinate male helpers of the same initial size and confirm that N. pulcher shows status-dependent growth. Second, we improved on the experimental design by not removing the dominant breeder male in the group; instead we replaced the breeder male with a new breeder male in a full factorial design and measured growth of the subordinate male helpers is a function of the size difference with the old and the new breeder male. As predicted, male helpers showed strategic growth adjustments, i.e. growing faster when the size difference with the breeder male is large. Strategic growth adjustments were less pronounced than status-dependent growth adjustments. PMID:15801617

  4. Strategic growth decisions in helper cichlids.

    PubMed

    Heg, Dik; Bender, Nicole; Hamilton, Ian

    2004-12-07

    Recently, it has been shown that group-living subordinate clownfish Amphiprion percula increase their growth rate after acquiring the dominant breeder male position in the group. Evidence was found for strategic growth adjustments of subordinate fishes depending on the threat of eviction, i.e. subordinates adjust their growth rates so they remain smaller than the dominant fish and thereby limit the threat of being expelled from the territory. However, it is impossible to exclude several alternative factors that potentially could have influenced the observed changes in growth, owing to the nature of that experiment (removing the second-ranking fish--the breeder male--caused the third-ranking fish to change sex to become breeder male and change rank). We studied strategic growth decisions in the group-living Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher under controlled laboratory conditions with ad libitum food availability. First, we show that male breeders grow faster than subordinate male helpers of the same initial size and confirm that N. pulcher shows status-dependent growth. Second, we improved on the experimental design by not removing the dominant breeder male in the group; instead we replaced the breeder male with a new breeder male in a full factorial design and measured growth of the subordinate male helpers is a function of the size difference with the old and the new breeder male. As predicted, male helpers showed strategic growth adjustments, i.e. growing faster when the size difference with the breeder male is large. Strategic growth adjustments were less pronounced than status-dependent growth adjustments.

  5. Beyond helper phage: Using "helper cells" to select peptide affinity ligands

    DOE PAGES

    Phipps, Mary Lisa; Lillo, Antoinetta M.; Shou, Yulin; ...

    2016-09-14

    Peptides are important affinity ligands for microscopy, biosensing, and targeted delivery. However, because they can have low affinity for their targets, their selection from large naïve libraries can be challenging. When selecting peptidic ligands from display libraries, it is important to: 1) ensure efficient display; 2) maximize the ability to select high affinity ligands; and 3) minimize the effect of the display context on binding. The “helper cell” packaging system has been described as a tool to produce filamentous phage particles based on phagemid constructs with varying display levels, while remaining free of helper phage contamination. Here we report onmore » the first use of this system for peptide display, including the systematic characterization and optimization of helper cells, their inefficient use in antibody display and their use in creating and selecting from a set of phage display peptide libraries. Our libraries were analyzed with unprecedented precision by standard or deep sequencing, and shown to be superior in quality than commercial gold standards. Using our helper cell libraries, we have obtained ligands recognizing Yersinia pestis surface antigen F1V and L-glutamine-binding periplasmic protein QBP. In the latter case, unlike any of the peptide library selections described so far, we used a combination of phage and yeast display to select intriguing peptide ligands. Here, based on the success of our selections we believe that peptide libraries obtained with helper cells are not only suitable, but preferable to traditional phage display libraries for selection of peptidic ligands.« less

  6. Beyond helper phage: Using "helper cells" to select peptide affinity ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, Mary Lisa; Lillo, Antoinetta M.; Shou, Yulin

    Peptides are important affinity ligands for microscopy, biosensing, and targeted delivery. However, because they can have low affinity for their targets, their selection from large naïve libraries can be challenging. When selecting peptidic ligands from display libraries, it is important to: 1) ensure efficient display; 2) maximize the ability to select high affinity ligands; and 3) minimize the effect of the display context on binding. The “helper cell” packaging system has been described as a tool to produce filamentous phage particles based on phagemid constructs with varying display levels, while remaining free of helper phage contamination. Here we report onmore » the first use of this system for peptide display, including the systematic characterization and optimization of helper cells, their inefficient use in antibody display and their use in creating and selecting from a set of phage display peptide libraries. Our libraries were analyzed with unprecedented precision by standard or deep sequencing, and shown to be superior in quality than commercial gold standards. Using our helper cell libraries, we have obtained ligands recognizing Yersinia pestis surface antigen F1V and L-glutamine-binding periplasmic protein QBP. In the latter case, unlike any of the peptide library selections described so far, we used a combination of phage and yeast display to select intriguing peptide ligands. Here, based on the success of our selections we believe that peptide libraries obtained with helper cells are not only suitable, but preferable to traditional phage display libraries for selection of peptidic ligands.« less

  7. Welder's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide. General Metal Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, James W.

    This guide provides information to enable coordinators to direct learning activities for students using an individualized study guide on being a welder's helper. The study material is designed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed, or desiring to be employed, as welders' helpers. Contents include a sample progress…

  8. Crisis Intervention Strategies for School-Based Helpers. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Thomas N., Ed.

    School-based helpers are helping professionals who work within educational settings and whose training and primary responsibility is to promote the mental health of students. Few resource materials provide these helpers with needed information and practical strategies--this text tries to meet that need. The 12 chapters here cover a wide range of…

  9. Prevalence of Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog-breakpoint cluster region fusions and correlation with peripheral blood parameters in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients in Lorestan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Ali Asghar; Shahsavar, Farhad; Gorji, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Kolsoum; Nazarabad, Vahideh Heydari; Bahmani, Banafsheh

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a chronic malignancy of myeloid linage associated with a significant increase in granulocytes in bone marrow and peripheral blood. CML diagnosis is based on detection of Philadelphia chromosome and "Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog" (ABL)-"breakpoint cluster region protein" fusions (ABL-BCR fusions). In this study, patients with CML morphology were studied according to ABL-BCR fusions and the relationship between the fusions and peripheral blood cell changes was examined. All patients suspected to chronic myeloproliferative disorders in Lorestan Province visiting subspecialist hematology clinics who were confirmed by oncologist were studied over a period of 5 years. After completing basic data questionnaire, blood samples were obtained with informed consent from the patients. Blood cell count and morphology were investigated and RNA was extracted from blood samples. cDNA was synthesized from RNA and ABL-BCR fusions including b3a2 and b2a2 (protein 210 kd or p210), e1a2 (protein 190 kdor p190), and e19a2 (protein 230 kdor p230) were studied by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Coexistence of e1a2 and b2a2 (p210/p190) fusions was also studied. The prevalence of mutations and their correlation with the blood parameters were statistically analyzed. Of 58 patients positive for ABL-BCR fusion, 18 (30.5%) had b2a2 fusion, 37 (62.71%) had b3a2 fusion and three (3.08%) had e1a2 fusion. Coexistence of e1a2 and b2a2 (p210/p190) was not observed. There was no significant correlation between ABL-BCR fusions and white blood cell count, platelet count, and hemoglobin concentration. The ABL-BCR fusions in Lorestan Province were similar to other studies in Iran, and b3a2 fusion had the highest prevalence in the studied patients studied.

  10. Helpers increase the reproductive potential of offspring in cooperative meerkats

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A.F; Young, A.J; Spong, G; Jordan, N.R; Clutton-Brock, T.H

    2006-01-01

    In both animal and human societies, individuals may forego personal reproduction and provide care to the offspring of others. Studies aimed at investigating the adaptive nature of such cooperative breeding systems in vertebrates typically calculate helper ‘fitness’ from relationships of helper numbers and offspring survival to independence. The aim of this study is to use observations and supplemental feeding experiments in cooperatively breeding meerkats, Suricata suricatta, to investigate whether helpers influence the long-term reproductive potential of offspring during adulthood. We show that helpers have a significant and positive influence on the probability that offspring gain direct reproductive success in their lifetimes. This effect arises because helpers both reduce the age at which offspring begin to reproduce as subordinates and increase the probability that they will compete successfully for alpha rank. Supplemental feeding experiments confirm the causality of these results. Our results suggest that one can neither discount the significance of helper effects when none is found nor necessarily estimate accurately the fitness benefit that helpers accrue, unless their effects on offspring are considered in the long term. PMID:17476771

  11. Grandparent helpers: the adaptive significance of older, postdominant helpers in the Seychelles warbler.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David S; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    2007-12-01

    The possibility that older, often nonreproductive, individuals may engage in kin-directed cooperative behavior has been largely overlooked in the study of cooperative breeding. Here, we describe and investigate the adaptive significance of such "grandparent" helpers in the Seychelles warbler, the first bird species in which this phenomenon has been observed. On Cousin Island, over a period of 24 years, a significant proportion (13.7%) of females, but few males (3.0%), was deposed from dominant positions. Deposed females were replaced by related females. However there was no evidence that older, senescent females were stepping aside to gain greater fitness benefits by increasing the reproductive success of their offspring, rather than breeding themselves; deposed females were not postreproductive, nor was being deposed linked to age or reproductive senescence. Of the deposed females, 68% became subordinates and helped to raise group offspring, accounting for ca. 10% of subordinates in any year. Demoted females were related (r= 0.24) to the group offspring and, consequently, could gain indirect benefits through helping. As direct benefits appeared to be limited, we suggest that indirect benefits have driven the evolution of such "grandparent helpers." This study now provides evidence for a new route to cooperative breeding in birds.

  12. Transcriptional and epigenetic networks that drive helper T cell identities

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Han-Yu; Sciumè, Giuseppe; Poholek, Amanda C; Vahedi, Golnaz; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Villarino, Alejandro V; Bonelli, Michael; Bosselut, Remy; Kanno, Yuka; Muljo, Stefan A; O’Shea, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the specification of CD4+ helper T cells to discrete effector “lineages” represented a watershed event in conceptualizing mechanisms of host defense and immunoregulation. However, our appreciation for the actual complexity of helper T cell subsets continues unabated. Just as the Sami language of Scandinavia has 1000 different words for reindeer, the range of fates available for a CD4+ T cell is numerous and may be underestimated. Added to the crowded scene for helper T cell subsets is the continuously growing family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), endowed with common effector responses and the previously defined “master regulators” for CD4+ helper T cell subsets are also shared by ILC subsets. Within the context of this extraordinary complexity are concomitant advances in the understanding of transcriptomes and epigenomes. So what do terms like “lineage commitment” and helper T cell “specification” mean in the early 21st century? How do we put all of this together in a coherent conceptual framework? It would be arrogant to assume that we have a sophisticated enough understanding to seriously answer these questions. Instead, we will review the current status of the flexibility of helper T cell responses in relation to their genetic regulatory networks and epigenetic landscapes. Recent data have provided major surprises as to what master regulators can or cannot do, how they interact with other transcription factors and impact global genome-wide changes and how all these factors come together to influence helper cell function. PMID:25123275

  13. Construction and production of oncotropic vectors, derived from MVM(p), that share reduced sequence homology with helper plasmids.

    PubMed

    Clément, Nathalie; Velu, Thierry; Brandenburger, Annick

    2002-09-01

    The production of currently available vectors derived from autonomous parvoviruses requires the expression of capsid proteins in trans, from helper sequences. Cotransfection of a helper plasmid always generates significant amounts of replication-competent virus (RCV) that can be reduced by the integration of helper sequences into a packaging cell line. Although stocks of minute virus of mice (MVM)-based vectors with no detectable RCV could be produced by transfection into packaging cells; the latter appear after one or two rounds of replication, precluding further amplification of the vector stock. Indeed, once RCVs become detectable, they are efficiently amplified and rapidly take over the culture. Theoretically RCV-free vector stocks could be produced if all homology between vector and helper DNA is eliminated, thus preventing homologous recombination. We constructed new vectors based on the structure of spontaneously occurring defective particles of MVM. Based on published observations related to the size of vectors and the sequence of the viral origin of replication, these vectors were modified by the insertion of foreign DNA sequences downstream of the transgene and by the introduction of a consensus NS-1 nick site near the origin of replication to optimize their production. In one of the vectors the inserted fragment of mouse genomic DNA had a synergistic effect with the modified origin of replication in increasing vector production.

  14. Characterization of a human antigen specific helper factor

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.

    1986-03-01

    While antigen (Ag) specific helper factors have been characterized in mice, similar molecules have not been identified in humans. To characterize human antigen specific helper molecules, an IL-2 dependent tetanus toxoid (T.T.) reactive T cell line was fused with a 6-thioguanine resistant CEM line, and hybrids selected in medium containing hypoxanthine and azaserine. Hybrids were screened by culturing the cells with /sup 35/S-Met then reacting the supernatants with T.T. or hepatitis vaccine immobilized on nitrocellulose. One hybrid, TT6BA-O, was identified which secreted a Met-containing molecule which bound T.T. but not hepatitis vaccine. Supernatants from TT6BA-O, but not the parent CEMmore » line, when added to autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's) stimulated secretion of T.T. specific antibodies (Abs). Specificity controls demonstrated that TT6BA-O supernatant did not induce antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, hepatitis vaccine or pneumococcal polysaccharide, and total immunoglobulin (lg) synthesis was minimally increased. In contrast, pokeweed mitogen stimulated significant lg synthesis as well as Ab's to pneumococcal polysaccharide and T.T. TT6BA-O supernatant induced anti-T.T.Ab's in autologous PBMC's but not PBMC's from 3 unrelated donors, suggesting that the activity of the helper factor is restricted, possibly by the MHC. The molecular weight of the helper factor was estimated at 100,000-150,000 by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. Finally, the helper factor could be demonstrated to bind and elute from sephorose-immobilized T.T. and anti-DR antisera, but not anti-lg antisera or the T40/25 monoclonal antibody, which binds a nonpolymorphic determinant on the human T cell receptor. These results demonstrate that human Ag specific helper factors exist, bind antigen and bear class II MHC determinants.« less

  15. The Difficulties of a Curriculum Helper in an Urban School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael S.

    This paper describes the experiences of a teacher and a curriculum helper in designing and implementing a fifth grade language arts curriculum at an inner city, magnet school in Indianapolis (Indiana). The report describes the work in three phases: (1) making explicit the problems with the previous language arts curriculum; (2) formulating a plan…

  16. 49 CFR 232.219 - Double heading and helper service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a train, a visual inspection shall be made of each helper locomotive brake system to determine that... similar technology, the locomotive and device shall be equipped, designed, and maintained as follows: (1) The locomotive engineer shall be notified by a distinctive alarm of any loss of communication between...

  17. Family caregiving or caregiving alone: who helps the helper?

    PubMed

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; Martin-Matthews, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study advances the understanding of family caregiving by examining the relationship between adult children caregivers and their helpers. Specifically, it focuses on examining "who helps whom" and extends analyses beyond the dyadic focus of caregiving in later life. The focus on helping and caregiving addresses the variety of contributions and responsibilities involving not only the caregiver who was the target respondent in this research, but also others identified as helpers in the provision of care. The data for this study are derived from the Work and Eldercare Research group of CARNET: The Canadian Aging Research Network. Secondary analysis of CARNET data focuses on data collected from 250 individuals with significant caregiving responsibilities for at least one older person. Findings extend Kahn & Antonucci's convoys of social support model (1981) and Cantor's model of social care (1991) by disentangling some of the dimensions of helping and caregiving, such as the distinction between direct and assistive help.

  18. Alcoholics Anonymous-Related Helping and the Helper Therapy Principle

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Post, Stephen G.; Johnson, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The helper therapy principle (HTP) observes the helper’s health benefits derived from helping another with a shared malady. The HTP is embodied by the program of Alcoholics Anonymous as a method to diminish egocentrism as a root cause of addiction. This article reviews recent evidence of the HTP in alcohol populations, extends to populations with chronic conditions beyond addiction, and concludes with new directions of empirical inquiry. PMID:23525280

  19. Follicular helper T cell in immunity and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, D; Cruvinel, W M; Resende, L S; Mesquita, F V; Silva, N P; Câmara, N O S; Andrade, L E C

    2016-01-01

    The traditional concept that effector T helper (Th) responses are mediated by Th1/Th2 cell subtypes has been broadened by the recent demonstration of two new effector T helper cells, the IL-17 producing cells (Th17) and the follicular helper T cells (Tfh). These new subsets have many features in common, such as the ability to produce IL-21 and to express the IL-23 receptor (IL23R), the inducible co-stimulatory molecule ICOS, and the transcription factor c-Maf, all of them essential for expansion and establishment of the final pool of both subsets. Tfh cells differ from Th17 by their ability to home to B cell areas in secondary lymphoid tissue through interactions mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13. These CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells are considered an effector T cell type specialized in B cell help, with a transcriptional profile distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. The role of Tfh cells and its primary product, IL-21, on B-cell activation and differentiation is essential for humoral immunity against infectious agents. However, when deregulated, Tfh cells could represent an important mechanism contributing to exacerbated humoral response and autoantibody production in autoimmune diseases. This review highlights the importance of Tfh cells by focusing on their biology and differentiation processes in the context of normal immune response to infectious microorganisms and their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  20. Resource Allocation Planning Helper (RALPH): Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.; Springer, Joe B.

    1990-01-01

    The current task of Resource Allocation Process includes the planning and apportionment of JPL's Ground Data System composed of the Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center facilities. The addition of the data driven, rule based planning system, RALPH, has expanded the planning horizon from 8 weeks to 10 years and has resulted in large labor savings. Use of the system has also resulted in important improvements in science return through enhanced resource utilization. In addition, RALPH has been instrumental in supporting rapid turn around for an increased volume of special what if studies. The status of RALPH is briefly reviewed and important lessons learned from the creation of an highly functional design team are focused on through an evolutionary design and implementation period in which an AI shell was selected, prototyped, and ultimately abandoned, and through the fundamental changes to the very process that spawned the tool kit. Principal topics include proper integration of software tools within the planning environment, transition from prototype to delivered to delivered software, changes in the planning methodology as a result of evolving software capabilities and creation of the ability to develop and process generic requirements to allow planning flexibility.

  1. T Helper1/T Helper2 Cells and Resistance/Susceptibility to Leishmania Infection: Is This Paradigm Still Relevant?

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, James; Brombacher, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Work in large part on Leishmania major in the 1980s identified two distinct apparently counter-regulatory CD4+ T cell populations, T helper (h)1 and Th2, that controlled resistance/susceptibility to infection respectively. However, the generation of IL-4−/− mice in the 1990s questioned the paramount role of this Th2 archetypal cytokine in the non-healing response to Leishmania infection. The more recent characterization of CD4+ T cell regulatory populations and further effector CD4+ T helper populations, Th17, Th9, and T follicular (f)h cells as well as the acknowledged plasticity in T helper cell function has further added to the complexity of host pathogen interactions. These interactions are complicated by the multiplicity of cells that respond to CD4+ T cell subset signatory cytokines, as well as the diversity of Leishmania species that are often subject to significantly different immune-regulatory controls. In this article we review current knowledge with regard to the role of CD4+ T cells and their products during Leishmania infection. In particular we update on our studies using conditional IL-4Rα gene-deficient mice that have allowed dissection of the cell interplay dictating the disease outcomes of the major Leishmania species infecting humans. PMID:22566961

  2. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors for liver-directed gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Ng, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors devoid of all viral-coding sequences are promising non-integrating vectors for liver-directed gene therapy because they have a large cloning capacity, can efficiently transduce a wide variety of cell types from various species independent of the cell cycle and can result in long-term transgene expression without chronic toxicity. The main obstacle preventing clinical applications of HDAd for liver-directed gene therapy is the host innate inflammatory response against the vector capsid proteins that occurs shortly after intravascular vector administration resulting in acute toxicity, the severity of which is dependent on vector dose. Intense efforts have been focused on elucidating the factors involved in this acute response and various strategies have been investigated to improve the therapeutic index of HDAd vectors. These strategies have yielded encouraging results with the potential for clinical translation. PMID:21470977

  3. Helper contributions in the cooperatively breeding laughing kookaburra: feeding young is no laughing matter.

    PubMed

    Legge

    2000-05-01

    I studied the contributions of individuals to incubation and nestling feeding in a population of cooperatively breeding laughing kookaburras, Dacelo novaeguineae. In most cooperatively breeding birds where nest success is limited by nestling starvation, related helpers increase the overall level of provisioning to the nest, thus boosting the production of nondescendent kin. However, although partial brood loss is the largest cause of lost productivity in kookaburra nests, additional helpers failed to increase overall provisioning. Instead, all group members, but especially helpers, reduced their feeding contributions as group size increased. Breeders and helpers reduced the size of prey delivered, and helpers also reduced the number of feeding visits. An important benefit of helping in kookaburras may be to allow all group members to reduce their effort. Within groups, contributions to care depended on status, sex, group size and the brood size. Breeding males delivered the most food. Breeding females provisioned less than their partner, but their effort was comparable to that of male helpers. Female helpers contributed the least food. Incubation effort followed similar patterns. The relatedness of helpers to the brood had no impact on their provisioning. Across all group sizes, helpers generally brought larger items to the nest than breeders. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  4. SU-E-T-218: The IHE-RO Helper Tool: Demonstrating the Connectivity Issues Solved by IHE-RO.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Rishabh; Yeung, Daniel; Kumar, Sabari Ajay; Alex, Daley; Kapur, Priyanka; Palta, Jatinder

    2012-06-01

    To develop a Web-based application (IHE-RO Helper) to allow comprehensive review of the interconnectivity and interoperability of various radiotherapy devices established through testing sanctioned by the Integrating Healthcare Enterprise-Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO). IHE-RO is an initiative sponsored by ASTRO to improve the way computer based systems in radiation oncology share information using well-defined data exchange standards (DICOM / HL7). At the IHE-RO Connectathon events over the last 4 years, 11 vendors with 14 different products have successfully tested and identified solutions to connectivity problems in treatment planning, simulation and delivery. Because the test results are highly technical, the interconnectivity issues amongst the RT devices may get overlooked by the end users. The IHE-RO helper tool is designed to operate in simple clinical terms with queries and presentations organized based on treatment techniques and clinical features that are familiar to the practitioners. For example, if you are planning to purchase a treatment planning system capable of generating plans (e.g. Stereotactic treatments) and are concerned whether the TPS can successfully transfer such data to your treatment management system (TMS) and subsequently to your treatment delivery system (TDS), the IHE-RO Helper can identify the connectivity requirements and list vendors that have successfully passed an IHE-RO Connectathon and validated their solution to the specific requirements. The IHE-RO helper tool provides a graphical and textual user interface to effectively demonstrate the solved interconnectivity problems between TPS, TMS and TDS. A report is also provided that explains the interconnectivity problems and its solutions. The IHE-RO helper is an effective tool to clearly identify vendor products that are IHE-RO compliant, thereby encourages vendor participation in testing and validation. Such a tool will be invaluable in procurement of new equipment to ensure a

  5. HIV and T follicular helper cells: a dangerous relationship

    PubMed Central

    Vinuesa, Carola G.

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection leads to progressive destruction of infected CD4 T cells, hypergammaglobulinemia, and loss of memory B cells. Germinal centers, which are key to memory B cell formation and protective antibody responses, are major HIV reservoirs in which the virus replicates within T follicular helper (TFH) cells. In this issue of the JCI, the Koup and Streeck groups report that chronic SIV/HIV infection promotes TFH cell accumulation, which may drive B cell dysregulation. Their discoveries suggest that HIV harnesses TFH cells to evade the antibody response. PMID:22922252

  6. Antagonistic effect of helpers on breeding male and female survival in a cooperatively breeding bird

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Matthieu; Doutrelant, Claire; Hatchwell, Ben J; Spottiswoode, Claire N; Covas, Rita

    2015-01-01

    1. Cooperatively breeding species are typically long lived and hence, according to theory, are expected to maximize their lifetime reproductive success through maximizing survival. Under these circumstances, the presence of helpers could be used to lighten the effort of current reproduction for parents to achieve higher survival. 2. In addition, individuals of different sexes and ages may follow different strategies, but whether male and female breeders and individuals of different ages benefit differently from the presence of helpers has often been overlooked. Moreover, only one study that investigated the relationship between parental survival and the presence of helpers used capture–mark–recapture analyses (CMR). These methods are important since they allow us to account for the non-detection of individuals that are alive in the population but not detected, and thus, the effects on survival and recapture probability to be disentangled. 3. Here, we used multi-event CMR methods to investigate whether the number of helpers was associated with an increase in survival probability for male and female breeders of different ages in the sociable weaver Philetairus socius. In this species, both sexes reduce their feeding rate in the presence of helpers. We therefore predicted that the presence of helpers should increase the breeders' survival in both sexes, especially early in life when individuals potentially have more future breeding opportunities. In addition, sociable weaver females reduce their investment in eggs in the presence of helpers, so we predicted a stronger effect of helpers on female than male survival. 4. As expected we found that females had a higher survival probability when breeding with more helpers. Unexpectedly, however, male survival probability decreased with increasing number of helpers. This antagonistic effect diminished as the breeders grew older. 5. These results illustrate the complexity of fitness costs and benefits underlying

  7. Follicular helper T cells in immunity and systemic autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Craft, Joseph E

    2012-05-01

    Follicular helper T (T(FH)) cells are essential for B-cell maturation and immunoglobulin production after immunization with thymus-dependent antigens. Nevertheless, the development and function of T(FH) cells have been less clearly defined than classic CD4(+) effector T-cell subsets, including T-helper-1 (T(H)1), T(H)2 and T(H)17 cells. As such, our understanding of the genesis of T(FH) cells in humans and their role in the development of autoimmunity remains incomplete. However, evidence from animal models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and patients with systemic autoimmune diseases suggests that these cells are necessary for pathogenic autoantibody production, in a manner analogous to their role in promotion of B-cell maturation during normal immune responses. In this Review, I discuss the findings that have increased our knowledge of T(FH)-cell development and function in normal and aberrant immune responses. Such information might improve our understanding of autoimmune diseases, such as SLE, and highlights the potential of T(FH) cells as therapeutic targets in these diseases.

  8. Emerging concepts in T follicular helper cell responses to malaria.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Diana S; Obeng-Adjei, Nyamekye; Ly, Ann; Ioannidis, Lisa J; Crompton, Peter D

    2017-02-01

    Antibody responses to malaria and candidate malaria vaccines are short-lived in children, leaving them susceptible to repeated malaria episodes. Because T follicular helper (T FH ) cells provide critical help to B cells to generate long-lived antibody responses, they have become the focus of recent studies of Plasmodium-infected mice and humans. The emerging data converge on common themes, namely, that malaria-induced T H1 cytokines are associated with the activation of (i) T-like memory T FH cells with impaired B cell helper function, and (ii) pre-T FH cells that acquire Th1-like features (T-bet expression, IFN-γ production), which impede their differentiation into fully functional T FH cells, thus resulting in germinal center dysfunction and suboptimal antibody responses. Deeper knowledge of T FH cells in malaria could illuminate strategies to improve vaccines through modulating T FH cell responses. This review summarizes emerging concepts in T FH cell responses to malaria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. [Recovering helpers in the addiction treatment system in Hungary: an interpretative phenomenological analysis].

    PubMed

    Kassai, Szilvia; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Rácz, József

    2015-01-01

    The work of recovering helpers who work in the addiction rehabilitation centres was studied. The aim was to investigate the process of addicts becoming recovering helpers, and to study what peer help means to them. According to interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) design, subjects were selected, data were collected and analysed. 6 (5 males, 1 female), working as recovering helpers at least one year at addiction rehabilitation centres. Semi-structured life interviews were carried out and analysed according to IPA. Emerging themes from the interviews were identified and summarized, then interpreted as central themes: important periods and turning points of the life story interviews: the experience of psychoactive drugs use, the development of the addiction (which became " Turning Point No 1") then the "rock bottom" experience ("Turning Point No 2"). Then the experience of the helping process was examined: here four major themes were identified: the development of the recovering self and the helping self, the wounded helper and the skilled helper, the experience of the helping process. IPA was found to be a useful method for idiographic exploration of the development and the work of the recovering helpers. The work of the recovering helpers can be described as mentoring of the addict clients. Our experiences might be used for the training programs for recovering helpers as well as to adopt their professional role in addiction services.

  10. Effects of Helper and Caller Characteristics on the Process and Outcome of Telephone Crisis Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Hartsough, Don M.

    Research has examined the relationship of characteristics of crisis telephone workers to their performance. The influence and interaction of the characteristics of both the helper and caller on the telephone crisis intervention and outcome were explored for a sample of 59 calls to a crisis center. Data about the telephone helper (age, sex,…

  11. Mechanisms Underlying Helper T cell Plasticity: Implications for Immune-mediated Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Poholek, Amanda; Vahedi, Golnaz; Laurence, Arian; Kanno, Yuka; Milner, Joshua D.; O’Shea, John J.

    2013-01-01

    CD4 helper T cells are critical for proper immune cell homeostasis and host defense, but are also major contributes to immune and inflammatory disease. Arising from a simple, biphasic model of differentiation, Th1 and Th2 cells, a bewildering number of fates seem to possible for helper T cells. To what extent different helper cell subsets maintain their characteristic gene expression profiles or exhibit functional plasticity is a hotly debated topic. In this review, we will discuss how the expression of “signature cytokines” and “master regulator” transcription factors do not neatly conform to a simple T helper paradigm. While this may seem confusing, the good news is that the newly recognized complexity fits better with our understanding of immunopathogenesis. Finally, we will discuss factors include epigenetic regulation and metabolic alterations that contribute to helper cell specific and plasticity. PMID:23622118

  12. Domestic helpers as frontline workers in China's home-based elder care: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Bei

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the existing empirical studies focusing on Chinese domestic helpers in mainland China and foreign domestic helpers in Hong Kong who provide care for community-dwelling older adults. There are very limited studies specifically focusing on this population. The findings synthesized domestic helpers' characteristics, acknowledged their contributions to elder care in China, and showed multiple challenges facing them, such as issues related to their physical health and emotional well-being, lack of legal rights protection, difficulties of adapting life in the host city, lack of training, and risk of abuse and sexual harassment. Our findings support the need for developing training and educational programs about legal rights protection and cultural competency for domestic helpers and the need to promote domestic helpers' access to health care and social welfare and opportunities for career advancement, and provide respectful working conditions.

  13. T Follicular Helper Cell Plasticity Shapes Pathogenic T Helper 2 Cell-Mediated Immunity to Inhaled House Dust Mite.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Tato, André; Randall, Troy D; Lund, Frances E; Spolski, Rosanne; Leonard, Warren J; León, Beatriz

    2016-02-16

    Exposure to environmental antigens, such as house dust mite (HDM), often leads to T helper 2 (Th2) cell-driven allergic responses. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of these responses are incompletely understood. We found that the initial exposure to HDM did not lead to Th2 cell development but instead promoted the formation of interleukin-4 (IL-4)-committed T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Following challenge exposure to HDM, Tfh cells differentiated into IL-4 and IL-13 double-producing Th2 cells that accumulated in the lung and recruited eosinophils. B cells were required to expand IL-4-committed Tfh cells during the sensitization phase, but did not directly contribute to disease. Impairment of Tfh cell responses during the sensitization phase or Tfh cell depletion prevented Th2 cell-mediated responses following challenge. Thus, our data demonstrate that Tfh cells are precursors of HDM-specific Th2 cells and reveal an unexpected role of B cells and Tfh cells in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Helpers' Self-Assessment Biases Before and after Helping Skills Training

    PubMed Central

    Jaeken, Marine; Zech, Emmanuelle; Brison, Céline; Verhofstadt, Lesley L.; Van Broeck, Nady; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that therapists are generally biased concerning their performed helping skills, as compared to judges' ratings. As clients' ratings of therapists' performance are better predictors of psychotherapy effectiveness than judges' ratings, this study examined the validity and effectiveness of a helping skills training program at reducing novice helpers' self-enhancement biases concerning their helping skills, in comparison to their clients' ratings. Helping skills were assessed by three objective measures (a knowledge multiple choice test, a video test and a role play), as well as by a self- and peer-reported questionnaire. In addition, some performed helping skills' correlates (relationship quality, session quality, and helpers' therapeutic attitudes) were assessed both by helpers and their simulated helpees. Seventy-two sophomores in psychology participated to this study, 37 being assigned to a 12-h helping skills training program, and 35 to a control group. Helpers were expected to assess the aforementioned performed helping skills and correlates as being better than their helpees' assessments at pretest, thus revealing a self-enhancement bias. At posttest, we expected that trained helpers would objectively exhibit better helping skills than untrained helpers while beginning to underestimate their performance, thus indexing a self-diminishment bias. In contrast, we hypothesized that untrained helpers would continue to overestimate their performance. Our hypotheses were only partly confirmed but results reflected a skilled-unaware pattern among trainees. Trained helpers went either from a pretest overestimation to a posttest equivalence (performed helping skills and performed therapeutic attitudes), or from a pretest equivalence to a posttest underestimation (performed session quality and performed therapeutic relationship), as compared to helpees' ratings. Results showed that trained helpers improved on all helping skills objective measures

  15. Helpers' Self-Assessment Biases Before and after Helping Skills Training.

    PubMed

    Jaeken, Marine; Zech, Emmanuelle; Brison, Céline; Verhofstadt, Lesley L; Van Broeck, Nady; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that therapists are generally biased concerning their performed helping skills, as compared to judges' ratings. As clients' ratings of therapists' performance are better predictors of psychotherapy effectiveness than judges' ratings, this study examined the validity and effectiveness of a helping skills training program at reducing novice helpers' self-enhancement biases concerning their helping skills, in comparison to their clients' ratings. Helping skills were assessed by three objective measures (a knowledge multiple choice test, a video test and a role play), as well as by a self- and peer-reported questionnaire. In addition, some performed helping skills' correlates (relationship quality, session quality, and helpers' therapeutic attitudes) were assessed both by helpers and their simulated helpees. Seventy-two sophomores in psychology participated to this study, 37 being assigned to a 12-h helping skills training program, and 35 to a control group. Helpers were expected to assess the aforementioned performed helping skills and correlates as being better than their helpees' assessments at pretest, thus revealing a self-enhancement bias. At posttest, we expected that trained helpers would objectively exhibit better helping skills than untrained helpers while beginning to underestimate their performance, thus indexing a self-diminishment bias. In contrast, we hypothesized that untrained helpers would continue to overestimate their performance. Our hypotheses were only partly confirmed but results reflected a skilled-unaware pattern among trainees. Trained helpers went either from a pretest overestimation to a posttest equivalence (performed helping skills and performed therapeutic attitudes), or from a pretest equivalence to a posttest underestimation (performed session quality and performed therapeutic relationship), as compared to helpees' ratings. Results showed that trained helpers improved on all helping skills objective measures

  16. Differential TCR signals for T helper cell programming.

    PubMed

    Morel, Penelope A

    2018-05-02

    Upon encounter with their cognate antigen naïve CD4 T cells become activated and are induced to differentiate into several possible T helper (Th) cell subsets. This differentiation depends on a number of factors including antigen presenting cells, cytokines and costimulatory molecules. The strength of the T cell receptor (TCR) signal, related to the affinity of TCR for antigen and antigen dose, has emerged as a dominant factor in determining Th cell fate. Recent studies have revealed that TCR signals of high or low strength do not simply induce quantitatively different signals in the T cells, but rather qualitatively distinct pathways can be induced based on TCR signal strength. This review examines the recent literature in this area and highlights important new developments in our understanding of Th cell differentiation and TCR signal strength. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. T follicular helper cell differentiation, function, and roles in disease

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Summary Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are specialized providers of T cell help to B cells, and are essential for germinal center formation, affinity maturation, and the development of most high affinity antibodies and memory B cells. Tfh cell differentiation is a multi-stage, multi-factorial process involving B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) and other transcription factors. This article reviews understanding of Tfh cell biology, including their differentiation, migration, transcriptional regulation, and B cell help functions. Tfh cells are critical components of many protective immune responses against pathogens. As such, there is strong interest in harnessing Tfh cells to improve vaccination strategies. Tfh cells also have roles in a range of other diseases, particularly autoimmune diseases. Overall, there have been dramatic advances in this young field, but there is much to be learned about Tfh cell biology in the interest of applying that knowledge to biomedical needs. PMID:25367570

  18. Prolonged peritoneal gene expression using a helper-dependent adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Limin; Shi, Chang-Xin; Ghayur, Ayesha; Zhang, Claire; Su, Je Yen; Hoff, Catherine M; Margetts, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis. The causes of EPS are not well defined and are likely multifactorial. A suitable animal model would facilitate research into the pathophysiology and treatment of EPS. We developed a helper-dependent adenovirus that expresses both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and active transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1; HDAdTGF-beta1). Mice were administered HDAdTGF-beta1 via intraperitoneal injection and the response was compared with mice administered either first-generation adenovirus expressing TGF-beta1 (AdTGF-beta1) or control adenovirus (AdGFP). HDAdTGF-beta1-treated mice continued to express the GFP reporter transgene to day 74, the end of the observation period. Transgene expression lasted less than 28 days in the animals treated with first-generation adenoviruses. Animals treated with first-generation AdTGF-beta1 demonstrated submesothelial thickening and angiogenesis at day 7, with almost complete resolution by day 28. The HDAdTGF-beta1-treated mice demonstrated progressive peritoneal fibrosis with adhesion formation and encapsulation of bowels. Weight gain was significantly reduced in animals treated with HDAdTGF-beta1 compared to both the control-treated animals and the AdTGF-beta1-treated animals. Inflammation was not a major component of the fibroproliferative response. Peritoneal administration of a first-generation AdTGF-beta1 leads to transient gene expression, resulting in a resolving fibrotic response and histology similar to that seen in simple peritoneal sclerosis. Prolonged TGF-beta1 expression induced by the helper-dependent HDAdTGF-beta1 led to changes in peritoneal morphology resembling EPS. This suggests that TGF-beta1 may be a contributing factor in both simple peritoneal sclerosis and EPS. This model will be useful for elucidation of the mechanism of EPS and evaluation of potential treatment.

  19. BCL6 interacting corepressor contributes to germinal center T follicular helper cell formation and B cell helper function

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jessica A.; Tubo, Noah J.; Gearhart, Micah D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Jenkins, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (GC-Tfh) cells help B cells become long-lived plasma cells and memory cells. The transcriptional repressor BCL6 plays a key role in GC-Tfh formation by inhibiting the expression of genes that promote differentiation into other lineages. We determined whether BCOR, a component of a Polycomb repressive complex that interacts with the BCL6 BTB domain, influences GC-Tfh differentiation. T cell-targeted BCOR deficiency led to a substantial loss of peptide:MHCII-specific GC-Tfh cells following Listeria monocytogenes infection and a 2-fold decrease following immunization with a peptide in CFA. The reduction in GC-Tfh cells was associated with diminished plasma cell and GC B cell formation. Thus, T cell-expressed BCOR is critical for optimal GC-Tfh differentiation and humoral immunity. PMID:25964495

  20. B cell helper factors. II. Synergy among three helper factors in the response of T cell- and macrophage-depleted B cells.

    PubMed

    Liebson, H J; Marrack, P; Kappler, J

    1982-10-01

    The concanavalin A- (Con A) stimulated supernatant of normal spleen cells (normal Con A SN) was shown to contain a set of helper factors sufficient to allow T cell- and macrophage- (M phi) depleted murine splenic B cells to produce a plaque-forming cell response to the antigen sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The activity of normal Con A SN could be reconstituted by a mixture of three helper factor preparations. The first was the interleukin 2- (IL 2) containing Con A SN of the T cell hybridoma, FS6-14.13. The second was a normal Con A SN depleted of IL 2 by extended culture with T cell blasts from which the 30,000 to 50,000 m.w. factors were isolated (interleukin X, IL X). The third was a SN either from the M phi tumor cell line P388D1 or from normal M phi taken from Corynebacterium parvum-immune mice. The combination of all three helper factor preparations was required to equal the activity of normal Con A SN; however, the M phi SN had the least overall effect. The M phi SN and IL 2 had to be added at the initiation of the culture period for a maximal effect, but the IL X preparation was most effective when added 24 hr after the initiation of culture. These results indicate that at least three nonspecific helper factors contribute to the helper activity in normal Con A SN.

  1. Roles of community helpers in using the Medicare Part D benefit

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the experiences of low-income Part D beneficiaries with mental illness and their use of community helpers to access prescription medicines. Methods Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 Medicare beneficiaries with mental illness in community settings. The transcripts were analyzed for content related to community help-seeking and attitudes toward family and professional helpers. Results Medicare Part D beneficiaries with mental illness used the assistance of community helpers extensively. Pharmacists, nurses, community mental health case managers, and family members assisted beneficiaries with understanding their benefit plans and interpreting paperwork from plans and government agencies. Community helpers also assisted with tasks related to medication adherence. Mental health consumers appreciated the help that they received from family members and professionals. Conclusion This group of Medicare beneficiaries would have experienced difficulty in using their benefits and obtaining their medication without considerable help from professionals and family members in the community. PMID:21317520

  2. Tailored immune responses: novel effector helper T cell subsets in protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ervin E; Comerford, Iain; Fenix, Kevin A; Bastow, Cameron R; Gregor, Carly E; McKenzie, Duncan R; McColl, Shaun R

    2014-02-01

    Differentiation of naïve CD4⁺ cells into functionally distinct effector helper T cell subsets, characterised by distinct "cytokine signatures," is a cardinal strategy employed by the mammalian immune system to efficiently deal with the rapidly evolving array of pathogenic microorganisms encountered by the host. Since the T(H)1/T(H)2 paradigm was first described by Mosmann and Coffman, research in the field of helper T cell biology has grown exponentially with seven functionally unique subsets having now been described. In this review, recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation and function of effector helper T cell subsets will be discussed in the context of microbial infections, with a focus on how these different helper T cell subsets orchestrate immune responses tailored to combat the nature of the pathogenic threat encountered.

  3. Adeno-associated virus vectors can be efficiently produced without helper virus.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, T; Elliger, S; Elliger, C; Podsakoff, G; Villarreal, L; Kurtzman, G J; Iwaki, Y; Colosi, P

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an efficient method for the production of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in the absence of helper virus. The adenovirus regions that mediate AAV vector replication were identified and assembled into a helper plasmid. These included the VA, E2A and E4 regions. When this helper plasmid was cotransfected into 293 cells, along with plasmids encoding the AAV vector, and rep and cap genes, AAV vector was produced as efficiently as when using adenovirus infection as a source of help. CMV-driven constructs expressing the E4orf6 and the 72-M(r), E2A proteins were able to functionally replace the E4 and E2A regions, respectively. Therefore the minimum set of genes required to produce AAV helper activity equivalent to that provided by adenovirus infection consists of, or is a subset of, the following genes: the E4orf6 gene, the 72-M(r), E2A protein gene, the VA RNA genes and the E1 region. AAV vector preparations made with adenovirus and by the helper virus-free method were essentially indistinguishable with respect to particle density, particle to infectivity ratio, capsimer ratio and efficiency of muscle transduction in vivo. Only AAV vector preparations made by the helper virus-free method were not reactive with anti-adenovirus sera.

  4. Helper T Cell Responses to Respiratory Viruses in the Lung: Development, Virus Suppression, and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Kosuke

    The lung is an important line of defense that is exposed to respiratory infectious pathogens, including viruses. Lung epithelial cells and/or alveolar macrophages are initially targeted by respiratory viruses. Once respiratory viruses invade the cells of the lung, innate immunity is activated to inhibit viral replication. Innate immune signaling also activates virus-specific adaptive immune responses. The helper T cells play pivotal roles in the humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. Helper T cells are categorized into several distinct subsets (e.g., T H 1, T H 2, T FH , T H 17, and Treg), differentiated by their corresponding signature cytokine production profiles. Helper T cells migrate into the airways and the lung after respiratory virus infections. The behavior of the helper T cells differs with each respiratory virus-in some cases, the response is beneficial; in other cases, it is harmful. Here, the general mechanisms underlying helper T cell responses to viral infections are summarized, and functions and reactions of the helper T cells against some respiratory viral infections are discussed. In influenza virus infections, T H 1 cells, which regulate the cytotoxic T lymphocytes and IgG2 responses, are efficiently activated. T FH cells required for highly specific and memory humoral responses are also activated on influenza infections. In infections with respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus, T H 2 cells develop in the lung and contribute to pathogenesis. In many cases, Treg cells inhibit excessive virus-specific T cell responses that can contribute to viral pathogenicity.

  5. Interconnected subsets of memory follicular helper T cells have different effector functions.

    PubMed

    Asrir, Assia; Aloulou, Meryem; Gador, Mylène; Pérals, Corine; Fazilleau, Nicolas

    2017-10-10

    Follicular helper T cells regulate high-affinity antibody production. Memory follicular helper T cells can be local in draining lymphoid organs and circulate in the blood, but the underlying mechanisms of this subdivision are unresolved. Here we show that both memory follicular helper T subsets sustain B-cell responses after reactivation. Local cells promote more plasma cell differentiation, whereas circulating cells promote more secondary germinal centers. In parallel, local memory B cells are homogeneous and programmed to become plasma cells, whereas circulating memory B cells are able to rediversify. Local memory follicular helper T cells have higher affinity T-cell receptors, which correlates with expression of peptide MHC-II at the surface of local memory B cells only. Blocking T-cell receptor-peptide MHC-II interactions induces the release of local memory follicular helper T cells in the circulating compartment. Our studies show that memory follicular helper T localization is highly intertwined with memory B cells, a finding that has important implications for vaccine design.Tfh cells can differentiate into memory cells. Here the authors describe distinct functional and phenotypic profiles of these memory Tfh cells dependent on their anatomical localization to the lymphoid organs or to the circulation.

  6. Egg size investment in superb fairy-wrens: helper effects are modulated by climate

    PubMed Central

    Heinsohn, R. G.; Russell, A. F.; Kilner, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural populations might exhibit resilience to changing climatic conditions if they already show adaptive flexibility in their reproductive strategies. In cooperative breeders, theory predicts that mothers with helpers should provide less care when environmental conditions are favourable, but maintain high investment when conditions are challenging. Here, we test for evidence of climate-mediated flexibility in maternal investment in the cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus. We focus on egg size because in this species egg size influences offspring size, and females reduce egg investment when there are helpers at the nest. We report that females lay larger eggs during dry, hot conditions. However, the effect of temperature is modulated by the presence of helpers: the average egg size of females with helpers is reduced during cooler conditions but increased during hot conditions relative to females without helpers. This appears to reflect plasticity in egg investment rather than among female differences. Analysis of maternal survival suggests that helped females are better able to withstand the costs of breeding in hot conditions than females without helpers. Our study suggests that females can use multiple, independent cues to modulate egg investment flexibly in a variable environment. PMID:27903872

  7. A novel subset of helper T cells promotes immune responses by secreting GM-CSF

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Roberts, A I; Liu, C; Ren, G; Xu, G; Zhang, L; Devadas, S; Shi, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    Helper T cells are crucial for maintaining proper immune responses. Yet, they have an undefined relationship with one of the most potent immune stimulatory cytokines, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). By depleting major cytokines during the differentiation of CD4+ T cells in vitro, we derived cells that were found to produce large amounts of GM-CSF, but little of the cytokines produced by other helper T subsets. By their secretion of GM-CSF, this novel subset of helper T cells (which we have termed ThGM cells) promoted the production of cytokines by other T-cell subtypes, including type 1 helper T cell (Th1), type 2 helper T cell (Th2), type 1 cytotoxic T cell (Tc1), type 2 cytotoxic T cell (Tc2), and naive T cells, as evidenced by the fact that antibody neutralization of GM-CSF abolished this effect. ThGM cells were found to be highly prone to activation-induced cell death (AICD). Inhibitors of TRAIL or granzymes could not block AICD in ThGM cells, whereas inhibition of FasL/Fas interaction partially rescued ThGM cells from AICD. Thus, ThGM cells are a novel subpopulation of T helper cells that produce abundant GM-CSF, exhibit exquisite susceptibility to apoptosis, and therefore play a pivotal role in the regulation of the early stages of immune responses. PMID:24076588

  8. Egg size investment in superb fairy-wrens: helper effects are modulated by climate.

    PubMed

    Langmore, N E; Bailey, L D; Heinsohn, R G; Russell, A F; Kilner, R M

    2016-11-30

    Natural populations might exhibit resilience to changing climatic conditions if they already show adaptive flexibility in their reproductive strategies. In cooperative breeders, theory predicts that mothers with helpers should provide less care when environmental conditions are favourable, but maintain high investment when conditions are challenging. Here, we test for evidence of climate-mediated flexibility in maternal investment in the cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus We focus on egg size because in this species egg size influences offspring size, and females reduce egg investment when there are helpers at the nest. We report that females lay larger eggs during dry, hot conditions. However, the effect of temperature is modulated by the presence of helpers: the average egg size of females with helpers is reduced during cooler conditions but increased during hot conditions relative to females without helpers. This appears to reflect plasticity in egg investment rather than among female differences. Analysis of maternal survival suggests that helped females are better able to withstand the costs of breeding in hot conditions than females without helpers. Our study suggests that females can use multiple, independent cues to modulate egg investment flexibly in a variable environment. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Ambivalent helpers and unhealthy choices: public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Emma; Paradies, Yin

    2005-03-01

    Public health practitioners in Australian indigenous health work in a complex political environment. Public health training is limited in providing them with conceptual tools needed to unpack the postcolonial nexus of 'fourth-world' health. A workshop was designed by the authors to facilitate critical reflection on how the concepts of race and culture are used in constructions of indigenous ill-health. It was attended by researchers, students, clinicians and bureaucrats working in public health in northern Australia. A thematic analysis of the workshop minutes provided insight into public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health. The major themes that emerged included tension between structure and agency and between sameness and difference, and ambivalence surrounding the 'helper' identity of public health practitioners. We suggest that these narratives can be understood as attempts to maintain the moral integrity of both Indigenous people and practitioners. This task is necessitated by the specter of cultural relativism intrinsic to contemporary liberal discourses of multiculturalism that attempt to reconcile the universal rights of the citizen with the special rights of minority groups. We argue that the concepts of self-determination and neocolonialism mark the spaces where universal and particular discourses overlap and clash. Practitioners who seek to escape neocolonialism must inhabit only the discursive space of public health congruent with self-determination, leaving them in a bind common to many postcolonial situations. They must relieve the ill-health of indigenous people without acting upon them; change them without declaring that change is required.

  10. User manual for SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood

    2006-02-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool to determine optimal configurations for radiant heat experiments was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly, Windows-based program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as number of lamps, power, position, and separation distance. This document is a user manual for that software. Any incidental descriptions ofmore » theory are only for the purpose of defining the model inputs. The theory for the underlying model is described in SAND2005-2947 (Ref. [1]). SPLASH provides a graphical user interface to define lamp panel and shroud designs parametrically, solves the resulting radiation enclosure problem for up to 2500 surfaces, and provides post-processing to facilitate understanding and documentation of analyzed designs.« less

  11. Transcription factor interplay in T helper cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of CD4 helper T cells into specialized effector lineages has provided a powerful model for understanding immune cell differentiation. Distinct lineages have been defined by differential expression of signature cytokines and the lineage-specifying transcription factors necessary and sufficient for their production. The traditional paradigm of differentiation towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes driven by T-bet and GATA3, respectively, has been extended to incorporate additional T cell lineages and transcriptional regulators. Technological advances have expanded our view of these lineage-specifying transcription factors to the whole genome and revealed unexpected interplay between them. From these data, it is becoming clear that lineage specification is more complex and plastic than previous models might have suggested. Here, we present an overview of the different forms of transcription factor interplay that have been identified and how T cell phenotypes arise as a product of this interplay within complex regulatory networks. We also suggest experimental strategies that will provide further insight into the mechanisms that underlie T cell lineage specification and plasticity. PMID:23878131

  12. Transcription factor interplay in T helper cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Catherine M; Jenner, Richard G

    2013-11-01

    The differentiation of CD4 helper T cells into specialized effector lineages has provided a powerful model for understanding immune cell differentiation. Distinct lineages have been defined by differential expression of signature cytokines and the lineage-specifying transcription factors necessary and sufficient for their production. The traditional paradigm of differentiation towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes driven by T-bet and GATA3, respectively, has been extended to incorporate additional T cell lineages and transcriptional regulators. Technological advances have expanded our view of these lineage-specifying transcription factors to the whole genome and revealed unexpected interplay between them. From these data, it is becoming clear that lineage specification is more complex and plastic than previous models might have suggested. Here, we present an overview of the different forms of transcription factor interplay that have been identified and how T cell phenotypes arise as a product of this interplay within complex regulatory networks. We also suggest experimental strategies that will provide further insight into the mechanisms that underlie T cell lineage specification and plasticity.

  13. Peripheral helper lymphocytes produce interleukin 12 in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Márcia A; Abdalla, Douglas R; Aleixo, André A R; Murta, Eddie F C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to seek evidence for the production of IL-12 by CD4(+) T lymphocytes in in vitro and ex vivo trials. We performed in vitro trials with spleen cells from mice subjected to carcinogenesis, as well as ex vivo trials with cells obtained from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals and cancer patients. We were able to verify a significantly increased expression of IL-12 in CD4(+) T lymphocytes from mice and patients with tumors, compared to controls. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify whether this difference is related to being in a chronic disease state or whether it is an attempt by the immune system to produce an anti-tumor response, since T lymphocytes from healthy donors were not able to produce IL-12 when in contact with polyclonal stimuli. We concluded that, in cancer, T helper cells are capable of synthesizing IL-12, raising the question of whether we are faced with another profile, Th12.

  14. Peripheral Helper Lymphocytes Produce Interleukin 12 in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Michelin, Márcia A.; Abdalla, Douglas R.; Aleixo, André A.R.; Murta, Eddie F.C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to seek evidence for the production of IL-12 by CD4+ T lymphocytes in in vitro and ex vivo trials. We performed in vitro trials with spleen cells from mice subjected to carcinogenesis, as well as ex vivo trials with cells obtained from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals and cancer patients. We were able to verify a significantly increased expression of IL-12 in CD4+ T lymphocytes from mice and patients with tumors, compared to controls. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify whether this difference is related to being in a chronic disease state or whether it is an attempt by the immune system to produce an anti-tumor response, since T lymphocytes from healthy donors were not able to produce IL-12 when in contact with polyclonal stimuli. We concluded that, in cancer, T helper cells are capable of synthesizing IL-12, raising the question of whether we are faced with another profile, Th12. PMID:23515751

  15. The Roles of T Helper 1, T Helper 17 and Regulatory T Cells in the Pathogenesis of Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Rezayat, Fatemeh; Amani, Davar; Kiani, Arda; Garssen, Johan; Adcock, Ian M; Velayati, Aliakbar

    2016-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unidentified etiology, with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. It is characterized by a reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity to tuberculin and common antigens. The balance between Th1, Th17 and Regulatory T(Treg) cells controls T-cell proliferation and activation.The Th17/Treg ratio in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluidis increased in patients with active sarcoidosis. Amplified IL-17A expression in granulomas and the presence of IL-17A+, IL-17A+IL-4+ and IL-17A+IFN-γ+ memory T helper cells in the circulation and BAL indicate Th17 cell involvement in granuloma induction and/or maintenance in sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis should therefore be considered as a Th1/Th17 multisystem disorder and anti-IL-17/Th17 approaches that control and reduce IL-17Amay be an option, therefore, for the treatment of sarcoidosis.Here we provide a short overview as to the role of Th17 cells as critical cells in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis.

  16. Artemisinin analogue SM934 attenuate collagen-induced arthritis by suppressing T follicular helper cells and T helper 17 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ze-Min; Yang, Xiao-Qian; Zhu, Feng-Hua; He, Shi-Jun; Tang, Wei; Zuo, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    SM934 is an artemisinin analogue with immunosuppressive properties and potent therapeutic activity against lupus-like diseases in autoimmune mice. In this report, the therapeutic efficacy and underlying mechanisms of SM934 on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1J mice. We demonstrated that SM934 treatment alleviate the severity of arthritis in CIA mice with established manifestations. The therapeutic benefits were associated with ameliorated joint swelling and reduced extent of bone erosion and destruction. Further, administration of SM934 diminished the development of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and Th17 cells and suppressed the production of pathogenic antibodies, without altering the proportion of germinal center B cells. Ex vivo, SM934 treatment inhibited the bovine type II collagen (CII) induced proliferation and inflammatory cytokines secretion of CII -reactive T cells. In vitro, SM934 impeded the polarization of naïve CD4+ T cells into Tfh cells and the expression of its transcript factor Bcl-6. Moreover, SM934 decreased the IL-21-producing CD4+ T cells and dampened the IL-21 downstream signaling through STAT3. These finding offered the convincing evidence that artemisinin derivative might attenuate RA by simultaneously interfering with the generation of Tfh cells and Th17 cells as well as the subsequent antibody-mediated immune responses. PMID:27897259

  17. T helper 1 immunity requires complement-driven NLRP3 inflammasome activity in CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Spolski, Rosanne; Robertson, Avril A. B.; Klos, Andreas; Rheinheimer, Claudia; Dutow, Pavel; Woodruff, Trent M.; Yu, Zu Xi; O'Neill, Luke A.; Coll, Rebecca C.; Sher, Alan; Leonard, Warren J.; Köhl, Jörg; Monk, Pete; Cooper, Matthew A.; Arno, Matthew; Afzali, Behdad; Lachmann, Helen J.; Cope, Andrew P.; Mayer-Barber, Katrin D.; Kemper, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome controls interleukin-1β maturation in antigen-presenting cells, but a direct role for NLRP3 in human adaptive immune cells has not been described. We found that the NLRP3 inflammasome assembles in human CD4+ T cells and initiates caspase-1–dependent interleukin-1β secretion, thereby promoting interferon-γ production and T helper 1 (TH1) differentiation in an autocrine fashion. NLRP3 assembly requires intracellular C5 activation and stimulation of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1), which is negatively regulated by surface-expressed C5aR2. Aberrant NLRP3 activity in T cells affects inflammatory responses in human autoinflammatory disease and in mouse models of inflammation and infection. Our results demonstrate that NLRP3 inflammasome activity is not confined to “innate immune cells” but is an integral component of normal adaptive TH1 responses. PMID:27313051

  18. Newly identified helper bacteria stimulate ectomycorrhizal formation in Populus.

    PubMed

    Labbé, Jessy L; Weston, David J; Dunkirk, Nora; Pelletier, Dale A; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2014-01-01

    Mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) are known to increase host root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi but the molecular mechanisms and potential tripartite interactions are poorly understood. Through an effort to study Populus microbiome, we isolated 21 Pseudomonas strains from native Populus deltoides roots. These bacterial isolates were characterized and screened for MHB effectiveness on the Populus-Laccaria system. Two additional Pseudomonas strains (i.e., Pf-5 and BBc6R8) from existing collections were included for comparative purposes. We analyzed the effect of co-cultivation of these 23 individual Pseudomonas strains on Laccaria bicolor "S238N" growth rate, mycelial architecture and transcriptional changes. Nineteen of the 23 Pseudomonas strains tested had positive effects on L. bicolor S238N growth, as well as on mycelial architecture, with strains GM41 and GM18 having the most significant effect. Four of seven L. bicolor reporter genes, Tra1, Tectonin2, Gcn5, and Cipc1, thought to be regulated during the interaction with MHB strain BBc6R8, were induced or repressed, while interacting with Pseudomonas strains GM17, GM33, GM41, GM48, Pf-5, and BBc6R8. Strain GM41 promoted the highest roots colonization across three Populus species but most notably in P. deltoides, which is otherwise poorly colonized by L. bicolor. Here we report novel MHB strains isolated from native Populus that improve L. bicolor root colonization on Populus. This tripartite relationship could be exploited for Populus species/genotypes nursery production as a means of improving establishment and survival in marginal lands.

  19. Newly identified helper bacteria stimulate ectomycorrhizal formation in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L.; Weston, David J.; Dunkirk, Nora

    Mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) are known to increase host root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi but the molecular mechanisms and potential tripartite trophic interactions are poorly understood. Through an effort to study Populus microbiome, we isolated 21 Pseudomonas strains from native Populus deltoides roots. These bacterial isolates were characterized and screened for MHB effectiveness on the Populus-Laccaria system. Two other Pseudomonas strains (i.e., Pf-5 and BBc6R8) from existing collections were also included as reference in the screening process. We analyzed Laccaria bicolor S238N growth rate, mycelial architecture and transcriptional changes induced by the contrasting Pseudomonas strains (i.e., inhibitory, neutral and beneficial).more » We characterized 17 out of the 21 Pseudomonas strains from the Populus rhizosphere with positive effects on L. bicolor S238N growth, as well as on Populus root architecture and colonization by L. bicolor S238N across three Populus species. Four of seven reporter genes, Tra1, Tectonin2, Gcn5 and Cipc1, thought to be specific to the interaction with strain BBc6R8, were induced or repressed while interacting with six (i.e., GM17, GM33, GM41, GM48, Pf-5 and BBc6R8) of the tested Pseudomonas strains. GM41 promoted the highest roots colonization across three Populus species but most notably in P. deltoides, which is otherwise, poorly colonized by L. bicolor. Here we report novel MHB strains isolated from native Populus that improve roots colonization. This tripartite relationship could be exploited in nursery production for target Populus species/genotypes as a means of improving establishment and survival in marginal lands.« less

  20. Newly identified helper bacteria stimulate ectomycorrhizal formation in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, Jessy L.; Weston, David J.; Dunkirk, Nora; Pelletier, Dale A.; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) are known to increase host root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi but the molecular mechanisms and potential tripartite interactions are poorly understood. Through an effort to study Populus microbiome, we isolated 21 Pseudomonas strains from native Populus deltoides roots. These bacterial isolates were characterized and screened for MHB effectiveness on the Populus-Laccaria system. Two additional Pseudomonas strains (i.e., Pf-5 and BBc6R8) from existing collections were included for comparative purposes. We analyzed the effect of co-cultivation of these 23 individual Pseudomonas strains on Laccaria bicolor “S238N” growth rate, mycelial architecture and transcriptional changes. Nineteen of the 23 Pseudomonas strains tested had positive effects on L. bicolor S238N growth, as well as on mycelial architecture, with strains GM41 and GM18 having the most significant effect. Four of seven L. bicolor reporter genes, Tra1, Tectonin2, Gcn5, and Cipc1, thought to be regulated during the interaction with MHB strain BBc6R8, were induced or repressed, while interacting with Pseudomonas strains GM17, GM33, GM41, GM48, Pf-5, and BBc6R8. Strain GM41 promoted the highest roots colonization across three Populus species but most notably in P. deltoides, which is otherwise poorly colonized by L. bicolor. Here we report novel MHB strains isolated from native Populus that improve L. bicolor root colonization on Populus. This tripartite relationship could be exploited for Populus species/genotypes nursery production as a means of improving establishment and survival in marginal lands. PMID:25386184

  1. Newly identified helper bacteria stimulate ectomycorrhizal formation in Populus

    DOE PAGES

    Labbe, Jessy L.; Weston, David J.; Dunkirk, Nora; ...

    2014-10-24

    Mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) are known to increase host root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi but the molecular mechanisms and potential tripartite trophic interactions are poorly understood. Through an effort to study Populus microbiome, we isolated 21 Pseudomonas strains from native Populus deltoides roots. These bacterial isolates were characterized and screened for MHB effectiveness on the Populus-Laccaria system. Two other Pseudomonas strains (i.e., Pf-5 and BBc6R8) from existing collections were also included as reference in the screening process. We analyzed Laccaria bicolor S238N growth rate, mycelial architecture and transcriptional changes induced by the contrasting Pseudomonas strains (i.e., inhibitory, neutral and beneficial).more » We characterized 17 out of the 21 Pseudomonas strains from the Populus rhizosphere with positive effects on L. bicolor S238N growth, as well as on Populus root architecture and colonization by L. bicolor S238N across three Populus species. Four of seven reporter genes, Tra1, Tectonin2, Gcn5 and Cipc1, thought to be specific to the interaction with strain BBc6R8, were induced or repressed while interacting with six (i.e., GM17, GM33, GM41, GM48, Pf-5 and BBc6R8) of the tested Pseudomonas strains. GM41 promoted the highest roots colonization across three Populus species but most notably in P. deltoides, which is otherwise, poorly colonized by L. bicolor. Here we report novel MHB strains isolated from native Populus that improve roots colonization. This tripartite relationship could be exploited in nursery production for target Populus species/genotypes as a means of improving establishment and survival in marginal lands.« less

  2. Effective antigen presentation to helper T cells by human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Ruhaifah K; Vickers, Mark A; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Hall, Andrew M; Barker, Robert N; Walsh, Garry M

    2016-12-01

    Although eosinophils are inflammatory cells, there is increasing attention on their immunomodulatory roles. For example, murine eosinophils can present antigen to CD4 + T helper (Th) cells, but it remains unclear whether human eosinophils also have this ability. This study determined whether human eosinophils present a range of antigens, including allergens, to activate Th cells, and characterized their expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules required for effective presentation. Human peripheral blood eosinophils purified from non-allergic donors were pulsed with the antigens house dust mite extract (HDM), Timothy Grass extract (TG) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD), before co-culture with autologous CD4 + Th cells. Proliferative and cytokine responses were measured, with eosinophil expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 determined by flow cytometry. Eosinophils pulsed with HDM, TG or PPD drove Th cell proliferation, with the response strength dependent on antigen concentration. The cytokine responses varied with donor and antigen, and were not biased towards any particular Th subset, often including combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Eosinophils up-regulated surface expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ, CD80, CD86 and CD40 in culture, increases that were sustained over 5 days when incubated with antigens, including HDM, or the major allergens it contains, Der p I or Der p II. Human eosinophils can, therefore, act as effective antigen-presenting cells to stimulate varied Th cell responses against a panel of antigens including HDM, TG or PPD, an ability that may help to determine the development of allergic disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Effects of T helper 1 cells and T helper 17 cells secreting cytokines on rat models of experimental periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z X; Yang, L; Tan, J Y; Chen, L L

    2017-12-09

    Objectvie: To investigate the effects of secreting cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) of T helper 1 cells (Th1) and T helper 17 cells (Th17) on the peripheral blood and alveolar bone destruction, so as to provide a new explanation for cellular immunity-mediated alveolar bone destruction. Methods: Eighteen eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided, randomly and equally, into 3 groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, ligation group and normal control group. In the LPS group, Escherichia coli LPS was injected into the alveolar mucosa on the buccalmedian site of the left upper first molar, while the right upper first molar was injected with equal volume of physiological saline as self-controls. The injections were performed every other day for four times totally. In the ligation group, the left upper first molars were ligatured with 0.2 mm orthodontic cords, while the right upper first molars were left untreated as self-controls, and supplemented with high-sugar diet to promote the periodontitis status. The rats in normal control group were fed normally. The concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-17 in peripheral blood were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method at the fourth week after the start of injection and at the eighth week after ligation. The histological of periodontal tissues were observed after hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and osteoclast count was performed under light microscope. The histological of osteoclasts were observed after tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were detected by immunohistochemical assay. Results: The concentrations of IFN-γ in peripheral blood of LPS group [(185.0±50.7) ng/L] and ligation group [(202.9±60.4) ng/L] were significantly higher than that of normal control group [(106.3±17.2) ng/L]( P< 0.05). Meanwhile, histological examination showed inflammatory cells infiltration in the gingival epithelium, the height reduction

  4. Distinct T helper cell dependence of memory B-cell proliferation versus plasma cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zabel, Franziska; Fettelschoss, Antonia; Vogel, Monique; Johansen, Pål; Kündig, Thomas M; Bachmann, Martin F

    2017-03-01

    Several memory B-cell subclasses with distinct functions have been described, of which the most effective is the class-switched (CS) memory B-cell population. We have previously shown, using virus-like particles (VLPs), that the proliferative potential of these CS memory B cells is limited and they fail to re-enter germinal centres (GCs). However, VLP-specific memory B cells quickly differentiated into secondary plasma cells (PCs) with the virtue of elevated antibody production compared with primary PCs. Whereas the induction of VLP + memory B cells was strongly dependent on T helper cells, we were wondering whether re-stimulation of VLP + memory B cells and their differentiation into secondary PCs would also require T helper cells. Global absence of T helper cells led to strongly impaired memory B cell proliferation and PC differentiation. In contrast, lack of interleukin-21 receptor-dependent follicular T helper cells or CD40 ligand signalling strongly affected proliferation of memory B cells, but differentiation into mature secondary PCs exhibiting increased antibody production was essentially normal. This contrasts with primary B-cell responses, where a strong dependence on CD40 ligand but limited importance of interleukin-21 receptor was seen. Hence, T helper cell dependence differs between primary and secondary B-cell responses as well as between memory B-cell proliferation and PC differentiation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Can domestic helpers moderate distress of offspring caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults?

    PubMed

    Chong, Alice M L; Kwan, Chi Wai; Lou, Vivian W Q; Chi, Iris

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of domestic helpers on distress of offspring caring for parents with cognitive impairments and with or without behavioural problems. This secondary analysis of data involved 5086 Hong Kong Chinese adults aged 60 or older applying for public long-term care services from 2010 to 2012. All variables were measured using the mandatory Hong Kong version of the Minimum Data Set-Home Care 2.0. Regarding taking care of parents with cognitive impairments, 10.7% of offspring primary caregivers were aided by domestic helpers, 55.54% reported distress, and 75.70% lived with their parents. Assistance from domestic helpers reduced offspring caregiver distress if the offspring provided psychological support to parents (ratio of OR = 0.655, p < .05) and were not living with parents (ratio of OR = 1.183, p < .01). These findings might suggest: a) the positive effects of audience on psychological responses to stress; b) caregiving is usually less stressful for informal caregivers not residing with care recipients. Conversely, having a domestic helper could add to caregiving distress if offspring caregivers live with their parents, most likely because offspring may witness difficulties that domestic helpers face in providing dementia care.

  6. Personal experience in professional narratives: the role of helpers' families in their work with terror victims.

    PubMed

    Shamai, Michal

    2005-06-01

    This article describes research on the narratives of social workers who help terror victims, focusing on the relationship between the helpers' families and their work. Qualitative analysis of three training groups of social workers who are responsible for helping in the event of terror attacks in different parts of Israel, and of three debriefing groups for social workers after terror attacks, reveals that the helpers' families play a role in the narratives constructed by the helpers. Two main themes were identified. The first centers on the interaction between work and the family, and shows that in the situation of a terror attack, the conflict between the two disappears and the family often serves as a support system for the helpers. The second theme refers to the family dimension alone, and focuses on the dichotomy between vitality and loss. The way that family life events affect helpers'professional intervention is described. The findings are discussed in light of Conservation of Resources Theory, the fight-flight response to threat, and the concept of the family as a source of safety and risk taking.

  7. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part L. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #52--Maid; #54--Ticket Agent; #55--Cosmetologist; #57--Counterperson; #58--Cook's Helper; #59--Kitchen Helper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This ninth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Maid, Ticket Agent, Cosmetologist, Counterperson, Cook's Helper, and Kitchen Helper. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE number, career ladder,…

  8. Differential requirements for activation and growth of unprimed cytotoxic and helper T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, M; Pobor, G; Bandeira, A; Larsson, E L; Coutinho, A

    1983-09-01

    The requirements for activation and growth of T lymphocytes capable of mediating either cytolytic activity or help to B lymphocytes were studied in unprimed splenic T cell populations. The selectivity of expression of Lyt-2 antigens, the reactivity to soluble concanavalin A (Con A), to partially purified interleukin 2 (IL 2, T cell growth factor[s]) and to lectin-pulsed macrophages (M phi) were used in this analysis. Lectin-dependent cytotoxicity assays and a novel method that allows for the detection of all effector helper cells, regardless of their clonal specificities, were used for the functional identification of the responding T cells. The results show a marked contrast between cytolytic and helper T cells in their growth and activation requirements. Thus, while Lyt-2+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors grow exponentially in IL 2 after a short pulse with soluble Con A in the absence of accessory cells, Lyt-2- helper cell precursors completely fail to proliferate under the same conditions and require the continuous presence of lectin-pulsed M phi for significant growth. Furthermore, addition of IL 2 to M phi-stimulated cultures of Lyt-2- cells has no effect. T cells which produce IL 2 have the same growth characteristics as helper cells. In both cases, effector helper functions could be expanded more than 10-fold on a per cell basis by a 5-day-culture period under those growth supporting conditions. The development of effector helper functions, however, was strongly inhibited by the presence of Lyt-2+ T cells.

  9. Helpers benefit offspring in both the short and long-term in the cooperatively breeding banded mongoose.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Sarah J

    2005-12-07

    Helpers in cooperative and communal breeding species are thought to accrue fitness benefits through improving the condition and survival of the offspring that they care for, yet few studies have shown conclusively that helpers benefit the offspring they rear. Using a novel approach to control for potentially confounding group-specific variables, I compare banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) offspring within the same litter that differ in the amount of time they spend with a helper, and hence the amount of care they receive. I show that pups that spend more time in close proximity to a helper are fed more, grow faster and have a higher probability of survival to independence than their littermates. Moreover, high growth rates during development reduce the age at which females breed for the first time, suggesting that helpers can improve the future fecundity of the offspring for which they care. These results provide strong evidence that it is the amount of investment per se that benefits offspring, rather than some correlate such as territory quality, and validate the assumption that helpers improve the reproductive success of breeders, and hence may gain fitness benefits from their actions. Furthermore, the finding that helpers may benefit offspring in the long-term suggests that current studies underestimate the fitness benefits that helpers gain from rearing the offspring of others.

  10. Concanavalin A-mediated polyclonal helper assay of normal thymocytes and its use for the analysis of ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Kina, T; Nishikawa, S; Amagai, T; Katsura, Y

    1987-01-01

    A concanavalin A (Con A)-mediated polyclonal helper assay system was established by using the thymus cells or splenic T cells as a source of helper T cells. When splenic B cells were cocultured with thymus cells or splenic Lyt-2- T cells in the presence of an optimal dose of Con A, B Cells were polyclonally activated and differentiated into immunoglobulin-secreting cells. This Con A-mediated helper activity was completely inhibited by the addition of alpha-methyl-D-mannoside and could not be substituted by culture supernatant of Con A-stimulated thymocytes or splenic T cells. Almost all the activity of the thymus cells was carried by peanut agglutinin low binding population. Genetic restriction between T and B cells was not observed in this helper function. In ontogeny, Con A-mediated helper activity in the thymus was first detected at a few days after birth and reached the adult level at about 1 week of age. The polyclonal helper assay system developed in the present study provides a sensitive system to analyse the helper function of thymus cells and also to delineate the early phase of the differentiation of helper T cell population.

  11. Distinct pattern of lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis is associated with different circulating T-helper and helper-like innate lymphoid cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Gross, Catharina C; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Hanning, Uta; Posevitz-Fejfár, Anita; Korsukewitz, Catharina; Schwab, Nicholas; Meuth, Sven G; Wiendl, Heinz; Klotz, Luisa

    2017-06-01

    Distinct lesion topography in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) might be due to different antigen presentation and/or trafficking routes of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate whether distinct lesion patterns in multiple sclerosis (MS) might be associated with a predominance of distinct circulating T-helper cell subset as well as their innate counterparts. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood of patients with exclusively cerebral (n = 20) or predominantly spinal (n = 12) disease manifestation. Patients with exclusively cerebral or preferential spinal lesion manifestation were associated with increased proportions of circulating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) producing T H 1 cells or interleukin (IL)-17-producing T H 17 cells, respectively. In contrast, proportions of peripheral IL-17/IL-22-producing lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi), the innate counterpart of T H 17 cells, were enhanced in RRMS patients with exclusively cerebral lesion topography. Distinct T-helper and T-helper-like innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets are associated with different lesion topography in RRMS.

  12. Instructed subsets or agile swarms: how T-helper cells may adaptively counter uncertainty with variability and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Schrom, Edward C; Graham, Andrea L

    2017-12-01

    Over recent years, extensive phenotypic variability and plasticity have been revealed among the T-helper cells of the mammalian adaptive immune system, even within clonal lineages of identical antigen specificity. This challenges the conventional view that T-helper cells assort into functionally distinct subsets following differential instruction by the innate immune system. We argue that the adaptive value of coping with uncertainty can reconcile the 'instructed subset' framework with T-helper variability and plasticity. However, we also suggest that T-helper cells might better be understood as agile swarms engaged in collective decision-making to promote host fitness. With rigorous testing, the 'agile swarms' framework may illuminate how variable and plastic individual T-helper cells interact to create coherent immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Follicular T helper cells and IL-21 in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Tue Kruse

    2016-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lifelong diseases with increased mortality and chronic pains. They are both characterized by immunological imbalances causing the immune system attack and destroy the bodies own tissues (called autoimmune disease). The best treatment, we are currently able to offer these patients, cause significant side-effects and can not prevent significant loss of quality of life. At the heart of the disease mechanisms in RA and SLE are subsets of immune cells called T and B cells. These cell types produce proteins (called antibodies), which under normal circumstances protect the body against disease. In RA and SLE these cells produce antibodies that are directed at the bodies own tissues (called autoantibodies), causing inflammation and tissue damage. The cause of this loss of tolerance is still unknown. Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is thought to exert key functions in controlling and directing the T and B cell responses leading to formation of antibodies and autoantibodies alike. IL-21 is a signaling molecule secreted by a subpopulation of T cells called follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. IFNα is another signaling molecule of key importance in autoimmune disease. Stratification of SLE patients by their responsiveness to IFNα has proven a crucial tool in stratifying patients in terms of disease development and treatment response. The aim of this PhD study is to investigate the role of IL-21 and IFNα, and their effects on Tfh cells and B cells and the formation of autoantibodies in RA and SLE. The first part of this study addresses whether plasma levels of IL-21 influence disease activity in rheumatic disease. We further investigate the distribution of IL-21-producing Tfh cells in these patients. We find that IL-21 plasma levels correlate to disease activity and radiological progression in RA, and that the IL-21-producing Tfh cell are increased in the blood and synovial fluid of these patients. These findings

  14. Kitchen Helper. DOT No. 318.687-010. Restaurant Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    This coordinator's guide for a module on kitchen helpers, one of seven individualized units about restaurant occupations, has been developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed in a commercial restaurant. Included in the first part of the guide are a progress chart, suggested teaching procedures, answers to the…

  15. Kitchen Helper. DOT No. 318.687-010. Cafeteria Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This study guide, one of eight individualized units developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed in a cafeteria, is composed of information about one specific occupation; this unit focuses on the duties of the kitchen helper. Materials provided in this guide for coordinator use include a student progress chart; a…

  16. Cook's Helper. DOT No. 317.687-010. Cafeteria Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This study guide, one of eight individualized units developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed in a cafeteria, is composed of information about one specific occupation; this unit focuses on the duties of the cook's helper. Materials provided in this guide for coordinator use include a student progress chart; a…

  17. English-Speaking Foreign Domestic Helpers and Students' English Reading Attainment in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Shek Kam; Lam, Raymond Y. H.; Loh, Elizabeth K. Y.; Ip, Olivia K. M.; Lam, Joseph W. I.; Chan, Yiu Man

    2009-01-01

    The English reading comprehension ability of 4,352 Grade 4 Hong Kong students was tested. The students' parents completed questionnaires about home factors, including monthly income, language habitually spoken at home, whether the mother was employed, and whether an English-speaking domestic helper resided there. Analyses revealed statistically…

  18. "Helping" versus "Being a Helper": Invoking the Self to Increase Helping in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Christopher J.; Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Can a subtle linguistic cue that invokes the self motivate children to help? In two experiments, 3- to 6-year-old children (N = 149) were exposed to the idea of "being a helper" (noun condition) or "helping" (verb condition). Noun wording fosters the perception that a behavior reflects an identity--the kind of person one is.…

  19. Baker's Helper. DOT No. 313.684-010. Cafeteria Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This study guide is one of eight individualized units developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed in a cafeteria. Each self-paced unit is composed of information about one specific occupation; this unit focuses on the duties of the baker's helper. Materials provided in this guide for coordinator use include a…

  20. CD4 T-helper cell cytokine phenotypes and antibody response following tetanus toxoid booster immunization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Routine methods for enumerating antigen-specific T-helper cells may not identify low-frequency phenotypes such as Th2 cells. We compared methods of evaluating such responses to identify tetanus toxoid- (TT) specific Th1, Th2, Th17 and IL10+ cells. Eight healthy subjects were given a TT booster vacci...

  1. Applying the Helper-Therapy Principle: A Children-Teach-Children Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Anita; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The 'perpetual client syndrome' can be combated by programs designed to change the role of the constant receiver of help to that of the giver of help. A project conducted in an Israeli public school indicates the benefits of a helper-therapy program, and some of the problems. (Author)

  2. Sex, Attribution, and Severity Influence Intervention Decisions of Informal Helpers in Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabot, Heather Frasier; Tracy, Tracy L.; Manning, Christine A.; Poisson, Chelsea A.

    2009-01-01

    Most domestic violence (DV) researchers examine professional intervention (e.g., police and nurses), but informal helpers (e.g., friends and bystanders) are critical. The authors measure undergraduates' intervention likelihood, type of involvement (i.e., contact with abuser), and the influence of attribution decisions in DV situations where the…

  3. Cook's Helper. DOT No. 317.687-010. Restaurant Occupations. Coordinator's Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    This coordinator's guide for a module on cook's helpers, one of seven individualized units about restaurant occupations, has been developed for students enrolled in cooperative part-time training and employed in a commercial restaurant. Included in the first part of the guide are a progress chart, suggested teaching procedures, answers to the…

  4. Prevalence and Duties of Collegiate Human Sexuality Peer Helpers: Results of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to assess human sexuality peer helper use among college student health centers nationwide. Results from 358 institutions indicate that 53.9% of centers use peers for educational programming, prevention efforts, and/or counseling initiatives. When adjusting for institutions that sponsor a program (n = 193), the M…

  5. Helpers Program: A Pilot Test of Brief Tobacco Intervention Training in Three Corporations

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Myra L.; Wassum, Ken; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Floden, Lysbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Quitlines and worksite-sponsored cessation programs are effective and highly accessible, but limited by low utilization. Efforts to encourage use of cessation aids have focused almost exclusively on the smoker, overlooking the potential for friends, family, coworkers and others in a tobacco user’s social network to influence quitting and use of effective treatment. Methods Longitudinal, observational pilot feasibility study with six-week follow-up survey. Setting/Participants Employees of three national corporations, with a combined target audience of 102,100 employees. Intervention The Helpers Program offers Web-based brief intervention (BI) training to activate social networks of tobacco users to encourage quitting and use of effective treatment. Helpers was offered from 1/10/08 to 3/31/08, as a treatment engagement strategy, together with Free and Clear’s (F&C) telephone/Web-based cessation services. Main outcome measures web-site utilization, training completion, post-training changes in knowledge and self-efficacy with delivery of BIs, referrals to F&C, and use of BI training. Results There were 19,109 unique visitors to the Helpers Web-site. Of these, 4727 created user accounts; 1427 registered for Helpers Training; 766 completed training. There were 445 visits to the referral page and 201 e-mail or letter referrals generated. There were 67 requests for technical support. Of follow-up survey respondents (n=289), 78.9% reported offering a BI. Conclusions Offering the Helpers Program Web-site to a large, diverse audience as part of an employer-sponsored worksite health promotion program is both feasible and well accepted by employees. Website users will participate in training, encourage quitting, and refer smokers to quitline services. PMID:20176303

  6. Helpers program: A pilot test of brief tobacco intervention training in three corporations.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Myra L; Wassum, Ken; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Floden, Lysbeth

    2010-03-01

    Quitlines and worksite-sponsored cessation programs are effective and highly accessible, but limited by low utilization. Efforts to encourage use of cessation aids have focused almost exclusively on the smoker, overlooking the potential for friends, family, co-workers, and others in a tobacco user's social network to influence quitting and use of effective treatment. Longitudinal, observational pilot feasibility study with 6-week follow-up survey. Employees of three national corporations, with a combined target audience of 102,100 employees. The Helpers Program offers web-based, brief intervention training to activate social networks of tobacco users to encourage quitting and use of effective treatment. Helpers was offered from January 10 to March 31, 2008, as a treatment engagement strategy, together with Free & Clear's telephone/web-based cessation services. Website utilization, training completion, post-training changes in knowledge and self-efficacy with delivery of brief interventions, referrals to Free & Clear, and use of brief intervention training. There were 19,109 unique visitors to the Helpers website. Of these, 4727 created user accounts; 1427 registered for Helpers Training; 766 completed training. There were 445 visits to the referral page and 201 e-mail or letter referrals generated. There were 67 requests for technical support. Of follow-up survey respondents (n=289), 78.9% reported offering a brief intervention. Offering the Helpers Program website to a large, diverse audience as part of an employer-sponsored worksite health promotion program is both feasible and well accepted by employees. Website users will participate in training, encourage quitting, and refer smokers to quitline services. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Functional analysis of T cells expressing Ia antigens. I. Demonstration of helper T-cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Swierkosz, J E; Marrack, P; Kappler, J W

    1979-12-01

    We have examined the expression of I-region antigens on functional subpopulations of murine T cells. A.TH anti-A.TL (anti-Ik, Sk, Gk) alloantiserum was raised by immunization of recipients with concanavalin A (Con A) stimulated thymic and peripheral T-cell blasts. In contrast to similar antisera made by conventional methods, the anti-Ia blast serum was highly cytotoxic for purified T lymphocytes. Moreover, it reacted in a specific fashion with T cells having particular functions. Treatment of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-primed B10.A (H-2 alpha) T cells with this antiserum plus complement resulted in the elimination of helper activity for B-cell responses to trinitrophenyl-KLH. Inhibition was shown to be a result of the selective killing of one type of helper T cell whose activity could be replaced by a factor(s) found in the supernate of Con A-activated spleen cells. A second type of helper cell required for responses to protein-bound antigens appeared to be Ia-. By absorption and analysis on H-2 recombinants, at least two specificities were detectable on helper T cells; one mapping in the I-A subregion and a second in a region(s) to the right of I-J. In addition, the helper T cell(s) involved in the generation of alloreactive cytotoxic lymphocytes was shown to be Ia+, whereas cytotoxic effector cells and their precursors were Ia- with this antiserum. These results provide strong evidence for the selective expression of I-region determinants on T-cell subsets and suggest that T-cell-associated Ia antigens may play an important role in T-lymphocyte function.

  8. The role of helper lipids in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) designed for oligonucleotide delivery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinwei; Lee, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have shown promise as delivery vehicles for therapeutic oligonucleotides, including antisense oligos (ONs), siRNA, and microRNA mimics and inhibitors. In addition to a cationic lipid, LNPs are typically composed of helper lipids that contribute to their stability and delivery efficiency. Helper lipids with cone-shape geometry favoring the formation hexagonal II phase, such as dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), can promote endosomal release of ONs. Meanwhile, cylindrical-shaped lipid phosphatidylcholine can provide greater bilayer stability, which is important for in vivo application of LNPs. Cholesterol is often included as a helper that improves intracellular delivery as well as LNP stability in vivo. Inclusion of a PEGylating lipid can enhance LNP colloidal stability in vitro and circulation time in vivo but may reduce uptake and inhibit endosomal release at the cellular level. This problem can be addressed by choosing reversible PEGylation in which the PEG moiety is gradually released in blood circulation. pH-sensitive anionic helper lipids, such as fatty acids and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS), can trigger low-pH-induced changes in LNP surface charge and destabilization that can facilitate endosomal release of ONs. Generally speaking, there is no correlation between LNP activity in vitro and in vivo because of differences in factors limiting the efficiency of delivery. Designing LNPs requires the striking of a proper balance between the need for particle stability, long systemic circulation time, and the need for LNP destabilization inside the target cell to release the oligonucleotide cargo, which requires the proper selection of both the cationic and helper lipids. Customized design and empirical optimization is needed for specific applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyn, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the…

  10. In vitro generation of helper T cells and suppressor T cells that regulate the cytolytic T lymphocyte response to trinitrophenyl-modified syngeneic cells.

    PubMed

    Gualde, N; Weinberger, O; Ratnofsky, S; Benacerraf, B; Burakoff, S J

    1982-04-01

    Helper T cells and suppressor T cells have been generated in vitro that regulate the cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified syngeneic cells. B6D2F1 helper cells generated to TNP-modified parental (P1) cells augment the CTL response to those P1-TNP-modified antigens but not to P2-TNP-modified antigens. The generation of these helper T cells requires the presence of splenic adherent cells and these helper T cells are radioresistant. A soluble factor can be obtained from the helper T cell cultures that can also augment the CTL response. The suppressor T cells generated in culture do not demonstrate the specificity observed with the helper T cells; however, they are antigen-dependent in their induction. Whether helper or suppressor activity is obtained depends upon the length of time cells are cultured in vitro.

  11. In vitro generation of helper T cells and suppressor T cells that regulate the cytolytic T lymphocyte response to trinitrophenyl-modified syngeneic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gualde, N.; Weinberger, O.; Ratnofsky, S.

    1982-04-01

    Helper T cells and suppressor T cells have been generated in vitro that regulate the cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified syngeneic cells. B6D2F1 helper cells generated to TNP-modified parental (P1) cells augment the CTL response to those P1-TNP-modified antigens but not to P2-TNP-modified antigens. The generation of these helper T cells requires the presence of splenic adherent cells and these helper T cells are radioresistant. A soluble factor can be obtained from the helper T cell cultures that can also augment the CTL response. The suppressor T cells generated in culture do not demonstrate the specificity observedmore » with the helper T cells; however, they are antigen-dependent in their induction. Whether helper or suppressor activity is obtained depends upon the length of time cells are cultured in vitro.« less

  12. The neoteny-helper hypothesis: When to expect and when not to expect endocrine mechanisms to regulate allo-parental care?

    PubMed

    Schradin, Carsten; Vuarin, Pauline; Rimbach, Rebecca

    2018-05-02

    Family groups with helpers occur in several species of fish, birds and mammals. In such cooperatively breeding species all group members help with raising the offspring, i.e. parents and offspring from previous litters. While the ecological reasons and ultimate consequences of allo-parental care have been studied in detail, we know little about its physiological regulation. We propose three alternative hypotheses for the endocrine regulation of allo-parental care. 1. The neoteny-helper hypothesis predicts that helpers that did not undergo adolescence yet show helping behavior without any endocrine mechanisms activating it, as helping is the default response towards infant stimuli. The endocrine changes during adolescence would then deactivate helping behavior. 2. The parent-helper hypothesis predicts that helpers undergo the same endocrine changes as parents (increased prolactin and corticosterone levels; decreased testosterone in males but increased estrogen in females). We predict that this hypothesis is especially important in post-adolescent helpers. 3. The helper-specific hypothesis predicts that there are specific endocrine mechanisms that only exist in helpers but not in breeders. We review evidence for these three hypotheses in 23 species of fish, birds, and mammals. We found no evidence for the helper-specific hypothesis but for both other hypotheses. As predicted, this depended on whether helpers were pre- or post-adolescent, but information on whether or not helpers underwent adolescence was often missing. Thus, future studies should investigate whether or not helpers have reached sexual maturity, differentiate between pre- and post-adolescent helpers, and study behavioral changes in helping behavior during adolescence. We conclude that the neurobiological circuits in the brain necessary for allo-parental care might often be the default stage in helpers from cooperative breeding species, which might be deactivated by specific endocrine mechanisms during

  13. Physical-chemical features of non-detergent sulfobetaines active as protein-folding helpers.

    PubMed

    Expert-Bezançon, Nicole; Rabilloud, Thierry; Vuillard, Laurent; Goldberg, Michel E

    2003-01-01

    Some non-detergent sulfobetaines had been shown to prevent aggregation and improve the yield of active proteins when added to the buffer during in vitro protein renaturation. With the aim of designing more efficient folding helpers, a series of non-detergent sulfobetaines have been synthesized and their efficiency in improving the renaturation of a variety of proteins (E. coli tryptophan synthase and beta-D-galactosidase, hen lysozyme, bovine serum albumin, a monoclonal antibody) have been investigated. Attempts to correlate the structure of each sulfobetaines with its effect on folding revealed some molecular features that appear important in helping renaturation. This enabled us to design and synthesize new non-detergent sulfobetaines that act as potent folding helpers.

  14. CD4+ T helper 2 cells – microbial triggers, differentiation requirements and effector functions

    PubMed Central

    Okoye, Isobel S; Wilson, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years we have made great strides in our understanding of T helper cell differentiation, expansion and effector functions. Within the context of T helper type 2 (Th2) cell development, novel innate-like cells with the capacity to secrete large amounts of interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 and IL-9 as well as IL-4-producing and antigen-processing basophils have (re)-emerged onto the type 2 scene. To what extent these new players influence αβ+ CD4+ Th2 cell differentiation is discussed throughout this appraisal of the current literature. We highlight the unique features of Th2 cell development, highlighting the three necessary signals, T-cell receptor ligation, co-stimulation and cytokine receptor ligation. Finally, putting these into context, microbial and allergenic properties that trigger Th2 cell differentiation and how these influence Th2 effector function are discussed and questioned. PMID:22043920

  15. The transcription factors Thpok and LRF are necessary and partly redundant for T helper cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Andrea C.; Grainger, John R.; Xiong, Yumei; Kanno, Yuka; Chu, H. Hamlet; Wang, Lie; Naik, Shruti; dos Santos, Liliane; Wei, Lai; Jenkins, Marc K.; O’Shea, John J.; Belkaid, Yasmine; Bosselut, Rémy

    2014-01-01

    Summary T helper (Th) cells are critical for defenses against infection and recognize peptides bound to Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC-II) molecules. Although transcription factors have been identified that direct helper cells into specific effector fates, whether a ‘master’ regulator controls the developmental program common to all Th cells remains unclear. Here we showed that the two transcription factors Thpok and LRF share this function. Although disruption of both factors did not prevent the generation of MHC II-specific T cells, these cells failed to express Th cell genes or undergo Th cell differentiation in vivo. In contrast, T cells lacking Thpok only displayed LRF-dependent functions and contributed to multiple effector responses, both in vitro and in vivo, with the notable exception of Th2 cell responses that control extra-cellular parasites. These findings identify the Thpok-LRF pair as a core node of Th cell differentiation and function. PMID:23041065

  16. The Transcription Factor STAT3 and Type I Interferons Are Mutually Repressive Insulators for Differentiation of Follicular Helper and T Helper_1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ray, John P.; Marshall, Heather D.; Laidlaw, Brian J.; Staron, Matthew M.; Kaech, Susan M.; Craft, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Summary Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are required for the establishment of T-dependent B cell memory and high affinity antibody-secreting cells. We have revealed herein opposing roles for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and type I interferon (IFN) signaling in the differentiation of Tfh cells following viral infection. STAT3-deficient CD4+ T cells had a profound defect in Tfh cell differentiation, accompanied by decreased germinal center (GC) B cells and antigen-specific antibody production during acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. STAT3-deficient Tfh cells had strikingly increased expression of a number of interferoninducible genes, in addition to enhanced T-bet synthesis, thus adopting a T helper-1 (Th1) cell-like effector phenotype. Conversely, IFNαβ receptor blockade restored Tfh and GC B cell phenotypes in mice containing STAT3-deficient CD4+ T cells. These data suggest mutually repressive roles for STAT3 and type I IFN signaling pathways in the differentiation of Tfh cells following viral infection. PMID:24631156

  17. Expansion of Pathogen-Specific T-Helper 1 and T-Helper 17 Cells in Pulmonary Tuberculosis With Coincident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Sridhar, Rathinam; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V.; Jawahar, Mohideen S.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2013-01-01

    Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis, although the immunological mechanisms underlying this interaction remain unexplored. The influence of poorly controlled diabetes on pathogen-specific T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 17 (Th17) responses have not been examined. Methods. To identify the role of Th1 and Th17 cells in tuberculosis with coincident DM, we examined mycobacteria-specific immune responses in the whole blood of individuals who had tuberculosis with DM and compared them to those in individuals who had tuberculosis without DM. Results. Tuberculosis coincident with DM is characterized by elevated frequencies of monofunctional and dual-functional CD4+ Th1 cells following Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen stimulation and elevated frequencies of Th17 subsets at both baseline and following antigen stimulation. This was associated with increased systemic (plasma) levels of both Th1 and Th17 cytokines and decreased baseline frequencies of natural regulatory T cells but not interleukin 10 or transforming growth factor β. Conclusions. Therefore, our data reveal that tuberculosis in persons with DM is characterized by elevated frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells, indicating that DM is associated with an alteration in the immune response to tuberculosis, leading to a biased induction of Th1- and Th17-mediated cellular responses and likely contributing to increased immune pathology in M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:23715661

  18. Consequences of 'load-lightening' for future indirect fitness gains by helpers in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    PubMed

    Meade, Jessica; Nam, Ki-Baek; Beckerman, Andrew P; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2010-05-01

    1. Helpers that invest energy in provisioning the offspring of related individuals stand to gain indirect fitness benefits from doing so. First, if the helper's effort is additional to that of the parents (additive) the productivity of the current breeding attempt can be increased. Secondly, if the parents reduce their workload (compensation) this can result in future indirect fitness gains to the helper via increased breeder survival; termed 'load-lightening'. 2. Long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus) have a cooperative breeding system in which helpers assist kin and parents exhibit both additive and compensatory reactions in the presence of helpers. Offspring from helped nests are heavier and more likely to recruit into the breeding population, thus helpers gain indirect fitness benefits from increasing the productivity of the current breeding attempt. Despite breeders' reduction of feeding effort in the presence of helpers, previous investigations found no subsequent increase in breeder survival. 3. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that load-lightening resulted in indirect fitness benefits for helpers. We used data from a 14-year study to investigate the provisioning rate, survival and future fecundity of male and female long-tailed tits that did and did not receive help at the nest. 4. We found an asymmetrical response to the presence of helpers at large brood sizes. Males reduced their feeding rate more than females, and this differential response was reflected in a significant increase in male survival when provisioning large broods assisted by helpers. We found no evidence of any increase in future fecundity for helped breeders. 5. The finding that males reduce their provisioning rate in the presence of helpers (at large brood sizes) to a greater degree than females, and that this is reflected in an increase in survival rate for males only, implies that the survival increase is caused by the reduction in work-rate rather than a non

  19. Immunologic hierarchy, class II MHC promiscuity, and epitope spreading of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yinin; Petroni, Gina R; Olson, Walter C; Czarkowski, Andrea; Smolkin, Mark E; Grosh, William W; Chianese-Bullock, Kimberly A; Slingluff, Craig L

    2014-08-01

    Immunization with a combination melanoma helper peptide (6MHP) vaccine has been shown to induce CD4(+) T cell responses, which are associated with patient survival. In the present study, we define the relative immunogenicity and HLA allele promiscuity of individual helper peptides and identify helper peptide-mediated augmentation of specific CD8(+) T cell responses. Thirty-seven participants with stage IIIB-IV melanoma were vaccinated with 6MHP in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. The 6MHP vaccine is comprised of 6 peptides representing melanocytic differentiation proteins gp100, tyrosinase, Melan-A/MART-1, and cancer testis antigens from the MAGE family. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses were assessed in peripheral blood and in sentinel immunized nodes (SIN) by thymidine uptake after exposure to helper peptides and by direct interferon-γ ELIspot assay against 14 MHC class I-restricted peptides. Vaccine-induced CD4(+) T cell responses to individual epitopes were detected in the SIN of 63 % (22/35) and in the peripheral blood of 38 % (14/37) of participants for an overall response rate of 65 % (24/37). The most frequently immunogenic peptides were MAGE-A3281-295 (49 %) and tyrosinase386-406 (32 %). Responses were not limited to HLA restrictions originally described. Vaccine-associated CD8(+) T cell responses against class I-restricted peptides were observed in 45 % (5/11) of evaluable participants. The 6MHP vaccine induces both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses against melanoma antigens. CD4(+) T cell responses were detected beyond reported HLA-DR restrictions. Induction of CD8(+) T cell responses suggests epitope spreading and systemic activity mediated at the tumor site.

  20. The Multifaceted Role of T-Helper Responses in Host Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Intan M W; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Gresnigt, Mark S

    2017-10-04

    The ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus rarely causes infections in immunocompetent individuals. A healthy functional innate immune system plays a crucial role in preventing Aspergillus -infection. This pivotal role for the innate immune system makes it a main research focus in studying the pathogenesis of aspergillosis. Although sometimes overshadowed by the innate immune response, the adaptive immune response, and in particular T-helper responses, also represents a key player in host defense against Aspergillus . Virtually all T-helper subsets have been described to play a role during aspergillosis, with the Th1 response being crucial for fungal clearance. However; morbidity and mortality of aspergillosis can also be partly attributed to detrimental immune responses resulting from adaptive immune activation. Th2 responses benefit fungal persistence; and are the foundation of allergic forms of aspergillosis. The Th17 response has two sides; although crucial for granulocyte recruitment, it can be involved in detrimental immunopathology. Regulatory T-cells, the endogenous regulators of inflammatory responses, play a key role in controlling detrimental inflammatory responses during aspergillosis. The current knowledge of the adaptive immune response against A. fumigatus is summarized in this review. A better understanding on how T-helper responses facilitate clearance of Aspergillus -infection and control inflammation can be the fundamental basis for understanding the pathogenesis of aspergillosis and for the development of novel host-directed therapies.

  1. DeltaPhage—a novel helper phage for high-valence pIX phagemid display

    PubMed Central

    Nilssen, Nicolay R.; Frigstad, Terje; Pollmann, Sylvie; Roos, Norbert; Bogen, Bjarne; Sandlie, Inger; Løset, Geir Å.

    2012-01-01

    Phage display has been instrumental in discovery of novel binding peptides and folded domains for the past two decades. We recently reported a novel pIX phagemid display system that is characterized by a strong preference for phagemid packaging combined with low display levels, two key features that support highly efficient affinity selection. However, high diversity in selected repertoires are intimately coupled to high display levels during initial selection rounds. To incorporate this additional feature into the pIX display system, we have developed a novel helper phage termed DeltaPhage that allows for high-valence display on pIX. This was obtained by inserting two amber mutations close to the pIX start codon, but after the pVII translational stop, conditionally inactivating the helper phage encoded pIX. Until now, the general notion has been that display on pIX is dependent on wild-type complementation, making high-valence display unachievable. However, we found that DeltaPhage does facilitate high-valence pIX display when used with a non-suppressor host. Here, we report a side-by-side comparison with pIII display, and we find that this novel helper phage complements existing pIX phagemid display systems to allow both low and high-valence display, making pIX display a complete and efficient alternative to existing pIII phagemid display systems. PMID:22539265

  2. DeltaPhage--a novel helper phage for high-valence pIX phagemid display.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Nicolay R; Frigstad, Terje; Pollmann, Sylvie; Roos, Norbert; Bogen, Bjarne; Sandlie, Inger; Løset, Geir Å

    2012-09-01

    Phage display has been instrumental in discovery of novel binding peptides and folded domains for the past two decades. We recently reported a novel pIX phagemid display system that is characterized by a strong preference for phagemid packaging combined with low display levels, two key features that support highly efficient affinity selection. However, high diversity in selected repertoires are intimately coupled to high display levels during initial selection rounds. To incorporate this additional feature into the pIX display system, we have developed a novel helper phage termed DeltaPhage that allows for high-valence display on pIX. This was obtained by inserting two amber mutations close to the pIX start codon, but after the pVII translational stop, conditionally inactivating the helper phage encoded pIX. Until now, the general notion has been that display on pIX is dependent on wild-type complementation, making high-valence display unachievable. However, we found that DeltaPhage does facilitate high-valence pIX display when used with a non-suppressor host. Here, we report a side-by-side comparison with pIII display, and we find that this novel helper phage complements existing pIX phagemid display systems to allow both low and high-valence display, making pIX display a complete and efficient alternative to existing pIII phagemid display systems.

  3. Helper T Cell Identity and Evolution of Differential Transcriptomes and Epigenomes

    PubMed Central

    Vahedi, Golnaz; Poholek, Amanda; Hand, Timothy W.; Laurence, Arian; Kann, Yuka; O’Shea, John J.; Hirahara, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Summary CD4+ T cells are critical for the elimination of an immense array of microbial pathogens. Among the ways they accomplish this task is to generate progeny with specialized, characteristic patterns of gene expression. From this perspective, helper cells can be viewed as pluripotent precursors that adopt distinct cell fates. Although there are aspects of helper cell differentiation that can be modeled as a classic cell fate commitment, CD4+ T cells also maintain considerable flexibility in their transcriptional program. This makes sense in terms of host defense but raises the question of how these remarkable cells balance both these requirements, a high degree of specific gene expression and the capacity for plasticity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of CD4+ T-cell specification, focusing on how genomic perspectives have influenced our views of these processes. The relative contributions of sensors of the cytokine milieu, especially the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family transcription factors, ‘master regulators’, and other transcription factors are considered as they relate to the helper cell transcriptome and epigenome. PMID:23405893

  4. Candida albicans morphology and dendritic cell subsets determine T helper cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gerami-Nejad, Maryam; Kumamoto, Yosuke; Mohammed, Javed A.; Jarrett, Elizabeth; Drummond, Rebecca A.; Zurawski, Sandra M.; Zurawski, Gerard; Berman, Judith; Iwasaki, Akiko; Brown, Gordon D.; Kaplan, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus responsible for chronic mucocutaneous and systemic infections. Mucocutaneous immunity to C. albicans requires T helper-17 (Th17) cell differentiation that is thought to depend on recognition of filamentous C. albicans. Systemic immunity is considered T cell independent. Using a murine skin infection model, we compared T helper cell responses to yeast and filamentous C. albicans, We found that only yeast induced Th17 cell responses through a mechanism that required Dectin-1 mediated expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) by Langerhans cells. Filamentous forms induced Th1 without Th17 cell responses due to the absence of Dectin-1 ligation. Notably, Th17 cell responses provided protection against cutaneous infection while Th1 cell responses provided protection against systemic infection. Thus, C. albicans morphology drives distinct T helper cell responses that provide tissue specific protection. These findings provide insight into compartmentalization of Th responses, C. albicans pathogenesis and have critical implications for vaccine strategies. PMID:25680275

  5. Group-size-dependent punishment of idle subordinates in a cooperative breeder where helpers pay to stay

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Stefan; Zöttl, Markus; Groenewoud, Frank; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In cooperative breeding systems, dominant breeders sometimes tolerate unrelated individuals even if they inflict costs on the dominants. According to the ‘pay-to-stay’ hypothesis, (i) subordinates can outweigh these costs by providing help and (ii) dominants should be able to enforce help by punishing subordinates that provide insufficient help. This requires that dominants can monitor helping and can recognize group members individually. In a field experiment, we tested whether cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates increase their help after a forced ‘idle’ period, how other group members respond to a previously idle helper, and how helper behaviour and group responses depend on group size. Previously, idle helpers increased their submissiveness and received more aggression than control helpers, suggesting that punishment occurred to enforce help. Subordinates in small groups increased their help more than those in large groups, despite receiving less aggression. When subordinates were temporarily removed, dominants in small groups were more likely to evict returning subordinates. Our results suggest that only in small groups do helpers face a latent threat of punishment by breeders as predicted by the pay-to-stay hypothesis. In large groups, cognitive constraints may prevent breeders from tracking the behaviour of a large number of helpers. PMID:24990673

  6. T helper 1 immunity requires complement-driven NLRP3 inflammasome activity in CD4⁺ T cells.

    PubMed

    Arbore, Giuseppina; West, Erin E; Spolski, Rosanne; Robertson, Avril A B; Klos, Andreas; Rheinheimer, Claudia; Dutow, Pavel; Woodruff, Trent M; Yu, Zu Xi; O'Neill, Luke A; Coll, Rebecca C; Sher, Alan; Leonard, Warren J; Köhl, Jörg; Monk, Pete; Cooper, Matthew A; Arno, Matthew; Afzali, Behdad; Lachmann, Helen J; Cope, Andrew P; Mayer-Barber, Katrin D; Kemper, Claudia

    2016-06-17

    The NLRP3 inflammasome controls interleukin-1β maturation in antigen-presenting cells, but a direct role for NLRP3 in human adaptive immune cells has not been described. We found that the NLRP3 inflammasome assembles in human CD4(+) T cells and initiates caspase-1-dependent interleukin-1β secretion, thereby promoting interferon-γ production and T helper 1 (T(H)1) differentiation in an autocrine fashion. NLRP3 assembly requires intracellular C5 activation and stimulation of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1), which is negatively regulated by surface-expressed C5aR2. Aberrant NLRP3 activity in T cells affects inflammatory responses in human autoinflammatory disease and in mouse models of inflammation and infection. Our results demonstrate that NLRP3 inflammasome activity is not confined to "innate immune cells" but is an integral component of normal adaptive T(H)1 responses. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. T helper 17.1 cells associate with multiple sclerosis disease activity: perspectives for early intervention.

    PubMed

    van Langelaar, Jamie; van der Vuurst de Vries, Roos M; Janssen, Malou; Wierenga-Wolf, Annet F; Spilt, Isis M; Siepman, Theodora A; Dankers, Wendy; Verjans, Georges M G M; de Vries, Helga E; Lubberts, Erik; Hintzen, Rogier Q; van Luijn, Marvin M

    2018-05-01

    Interleukin-17-expressing CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells are considered as critical regulators of multiple sclerosis disease activity. However, depending on the species and pro-inflammatory milieu, Th17 cells are functionally heterogeneous, consisting of subpopulations that differentially produce interleukin-17, interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In the current study, we studied distinct effector phenotypes of human Th17 cells and their correlation with disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients. T helper memory populations single- and double-positive for C-C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) were functionally assessed in blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid from a total of 59 patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 35 untreated patients and 24 natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and nine patients with end-stage multiple sclerosis. Within the clinically isolated syndrome group, 23 patients had a second attack within 1 year and 26 patients did not experience subsequent attacks during a follow-up of >5 years. Low frequencies of T helper 1 (Th1)-like Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3+), and not Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3-) effector memory populations in blood strongly associated with a rapid diagnosis of clinically definite multiple sclerosis. In cerebrospinal fluid of clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients, Th1-like Th17 effector memory cells were abundant and showed increased production of interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor compared to paired CCR6+ and CCR6-CD8+ T cell populations and their blood equivalents after short-term culturing. Their local enrichment was confirmed ex vivo using cerebrospinal fluid and brain single-cell suspensions. Across all pro-inflammatory T helper cells analysed in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis blood, Th1-like Th17 subpopulation T helper 17.1 (Th17.1; CCR6+CXCR3+CCR4

  8. The influence of flexible management practices on the sharing of experiential knowledge in the workplace: a case study of food service helpers.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Elise; Cloutier, Esther; Fournier, Pierre-Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the job knowledge and prudent knowledge of experienced workers constitute a wealth that needs to be shared in workplaces to promote worker integration, job retention and occupational health and safety. It appears, however, that certain management practices undermine this knowledge sharing process. This case study of food service helpers in institutional food service departments is part of a research project aimed at comparing the impact of different work organization methods on knowledge sharing in the workplace on the basis of case studies carried out in several organizations. The results of this case study reveal that by destabilizing and weakening the work teams, flexible management practices create an environment that is not conducive to experiential knowledge sharing.

  9. Expression of Master Regulators of T-cell, Helper T-cell and Follicular Helper T-cell Differentiation in Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yosuke; Nagoshi, Hisao; Yoshida, Mihoko; Kato, Seiichi; Kuroda, Junya; Shimura, Kazuho; Kaneko, Hiroto; Horiike, Shigeo; Nakamura, Shigeo; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2017-11-01

    Objective It has been postulated that the normal counterpart of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is the follicular helper T-cell (TFH). Recent immunological studies have identified several transcription factors responsible for T-cell differentiation. The master regulators associated with T-cell, helper T-cell (Th), and TFH differentiation are reportedly BCL11B, Th-POK, and BCL6, respectively. We explored the postulated normal counterpart of AITL with respect to the expression of the master regulators of T-cell differentiation. Methods We performed an immunohistochemical analysis in 15 AITL patients to determine the expression of the master regulators and several surface markers associated with T-cell differentiation. Results BCL11B was detected in 10 patients (67%), and the surface marker of T-cells (CD3) was detected in all patients. Only 2 patients (13%) expressed the marker of naïve T-cells (CD45RA), but all patients expressed the marker of effector T-cells (CD45RO). Nine patients expressed Th-POK (60%), and 7 (47%) expressed a set of surface antigens of Th (CD4-positive and CD8-negative). In addition, BCL6 and the surface markers of TFH (CXCL13, PD-1, and SAP) were detected in 11 (73%), 8 (53%), 14 (93%), and all patients, respectively. Th-POK-positive/BCL6-negative patients showed a significantly shorter overall survival (OS) than the other patients (median OS: 33.0 months vs. 74.0 months, p=0.020; log-rank test). Conclusion Many of the AITL patients analyzed in this study expressed the master regulators of T-cell differentiation. The clarification of the diagnostic significance and pathophysiology based on the expression of these master regulators in AITL is expected in the future.

  10. Shifted T Helper Cell Polarization in a Murine Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis Model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanqing; Zhou, Ming; Gao, Yang; Liu, Heyuan; Yang, Wenyu; Yue, Jinhua; Chen, Dekun

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis, one of the most costly diseases in dairy ruminants, is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by pathogenic infection. The mechanisms of adaptive immunity against pathogens in mastitis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate T helper cell-mediated adaptive immune responses, we established a mastitis model by challenge with an inoculum of 4 × 106 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus in the mammary gland of lactating mice, followed by quantification of bacterial burden and histological analysis. The development of mastitis was accompanied by a significant increase in both Th17 and Th1 cells in the mammary gland. Moreover, the relative expression of genes encoding cytokines and transcription factors involved in the differentiation and function of these T helper cells, including Il17, Rorc, Tgfb, Il1b, Il23, Ifng, Tbx21, and Il12, was greatly elevated in the infected mammary gland. IL-17 is essential for neutrophil recruitment to infected mammary gland via CXC chemokines, whereas the excessive IL-17 production contributes to tissue damage in mastitis. In addition, a shift in T helper cell polarization toward Th2 and Treg cells was observed 5 days post-infection, and the mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il10 was markedly increased at day 7 post-infection. These results indicate that immune clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in mastitis is facilitated by the enrichment of Th17, Th1 and Th2 cells in the mammary gland mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokine production, which is tightly regulated by Treg cells and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

  11. CD4 T-helper cell cytokine phenotypes and antibody response following tetanus toxoid booster immunization.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Kimberly A; Jiang, Xiaowen; Stephensen, Charles B

    2013-04-30

    Routine methods for enumerating antigen-specific T-helper cells may not identify low-frequency phenotypes such as Th2 cells. We compared methods of evaluating such responses to identify tetanus toxoid- (TT) specific Th1, Th2, Th17 and IL10(+) cells. Eight healthy subjects were given a TT booster vaccination. Blood was drawn before, 3, 7, 14, and 28days after vaccination and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured for 7days with TT, negative control (diluent), and a positive control (Staphylococcus enterotoxin B [SEB]). Activation markers (CD25 and CD69) were measured after 44h (n=8), cytokines in supernatant after 3 and 7days, and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) of proliferated cells (identified by dye dilution) after 7days (n=6). Vaccination increased TT-specific expression of CD25 and CD69 on CD3(+)CD4(+) lymphocytes, and TT-specific proliferation at 7, 14 and 28days post vaccination. Vaccination induced TT-specific Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) Th2 (IL-13, IL-5, and IL-4), Th17 (IL-17A) and IL-10(+) cells as measured by ICS. TT-specific Th1 cells were the most abundant (12-15% of all TT-specific CD4(+) T-cells) while IL10(+) (1.8%) Th17 (1.1%) and Th2 cells (0.2-0.6%) were less abundant. TT-specific cytokine concentrations in PBMC supernatants followed the same pattern where a TT-specific IL-9 response was also seen. In conclusion, TT booster vaccination induced a broad T-helper cell response. This method of evaluating cytokine phenotypes may be useful in examining the impact of nutrition and environmental conditions on the plasticity of T-helper cell memory responses. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A new helper phage for improved monovalent display of Fab molecules.

    PubMed

    Beaber, John W; Tam, Eric M; Lao, Llewelyn S; Rondon, Isaac J

    2012-02-28

    Phage display technology is a powerful tool for the identification of novel antibodies for drug discovery. Phage display libraries have been constructed with massive diversity, but their use may be hindered by limited antibody display levels when rescued with the M13KO7 helper phage. Variants of M13KO7 have been constructed previously that increase the levels of display of rescued phage, but all produce phage that display multiple copies of the antibody fragment on their surface and have reduced titer and infectivity. In this study, we describe a new helper phage, XP5, which increased the display level of Fab molecules more than two-fold compared to phage rescued with M13KO7. XP5 uses a combination of ribosome binding site spacing alterations and rare codon clusters to reduce the expression of pIII from the helper phage. This reduction in pIII expression leads to an increase in the incorporation of pIII-Fab fusions during phage rescue. The rescued phage displayed a single copy of the Fab molecule, preventing any avidity effects during the selection process. This also suggests that the percentage of the population of phage displaying a Fab molecule is increased when rescued with XP5. Additionally, the phage titers and infectivity are comparable to libraries rescued with M13KO7. After two rounds of panning we observed a nearly 5-fold increase in the number of antigen binding Fab molecules compared to panning conducted with the same library rescued with M13KO7. The nature of the mutations in XP5 makes it a universal substitute for M13KO7 in pIII-based phage display, compatible with most phagemids and bacterial strains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Shifted T Helper Cell Polarization in a Murine Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanqing; Zhou, Ming; Gao, Yang; Liu, Heyuan; Yang, Wenyu; Yue, Jinhua; Chen, Dekun

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis, one of the most costly diseases in dairy ruminants, is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by pathogenic infection. The mechanisms of adaptive immunity against pathogens in mastitis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate T helper cell-mediated adaptive immune responses, we established a mastitis model by challenge with an inoculum of 4 × 106 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus in the mammary gland of lactating mice, followed by quantification of bacterial burden and histological analysis. The development of mastitis was accompanied by a significant increase in both Th17 and Th1 cells in the mammary gland. Moreover, the relative expression of genes encoding cytokines and transcription factors involved in the differentiation and function of these T helper cells, including Il17, Rorc, Tgfb, Il1b, Il23, Ifng, Tbx21, and Il12, was greatly elevated in the infected mammary gland. IL-17 is essential for neutrophil recruitment to infected mammary gland via CXC chemokines, whereas the excessive IL-17 production contributes to tissue damage in mastitis. In addition, a shift in T helper cell polarization toward Th2 and Treg cells was observed 5 days post-infection, and the mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Il10 was markedly increased at day 7 post-infection. These results indicate that immune clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in mastitis is facilitated by the enrichment of Th17, Th1 and Th2 cells in the mammary gland mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokine production, which is tightly regulated by Treg cells and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. PMID:26230498

  14. When helping helps: autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, Richard M

    2010-02-01

    Self-determination theory posits that the degree to which a prosocial act is volitional or autonomous predicts its effect on well-being and that psychological need satisfaction mediates this relation. Four studies tested the impact of autonomous and controlled motivation for helping others on well-being and explored effects on other outcomes of helping for both helpers and recipients. Study 1 used a diary method to assess daily relations between prosocial behaviors and helper well-being and tested mediating effects of basic psychological need satisfaction. Study 2 examined the effect of choice on motivation and consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping using an experimental design. Study 3 examined the consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping for both helpers and recipients in a dyadic task. Finally, Study 4 manipulated motivation to predict helper and recipient outcomes. Findings support the idea that autonomous motivation for helping yields benefits for both helper and recipient through greater need satisfaction. Limitations and implications are discussed. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Developing a pro-regenerative biomaterial scaffold microenvironment requires T helper 2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sadtler, Kaitlyn; Estrellas, Kenneth; Allen, Brian W; Wolf, Matthew T; Fan, Hongni; Tam, Ada J; Patel, Chirag H; Luber, Brandon S; Wang, Hao; Wagner, Kathryn R; Powell, Jonathan D; Housseau, Franck; Pardoll, Drew M; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2016-04-15

    Immune-mediated tissue regeneration driven by a biomaterial scaffold is emerging as an innovative regenerative strategy to repair damaged tissues. We investigated how biomaterial scaffolds shape the immune microenvironment in traumatic muscle wounds to improve tissue regeneration. The scaffolds induced a pro-regenerative response, characterized by an mTOR/Rictor-dependent T helper 2 pathway that guides interleukin-4-dependent macrophage polarization, which is critical for functional muscle recovery. Manipulating the adaptive immune system using biomaterials engineering may support the development of therapies that promote both systemic and local pro-regenerative immune responses, ultimately stimulating tissue repair. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Developing a pro-regenerative biomaterial scaffold microenvironment requires T helper 2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sadtler, Kaitlyn; Estrellas, Kenneth; Allen, Brian W.; Wolf, Matthew T.; Fan, Hongni; Tam, Ada J.; Patel, Chirag H.; Luber, Brandon S.; Wang, Hao; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Powell, Jonathan D.; Housseau, Franck; Pardoll, Drew M.

    2016-01-01

    Immune-mediated tissue regeneration driven by a biomaterial scaffold is emerging as an innovative regenerative strategy to repair damaged tissues. We investigated how biomaterial scaffolds shape the immune microenvironment in traumatic muscle wounds to improve tissue regeneration. The scaffolds induced a pro-regenerative response, characterized by an mTOR/Rictor-dependent T helper 2 pathway that guides interleukin-4–dependent macrophage polarization, which is critical for functional muscle recovery. Manipulating the adaptive immune system using biomaterials engineering may support the development of therapies that promote both systemic and local pro-regenerative immune responses, ultimately stimulating tissue repair. PMID:27081073

  17. Lectins and substitution for helper function in anti-hapten responses in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Clothier, R H; James, H S; Ruben, L N; Balls, M

    1984-08-01

    Substitution by lectins for the carrier-priming requirement in thymus-dependent, antigen-binding responses in Xenopus laevis has been examined. Concanavalin A (Con A) was found to substitute for carrier priming in control, early-thymectomized and adult-thymectomized animals, but not in animals given a single, high dose of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, which has a permanent effect on certain thymus-dependent functions in this species. Lipopolysaccharide and other lectins, such as peanut agglutinin and wheat germ agglutinin, were unable to substitute for carrier priming. These effects of Con A are discussed in terms of substitution via amplifier T cells or a helper T cell subset.

  18. Phenotype, effector function, and tissue localization of PD-1-expressing human follicular helper T cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is well established that PD-1 is expressed by follicular T cells but its function in regulation of human T helper cells has been unclear. We investigated the expression modality and function of PD-1 expressed by human T cells specialized in helping B cells. Results We found that PD-1-expressing T cells are heterogeneous in PD-1 expression. We identified three different PD-1-expressing memory T cell subsets (i.e. PD-1low (+), PD-1medium (++), and PD-1high (+++) cells). PD-1+++ T cells expressed CXCR5 and CXCR4 and were localized in the rim of germinal centers. PD-1+ or PD-1++ cells expressed CCR7 and were present mainly in the T cell area or other parts of the B cell follicles. Utilizing a novel antigen density-dependent magnetic sorting (ADD-MS) method, we isolated the three T cell subsets for functional characterization. The germinal center-located PD-1+++ T cells were most efficient in helping B cells and in producing IL-21 and CXCL13. Other PD-1-expressing T cells, enriched with Th1 and Th17 cells, were less efficient than PD-1+++ T cells in these capacities. PD-1+++ T cells highly expressed Ki-67 and therefore appear active in cell activation and proliferation in vivo. IL-2 is a cytokine important for proliferation and survival of the PD-1+++ T cells. In contrast, IL-21, while a major effector cytokine produced by the PD-1-expressing T helper cells, had no function in generation, survival, or proliferation of the PD-1-expressing helper T cells at least in vitro. PD-1 triggering has a suppressive effect on the proliferation and B cell-helping function of PD-1+++ germinal center T cells. Conclusion Our results revealed the phenotype and effector function of PD-1-expressing T helper cell subsets and indicate that PD-1 restrains the B cell-helping function of germinal center-localized T cells to prevent excessive antibody response. PMID:21914188

  19. Holistic systems biology approaches to molecular mechanisms of human helper T cell differentiation to functionally distinct subsets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Lönnberg, T; Lahesmaa, R

    2013-08-01

    Current knowledge of helper T cell differentiation largely relies on data generated from mouse studies. To develop therapeutical strategies combating human diseases, understanding the molecular mechanisms how human naïve T cells differentiate to functionally distinct T helper (Th) subsets as well as studies on human differentiated Th cell subsets is particularly valuable. Systems biology approaches provide a holistic view of the processes of T helper differentiation, enable discovery of new factors and pathways involved and generation of new hypotheses to be tested to improve our understanding of human Th cell differentiation and immune-mediated diseases. Here, we summarize studies where high-throughput systems biology approaches have been exploited to human primary T cells. These studies reveal new factors and signalling pathways influencing T cell differentiation towards distinct subsets, important for immune regulation. Such information provides new insights into T cell biology and into targeting immune system for therapeutic interventions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Important role of phosphoramido linkage in imidazole-based dioleyl helper lipids for liposome stability and primary cell transfection.

    PubMed

    Mével, Mathieu; Haudebourg, Thomas; Colombani, Thibault; Peuziat, Pauline; Dallet, Laurence; Chatin, Benoît; Lambert, Olivier; Berchel, Mathieu; Montier, Tristan; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain; Lehn, Pierre; Pitard, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    To optimize synthetic gene delivery systems, there is a need to develop more efficient lipid formulations. Most cationic lipid formulations contain 'helper' neutral lipids because of their ability to increase DNA delivery, in particular by improving endosomal escape of DNA molecules via the pH-buffering effect of protonatable groups and/or fusion with the lipid bilayer of endosomes. We evaluated the influence of the linker structure between the two oleyl chains in the helper lipid on transfection efficiency in cell lines, as well as in primary cells (hepatocytes/cardiomyocytes). We reported the synthesis of two new pH-buffering imidazole helper lipids characterized by a polar headgroup containing one (compound 6) or two (compound 5) imidazole groups and two oleyl chains linked by an amide group. We studied their association with the aminoglycoside lipidic derivative dioleylsuccinylparomomycin (DOSP), which contains two oleyl chains linked to the aminoglycoside polar headgroup via an amide function. We compared the morphology and transfection properties of such binary liposomes of DOSP/5 and DOSP/6 with those of liposomes combining DOSP with another imidazole-based dioleyl helper lipid (MM27) in which a phosphoramido group acts as a linker between the two oleyl chains and imidazole function. The phosphoramido linker in the helper lipid induces a major difference in terms of morphology and resistance to decomplexation at physical pH for DOSP/helper lipid complexes. This hybrid dioleyl linker composition of DOSP/MM27 led to higher transfection efficiency in cell lines and in primary cells compared to complexes with homogeneous dioleyl linker. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Interleukin-4 production by Follicular Helper T cells requires the conserved Il4 enhancer HS V

    PubMed Central

    Vijayanand, Pandurangan; Seumois, Grégory; Simpson, Laura J.; Abdul-Wajid, Sarah; Baumjohann, Dirk; Panduro, Marisella; Huang, Xiaozhu; Interlandi, Jeneen; Djuretic, Ivana M.; Brown, Daniel R.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Rao, Anjana; Ansel, K. Mark

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Follicular helper T cells (Tfh cells) are the major producers of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in secondary lymphoid organs where humoral immune responses develop. Il4 regulation in Tfh cells appears distinct from the classical T helper 2 (Th2) cell pathway, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. We found that HS V (also known as CNS2), a 3’ enhancer in the Il4 locus, is essential for IL-4 production by Tfh cells. Mice lacking HS V display marked defects in Th2 humoral immune responses, as evidenced by abrogated IgE and sharply reduced IgG1 production in vivo. In contrast, effector Th2 cells that are involved in tissue responses were far less dependent on HS V. HS V facilitated removal of repressive chromatin marks during Th2 and Tfh cell differentiation, and increased accessibility of the Il4 promoter. Thus Tfh and Th2 cells utilize distinct but overlapping molecular mechanisms to regulate Il4, a finding with important implications for understanding the molecular basis of Th2 mediated allergic diseases. PMID:22326582

  2. STAT4 and T-bet control follicular helper T cell development in viral infections.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Jason S; Laidlaw, Brian J; Lu, Yisi; Wang, Jessica K; Schulz, Vincent P; Li, Ningcheng; Herman, Edward I; Kaech, Susan M; Gallagher, Patrick G; Craft, Joe

    2018-01-02

    Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells promote germinal center (GC) B cell survival and proliferation and guide their differentiation and immunoglobulin isotype switching by delivering contact-dependent and soluble factors, including IL-21, IL-4, IL-9, and IFN-γ. IL-21 and IFN-γ are coexpressed by Tfh cells during viral infections, but transcriptional regulation of these cytokines is not completely understood. In this study, we show that the T helper type 1 cell (Th1 cell) transcriptional regulators T-bet and STAT4 are coexpressed with Bcl6 in Tfh cells after acute viral infection, with a temporal decline in T-bet in the waning response. T-bet is important for Tfh cell production of IFN-γ, but not IL-21, and for a robust GC reaction. STAT4, phosphorylated in Tfh cells upon infection, is required for expression of T-bet and Bcl6 and for IFN-γ and IL-21. These data indicate that T-bet is expressed with Bcl6 in Tfh cells and is required alongside STAT4 to coordinate Tfh cell IL-21 and IFN-γ production and for promotion of the GC response after acute viral challenge. © 2018 Weinstein et al.

  3. Adapting a natural (lay) helpers model of change for worksite health promotion for women.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, I A; Taylor, S; Belton, L; Campbell, M K; Benedict, S; Kelsey, K; DeVellis, B

    2000-10-01

    Social network interventions that utilize informal systems of helping can be an important strategy for health promotion change. This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a natural (lay) helping intervention for health promotion change, specifically designed for women in small rural blue-collar worksites. One hundred and four women in four intervention worksites were recruited as natural helpers, and received health and skill-building education over an 18-month period. Qualitative evaluation showed: (1) two patterns of natural helping for women, i.e. participation due to a specific health concern with either themselves or others in their personal networks, and participation due to a larger sense of the importance of health and prevention; (2) over time natural helpers expanded the diffusion of health promotion information from close network members to co-workers and were more likely to be approached by their co-workers for information; (3) group activities at the worksite, particularly around physical activity, increased over time; and (4) because of time constraints at the workplace, written materials were a major way of spreading information to co-workers. This study shows that women can be recruited and trained to diffuse health promotion information and provide support to co-workers for health behavior change.

  4. Ties that bind: state policy and migrant female domestic helpers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Huang, S; Yeoh, B S

    1996-01-01

    The introduction to this paper reviews the global economic restructuring that has led to theories of a new international division of labor (NIDL) marked by a global feminization of labor that exploits traditional feminine qualities. The argument is made that the NIDL theory fails to cover international labor migration such as that undertaken by female domestic servants in East and Southeast Asia. After summarizing recent research on international waged domestic labor, it is noted that policies of labor-sending countries have, until recently, reflected concerns with enhancing the flow of remittances home to relieve international debt rather than with the well-being of the workers. The paper goes on to focus on the effect of Singapore's state policies on incoming labor migration. After examining the conditions that created the demand for foreign maids, the paper investigates how state policy facilitated the exploitation of these women and perpetuated the social ideology of housework both as women's work and as non-work. It is shown that the official view that paid or unpaid productive labor belongs to the private domain beyond the purview of the state has detrimental repercussions for foreign domestic helpers. These arguments are bolstered with data from secondary sources and from field work conducted in 1995 involving a survey of 162 matched pairs of foreign domestic helpers and employers and in-depth interviews with 15 workers and 15 employers (13 matched pairs).

  5. Mental status of the elderly receiving home health services and the associated stress of home helpers.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, I; Takigawa, M

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and ninety elderly people receiving home health service were investigated. The intellectual levels, depressive state evaluated by the Cornell scale for depression in dementia (CSDD) scale, abnormal behaviors evaluated by the dementia behavior disturbance (DBD) scale, and activities of daily living (ADL) were examined. These assessments were performed by 72 skilled home helpers who also assessed the severity of their own level of stress using the Burnout scale. The intellectual level and mood-related signs, based on the CSDD scale, of the elderly living with families or with a spouse were diminished significantly as compared to the elderly living alone. The elderly living with families also performed worse on all ADL categories except for visual acuity as compared to the elderly living with a spouse or living alone. There was no significant correlation between the Burnout scale score and age or frequency of working as a home helper. These results suggest that elderly people living with families as compared to the elderly living with a spouse or living alone have greater mental health needs as well as more profound physical limitations.

  6. Variation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Directs Dendritic Cell–Induced T Helper Responses

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Sandra J.; Steeghs, Liana; Bruijns, Sven C. M.; Vaezirad, Medi M.; Snijders Blok, Christian; Arenas Busto, Jésus A.; Deken, Marcel; van Putten, Jos P. M.; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2009-01-01

    Gonorrhea is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the world. A naturally occurring variation of the terminal carbohydrates on the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) molecule correlates with altered disease states. Here, we investigated the interaction of different stable gonoccocal LOS phenotypes with human dendritic cells and demonstrate that each variant targets a different set of receptors on the dendritic cell, including the C-type lectins MGL and DC-SIGN. Neisseria gonorrhoeae LOS phenotype C constitutes the first bacterial ligand to be described for the human C-type lectin receptor MGL. Both MGL and DC-SIGN are locally expressed at the male and female genital area, the primary site of N. gonorrhoeae infection. We show that targeting of different C-type lectins with the N. gonorrhoeae LOS variants results in alterations in dendritic cell cytokine secretion profiles and the induction of distinct adaptive CD4+ T helper responses. Whereas N. gonorrhoeae variant A with a terminal N-acetylglucosamine on its LOS was recognized by DC-SIGN and induced significantly more IL-10 production, phenotype C, carrying a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, primarily interacted with MGL and skewed immunity towards the T helper 2 lineage. Together, our results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae LOS variation allows for selective manipulation of dendritic cell function, thereby shifting subsequent immune responses in favor of bacterial survival. PMID:19834553

  7. PubstractHelper: A Web-based Text-Mining Tool for Marking Sentences in Abstracts from PubMed Using Multiple User-Defined Keywords.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chou-Cheng; Ho, Chung-Liang

    2014-01-01

    While a huge amount of information about biological literature can be obtained by searching the PubMed database, reading through all the titles and abstracts resulting from such a search for useful information is inefficient. Text mining makes it possible to increase this efficiency. Some websites use text mining to gather information from the PubMed database; however, they are database-oriented, using pre-defined search keywords while lacking a query interface for user-defined search inputs. We present the PubMed Abstract Reading Helper (PubstractHelper) website which combines text mining and reading assistance for an efficient PubMed search. PubstractHelper can accept a maximum of ten groups of keywords, within each group containing up to ten keywords. The principle behind the text-mining function of PubstractHelper is that keywords contained in the same sentence are likely to be related. PubstractHelper highlights sentences with co-occurring keywords in different colors. The user can download the PMID and the abstracts with color markings to be reviewed later. The PubstractHelper website can help users to identify relevant publications based on the presence of related keywords, which should be a handy tool for their research. http://bio.yungyun.com.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx and http://holab.med.ncku.edu.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx.

  8. Dog Helper's Guide: Dog Project Group Activities Grades 3-12. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08169

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This final guide in the series is designed to assist in one's role of helper for youth interested in the dog project. These learn-by-doing activities can be adapted for families, classrooms, dog project meetings, after school programs, camps or other settings. In this Helper's Guide, one will find helpful information about characteristics of…

  9. Fas Promotes T Helper 17 Cell Differentiation and Inhibits T Helper 1 Cell Development by Binding and Sequestering Transcription Factor STAT1.

    PubMed

    Meyer Zu Horste, Gerd; Przybylski, Dariusz; Schramm, Markus A; Wang, Chao; Schnell, Alexandra; Lee, Youjin; Sobel, Raymond; Regev, Aviv; Kuchroo, Vijay K

    2018-03-20

    The death receptor Fas removes activated lymphocytes through apoptosis. Previous transcriptional profiling predicted that Fas positively regulates interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Here, we demonstrate that Fas promoted the generation and stability of Th17 cells and prevented their differentiation into Th1 cells. Mice with T-cell- and Th17-cell-specific deletion of Fas were protected from induced autoimmunity, and Th17 cell differentiation and stability were impaired. Fas-deficient Th17 cells instead developed a Th1-cell-like transcriptional profile, which a new algorithm predicted to depend on STAT1. Experimentally, Fas indeed bound and sequestered STAT1, and Fas deficiency enhanced IL-6-induced STAT1 activation and nuclear translocation, whereas deficiency of STAT1 reversed the transcriptional changes induced by Fas deficiency. Thus, our computational and experimental approach identified Fas as a regulator of the Th17-to-Th1 cell balance by controlling the availability of opposing STAT1 and STAT3 to have a direct impact on autoimmunity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. T helper type 17 cells contribute to anti-tumour immunity and promote the recruitment of T helper type 1 cells to the tumour.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Sarah; Saez, Juan Jose; Fernandez, Dominique; Flores-Santibañez, Felipe; Alvarez, Karla; Tejon, Gabriela; Ruiz, Paulina; Maldonado, Paula; Hidalgo, Yessia; Manriquez, Valeria; Bono, Maria Rosa; Rosemblatt, Mario; Sauma, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    T helper type 17 (Th17) lymphocytes are found in high frequency in tumour-burdened animals and cancer patients. These lymphocytes, characterized by the production of interleukin-17 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines, have a well-defined role in the development of inflammatory and autoimmune pathologies; however, their function in tumour immunity is less clear. We explored possible opposing anti-tumour and tumour-promoting functions of Th17 cells by evaluating tumour growth and the ability to promote tumour infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), regulatory T cells and CD4(+)  interferon-γ(+) cells in a retinoic acid-like orphan receptor γt (RORγt) -deficient mouse model. A reduced percentage of Th17 cells in the tumour microenvironment in RORγt-deficient mice led to enhanced tumour growth, that could be reverted by adoptive transfer of Th17 cells. Differences in tumour growth were not associated with changes in the accumulation or suppressive function of MDSC and regulatory T cells but were related to a decrease in the proportion of CD4(+) T cells in the tumour. Our results suggest that Th17 cells do not affect the recruitment of immunosuppressive populations but favour the recruitment of effector Th1 cells to the tumour, thereby promoting anti-tumour responses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Recent thymic emigrants are biased against the T-helper type 1 and toward the T-helper type 2 effector lineage.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Deborah W; Fink, Pamela J

    2011-01-27

    After intrathymic development, T cells exit the thymus and join the peripheral T-cell pool. Such recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) undergo both phenotypic and functional maturation during the first 3 weeks they reside in the periphery. Using a well-controlled in vitro polarization scheme, we now show that CD4(+) RTEs are defective in T-helper (Th) type 0 (Th0), Th1, Th17, and regulatory T-cell lineage commitment, with dampened cytokine production and transcription factor expression. In contrast, CD4(+) RTES are biased toward the Th2 lineage both in vitro and in vivo, with more robust interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13 production than their mature naive counterparts. Coculture experiments demonstrate that mature naive T cells influence neighboring RTEs in their Th responses. In adoptive hosts, CD4(+) RTEs drive production of the Th2-associated antibody isotype immunoglobulin G1 and mediate airway inflammatory disease. This bias in RTEs likely results from dampened negative regulation of the Th2 lineage by diminished levels of T-bet, a key Th1 transcription factor. CD4(+) RTEs thus represent a transitional population with a distinct interpretation of, and response to, immunologic cues. These characteristics may be beneficial during the postthymic maturation period by leading to the avoidance of inappropriate immune responses, particularly in lymphopenic neonates and adults.

  12. Effects of a Peer Helping Training Program on Helping Skills and Self-Growth of Peer Helpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladag, Mine; Tezer, Esin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a peer helping training program for university students in Turkey and to examine its effectiveness in improving the helping skills and self-growth of peer helpers. A pre-test, post-test, follow-up-test experimental design, involving a treatment and control group, was carried out with a total sample of 31…

  13. Examining Live-In Foreign Domestic Helpers as a Coping Resource for Family Caregivers of People With Dementia in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Iccha; Chang, Leanne

    2017-09-01

    In Singapore, the responsibility of caring for persons with dementia falls on family members who cope with a long-term caregiver burden, depending on available support resources. Hiring foreign domestic workers to alleviate caregiver burden becomes a prevalent coping strategy that caregivers adopt. This strategy allows caregivers to provide home care as part of fulfilling family obligations while managing the caregiver burden. This study aimed to investigate primary caregivers' relationship with hired support and its impact on coping with caregiver burden. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with primary caregivers who hired live-in domestic helpers to take care of their family members with dementia. The findings revealed that caregivers perceived the normative obligations to provide home care to family members with dementia. They sought support from domestic helpers to cope with physical and mental burnout, disruption of normal routines, and avoidance of financial strain. A mutual-support relationship was built between caregivers and domestic helpers through trust and interdependence. The presence of domestic helpers as a coping resource reveals the positive outcomes of problem-, emotional-, and diversion-focused coping. This study illustrates that coping strategies are employed in different ways depending on the needs of caregivers, access to infrastructure, cultural expectations, and available resources.

  14. Helping effort increases with relatedness in bell miners, but ‘unrelated’ helpers of both sexes still provide substantial care

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jonathan; McDonald, Paul G.; te Marvelde, Luc; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Bishop, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Indirect fitness benefits from kin selection can explain why non-breeding individuals help raise the young of relatives. However, the evolution of helping by non-relatives requires direct fitness benefits, for example via group augmentation. Here, we examine nest visit rates, load sizes and prey types delivered by breeding pairs and their helpers in the cooperatively breeding bell miner (Manorina melanophrys). In this system, males remain in their natal colony while young females typically disperse, and helpers of both sexes often assist at multiple nests concurrently. We found extremely clear evidence for the expected effect of genetic relatedness on individual helping effort per nest within colonies. This positive incremental effect of kinship was facultative—i.e. largely the result of within-individual variation in helping effort. Surprisingly, no sex differences were detectable in any aspect of helping, and even non-relatives provided substantial aid. Helpers and breeders of both sexes regulated their provisioning effort by responding visit-by-visit to changes in nestling begging. Helping behaviour in bell miners therefore appears consistent with adaptive cooperative investment in the brood, and kin-selected care by relatives. Similar investment by ‘unrelated’ helpers of both sexes argues against direct fitness benefits, but is perhaps explained by kin selection at the colony level. PMID:19846458

  15. The Role of Foreign Domestic Helpers in Hong Kong Chinese Children's English and Chinese Skills: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulay, Katrina May; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of nonparental caregivers, such as foreign domestic helpers (FDH), on the home language spoken to the child and its implications for vocabulary and word reading development in Cantonese- and English-speaking bilingual children. Using data collected from ages 5 to 9, we analyzed Chinese vocabulary, Chinese character…

  16. More Water, Madam? An ESL Curriculum for Service Helpers in Full-Service and Fast-Food Restaurants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwach, Marlin Day; Gravely, Mary Liles

    This document, which was developed as a cooperative effort between the business and education communities in Denver, presents an English-as-a-second-language curriculum for service helpers in full-service and fast food restaurants. The curriculum consists of five lessons targeted toward high intermediate to advanced nonnative speakers who work in…

  17. Bad Influence?--An Investigation into the Purported Negative Influence of Foreign Domestic Helpers on Children's Second Language English Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Alex Ho-Cheong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the purported negative influence of foreign domestic helpers (FDHs) on child second language acquisition (SLA) by studying Hong Kong Cantonese children's listening ability in second language (L2) English. 31 kindergarten third graders aged 4;6 to 6, and 29 first year secondary students aged 11-14 who have had a Filipino…

  18. Improving the Transition of Students Moving into Sixth-Grade through a Middle School Orientation and Peer Helper Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Nancy

    An orientation and peer helper program was developed at a public middle school in a rural community to reduce the problems associated with sixth-grade students transferring into the school during the school year. Transfer students and their parents or guardians were provided with a video and brochure that explained the school's services, programs,…

  19. IL-7 and CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells in HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiodi, Francesca; Bekele, Yonas; Lantto Graham, Rebecka; Nasi, Aikaterini

    2017-01-01

    IL-7 was previously shown to upregulate the expression of molecules important for interaction of CD4+ T cells with B cells. It is poorly studied whether IL-7 has a role in the biology of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and whether IL-7 dysregulates the expression of B-cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells. We review the literature and provide arguments in favor of IL-7 being involved in the biology of human Tfh cells. The CD127 IL-7 receptor is expressed on circulating Tfh and non-Tfh cells, and we show that IL-7, but not IL-6 or IL-21, upregulates the expression of CD70 and PD-1 on these cells. We conclude that IL-7, a cytokine whose level is elevated during HIV-1 infection, may have a role in increased expression of B cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells and lead to abnormal B cell differentiation. PMID:28473831

  20. IL-7 and CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells in HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Chiodi, Francesca; Bekele, Yonas; Lantto Graham, Rebecka; Nasi, Aikaterini

    2017-01-01

    IL-7 was previously shown to upregulate the expression of molecules important for interaction of CD4+ T cells with B cells. It is poorly studied whether IL-7 has a role in the biology of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and whether IL-7 dysregulates the expression of B-cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells. We review the literature and provide arguments in favor of IL-7 being involved in the biology of human Tfh cells. The CD127 IL-7 receptor is expressed on circulating Tfh and non-Tfh cells, and we show that IL-7, but not IL-6 or IL-21, upregulates the expression of CD70 and PD-1 on these cells. We conclude that IL-7, a cytokine whose level is elevated during HIV-1 infection, may have a role in increased expression of B cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells and lead to abnormal B cell differentiation.

  1. Unrelated Helpers in a Primitively Eusocial Wasp: Is Helping Tailored Towards Direct Fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Leadbeater, Ellouise; Carruthers, Jonathan M.; Green, Jonathan P.; van Heusden, Jasper; Field, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The paper wasp Polistes dominulus is unique among the social insects in that nearly one-third of co-foundresses are completely unrelated to the dominant individual whose offspring they help to rear and yet reproductive skew is high. These unrelated subordinates stand to gain direct fitness through nest inheritance, raising the question of whether their behaviour is adaptively tailored towards maximizing inheritance prospects. Unusually, in this species, a wealth of theory and empirical data allows us to predict how unrelated subordinates should behave. Based on these predictions, here we compare helping in subordinates that are unrelated or related to the dominant wasp across an extensive range of field-based behavioural contexts. We find no differences in foraging effort, defense behaviour, aggression or inheritance rank between unrelated helpers and their related counterparts. Our study provides no evidence, across a number of behavioural scenarios, that the behaviour of unrelated subordinates is adaptively modified to promote direct fitness interests. PMID:20700463

  2. Dysregulated MicroRNA Involvement in Multiple Sclerosis by Induction of T Helper 17 Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Zhou, Yifan; Wang, Jingqi; Yan, Yaping; Peng, Lisheng; Qiu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Growing evidence has proven that T helper 17 (Th17) cells are one of the regulators of neuroinflammation mechanisms in MS disease. Researchers have demonstrated that some microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with disease activity and duration, even with different MS patterns. miRNAs regulate CD4+ T cells to differentiate toward various T cell subtypes including Th17 cells. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms of miRNAs in MS pathophysiology by regulating CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th17 cells, and potential miRNA targets for current disease-modifying treatments.

  3. Innate scavenger receptor-A regulates adaptive T helper cell responses to pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Li, Wei; Jin, Xin; Song, Xian; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhu, Jifeng; Zhou, Sha; Li, Yong; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaowei; Liu, Feng; Bai, Hui; Chen, Qi; Su, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    The pattern recognition receptor (PRR) scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) has an important function in the pathogenesis of non-infectious diseases and in innate immune responses to pathogen infections. However, little is known about the role of SR-A in the host adaptive immune responses to pathogen infection. Here we show with mouse models of helminth Schistosoma japonicum infection and heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation that SR-A is regulated by pathogens and suppresses IRF5 nuclear translocation by direct interaction. Reduced abundance of nuclear IRF5 shifts macrophage polarization from M1 towards M2, which subsequently switches T-helper responses from type 1 to type 2. Our study identifies a role for SR-A as an innate PRR in regulating adaptive immune responses. PMID:28695899

  4. Panax Notoginseng Saponin Controls IL-17 Expression in Helper T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jia-Ru; Wen, Xiaofeng; Bible, Paul W.; Li, Zhiyu; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Panax Notoginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, is known as an anti-inflammatory herb. However, the molecular mechanism by which it controls helper T cell mediated immune responses is largely unknown. Methods: Naive CD4+ T cells isolated from healthy donors, patients with Behcet's disease, and C57BL/6 mice were polarized into Th1, Th17, and Treg cells. Proliferation and cytokine expression were measured in these cells with the presence or absence of Panax Notoginseng saponins (PNS). Genomewide expression profiles of Th1, Th17, and Treg cells were assessed using Affymetrix microarray analysis. Results: We found that PNS control the proliferation and differentiation of Th17 cells by globally downregulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines and cell cycle genes. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that PNS function as an anti-inflammatory agent through directly targeting Th17 cell mediated immune response. PMID:28051353

  5. T follicular helper and T follicular regulatory cells have different TCR specificity

    PubMed Central

    Maceiras, Ana Raquel; Almeida, Silvia Cristina Paiva; Mariotti-Ferrandiz, Encarnita; Chaara, Wahiba; Jebbawi, Fadi; Six, Adrien; Hori, Shohei; Klatzmann, David; Faro, Jose; Graca, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Immunization leads to the formation of germinal centres (GCs) that contain both T follicular helper (Tfh) and T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells. Whether T-cell receptor (TCR) specificity defines the differential functions of Tfh and Tfr cells is unclear. Here we show that antigen-specific T cells after immunization are preferentially recruited to the GC to become Tfh cells, but not Tfr cells. Tfh cells, but not Tfr cells, also proliferate efficiently on restimulation with the same immunizing antigen in vitro. Ex vivo TCR repertoire analysis shows that immunization induces oligoclonal expansion of Tfh cells. By contrast, the Tfr pool has a TCR repertoire that more closely resembles that of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Our data thus indicate that the GC Tfh and Tfr pools are generated from distinct TCR repertoires, with Tfh cells expressing antigen-responsive TCRs to promote antibody responses, and Tfr cells expressing potentially autoreactive TCRs to suppress autoimmunity. PMID:28429709

  6. Induction of polyclonal antibody synthesis by human allogeneic and autologous helper factors

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Human helper factors were obtained from supernates of 48 h unidirectional allogeneic and autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions. These supernates were shown to induce the production of large amounts of immunoglobulin by tonsillar and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Abundant polyclonal activation to antibody production occurred in these cultures in the absence of antigenic challenge which was similar in degree to that produced by pokeweed mitogen. This was documented by quantitating plasma cells, specific plaque-forming cells, and secreted immunoglobulin. In addition, the supplementation of companion cultures with sheep erythrocytes resulted in a significant enhancement of the specific plaque-forming cell response without an appreciable change in plasma cell number of secreted Ig. PMID:156242

  7. Determinants of job satisfaction in foreign domestic helpers caring for people with dementia in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Natalie Y T; Ho, Florence K Y

    2013-09-01

    The job satisfaction of live-in foreign domestic helpers (FDHs) may influence their caring motivation and the quality of care they provide, which may in turn affect the health status of care recipients. This study identifies the factors affecting job satisfaction of FDHs caring for people with dementia in Hong Kong, focusing especially on the role of FDHs' adaptation status, job self-efficacy and care recipients' situation. A total of 152 FDHs taking care of people with dementia were recruited from 6 day care centres for elderly people in Hong Kong when they attended with their care recipients. Data were collected from February to August 2011 and the response rate was 95%. Participants completed questionnaires which included measures of care recipients' dementia severity and disruptive behaviours, FDHs' demographic factors, personal adaptation status, caregiving self-efficacy and job satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to analyse the data. The results showed that longer stay in Hong Kong, better fluency in Cantonese (local dialect), greater satisfaction in living conditions, higher caregiving self-efficacy and less disruptive behaviour of care recipients were independently associated with stronger job satisfaction in FDHs looking after people with dementia. On the basis of these findings, we would suggest that employers should consider helpers who have been in Hong Kong for a longer period of time and speak fluent Cantonese, and have previous experience of taking care of people with dementia. In addition, FDHs caring for people with dementia may benefit from carer training which improves their self-efficacy in dementia care. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Mathematical model for HIV dynamics in HIV-specific helper cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Carla M. A.; Carvalho, Ana

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we study a delay mathematical model for the dynamics of HIV in HIV-specific CD4 + T helper cells. We modify the model presented by Roy and Wodarz in 2012, where the HIV dynamics is studied, considering a single CD4 + T cell population. Non-specific helper cells are included as alternative target cell population, to account for macrophages and dendritic cells. In this paper, we include two types of delay: (1) a latent period between the time target cells are contacted by the virus particles and the time the virions enter the cells and; (2) virus production period for new virions to be produced within and released from the infected cells. We compute the reproduction number of the model, R0, and the local stability of the disease free equilibrium and of the endemic equilibrium. We find that for values of R0<1, the model approaches asymptotically the disease free equilibrium. For values of R0>1, the model approximates asymptotically the endemic equilibrium. We observe numerically the phenomenon of backward bifurcation for values of R0⪅1. This statement will be proved in future work. We also vary the values of the latent period and the production period of infected cells and free virus. We conclude that increasing these values translates in a decrease of the reproduction number. Thus, a good strategy to control the HIV virus should focus on drugs to prolong the latent period and/or slow down the virus production. These results suggest that the model is mathematically and epidemiologically well-posed.

  9. Altered Memory Circulating T Follicular Helper-B Cell Interaction in Early Acute HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Roshell; Metcalf, Talibah; Tardif, Virginie; Takata, Hiroshi; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Kroon, Eugene; Colby, Donn J.; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Valcour, Victor; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Trautmann, Lydie; Haddad, Elias K.

    2016-01-01

    The RV254 cohort of HIV-infected very early acute (4thG stage 1 and 2) (stage 1/2) and late acute (4thG stage 3) (stage 3) individuals was used to study T helper- B cell responses in acute HIV infection and the impact of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) on T and B cell function. To investigate this, the function of circulating T follicular helper cells (cTfh) from this cohort was examined, and cTfh and memory B cell populations were phenotyped. Impaired cTfh cell function was observed in individuals treated in stage 3 when compared to stage 1/2. The cTfh/B cell cocultures showed lower B cell survival and IgG secretion at stage 3 compared to stage 1/2. This coincided with lower IL-10 and increased RANTES and TNF-α suggesting a role for inflammation in altering cTfh and B cell responses. Elevated plasma viral load in stage 3 was found to correlate with decreased cTfh-mediated B cell IgG production indicating a role for increased viremia in cTfh impairment and dysfunctional humoral response. Phenotypic perturbations were also evident in the mature B cell compartment, most notably a decrease in resting memory B cells in stage 3 compared to stage 1/2, coinciding with higher viremia. Our coculture assay also suggested that intrinsic memory B cell defects could contribute to the impaired response despite at a lower level. Overall, cTfh-mediated B cell responses are significantly altered in stage 3 compared to stage 1/2, coinciding with increased inflammation and a reduction in memory B cells. These data suggest that early ART for acutely HIV infected individuals could prevent immune dysregulation while preserving cTfh function and B cell memory. PMID:27463374

  10. Helper signals in the plaque-forming cell response to protein-bound haptens.

    PubMed

    Roehm, N W; Marrack, P; Kappler, J W

    1983-08-01

    We have demonstrated the ability of a series of murine T cell hybridomas to deliver an antigen-specific, B cell I-region-restricted helper signal in the generation of specific PFC responses to protein-bound haptens. With some hybridomas the elicitation of optimal PFC responses required the addition of nonspecific factors provided by culture supernatants of concanavalin A-stimulated (Con A SN) spleen cells. Using hapten-primed B cells depleted of both T cells and macrophages (Mphi) we have now demonstrated a requirement for three nonspecific factor preparations to substitute for spleen Con A SN in the elicitation of optimal PFC responses. The first preparation was the interleukin 1 containing culture supernatant of the Mphi tumor cell line P388D1, the second the interleukin 2 (IL-2) and B cell growth factor containing Con A SN of the T cell hybridoma FS6-14.13, and the third, the gamma interferon containing Con A SN of the T cell hybridoma FS7-20.6.18. The P388D1 and FS6-14.13 factor preparations were most effective when added at the initiation of culture, while the FS7-20.6.18 factor preparation was most effective when added at 24 h of culture. The activity of FS6-14.13 Con A SN was depleted by incubation with the IL-2-dependent T cell line HT-2. The activity of FS7-20.6.18 Con A SN was abrogated by incubation at pH 2. The results suggest that the generation of PFC responses to protein-bound haptens require at least three nonspecific factors in addition to an antigen/Ia specific helper signal.

  11. A novel helper phage enabling construction of genome-scale ORF-enriched phage display libraries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amita; Shrivastava, Nimisha; Grover, Payal; Singh, Ajay; Mathur, Kapil; Verma, Vaishali; Kaur, Charanpreet; Chaudhary, Vijay K

    2013-01-01

    Phagemid-based expression of cloned genes fused to the gIIIP coding sequence and rescue using helper phages, such as VCSM13, has been used extensively for constructing large antibody phage display libraries. However, for randomly primed cDNA and gene fragment libraries, this system encounters reading frame problems wherein only one of 18 phages display the translated foreign peptide/protein fused to phagemid-encoded gIIIP. The elimination of phages carrying out-of-frame inserts is vital in order to improve the quality of phage display libraries. In this study, we designed a novel helper phage, AGM13, which carries trypsin-sensitive sites within the linker regions of gIIIP. This renders the phage highly sensitive to trypsin digestion, which abolishes its infectivity. For open reading frame (ORF) selection, the phagemid-borne phages are rescued using AGM13, so that clones with in-frame inserts express fusion proteins with phagemid-encoded trypsin-resistant gIIIP, which becomes incorporated into the phages along with a few copies of AGM13-encoded trypsin-sensitive gIIIP. In contrast, clones with out-of-frame inserts produce phages carrying only AGM13-encoded trypsin-sensitive gIIIP. Trypsin treatment of the phage population renders the phages with out-of-frame inserts non-infectious, whereas phages carrying in-frame inserts remain fully infectious and can hence be enriched by infection. This strategy was applied efficiently at a genome scale to generate an ORF-enriched whole genome fragment library from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in which nearly 100% of the clones carried in-frame inserts after selection. The ORF-enriched libraries were successfully used for identification of linear and conformational epitopes for monoclonal antibodies specific to mycobacterial proteins.

  12. Being Both Helpers and Victims: Health Professionals' Experiences of Working During a Natural Disaster.

    PubMed

    Hugelius, Karin; Adolfsson, Annsofie; Örtenwall, Per; Gifford, Mervyn

    2017-04-01

    In November 2013, the Haiyan typhoon hit parts of the Philippines. The typhoon caused severe damage to the medical facilities and many injuries and deaths. Health professionals have a crucial role in the immediate disaster response system, but knowledge of their experiences of working during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster is limited. Aim The aim of this study was to explore health professionals' experiences of working during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster. Eight health professionals were interviewed five months after the disaster. The interviews were analyzed using phenomenological hermeneutic methods. The main theme, being professional and survivor, described both positive and negative emotions and experiences from being both a helper, as part of the responding organization, and a victim, as part of the surviving but severely affected community. Sub-themes described feelings of strength and confidence, feelings of adjustment and acceptance, feelings of satisfaction, feelings of powerless and fear, feelings of guilt and shame, and feelings of loneliness. Being a health professional during a natural disaster was a multi-faceted, powerful, and ambiguous experience of being part of the response system at the same time as being a survivor of the disaster. Personal values and altruistic motives as well as social aspects and stress-coping strategies to reach a balance between acceptance and control were important elements of the experience. Based on these findings, implications for disaster training and response strategies are suggested. Hugelius K , Adolfsson A , Örtenwall P , Gifford M . Being both helpers and victims: health professionals' experiences of working during a natural disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):117-123.

  13. Females increase reproductive investment in response to helper-mediated improvements in allo-feeding, nest survival, nestling provisioning and post-fledging survival in the Karoo scrub-robin Cercotrichas coryphaeus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lloyd, P.; Andrew, Taylor W.; du Plessis, Morné A.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    In many cooperatively-breeding species, the presence of one or more helpers improves the reproductive performance of the breeding pair receiving help. Helper contributions can take many different forms, including allo-feeding, offspring provisioning, and offspring guarding or defence. Yet, most studies have focussed on single forms of helper contribution, particularly offspring provisioning, and few have evaluated the relative importance of a broader range of helper contributions to group reproductive performance. We examined helper contributions to multiple components of breeding performance in the Karoo scrub-robin Cercotrichas coryphaeus, a facultative cooperative breeder. We also tested a prediction of increased female investment in reproduction when helpers improve conditions for rearing young. Helpers assisted the breeding male in allo-feeding the incubating female, increasing allo-feeding rates. Greater allo-feeding correlated with greater female nest attentiveness during incubation. Nest predation was substantially lower among pairs breeding with a helper, resulting in a 74% increase in the probability of nest survival. Helper contributions to offspring provisioning increased nestling feeding rates, resulting in a reduced incidence of nestling starvation and increased nestling mass. Nestling mass had a strong, positive effect on post-fledging survival. Controlling for female age and habitat effects, annual production of fledged young was 130% greater among pairs breeding with a helper, and was influenced most strongly by helper correlates with nest survival, despite important helper effects on offspring provisioning. Females breeding with a helper increased clutch size, supporting the prediction of increased female investment in reproduction in response to helper benefits. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  14. Tracking by flow cytometry antigen-specific follicular helper T cells in wild-type animals after protein vaccination.

    PubMed

    Chakarov, Svetoslav; Fazilleau, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a valuable technology used in immunology to characterize and enumerate the different cell subpopulations specific for a nonself-antigen in the context of an ongoing immune response. Among them, follicular helper T cells are the cognate regulators of B cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Thus, tracking them is of high interest especially in the context of protein vaccination. For this purpose, transgenic antigen-receptor mouse models have been largely used. It is now clear that transgenic models are not always the best means to study the dynamics of the immune response since they can modify the response. In this chapter, we describe how to track endogenous antigen-specific follicular helper T cells by flow cytometry after protein vaccination in nonmodified wild-type animals, which ultimately provides a comprehensive way to enumerate, characterize, and isolate these particular cells in vivo.

  15. The positive bystander effect: passive bystanders increase helping in situations with high expected negative consequences for the helper.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The present field study investigated the interplay between the presence of a passive bystander (not present versus present) in a simulated bike theft and expected negative consequences (low versus high) in predicting intervention behavior when no physical victim is present. It was found that an additional bystander increases individual intervention in situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper in case of intervention were high (i.e., when the bike thief looks fierce) compared to situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper were low (i.e., when the bike thief does not look fierce). In contrast, no such effect for high vs. low expected negative consequences was observed when no additional bystander observed the critical situation. The results are discussed in light of previous laboratory findings on expected negative consequences and bystander intervention.

  16. Antigen-specific helper factors present in the supernatant of concanavalin A-induced spleen cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, D G; Anaka, R

    1981-08-01

    The supernatants from cultures of concanavalin A-induced spleen cells contained both antigen-specific and nonspecific (Interleukin 2) helper factors (Hf). The antigen-specific factor could be isolated from the supernatant by adsorption onto and elution from antigen-Sepharose immunoadsorbents. Specific Hf was produced in cultures of either immune or nonimmune spleen cells although in the latter case the quantity of Hf was significantly less. The specific Hf did not manifest the thymocyte stimulatory property of 112.

  17. Preschoolers' social and moral judgments of third-party helpers and hinderers align with infants' social evaluations.

    PubMed

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2017-12-01

    Two experiments explored preschoolers' social preferences and moral judgments of prosocial and antisocial others. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-olds (N=74) observed helping and hindering scenarios previously used to explore sociomoral evaluation in preverbal infants. Whereas 3-year-olds in Experiment 1 did not reliably distinguish between the helper and hinderer when reporting social preferences or moral judgments, both 4- and 5-year-olds preferred the helper, judged the helper to be "nicer" than the hinderer, selectively allocated punishment to the hinderer, and were able to justify their punishment allocations. A simplified procedure and the addition of comprehension questions in Experiment 2 (N=24) improved 3-year-olds' performance, suggestive that their performance in Experiment 1 was likely due to processing or memory difficulties rather than an inability to engage in explicit social and moral evaluation. These studies reveal that young children readily interpret helping and hindering scenarios as socially and morally relevant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social evaluation of intentional, truly accidental, and negligently accidental helpers and harmers by 10-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Woo, Brandon M; Steckler, Conor M; Le, Doan T; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2017-11-01

    Whereas adults largely base their evaluations of others' actions on others' intentions, a host of research in developmental psychology suggests that younger children privilege outcome over intention, leading them to condemn accidental harm. To date, this question has been examined only with children capable of language production. In the current studies, we utilized a non-linguistic puppet show paradigm to examine the evaluation of intentional and accidental acts of helping or harming in 10-month-old infants. In Experiment 1 (n=64), infants preferred intentional over accidental helpers but accidental over intentional harmers, suggestive that by this age infants incorporate information about others' intentions into their social evaluations. In Experiment 2 (n=64), infants did not distinguish "negligently" accidental from intentional helpers or harmers, suggestive that infants may find negligent accidents somewhat intentional. In Experiment 3 (n=64), we found that infants preferred truly accidental over negligently accidental harmers, but did not reliably distinguish negligently accidental from truly accidental helpers, consistent with past work with adults and children suggestive that humans are particularly sensitive to negligently accidental harm. Together, these results imply that infants engage in intention-based social evaluation of those who help and harm accidentally, so long as those accidents do not stem from negligence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mycorrhization between Cistus ladanifer L. and Boletus edulis Bull is enhanced by the mycorrhiza helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, Olaya; Olaizola, Jaime; Santos-del-Blanco, Luis; Oria-de-Rueda, Juan Andrés; Martín-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Boletus edulis Bull. is one of the most economically and gastronomically valuable fungi worldwide. Sporocarp production normally occurs when symbiotically associated with a number of tree species in stands over 40 years old, but it has also been reported in 3-year-old Cistus ladanifer L. shrubs. Efforts toward the domestication of B. edulis have thus focused on successfully generating C. ladanifer seedlings associated with B. edulis under controlled conditions. Microorganisms have an important role mediating mycorrhizal symbiosis, such as some bacteria species which enhance mycorrhiza formation (mycorrhiza helper bacteria). Thus, in this study, we explored the effect that mycorrhiza helper bacteria have on the efficiency and intensity of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. The aim of this work was to optimize an in vitro protocol for the mycorrhizal synthesis of B. edulis with C. ladanifer by testing the effects of fungal culture time and coinoculation with the helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula. The results confirmed successful mycorrhizal synthesis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. Coinoculation of B. edulis with P. fluorescens doubled within-plant mycorrhization levels although it did not result in an increased number of seedlings colonized with B. edulis mycorrhizae. B. edulis mycelium culture time also increased mycorrhization levels but not the presence of mycorrhizae. These findings bring us closer to controlled B. edulis sporocarp production in plantations.

  20. Separation of concanavalin A-induced human suppressor and helper T cells by the autologous erythrocyte rosette technique.

    PubMed

    Sakane, T; Honda, M; Taniguchi, Y; Kotani, H

    1981-08-01

    Very few normal human peripheral blood T cells are capable of binding autologous erythrocytes to form rosettes, whereas in the T cell population activated by concanavalin A (Con A) the autorosette levels are markedly enhanced. Fractionation of the Con A-activated T cells with autologous erythrocytes into autorosetting and nonrosetting cells demonstrates that suppressor, but not helper, activity resides in the autorosetting population, whereas the reverse is true of the nonrosetting population. Both these activities are found to be Con A dependent. The Con A-induced human suppressor cells can be identified and separated from the Con A-induced human helper cells by the autorosette technique. Studies on the surface properties of autorosetting and nonrosetting T cells indicate that there is little correlation between the activated suppressor and helper T cell subsets defined by autorosette technique and either those defined by monoclonal antibodies (which are able to distinguish these subsets in the resting but not activated T cells) or those defined by Fc receptors. Since the autorosetting T cell population (which acts as suppressor cells) bears receptors for peanut agglutinin, the nature of Con A-induced human suppressor cells appears to be analogous to that of Con A-induced murine suppressor cells.

  1. T Helper 17 Cells Interplay with CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Tregs in Regulation of Inflammations and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Jietang; Wang, Hong; Yang#, Xiao-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-secreting T helper 17 cells (Th17) are a recently identified CD4+ T helper subset that has been implicated in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Th17, along with CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and other newly emergent T helper subsets, Th9 and Tfh, have expanded the Th1-Th2 paradigm. Although this newly proposed six-subset paradigm significantly improved our understanding on the differentiation of CD4+ T helper cell subsets and the regulation of T helper cells in inflammation and autoimmunity, many questions remain to be answered. In this overview, we will briefly review the following issues: a) Old Th1-Th2 paradigm versus new multi-subset paradigm; b) Structural features of IL-17 family cytokines; c) Th17 cells; d) Effects of IL-17 on various cell types and tissues; e) IL-17 receptor and signaling pathways; f) Th17-mediated inflammations; and g) Protective mechanisms of IL-17 in infections. Lastly, we will look into the interaction of Th17 and Treg in autoimmune diseases and inflammation: Th17 cells interplay with Tregs. Regulation of autoimmunity and inflammation lies in the interplays of the different T helper subsets, therefore, better understanding of these subsets’ interactions with one another would greatly improve our approaches in developing therapy to combat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:20515737

  2. CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells and HIV Infection: Friends or Enemies?

    PubMed

    Moukambi, Félicien; Rodrigues, Vasco; Fortier, Yasmina; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Borde, Chloé; Krust, Bernard; Andreani, Guadalupe; Silvestre, Ricardo; Petrovas, Constantinos; Laforge, Mireille; Estaquier, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells, a subset of CD4 T lymphocytes, are essential for memory B cell activation, survival, and differentiation and assist B cells in the production of antigen-specific antibodies. Work performed in recent years pointed out the importance of Tfh cells in the context of HIV and SIV infections. The importance of tissue distribution of Tfh is also an important point since their frequency differs between peripheral blood and lymph nodes compared to the spleen, the primary organ for B cell activation, and differentiation. Our recent observations indicated an early and profound loss of splenic Tfh cells. The role of transcriptional activator and repressor factors that control Tfh differentiation is also discussed in the context of HIV/SIV infection. Because Tfh cells are important for B cell differentiation and antibody production, accelerating the Tfh responses early during HIV/SIV infection could be promising as novel immunotherapeutic approach or alternative vaccine strategies. However, because Tfh cells are infected during the HIV/SIV infection and represent a reservoir, this may interfere with HIV vaccine strategy. Thus, Tfh represent the good and bad guys during HIV infection.

  3. CD301b⁺ dermal dendritic cells drive T helper 2 cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yosuke; Linehan, Melissa; Weinstein, Jason S; Laidlaw, Brian J; Craft, Joseph E; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-10-17

    Unlike other types of T helper (Th) responses, whether the development of Th2 cells requires instruction from particular subset of dendritic cells (DCs) remains unclear. By using an in vivo depletion approach, we have shown that DCs expressing CD301b were required for the generation of Th2 cells after subcutaneous immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) along with papain or alum. CD301b⁺ DCs are distinct from epidermal or CD207⁺ dermal DCs (DDCs) and were responsible for transporting antigen injected subcutaneously with Th2-type adjuvants. Transient depletion of CD301b⁺ DCs resulted in less effective accumulation and decreased expression of CD69 by polyclonal CD4⁺ T cells in the lymph node. Moreover, despite intact cell division and interferon-γ production, CD301b⁺ DC depletion led to blunted interleukin-4 production by OVA-specific OT-II transgenic CD4⁺ T cells and significantly impaired Th2 cell development upon infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. These results reveal CD301b⁺ DDCs as the key mediators of Th2 immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. T Follicular Helper Cells and B Cell Dysfunction in Aging and HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; de Armas, Lesley; Rinaldi, Stefano; Pahwa, Savita

    2017-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4 T cells that provide critical signals to antigen-primed B cells in germinal centers to undergo proliferation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation to generate long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells during an immune response. The quantity and quality of Tfh cells therefore must be tightly controlled to prevent immune dysfunction in the form of autoimmunity and, on the other hand, immune deficiency. Both Tfh and B cell perturbations appear during HIV infection resulting in impaired antibody responses to vaccines such as seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine, also seen in biologic aging. Although many of the HIV-associated defects improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART), excess immune activation and antigen-specific B and T cell responses including Tfh function are still impaired in virologically controlled HIV-infected persons on ART. Interestingly, HIV infected individuals experience increased risk of age-associated pathologies. This review will discuss Tfh and B cell dysfunction in HIV infection and highlight the impact of chronic HIV infection and aging on Tfh–B cell interactions. PMID:29109730

  5. T Follicular Helper Cells and B Cell Dysfunction in Aging and HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; de Armas, Lesley; Rinaldi, Stefano; Pahwa, Savita

    2017-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4 T cells that provide critical signals to antigen-primed B cells in germinal centers to undergo proliferation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation to generate long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells during an immune response. The quantity and quality of Tfh cells therefore must be tightly controlled to prevent immune dysfunction in the form of autoimmunity and, on the other hand, immune deficiency. Both Tfh and B cell perturbations appear during HIV infection resulting in impaired antibody responses to vaccines such as seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine, also seen in biologic aging. Although many of the HIV-associated defects improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART), excess immune activation and antigen-specific B and T cell responses including Tfh function are still impaired in virologically controlled HIV-infected persons on ART. Interestingly, HIV infected individuals experience increased risk of age-associated pathologies. This review will discuss Tfh and B cell dysfunction in HIV infection and highlight the impact of chronic HIV infection and aging on Tfh-B cell interactions.

  6. Evaluation of helper-dependent canine adenovirus vectors in a 3D human CNS model.

    PubMed

    Simão, D; Pinto, C; Fernandes, P; Peddie, C J; Piersanti, S; Collinson, L M; Salinas, S; Saggio, I; Schiavo, G; Kremer, E J; Brito, C; Alves, P M

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising approach with enormous potential for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Viral vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) present attractive features for gene delivery strategies in the human brain, by preferentially transducing neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent brain structures, have a 30-kb cloning capacity and have low innate and induced immunogenicity in preclinical tests. For clinical translation, in-depth preclinical evaluation of efficacy and safety in a human setting is primordial. Stem cell-derived human neural cells have a great potential as complementary tools by bridging the gap between animal models, which often diverge considerably from human phenotype, and clinical trials. Herein, we explore helper-dependent CAV-2 (hd-CAV-2) efficacy and safety for gene delivery in a human stem cell-derived 3D neural in vitro model. Assessment of hd-CAV-2 vector efficacy was performed at different multiplicities of infection, by evaluating transgene expression and impact on cell viability, ultrastructural cellular organization and neuronal gene expression. Under optimized conditions, hd-CAV-2 transduction led to stable long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity. hd-CAV-2 preferentially transduced neurons, whereas human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) showed increased tropism toward glial cells. This work demonstrates, in a physiologically relevant 3D model, that hd-CAV-2 vectors are efficient tools for gene delivery to human neurons, with stable long-term transgene expression and minimal cytotoxicity.

  7. In vivo regulation of Bcl6 and T follicular helper cell development1

    PubMed Central

    Poholek, Amanda C.; Hansen, Kyle; Hernandez, Sairy G.; Eto, Danelle; Chandele, Anmol; Weinstein, Jason S.; Dong, Xuemei; Odegard, Jared M.; Kaech, Susan M.; Dent, Alexander L.; Crotty, Shane; Craft, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Follicular helper T (TFH) cells, defined by expression of the surface markers CXCR5 and PD-1 and synthesis of IL-21, require upregulation of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6 for their development and function in B cell maturation in germinal centers. We have explored the role of B cells, and the cytokines IL-6 and IL-21, in the in vivo regulation of Bcl6 expression and TFH cell development. We found that TFH cells are characterized by a Bcl6-dependent downregulation of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL1, a CCL19- and CCL21-binding protein), indicating that, like CXCR5 and PD-1 upregulation, modulation of PSGL1 expression is part of the TFH cell program of differentiation. B cells were neither required for initial upregulation of Bcl6 nor PSGL1 downregulation, suggesting these events preceded T-B cell interactions, although they were required for full development of the TFH cell phenotype, including CXCR5 and PD-1 upregulation, and IL-21 synthesis. Bcl6 upregulation and TFH cell differentiation were independent of IL-6 and IL-21, revealing that either cytokine is not absolutely required for development of Bcl6+ TFH cells in vivo. These data increase our understanding of Bcl6 regulation in TFH cells and their differentiation in vivo, and identifies a new surface marker that may be functionally relevant in this subset. PMID:20519643

  8. Curcumin up regulates T helper 1 cells in patients with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yu, Lin; Zhao, Li-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The therapy for the advanced colon cancer (Cca) is unsatisfactory currently. To regulate the immune effector cell function has shown a positive effect on the treatment of advanced cancers. This study tests a hypothesis that administration with curcumin converts the Cca patient-derived regulatory T cells (Treg) to T helper (Th) 1 cells. In this study, a group of patients with advanced Cca was recruited into this study. The patients were treated with curcumin. The peripheral Tregs and Th1 cells were assessed by flow cytometry. The results showed that, after the curcumin therapy, the forkhead box protein (Foxp) 3 positive Treg frequency was markedly reduced, the frequency of Th1 cells was significantly increased in Cca patients. Treating with curcumin repressed the Foxp3 gene transcription in Tregs; the Tregs were then converted into Th1 cells. The results also revealed that Foxp3 bound T-bet to prevent IFN-γ expression in CD4 + T cells, which was abolished by treating with curcumin. In conclusion, the administration of curcumin can convert Tregs to Th1 cells via repressing Foxp3 expression and enhancing IFN-γ production.

  9. CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells and HIV Infection: Friends or Enemies?

    PubMed Central

    Moukambi, Félicien; Rodrigues, Vasco; Fortier, Yasmina; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Borde, Chloé; Krust, Bernard; Andreani, Guadalupe; Silvestre, Ricardo; Petrovas, Constantinos; Laforge, Mireille; Estaquier, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells, a subset of CD4 T lymphocytes, are essential for memory B cell activation, survival, and differentiation and assist B cells in the production of antigen-specific antibodies. Work performed in recent years pointed out the importance of Tfh cells in the context of HIV and SIV infections. The importance of tissue distribution of Tfh is also an important point since their frequency differs between peripheral blood and lymph nodes compared to the spleen, the primary organ for B cell activation, and differentiation. Our recent observations indicated an early and profound loss of splenic Tfh cells. The role of transcriptional activator and repressor factors that control Tfh differentiation is also discussed in the context of HIV/SIV infection. Because Tfh cells are important for B cell differentiation and antibody production, accelerating the Tfh responses early during HIV/SIV infection could be promising as novel immunotherapeutic approach or alternative vaccine strategies. However, because Tfh cells are infected during the HIV/SIV infection and represent a reservoir, this may interfere with HIV vaccine strategy. Thus, Tfh represent the good and bad guys during HIV infection. PMID:28265271

  10. Theory and experimental validation of SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper).

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Porter, Jason M.

    2005-06-01

    The radiant heat test facility develops test sets providing well-characterized thermal environments, often representing fires. Many of the components and procedures have become standardized to such an extent that the development of a specialized design tool was appropriate. SPLASH (Single Panel Lamp and Shroud Helper) is that tool. SPLASH is implemented as a user-friendly program that allows a designer to describe a test setup in terms of parameters such as lamp number, power, position, and separation distance. Thermal radiation is the dominant mechanism of heat transfer and the SPLASH model solves a radiation enclosure problem to estimate temperature distributions inmore » a shroud providing the boundary condition of interest. Irradiance distribution on a specified viewing plane is also estimated. This document provides the theoretical development for the underlying model. A series of tests were conducted to characterize SPLASH's ability to analyze lamp and shroud systems. The comparison suggests that SPLASH succeeds as a design tool. Simplifications made to keep the model tractable are demonstrated to result in estimates that are only approximately as uncertain as many of the properties and characteristics of the operating environment.« less

  11. Cell viability of mycorrhiza helper bacteria solid inoculant in different carrier material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asyiah, Iis Nur; Hindersah, Reginawanti; Harni, Rita

    2018-02-01

    Roots of food crops are colonized by nonpathogenic mycorrhizal fungi which show natural ability to control plant pathogen. Mycorrhizal establishment in plant roots is affected by rhizobacteria, known as mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB), which has synergetic effects on mycorrhizal associations. Laboratory experiment has been conducted to assess the best carrier material to develop well-qualified MHB of Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis solid inoculant. Carrier materials were 100 mesh organic matter of agricultural waste. Different spore concentration of both bacterial liquid inoculants were grown on three kinds of 100-mesh organic matter and stored at room temperature up to 90 days. Cell viability of both MHB were counted by serial dilution plate method by using specific medium. The results showed that sugar cane baggase ash was the best carrier material to maintain cell viability for both MHB. However, the population of Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in sugar cane baggase ash were slightly decreased after 90 days. The use of sugarcane baggase ash for solid MHB inoculant development could be suggested.

  12. Transducing Airway Basal Cells with a Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vector for Lung Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huibi; Ouyang, Hong; Grasemann, Hartmut; Bartlett, Claire; Du, Kai; Duan, Rongqi; Shi, Fushan; Estrada, Marvin; Seigel, Kyle E; Coates, Allan L; Yeger, Herman; Bear, Christine E; Gonska, Tanja; Moraes, Theo J; Hu, Jim

    2018-06-01

    A major challenge in developing gene-based therapies for airway diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) is sustaining therapeutic levels of transgene expression over time. This is largely due to airway epithelial cell turnover and the host immunogenicity to gene delivery vectors. Modern gene editing tools and delivery vehicles hold great potential for overcoming this challenge. There is currently not much known about how to deliver genes into airway stem cells, of which basal cells are the major type in human airways. In this study, helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vectors were delivered to mouse and pig airways via intranasal delivery, and direct bronchoscopic instillation, respectively. Vector transduction was assessed by immunostaining of lung tissue sections, which revealed that airway basal cells of mice and pigs can be targeted in vivo. In addition, efficient transduction of primary human airway basal cells was verified with an HD-Ad vector expressing green fluorescent protein. Furthermore, we successfully delivered the human CFTR gene to airway basal cells from CF patients, and demonstrated restoration of CFTR channel activity following cell differentiation in air-liquid interface culture. Our results provide a strong rationale for utilizing HD-Ad vectors to target airway basal cells for permanent gene correction of genetic airway diseases.

  13. B cell depleting therapy regulates splenic and circulating T follicular helper cells in immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Audia, Sylvain; Rossato, Marzia; Trad, Malika; Samson, Maxime; Santegoets, Kim; Gautheron, Alexandrine; Bekker, Cornelis; Facy, Olivier; Cheynel, Nicolas; Ortega-Deballon, Pablo; Boulin, Mathieu; Berthier, Sabine; Leguy-Seguin, Vanessa; Martin, Laurent; Ciudad, Marion; Janikashvili, Nona; Saas, Philippe; Radstake, Timothy; Bonnotte, Bernard

    2017-02-01

    B cells are involved in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) pathophysiology by producing antiplatelet auto-antibodies. However more than a half of ITP patients do not respond to B cell depletion induced by rituximab (RTX). The persistence of splenic T follicular helper cells (TFH) that we demonstrated to be expanded during ITP and to support B cell differentiation and antiplatelet antibody-production may participate to RTX inefficiency. Whereas it is well established that the survival of TFH depends on B cells in animal models, nothing is known in humans yet. To determine the effect of B cell depletion on human TFH, we quantified B cells and TFH in the spleen and in the blood from ITP patients treated or not with RTX. We showed that B cell depletion led to a dramatic decrease in splenic TFH and in CXCL13 and IL-21, two cytokines predominantly produced by TFH. The absolute count of circulating TFH and serum CXCL13 also decreased after RTX treatment, whatever the therapeutic response. Therefore, we showed that the maintenance of TFH required B cells and that TFH are not involved in the inefficiency of RTX in ITP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trithorax complex component Menin controls differentiation and maintenance of T helper 17 cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yukiko; Onodera, Atsushi; Kanai, Urara; Ichikawa, Tomomi; Obata-Ninomiya, Kazushige; Wada, Tomoko; Kiuchi, Masahiro; Iwamura, Chiaki; Tumes, Damon J.; Shinoda, Kenta; Yagi, Ryoji; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, such as posttranslational modifications of histones, play an important role in gene expression and regulation. These modifications are in part mediated by the Trithorax group (TrxG) complex and the Polycomb group (PcG) complex, which activate and repress transcription, respectively. We herein investigate the role of Menin, a component of the TrxG complex in T helper (Th) cell differentiation and show a critical role for Menin in differentiation and maintenance of Th17 cells. Menin−/− T cells do not efficiently differentiate into Th17 cells, leaving Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation intact in in vitro cultures. Menin deficiency resulted in the attenuation of Th17-induced airway inflammation. In differentiating Th17 cells, Menin directly bound to the Il17a gene locus and was required for the deposition of permissive histone modifications and recruitment of the RNA polymerase II transcriptional complex. Interestingly, although Menin bound to the Rorc locus, Menin was dispensable for the induction of Rorc expression and permissive histone modifications in differentiating Th17 cells. In contrast, Menin was required to maintain expression of Rorc in differentiated Th17 cells, indicating that Menin is essential to stabilize expression of the Rorc gene. Thus, Menin orchestrates Th17 cell differentiation and function by regulating both the induction and maintenance of target gene expression. PMID:25136117

  15. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch is required for the differentiation of follicular helper T cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Nengming; Eto, Danelle; Elly, Chris; Peng, Guiying; Crotty, Shane; Liu, Yun-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) are responsible for effective B cell–mediated immunity, and Bcl-6 is a central factor for the differentiation of TFH cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the induction of TFH cells remain unclear. Here we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch was essential for the differentiation of TFH cells, germinal center responses and immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to acute viral infection. Itch acted intrinsically in CD4+ T cells at early stages of TFH cell development. Itch seemed to act upstream of Bcl-6 expression, as Bcl-6 expression was substantially impaired in Itch−/− cells, and the differentiation of Itch−/− T cells into TFH cells was restored by enforced expression of Bcl-6. Itch associated with the transcription factor Foxo1 and promoted its ubiquitination and degradation. The defective TFH differentiation of Itch−/− T cells was rectified by deletion of Foxo1. Thus, our results indicate that Itch acts as an essential positive regulator in the differentiation of TFH cells. PMID:24859451

  16. Innate Functions of Immunoglobulin M Lessen Liver Gene Transfer with Helper-Dependent Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Unzu, Carmen; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Sampedro, Ana; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Ochoa, María Carmen; Dubrot, Juan; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors. PMID:24465560

  17. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: more than a disease of T follicular helper cells.

    PubMed

    Lemonnier, François; Mak, Tak W

    2017-08-01

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most frequent entities of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. An AITL has two components: the AITL tumour cells, which have a T follicular helper (TFH) cell phenotype, and a surrounding and extensive tumour microenvironment that is populated with various reactive cell types, including B cells. Recurrent TET2 mutations have been described in 50-80% of AITLs, possibly occurring in a haematopoietic progenitor cell. An article published recently in the Journal of Pathology describes the use of microdissection to isolate PD1 + AITL tumour cells and CD20 + B cells from the AITL microenvironment, and to show that TET2 mutations are actually more frequent in these diseases than previously thought. Whereas TET2 mutations were detected in only six of 13 AITLs, 12 of 13 samples of microdissected PD1 + AITL tumour cells possessed this mutation. Moreover, TET2 mutations were detected in CD20 + B cells from the AITL microenvironment in six of nine informative cases. These results confirm that TET2 mutation is an early event in the majority of AITL cases, and that the driving molecular anomalies are not restricted to the T lineage tumour cells. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Role of distinct CD4(+) T helper subset in pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Dunfang; Han, Qi; Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Xin; Xu, Yi; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Qianming

    2016-07-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases with T-cell-mediated immune pathogenesis. In subepithelial and lamina propria of OLP local lesions, the presence of CD4(+) T helper (CD4(+) Th) cells appeared as the major lymphocytes. These CD4(+) T lymphocytes can differentiate into distinct Th cell types such as Th1, Th2, Treg, Th17, Th22, Th9, and Tfh within the context of certain cytokines environment. Growing evidence indicated that Th1/Th2 imbalance may greatly participate into the cytokine network of OLP immunopathology. In addition, Th1/Th2 imbalance can be regulated by the Treg subset and also greatly influenced by the emerging novel CD4(+) Th subset Th17. Furthermore, the presence of novel subsets Th22, Th9 and Tfh in OLP patients is yet to be clarified. All these Th subsets and their specific cytokines may play a critical role in determining the character, extent and duration of immune responses in OLP pathogenesis. Therefore, we review the roles of distinct CD4(+) Th subsets and their signature cytokines in determining disease severity and susceptibility of OLP and also reveal the novel therapeutic strategies based on T lymphocytes subsets in OLP treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. T Helper 1–Inducing Adjuvant Protects against Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Coltri, Kely Cristine; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro Barros; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson

    2008-01-01

    Immunostimulatory therapy is a promising approach to improving the treatment of systemic fungal infections such as paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), whose drug therapy is usually prolonged and associated with toxic side effects and relapses. The current study was undertaken to determine if the injection of a T helper (Th) 1–stimulating adjuvant in P. brasiliensis–infected mice could have a beneficial effect on the course of experimental PCM. For this purpose, mice were infected and treated with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), a well-established Th1 experimental inductor, or incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA - control group) on day 20 postinfection. Four weeks after treatment, the CFA-treated mice presented a mild infection in the lungs characterized by absence of epithelioid cell granulomas and yeast cells, whereas the control mice presented multiple sites of focal epithelioid granulomas with lymphomonocytic halos circumscribing a high number of viable and nonviable yeast cells. In addition, CFA administration induced a 2.4 log reduction (>99%) in the fungal burden when compared to the control group, and led to an improvement of immune response, reversing the immunosuppression observed in the control group. The immunotherapy with Th1-inducing adjuvant, approved to be used in humans, might be a valuable tool in the treatment of PCM and potentially useful to improve the clinical cure rate in humans. PMID:18335066

  20. Construction of helper plasmid-mediated dual-display phage for autoantibody screening in serum.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Kaushik; Vermeeren, Veronique; Somers, Klaartje; Somers, Veerle; Michiels, Luc

    2014-01-01

    M13 filamentous bacteriophage has been used in displaying disease-specific antibodies, biomarkers, and peptides. One of the major drawbacks of using phage in diagnostic assays is the aspecific adsorption of proteins leading to a high background signal and decreasing sensitivity. To deal with this, we developed a genetically pure, exchangeable dual-display phage system in which biomarkers and streptavidin-binding protein (SBP) are displayed at opposite ends of the phage. This approach allows for sample purification, using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads resulting in a higher sensitivity of signal detection assays. Our dual-display cassette system approach also allows for easy exchange of both the anchor protein (SBP) and the displayed biomarker. The presented principle is applied for the detection of antibody reactivity against UH-RA.21 which is a good candidate biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The applicability of dual-display phage preparation using a helper plasmid system is demonstrated, and its increased sensitivity in phage ELISA assays using patient serum samples is shown.

  1. The role of transforming growth factor β in T helper 17 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song

    2018-04-23

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play critical roles in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The lineage-specific transcription factor RORγt is the key regulator for Th17 cell fate commitment. A substantial number of studies have established the importance of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) -dependent pathways in inducing RORγt expression and Th17 differentiation. TGF-β superfamily members TGF-β 1 , TGF-β 3 or activin A, in concert with interleukin-6 or interleukin-21, differentiate naive T cells into Th17 cells. Alternatively, Th17 differentiation can occur through TGF-β-independent pathways. However, the mechanism of how TGF-β-dependent and TGF-β-independent pathways control Th17 differentiation remains controversial. This review focuses on the perplexing role of TGF-β in Th17 differentiation, depicts the requirement of TGF-β for Th17 development, and underscores the multiple mechanisms underlying TGF-β-promoted Th17 generation, pathogenicity and plasticity. With new insights and comprehension from recent findings, this review specifically tackles the involvement of the canonical TGF-β signalling components, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4, summarizes diverse SMAD-independent mechanisms, and highlights the importance of TGF-β signalling in balancing the reciprocal conversion of Th17 and regulatory T cells. Finally, this review includes discussions and perspectives and raises important mechanistic questions about the role of TGF-β in Th17 generation and function. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Regulation of type 17 helper T-cell function by nitric oxide during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Niedbala, Wanda; Alves-Filho, Jose C.; Fukada, Sandra Y.; Vieira, Silvio Manfredo; Mitani, Akio; Sonego, Fabiane; Mirchandani, Ananda; Nascimento, Daniele C.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Liew, Foo Y.

    2011-01-01

    Type 17 helper T (Th17) cells are implicated in the pathogenesis many of human autoimmune diseases. Development of Th17 can be enhanced by the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) whose ligands include the environmental pollutant dioxin, potentially linking environmental factors to the increased prevalence of autoimmune disease. We report here that nitric oxide (NO) can suppress the proliferation and function of polarized murine and human Th17 cells. NO also inhibits AHR expression in Th17 cells and the downstream events of AHR activation, including IL-22, IL-23 receptor, and Cyp1a1. Conversely, NO did not affect the polarization of Th17 cells from mice deficient in AHR. Furthermore, mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2−/−) developed more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis than WT mice, with elevated AHR expression, increased IL-17A, and IL-22 synthesis. NO may therefore represent an important endogenous regulator to prevent overexpansion of Th17 cells and control of autoimmune diseases caused by environmental pollutants. PMID:21576463

  3. Severe Malaria Infections Impair Germinal Center Responses by Inhibiting T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ryg-Cornejo, Victoria; Ioannidis, Lisa Julia; Ly, Ann; Chiu, Chris Yu; Tellier, Julie; Hill, Danika Lea; Preston, Simon Peter; Pellegrini, Marc; Yu, Di; Nutt, Stephen Laurence; Kallies, Axel; Hansen, Diana Silvia

    2016-01-05

    Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops only after years of repeated exposure to Plasmodium parasites. Despite the key role antibodies play in protection, the cellular processes underlying the slow acquisition of immunity remain unknown. Using mouse models, we show that severe malaria infection inhibits the establishment of germinal centers (GCs) in the spleen. We demonstrate that infection induces high frequencies of T follicular helper (Tfh) cell precursors but results in impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Despite high expression of Bcl-6 and IL-21, precursor Tfh cells induced during infection displayed low levels of PD-1 and CXCR5 and co-expressed Th1-associated molecules such as T-bet and CXCR3. Blockade of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IFN-γ or T-bet deletion restored Tfh cell differentiation and GC responses to infection. Thus, this study demonstrates that the same pro-inflammatory mediators that drive severe malaria pathology have detrimental effects on the induction of protective B cell responses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of interleukin (IL)-17 and T-helper (Th)17 cells in cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Yang, Jian Ming

    2017-11-04

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine, is reported to be significantly generated by a distinct subset of CD4 + T-cells, upgrading cancer-elicited inflammation and preventing cancer cells from immune surveillance. T-helper (Th)17 cells produced from naive CD4 + T cells have recently been renowned and generally accepted, gaining eminence in cancer studies and playing the effective role in context of cancer. Th17 cells are the main source of IL-17-secreting cells, It was found that other cell types produced this cytokine as well, including Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), δγT cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, lymphoid-tissue inducer (LTi)-like cells and Natural killer (NK) cells. Th17-associated cytokines give impetus to tumor progression, or inducing angiogenesis and metastasis. This review demonstrates an understanding on how the pro- or antitumor function of Th17 cells and IL-17 may change cancer progression, leading to the appearance of complex and pivotal biologic activities in tumor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution of Peripheral Memory T Follicular Helper Cells in Patients with Schistosomiasis Japonica

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Song, Xian; Xu, Lei; Xu, Zhipeng; Zhou, Sha; Zhu, Jifeng; Jin, Xin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Gengxin; Su, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a helminthic disease that affects more than 200 million people. An effective vaccine would be a major step towards eliminating the disease. Studies suggest that T follicular helper (Tfh) cells provide help to B cells to generate the long-term humoral immunity, which would be a crucial component of successful vaccines. Thus, understanding the biological characteristics of Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis, which has never been explored, is essential for vaccine design. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the biological characteristics of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomiasis patients by flow cytometry. Our data showed that the frequencies of total and activated peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients were significantly increased during Schistosoma japonicum infection. Moreover, Tfh2 cells, which were reported to be a specific subpopulation to facilitate the generation of protective antibodies, were increased more greatly than other subpopulations of total peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis japonica. More importantly, our result showed significant correlations of the percentage of Tfh2 cells with both the frequency of plasma cells and the level of IgG antibody. In addition, our results showed that the percentage of T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells was also increased in patients with schistosomiasis. Conclusions/Significance Our report is the first characterization of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomasis patients, which not only provides potential targets to improve immune response to vaccination, but also is important for the development of vaccination strategies to control schistosomiasis. PMID:26284362

  6. Repetitive intradermal bleomycin injections evoke T-helper cell 2 cytokine-driven pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brijendra; Kasam, Rajesh K; Sontake, Vishwaraj; Wynn, Thomas A; Madala, Satish K

    2017-11-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 are major T-helper cell (Th) 2 cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of several lung diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, using a novel repetitive intradermal bleomycin model in which mice develop extensive lung fibrosis and a progressive decline in lung function compared with saline-treated control mice, we investigated profibrotic functions of Th2 cytokines. To determine the role of IL-13 signaling in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, wild-type, IL-13, and IL-4Rα-deficient mice were treated with bleomycin, and lungs were assessed for changes in lung function and pulmonary fibrosis. Histological staining and lung function measurements demonstrated that collagen deposition and lung function decline were attenuated in mice deficient in either IL-13 or IL-4Rα-driven signaling compared with wild-type mice treated with bleomycin. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that IL-13 and IL-4Rα-driven signaling are involved in excessive migration of macrophages and fibroblasts. Notably, our findings demonstrated that IL-13-driven migration involves increased phospho-focal adhesion kinase signaling and F-actin polymerization. Importantly, in vivo findings demonstrated that IL-13 augments matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP9 activity that has also been shown to increase migration and invasiveness of fibroblasts in the lungs during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Together, our findings demonstrate a pathogenic role for Th2-cytokine signaling that includes excessive migration and protease activity involved in severe fibrotic lung disease.

  7. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors for liver-directed gene therapy of primary hyperoxaluria type 1

    PubMed Central

    Castello, Raffaele; Borzone, Roberta; D’Aria, Stefania; Annunziata, Patrizia; Piccolo, Pasquale; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of liver metabolism due to deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) which catalyzes conversion of glyoxylate into glycine. AGT deficiency results in overproduction of oxalate which ultimately leads to end-stage renal disease and death. Organ transplantation as either preemptive liver transplantation or combined liver/kidney transplantation is the only available therapy to prevent disease progression. Gene therapy is an attractive option to provide an alternative treatment for PH1. Towards this goal, we investigated helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors for liver-directed gene therapy of PH1. Compared to saline controls, AGT-deficient mice injected with an HDAd encoding the AGT under the control of a liver-specific promoter showed a significant reduction of hyperoxaluria and less increase of urinary oxalate following challenge with Ethylene Glycol (EG), a precursor of glyoxylate. These studies may thus pave the way to clinical application of HDAd for PH1 gene therapy. PMID:26609667

  8. Disorders of B cells and helper T cells in the pathogenesis of the immunoglobulin deficiency of patients with ataxia telangiectasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, T A; Broder, S; Goldman, C K; Frost, K; Korsmeyer, S J; Medici, M A

    1983-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the immunoglobulin deficiency of 20 patients with ataxia telangiectasia was studied using an in vitro immunoglobulin biosynthesis system. 10 patients had no detectable IgA in their serum as assessed by radial diffusion in agar and 3 had a reduced serum IgA concentration. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 17 of the patients and 17 normal controls were cultured with pokeweed mitogen for 12 d and the immunoglobulin in the supernatants measured. The immunoglobulin synthesis was below the lower limit of the normal 95% confidence interval for IgM in 5 patients, for IgG in 8, and for IgA in 14. The mononuclear cells from 9 of the 10 patients with a serum IgA concentration less than 0.1 mg/ml failed to synthesize IgA in vitro. None of the patients manifested excessive suppressor cell activity. All patients had reduced but measurable helper T cell activity for immunoglobulin synthesis by co-cultured normal pokeweed mitogen-stimulated B cells (geometric mean 22% of normal). Furthermore, the addition of normal irradiated T cells to patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells led to an augmentation of IgM synthesis in 15 of 17 and to increased IgG synthesis in 9 of the 17 patients studied, including 9 of the 12 patients who had synthesized IgG before the addition of the irradiated T cells. In addition, IgA synthesis was increased in all eight patients examined that had serum IgA concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/ml. These studies suggest that a helper T cell defect contributes to the diminished immunoglobulin synthesis. However, a helper T cell defect does not appear to be the sole cause since there was no IgA synthesis by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 9 of the 10 patients with a profoundly reduced serum IgA even when co-cultured with normal T cells. Furthermore, the cells of the nine patients with profoundly reduced IgA levels examined also failed to produce IgA when stimulated with the relatively helper T cell-independent polyclonal

  9. How Germinal Centers Evolve Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies: the Breadth of the Follicular Helper T Cell Response

    SciTech Connect

    De Boer, Rob J.; Perelson, Alan S.

    Many HIV-1-infected patients evolve broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). This evolutionary process typically takes several years and is poorly understood as selection taking place in germinal centers occurs on the basis of antibody affinity. B cells with the highest-affinity receptors tend to acquire the most antigen from the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network and present the highest density of cognate peptides to follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, which provide survival signals to the B cell. bnAbs are therefore expected to evolve only when the B cell lineage evolving breadth is consistently capturing and presenting more peptides to Tfh cells than othermore » lineages of more specific B cells. Here we develop mathematical models of Tfh cells in germinal centers to explicitly define the mechanisms of selection in this complex evolutionary process. Our results suggest that broadly reactive B cells presenting a high density of peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (pMHC) are readily outcompeted by B cells responding to lineages of HIV-1 that transiently dominate the within host viral population. Conversely, if broadly reactive B cells acquire a large variety of several HIV-1 proteins from the FDC network and present a high diversity of several pMHC, they can be rescued by a large fraction of the Tfh cell repertoire in the germinal center. Under such circumstances the evolution of bnAbs is much more consistent. Increasing either the magnitude of the Tfh cell response or the breadth of the Tfh cell repertoire markedly facilitates the evolution of bnAbs. Because both the magnitude and breadth can be increased by vaccination with several HIV-1 proteins, this calls for experimental testing. Many HIV-infected patients slowly evolve antibodies that can neutralize a large variety of viruses. Such broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) could in the future become therapeutic agents. bnAbs appear very late, and patients are typically

  10. How Germinal Centers Evolve Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies: the Breadth of the Follicular Helper T Cell Response

    DOE PAGES

    De Boer, Rob J.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2017-09-06

    Many HIV-1-infected patients evolve broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). This evolutionary process typically takes several years and is poorly understood as selection taking place in germinal centers occurs on the basis of antibody affinity. B cells with the highest-affinity receptors tend to acquire the most antigen from the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network and present the highest density of cognate peptides to follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, which provide survival signals to the B cell. bnAbs are therefore expected to evolve only when the B cell lineage evolving breadth is consistently capturing and presenting more peptides to Tfh cells than othermore » lineages of more specific B cells. Here we develop mathematical models of Tfh cells in germinal centers to explicitly define the mechanisms of selection in this complex evolutionary process. Our results suggest that broadly reactive B cells presenting a high density of peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (pMHC) are readily outcompeted by B cells responding to lineages of HIV-1 that transiently dominate the within host viral population. Conversely, if broadly reactive B cells acquire a large variety of several HIV-1 proteins from the FDC network and present a high diversity of several pMHC, they can be rescued by a large fraction of the Tfh cell repertoire in the germinal center. Under such circumstances the evolution of bnAbs is much more consistent. Increasing either the magnitude of the Tfh cell response or the breadth of the Tfh cell repertoire markedly facilitates the evolution of bnAbs. Because both the magnitude and breadth can be increased by vaccination with several HIV-1 proteins, this calls for experimental testing. Many HIV-infected patients slowly evolve antibodies that can neutralize a large variety of viruses. Such broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) could in the future become therapeutic agents. bnAbs appear very late, and patients are typically

  11. Pancreatic Transduction by Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors via Intraductal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Morró, Meritxell; Teichenne, Joan; Jimenez, Veronica; Kratzer, Ramona; Marletta, Serena; Maggioni, Luca; Mallol, Cristina; Ruberte, Jesus; Kochanek, Stefan; Bosch, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic gene transfer could be useful to treat several diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis, or pancreatic cancer. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAds) are promising tools for gene therapy because of their large cloning capacity, high levels of transgene expression, and long-term persistence in immunocompetent animals. Nevertheless, the ability of HDAds to transduce the pancreas in vivo has not been investigated yet. Here, we have generated HDAds carrying pancreas-specific expression cassettes, that is, driven either by the elastase or insulin promoter, using a novel and convenient plasmid family and homologous recombination in bacteria. These HDAds were delivered to the pancreas of immunocompetent mice via intrapancreatic duct injection. HDAds, encoding a CMV-GFP reporter cassette, were able to transduce acinar and islet cells, but transgene expression was lost 15 days postinjection in correlation with severe lymphocytic infiltration. When HDAds encoding GFP under the control of the specific elastase promoter were used, expression was detected in acinar cells, but similarly, the expression almost disappeared 30 days postinjection and lymphocytic infiltration was also observed. In contrast, long-term transgene expression (>8 months) was achieved with HDAds carrying the insulin promoter and the secretable alkaline phosphatase as the reporter gene. Notably, transduction of the liver, the preferred target for adenovirus, was minimal by this route of delivery. These data indicate that HDAds could be used for pancreatic gene therapy but that selection of the expression cassette is of critical importance to achieve long-term expression of the transgene in this tissue. PMID:25046147

  12. Chitin recognition via chitotriosidase promotes pathologic type-2 helper T cell responses to cryptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Darin L; Specht, Charles A; Lee, Chrono K; Smith, Kyle D; Mukaremera, Liliane; Lee, S Thera; Lee, Chun G; Elias, Jack A; Nielsen, Judith N; Boulware, David R; Bohjanen, Paul R; Jenkins, Marc K; Levitz, Stuart M; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary mycoses are often associated with type-2 helper T (Th2) cell responses. However, mechanisms of Th2 cell accumulation are multifactorial and incompletely known. To investigate Th2 cell responses to pulmonary fungal infection, we developed a peptide-MHCII tetramer to track antigen-specific CD4+ T cells produced in response to infection with the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We noted massive accruement of pathologic cryptococcal antigen-specific Th2 cells in the lungs following infection that was coordinated by lung-resident CD11b+ IRF4-dependent conventional dendritic cells. Other researchers have demonstrated that this dendritic cell subset is also capable of priming protective Th17 cell responses to another pulmonary fungal infection, Aspergillus fumigatus. Thus, higher order detection of specific features of fungal infection by these dendritic cells must direct Th2 cell lineage commitment. Since chitin-containing parasites commonly elicit Th2 responses, we hypothesized that recognition of fungal chitin is an important determinant of Th2 cell-mediated mycosis. Using C. neoformans mutants or purified chitin, we found that chitin abundance impacted Th2 cell accumulation and disease. Importantly, we determined Th2 cell induction depended on cleavage of chitin via the mammalian chitinase, chitotriosidase, an enzyme that was also prevalent in humans experiencing overt cryptococcosis. The data presented herein offers a new perspective on fungal disease susceptibility, whereby chitin recognition via chitotriosidase leads to the initiation of harmful Th2 cell differentiation by CD11b+ conventional dendritic cells in response to pulmonary fungal infection.

  13. Evaluation of helper-dependent canine adenovirus vectors in a 3D human CNS model

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Daniel; Pinto, Catarina; Fernandes, Paulo; Peddie, Christopher J.; Piersanti, Stefania; Collinson, Lucy M.; Salinas, Sara; Saggio, Isabella; Schiavo, Giampietro; Kremer, Eric J.; Brito, Catarina; Alves, Paula M.

    2017-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising approach with enormous potential for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Viral vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) present attractive features for gene delivery strategies in the human brain, by preferentially transducing neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent brain structures, have a 30-kb cloning capacity and have low innate and induced immunogenicity in pre-clinical tests. For clinical translation, in-depth pre-clinical evaluation of efficacy and safety in a human setting is primordial. Stem cell-derived human neural cells have a great potential as complementary tools by bridging the gap between animal models, which often diverge considerably from human phenotype, and clinical trials. Herein, we explore helper-dependent CAV-2 (hd-CAV-2) efficacy and safety for gene delivery in a human stem cell-derived 3D neural in vitro model. Assessment of hd-CAV-2 vector efficacy was performed at different multiplicities of infection, by evaluating transgene expression and impact on cell viability, ultrastructural cellular organization and neuronal gene expression. Under optimized conditions, hd-CAV-2 transduction led to stable long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity. hd-CAV-2 preferentially transduced neurons, while human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) showed increased tropism towards glial cells. This work demonstrates, in a physiologically relevant 3D model, that hd-CAV-2 vectors are efficient tools for gene delivery to human neurons, with stable long-term transgene expression and minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:26181626

  14. Iron oxide nanoparticles attenuate T helper 17 cell responses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yai-Ping; Shen, Chien-Chang; Huang, Chung-Hsiung; Lin, Yu-Chin; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2018-05-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been shown to attenuate T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cell-mediated immunity in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of IONPs on the immune responses of Th17 cells, a subset of T cells involved in various inflammatory pathologies. For in vivo study, a murine model of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was employed. BALB/c mice received a single dose of IONPs (0.2-10 mg iron/kg) via the tail vein 1 h prior to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. Their footpads were subcutaneously challenged with OVA to induce DTH reactions. The expression of Th17 cell-related molecules in inflamed footpads were examined by immunohistochemistry. For in vitro study, OVA-primed splenocytes were directly exposed to IONPs (1-100 μg iron/mL), and then re-stimulated with OVA in culture. The expression of Th17 cell-related molecules were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IONP administration attenuated the number of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, the transcription factor ROR-γ, and chemokine receptor 6 positive cells in OVA-challenged footpads, whereas the number of transforming growth factor-β, IL-23 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 positive cells was not altered. Direct exposure of OVA-primed splenocytes to IONPs suppressed the production of IL-6 and IL-17, and the mRNA expression of IL-17 and ROR-γt. These data indicate that exposure to IONPs attenuates Th17 cell responses in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Identification of helper T cell epitopes of dengue virus E-protein.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, C; Dériaud, E; Megret, F; Briand, J P; Van Regenmortel, M H; Deubel, V

    1993-05-01

    The T cell proliferative response to dengue 2 (Jamaica) E-glycoprotein (495 amino acids) was analyzed in vitro using either killed virus or E-protein fragments or synthetic peptides. Inactivated dengue virus stimulated dengue-specific lymph node (LN) CD4+T cell proliferation in BALB/c (H-2d), C3H (H-2k) and DBA/1 (H-2q) but not in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice. Moreover, LN cells from dengue-virus primed BALB/c mice proliferated in vitro in response to three purified non-overlapping E-protein fragments expressed in E. coli as polypeptides fused to trpE (f22-205, f267-354, f366-424). To further determine T cell epitopes in the E-protein, synthetic peptides were selected using prediction algorithms for T cell epitopes. Highest proliferative responses were obtained after in vitro exposure of virus-primed LN cells to peptides p135-157, p270-298, p295-307 and p337-359. Peptide p59-78 was able to induce specific B and T cell responses in peptide-primed mice of H-2d, H-2q and H-2k haplotypes. Two peptides p59-78 corresponding to two dengue (Jamaica and Sri Lanka) isolates and differing only at position 71 cross-reacted at the B but not at the T cell level in H-2b mice. This analysis of murine T helper cell response to dengue E-protein may be of use in dengue subunit vaccine design.

  16. Effector and central memory T helper 2 cells respond differently to peptide immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Karen J.; Nowakowska, Dominika J.; Leech, Melanie D.; McFarlane, Amanda J.; Wilson, Claire; Fitch, Paul M.; O’Connor, Richard A.; Howie, Sarah E. M.; Schwarze, Jürgen; Anderton, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Peptide immunotherapy (PIT) offers realistic prospects for the treatment of allergic diseases, including allergic asthma. Much is understood of the behavior of naive T cells in response to PIT. However, treatment of patients with ongoing allergic disease requires detailed understanding of the responses of allergen-experienced T cells. CD62L expression by allergen-experienced T cells corresponds to effector/effector memory (CD62Llo) and central memory (CD62Lhi) subsets, which vary with allergen exposure (e.g., during, or out with, pollen season). The efficacy of PIT on different T helper 2 (Th2) cell memory populations is unknown. We developed a murine model of PIT in allergic airway inflammation (AAI) driven by adoptively transferred, traceable ovalbumin-experienced Th2 cells. PIT effectively suppressed AAI driven by unfractionated Th2 cells. Selective transfer of CD62Lhi and CD62Llo Th2 cells revealed that these two populations behaved differently from one another and from previously characterized (early deletional) responses of naive CD4+ T cells to PIT. Most notably, allergen-reactive CD62Llo Th2 cells were long-lived within the lung after PIT, before allergen challenge, in contrast to CD62Lhi Th2 cells. Despite this, PIT was most potent against CD62Llo Th2 cells in protecting from AAI, impairing their ability to produce Th2 cytokines, whereas this capacity was heightened in PIT-treated CD62Lhi Th2 cells. We conclude that Th2 cells do not undergo an early deletional form of tolerance after PIT. Moreover, memory Th2 subsets respond differently to PIT. These findings have implications for the clinical translation of PIT in different allergic scenarios. PMID:24516158

  17. Defining characteristics of classical Hodgkin lymphoma microenvironment T-helper cells

    PubMed Central

    Clear, Andrew; Owen, Andrew; Iqbal, Sameena; Lee, Abigail; Matthews, Janet; Wilson, Andrew; Calaminici, Maria; Gribben, John G.

    2013-01-01

    CD4+ T-helper cells (THs) dominate the classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) microenvironment, but their role is poorly understood. Advances in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry permit more detailed investigation of this aspect of CHL pathophysiology. To address the hypothesis that the TH-infiltrate, rather than being TH2-enriched, senescent and hypofunctional, is TH1 and activation marker-rich, cytokine-secretory and proliferative, we applied comprehensive flow cytometric immunophenotyping and functional assays of cytokine secretion/proliferation to TH cells from 18 CHL-derived single-cell suspensions (SCSs) compared to reactive lymph nodes (RLNs). CHL-derived TH cells express TH1-associated CXCR3/CCR5 and TNFα/IFNγ/interleukin-2 (IL-2) and less TH2-associated CCR3/CCR4, with no IL-4/IL-13. They lack exhaustion-/suppression-associated PD1, CD57 and terminally differentiated effector memory cells, with more central memory cells, activation-associated partners of Hodgkin Reed Sternberg (HRS) cell-expressed CD30/OX40-L/ICOS-L, and other activation markers. TH cell lines established from CHL and RLN-derived SCSs remain cytokine-secretory. We confirmed and extended these studies using tissue microarray immunohistochemistry (TMA-IHC) from a large CHL tissue bank (n = 122) and demonstrate TH1-associated TBET is abundant in CHL, and TH2-associated CMAF/GATA3 and exhaustion-associated PD1 expressed at significantly lower levels. These molecular insights into the CHL-associated TH offer potential diagnostic, prognostic and pharmacologically modifiable therapeutic targets and do not support the established view of a TH2-enriched, senescent/exhausted, hypofunctional, hypoproliferative infiltrate. PMID:24004665

  18. Defining characteristics of classical Hodgkin lymphoma microenvironment T-helper cells.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Paul; Clear, Andrew; Owen, Andrew; Iqbal, Sameena; Lee, Abigail; Matthews, Janet; Wilson, Andrew; Calaminici, Maria; Gribben, John G

    2013-10-17

    CD4(+) T-helper cells (THs) dominate the classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) microenvironment, but their role is poorly understood. Advances in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry permit more detailed investigation of this aspect of CHL pathophysiology. To address the hypothesis that the TH-infiltrate, rather than being TH2-enriched, senescent and hypofunctional, is TH1 and activation marker-rich, cytokine-secretory and proliferative, we applied comprehensive flow cytometric immunophenotyping and functional assays of cytokine secretion/proliferation to TH cells from 18 CHL-derived single-cell suspensions (SCSs) compared to reactive lymph nodes (RLNs). CHL-derived TH cells express TH1-associated CXCR3/CCR5 and TNFα/IFNγ/interleukin-2 (IL-2) and less TH2-associated CCR3/CCR4, with no IL-4/IL-13. They lack exhaustion-/suppression-associated PD1, CD57 and terminally differentiated effector memory cells, with more central memory cells, activation-associated partners of Hodgkin Reed Sternberg (HRS) cell-expressed CD30/OX40-L/ICOS-L, and other activation markers. TH cell lines established from CHL and RLN-derived SCSs remain cytokine-secretory. We confirmed and extended these studies using tissue microarray immunohistochemistry (TMA-IHC) from a large CHL tissue bank (n = 122) and demonstrate TH1-associated TBET is abundant in CHL, and TH2-associated CMAF/GATA3 and exhaustion-associated PD1 expressed at significantly lower levels. These molecular insights into the CHL-associated TH offer potential diagnostic, prognostic and pharmacologically modifiable therapeutic targets and do not support the established view of a TH2-enriched, senescent/exhausted, hypofunctional, hypoproliferative infiltrate.

  19. An evaluation of three-dimensional sensors for the extravehicular activity helper/retreiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity Retriever/Helper (EVAHR) is a robotic device currently under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center that is designed to fetch objects or to assist in retrieving an astronaut who may have become inadvertently de-tethered. The EVAHR will be required to exhibit a high degree of intelligent autonomous operation and will base much of its reasoning upon information obtained from one or more three-dimensional sensors that it will carry and control. At the highest level of visual cognition and reasoning, the EVAHR will be required to detect objects, recognize them, and estimate their spatial orientation and location. The recognition phase and estimation of spatial pose will depend on the ability of the vision system to reliably extract geometric features of the objects such as whether the surface topologies observed are planar or curved and the spatial relationships between the component surfaces. In order to achieve these tasks, accurate sensing of the operational environment and objects in the environment will therefore be critical. The qualitative and quantitative results of empirical studies of three sensors that are capable of providing three-dimensional information to the EVAHR, but using completely different hardware approaches are documented. The first of these devices is a phase shift laser with an effective operating range (ambiguity interval) of approximately 15 meters. The second sensor is a laser triangulation system designed to operate at much closer range and to provide higher resolution images. The third sensor is a dual camera stereo imaging system from which range images can also be obtained. The remainder of the report characterizes the strengths and weaknesses of each of these systems relative to quality of data extracted and how different object characteristics affect sensor operation.

  20. Circulating follicular helper T cells in Crohn's disease (CD) and CD-associated colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenlong; Wang, Zhiming; Diao, Yanqing; Qian, Xiaoli; Zhu, Nan; Dong, Wen

    2014-09-01

    Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) represent a distinct subset of CD4+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes. Studies have indicated that Tfh in circulating blood can act as a prognostic marker for diseases. In the current study, we investigated the percentages of circulating Tfh (CTfh) in Crohn's disease (CD) and CD-associated colorectal cancer (CRC). CTfh and it subtypes were determined by measuring CD3, CD4, CXCR5, CXCR3, and CCR6 using flow cytometry in 32 healthy controls and 78 CD patients, which included 16 CD-associated CRC. Data showed that proportion of CTfh in CD4+ T cells was significantly increased in CD patients (9.8 %) than in controls (5.1 %) (p < 0.01). Further analysis revealed that the upregulation of CTfh was contributed by CTfh-Th1 subtype and CTfh-Th17 subtype. Investigating the behavior of the patients demonstrated that prevalence of CTfh was significantly elevated in penetrating CD (20.9 %) than inflammatory CD (8.2 %) or stricturing CD (7.5 %). In addition, we analyzed CTfh in CD-associated CRC, and identified that patients with CRC had 1.59-fold higher percentage of CTfh than patients without CRC (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the distribution of CTfh subsets was significantly altered in patients with the cancer. This study suggests the involvement of CTfh in CD and CD-associated CRC, in which the effect of CTfh is partially different between these two diseases.

  1. Development of T follicular helper cells and their role in disease and immune system.

    PubMed

    Eivazi, Sadegh; Bagheri, Salman; Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Ghalavand, Majdedin; Qamsari, Elmira Safaie; Dorostkar, Ruhollah; Yasemi, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The T follicular helper cells (TFH) are a subset of CD4+ T cells specialized to regulate antibody responses. The production of these cells is associated with the dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. TFH cells help B cells form germinal centers (GC) differentiate into memory and plasma cells (antibody-secreting cells) as humoral responses. In addition, there is strong evidence that TFH cells play a pivotal role in the development of long-lived humoral immunity. Molecular factors such as transcription factors, surface receptors, cytokine and micro RNAs are involved in the formation of TFH cells. Such TFH cells are diagnosed by transcription factor (BCL-6), surface marker expression (including CXCR5, PD-1, ICOS and CD40L) and a unique cytokine production pattern (such as IL-21 and IL-6). Memory TFH cells, accompanied by memory B cells, are known to be formed during antibody responses. It is now clear that the precise control of TFH cells is critically important for both inducing the optimal affinity maturation of antibody responses and preventing self-reactivity. Exclusive controls of TFH cell function and production are essential for human health. However, it is important to note that excessive activities may lead to autoimmune diseases, while reduced activity often results in immunodeficiency. It has also been shown that TFH cells are associated with cancers such as angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), follicular T-cell lymphoma (FTCL) and nonspecific Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs). The biology of TFH cells, including their differentiation and transcriptional regulation will be described in the present review. Some of The developments of these cells in immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmunity and cancer will also be taken into account. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Circulating Follicular Helper-Like T Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Association with Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Young; Ho, John Hsi-en; Pasoto, Sandra G; Bunin, Viviane; Kim, Sangtaek; Carrasco, Solange; Borba, Eduardo F; Gonçalves, Celio R; Costa, Priscila R; Kallas, Esper G; Bonfa, Eloisa; Craft, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess circulating follicular helper-like CD4+ T (cTfh-like) cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and determine their relationship to disease activity. Methods We analyzed blood samples from SLE patients, and as controls, Behçet’s disease (BD) patients and healthy individuals. We used flow cytometry to enumerate cTfh-like cells using as markers the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5), inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS), programmed cell death protein-1 (PCDC1, PD-1), and secretion of interleukin-21 (IL-21). We compared the frequency of cTfh-like cells with that of circulating plasmablasts (CD19+IgD−CD38+) and evaluated their possible association with disease activity. Results cTfh-like T cells, identified as CXCR5hiICOShiPD-1hi, were expanded in the blood of SLE patients compared to BD and healthy controls. Such cells produced IL-21 with lower expression of CCR7, compared to circulating CXCR5hi central memory (Tcm) cells, enabling their distinction. PD-1, not ICOS or CXCR5, expression was significantly elevated in cTfh-like cells from SLE patients compared to controls. PD-1 expression among CXCR5hi cTfh-like cells correlated with disease activity, circulating plasmablasts, and anti-dsDNA antibody positivity, but not disease duration nor past organ injury; rather, it reflected current active disease. Conclusion We found that cTfh-like cells are associated with disease activity in SLE, suggesting that their presence indicates abnormal homeostasis of T-B cell collaboration with a causal relationship central to disease pathogenesis. These findings also suggest that cTfh-like cells provide a surrogate for aberrant GC activity in SLE, and that their PD-1 expression offers a tool for following disease activity and response to therapies. PMID:25581113

  3. Extracellular MicroRNA Signature of Human Helper T Cell Subsets in Health and Autoimmunity*

    PubMed Central

    Torri, Anna; Carpi, Donatella; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Crosti, Maria-Cristina; Moro, Monica; Gruarin, Paola; Rossi, Riccardo L.; Rossetti, Grazisa; Di Vizio, Dolores; Hoxha, Mirjam; Bollati, Valentina; Gagliani, Cristina; Tacchetti, Carlo; Paroni, Moira; Geginat, Jens; Corti, Laura; Venegoni, Luigia; Berti, Emilio; Pagani, Massimiliano; Matarese, Giuseppe; Abrignani, Sergio; de Candia, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Upon T cell receptor stimulation, CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing microRNAs. However, no data are available on whether human CD4+ T cell subsets release EVs containing different pattern of microRNAs. The present work aimed at filling this gap by assessing the microRNA content in EVs released upon in vitro T cell receptor stimulation of Th1, Th17, and T regulatory (Treg) cells. Our results indicate that EVs released by Treg cells are significantly different compared with those released by the other subsets. In particular, miR-146a-5p, miR-150-5p, and miR-21-5p are enriched, whereas miR-106a-5p, miR-155-5p, and miR-19a-3p are depleted in Treg-derived EVs. The in vitro identified EV-associated microRNA signature was increased in serum of autoimmune patients with psoriasis and returned to healthy levels upon effective treatment with etanercept, a biological drug targeting the TNF pathway and suppressing inflammation. Moreover, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed an over-representation of genes relevant for T cell activation, such as CD40L, IRAK1, IRAK2, STAT1, and c-Myb in the list of validated targets of Treg-derived EV miRNAs. At functional level, Treg-derived (but not Th1/Th17-derived) EVs inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and suppressed two relevant targets of miR-146a-5p: STAT1 and IRAK2. In conclusion, our work identified the miRNAs specifically released by different human CD4+ T cell subsets and started to unveil the potential use of their quantity in human serum to mark the pathological elicitation of these cells in vivo and their biological effect in cell to cell communication during the adaptive immune response. PMID:28077577

  4. Chitin Recognition via Chitotriosidase Promotes Pathologic Type-2 Helper T Cell Responses to Cryptococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Darin L.; Specht, Charles A.; Lee, Chrono K.; Smith, Kyle D.; Mukaremera, Liliane; Lee, S. Thera; Lee, Chun G.; Elias, Jack A.; Nielsen, Judith N.; Boulware, David R.; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Levitz, Stuart M.; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary mycoses are often associated with type-2 helper T (Th2) cell responses. However, mechanisms of Th2 cell accumulation are multifactorial and incompletely known. To investigate Th2 cell responses to pulmonary fungal infection, we developed a peptide-MHCII tetramer to track antigen-specific CD4+ T cells produced in response to infection with the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We noted massive accruement of pathologic cryptococcal antigen-specific Th2 cells in the lungs following infection that was coordinated by lung-resident CD11b+ IRF4-dependent conventional dendritic cells. Other researchers have demonstrated that this dendritic cell subset is also capable of priming protective Th17 cell responses to another pulmonary fungal infection, Aspergillus fumigatus. Thus, higher order detection of specific features of fungal infection by these dendritic cells must direct Th2 cell lineage commitment. Since chitin-containing parasites commonly elicit Th2 responses, we hypothesized that recognition of fungal chitin is an important determinant of Th2 cell-mediated mycosis. Using C. neoformans mutants or purified chitin, we found that chitin abundance impacted Th2 cell accumulation and disease. Importantly, we determined Th2 cell induction depended on cleavage of chitin via the mammalian chitinase, chitotriosidase, an enzyme that was also prevalent in humans experiencing overt cryptococcosis. The data presented herein offers a new perspective on fungal disease susceptibility, whereby chitin recognition via chitotriosidase leads to the initiation of harmful Th2 cell differentiation by CD11b+ conventional dendritic cells in response to pulmonary fungal infection. PMID:25764512

  5. Identification of a T-helper cell epitope on the rotavirus VP6 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Baños, D M; Lopez, S; Arias, C F; Esquivel, F R

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the T-helper (Th)-cell response against rotavirus, in a mouse model. Adult BALB/c mice were inoculated parenterally with porcine rotavirus YM, and the Th-cell response from spleen cells against the virus and two overlapping fragments of the major capsid protein VP6 (VP6(1-192) and VP6(171-397)) were evaluated in vitro. The Th cells recognized the YM virus and the two protein fragments, suggesting that there are at least two Th-cell epitopes on the VP6 molecule. To study the specificity of Th cells against VP6 at the clonal level, we established two Th-cell hybridomas cross-reactive for the VP6 protein of rotavirus strains YM and SA11. Both hybridomas recognized the VP6(171-397) polypeptide, and a synthetic peptide comprising the amino acids 289 to 302 (RLSFQLVRPPNMTP) of YM VP6 in the context of the major histocompatibility complex class II IEd molecule. The Th-cell hybridomas recognized rotavirus VP6 in a highly cross-reactive fashion, since they could be stimulated by eight different strains of rotavirus, including the murine rotavirus EDIM, that represent five G serotypes and at least two subgroups. The amino acid sequence of the VP6 epitope is highly conserved in most group A rotavirus strains sequenced so far. On the other hand, it was found that Th cells specific for the VP6 epitope may constitute an important proportion of the total polyclonal Th-cell response against rotavirus YM in spleen cells. These results demonstrate that VP6 can be a target for highly cross-reactive Th cells. PMID:8985366

  6. The good, the bad and the dubious: VHELIBS, a validation helper for ligands and binding sites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many Protein Data Bank (PDB) users assume that the deposited structural models are of high quality but forget that these models are derived from the interpretation of experimental data. The accuracy of atom coordinates is not homogeneous between models or throughout the same model. To avoid basing a research project on a flawed model, we present a tool for assessing the quality of ligands and binding sites in crystallographic models from the PDB. Results The Validation HElper for LIgands and Binding Sites (VHELIBS) is software that aims to ease the validation of binding site and ligand coordinates for non-crystallographers (i.e., users with little or no crystallography knowledge). Using a convenient graphical user interface, it allows one to check how ligand and binding site coordinates fit to the electron density map. VHELIBS can use models from either the PDB or the PDB_REDO databank of re-refined and re-built crystallographic models. The user can specify threshold values for a series of properties related to the fit of coordinates to electron density (Real Space R, Real Space Correlation Coefficient and average occupancy are used by default). VHELIBS will automatically classify residues and ligands as Good, Dubious or Bad based on the specified limits. The user is also able to visually check the quality of the fit of residues and ligands to the electron density map and reclassify them if needed. Conclusions VHELIBS allows inexperienced users to examine the binding site and the ligand coordinates in relation to the experimental data. This is an important step to evaluate models for their fitness for drug discovery purposes such as structure-based pharmacophore development and protein-ligand docking experiments. PMID:23895374

  7. Inflammatory T helper 17 cells promote depression-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Beurel, Eléonore; Harrington, Laurie E; Jope, Richard S

    2013-04-01

    Recognition of substantial immune-neural interactions is revising dogmas about their insular actions and revealing that immune-neural interactions can substantially impact central nervous system functions. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 promotes susceptibility to depression and drives production of inflammatory T helper 17 (Th17) T cells, raising the hypothesis that in mouse models, Th17 cells promote susceptibility to depression-like behaviors. Behavioral characteristics were measured in male mice administered Th17 cells, CD4(+) cells, or vehicle and in retinoid-related orphan receptor-γT (RORγT)(+/GFP) mice or male mice treated with RORγT inhibitor or anti-interleukin-17A antibodies. Mouse brain Th17 cells were elevated by learned helplessness and chronic restraint stress, two common depression-like models. Th17 cell administration promoted learned helplessness in 89% of mice in a paradigm where no vehicle-treated mice developed learned helplessness, and impaired novelty suppressed feeding and social interaction behaviors. Mice deficient in the RORγT transcription factor necessary for Th17 cell production exhibited resistance to learned helplessness, identifying modulation of RORγT as a potential intervention. Treatment with the RORγT inhibitor SR1001, or anti-interleukin-17A antibodies to abrogate Th17 cell function, reduced Th17-dependent learned helplessness. These findings indicate that Th17 cells are increased in the brain during depression-like states, promote depression-like behaviors in mice, and specifically inhibiting the production or function of Th17 cells reduces vulnerability to depression-like behavior, suggesting antidepressant effects may be attained by targeting Th17 cells. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CD147 modulates the differentiation of T-helper 17 cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Jian; Li, Yu; Yin, Zhen-Jie; Lv, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The role of CD147 in regulation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cell-to-cell contact of activated CD14 + monocytes with CD4 + T cells, and the modulatory role of CD147 on T-helper 17 (Th17) cells differentiation in patients with RA. Twenty confirmed active RA patients and twenty normal controls were enrolled. CD4 + T cells and CD14 + monocytes were purified by magnetic beads cell sorting. Cells were cultured under different conditions in CD4 + T cells alone, direct cell-to-cell contact co-culture of CD4 + and CD14 + cells, or indirect transwell co-culture of CD4 + /CD14 + cells in response to LPS and anti-CD3 stimulation with or without anti-CD147 antibody pretreatments. The proportion of IL-17-producing CD4 + T cells (defined as Th17 cells) was determined by flow cytometry. The levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6, and IL-1β in the supernatants of cultured cells were measured by ELISA. The optimal condition for in vitro induction of Th17 cells differentiation was co-stimulation with 0.1 μg/mL of LPS and 100 ng/mL of anti-CD3 for 3 days under direct cell-to-cell contact co-culture of CD4 + and CD14 + cells. Anti-CD147 antibody reduced the proportion of Th17 cells, and also inhibited the productions of IL-17, IL-6, and IL-1β in PBMC culture from RA patients. The current results revealed that Th17 differentiation required cell-to-cell contact with activated monocytes. CD147 promoted the differentiation of Th17 cells by regulation of cytokine production, which provided the evidence for pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for RA. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Listeria arpJ gene modifies T helper type 2 subset differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, Makoto; Maruyama, Saho; Shen, Hua; Matsumoto, Akira; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Przybilla, Karin; Gouin, Edith; Cossart, Pascale; Goebel, Werner; Asano, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-15

    Although the T-cell subset differentiation pathway has been characterized extensively from the view of host gene regulation, the effects of genes of the pathogen on T-cell subset differentiation during infection have yet to be elucidated. Especially, the bacterial genes that are responsible for this shift have not yet been determined. Utilizing a single-gene-mutation Listeria panel, we investigated genes involved in the host-pathogen interaction that are required for the initiation of T-cell subset differentiation in the early phase of pathogen infection. We demonstrate that the induction of T helper types 1 and 2 (Th1 and Th2) subsets are separate phenomena and are mediated by distinct Listeria genes. We identified several candidate Listeria genes that appear to be involved in the host-Listeria interaction. Among them, arpJ is the strongest candidate gene for inhibiting Th2 subset induction. Furthermore, the analysis utilizing arpJ-deficient Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) revealed that the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily (Tnfsf) 9-TNF receptor superfamily (Tnfrsf) 9 interaction inhibits the Th2 response during Lm infection. arpJ is the candidate gene for inhibiting Th2 T-cell subset induction. The arpJ gene product influences the expression of Tnfsf/Tnfrsf on antigen-presenting cells and inhibits the Th2 T-cell subset differentiation during Listeria infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Interleukin-12 in patients with cancer is synthesized by peripheral helper T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Marcia A; Montes, Leticia; Nomelini, Rosekeila S; Abdalla, Douglas R; Aleixo, Andre A R; Murta, Eddie F C

    2015-09-01

    The production of cytokines by helper T lymphocytes is a critical event in the immune response, as alterations in the regulation of this process may result in an appropriate immune response, persistent infection or the development of autoimmune disease. Previously, this group has used flow cytometry to demonstrate the expression of interleukin-12 (IL-12) in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from patients and mice with advanced cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CD4+ T lymphocytes from the peripheral blood (PB) of patients with cancer produce IL-12, using molecular approaches, flow cytometry and cellular imaging techniques. CD3+ and CD4+ cells, and cells producing IL-12, were isolated from the PB obtained from patients with cancer, using a cell sorting flow cytometry technique. The positivity of cells for CD3, CD4 and IL-12, which were identified by cell sorting, was visualized using immunofluorescent cellular imaging. Total RNA was extracted from the CD3+CD4+IL-12+ cells, obtained by cell sorting, for confirmation of the presence of IL-12 mRNA, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of IL-12 mRNA in all patients (n=14), in contrast to the control group, in whom IL-12 expression was not detected. Immunofluorescent analysis of CD4+ T lymphocytes showed positive intracytoplasmatic IL-12 staining. These results demonstrated that CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes in the PB of patients with cancer have the capacity to synthesize and express IL-12.

  11. Interleukin-12 in patients with cancer is synthesized by peripheral helper T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    MICHELIN, MARCIA A.; MONTES, LETICIA; NOMELINI, ROSEKEILA S.; ABDALLA, DOUGLAS R.; ALEIXO, ANDRE A. R.; MURTA, EDDIE F. C.

    2015-01-01

    The production of cytokines by helper T lymphocytes is a critical event in the immune response, as alterations in the regulation of this process may result in an appropriate immune response, persistent infection or the development of autoimmune disease. Previously, this group has used flow cytometry to demonstrate the expression of interleukin-12 (IL-12) in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from patients and mice with advanced cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CD4+ T lymphocytes from the peripheral blood (PB) of patients with cancer produce IL-12, using molecular approaches, flow cytometry and cellular imaging techniques. CD3+ and CD4+ cells, and cells producing IL-12, were isolated from the PB obtained from patients with cancer, using a cell sorting flow cytometry technique. The positivity of cells for CD3, CD4 and IL-12, which were identified by cell sorting, was visualized using immunofluorescent cellular imaging. Total RNA was extracted from the CD3+CD4+IL-12+ cells, obtained by cell sorting, for confirmation of the presence of IL-12 mRNA, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of IL-12 mRNA in all patients (n=14), in contrast to the control group, in whom IL-12 expression was not detected. Immunofluorescent analysis of CD4+ T lymphocytes showed positive intracytoplasmatic IL-12 staining. These results demonstrated that CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes in the PB of patients with cancer have the capacity to synthesize and express IL-12. PMID:26622702

  12. Reversible Reprogramming of Circulating Memory T Follicular Helper Cell Function during Chronic HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cubas, Rafael; van Grevenynghe, Julien; Wills, Saintedym; Kardava, Lela; Santich, Brian H.; Buckner, Clarisa M.; Muir, Roshell; Tardif, Virginie; Nichols, Carmen; Procopio, Francesco; He, Zhong; Metcalf, Talibah; Ghneim, Khader; Locci, Michela; Ancuta, Petronella; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Trautmann, Lydie; Li, Yuxing; McDermott, Adrian B.; Koup, Rick A.; Petrovas, Constantinos; Migueles, Steven A.; Connors, Mark; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Moir, Susan; Crotty, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in curtailing viral load in HIV-infected individuals, ART does not fully restore cellular and humoral immunity. HIV-infected individuals under ART show reduced responses to vaccination and infections and are unable to mount an effective antiviral immune response upon ART cessation. Many factors contribute to these defects, including persistent inflammation, especially in lymphoid tissues, where T follicular helper (Tfh) cells instruct and help B cells launch an effective humoral immune response. In this study we investigated the phenotype and function of circulating memory Tfh cells as a surrogate of Tfh cells in lymph nodes and found significant impairment of this cell population in chronically HIV-infected individuals, leading to reduced B cell responses. We further show that these aberrant memory Tfh cells exhibit an IL-2–responsive gene signature and are more polarized toward a Th1 phenotype. Treatment of functional memory Tfh cells with IL-2 was able to recapitulate the detrimental reprogramming. Importantly, this defect was reversible, as interfering with the IL-2 signaling pathway helped reverse the abnormal differentiation and improved Ab responses. Thus, reversible reprogramming of memory Tfh cells in HIV-infected individuals could be used to enhance Ab responses. Altered microenvironmental conditions in lymphoid tissues leading to altered Tfh cell differentiation could provide one explanation for the poor responsiveness of HIV-infected individuals to new Ags. This explanation has important implications for the development of therapeutic interventions to enhance HIV- and vaccine-mediated Ab responses in patients under ART. PMID:26546609

  13. Helper-Dependent Properties of Friend Spleen Focus-Forming Virus: Effect of the Fv-1 Gene on the Late Stages in Virus Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, Robert J.

    1973-01-01

    Co-infection of neonatal BALB/c mice with Friend virus (FV) complex (containing defective spleen focus-forming virus [SFFV] and endogenous N-tropic leukemia-inducing helper virus [LLV-F]) and B-tropic Tennant leukemia virus (TenLV) resulted in the inhibition of LLV-F by the Fv-1b gene and recovery of a TenLV pseudotype of SFFV, abbreviated SFFV(TenLV). The host range of this pseudotype was B-tropic, since SFFV(TenLV) was 10 to 100 times more infectious for B-type (Fv-1bb) than for N-type (Fv-1nn) mice. The similar patterns of neutralization of N-tropic and B-tropic SFFV by type-specific murine antisera suggested that the difference in infectivity between these two SFFV preparations did not reside in envelope determinants. Rather, helper control of SFFV's host range was only apparent and dependent upon the ability of associated virus to provide a helper function for late stages in SFFV synthesis. Early stages in SFFV's infectious cycle were shown to be helper independent. The Fv-1 gene did not act at the level of the cell membrane to effectively restrict SFFV infection, since SFFV-induced transformed cells could be detected in the absence of spleen focus formation and SFFV synthesis. Further, the generation of these transformed cells by SFFV followed a one-hit, dose-response pattern, suggesting that SFFV-induced cell transformation is helper independent. Finally, restriction of helper function by Fv-1 may be an intracellular event, because both SFFV and its associated LLV-F helper share common envelope determinants and presumably adsorb onto and penetrate target cells with equal efficiency. PMID:4127030

  14. The role of helper lipids in the intracellular disposition and transfection efficiency of niosome formulations for gene delivery to retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Edilberto; Puras, Gustavo; Agirre, Mireia; Zarate, Jon; Grijalvo, Santiago; Eritja, Ramon; DiGiacomo, Luca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Pedraz, Jose-Luis

    2016-04-30

    In this work, we carried out a comparative study of four different niosome formulations based on the same cationic lipid and non-ionic tensoactive. The niosomes prepared by oil-in-water emulsion technique (o/w) only differed in the helper lipid composition: squalene, cholesterol, squalane or no helper lipid. Niosomes and nioplexes elaborated upon the addition of pCMS-EGFP reporter plasmid were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential and polydispersity index. The capacity of the niosomes to condense, release and protect the DNA against enzymatic degradation was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis. In vitro experiments were carried out to evaluate transfection efficiency and cell viability in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Moreover, uptake and intracellular trafficking studies were performed to further understand the role of the helper lipids in the transfection process. Interestingly, among all tested formulations, niosomes elaborated with squalene as helper lipid were the most efficient transfecting cells. Such transfection efficiency could be attributed to their higher cellular uptake and the particular entry pathways used, where macropinocytosis pathway and lysosomal release played an important role. Therefore, these results suggest that helper lipid composition is a crucial step to be considered in the design of niosome formulation for retinal gene delivery applications since clearly modulates the cellular uptake, internalization mechanism and consequently, the final transfection efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intertriginous mycosis fungoides: a distinct presentation of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that may be caused by malignant follicular helper T cells.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Bryan; Guitart, Joan

    2012-09-01

    Follicular helper T cells are a subset of helper T cells that facilitate B-cell recruitment and maturation. Rare cases of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifesting as de novo tumor lesions in intertriginous skin contain an infiltrate rich in B cells. These cases may represent malignant counterparts of skin-homing follicular helper T cells. Two men and 1 woman (age range, 35-58 years) were seen with predominantly intertriginous tumor-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma lesions characterized by the absence of epidermotropism and the presence of a mixed infiltrate rich in B cells. Two of the patients died of the disease less than 3 years from the initial diagnosis. The surviving patient has aggressive disease and underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Two of the patients had a prominent CXCL13+, Bcl6/CD3+, and programmed death protein 1-positive follicular helper T-cell population. The intertriginous tumor variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is heterogeneous but may be associated in some cases with a follicular helper T-cell immunophenotype. These patients may follow an aggressive clinical course. Tumor progression in sanctuary sites on patients receiving phototherapy may manifest as a similar clinical phenotype. Further characterization of the disease process is needed to confirm this observation.

  16. [Development of Patient Transfer Techniques based on Postural-stability Principles for the Care Helpers in Nursing Homes and Evaluation of Effectiveness].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ryewon; Jung, Dukyoo

    2016-02-01

    This study was done to develop a postural-stability patient transfer technique for care helpers in nursing homes and to evaluate its effectiveness. Four types of patient transfer techniques (Lifting towards the head board of the bed, turning to the lateral position, sitting upright on the bed, transferring from wheel chair to bed) were practiced in accordance with the following three methods; Care helpers habitually used transfer methods (Method 1), patient transfer methods according to care helper standard textbooks (Method 2), and a method developed by the author ensuring postural-stability (Method 3). The care helpers' muscle activity and four joint angles were measured. The collected data were analyzed using the program SPSS Statistic 21.0. To differentiate the muscle activity and joint angle, the Friedman test was executed and the post-hoc analysis was conducted using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Muscle activity was significantly lower during Method 3 compared to Methods 1 and 2. In addition, the joint angle was significantly lower for the knee and shoulder joint angle while performing Method 3 compared to Methods 1 and 2. Findings indicate that using postural-stability patient transfer techniques can contribute to the prevention of musculoskeletal disease which care helpers suffer from due to physically demanding patient care in nursing homes.

  17. Follicular helper T cells in peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Alicia Beatriz; Acosta, Cristina Del Valle; Onetti, Laura; Mussano, Eduardo; Cadile, Ignacio Isaac; Ferrero, Paola Virginia

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by the presence of different autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. CD4T cells expressing CXCR5, referred as follicular helper T cells (Tfh), collaborate with B cells to produce antibodies. Differential expression of CXCR3 and CCR6 within CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells defines three mayor subsets: CXCR3 + CCR6 - (Tfh1), CXCR3 - CCR6 - (Tfh2) and CXCR3 - CCR6 + (Tfh17). The aim of the study was to assess whether there is an association between the percentage of these cells and RA and whether there is a correlation with disease activity. Twenty-four RA patients, 22 healthy controls (HC) and 16 undifferentiated arthritis (UA) patients were included. Percentage of CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells and their subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. No differences were found in the percentages of CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells in the comparison of RA vs HC or RA vs UA patients. Tfh1, Tfh2 and Tfh17 subsets showed no differences either. There was no correlation between CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells, Tfh1, Tfh2 and Tfh17, and Disease Activity Score in twenty-eight joints (DAS28) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Surprisingly, there was a positive correlation between Tfh17 cells and C-reactive protein. Finally, there was no correlation between CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells, or their subsets, and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin, or between the cells and RF. There were no differences between the percentages of CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells and their subsets in peripheral blood of RA patients and the percentages of cells in the control groups. This finding does not rule out a pathogenic role of these cells in the development and activity of RA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  18. Polarization of T-helper lymphocytes toward the Th2 phenotype in uremic patients.

    PubMed

    Libetta, C; Rampino, T; Dal Canton, A

    2001-08-01

    T-helper (Th) lymphocytes consist of Th1 and Th2 subsets. Th1 cells are effectors of cell-mediated immunity and secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which recruits new Th1 cells in cooperation with interleukin-12 (IL-12; produced by monocytes) and inhibits Th2 differentiation. Th2 cells produce IL-4 and IL-10, which inhibit IFN-gamma secretion and cell immunity. We investigated whether the impaired immune response in uremia is associated with an altered balance of Th1/Th2. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) on conservative treatment (CRF patients), patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis therapy (ESRD-HD patients), and healthy controls (CON). CD4(+) cells were isolated from PBMCs by negative selection using a magnetic labeling system. PBMCs and purified CD4(+) cells were cultured in Iscove's medium and Iscove's medium plus mitogens (phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide). IFN-gamma, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured in supernatant. The constitutive release of IL-4 and IL-10 by PBMCs and CD4(+) cells of CRF and ESRD-HD patients was increased by five to eight times in comparison with CON (P < 0.001). Constitutive IFN-gamma release by PBMCs of ESRD-HD patients was undetectable, although they secreted an increased amount of IL-12. Mitogen-stimulated release of IFN-gamma by PBMCs and CD4(+) cells of CRF and ESRD-HD patients was blunted (average PBMCs: CON, 115.8 pg/2 x10(6) cells; CRF, 81.8 pg/2 x10(6) cells; ESRD-HD, 9.3 pg/2 x10(6) cells; CD4(+) cells: CON, 358.0 pg/5 x 10(5) cells; CRF, 165.4 pg/5 x 10(5) cells; ESRD-HD, 43.5 pg/5 x 10(5) cells). The ability of PBMCs of ESRD-HD patients to secrete IFN-gamma was recovered after IL-4 and IL-10 neutralization. Uremia is associated with a prevalence of Th1 over Th2 cells and a configuration of cytokine network that depresses cell-mediated immunity.

  19. Extracellular MicroRNA Signature of Human Helper T Cell Subsets in Health and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Torri, Anna; Carpi, Donatella; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Crosti, Maria-Cristina; Moro, Monica; Gruarin, Paola; Rossi, Riccardo L; Rossetti, Grazisa; Di Vizio, Dolores; Hoxha, Mirjam; Bollati, Valentina; Gagliani, Cristina; Tacchetti, Carlo; Paroni, Moira; Geginat, Jens; Corti, Laura; Venegoni, Luigia; Berti, Emilio; Pagani, Massimiliano; Matarese, Giuseppe; Abrignani, Sergio; de Candia, Paola

    2017-02-17

    Upon T cell receptor stimulation, CD4 + T helper (Th) lymphocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing microRNAs. However, no data are available on whether human CD4 + T cell subsets release EVs containing different pattern of microRNAs. The present work aimed at filling this gap by assessing the microRNA content in EVs released upon in vitro T cell receptor stimulation of Th1, Th17, and T regulatory (Treg) cells. Our results indicate that EVs released by Treg cells are significantly different compared with those released by the other subsets. In particular, miR-146a-5p, miR-150-5p, and miR-21-5p are enriched, whereas miR-106a-5p, miR-155-5p, and miR-19a-3p are depleted in Treg-derived EVs. The in vitro identified EV-associated microRNA signature was increased in serum of autoimmune patients with psoriasis and returned to healthy levels upon effective treatment with etanercept, a biological drug targeting the TNF pathway and suppressing inflammation. Moreover, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed an over-representation of genes relevant for T cell activation, such as CD40L, IRAK1, IRAK2, STAT1, and c-Myb in the list of validated targets of Treg-derived EV miRNAs. At functional level, Treg-derived (but not Th1/Th17-derived) EVs inhibited CD4 + T cell proliferation and suppressed two relevant targets of miR-146a-5p: STAT1 and IRAK2. In conclusion, our work identified the miRNAs specifically released by different human CD4 + T cell subsets and started to unveil the potential use of their quantity in human serum to mark the pathological elicitation of these cells in vivo and their biological effect in cell to cell communication during the adaptive immune response. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Feasibility of Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing With Color-Coding and Helper Assistance (ACASI-H) for Hmong Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lor, Maichou; Bowers, Barbara J

    2017-08-01

    Many older adult immigrants in the US, including Hmong older adults, have limited English proficiency (LEP), and cannot read or have difficulty reading even in their first language (non-literate [NL]). Little has been done to identify feasible data collection approaches to enable inclusion of LEP or NL populations in research, limiting knowledge about their health. This study's purpose was to test the feasibility of culturally and linguistically adapted audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) with color-labeled response categories and helper assistance (ACASI-H) for collection of health data with Hmong older adults. Thirty dyads (older adult and a helper) completed an ACASI-H survey with 13 health questions and a face-to-face debriefing interview. ACASI-H survey completion was video-recorded and reviewed with participants. Video review and debriefing interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Directed and conventional content analyses were used to analyze the interviews. All respondents reported that ACASI-H survey questions were consistent with their health experience. They lacked computer experience and found ACASI-H's interface user-friendly. All used the pre-recorded Hmong oral translation except for one, whose helper provided translation. Some Hmong older adults struggled with the color labeling at first, but helpers guided them to use the colors correctly. All dyads liked the color-labeled response categories and confirmed that a helper was necessary during the survey process. Findings support use of oral survey question administration with a technologically competent helper and color-labeled response categories when engaging LEP older adults in health-related data collection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Intestinal IgA responses to Giardia muris in mice depleted of helper T lymphocytes and in immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, M F

    1989-04-01

    Immunocompetent mice infected with Giardia muris generate an intestinal antibody response to this parasite and clear G. muris infection. Previous work has shown that G. muris infection is prolonged in mice that have been depleted of helper (CD4+) T lymphocytes by treatment with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the murine CD4 antigen. The aim of the present study was to compare the intestinal anti-Giardia antibody response in immunocompetent mice and in mice depleted of helper T (Th) lymphocytes by treatment with anti-CD4 mAb. Immunocompetent mice generated an IgA response to G. muris, as judged by the presence of IgA on Giardia trophozoites harvested from the intestine of these animals more than 10 days after the start of the infection. The anti-Giardia IgA response was impaired in mice depleted of Th lymphocytes, as judged by virtual absence of immunofluorescent staining of trophozoites from these animals for surface-bound IgA. Clearance of G. muris infection was impaired by treatment of mice with anti-CD4 mAb. The results suggest that Th (CD4+) lymphocytes are important for the generation of a local IgA response against G. muris trophozoites in the mouse intestine and that IgA anti-trophozoite antibody may contribute to the clearance of G. muris from the intestine of immunocompetent mice.

  2. A rapid Q-PCR titration protocol for adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors that produces biologically relevant results

    PubMed Central

    Gallaher, Sean D.; Berk, Arnold J.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are employed in the study of cellular processes and as expression vectors used in gene therapy. The success and reproducibility of these studies is dependent in part on having accurate and meaningful titers of replication competent and helper-dependent adenovirus stocks, which is problematic due to the use of varied and divergent titration protocols. Physical titration methods, which quantify the total number of viral particles, are used by many, but are poor at estimating activity. Biological titration methods, such as plaque assays, are more biologically relevant, but are time consuming and not applicable to helper-dependent gene therapy vectors. To address this, a protocol was developed called “infectious genome titration” in which viral DNA is isolated from the nuclei of cells ~3 h post-infection, and then quantified by Q-PCR. This approach ensures that only biologically active virions are counted as part of the titer determination. This approach is rapid, robust, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to all forms of adenovirus. Unlike other Q-PCR-based methods, titers determined by this protocol are well correlated with biological activity. PMID:23624118

  3. Increased Frequency of T Follicular Helper Cells and Elevated Interleukin-27 Plasma Levels in Patients with Pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Thomas; Seipelt, Maria; Tackenberg, Björn; Möbs, Christian; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Hertl, Michael; Eming, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease in which IgG auto-antibodies (auto-ab) against the desmosomal cadherins desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and Dsg1 cause loss of epidermal keratinocyte adhesion. Aim of this study was to investigate cytokines derived from antigen-presenting cells (APC) and their relation to CD4+ T cell subpopulations and to the auto-ab response in pemphigus. In this regard, patients with pemphigus were compared to patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), an unrelated auto-ab–mediated autoimmune disease, and healthy controls. In pemphigus and MG, the plasma concentrations of the APC-derived immunomodulatory cytokine IL-27 were highly increased. Strikingly, IL-27 strongly correlated with Dsg-specific IgG auto-ab titers. T helper (Th) 17 cells were augmented in both pemphigus and MG patients while T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, which are essential in providing B cell help, were increased only in pemphigus along with increasing plasma concentrations of IL-21, a cytokine produced by Th17 and Tfh cells. Moreover, we could detect Dsg3-specific autoreactive T cells producing IL-21 upon ex vivo stimulation with Dsg3. These findings suggest that IL-27 and IL-21-producing T cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of pemphigus. The further characterization of IL-21-producing T cells and of the role of IL-27 will lead to a more defined understanding of the auto-ab response in pemphigus. PMID:26872212

  4. An inherently bi-functional subset of Foxp3+ T helper cells is controlled by the transcription factor Eos

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Madhav D.; Huang, Lei; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Lee, Eun-Joon; Wilson, James M.; Lemos, Henrique; Pan, Fan; Blazar, Bruce R.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Mellor, Andrew L; Shi, Huidong; Munn, David H.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY At sites of inflammation, certain regulatory T cells (Treg cells) can undergo rapid reprogramming into helper-like cells, without loss of the transcription factor Foxp3. We show that reprogramming is controlled by down-regulation of the transcription factor Eos (Ikzf4), an obligate co-repressor for Foxp3. Reprogramming was restricted to a specific subset of “Eoslabile” Treg cells which were present in the thymus and identifiable by characteristic surface markers and DNA methylation. Mice made deficient in this subset became impaired in their ability to provide help for presentation of new antigens to naive T cells. Down-regulation of Eos required the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, and mice lacking IL-6 had impaired development and function of the Eos-labile subset. Conversely, the immunoregulatory enzyme IDO blocked loss of Eos, and prevented the Eos-labile Treg cells from reprogramming. Thus, the Foxp3+ lineage contains a committed subset of Treg cells capable of rapid conversion into biologically important helper cells. PMID:23684987

  5. JAK inhibition induces silencing of T Helper cytokine secretion and a profound reduction in T regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Clodagh; Kordasti, Shahram; Seidl, Thomas; Perez Abellan, Pilar; Thomas, Nicholas S B; Harrison, Claire N; McLornan, Donal P; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2015-10-01

    CD4(+) T cells maintain cancer surveillance and immune tolerance. Chronic inflammation has been proposed as a driver of clonal evolution in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), suggesting that T cells play an important role in their pathogenesis. Treatment with JAK inhibitors (JAKi) results in improvements in MPN-associated constitutional symptoms as well as reductions in splenomegaly. However, effects of JAKi on T cells in MPN are not well established and the baseline immune signature remains unclear. We investigated the frequency and function of CD4(+) T cell subsets in 50 MPN patients at baseline as well as during treatment with either ruxolitinib or fedratinib in a subset. We show that CD4(+)  CD127(low)  CD25(high)  FOXP3(+) T regulatory cells are reduced in MPN patients compared to healthy controls and that this decrease is even more pronounced following JAKi therapy. Moreover, we show that after 6 months of treatment the number of T helper (Th)-17 cells increased. We also describe a functional 'silencing' of T helper cells both in vivo and in vitro and a blockade of pro-inflammatory cytokines from these cells. This profound effect of JAKi on T cell function may underlay augmented rates of atypical infections that have been reported with use of these drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Structural and Nonstructural Viral Proteins Are Targets of T-Helper Immune Response against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Barnea, Eilon; Mir, Carmen; Gebe, John A; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Proper antiviral humoral and cellular immune responses require previous recognition of viral antigenic peptides that are bound to HLA class II molecules, which are exposed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The helper immune response is critical for the control and the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infection, a virus with severe health risk in infected pediatric, immunocompromised, and elderly populations. In this study, using a mass spectrometry analysis of complex HLA class II-bound peptide pools that were isolated from large amounts of HRSV-infected cells, 19 naturally processed HLA-DR ligands, most of them included in a complex nested set of peptides, were identified. Both the immunoprevalence and the immunodominance of the HLA class II response to HRSV were focused on one nonstructural (NS1) and two structural (matrix and mainly fusion) proteins of the infective virus. These findings have clear implications for analysis of the helper immune response as well as for antiviral vaccine design. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Association of a NOD2 Gene Polymorphism and T-Helper 17 Cells With Presumed Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Míriam S.; Béla, Samantha R.; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L.; Fakiola, Michaela; Cruz, Ariane G.; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Quites, Humberto F.; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M. G.; Peixe, Ricardo G.; Campos, Wesley R.; Higino-Rocha, Anna C.; Miller, Nancy E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Antonelli, Lis R.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2013-01-01

    Retinochoroiditis manifests in patients infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we assessed 30 sibships and 89 parent/case trios of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis (POT) to evaluate associations with polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene. Three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within the NOD2 gene were genotyped. The family-based association test showed that the tag-SNP rs3135499 is associated with retinochoroiditis (P = .039). We then characterized the cellular immune response of 59 cases of POT and 4 cases of active ocular toxoplasmosis (AOT). We found no differences in levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 produced by T-helper 1 cells when comparing patients with AOT or POT to asymptomatic individuals. Unexpectedly, we found an increased interleukin 17A (IL-17A) production in patients with POT or OAT. In patients with POT or AOT, the main cellular source of IL-17A was CD4+CD45RO+T-bet−IFN-γ− T-helper 17 cells. Altogether, our results suggest that NOD2 influences the production of IL-17A by CD4+ T lymphocytes and might contribute to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:23100559

  8. Association of a NOD2 gene polymorphism and T-helper 17 cells with presumed ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Míriam S; Béla, Samantha R; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L; Fakiola, Michaela; Cruz, Ariane G; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Quites, Humberto F; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M G; Peixe, Ricardo G; Campos, Wesley R; Higino-Rocha, Anna C; Miller, Nancy E; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Antonelli, Lis R; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2013-01-01

    Retinochoroiditis manifests in patients infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we assessed 30 sibships and 89 parent/case trios of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis (POT) to evaluate associations with polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene. Three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within the NOD2 gene were genotyped. The family-based association test showed that the tag-SNP rs3135499 is associated with retinochoroiditis (P = .039). We then characterized the cellular immune response of 59 cases of POT and 4 cases of active ocular toxoplasmosis (AOT). We found no differences in levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 produced by T-helper 1 cells when comparing patients with AOT or POT to asymptomatic individuals. Unexpectedly, we found an increased interleukin 17A (IL-17A) production in patients with POT or OAT. In patients with POT or AOT, the main cellular source of IL-17A was CD4(+)CD45RO(+)T-bet(-)IFN-γ(-) T-helper 17 cells. Altogether, our results suggest that NOD2 influences the production of IL-17A by CD4(+) T lymphocytes and might contribute to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis.

  9. Treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome with Bifidobacterium infantis through regulation of T helper cells subsets.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Qu, Hongdang; Nian, Di; Chen, Yuhua; Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Qiang; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Chun; Ye, Ming; Ma, Bo

    2018-06-13

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare, autoimmune-mediated disease. The use of Bifidobacterium is reportedly effective in alleviating GBS since they act by regulating T helper (Th) cells. In this study, we explored the differentiation of T helper cell subsets in patients with GBS. We also evaluated the effect of GBS on Bifidobacterium levels in patients and the likely protective influence of this bacterium in alleviating the disease in an animal model. We used flow cytometry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the T cell subsets differentiation among 30 GBS patients and 20 healthy controls (HC). The concentration of Bifidobacterium was assayed by real-time PCR. Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) animal model was established to support the protective role of Bifidobacterium in GBS. The expression of Th cells, Th2 and Th17 in the patients was significantly higher than that in the HC, while Treg cells decreased substantially. Moreover, the levels of Bifidobacterium in the GBS patients were considerably lower than those in the HC, the concentration of Bifidobacterium correlating with Th2 and Th17 subsets negatively. Treatment with Bifidobacterium significantly reduced the levels of Th2 and Th17 and promoted the levels of Treg cells. We concluded from this study that Bifidobacterium alleviated GBS by regulating Th cells, although in-depth studies might be required to fully understand the mechanism of action. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Characterization of Helper Virus-Independent Cytopathogenic Classical Swine Fever Virus Generated by an In Vivo RNA Recombination System

    PubMed Central

    Gallei, Andreas; Rümenapf, Till; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Becher, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Molecular analyses revealed that most cytopathogenic (cp) pestivirus strains evolve from noncytopathogenic (noncp) viruses by nonhomologous RNA recombination. In contrast to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), cp classical swine fever virus (CSFV) field isolates were rarely detected and always represented helper virus-dependent subgenomes. To investigate RNA recombination in more detail, we recently established an in vivo system allowing the efficient generation of recombinant cp BVDV strains in cell culture after transfecting a synthetic subgenomic and nonreplicatable transcript into cells being infected with noncp BVDV (A. Gallei, A. Pankraz, H.-J. Thiel, and P. Becher, J. Virol. 78:6271-6281, 2004). Using an analogous approach, the first helper virus-independent cp CSFV strain (CP G1) has now been generated by RNA recombination. Accordingly, this study demonstrates the applicability of RNA recombination for designing new viral RNA genomes. The genomic RNA of CP G1 has a calculated size of 18.139 kb, almost 6 kb larger than all previously described CSFV genomes. It contains cellular sequences encoding a polyubiquitin fragment directly upstream of the nonstructural protein NS3 coding gene together with a duplication of viral sequences. CP G1 induces a cytopathic effect on different tissue culture cell lines from pigs and cattle. Subsequent analyses addressed growth kinetics, expression of NS3, and genetic stability of CP G1. PMID:15681445

  11. Higher Frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+PD1+ T Follicular Helper Cells in Patients With Infectious Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinlin; Zhou, Yonglie; Yu, Qinghua; Zhao, Zhao; Wang, Huan; Luo, Xiaoming; Chen, Yanxia; Zhu, Zhongliang; Chen, Guoqing; Wu, Mao; Qiu, Liannv

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are recognized as a distinct CD4+helper T cell subset, and mainly dysregulated in the autoimmune disease, whether it plays a role in the infectious mononucleosis (IM) diseases is unknown. In this study, we found that the CD4+CXCR5+ Tfh cells were not significantly changed, but the CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+ and CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+PD1+ Tfh subsets were significantly increased in the IM patients, and all these cells were significantly changed after antiviral therapy. Second, only the numbers of CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+PD1+ Tfh cells correlated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load, negatively correlated with the numbers of naive B cells and amount of IL-21, and positively correlated with the numbers of plasma cells, memory B cells, and atypical lymphocytes. Third, the frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+PD1+ Tfh subset was significantly higher in lymphadenectasis or hepatosplenomegaly patients, and associated with the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). All together, our findings discovered this CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+PD1+ Tfh cell subset might play an important role in the pathogenesis of IM. PMID:26559315

  12. Higher Frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+PD1+ T Follicular Helper Cells in Patients With Infectious Mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinlin; Zhou, Yonglie; Yu, Qinghua; Zhao, Zhao; Wang, Huan; Luo, Xiaoming; Chen, Yanxia; Zhu, Zhongliang; Chen, Guoqing; Wu, Mao; Qiu, Liannv

    2015-11-01

    Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are recognized as a distinct CD4helper T cell subset, and mainly dysregulated in the autoimmune disease, whether it plays a role in the infectious mononucleosis (IM) diseases is unknown. In this study, we found that the CD4CXCR5 Tfh cells were not significantly changed, but the CD4CXCR5ICOS and CD4CXCR5ICOSPD1 Tfh subsets were significantly increased in the IM patients, and all these cells were significantly changed after antiviral therapy. Second, only the numbers of CD4CXCR5ICOSPD1 Tfh cells correlated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load, negatively correlated with the numbers of naive B cells and amount of IL-21, and positively correlated with the numbers of plasma cells, memory B cells, and atypical lymphocytes. Third, the frequency of CD4CXCR5ICOSPD1 Tfh subset was significantly higher in lymphadenectasis or hepatosplenomegaly patients, and associated with the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). All together, our findings discovered this CD4CXCR5ICOSPD1 Tfh cell subset might play an important role in the pathogenesis of IM.

  13. In vitro Peptide Immunization ofTargetTax Protein HumanT-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 – Specific CD4+ Helper T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroya; Ngato, Toshihiro; Sato, Keisuke; Aoki, Naoko; Kimura, Shoji; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Tateno, Masatoshi; Celis, Esteban

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma induced by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is usually a fatal lymphoproliferative malignant disease. HTLV-1 Tax protein plays a critical role in HTLV-1-associated leukemogenesis and is an attractive target for vaccine development. Although HTLV-1Tax is the most dominant antigen for HTLV-1-specific CD8+ CTLs in HTLV-1-infected individuals, few epitopes recognized by CD4+ helper T lymphocytes in HTLV-1Tax protein have been described.The aim of the present study was to study T-helper-cell responses to HTLV-1 Tax and to identify naturally processed MHC class II – restricted epitopes that could be used for vaccine development. Experimental Design An MHC class II binding peptide algorithm was used to predict potential T-helper cell epitope peptides from HTLV-1 Tax. We assessed the ability of the corresponding peptides to elicit helper T-cell responses by in vitro vaccination of purified CD4+ T lymphocytes. Results Peptides Tax191–205 and Tax305–319 were effective in inducingT-helper-cell responses. Although Tax191–205 was restricted by the HLA-DR1 and DR9 alleles, responses to Tax305–319 were restricted by either DR15 or DQ9. Both these epitopes were found to be naturally processed by HTLV-1+ T-cell lymphoma cells and by autologous antigen-presenting cells that were pulsed with HTLV-1Tax+ tumor lysates. Notably, the two newly identified helper T-cell epitopes are found to lie proximal to known CTL epitopes, which will facilitate the development of prophylactic peptide – based vaccine capable of inducing simultaneous CTL andT-helper responses. Conclusion Our data suggest that HTLV-1 Tax protein could serve as tumor-associated antigen for CD4+ helper T cells and that the present epitopes might be used for T-cell-based immunotherapy against tumors expressing HTLV-1. PMID:16778109

  14. Bell miner provisioning calls are more similar among relatives and are used by helpers at the nest to bias their effort towards kin

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paul G.; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Kin selection predicts that helpers in cooperative systems should preferentially aid relatives to maximize fitness. In family-based groups, this can be accomplished simply by assisting all group members. In more complex societies, where large numbers of kin and non-kin regularly interact, more sophisticated kin-recognition mechanisms are needed. Bell miners (Manorina melanophrys) are just such a system where individuals regularly interact with both kin and non-kin within large colonies. Despite this complexity, individual helpers of both sexes facultatively work harder when provisioning the young of closer genetic relatedness. We investigated the mechanism by which such adaptive discrimination occurs by assessing genetic kinship influences on the structure of more than 1900 provisioning vocalizations of 185 miners. These ‘mew’ calls showed a significant, positive linear increase in call similarity with increasing genetic relatedness, most especially in comparisons between male helpers and the breeding male. Furthermore, individual helping effort was more heavily influenced by call similarity to breeding males than to genetic relatedness, as predicted if call similarity is indeed the rule-of-thumb used to discriminate kin in this system. Individual mew call structure appeared to be inflexible and innate, providing an effective mechanism by which helpers can assess their relatedness to any individual. This provides, to our knowledge, the first example of a mechanism for fine-scale kin discrimination in a complex avian society. PMID:21450738

  15. What on "irf" is this gene 4? Irf4 transcription-factor-dependent dendritic cells are required for T helper 2 cell responses in murine skin.

    PubMed

    Flutter, Barry; Nestle, Frank O

    2013-10-17

    Interferon regulatory factors play an important role in the transcriptional regulation of immunity. In this issue of Immunity, Kumamoto et al. (2013) and Gao et al. (2013) identify an Irf4-dependent migratory dendritic cell subset required for T helper 2 cell polarization following cutaneous challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Opposing Development of Cytotoxic and Follicular Helper CD4 T Cells Controlled by the TCF-1-Bcl6 Nexus.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Tiziano; Young, George R; Merkenschlager, Julia; Eksmond, Urszula; Bongard, Nadine; Nutt, Stephen L; Boyer, Claude; Dittmer, Ulf; Le-Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh; Trilling, Mirko; Bayer, Wibke; Kassiotis, George

    2016-11-01

    CD4 + T cells develop distinct and often contrasting helper, regulatory, or cytotoxic activities. Typically a property of CD8 + T cells, granzyme-mediated cytotoxic T cell (CTL) potential is also exerted by CD4 + T cells. However, the conditions that induce CD4 + CTLs are not entirely understood. Using single-cell transcriptional profiling, we uncover a unique signature of Granzyme B (GzmB) + CD4 + CTLs, which distinguishes them from other CD4 + T helper (Th) cells, including Th1 cells, and strongly contrasts with the follicular helper T (Tfh) cell signature. The balance between CD4 + CTL and Tfh differentiation heavily depends on the class of infecting virus and is jointly regulated by the Tfh-related transcription factors Bcl6 and Tcf7 (encoding TCF-1) and by the expression of the inhibitory receptors PD-1 and LAG3. This unique profile of CD4 + CTLs offers targets for their study, and its antagonism by the Tfh program separates CD4 + T cells with either helper or killer functions. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated computational biology analysis to evaluate target genes for chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Yu-Ping; Cao, Hongbao; Chen, Qiusheng; Zhang, Xi

    2018-06-05

    Although hundreds of genes have been linked to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), many of the results lack reproducibility. In the present study, data across multiple modalities were integrated to evaluate 579 CML candidate genes, including literature‑based CML‑gene relation data, Gene Expression Omnibus RNA expression data and pathway‑based gene‑gene interaction data. The expression data included samples from 76 patients with CML and 73 healthy controls. For each target gene, four metrics were proposed and tested with case/control classification. The effectiveness of the four metrics presented was demonstrated by the high classification accuracy (94.63%; P<2x10‑4). Cross metric analysis suggested nine top candidate genes for CML: Epidermal growth factor receptor, tumor protein p53, catenin β 1, janus kinase 2, tumor necrosis factor, abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1, vascular endothelial growth factor A, B‑cell lymphoma 2 and proto‑oncogene tyrosine‑protein kinase. In addition, 145 CML candidate pathways enriched with 485 out of 579 genes were identified (P<8.2x10‑11; q=0.005). In conclusion, weighted genetic networks generated using computational biology may be complementary to biological experiments for the evaluation of known or novel CML target genes.

  18. T-helper 17-related cytokines and IgE antibodies during hepatitis A virus infection in children.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Ochoa, Jorge L; Corral-Jara, Karla F; Escobedo-Meléndez, Griselda; Realpe, Mauricio; Panduro, Arturo; Roman, Sonia; Fierro, Nora A

    2015-04-01

    We determined the serum IgE levels and T-helper (Th)17-related cytokines during distinct hepatitis A virus (HAV)-induced clinical courses in children. A significantly higher concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein 3α, interleukin (IL)-17E and IL-17F in HAV-infected children with intermediate liver injury compared with those with minor liver damage was found. A reduction in the IgE levels in those patients who showed the highest levels of IL-17F in the group of intermediate liver injury was found. The data suggested that the Th17-related profile is associated with the severity of HAV infection and might play a role on the modulation achieved by HAV during allergies.

  19. When Foreign Domestic Helpers Care for and About Older People in Their Homes: I Am a Maid or a Friend

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Vico C. L.; Leung, Doris; Ku, Ben H. B.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the lived experiences of foreign domestic helpers (FDH) working with community-dwelling older people in Hong Kong. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 female FDHs, and thematically analyzed. The theme inescapable functioning commodity represented the embodied commodification of FDHs to be functional for older people in home care. Another theme, destined reciprocity of companionship, highlighted the FDHs’ capacity to commit to home care and be concerned about older people. The waxing and waning of the possibilities of commodified companionship indicated the intermittent capacity of FDHs to find meaning in their care, in which performative nature for functional purposes and emotional engagement took turns to be the foci in migrant home care. This study addresses the transition of FDHs from task-oriented relation to companions of older people through care work. Discussion draws on the development of a kin-like relationship between FDHs and older people with emotional reciprocity grounded in moral values. PMID:29404382

  20. A novel helper phage for HaloTag-mediated co-display of enzyme and substrate on phage.

    PubMed

    Delespaul, Wouter; Peeters, Yves; Herdewijn, Piet; Robben, Johan

    2015-05-01

    Phage display is an established technique for the molecular evolution of peptides and proteins. For the selection of enzymes based on catalytic activity however, simultaneous coupling of an enzyme and its substrate to the phage surface is required. To facilitate this process of co-display, we developed a new helper phage displaying HaloTag, a modified haloalkane dehalogenase that binds specifically and covalently to functionalized haloalkane ligands. The display of functional HaloTag was demonstrated by capture on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, after coupling a biotinylated haloalkane ligand, or after on-phage extension of a DNA oligonucleotide primer with a biotinylated nucleotide by phi29 DNA polymerase. We also achieved co-display of HaloTag and phi29 DNA polymerase, thereby opening perspectives for the molecular evolution of this enzyme (and others) towards new substrate specificities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. T-helper 17-related cytokines and IgE antibodies during hepatitis A virus infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo-Ochoa, Jorge L; Corral-Jara, Karla F; Escobedo-Meléndez, Griselda; Realpe, Mauricio; Panduro, Arturo; Roman, Sonia; Fierro, Nora A

    2015-01-01

    We determined the serum IgE levels and T-helper (Th)17-related cytokines during distinct hepatitis A virus (HAV)-induced clinical courses in children. A significantly higher concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein 3α, interleukin (IL)-17E and IL-17F in HAV-infected children with intermediate liver injury compared with those with minor liver damage was found. A reduction in the IgE levels in those patients who showed the highest levels of IL-17F in the group of intermediate liver injury was found. The data suggested that the Th17-related profile is associated with the severity of HAV infection and might play a role on the modulation achieved by HAV during allergies. PMID:25946253

  2. Germinal Center T Follicular Helper Cell IL-4 Production Is Dependent on Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Receptor (CD150)

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Isharat; Kageyama, Robin; Monticelli, Laurel; Johnston, Robert J.; DiToro, Daniel; Hansen, Kyle; Barnett, Burton; Crotty, Shane

    2010-01-01

    CD4 T cell help is critical for the generation and maintenance of germinal centers (GCs), and T follicular helper (TFH) cells are the CD4 T cell subset required for this process. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP [SH2D1A]) expression in CD4 T cells is essential for GC development. However, SAP-deficient mice have only a moderate defect in TFH differentiation, as defined by common TFH surface markers. CXCR5+ TFH cells are found within the GC, as well as along the boundary regions of T/B cell zones. In this study, we show that GC-associated T follicular helper (GC TFH) cells can be identified by their coexpression of CXCR5 and the GL7 epitope, allowing for phenotypic and functional analysis of TFH and GC TFH populations. GC TFH cells are a functionally discrete subset of further polarized TFH cells, with enhanced B cell help capacity and a specialized ability to produce IL-4 in a TH2-independent manner. Strikingly, SAP-deficient mice have an absence of the GC TFH cell subset and SAP− TFH cells are defective in IL-4 and IL-21 production. We further demonstrate that SLAM (Slamf1, CD150), a surface receptor that uses SAP signaling, is specifically required for IL-4 production by GC TFH cells. GC TFH cells require IL-4 and -21 production for optimal help to B cells. These data illustrate complexities of SAP-dependent SLAM family receptor signaling, revealing a prominent role for SLAM receptor ligation in IL-4 production by GC CD4 T cells but not in TFH cell and GC TFH cell differentiation. PMID:20525889

  3. miR-155 deficiency protects mice from experimental colitis by reducing T helper type 1/type 17 responses

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Udai P; Murphy, Angela E; Enos, Reilly T; Shamran, Haidar A; Singh, Narendra P; Guan, Honbing; Hegde, Venkatesh L; Fan, Daping; Price, Robert L; Taub, Dennis D; Mishra, Manoj K; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that affects millions of people worldwide, results in high morbidity and exorbitant health-care costs. The critical features of both innate and adaptive immunity are to control inflammation and dysfunction in this equilibrium is believed to be the reason for the development of IBD. miR-155, a microRNA, is up-regulated in various inflammatory disease states, including IBD, and is a positive regulator of T-cell responses. To date, no reports have defined a function for miR-155 with regard to cellular responses in IBD. Using an acute experimental colitis model, we found that miR-155−/− mice, as compared to wild-type control mice, have decreased clinical scores, a reversal of colitis-associated pathogenesis, and reduced systemic and mucosal inflammatory cytokines. The increased frequency of CD4+ lymphocytes in the spleen and lamina propria with dextran sodium sulphate induction was decreased in miR-155−/− mice. Similarly, miR-155 deficiency abrogated the increased numbers of interferon-γ expressing CD4+ T cells typically observed in wild-type mice in this model. The frequency of systemic and mucosal T helper type 17-, CCR9-expressing CD4+ T cells was also reduced in miR-155−/− mice compared with control mice. These findings strongly support a role for miR-155 in facilitating pro-inflammatory cellular responses in this model of IBD. Loss of miR-155 also results in decreases in T helper type 1/type 17, CD11b+, and CD11c+ cells, which correlated with reduced clinical scores and severity of disease. miR-155 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of IBD. PMID:24891206

  4. Persistent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Drives Differentiation, Aberrant Accumulation, and Latent Infection of Germinal Center Follicular T Helper Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Malam, Naomi; Aye, Pyone P.; Alvarez, Xavier; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT CD4+ follicular T helper (Tfh) cells play a prominent role in humoral immune responses, but the mechanisms of their accumulation and infection in AIDS remain unclear. Here we found that germinal center (GC) Tfh cells, defined here as CXCR5+ PD-1HIGH CD4+ T cells, do not express the HIV coreceptor CCR5 yet serve as a latent reservoir in GCs. With disease progression, an expansion of GC Tfh cells is accompanied by increases in dysfunctional CD8+ T cells. In contrast, Tfh precursor (CXCR5− CD4+ T) cells in lymph nodes do express CCR5 and differentiate into GC Tfh cells following interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-21 stimulation, and viral DNA is detectable in fully differentiated GC Tfh cells ex vivo. This suggests that SIV-infected GC Tfh cells may be derived from Tfh precursor cell subsets that become infected in marginal zones and then migrate into GCs as fully mature GC Tfh cells that serve as persistent virus reservoirs. These findings suggest that viral persistence in lymph nodes drives compensatory differentiation, aberrant accumulation, and latent infection of GC Tfh cells, resulting in marked impairment of humoral immune responses. IMPORTANCE Generation of antibodies that can effectively eliminate viruses requires interactions of B cells with highly specialized T cells in GCs of lymphoid tissues called follicular T helper cells. Here we show that in simian immunodeficiency virus infection, these cells are initially infected in a precursor stage that leads to alterations in their homing, accumulation, and function that may be responsible for the inability of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients to generate effective antibody responses. PMID:26608323

  5. Persistent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Drives Differentiation, Aberrant Accumulation, and Latent Infection of Germinal Center Follicular T Helper Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Malam, Naomi; Aye, Pyone P; Alvarez, Xavier; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2016-02-01

    CD4(+) follicular T helper (Tfh) cells play a prominent role in humoral immune responses, but the mechanisms of their accumulation and infection in AIDS remain unclear. Here we found that germinal center (GC) Tfh cells, defined here as CXCR5(+) PD-1(HIGH) CD4(+) T cells, do not express the HIV coreceptor CCR5 yet serve as a latent reservoir in GCs. With disease progression, an expansion of GC Tfh cells is accompanied by increases in dysfunctional CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, Tfh precursor (CXCR5(-) CD4(+) T) cells in lymph nodes do express CCR5 and differentiate into GC Tfh cells following interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-21 stimulation, and viral DNA is detectable in fully differentiated GC Tfh cells ex vivo. This suggests that SIV-infected GC Tfh cells may be derived from Tfh precursor cell subsets that become infected in marginal zones and then migrate into GCs as fully mature GC Tfh cells that serve as persistent virus reservoirs. These findings suggest that viral persistence in lymph nodes drives compensatory differentiation, aberrant accumulation, and latent infection of GC Tfh cells, resulting in marked impairment of humoral immune responses. Generation of antibodies that can effectively eliminate viruses requires interactions of B cells with highly specialized T cells in GCs of lymphoid tissues called follicular T helper cells. Here we show that in simian immunodeficiency virus infection, these cells are initially infected in a precursor stage that leads to alterations in their homing, accumulation, and function that may be responsible for the inability of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients to generate effective antibody responses. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation-induced T helper Cell Function

    SciTech Connect

    Gridley, Daila S.

    Exposure to radiation above levels normally encountered on Earth can occur during wartime, accidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, and detonation of “dirty bombs” by terrorists. Relatively high levels of radiation exposure can also occur in certain occupations (low-level waste sites, nuclear power plants, nuclear medicine facilities, airline industry, and space agencies). Depression or dysfunction of the highly radiosensitive cells of the immune system can lead to serious consequences, including increased risk for infections, cancer, hypersensitivity reactions, poor wound healing, and other pathologies. The focus of this research was on the T helper (Th) subset ofmore » lymphocytes that secrete cytokines (proteins), and thus control many actions and interactions of other cell types that make up what is collectively known as the immune system. The Department of Energy (DOE) Low Dose Radiation Program is concerned with mechanisms altered by exposure to high energy photons (x- and gamma-rays), protons and electrons. This study compared, for the first time, the low-dose effects of two of these radiation forms, photons and protons, on the response of Th cells, as well as other cell types with which they communicate. The research provided insights regarding gene expression patterns and capacity to secrete potent immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive cytokines, some of which are implicated in pathophysiological processes. Furthermore, the photon versus proton comparison was important not only to healthy individuals who may be exposed, but also to patients undergoing radiotherapy, since many medical centers in the United States, as well as worldwide, are now building proton accelerators. The overall hypothesis of this study was that whole-body exposure to low-dose photons (gamma-rays) will alter CD4+ Th cell function. We further proposed that exposure to low-dose proton radiation will induce a different pattern of gene and functional changes

  7. The Use of Peer Helpers to Facilitate Social and Play Skills in Students with Autistic Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durlak, Christine M.; Short, Jean M.

    The Stratford School (Highland Park, Illinois), a public day school program serving primarily a population of 3-to-21-year-old trainable mentally handicapped students, established a program whereby students with autistic characteristics (who were previously placed in self-contained, homogeneous classes) would be integrated with non-autistic…

  8. Loss of Ahi1 Impairs Neurotransmitter Release and Causes Depressive Behaviors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lijing; Sun, Miao; Miao, Zhigang; Li, Jizhen; Xu, Xingshun

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is becoming one of the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms of major depression are still not well-understood. Most antidepressants are only effective in some patients and produce some serious side effects. Animal models of depression are therefore essential to unravel the mechanisms of depression and to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Our previous studies showed that Abelson helper integration site-1 (Ahi1) deficiency causes depression-like behaviors in mice. In this study, we characterized the biochemical and behavioral changes in Ahi1 knockout (KO) mice. In Ahi1 KO mice, neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine were significantly decreased in different brain regions. However, glutamate and GABA levels were not affected by Ahi1 deficiency. The antidepressant imipramine attenuated depressive behaviors and partially restored brain serotonin level in Ahi1 KO mice. Our findings suggest that Ahi1 KO mice can be used for studying the mechanisms of depression and screening therapeutic targets. PMID:24691070

  9. Tetanus Toxoid carrier protein induced T-helper cell responses upon vaccination of middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    van der Heiden, Marieke; Duizendstra, Aafke; Berbers, Guy A M; Boots, Annemieke M H; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2017-10-09

    Vaccines frequently induce suboptimal immune responses in the elderly, due to immunological ageing. Timely vaccination may be a strategy to overcome this problem, which classifies middle-aged adults asan interesting target group for future vaccine interventions. However, the immunological fitness of the middle-aged population is ill-defined. It is currently unknown whether effective T-cell help towards B-cells is initiated by conjugate-carrier vaccines at middle-age. We characterized systemic Tetanus Toxoid (TT) specific T-helper cell responses in the circulation of middle-aged adults (50-65years of age, n=31) having received the MenACWY-TT vaccination. Blood samples were taken pre- as well as 7days, 28days, and 1year post-vaccination. TT-specific T-cell responses were determined by IFNγ Elispot and by the secretion of IFNγ, IL13, IL10, IL17, and IL21 in cell culture supernatants. Circulating CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+IL21+ cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, and meningococcal and TT-specific IgG responses by bead-based immunoassays. The correlation between the T-cell help and humoral responses was evaluated. Vaccination with a TT-carrier protein induced a mixed TT-specific Th1 (IFNγ), Th2 (IL13, IL10), and Th17 (IL17) response in most participants. Additionally, circulating CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+IL21+ cells were significantly increased 7days post-vaccination. Pre-vaccination TT-specific cytokine production and post-vaccination Th2 responses correlated positively with the increase of CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+IL21+ cells. No correlation between T-cell help and antibody responses was found. The characteristics of the T-cell response upon a TT-carrier vaccination suggests effective T-cell help towards B-cells in response to meningococcal polysaccharides, although the absence of a correlation with the antibody responses warrants further clarification. However, the robust T-helper cell response in middle-aged adults, decades after previous TT vaccinations, strengthens the classification of

  10. miR-192 suppresses T follicular helper cell differentiation by targeting CXCR5 in childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Defeng; Wu, Yuanbo; Sun, Gengyun

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-192 in differentiation of T follicular helper cells in childhood asthma. Blood samples were taken from eighteen children with acute asthma attacks and fifteen healthy children (HC). Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expression levels of miR-192, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5), B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6) and inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS). The flow cytometry was performed to detect the proportion of CD4 + CXCR5+ Tfh cells on CD4 + T lymphocytes. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to determine the plasma concentrations of total IgE and IL-21. The effect of miR-192 on the T follicular helper cells differentiation by targeting CXCR5 was determined by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Children with asthma had lower levels of miR-192 than HC. The proportion of CD4 + CXCR + Tfh cells was significantly higher in the acute asthma group than HC. Similarly, the plasma concentration of total IgE and IL-21 in the acute group markedly increased compared with the HC, and IgE concentration was positively correlated with the proportion of CD4 + CXCR5 + Tfh cells. Furthermore, the expression levels of CXCR5, Bcl-6 and ICOS were significantly higher in the acute group than in the HC. While the proportion of CD4 + CXCR5 + Tfh cells, IL-21, CXCR5, Bcl-6 and ICOS were obviously lower in the CD4 + T cells transfected with miR-192 plasmid than that in miR-192 + CXCR5 group and control group. In conclusion, miR-192 blocks the activation pathway of Tfh cells by targeting CXCR5, which is a reasonable cellular target for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Large numbers of interleukins-22- and -17A-producing T helper cells in cholangiocarcinoma related to liver fluke infection.

    PubMed

    Su, Si-Biao; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Fei-Fei; Cen, Yu; Jiang, Hai-Xing

    2017-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) associated with liver fluke infection involves inflammatory and immune processes; however, whether these involve the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17A and proliferative cytokine IL-22 remains unclear. Here, numbers of IL-22- and IL-17A-producing Th cells and cytokine concentrations in 30 patients with CCA and long-term liver fluke infection, 40 patients with liver-fluke infection but not CCA, and 16 healthy controls were compared. Analyses were performed using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, ELISA and RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining showed weaker expression of IL-22 and IL-17A in patients with CCA with than in those without liver fluke infection (P < 0.01). Flow cytometry revealed significantly greater median proportions of IL-22-producing T helper cells in patients with CCA (2.2%) than in those without it (0.69%) or controls (0.4%, P < 0.001). Similar results were obtained for IL-17A-producing T helper cells. ELISA revealed plasma concentrations of IL-22 were 1.3-fold higher in patients with CCA than in those without it and 4.6-fold higher than in controls (P < 0.001). Plasma concentrations of IL-17A were 2.5-fold higher in patients with CCA than in those without it, and 21-fold higher than in controls (P < 0.001). Amounts of IL-22 and IL-17A mRNAs in blood were significantly higher in patients with CCA than in the other two groups. Proportions of CD4 + CD45RO + T cells producing IL-22 correlated with proportions producing IL-17A (r = 0.759; P < 0.001), and plasma concentrations of IL-22 correlated with those of IL-17A (r = 0.726; P < 0.001). These results suggest that both IL-17A and IL-22 affect development of CCA related to liver fluke infection. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Crucial Roles of Interleukin-7 in the Development of T Follicular Helper Cells and in the Induction of Humoral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yong Bok; Im, Se Jin; Namkoong, Hong; Kim, Sae Won; Choi, Young Woo; Kang, Moon Cheol; Lim, Hye Seong; Jin, Hyun Tak; Yang, Se Hwan; Cho, Mi La; Kim, You-Me; Lee, Seung-Woo; Choi, Young Ki; Surh, Charles D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are specialized providers of cognate B cell help, which is important in promoting the induction of high-affinity antibody production in germinal centers (GCs). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-21 have been known to play important roles in Tfh cell differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that IL-7 plays a pivotal role in Tfh generation and GC formation in vivo, as treatment with anti-IL-7 neutralizing antibody markedly impaired the development of Tfh cells and IgG responses. Moreover, codelivery of mouse Fc-fused IL-7 (IL-7-mFc) with a vaccine enhanced the generation of GC B cells as well as Tfh cells but not other lineages of T helper cells, including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells. Interestingly, a 6-fold-lower dose of an influenza virus vaccine codelivered with Fc-fused IL-7 induced higher antigen-specific and cross-reactive IgG titers than the vaccine alone in both mice and monkeys and led to markedly enhanced protection against heterologous influenza virus challenge in mice. Enhanced generation of Tfh cells by IL-7-mFc treatment was not significantly affected by the neutralization of IL-6 and IL-21, indicating an independent role of IL-7 on Tfh differentiation. Thus, IL-7 holds promise as a critical cytokine for selectively inducing Tfh cell generation and enhancing protective IgG responses. IMPORTANCE Here, we demonstrate for the first time that codelivery of Fc-fused IL-7 significantly increased influenza virus vaccine-induced antibody responses, accompanied by robust expansion of Tfh cells and GC B cells as well as enhanced GC formation. Furthermore, IL-7-mFc induced earlier and cross-reactive IgG responses, leading to striking protection against heterologous influenza virus challenge. These results suggest that Fc-fused IL-7 could be used for inducing strong and cross-protective humoral immunity against highly mutable viruses, such as HIV and hepatitis C virus, as well as influenza viruses. PMID:24899182

  13. Evidence that Singlet Oxygen-induced Human T Helper Cell Apoptosis Is the Basic Mechanism of Ultraviolet-A Radiation Phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Akimichi; Werfel, Thomas; Stege, Helger; Ahrens, Constanze; Karmann, Karin; Grewe, Markus; Grether-Beck, Susanne; Ruzicka, Thomas; Kapp, Alexander; Klotz, Lars-Oliver; Sies, Helmut; Krutmann, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is effectively used to treat patients with atopic dermatitis and other T cell mediated, inflammatory skin diseases. In the present study, successful phototherapy of atopic dermatitis was found to result from UVA radiation-induced apoptosis in skin-infiltrating T helper cells, leading to T cell depletion from eczematous skin. In vitro, UVA radiation-induced human T helper cell apoptosis was mediated through the FAS/FAS-ligand system, which was activated in irradiated T cells as a consequence of singlet oxygen generation. These studies demonstrate that singlet oxygen is a potent trigger for the induction of human T cell apoptosis. They also identify singlet oxygen generation as a fundamental mechanism of action operative in phototherapy. PMID:9362536

  14. Identification of a CD8 T cell that can independently mediate autoimmune diabetes development in the complete absence of CD4 T cell helper functions.

    PubMed

    Graser, R T; DiLorenzo, T P; Wang, F; Christianson, G J; Chapman, H D; Roopenian, D C; Nathenson, S G; Serreze, D V

    2000-04-01

    Previous work has indicated that an important component for the initiation of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in the NOD mouse model entails MHC class I-restricted CD8 T cell responses against pancreatic beta cell Ags. However, unless previously activated in vitro, such CD8 T cells have previously been thought to require helper functions provided by MHC class II-restricted CD4 T cells to exert their full diabetogenic effects. In this study, we show that IDDM development is greatly accelerated in a stock of NOD mice expressing TCR transgenes derived from a MHC class I-restricted CD8 T cell clone (designated AI4) previously found to contribute to the earliest preclinical stages of pancreatic beta cell destruction. Importantly, these TCR transgenic NOD mice (designated NOD.AI4alphabeta Tg) continued to develop IDDM at a greatly accelerated rate when residual CD4 helper T cells were eliminated by introduction of the scid mutation or a functionally inactivated CD4 allele. In a previously described stock of NOD mice expressing TCR transgenes derived from another MHC class I-restricted beta cell autoreactive T cell clone, IDDM development was retarded by elimination of residual CD4 T cells. Hence, there is variability in the helper dependence of CD8 T cells contributing to the development of autoimmune IDDM. The AI4 clonotype represents the first CD8 T cell with a demonstrated ability to progress from a naive to functionally activated state and rapidly mediate autoimmune IDDM development in the complete absence of CD4 T cell helper functions.

  15. Randomized Multicenter Trial of the Effects of Melanoma-Associated Helper Peptides and Cyclophosphamide on the Immunogenicity of a Multipeptide Melanoma Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Slingluff, Craig L.; Petroni, Gina R.; Chianese-Bullock, Kimberly A.; Smolkin, Mark E.; Ross, Merrick I.; Haas, Naomi B.; von Mehren, Margaret; Grosh, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This multicenter randomized trial was designed to test whether melanoma-associated helper peptides augment CD8+ T-cell responses to a melanoma vaccine and whether cyclophosphamide (CY) pretreatment augments CD4+ or CD8+ T-cell responses to that vaccine. Patients and Methods In all, 167 eligible patients with resected stage IIB to IV melanoma were randomly assigned to four vaccination study arms. Patients were vaccinated with 12 class I major histocompatibility complex–restricted melanoma peptides (12MP) to stimulate CD8+ T cells and were randomly assigned to receive a tetanus helper peptide or a mixture of six melanoma-associated helper peptides (6MHP) to stimulate CD4+ T cells. Before vaccination, patients were also randomly assigned to receive CY pretreatment or not. T-cell responses were assessed by an ex vivo interferon gamma ELISpot assay. Clinical outcomes and toxicities were recorded. Results Vaccination with 12MP plus tetanus induced CD8+ T-cell responses in 78% of patients and CD4+ T-cell responses to tetanus peptide in 93% of patients. Vaccination with 12MP plus 6MHP induced CD8+ responses in 19% of patients and CD4+ responses to 6MHP in 48% of patients. CY had no significant effect on T-cell responses. Overall 3-year survival was 79% (95% CI, 71% to 86%), with no significant differences (at this point) by study arm. Conclusion Melanoma-associated helper peptides paradoxically decreased CD8+ T-cell responses to a melanoma vaccine (P < .001), and CY pretreatment had no immunologic or clinical effect. Prior work showed immunologic and clinical activity of 6MHP alone. Possible explanations for negative effects on CD8 responses include modulation of homing receptor expression or induction of antigen-specific regulatory T cells. PMID:21690475

  16. Prostate-Specific and Tumor-Specific Targeting of an Oncolytic HSV-1 Amplicon/Helper Virus for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    that differentially expressed tumor suppressor miRNAs can be utilized to control the replication of an oncolytic DNA virus in a tumor-specific...demonstrated that the utilization of the tissue-specific promoter and the miRNA-mediated 3’UTRs in a targeted virotherapy is a viable approach with...elements into the whole HSV-1 viral genome should increase the safety margin substantially. The major advantage of the amplicon/helper system is its

  17. Multicolor flow-cytometric analysis of milk allergen-specific T-helper type 2 cells revealed coexpression of interleukin-4 with Foxp3.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Kazuo; Inuo, Chisato; Nomura, Takayasu; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakajima, Yoichi; Kondo, Yasuto; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Urisu, Atsuo; Tsuge, Ikuya

    2015-12-01

    Allergen-specific T-helper type 2 (TH2) cells play an important role in the development of allergic inflammation; however, investigations of the properties of allergen-specific T cells have been challenging in humans. Despite clear evidence that forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) is expressed in conventional effector T cells, its function has remained unknown. To characterize allergen-specific TH2 cells in milk allergy, with particular focus on the expression of Foxp3. Twenty-one children with milk allergy and 11 children without milk allergy were studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects were stimulated with milk allergen for 6 hours and analyzed using multicolor flow cytometry to identify CD154(+) allergen-specific T-helper cells. Simultaneously, the expression of intracellular cytokines and Foxp3 was analyzed. The milk allergy group had significantly larger numbers of milk allergen-specific interleukin (IL)-4- and IL-5-producing CD4(+) T cells than the control group. Subjects in the milk allergy group had significantly more CD154(+)CD4(+) IL-10-producing cells and CD154(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cells than those in the control group. In addition, the number of milk allergen-specific CD154(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cells strongly correlated with that of CD154(+)IL4(+)CD4(+) cells. Bcl-2 expression in CD154(+)IL-4(+)Foxp3(+) T-helper cells was significantly lower compared with that in total CD4 cells. Increased numbers of IL-4-producing allergen-specific T-helper cells were found in patients with milk allergy. In addition, Foxp3 was coexpressed with IL-4 in allergen-specific TH2 cells from patients. This coexpression was associated with lower Bcl-2 levels and could contribute to the phenotype and function of TH2 cells. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk-managed production of bioactive recombinant proteins using a novel plant virus vector with a helper plant to complement viral systemic movement.

    PubMed

    Fukuzawa, Noriho; Ishihara, Takeaki; Itchoda, Noriko; Tabayashi, Noriko; Kataoka, Chiwa; Masuta, Chikara; Matsumura, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    A plant viral vector has the potential to efficiently produce recombinant proteins at a low cost in a short period. Although recombinant proteins can be also produced by transgenic plants, a plant viral vector, if available, may be more convenient when urgent scale-up in production is needed. However, it is difficult to use a viral vector in open fields because of the risk of escape to the environment. In this study, we constructed a novel viral vector system using a movement-defective Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vector, which is theoretically localized in the inoculated cells but infects systemically only with the aid of the transgenic helper plant that complements viral movement, diminishing the risk of viral proliferation. Interestingly, the helper plant systemically infected with the vector gave strong cross-protection against challenge inoculation with wild-type CMVs. Using CMV strains belonging to two discrete CMV groups (subgroups I and II), we also improved the system to prevent recombination between the vector and the transgene transcript in the helper plant. We here demonstrate the expression of an anti-dioxin single chain variable fragment (DxscFv) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-Ra) in Nicotiana benthamiana by this viral vector confinement system, which is applicable for many useful high-quality recombinant proteins. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. They need to be recognized as a person in everyday life: Teachers' and helpers' experiences of teacher-student relationships in upper secondary school.

    PubMed

    Krane, Vibeke; Karlsson, Bengt; Ness, Ottar; Binder, Per-Einar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how teachers and helpers experience that teacher-student relationship (TSR) is developed and promoted in upper secondary school.We also explored their experiences of qualities of TSR with students with mental health problems or at risk of dropping out. The study used a qualitative and participative approach; key stakeholders were included as co-researchers. Focus group interviews were held with 27 teachers and helpers. A thematic analysis was conducted. The participants' descriptions of important experiential dimensions of TSR were clustered around four themes: (1) to be recognized as a person with strengths and challenges in everyday life, (2) collaborative relationships between students and teachers, (3) flexible boundaries in the relationship between teachers and students and (4) organization of classes and procedures set the stage for TSR. Collaborative, emotional and contextual qualities were found important to the development of TSR in upper secondary school. Experiences of negative qualities of TSR can contribute to push students out of school. Teachers and helpers experience that TSR may have the potential to play a role in promoting mental health in students' everyday life.

  20. RIG-I-like receptor activation by dengue virus drives follicular T helper cell formation and antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Sprokholt, Joris K.; Kaptein, Tanja M.; van Hamme, John L.; Overmars, Ronald J.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular T helper cells (TFH) are fundamental in orchestrating effective antibody-mediated responses critical for immunity against viral infections and effective vaccines. However, it is unclear how virus infection leads to TFH induction. We here show that dengue virus (DENV) infection of human dendritic cells (DCs) drives TFH formation via crosstalk of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) RIG-I and MDA5 with type I Interferon (IFN) signaling. DENV infection leads to RLR-dependent IKKε activation, which phosphorylates IFNα/β receptor-induced STAT1 to drive IL-27 production via the transcriptional complex ISGF3. Inhibiting RLR activation as well as neutralizing antibodies against IL-27 prevented TFH formation. DENV-induced CXCR5+PD-1+Bcl-6+ TFH cells secreted IL-21 and activated B cells to produce IgM and IgG. Notably, RLR activation by synthetic ligands also induced IL-27 secretion and TFH polarization. These results identify an innate mechanism by which antibodies develop during viral disease and identify RLR ligands as potent adjuvants for TFH-promoting vaccination strategies. PMID:29186193

  1. T helper type 2-polarized invariant natural killer T cells reduce disease severity in acute intra-abdominal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Anantha, R V; Mazzuca, D M; Xu, S X; Porcelli, S A; Fraser, D D; Martin, C M; Welch, I; Mele, T; Haeryfar, S M M; McCormick, J K

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by a severe systemic inflammatory response to infection that is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite optimal care. Invariant natural killer T (iNK T) cells are potent regulatory lymphocytes that can produce pro- and/or anti-inflammatory cytokines, thus shaping the course and nature of immune responses; however, little is known about their role in sepsis. We demonstrate here that patients with sepsis/severe sepsis have significantly elevated proportions of iNK T cells in their peripheral blood (as a percentage of their circulating T cells) compared to non-septic patients. We therefore investigated the role of iNK T cells in a mouse model of intra-abdominal sepsis (IAS). Our data show that iNK T cells are pathogenic in IAS, and that T helper type 2 (Th2) polarization of iNK T cells using the synthetic glycolipid OCH significantly reduces mortality from IAS. This reduction in mortality is associated with the systemic elevation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-13 and reduction of several proinflammatory cytokines within the spleen, notably interleukin (IL)-17. Finally, we show that treatment of sepsis with OCH in mice is accompanied by significantly reduced apoptosis of splenic T and B lymphocytes and macrophages, but not natural killer cells. We propose that modulation of iNK T cell responses towards a Th2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy in early sepsis. PMID:24965554

  2. Nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccines induce potent T follicular helper and germinal center B cell responses.

    PubMed

    Pardi, Norbert; Hogan, Michael J; Naradikian, Martin S; Parkhouse, Kaela; Cain, Derek W; Jones, Letitia; Moody, M Anthony; Verkerke, Hans P; Myles, Arpita; Willis, Elinor; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Lobby, Jenna L; Saunders, Kevin O; Liao, Hua-Xin; Korber, Bette T; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Hraber, Peter T; Tombácz, István; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Ni, Houping; Balikov, Daniel A; Li, Charles; Mui, Barbara L; Tam, Ying K; Krammer, Florian; Karikó, Katalin; Polacino, Patricia; Eisenlohr, Laurence C; Madden, Thomas D; Hope, Michael J; Lewis, Mark G; Lee, Kelly K; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Hensley, Scott E; Cancro, Michael P; Haynes, Barton F; Weissman, Drew

    2018-06-04

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are required to develop germinal center (GC) responses and drive immunoglobulin class switch, affinity maturation, and long-term B cell memory. In this study, we characterize a recently developed vaccine platform, nucleoside-modified, purified mRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNPs), that induces high levels of Tfh and GC B cells. Intradermal vaccination with nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNPs encoding various viral surface antigens elicited polyfunctional, antigen-specific, CD4 + T cell responses and potent neutralizing antibody responses in mice and nonhuman primates. Importantly, the strong antigen-specific Tfh cell response and high numbers of GC B cells and plasma cells were associated with long-lived and high-affinity neutralizing antibodies and durable protection. Comparative studies demonstrated that nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNP vaccines outperformed adjuvanted protein and inactivated virus vaccines and pathogen infection. The incorporation of noninflammatory, modified nucleosides in the mRNA is required for the production of large amounts of antigen and for robust immune responses. © 2018 Pardi et al.

  3. Improved delivery of the OVA-CD4 peptide to T helper cells by polymeric surface display on Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Autotransporter proteins represent a treasure trove for molecular engineers who modify Gram-negative bacteria for the export or secretion of foreign proteins across two membrane barriers. A particularly promising direction is the development of autotransporters as antigen display or secretion systems. Immunologists have been using ovalbumin as a reporter antigen for years and have developed sophisticated tools to detect specific T cells that respond to ovalbumin. Although ovalbumin-expressing bacteria are being used to trace T cell responses to colonizing or invading pathogens, current constructs for ovalbumin presentation have not been optimized. Results The activation of T helper cells in response to ovalbumin was improved by displaying the OVA-CD4 reporter epitope as a multimer on the surface of Salmonella and fused to the autotransporter MisL. Expression was optimized by including tandem in vivo promoters and two post-segregational killing systems for plasmid stabilization. Conclusions The use of an autotransporter protein to present relevant epitope repeats on the surface of bacteria, combined with additional techniques favoring stable and efficient in vivo transcription, optimizes antigen presentation to T cells. The technique of multimeric epitope surface display should also benefit the development of new Salmonella or other enterobacterial vaccines. PMID:24898796

  4. Germinal-center development of memory B cells driven by IL-9 from follicular helper T cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Shi, Jingwen; Yan, Jiacong; Xiao, Zhengtao; Hou, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Peiwen; Hou, Shiyue; Mao, Tianyang; Liu, Wanli; Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Lianfeng; Yang, Xuerui; Qi, Hai

    2017-08-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) support high-affinity, long-lived humoral immunity. How memory B cells develop in GCs is not clear. Through the use of a cell-cycle-reporting system, we identified GC-derived memory precursor cells (GC-MP cells) that had quit cycling and reached G0 phase while in the GC, exhibited memory-associated phenotypes with signs of affinity maturation and localized toward the GC border. After being transferred into adoptive hosts, GC-MP cells reconstituted a secondary response like genuine memory B cells. GC-MP cells expressed the interleukin 9 (IL-9) receptor and responded to IL-9. Acute treatment with IL-9 or antibody to IL-9 accelerated or retarded the positioning of GC-MP cells toward the GC edge and exit from the GC, and enhanced or inhibited the development of memory B cells, which required B cell-intrinsic responsiveness to IL-9. Follicular helper T cells (T FH cells) produced IL-9, and deletion of IL-9 from T cells or, more specifically, from GC T FH cells led to impaired memory formation of B cells. Therefore, the GC development of memory B cells is promoted by T FH cell-derived IL-9.

  5. B cells in T Follicular Helper Cell Development and Function: Separable Roles in Delivery of ICOS Ligand and Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jason S.; Bertino, Sarah A.; Hernandez, Sairy G.; Poholek, Amanda C.; Teplitzky, Taylor B.; Nowyhed, Heba N.; Craft, Joe

    2014-01-01

    B cells are required for follicular helper T (Tfh) cell development, as is the ligand for ICOS (ICOS-L); however, the separable contributions of Ag and ICOS-L delivery by cognate B cells to Tfh-cell development and function are unknown. We find that Tfh-cell and germinal center differentiation are dependent upon cognate B-cell display of ICOS-L, but only when Ag presentation by the latter is limiting, with the requirement for B-cell expression of ICOS-L overcome by robust Ag delivery. These findings demonstrate that Ag-specific B cells provide different, yet compensatory signals for Tfh-cell differentiation, while reconciling conflicting data indicating a requirement for ICOS-L expression on cognate B cells for Tfh-cell development with those demonstrating this requirement could be bypassed in lieu of that tendered by non-cognate B cells. Our findings clarify the separable roles of delivery of Ag and ICOS-L by cognate B cells for Tfh-cell maturation and function, and have implications for using therapeutic ICOS blockade in settings of abundantly available Ag, such as in systemic autoimmunity. PMID:24610013

  6. Abortive T Follicular Helper Development Is Associated with a Defective Humoral Response in Leishmania infantum-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Vasco; Laforge, Mireille; Campillo-Gimenez, Laure; Soundaramourty, Calaiselvy; Correia-de-Oliveira, Ana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Ouaissi, Ali; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Silvestre, Ricardo; Estaquier, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum causes a chronic infectious disease named visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We employed a non-human primate model to monitor immune parameters over time and gain new insights into the disease. Rhesus macaques were infected with L. infantum and the T helper and B cell immunological profiles characterized during acute and chronic phases of infection. Parasite detection in visceral compartments during the acute phase was associated with differentiation of effector memory CD4 T cells and increased levels of Th1 transcripts. At the chronic phase, parasites colonized novel lymphoid niches concomitant with increased expression of IL10. Despite the occurrence of hypergammaglobulinemia, the production of parasite-specific IgG was poor, being confined to the acute phase and positively correlated with the frequency of an activated memory splenic B cell population. We noticed the expansion of a splenic CD4 T cell population expressing CXCR5 and Bcl-6 during acute infection that was associated with the differentiation of the activated memory B cell population. Moreover, the number of splenic germinal centers peaked at one month after infection, hence paralleling the production of specific IgG. However, at chronic infection these populations contracted impacting the production of parasite-specific IgG. Our study provides new insights into the immune events taking place in a physiologically relevant host and a mechanistic basis for the inefficient humoral response during VL. PMID:24763747

  7. The grafting of universal T-helper epitopes enhances immunogenicity of HIV-1 Tat concurrently improving its safety profile.

    PubMed

    Kashi, Venkatesh P; Jacob, Rajesh A; Shamanna, Raghavendra A; Menon, Malini; Balasiddaiah, Anangi; Varghese, Rebu K; Bachu, Mahesh; Ranga, Udaykumar

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular Tat (eTat) plays an important role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. The presence of anti-Tat antibodies is negatively correlated with disease progression, hence making Tat a potential vaccine candidate. The cytotoxicity and moderate immunogenicity of Tat however remain impediments for developing Tat-based vaccines. Here, we report a novel strategy to concurrently enhance the immunogenicity and safety profile of Tat. The grafting of universal helper T-lymphocyte (HTL) epitopes, Pan DR Epitope (PADRE) and Pol711 into the cysteine rich domain (CRD) and the basic domain (BD) abolished the transactivation potential of the Tat protein. The HTL-Tat proteins elicited a significantly higher titer of antibodies as compared to the wild-type Tat in BALB/c mice. While the N-terminal epitope remained immunodominant in HTL-Tat immunizations, an additional epitope in exon-2 was recognized with comparable magnitude suggesting a broader immune recognition. Additionally, the HTL-Tat proteins induced cross-reactive antibodies of high avidity that efficiently neutralized exogenous Tat, thus blocking the activation of a Tat-defective provirus. With advantages such as presentation of multiple B-cell epitopes, enhanced antibody response and importantly, transactivation-deficient Tat protein, this approach has potential application for the generation of Tat-based HIV/AIDS vaccines.

  8. Small-molecule RORγt antagonists inhibit T helper 17 cell transcriptional network by divergent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sheng; Yosef, Nir; Yang, Jianfei; Wang, Yonghui; Zhou, Ling; Zhu, Chen; Wu, Chuan; Baloglu, Erkan; Schmidt, Darby; Ramesh, Radha; Lobera, Mercedes; Sundrud, Mark S; Tsai, Pei-Yun; Xiang, Zhijun; Wang, Jinsong; Xu, Yan; Lin, Xichen; Kretschmer, Karsten; Rahl, Peter B; Young, Richard A; Zhong, Zhong; Hafler, David A; Regev, Aviv; Ghosh, Shomir; Marson, Alexander; Kuchroo, Vijay K

    2014-04-17

    We identified three retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt)-specific inhibitors that suppress T helper 17 (Th17) cell responses, including Th17-cell-mediated autoimmune disease. We systemically characterized RORγt binding in the presence and absence of drugs with corresponding whole-genome transcriptome sequencing. RORγt acts as a direct activator of Th17 cell signature genes and a direct repressor of signature genes from other T cell lineages; its strongest transcriptional effects are on cis-regulatory sites containing the RORα binding motif. RORγt is central in a densely interconnected regulatory network that shapes the balance of T cell differentiation. Here, the three inhibitors modulated the RORγt-dependent transcriptional network to varying extents and through distinct mechanisms. Whereas one inhibitor displaced RORγt from its target loci, the other two inhibitors affected transcription predominantly without removing DNA binding. Our work illustrates the power of a system-scale analysis of transcriptional regulation to characterize potential therapeutic compounds that inhibit pathogenic Th17 cells and suppress autoimmunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. VLA-4 integrin concentrates at the peripheral supramolecular activation complex of the immune synapse and drives T helper 1 responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelbrunn, María; Molina, Ana; Escribese, María M.; Yáñez-Mó, María; Escudero, Ester; Ursa, Ángeles; Tejedor, Reyes; Mampaso, Francisco; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2004-07-01

    The integrin 41 (VLA-4) not only mediates the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes, but also provides costimulatory signals that contribute to the activation of T lymphocytes. However, the behavior of 41 during the formation of the immune synapse is currently unknown. Here, we show that 41 is recruited to both human and murine antigen-dependent immune synapses, when the antigen-presenting cell is a B lymphocyte or a dendritic cell, colocalizing with LFA-1 at the peripheral supramolecular activation complex. However, when conjugates are formed in the presence of anti-4 antibodies, VLA-4 colocalizes with the CD3- chain at the center of the synapse. In addition, antibody engagement of 4 integrin promotes polarization toward a T helper 1 (Th1) response in human in vitro models of CD4+ T cell differentiation and naïve T cell priming by dendritic cells. The in vivo administration of anti-4 integrin antibodies also induces an immune deviation to Th1 response that dampens a Th2-driven autoimmune nephritis in Brown Norway rats. These data reveal a regulatory role of 4 integrins on T lymphocyte-antigen presenting cell cognate immune interactions.

  10. The kinases MEKK2 and MEKK3 regulate transforming growth factor-β-mediated helper T cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xing; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaofang; Lin, Aiping; Zhao, Hongyu; Su, Bing

    2011-02-25

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key mediators of the T cell receptor (TCR) signals but their roles in T helper (Th) cell differentiation are unclear. Here we showed that the MAPK kinase kinases MEKK2 (encoded by Map3k2) and MEKK3 (encoded by Map3k3) negatively regulated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated Th cell differentiation. Map3k2(-/-)Map3k3(Lck-Cre/-) mice showed an abnormal accumulation of regulatory T (Treg) and Th17 cells in the periphery, consistent with Map3k2(-/-)Map3k3(Lck-Cre/-) naive CD4(+) T cells' differentiation into Treg and Th17 cells with a higher frequency than wild-type (WT) cells after TGF-β stimulation in vitro. In addition, Map3k2(-/-)Map3k3(Lck-Cre/-) mice developed more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Map3k2(-/-)Map3k3(Lck-Cre/-) T cells exhibited impaired phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3 proteins at their linker regions, which negatively regulated the TGF-β responses in T cells. Thus, the crosstalk between TCR-induced MAPK and the TGF-β signaling pathways is important in regulating Th cell differentiation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aberrant in Vivo T Helper Type 2 Cell Response and Impaired Eosinophil Recruitment in Cc Chemokine Receptor 8 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chensue, Stephen W.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Yang, Tong-Yuan; Shang, Xiaozhou; Frait, Kirsten A.; Kunkel, Steven L.; Kung, Ted; Wiekowski, Maria T.; Hedrick, Joseph A.; Cook, Donald N.; Zingoni, Alessandra; Narula, Satwant K.; Zlotnik, Albert; Barrat, Franck J.; O'Garra, Anne; Napolitano, Monica; Lira, Sergio A.

    2001-01-01

    Chemokine receptors transduce signals important for the function and trafficking of leukocytes. Recently, it has been shown that CC chemokine receptor (CCR)8 is selectively expressed by Th2 subsets, but its functional relevance is unclear. To address the biological role of CCR8, we generated CCR8 deficient (−/−) mice. Here we report defective T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses in vivo in CCR8−/− mice in models of Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA)-induced granuloma formation as well as ovalbumin (OVA)- and cockroach antigen (CRA)-induced allergic airway inflammation. In these mice, the response to SEA, OVA, and CRA showed impaired Th2 cytokine production that was associated with aberrant type 2 inflammation displaying a 50 to 80% reduction in eosinophils. In contrast, a prototypical Th1 immune response, elicited by Mycobacteria bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) was unaffected by CCR8 deficiency. Mechanistic analyses indicated that Th2 cells developed normally and that the reduction in eosinophil recruitment was likely due to systemic reduction in interleukin 5. These results indicate an important role for CCR8 in Th2 functional responses in vivo. PMID:11238588

  12. The lupus susceptibility gene Pbx1 regulates the balance between follicular helper T cell and regulatory T cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-Chul; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Titov, Anton A.; Seay, Howard R.; Li, Shiwu; Brusko, Todd M.; Croker, Byron P.; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram; Morel, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Pbx1 controls chromatin accessibility to a large number of genes and is entirely conserved between mice and humans. The Pbx1-d dominant negative isoform is more frequent in the CD4+ T cells from lupus patients than from healthy controls. Pbx1-d is associated with the production of autoreactive T cells in mice carrying the Sle1a1 lupus susceptibility locus. Transgenic expression of Pbx1-d in CD4+ T cells reproduced the phenotypes of Sle1a1 mice, with increased inflammatory functions of CD4+ T cells and impaired regulatory T cell homeostasis. Pbx1-d Tg also expanded the number of follicular helper T cells in a cell-intrinsic and antigen-specific manner that was enhanced in recall responses, and resulted in TH1-biased antibodies. Moreover, Pbx1-d Tg CD4+ T cells upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-21 and miR-155, which have been implicated in Treg and TFH cell homeostasis. Our results suggest that Pbx1-d impacts lupus development by regulating effector T cell differentiation and promoting TFH cells at the expense of Treg cells. In addition, our results identify Pbx1 as a novel regulator of CD4+ T cell effector function. PMID:27296664

  13. T helper 1 background protects against airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in guinea pigs with persistent respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Troy C; Tayyari, Farnoosh; Khan, M Aatif; Manson, Heather E; Hegele, Richard G

    2007-05-01

    A family history of allergy has been implicated in children who develop post-bronchiolitis wheezing and asthma. In a guinea pig model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lung infection, we evaluated the role of host Th1 background (either genetic or induced) on the development of a persistent infection, nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation. Allergy resistant/T helper 1 (Th1)-skewed strain 2 guinea pigs (STR2) and cytosine phosphate guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) (Th1 stimuli) pretreated Cam Hartley guinea pigs (CH) were inoculated with RSV and compared with virus-inoculated allergy-susceptible/Th2-skewed CHs and to sham-inoculated STR2 and CH, 60 d post-inoculation. We measured titers of intrapulmonary RSV, lung interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-5 mRNA expression, AHR and airway T cells and eosinophils. All virus-inoculated groups of animals showed evidence of persistent RSV lung infection; however, Th2-skewed guinea pigs had virus-associated AHR and significantly greater levels of airway T cells and eosinophils. In conclusion, RSV can establish persistent infection of the guinea pig lung regardless of host Th1/Th2 background; however; a host Th1 background limits the extent of virus-associated AHR and airway inflammation. Heterogeneity in virus-host interactions may be relevant to understanding why some children hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis go on to develop recurrent wheezing/asthma symptoms.

  14. Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Reveals T Helper Cells Synthesizing Steroids De Novo to Contribute to Immune Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Mahata, Bidesh; Zhang, Xiuwei; Kolodziejczyk, Aleksandra A.; Proserpio, Valentina; Haim-Vilmovsky, Liora; Taylor, Angela E.; Hebenstreit, Daniel; Dingler, Felix A.; Moignard, Victoria; Göttgens, Berthold; Arlt, Wiebke; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Teichmann, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary T helper 2 (Th2) cells regulate helminth infections, allergic disorders, tumor immunity, and pregnancy by secreting various cytokines. It is likely that there are undiscovered Th2 signaling molecules. Although steroids are known to be immunoregulators, de novo steroid production from immune cells has not been previously characterized. Here, we demonstrate production of the steroid pregnenolone by Th2 cells in vitro and in vivo in a helminth infection model. Single-cell RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR analysis suggest that pregnenolone synthesis in Th2 cells is related to immunosuppression. In support of this, we show that pregnenolone inhibits Th cell proliferation and B cell immunoglobulin class switching. We also show that steroidogenic Th2 cells inhibit Th cell proliferation in a Cyp11a1 enzyme-dependent manner. We propose pregnenolone as a “lymphosteroid,” a steroid produced by lymphocytes. We speculate that this de novo steroid production may be an intrinsic phenomenon of Th2-mediated immune responses to actively restore immune homeostasis. PMID:24813893

  15. A Rabbit Model for Testing Helper-Dependent Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Therapy for Vein Graft Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bi, Lianxiang; Wacker, Bradley K; Bueren, Emma; Ham, Ervin; Dronadula, Nagadhara; Dichek, David A

    2017-12-15

    Coronary artery bypass vein grafts are a mainstay of therapy for human atherosclerosis. Unfortunately, the long-term patency of vein grafts is limited by accelerated atherosclerosis. Gene therapy, directed at the vein graft wall, is a promising approach for preventing vein graft atherosclerosis. Because helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd) efficiently transduces grafted veins and confers long-term transgene expression, HDAd is an excellent candidate for delivery of vein graft-targeted gene therapy. We developed a model of vein graft atherosclerosis in fat-fed rabbits and demonstrated long-term (≥20 weeks) persistence of HDAd genomes after graft transduction. This model enables quantitation of vein graft hemodynamics, wall structure, lipid accumulation, cellularity, vector persistence, and inflammatory markers on a single graft. Time-course experiments identified 12 weeks after transduction as an optimal time to measure efficacy of gene therapy on the critical variables of lipid and macrophage accumulation. We also used chow-fed rabbits to test whether HDAd infusion in vein grafts promotes intimal growth and inflammation. HDAd did not increase intimal growth, but had moderate-yet significant-pro-inflammatory effects. The vein graft atherosclerosis model will be useful for testing HDAd-mediated gene therapy; however, pro-inflammatory effects of HdAd remain a concern in developing HDAd as a therapy for vein graft disease.

  16. Helper-dependent adenovirus achieve more efficient and persistent liver transgene expression in non-human primates under immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Unzu, C; Melero, I; Hervás-Stubbs, S; Sampedro, A; Mancheño, U; Morales-Kastresana, A; Serrano-Mendioroz, I; de Salamanca, R E; Benito, A; Fontanellas, A

    2015-11-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDA) vectors constitute excellent gene therapy tools for metabolic liver diseases. We have previously shown that an HDA vector encoding human porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) corrects acute intermittent porphyria mice. Now, six non-human primates were injected in the left hepatic lobe with the PBGD-encoding HDA vector to study levels and persistence of transgene expression. Intrahepatic administration of 5 × 10(12) viral particles kg(-1) (10(10) infective units kg(-1)) of HDA only resulted in transient (≈14 weeks) transgene expression in one out of three individuals. In contrast, a more prolonged 90-day immunosuppressive regimen (tacrolimus, mycophenolate, rituximab and steroids) extended meaningful transgene expression for over 76 weeks in two out of two cases. Transgene expression under immunosuppression (IS) reached maximum levels 6 weeks after HDA administration and gradually declined reaching a stable plateau within the therapeutic range for acute porphyria. The non-injected liver lobes also expressed the transgene because of vector circulation. IS controlled anticapsid T-cell responses and decreased the induction of neutralizing antibodies. Re-administration of HDA-hPBGD at week +78 achieved therapeutically meaningful transgene expression only in those animals receiving IS again at the time of this second vector exposure. Overall, immunity against adenoviral capsids poses serious hurdles for long-term HDA-mediated liver transduction, which can be partially circumvented by pharmacological IS.

  17. Pediatric precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia: are T helper cells the missing link in the infectious etiology theory?

    PubMed

    Bürgler, Simone; Nadal, David

    2017-12-01

    Precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), the most common childhood malignancy, arises from an expansion of malignant B cell precursors in the bone marrow. Epidemiological studies suggest that infections or immune responses to infections may promote such an expansion and thus BCP-ALL development. Nevertheless, a specific pathogen responsible for this process has not been identified. BCP-ALL cells critically depend on interactions with the bone marrow microenvironment. The bone marrow is also home to memory T helper (Th) cells that have previously expanded during an immune response in the periphery. In secondary lymphoid organs, Th cells can interact with malignant cells of mature B cell origin, while such interactions between Th cells and malignant immature B cell in the bone marrow have not been described yet. Nevertheless, literature supports a model where Th cells-expanded during an infection in early childhood-migrate to the bone marrow and support BCP-ALL cells as they support normal B cells. Further research is required to mechanistically confirm this model and to elucidate the interaction pathways between leukemia cells and cells of the tumor microenvironment. As benefit, targeting these interactions could be included in current treatment regimens to increase therapeutic efficiency and to reduce relapses.

  18. Greater activation of peripheral T follicular helper cells following high dose influenza vaccine in older adults forecasts seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Pilkinton, Mark A; Nicholas, Katherine J; Warren, Christian M; Smith, Rita M; Yoder, Sandra M; Talbot, H Keipp; Kalams, Spyros A

    2017-01-05

    Influenza related morbidity and mortality disproportionately impacts older adults. The serologic response to vaccine is diminished in older adults; however, high dose inactivated influenza vaccine (HD IIV) has shown improved rates of seroconversion compared to standard dose (SD IIV). We hypothesize this may be due to the superior ability of high dose vaccine to activate T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and provide B cell dependent T cell help. We measured peripheral Tfh (pTfh) activation in 50 community dwelling adults 65years or older who were randomly assigned to receive either the HD IIV or SD IIV. The HD vaccination elicited significantly higher levels of ICOS expression on pTfh cells, at day 7 compared to SD vaccination (p=0.02). The magnitude of the increase in ICOS+ pTfh cells from baseline to day 7 was predictive of seroconversion for both influenza A and B vaccination. Strong Tfh activation in response to influenza vaccination forecasts successful seroconversion in older adults, and HD IIV elicits greater Tfh activation than SD IIV. Future vaccine studies should focus on ways to further optimize the Tfh response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. β-Arrestin-2-Dependent Signaling Promotes CCR4-mediated Chemotaxis of Murine T-Helper Type 2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rui; Choi, Yeon Ho; Zidar, David A; Walker, Julia K L

    2018-06-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex inflammatory disease that leads to significant healthcare costs and reduction in quality of life. Although many cell types are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, CD4 + T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) cells are centrally involved. We previously reported that the asthma phenotype is virtually absent in ovalbumin-sensitized and -challenged mice that lack global expression of β-arrestin (β-arr)-2 and that CD4 + T cells from these mice displayed significantly reduced CCL22-mediated chemotaxis. Because CCL22-mediated activation of CCR4 plays a role in Th2 cell regulation in asthmatic inflammation, we hypothesized that CCR4-mediated migration of CD4 + Th2 cells to the lung in asthma may use β-arr-dependent signaling. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of various signaling inhibitors on CCL22-induced chemotaxis using in vitro-polarized primary CD4 + Th2 cells from β-arr2-knockout and wild-type mice. Our results show, for the first time, that CCL22-induced, CCR4-mediated Th2 cell chemotaxis is dependent, in part, on a β-arr2-dependent signaling pathway. In addition, we show that this chemotactic signaling mechanism involves activation of P-p38 and Rho-associated protein kinase. These findings point to a proinflammatory role for β-arr2-dependent signaling and support β-arr2 as a novel therapeutic target in asthma.

  20. Central Nervous System Delivery of Helper-Dependent Canine Adenovirus Corrects Neuropathology and Behavior in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VII Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Lorena; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Cubizolle, Aurélie; Pagès, Gemma; García-Lareu, Belén; Serratrice, Nicolas; Cots, Dan; Thwaite, Rosemary; Chillón, Miguel; Kremer, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Canine adenovirus type 2 vectors (CAV-2) are promising tools to treat global central nervous system (CNS) disorders because of their preferential transduction of neurons and efficient retrograde axonal transport. Here we tested the potential of a helper-dependent CAV-2 vector expressing β-glucuronidase (HD-RIGIE) in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency in β-glucuronidase activity. MPS VII leads to glycosaminoglycan accumulation into enlarged vesicles in peripheral tissues and the CNS, resulting in peripheral and neuronal dysfunction. After intracranial administration of HD-RIGIE, we show long-term expression of β-glucuronidase that led to correction of neuropathology around the injection site and in distal areas. This phenotypic correction correlated with a decrease in secondary-elevated lysosomal enzyme activity and glycosaminoglycan levels, consistent with global biochemical correction. Moreover, HD-RIGIE-treated mice show significant cognitive improvement. Thus, injections of HD-CAV-2 vectors in the brain allow a global and sustained expression and may have implications for brain therapy in patients with lysosomal storage disease. PMID:24299455

  1. Corrective GUSB transfer to the canine mucopolysaccharidosis VII cornea using a helper-dependent canine adenovirus vector

    PubMed Central

    Serratrice, Nicolas; Cubizolle, Aurelie; Ibanes, Sandy; Mestre-Francés, Nadine; Bayo-Puxan, Neus; Creyssels, Sophie; Gennetier, Aurelie; Bernex, Florence; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Haskins, Mark E.; Couderc, Guilhem; Malecaze, Francois; Kalatzis, Vasiliki; Kremer, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal transparency is maintained, in part, by specialized fibroblasts called keratocytes, which reside in the fibrous lamellae of the stroma. Corneal clouding, a condition that impairs visual acuity, is associated with numerous diseases, including mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VII. MPS VII is due to deficiency in β-glucuronidase (β-glu) enzymatic activity, which leads to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and secondary accumulation of gangliosides. Here, we tested the efficacy of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) vectors to transduce keratocyte in vivo in mice and nonhuman primates, and ex vivo in dog and human corneal explants. Following efficacy studies, we asked if we could treat corneal clouding by the injection a helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vector (HD-RIGIE) harboring the human cDNA coding for β-glu (GUSB) in the canine MPS VII cornea. β-Glu activity, GAG content, and lysosome morphology and physiopathology were analyzed. We found that HD-RIGIE injections efficiently transduced coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor-expressing keratocytes in the four species and, compared to mock-injected controls, improved the pathology in the canine MPS VII cornea. The key criterion to corrective therapy was the steady controlled release of β-glu and its diffusion throughout the collagen-dense stroma. These data support the continued evaluation of HD CAV-2 vectors to treat diseases affecting corneal keratocytes. PMID:24607662

  2. FOXP3 Expression in GARP-Transduced Helper T Cells Is Not Associated with FOXP3 TSDR Demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Kehrmann, Jan; Zeschnigk, Michael; Buer, Jan; Probst-Kepper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) represents a human regulatory CD4+ CD25hi FOXP3+ T (Treg) cell-specific receptor that controls FOXP3. Ectopic expression of GARP in helper T (Th) cells has been shown to be sufficient for the induction of FOXP3 and generation of a stable regulatory phenotype. Since expression of FOXP3 in Treg cells is epigenetically controlled by a conserved motif, the so-called Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR), we asked whether GARP-mediated upregulation of FOXP3 in Th cells is similarly accompanied by demethylation of the TSDR. Methods: DNA methylation of the FOXP3 TSDR was analyzed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from bisulfite-treated genomic DNA. Results: Although GARP-transduced Th cells exhibit constitutive FOXP3 expression and a regulatory phenotype, the FOXP3 TSDR is completely methylated as in naive Th cells. GARP-mediated FOXP3 upregulation in Th cells is not associated with Treg-specific demethylation of the FOXP3 TSDR. Conclusion: Although GARP-engineered Th cells exhibit stable FOXP3 expression and a phenotypic reprogramming towards Treg cells in vitro, these cells do not completely mimic the epigenotype of natural Treg cells. Thus, concepts based on the genetic modification of Th cells as cellular therapies to treat autoimmune diseases or to control transplantation tolerance should be critically tested before any clinical application. PMID:22670117

  3. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with enhanced T-helper 1 immune responses to heterologous infant vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Libraty, Daniel H.; Zhang, Lei; Woda, Marcia; Acosta, Luz P.; Obcena, AnaMae; Brion, Job D.; Capeding, Rosario Z.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1) immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2–3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) producing spot-forming cells (SFC) to tetanus toxoid 2–3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1–3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/Ionomycin was higher in 2–3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2–3 months later. PMID:24611083

  4. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with enhanced T-helper 1 immune responses to heterologous infant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Libraty, Daniel H; Zhang, Lei; Woda, Marcia; Acosta, Luz P; Obcena, Anamae; Brion, Job D; Capeding, Rosario Z

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1) immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2-3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) producing spot-forming cells (SFC) to tetanus toxoid 2-3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1-3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/Ionomycin was higher in 2-3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2-3 months later.

  5. Evaluation of the 113Online Suicide Prevention Crisis Chat Service: Outcomes, Helper Behaviors and Comparison to Telephone Hotlines.

    PubMed

    Mokkenstorm, Jan K; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Huisman, Annemiek; Wiebenga, Jasper; Gilissen, Renske; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Smit, Johannes H

    2017-06-01

    Recognizing the importance of digital communication, major suicide prevention helplines have started offering crisis intervention by chat. To date there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of crisis chat services. To evaluate the reach and outcomes of the 113Online volunteer-operated crisis chat service, 526 crisis chat logs were studied, replicating the use of measures that were developed to study telephone crisis calls. Reaching a relatively young population of predominantly females with severe suicidality and (mental) health problems, chat outcomes for this group were found to be comparable to those found for crisis calls to U.S. Lifeline Centers in 2003-2004, with similar but not identical associations with specific helpers' styles and attitudes. Our findings support a positive effect of the 113Online chat service, to be enhanced by practice standards addressing an apparent lack of focus on the central issue of suicidality during chats, as well as by the development of best practices specific for online crisis intervention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  6. A role for B cells in the development of T cell helper function in a malaria infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Langhorne, Jean; Cross, Caroline; Seixas, Elsa; Li, Ching; von der Weid, Thierry

    1998-01-01

    B cell knockout mice are unable to clear a primary erythrocytic infection of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi. However, the early acute infection is controlled to some extent, giving rise to a chronic relapsing parasitemia that can be reduced either by drug treatment or by adoptive transfer of B cells. Similar to mice rendered B-cell deficient by lifelong treatment with anti-μ antibodies, B cell knockout mice (μMT) retain a predominant CD4+ Th1-like response to malarial antigens throughout a primary infection. This contrasts with the response seen in control C57BL/6 mice in which the CD4+ T-cell response has switched to that characteristic of Th2 cells at the later stages of infection, manifesting efficient help for specific antibodies in vitro and interleukin 4 production. Both chloroquine and adoptive transfer of immune B cells reduced parasite load. However, the adoptive transfer of B cells resulted in a Th2 response in recipient μMT mice, as indicated by a relative increase in the precursor frequency of helper cells for antibody production. These data support the idea that B cells play a role in the regulation of CD4+ T subset responses. PMID:9465085

  7. Increased T follicular helper cells and germinal center B cells are required for cGVHD and bronchiolitis obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Ryan; Du, Jing; Veenstra, Rachelle G.; Reichenbach, Dawn K.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Taylor, Patricia A.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Serody, Jonathan S.; Murphy, William J.; Munn, David H.; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Luznik, Leo; Maillard, Ivan; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey; Soiffer, Robert J.; Antin, Joseph H.; Ritz, Jerome; Dubovsky, Jason A.; Byrd, John C.; MacDonald, Kelli P.; Hill, Geoff R.; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Having shown that germinal center (GC) formation and immunoglobulin deposition are required for multiorgan system cGVHD and associated bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in a murine model, we hypothesized that T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are necessary for cGVHD by supporting GC formation and maintenance. We show that increased frequency of Tfh cells correlated with increased GC B cells, cGVHD, and BOS. Although administering a highly depletionary anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to mice with established cGVHD resulted in peripheral B-cell depletion, B cells remained in the lung, and BOS was not reversed. BOS could be treated by eliminating production of interleukin-21 (IL-21) by donor T cells or IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) signaling of donor B cells. Development of BOS was dependent upon T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR5 to facilitate T-cell trafficking to secondary lymphoid organ follicles. Blocking mAbs for IL-21/IL-21R, inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS)/ICOS ligand, and CD40L/CD40 hindered GC formation and cGVHD. These data provide novel insights into cGVHD pathogenesis, indicate a role for Tfh cells in these processes, and suggest a new line of therapy using mAbs targeting Tfh cells to reverse cGVHD. PMID:24820310

  8. Immunoprotective responses of T helper type 1 stimulatory protein‐S‐adenosyl‐L‐homocysteine hydrolase against experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Khare, P.; Jaiswal, A. K.; Tripathi, C. D. P.; Sundar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary It is well known that a patient in clinical remission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains immune to reinfection, which provides a rationale for the feasibility of a vaccine against this deadly disease. In earlier studies, observation of significant cellular responses in treated Leishmania patients as well as in hamsters against leishmanial antigens from different fractions led to its further proteomic characterization, wherein S‐adenosyl‐L‐homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy) was identified as a helper type 1 (Th1) stimulatory protein. The present study includes immunological characterization of this protein, its cellular responses [lymphoproliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production and cytokine responses] in treated Leishmania‐infected hamsters and patients as well as prophylactic efficacy against Leishmania challenge in hamsters and the immune responses generated thereof. Significantly higher cellular responses were noticed against recombinant L. donovani S‐adenosyl‐L‐homocysteine hydrolase (rLdAdoHcy) compared to soluble L. donovani antigen in treated samples. Moreover, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with rLdAdoHcy up‐regulated the levels of interferon (IFN)‐γ, interleukin (IL)−12 and down‐regulated IL‐10. Furthermore, vaccination with rLdAdoHcy generated perceptible delayed‐type hypersensitivity response and exerted considerably good prophylactic efficacy (∼70% inhibition) against L. donovani challenge. The efficacy was confirmed by the increased expression levels of inducible NO synthase and Th1‐type cytokines, IFN‐γ and IL‐12 and down‐regulation of IL‐4, IL‐10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)‐β. The results indicate the potentiality of rLdAdoHcy protein as a suitable vaccine candidate against VL. PMID:26898994

  9. Immunoprotective responses of T helper type 1 stimulatory protein-S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Khare, P; Jaiswal, A K; Tripathi, C D P; Sundar, S; Dube, A

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that a patient in clinical remission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains immune to reinfection, which provides a rationale for the feasibility of a vaccine against this deadly disease. In earlier studies, observation of significant cellular responses in treated Leishmania patients as well as in hamsters against leishmanial antigens from different fractions led to its further proteomic characterization, wherein S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy) was identified as a helper type 1 (Th1) stimulatory protein. The present study includes immunological characterization of this protein, its cellular responses [lymphoproliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production and cytokine responses] in treated Leishmania-infected hamsters and patients as well as prophylactic efficacy against Leishmania challenge in hamsters and the immune responses generated thereof. Significantly higher cellular responses were noticed against recombinant L. donovani S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (rLdAdoHcy) compared to soluble L. donovani antigen in treated samples. Moreover, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with rLdAdoHcy up-regulated the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12 and down-regulated IL-10. Furthermore, vaccination with rLdAdoHcy generated perceptible delayed-type hypersensitivity response and exerted considerably good prophylactic efficacy (∼70% inhibition) against L. donovani challenge. The efficacy was confirmed by the increased expression levels of inducible NO synthase and Th1-type cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-12 and down-regulation of IL-4, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The results indicate the potentiality of rLdAdoHcy protein as a suitable vaccine candidate against VL. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  10. Reciprocal modulation of helper Th1 and Th17 cells by the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist drug terbutaline.

    PubMed

    Carvajal Gonczi, Catalina M; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Mahdieh; East, Ashley; Martire, Erika; Maurice-Ventouris, Meagane H I; Darlington, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Catecholamine hormones are powerful regulators of the immune system produced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). They regulate the adaptive immune system by altering T-cell differentiation into T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell subsets, but the effect on Th17 cells is not known. Th17 cells, defined, in part, by chemokine receptor CCR6 and cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A, are crucial for mediating certain pathogen-specific responses and are linked with several autoimmune diseases. We demonstrated that a proportion of human Th17 cells express beta 2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a G protein-coupled receptor that responds to catecholamines. Activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which were obtained from venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers, with anti-cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) and anti-CD28 and with a β2-agonist drug, terbutaline (TERB), augmented IL-17A levels (P < 0.01) in the majority of samples. TERB reduced interferon gamma (IFNγ) indicating that IL-17A and IFNγ are reciprocally regulated. Similar reciprocal regulation was observed with dbcAMP. Proliferation of Th cells was monitored by carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester labeling and flow cytometry with antibody staining for CD3 and CD4. TERB increased proliferation by a small but significant margin (P < 0.001). Next, Th17 cells (CD4 + CXCR3 - CCR6 + ) were purified using an immunomagnetic positive selection kit, which removes all other mononuclear cells. TERB increased IL-17A from purified Th17 cells, which argues that TERB acts directly on Th17 cells. Thus, hormone signals from the SNS maintain a balance of Th cells subtypes through the β2AR. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Peripheral blood cytokine and chemokine profiles in juvenile localized scleroderma: T-helper cell-associated cytokine profiles.

    PubMed

    Torok, Kathryn S; Kurzinski, Katherine; Kelsey, Christina; Yabes, Jonathan; Magee, Kelsey; Vallejo, Abbe N; Medsger, Thomas; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate peripheral blood T-helper (TH) cell-associated cytokine and chemokine profiles in localized scleroderma (LS), and correlate them with clinical disease features, including disease activity parameters. A 29-plex Luminex platform was used to analyze the humoral profile of plasma samples from 69 pediatric LS patients and 71 healthy pediatric controls. Cytokine/chemokine levels were compared between these two groups and within LS patients, focusing on validated clinical outcome measures of disease activity and damage in LS. Plasma levels of IP-10, MCP-1, IL-17a, IL-12p70, GM-CSF, PDGF-bb, IFN-α2, and IFN-γ were significantly higher in LS subjects compared to healthy controls. Analysis within the LS group demonstrated IP-10, TNF-α, and GM-CSF correlated with clinical measures of disease activity. Several cytokines/chemokines correlated with anti-histone antibody, while only a few correlated with positive ANA and single-stranded DNA antibody. This is the first time that multiple cytokines and chemokines have been examined simultaneously in LS. In general, a TH1 (IFN-γ) and TH17 (IL-17a) predominance was demonstrated in LS compared to healthy controls. There is also an IFN-γ signature with elevated IP-10, MCP-1, and IFN-γ, which has been previously demonstrated in systemic sclerosis, suggesting a shared pathophysiology. Within the LS patients, those with active disease demonstrated IP-10, TNF-α, and GM-CSF, which may potentially serve as biomarkers of disease activity in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. T-helper immune phenotype may underlie 'paradoxical' tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy-related psoriasiform dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Moy, A P; Murali, M; Kroshinsky, D; Horn, T D; Nazarian, R M

    2018-01-01

    Therapeutics targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α are effective for psoriasis; however, in patients treated for other disorders, psoriasis may worsen and psoriasiform dermatitis (PsoD) may arise. T helper (Th) cytokines in psoriasis upregulate keratin (K)17, which modulates TNF-α transduction, leading to vascular adhesion molecule upregulation and lymphocytic extravasation. We investigated Th phenotype and expression of K17, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in psoriasis and anti-TNF-α-related PsoD. Skin biopsies from patients with psoriasis unresponsive to TNF-α inhibitor therapy (n = 11), PsoD-related to TNF-α inhibition (n = 9), untreated psoriasis (n = 9) or atopic dermatitis (AD; n = 9) were immunohistochemically analysed for Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th22. Expression of K17, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was also examined. Anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis and anti-TNF-α-related PsoD showed decreased Th1 : Th2 raio and increased Th17 : Th1 ratio compared with untreated psoriasis. Anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis had significantly fewer Th1 (4% vs. 12%) and more Th17 (51% vs. 20%) cells than untreated psoriasis. No difference in Th22 cells was identified. K17 was present in all cases of untreated psoriasis and anti-TNF-α-related PsoD, 91% of anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis, and only 22% of AD. VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in anti-TNF-α-related PsoD was akin to untreated psoriasis, but decreased in anti-TNF-α-unresponsive psoriasis. These findings further the current understanding of the anti-TNF-α-related psoriasiform phenotype and support a rationale for therapeutic targeting of interleukin-17 and TNF-α in combination. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Synthetic Retinoid AM80 Ameliorates Lung and Arthritic Autoimmune Responses by Inhibiting T Follicular Helper and Th17 Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Naskar, Debdut; Teng, Fei; Felix, Krysta M; Bradley, C Pierce; Wu, Hsin-Jung Joyce

    2017-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that affects the joints and other organs. Pulmonary complications contribute significantly to rheumatoid arthritis mortality. Retinoic acid and its synthetic compound AM80 play roles in immunoregulation but their effect on mucosal autoimmunity remains largely unknown. T follicular helper (Tfh) and Th17 cells are known to promote inflammation and autoantibody production. Using the K/BxN autoimmune arthritis model, we elucidate a novel mechanism whereby oral AM80 administration suppressed lung mucosa-associated Tfh and autoantibody responses by increasing the gut-homing α4β7 integrin expression on Tfh cells. This diverted Tfh cells from systemic (non-gut) inflamed sites such as the lung into the gut-associated lymphoid tissues, Peyer's patches, and thus reduced the systemic autoantibodies. AM80 also inhibited the lung Th17 response. AM80's effect in the lungs was readily applied to the joints as AM80 also inhibited Tfh and Th17 responses in the spleen, the major autoantibody producing site known to correlate with K/BxN arthritis severity. Finally, we used anti-β7 treatment as an alternative approach, demonstrating that manipulating T cell migration between the gut and systemic sites alters the systemic disease outcome. The β7 blockade prevented both Tfh and Th17 cells from entering the non-immunopathogenic site, the gut, and retained these T effector cells in the systemic sites, leading to augmented arthritis. These data suggest a dual beneficial effect of AM80, targeting both Tfh and Th17 cells, and warrant strict safety monitoring of gut-homing perturbing agents used in treating intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Induction of T helper 3 regulatory cells by dendritic cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica

    2009-05-10

    Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-alpha treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that themore » induction of Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells is dependent on TGF-beta but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-alpha treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.« less

  15. Nonencapsulated Trichinella pseudospiralis Infection Impairs Follicular Helper T Cell Differentiation with Subclass-Selective Decreases in Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Kazunobu; Wu, Zhiliang; Srinontong, Piyarat; Ikeda, Takahide; Nagano, Isao; Morita, Hirokuyi

    2016-01-01

    Infectious microorganisms often modify host immunity to escape from immune elimination. Trichinella is a unique nematode of the helminth family, whose members parasitize the muscle cells inside the host without robust eliminative reactions. There are several species of Trichinella; some develop in muscle cells that become encapsulated (e.g., Trichinella spiralis) and others in cells that do not encapsulate (e.g., Trichinella pseudospiralis). It has already been established that Trichinella infection affects host immune responses in several experimental immune diseases in animal models; however, most of those studies were done using T. spiralis infection. As host immune responses to T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infections have been reported to be different, it is necessary to clarify how T. pseudospiralis infection influences the host immune responses. In this study, we investigated the influence on host humoral immunity in T. pseudospiralis-infected mice. We demonstrated that T. pseudospiralis infection decreased antigen-specific IgG2a and IgG2b antibody (Ab) production in mice immunized with a model antigen. This selective decrease in gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-dependent Ab production was not due to a decrease in IFN-γ production, and we instead found impaired follicular helper T (Tfh) cell differentiation. The affinity maturation of antigen-specific Ab tended to be delayed but was not significant in T. pseudospiralis-infected mice. We also observed that CD11b+ spleen cells in T. pseudospiralis-infected mice expressed CD206 and PD-L2, the phenotype of which was M2 macrophages with weak production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), possibly resulting in impaired Tfh differentiation. Taken together, our results indicate that nonencapsulated Trichinella infection induces selective dampening in humoral immunity with the suppression of Tfh differentiation. PMID:27736779

  16. Nonencapsulated Trichinella pseudospiralis Infection Impairs Follicular Helper T Cell Differentiation with Subclass-Selective Decreases in Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kazunobu; Wu, Zhiliang; Srinontong, Piyarat; Ikeda, Takahide; Nagano, Isao; Morita, Hirokuyi; Maekawa, Yoichi

    2016-12-01

    Infectious microorganisms often modify host immunity to escape from immune elimination. Trichinella is a unique nematode of the helminth family, whose members parasitize the muscle cells inside the host without robust eliminative reactions. There are several species of Trichinella; some develop in muscle cells that become encapsulated (e.g., Trichinella spiralis) and others in cells that do not encapsulate (e.g., Trichinella pseudospiralis). It has already been established that Trichinella infection affects host immune responses in several experimental immune diseases in animal models; however, most of those studies were done using T. spiralis infection. As host immune responses to T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis infections have been reported to be different, it is necessary to clarify how T. pseudospiralis infection influences the host immune responses. In this study, we investigated the influence on host humoral immunity in T. pseudospiralis-infected mice. We demonstrated that T. pseudospiralis infection decreased antigen-specific IgG2a and IgG2b antibody (Ab) production in mice immunized with a model antigen. This selective decrease in gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-dependent Ab production was not due to a decrease in IFN-γ production, and we instead found impaired follicular helper T (Tfh) cell differentiation. The affinity maturation of antigen-specific Ab tended to be delayed but was not significant in T. pseudospiralis-infected mice. We also observed that CD11b + spleen cells in T. pseudospiralis-infected mice expressed CD206 and PD-L2, the phenotype of which was M2 macrophages with weak production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), possibly resulting in impaired Tfh differentiation. Taken together, our results indicate that nonencapsulated Trichinella infection induces selective dampening in humoral immunity with the suppression of Tfh differentiation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Inhibition of HBV replication in vivo using helper-dependent adenovirus vectors to deliver antiviral RNA interference expression cassettes.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Carol; Mowa, Mohube B; Ely, Abdullah; Arbuthnot, Patrick B

    2014-01-01

    HBV is hyperendemic to southern Africa and parts of Asia, but licensed antivirals have little effect on limiting life-threatening complications of the infection. Although RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene silencing has shown therapeutic potential, difficulties with delivery of anti-HBV RNAi effectors remain an obstacle to their clinical use. To address concerns about the transient nature of transgene expression and toxicity resulting from immunostimulation by recombinant adenovirus vectors (Ads), utility of RNAi-activating anti-HBV helper-dependent (HD) Ads were assessed in this study. Following intravenous administration of 5×10(9) unmodified or pegylated HD Ad infectious particles to HBV transgenic mice, HBV viral loads and serum HBV surface antigen levels were monitored for 12 weeks. Immunostimulation of HD Ads was assessed by measuring inflammatory cytokines, hepatic function and immune response to the co-delivered LacZ reporter gene. Unmodified and pegylated HD Ads transduced 80-90% of hepatocytes and expressed short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were processed to generate intended HBV-targeting guides. Markers of HBV replication were decreased by approximately 95% and silencing was sustained for 8 weeks. Unmodified HD Ads induced release of proinflammatory cytokines and there was evidence of an adaptive immune response to β-galactosidase. However the HD Ad-induced innate immune response was minimal in preparations that were enriched with infectious particles. HD Ads have potential utility for delivery of therapeutic HBV-silencing sequences and alterations of these vectors to attenuate their immune responses may further improve their efficacy.

  18. A preliminary study of new single polymorphisms in the T helper type 17 pathway for psoriasis in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. Y.; Hur, M. S.; Choi, B. G.; Kim, M. J.; Lee, Y. W.; Ahn, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Psoriasis is a polygenic and multi‐factorial disease showing ethnic differences in terms of its severity and frequency. Therapies targeting interleukin (IL)−17A, IL‐17 receptor (IL‐17R) and Janus kinases (JAKs) are in clinical development for the treatment of psoriasis, and their success suggests the essential role of these molecules in psoriasis. To investigate the genetic susceptibility in T helper type 17 (Th17) cell signal transduction pathways for promoting psoriasis, we performed candidate gene and linkage disequilibrium analysis. In 208 patients and 266 normal controls, we analysed 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 12 genes (CAMP, IL17A, IL17F, IL17RA, IL22, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT3, TLR7, TLR9 and TYK2; abbreviations: CAMP, human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide; STAT‐3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; TLR, Toll‐like receptor; TYK2, tyrosine kinase 2). Patients with psoriasis showed a strong association for IL17F rs763780 [odds ratio (OR) = 3·27, P = 0·04], which results in a histidine‐to‐arginine substitution, and JAK2 rs2274471 (OR = 2·66, P = 0·02). In addition, JAK2 rs7849191 showed a protective pattern, met the significance threshold (OR = 0·77, P = 0·05) and showed a tendency for an inverse association with the frequency of early‐onset psoriasis under age 40 years (P = 0·07). In haplotype analysis, JAK1 rs310241A/rs2780889T showed a protective effect (OR = 0·73, P = 0·03) in psoriasis. In conclusion, we report two new psoriasis‐susceptibility loci, in IL17F and JAK2, as well as a newly identified late‐onset associated protective JAK2 locus and a protective JAK1 haplotype in the Korean population. PMID:27774581

  19. Ghrelin Inhibits the Differentiation of T Helper 17 Cells through mTOR/STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanhui; Li, Ziru; Yin, Yue; Lan, He; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jing; Feng, Juan; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced activity of interleukin 17 (IL-17) producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells plays an important role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Significant loss of body weight and appetite is associated with chronic inflammation and immune activation, suggesting the cross talk between immune and neuroendocrine systems. Ghrelin has been shown to regulate the organism immune function. However, the effects of ghrelin on the differentiation of Th17 cells remain elusive. In the present study, we observed the enhanced differentiation of Th17 cells in spleens of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a)-/- mice. Treatment of ghrelin repressed Th17 cell differentiation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was increased in the spleens of GHSR1a-/- mice. Activation of mTOR signaling by injection of Cre-expressiong adenovirus into tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) loxp/loxp mice increased the differentiation of Th17 cells in spleen, which was associated with an increment in the phosphorylation of STAT3. Activation of mTOR signaling by leucine or overexpression of p70 ribosome protein subunit 6 kinase 1 (S6K1) activated mTOR signaling in isolated T cells, while reversed the ghrelin-induced inhibition of iTh17 cell differentiation. In conclusion, mTOR mediates the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on the differentiation of Th17 cells by interacting with STAT3. PMID:25658305

  20. Relationship between female genital tract infections, mucosal interleukin-17 production and local T helper type 17 cells.

    PubMed

    Masson, Lindi; Salkinder, Amy L; Olivier, Abraham Jacobus; McKinnon, Lyle R; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Mlisana, Koleka; Scriba, Thomas J; Lewis, David A; Little, Francesca; Jaspan, Heather B; Ronacher, Katharina; Denny, Lynette; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-12-01

    T helper type 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in immunity to fungal and bacterial pathogens, although their role in the female genital tract, where exposure to these pathogens is common, is not well understood. We investigated the relationship between female genital tract infections, cervicovaginal interleukin-17 (IL-17) concentrations and Th17 cell frequencies. Forty-two cytokines were measured in cervicovaginal lavages from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Frequencies of Th17 cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) IL-17a(+)) were evaluated in cervical cytobrushes and blood by flow cytometry. Women were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex virus 2 by PCR, and candidal infections and bacterial vaginosis by Gram stain. Women with bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), specifically chlamydia and gonorrhoea, had higher genital IL-17 concentrations than women with no STI, whereas women with candidal pseudohyphae/spores had lower IL-17 concentrations compared with women without candidal infections. Viral STIs (herpes simplex virus 2 and HIV) were not associated with significant changes in genital IL-17 concentrations. Genital IL-17 concentrations correlated strongly with other inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Although Th17 cells were depleted from blood during HIV infection, cervical Th17 cell frequencies were similar in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Cervical Th17 cell frequencies were also not associated with STIs or candida, although few women had a STI. These findings suggest that IL-17 production in the female genital tract is induced in response to bacterial but not viral STIs. Decreased IL-17 associated with candidal infections suggests that candida may actively suppress IL-17 production or women with dampened IL-17 responses may be more susceptible to candidal outgrowth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Development of chronic allergic responses by dampening Bcl6-mediated suppressor activity in memory T helper 2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Hatano, Masahiko; Satake, Hisae; Ikari, Jun; Taniguchi, Toshibumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuhide; Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Fujimura, Lisa; Sakamoto, Akemi; Hirata, Hirokuni; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Nakae, Susumu; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kurasawa, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Tokuhisa, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Mice deficient in the transcriptional repressor B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) exhibit similar T helper 2 (TH2) immune responses as patients with allergic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Bcl6-directed regulation of TH2 cytokine genes remain unclear. We identified multiple Bcl6/STAT binding sites (BSs) in TH2 cytokine gene loci. We found that Bcl6 is modestly associated with the BSs, and it had no significant effect on cytokine production in newly differentiated TH2 cells. Contrarily, in memory TH2 (mTH2) cells derived from adaptively transferred TH2 effectors, Bcl6 outcompeted STAT5 for binding to TH2 cytokine gene loci, particularly Interleukin4 (Il4) loci, and attenuated GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) binding to highly conserved intron enhancer regions in mTH2 cells. Bcl6 suppressed cytokine production epigenetically in mTH2 cells to negatively tune histone acetylation at TH2 cytokine gene loci, including Il4 loci. In addition, IL-33, a pro-TH2 cytokine, diminished Bcl6’s association with loci to which GATA3 recruitment was inversely augmented, resulting in altered IL-4, but not IL-5 and IL-13, production in mTH2 cells but no altered production in newly differentiated TH2 cells. Use of a murine asthma model that generates high levels of pro-TH2 cytokines, such as IL-33, suggested that the suppressive function of Bcl6 in mTH2 cells is abolished in severe asthma. These findings indicate a role of the interaction between TH2-promoting factors and Bcl6 in promoting appropriate IL-4 production in mTH2 cells and suggest that chronic allergic diseases involve the TH2-promoting factor-mediated functional breakdown of Bcl6, resulting in allergy exacerbation. PMID:28096407

  2. T-helper cell receptors from long-term survivors after telomerase cancer vaccination for use in adoptive cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Kyte, Jon Amund; Gaudernack, Gustav; Faane, Anne; Lislerud, Kari; Inderberg, Else Marit; Brunsvig, Paal; Aamdal, Steinar; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Wälchli, Sébastien; Pule, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We herein report retargeting of T-helper (Th) cells against the universal cancer antigen telomerase for use in adoptive cell therapy. The redirected Th cells may counter tumor tolerance, transform the inflammatory milieu, and induce epitope spreading and cancer senescence. We have previously conducted a series of trials evaluating vaccination with telomerase peptides. From long-term survivors, we isolated >100 CD4 + Th-cell clones recognizing telomerase epitopes. The clones were characterized with regard to HLA restriction, functional avidity, fine specificity, proliferative capacity, cytokine profile, and recognition of naturally processed epitopes. DP4 is the most prevalent HLA molecule worldwide. Two DP4-restricted T-cell clones with different functional avidity, C13 and D71, were selected for molecular T-cell receptor (TCR) cloning. Both clones showed a high proliferative capacity, recognition of naturally processed telomerase epitopes, and a polyfunctional and Th1-weighted cytokine profile. TCR C13 and D71 were cloned into the retroviral vector MP71 together with the compact and GMP-applicable marker/suicide gene RQR8. Both TCRs were expressed well in recipient T cells after PBMC transduction. The transduced T cells co-expressed RQR8 and acquired the desired telomerase specificity, with a polyfunctional response including production of TNFa, IFNγ, and CD107a. Interestingly, the DP4-restricted TCRs were expressed and functional both in CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. The findings demonstrate that the cloned TCRs confer recipient T cells with the desired hTERT-specificity and functionality. We hypothesize that adoptive therapy with Th cells may offer a powerful novel approach for overcoming tumor tolerance and synergize with other forms of immunotherapy.

  3. FOXP3 Expression in GARP-Transduced Helper T Cells Is Not Associated with FOXP3 TSDR Demethylation.

    PubMed

    Kehrmann, Jan; Zeschnigk, Michael; Buer, Jan; Probst-Kepper, Michael

    2011-10-01

    AIM: Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP or LRRC32) represents a human regulatory CD4+ CD25(hi) FOXP3+ T (T(reg)) cell-specific receptor that controls FOXP3. Ectopic expression of GARP in helper T (T(h)) cells has been shown to be sufficient for the induction of FOXP3 and generation of a stable regulatory phenotype. Since expression of FOXP3 in Treg cells is epigenetically controlled by a conserved motif, the so-called T(reg)-specific demethylated region (TSDR), we asked whether GARP-mediated upregulation of FOXP3 in Th cells is similarly accompanied by demethylation of the TSDR. METHODS: DNA methylation of the FOXP3 TSDR was analyzed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from bisulfite-treated genomic DNA. RESULTS: Although GARP-transduced T(h) cells exhibit constitutive FOXP3 expression and a regulatory phenotype, the FOXP3 TSDR is completely methylated as in naive T(h) cells. GARP-mediated FOXP3 upregulation in T(h) cells is not associated with T(reg)-specific demethylation of the FOXP3 TSDR. CONCLUSION: Although GARP-engineered T(h) cells exhibit stable FOXP3 expression and a phenotypic reprogramming towards T(reg) cells in vitro, these cells do not completely mimic the epigenotype of natural T(reg) cells. Thus, concepts based on the genetic modification of T(h) cells as cellular therapies to treat autoimmune diseases or to control transplantation tolerance should be critically tested before any clinical application.

  4. Failure of itraconazole to prevent T-helper type 2 cell immune deviation: Implications for chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Steinke, John W; Liu, Lixia; Negri, Julie; Borish, Larry; Payne, Spencer C

    2016-11-01

    T-helper (Th) type 2 cell inflammation is the hallmark of several disease processes, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and some forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. Itraconazole has been used as both an antifungal and an anti-inflammatory agent, with some success in many of these diseases, in part, by altering Th2 cytokine expression by T cells. It is not known whether this merely reflects inhibition of established Th2-like cells or the inhibition of differentiation of naive T cells into Th2-like cells. To evaluate the role of itraconazole in the differentiation of naive T cells during activation. Naive CD45RA+ T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers. Th1 and Th2 type cells were differentiated in the presence of varying concentrations of itraconazole. After stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 beads, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution was performed to evaluate proliferation and intracellular cytokine staining for interleukin (IL) 4 and interferon (IFN) gamma within proliferating T cells was measured along with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for secreted IL-5, IL-13, and IFN gamma. Itraconazole had no effect on proliferation of unbiased, Th1, or Th2 cells. Similarly, there was no effect of itraconazole on either intracellular cytokine staining of IL-4 and IFN gamma or secreted cytokine expression of IFN gamma, IL-5, and IL-13 in any of the cell populations. Itraconazole did not alter the ability of naive T cells to proliferate or secrete cytokines under Th1 or Th2 deviating conditions in vitro. As such, reported inhibition of Th2-like lymphocyte function by itraconazole reflected action on mature effector cells and may have underscored why antifungal treatment failed in many clinical trials of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis.

  5. Receptor revision in CD4 T cells is influenced by follicular helper T cell formation and germinal-center interactions.

    PubMed

    Higdon, Lauren E; Deets, Katherine A; Friesen, Travis J; Sze, Kai-Yin; Fink, Pamela J

    2014-04-15

    Peripheral CD4 T cells in Vβ5 transgenic (Tg) C57BL/6J mice undergo tolerance to an endogenous superantigen encoded by mouse mammary tumor virus 8 (Mtv-8) by either deletion or T-cell receptor (TCR) revision. Revision is a process by which surface expression of the Vβ5(+) TCR is down-regulated in response to Mtv-8 and recombination activating genes are expressed to drive rearrangement of the endogenous TCRβ locus, effecting cell rescue through the expression of a newly generated, non-self-reactive TCR. In an effort to identify the microenvironment in which revision takes place, we show here that the proportion of T follicular helper cells (Tfh) and production of high-affinity antibody during a primary response are increased in Vβ5 Tg mice in an Mtv-8-dependent manner. Revising T cells have a Tfh-like surface phenotype and transcription factor profile, with elevated expression of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6), CXC chemokine receptor 5, programmed death-1, and other Tfh-associated markers. Efficient revision requires Bcl-6 and is inhibited by B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1. Revision completes less efficiently in the absence of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein although initiation proceeds normally. These data indicate that Tfh formation is required for the initiation of revision and germinal-center interactions for its completion. The germinal center is known to provide a confined space in which B-cell antigen receptors undergo selection. Our data extend the impact of this selective microenvironment into the arena of T cells, suggesting that this fluid structure also provides a regulatory environment in which TCR revision can safely take place.

  6. Programmed cell death 1 inhibits inflammatory helper T-cell development through controlling the innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Yuxiang; Honjo, Tasuku; Chikuma, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory coreceptor on immune cells and is essential for self-tolerance because mice genetically lacking PD-1 (PD-1−/−) develop spontaneous autoimmune diseases. PD-1−/− mice are also susceptible to severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by a massive production of effector/memory T cells against myelin autoantigen, the mechanism of which is not fully understood. We found that an increased primary response of PD-1−/− mice to heat-killed mycobacteria (HKMTB), an adjuvant for EAE, contributed to the enhanced production of T-helper 17 (Th17) cells. Splenocytes from HKMTB-immunized, lymphocyte-deficient PD-1−/− recombination activating gene (RAG)2−/− mice were found to drive antigen-specific Th17 cell differentiation more efficiently than splenocytes from HKMTB-immunized PD-1+/+ RAG2−/− mice. This result suggested PD-1’s involvement in the regulation of innate immune responses. Mice reconstituted with PD-1−/− RAG2−/− bone marrow and PD-1+/+ CD4+ T cells developed more severe EAE compared with the ones reconstituted with PD-1+/+ RAG2−/− bone marrow and PD-1+/+ CD4+ T cells. We found that upon recognition of HKMTB, CD11b+ macrophages from PD-1−/− mice produced very high levels of IL-6, which helped promote naive CD4+ T-cell differentiation into IL-17–producing cells. We propose a model in which PD-1 negatively regulates antimycobacterial responses by suppressing innate immune cells, which in turn prevents autoreactive T-cell priming and differentiation to inflammatory effector T cells. PMID:24043779

  7. Administration of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors and sequential delivery of different vector serotype for long-term liver-directed gene transfer in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Morral, Núria; O’Neal, Wanda; Rice, Karen; Leland, Michele; Kaplan, Johanne; Piedra, Pedro A.; Zhou, Heshan; Parks, Robin J.; Velji, Rizwan; Aguilar-Córdova, Estuardo; Wadsworth, Samuel; Graham, Frank L.; Kochanek, Stefan; Carey, K. Dee; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    1999-01-01

    The efficiency of first-generation adenoviral vectors as gene delivery tools is often limited by the short duration of transgene expression, which can be related to immune responses and to toxic effects of viral proteins. In addition, readministration is usually ineffective unless the animals are immunocompromised or a different adenovirus serotype is used. Recently, adenoviral vectors devoid of all viral coding sequences (helper-dependent or gutless vectors) have been developed to avoid expression of viral proteins. In mice, liver-directed gene transfer with AdSTK109, a helper-dependent adenoviral (Ad) vector containing the human α1-antitrypsin (hAAT) gene, resulted in sustained expression for longer than 10 months with negligible toxicity to the liver. In the present report, we have examined the duration of expression of AdSTK109 in the liver of baboons and compared it to first-generation vectors expressing hAAT. Transgene expression was limited to approximately 3–5 months with the first-generation vectors. In contrast, administration of AdSTK109 resulted in transgene expression for longer than a year in two of three baboons. We have also investigated the feasibility of circumventing the humoral response to the virus by sequential administration of vectors of different serotypes. We found that the ineffectiveness of readministration due to the humoral response to an Ad5 first-generation vector was overcome by use of an Ad2-based vector expressing hAAT. These data suggest that long-term expression of transgenes should be possible by combining the reduced immunogenicity and toxicity of helper-dependent vectors with sequential delivery of vectors of different serotypes. PMID:10536005

  8. Comparing models of helper behavior to actual practice in telephone crisis intervention: a Silent Monitoring Study of Calls to the U.S. 1-800-SUICIDE Network.

    PubMed

    Mishara, Brian L; Chagnon, François; Daigle, Marc; Balan, Bogdan; Raymond, Sylvaine; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bardon, Cécile; Campbell, Julie K; Berman, Alan

    2007-06-01

    Models of telephone crisis intervention in suicide prevention and best practices were developed from a literature review and surveys of crisis centers. We monitored 2,611 calls to 14 centers using reliable behavioral ratings to compare actual interventions with the models. Active listening and collaborative problem-solving models describe help provided. Centers vary greatly in the nature of interventions and their quality according to predetermined criteria. Helpers do not systematically assess suicide risk. Some lives may have been saved but occasionally unacceptable responses occur. Recommendations include the need for quality assurance, development of standardized practices and research relating intervention processes to outcomes.

  9. Interleukin-7 in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B May Have Effect on T Follicular Helper Cells and Specific Cellular Immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Xibing, Gu; Yaping, Dai; Zheng, Wang; Decai, Fu; Xiaoye, Guo; Hangyuan, Wu; Dong, Wang; Zhonghua, Lu

    2016-09-01

    In patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the relation of interkeukin-7 (IL-7) to either the T follicular helper cells (Tfh cells) or to a specific cellular immune response is not clear. The present study aims to explore the possible relationship of IL-7 to Tfh cells and to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific cellular immune response in patients with CHB. Ninety-one adult patients with CHB were divided into groups A, B, and C, according to the patients' IL-7 levels (low, medium, and high). Tfh cells and HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were detected with flow cytometry; IL-7 and IL-21 were determined with a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; and HBV DNA was determined by using a real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the levels of IL-7, Tfh cells, IL-21, and HBV-specific CTLs of patients in group C were significantly higher than those of patients in group B, (P < 0.01 for each comparison) and that the levels of these four parameters of patients in group B were significantly higher than those of the patients in group A (P < 0.01 for each comparison). Meanwhile, the level of HBV DNA of the patients in group C was significantly lower than that of the patients in group B (P < 0.01), and that of the patients in group B was significantly lower than that of the patients in group A (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that IL-7, Tfh cells, IL-21, and HBV-specific CTL might have effects on HBV DNA and that only the HBV-specific CTL had an independent effect on HBV DNA (P < 0.01). IL-7, Tfh cells, and IL-21 showed independent effects on HBV-specific CTL (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01). This study suggests that the IL-7 level of CHB patients may be related to Tfh cells. In CHB patients, IL-7 possibly increases the level of Tfh cells and HBV-specific cellular immune responses and thereby reduces the HBV DNA level.

  10. [Quantity and function of T follicular helper cells in the bone marrow of patients with immune thrombocytopenia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Qu, Wen; Ruan, Er-Bao; Fu, Rong; Wang, Guo-Jin; Liu, Hong; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Yu-Hong; Song, Jia; Xing, Li-Min; Guan, Jing; Li, Li-Juan; Wang, Hua-Quan; Shao, Zong-Hong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to detect the quantity and function of bone marrow (BM) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells of patients with immune thrombocytopenia, and to explore the role of Tfh cells in the pathogenesis of ITP. Twenty-one newly diagnosed ITP patients, twenty ITP patients in recovery stage and eighteen normal controls were enrolled in this study. The percentages of Tfh cells, Tfh-related molecules ICOS, CD40L, IL-21 in BM were detected by flow cytometry (FCM), and the mRNA expression of BCL-6 in BMMNC was determined by semi-quantitive RT-PCR. Correlation of Tfh cell level with the disease severity of ITP patients was analysed. The results showed that the ratio of CD4(+)CXCR5(+)/CD4(+) cells in newly diagnosed ITP patients [(5.532 ± 2.599)%] was significantly higher than that in ITP patients with recovery stage [(4.064 ± 2.026)%] and controls [(4.048 ± 1.413)%] (P < 0.05). The ratio of CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(+)/CD4(+) CXCR5(+) cells in newly diagnosed ITP patients [(14.586 ± 8.561)%] was higher than that in recovery stage ITP patients [(12.884 ± 10.161)%] and controls [(7.487 ± 5.176)%]. The differences be-tween newly diagnosed ITP patients and controls were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The ratio of CD4(+)CXCR5(+) CD40L(+)/CD4(+) CXCR5(+) cells in newly diagnosed ITP patients [(15.309 ± 10.756)%] and in ITP patients with recovery stage [(18.242 ± 12.243)%] were significantly higher than that in controls [(8.618 ± 5.719) %] (P < 0.05). The ratio of intracytoplasm CD4(+) CXCR5(+) IL-21(+)/CD4(+)CXCR5(+) cells in newly diagnosed ITP patients [(58.560 ± 26.285)%] and in ITP patients with recovery stage [(57.035 ± 30.936)%] were significantly higher than that in controls [(36.289 ± 24.868)%] (P < 0.05). The relative expression levels of BCL-6 mRNA in BMMNC of three groups were (1.407 ± 0.264), (1.149 ± 0.217) and (0.846 ± 0.157), respectively. The differences between 3 groups were significant(P < 0.05). It is concluded that the quantity and

  11. Differential Expression of Alpha 4 Integrins on Effector Memory T Helper Cells during Bordetella Infections. Delayed Responses in Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Ryan; Tarlton, Nicole; Wu, Victoria; Sequeira, Christopher S.; Bremer, Martina; Abramson, Tzvia

    2012-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) is the causative agent of whooping cough, a respiratory disease that is reemerging worldwide. Mechanisms of selective lymphocyte trafficking to the airways are likely to be critical in the immune response to this pathogen. We compared murine infection by B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and a pertussis toxin-deleted B. pertussis mutant (BpΔPTX) to test the hypothesis that effector memory T-helper cells (emTh) display an altered pattern of trafficking receptor expression in B. pertussis infection due to a defect in imprinting. Increased cell recruitment to the lungs at 5 days post infection (p.i.) with B. parapertussis, and to a lesser extent with BpΔPTX, coincided with an increased frequency of circulating emTh cells expressing the mucosal-associated trafficking receptors α4β7 and α4β1 while a reduced population of these cells was observed in B. pertussis infection. These cells were highly evident in the blood and lungs in B. pertussis infection only at 25 days p.i. when B. parapertussis and BpΔPTX infections were resolved. Although at 5 days p.i., an equally high percentage of lung dendritic cells (DCs) from all infections expressed maturation markers, this expression persisted only in B. pertussis infection at 25 days p.i. Furthermore, at 5 days p.i with B. pertussis, lung DCs migration to draining lymph nodes may be compromised as evidenced by decreased frequency of CCR7+ DCs, inhibited CCR7-mediated in vitro migration, and fewer DCs in lung draining lymph nodes. Lastly, a reduced frequency of allogeneic CD4+ cells expressing α4β1 was detected following co-culture with lung DCs from B. pertussis-infected mice, suggesting a defect in DC imprinting in comparison to the other infection groups. The findings in this study suggest that B. pertussis may interfere with imprinting of lung-associated trafficking receptors on T lymphocytes leading to extended survival in the host and a prolonged course of disease. PMID:23300813

  12. Expression of the T Helper 17-Associated Cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F in Asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Doe, Camille; Bafadhel, Mona; Siddiqui, Salman; Desai, Dhananjay; Mistry, Vijay; Rugman, Paul; McCormick, Margaret; Woods, Joanne; May, Richard; Sleeman, Matthew A.; Anderson, Ian K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Asthma and COPD are characterized by airway dysfunction and inflammation. Neutrophilic airway inflammation is a common feature of COPD and is recognized in asthma, particularly in severe disease. The T helper (Th) 17 cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F have been implicated in the development of neutrophilic airway inflammation, but their expression in asthma and COPD is uncertain. Methods: We assessed IL-17A and IL-17F expression in the bronchial submucosa from 30 subjects with asthma, 10 ex-smokers with mild to moderate COPD, and 27 nonsmoking and 14 smoking control subjects. Sputum IL-17 concentration was measured in 165 subjects with asthma and 27 with COPD. Results: The median (interquartile range) IL-17A cells/mm2 submucosa was increased in mild to moderate asthma (2.1 [2.4]) compared with healthy control subjects (0.4 [2.8]) but not in severe asthma (P = .04). In COPD, IL-17A+ cells/mm2 submucosa were increased (0.5 [3.7]) compared with nonsmoking control subjects (0 [0]) but not compared with smoking control subjects (P = .046). IL-17F+ cells/mm2 submucosa were increased in severe asthma (2.7 [3.6]) and mild to moderate asthma (1.6 [1.0]) compared with healthy controls subjects (0.7 [1.4]) (P = .001) but was not increased in subjects with COPD. IL-17A and IL-17F were not associated with increased neutrophilic inflammation, but IL-17F was correlated with the submucosal eosinophil count (rs = 0.5, P = .005). The sputum IL-17 concentration in COPD was increased compared with asthma (2 [0-7] pg/mL vs 0 [0-2] pg/mL, P < .0001) and was correlated with post-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted (r = −0.5, P = .008) and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.4, P = .04). Conclusions: Our findings support a potential role for the Th17 cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F in asthma and COPD, but do not demonstrate a relationship with neutrophilic inflammation. PMID:20538817

  13. Circulating CXCR5+CD4+ T Follicular-Like Helper Cell and Memory B Cell Responses to Human Papillomavirus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Ken; Adelsberger, Joseph W.; Kemp, Troy J.; Baseler, Michael W.; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2015-01-01

    Through the interaction of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and B cells, efficacious vaccines can generate high-affinity, pathogen-neutralizing antibodies, and memory B cells. Using CXCR5, CXCR3, CCR6, CCR7, PD1, and ICOS as markers, Tfh-like cells can be identified in the circulation and be classified into three functionally distinct subsets that are PD1+ICOS+, PD1+ ICOS-, or PD1-ICOS-. We used these markers to identify different subsets of CXCR5+CD4+ Tfh-like cells in response to highly immunogenic and efficacious vaccines for human papillomaviruses (HPV): Cervarix and Gardasil. In this small study, we used PBMC samples from 11 Gardasil recipients, and 8 Cervarix recipients from the Vaccine Research Center 902 Study to examine the induction of circulating Tfh-like cells and IgD-CD38HiCD27+ memory B cells by flow cytometry. PD1+ICOS+ CXCR3+CCR6-CXCR5+CD4+ (Tfh1-like) cells were induced and peaked on Day (D) 7 post-first vaccination, but not as much on D7 post-third vaccination. We also observed a trend toward increase in PD1+ICOS+ CXCR3-CCR6-CXCR5+CD4+ (Tfh2-like) cells for both vaccines, and PD1+ICOS+ CXCR3-CCR6+CXCR5+CD4+ (Tfh17-like) subset was induced by Cervarix post-first vaccination. There were also minimal changes in the other cellular subsets. In addition, Cervarix recipients had more memory B cells post-first vaccination than did Gardasil recipients at D14 and D30. We found frequencies of memory B cells at D30 correlated with anti-HPV16 and 18 antibody titers from D30, and the induction levels of memory B cells at D30 and PD1+ICOS+Tfh1-like cells at D7 post-first vaccination correlated for Cervarix. Our study showed that induction of circulating CXCR5+CD4+ Tfh-like subsets can be detected following immunization with HPV vaccines, and potentially be useful as a marker of immunogenicity of vaccines. However, further investigations should be extended to different cohorts with larger sample size to better understand the functions of these T cells, as well as

  14. Identification of candidate vaccine antigens of bovine hemoparasites Theileria parva and Babesia bovis by use of helper T cell clones.

    PubMed

    Brown, W C; Zhao, S; Logan, K S; Grab, D J; Rice-Ficht, A C

    1995-03-01

    Current vaccines for bovine hemoparasites utilize live attenuated organisms or virulent organisms administered concurrently with antiparasitic drugs. Although such vaccines can be effective, for most hemoparasites the mechanisms of acquired resistance to challenge infection with heterologous parasite isolates have not been clearly defined. Selection of potentially protective antigens has traditionally made use of antibodies to identify immunodominant proteins. However, numerous studies have indicated that induction of high antibody titers neither predicts the ability of an antigen to confer protective immunity nor correlates with protection. Because successful parasites have evolved antibody evasion tactics, alternative strategies to identify protective immunogens should be used. Through the elaboration of cytokines, T helper 1-(Th1)-like T cells and macrophages mediate protective immunity against many intracellular parasites, and therefore most likely play an important role in protective immunity against bovine hemoparasites. CD4+ T cell clones specific for soluble or membrane antigens of either Theileria parva schizonts or Babesia bovis merozoites were therefore employed to identify parasite antigens that elicit strong Th cell responses in vitro. Soluble cytosolic parasite antigen was fractionated by gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography or hydroxylapatite chromatography, or a combination thereof, and fractions were tested for the ability to induce proliferation of Th cell clones. This procedure enabled the identification of stimulatory fractions containing T. parva proteins of approximately 10 and 24 kDa. Antisera raised against the purified 24 kDa band reacted with a native schizont protein of approximately 30 kDa. Babesia bovis-specific Th cell clones tested against fractionated soluble Babesia bovis merozoite antigen revealed the presence of at least five distinct antigenic epitopes. Proteins separated by gel filtration revealed four patterns of

  15. [Changes in peripheral blood T helper 9 cells and interleukin-9 in children in the acute stage of Kawasaki disease].

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui-Li; Zhu, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Wu, Yi-Fei; Wang, Xing-Jian

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the changes in the expression levels of peripheral blood T helper 9 (Th9) cells and cytokine interleukin-9 (IL-9) in children in the acute stage of Kawasaki disease (KD) and their clinical significance. A total of 45 children in the acute stage of KD who were treated from April 2014 to July 2015 were enrolled, and the children were followed up in the recovery stage. Another 45 healthy children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as the control group. Flow cytometry was used to measure the percentage of peripheral blood Th9 cells, and ELISA was used to measure the serum level of IL-9. The children in the acute stage of KD showed a significantly higher percentage of Th9 cells and a significantly higher serum level of IL-9 compared with those in the recovery stage and the control group (P<0.05). The percentage of Th9 cells and serum level of IL-9 showed no significant differences between the children in the recovery stage and those in the control group (P>0.05). In the acute stage, the percentage of Th9 cells was positively correlated with the levels of IL-9, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count (PLT), and globulin (r=0.624, 0.324, 0.402, 0.382, 0.467, and 0.386 respectively, all P<0.05), but negatively correlated with serum albumin (r=-0.306, P<0.05). The serum level of IL-9 was positively correlated with the levels of CRP, PCT, ESR, PLT, and globulin (r=0.365, 0.456, 0.403, 0.423, and 0.453 respectively, all P<0.05), but negatively correlated with serum albumin (r=-0.343, P<0.05). The children in the acute stage of KD show significant increases in the percentage of peripheral Th9 cells and serum cytokine IL-9 level, which return to normal in the recovery stage. In the acute stage of KD, the expression levels of Th9 and IL-9 are closely correlated with laboratory markers. The results suggest that Th9 cells and IL-9 play important roles in the pathogenesis and outcome of KD.

  16. Honoring our helpers

    PubMed Central

    Talanow, Roland; Giesel, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Radiology Case Reports honors the reviewers who donated their time and expertise throughout the year 2015 to the high quality and success of this journal. PMID:27200155

  17. Honoring our helpers

    PubMed Central

    Talanow, Roland; Giesel, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Radiology Case Reports honors the reviewers who donated their time and expertise throughout the year 2016 to the high quality and success of this journal. PMID:28580066

  18. Good Apple Homework Helper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriano, Jeri S.

    This book, designed for students in grades 4 to 6, provides advice to help them do homework independently and successfully. Part 1, "Developing Good Habits," presents exercises and tips on organization and time management, including a self-inventory of homework habits, assistance in goal setting, and designing a personal schedule. Part 2, "Getting…

  19. Canine Companions and Helpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This feature article highlights dog breeds that are popular in the United States and explores the health benefits and services that dogs provide to people. The article also discusses dog shows and dogs in popular culture.

  20. Naive helper T cells from BCG-vaccinated volunteers produce IFN-gamma and IL-5 to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Kaźmierczak, Dominik; Donevski, Stefan; Biet, Franck; Pestel, Joël; Rudnicka, Wiesława

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live vaccine that has been used in routine vaccination against tuberculosis for nearly 80 years. However, its efficacy is controversial. The failure of BCG vaccination may be at least partially explained by the induction of poor or inappropriate host responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) are likely to play a key role in the induction of immune response to mycobacteria by polarizing the reactivity of T lymphocytes toward a Th1 profile, contributing to the generation of protective cellular immunity against mycobacteria. In this study we aimed to investigate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by naive CD4+ T cells to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed DCs in the group of young, healthy BCG vaccinated volunteers. The response of naive helper T cells was compared with the response of total blood lymphocytes. Our present results clearly showed that circulating naive CD45RA+CD4+ lymphocytes from BCG-vaccinated subjects can become effector helper cells producing IFN-gamma and IL-5 under the stimulation by autologous dendritic cells presenting mycobacterial protein antigen-PPD or infected with live M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  1. cAMP is an essential signal in the induction of antibody production by B cells but inhibits helper function of T cells.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, K M; Hoffmann, M K

    1985-09-01

    Dibutyryl cAMP and IL 1 were found to stimulate antigen-specific and polyclonal antibody production when added together to cultures of highly purified B cells. We propose that IL 1 and an elevation in cytoplasmic cAMP represent minimal signal requirements for B cell activation. In contrast to its effect on B cells, dibutyryl cAMP inhibited helper T cell activity. Cyclic AMP suppressed the production of IL 2 and T cell replacing factor (TRF) by T cells and thus abrogated the ability of helper T cells to enhance SRBC-specific antibody production by B cells. Cyclic AMP did not inhibit the generation by T cells of B cell growth factor (BCGF). BCGF, not normally detected in Con A supernatant, was found in the culture supernatant of spleen cells that were stimulated with Con A in the presence of cAMP. Our findings indicate that cAMP blocks the production of an inhibitor of BCGF activity. cAMP had no effect on the production by macrophages of IL 1.

  2. Natural killer T cells are required for the development of a superantigen-driven T helper type 2 immune response in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nomizo, Auro; Postol, Edilberto; de Alencar, Raquel; Cardillo, Fabíola; Mengel, José

    2005-01-01

    We show, here, that one single injection or weekly injections of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), starting in 1-day-old newborn mice, induced a powerful immune response with a T helper type 2 (Th2) pattern, as judged by the isotype and cytokine profile, with the production of large amounts of SEB-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), detectable levels of SEB-specific IgE and increased production of interleukin-4 by spleen cells. These protocols also induced an increase in the levels of total IgE in the serum. Memory of SEB was transferred to secondary recipients by using total spleen cells from primed animals. The secondary humoral response in transferred mice was diminished if spleen cells from SEB-treated mice were previously depleted of CD3+ or Vβ8+ T cells or NK1.1+ cells. In vivo depletion of NK1.1+ cells in adult mice resulted in a marked reduction in the SEB-specific antibody response in both the primary and secondary immune responses. Additionally, purified NK1.1+ T cells were able to perform SEB-specific helper B-cell actions in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that NK1.1+ T cells are required for the full development of humoral immunological memory, whilst making neonatal tolerance to SEB unachievable. PMID:16162272

  3. Generation of TCR-Expressing Innate Lymphoid-like Helper Cells that Induce Cytotoxic T Cell-Mediated Anti-leukemic Cell Response.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Norihiro; Uemura, Yasushi; Zhang, Rong; Kitayama, Shuichi; Iriguchi, Shoichi; Kawai, Yohei; Yasui, Yutaka; Tatsumi, Minako; Ueda, Tatsuki; Liu, Tian-Yi; Mizoro, Yasutaka; Okada, Chihiro; Watanabe, Akira; Nakanishi, Mahito; Senju, Satoru; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki; Kaneko, Shin

    2018-06-05

    CD4 + T helper (Th) cell activation is essential for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against malignancy. We reprogrammed a Th clone specific for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)-derived b3a2 peptide to pluripotency and re-differentiated the cells into original TCR-expressing T-lineage cells (iPS-T cells) with gene expression patterns resembling those of group 1 innate lymphoid cells. CD4 gene transduction into iPS-T cells enhanced b3a2 peptide-specific responses via b3a2 peptide-specific TCR. iPS-T cells upregulated CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression in response to interleukin-2 and interleukin-15. In the presence of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) peptide, antigen-specific dendritic cells (DCs) conditioned by CD4-modified CD40L high iPS-T cells stimulated WT1-specific CTL priming, which eliminated WT1 peptide-expressing CML cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, CD4 modification of CD40L high iPS-T cells generates innate lymphoid helper-like cells inducing bcr-abl-specific TCR signaling that mediates effectiveanti-leukemic CTL responses via DC maturation, showing potential for adjuvant immunotherapy against leukemia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IL-6 Production by TLR-Activated APC Broadly Enhances Aged Cognate CD4 Helper and B Cell Antibody Responses In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Brahmakshatriya, Vinayak; Kuang, Yi; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Xia, Jingya; Zhang, Wenliang; Vong, Allen Minh; Swain, Susan L

    2017-04-01

    Naive CD4 T cell responses, especially their ability to help B cell responses, become compromised with aging. We find that using APC pretreated ex vivo with TLR agonists, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and CpG, to prime naive CD4 T cells in vivo, restores their ability to expand and become germinal center T follicular helpers and enhances B cell IgG Ab production. Enhanced helper responses are dependent on IL-6 production by the activated APC. Aged naive CD4 T cells respond suboptimally to IL-6 compared with young cells, such that higher doses are required to induce comparable signaling. Preactivating APC overcomes this deficiency. Responses of young CD4 T cells are also enhanced by preactivating APC with similar effects but with only partial IL-6 dependency. Strikingly, introducing just the activated APC into aged mice significantly enhances otherwise compromised Ab production to inactivated influenza vaccine. These findings reveal a central role for the production of IL-6 by APC during initial cognate interactions in the generation of effective CD4 T cell help, which becomes greater with age. Without APC activation, aging CD4 T cell responses shift toward IL-6-independent Th1 and CD4 cytotoxic Th cell responses. Thus, strategies that specifically activate and provide Ag to APC could potentially enhance Ab-mediated protection in vaccine responses. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and regulation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 production

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, the signature cytokines that are produced during type 2 immune responses, are critical for protective immunity against infections of extracellular parasites and are responsible for asthma and many other allergic inflammatory diseases. Although many immune cell types within the myeloid lineage compartment including basophils, eosinophils and mast cells are capable of producing at least one of these cytokines, the production of these “type 2 immune response-related” cytokines by lymphoid lineages, CD4 T helper 2 (Th2) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in particular, are the central events during type 2 immune responses. In this review, I will focus on the signaling pathways and key molecules that determine the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, and how the expression of Th2 cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-13, is regulated in Th2 cells. The similarities and differences in the differentiation of Th2 cells, IL-4-producing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and ILC2s as well as their relationships will also be discussed. PMID:26044597

  6. CD21+ (B2 antigen+) cell decrement and CD4+CD29+ (helper-inducer) cell increment suggest an activation of cell immune reactivity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gambi, D; Porrini, A M; Giampietro, A; Macor, S

    1991-08-01

    Two-color flow cytometric analysis on peripheral blood lymphocytes of 35 untreated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, 17 other medical disease (OMD) patients and 14 healthy control (HC) subjects was performed to evaluate the levels of different T and B cell subpopulations. In MS patients we observed an increase in CD4+CD29+ helper-inducer cells but this increase was not related to the different phases of the disease. We hypothesize that this change is related to the reduction of CD21+ cells expressing B2 antigen, a 140 kDa molecule disappearing after B cell activation. An increased level of CD4+CD45RA- (helper-inducer-like cells) and a reduction of CD4+CD29- (suppressor-inducer-like cells) were also present in our patients. These findings demonstrate an immune 'disequilibrium' in MS, which is linked with an increased level of CD25+ cells expressing the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor. IL-2, besides being a T cell growth factor, is also a B cell growth factor. These data let us hypothesize that an activation of the immune response is present in MS.

  7. Which helper behaviors and intervention styles are related to better short-term outcomes in telephone crisis intervention? Results from a Silent Monitoring Study of Calls to the U.S. 1-800-SUICIDE Network.

    PubMed

    Mishara, Brian L; Chagnon, François; Daigle, Marc; Balan, Bogdan; Raymond, Sylvaine; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bardon, Cécile; Campbell, Julie K; Berman, Alan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 2,611 calls to 14 helplines were monitored to observe helper behaviors and caller characteristics and changes during the calls. The relationship between intervention characteristics and call outcomes are reported for 1,431 crisis calls. Empathy and respect, as well as factor-analytically derived scales of supportive approach and good contact and collaborative problem solving were significantly related to positive outcomes, but not active listening. We recommend recruitment of helpers with these characteristics, development of standardized training in those methods that are empirically shown to be effective, and the need for research relating short-term outcomes to long-term effects.

  8. T helper 2 and regulatory T-cell cytokine production by mast cells: a key factor in the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mai; Sato, Yasuharu; Ohno, Kyotaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Gion, Yuka; Orita, Yorihisa; Ito, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Tomoyasu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    IgG4-related disease is a systemic disorder with unique clinicopathological features and uncertain etiological features and is frequently related to allergic disease. T helper 2 and regulatory T-cell cytokines have been reported to be upregulated in the affected tissues; thus, the production of these cytokines by T helper 2 and regulatory T cells has been suggested as an important factor in the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease. However, it is not yet clear which cells produce these cytokines in IgG4-related disease, and some aspects of the disorder cannot be completely explained by T-cell-related processes. To address this, we analyzed paraffin-embedded sections of tissues from nine cases of IgG4-related submandibular gland disease, five cases of submandibular sialolithiasis, and six cases of normal submandibular gland in order to identify potential key players in the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the significant upregulation of interleukin (IL)4, IL10, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) in IgG4-related disease. Interestingly, immunohistochemical studies indicated the presence of mast cells expressing these cytokines in diseased tissues. In addition, dual immunofluorescence assays identified cells that were double-positive for each cytokine and for KIT, which is expressed by mast cells. In contrast, the distribution of T cells did not correlate with cytokine distribution in affected tissues. We also found that the mast cells were strongly positive for IgE. This observation supports the hypothesis that mast cells are involved in IgG4-related disease, as mast cells are known to be closely related to allergic reactions and are activated in the presence of elevated non-specific IgE levels. In conclusion, our results indicate that mast cells produce T helper 2 and regulatory T-cell cytokines in tissues affected by IgG4-related disease and possibly have an important role in disease

  9. Activation of human T-helper/inducer cell, T-cytotoxic/suppressor cell, B-cell, and natural killer (NK)-cells and induction of NK cell activity against K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells with modified citrus pectin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Modified citrus pectin (MCP) is known for its anti-cancer effects and its ability to be absorbed and circulated in the human body. In this report we tested the ability of MCP to induce the activation of human blood lymphocyte subsets including T-helper/inducer cell, Tcytotoxic/suppres...

  10. Which Helper Behaviors and Intervention Styles Are Related to Better Short-Term Outcomes in Telephone Crisis Intervention? Results from a Silent Monitoring Study of Calls to the U.S. 1-800-SUICIDE Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishara, Brian L.; Chagnon, Francois; Daigle, Marc; Balan, Bogdan; Raymond, Sylvaine; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bardon, Cecile; Campbell, Julie K.; Berman, Alan

    2007-01-01

    A total of 2,611 calls to 14 helplines were monitored to observe helper behaviors and caller characteristics and changes during the calls. The relationship between intervention characteristics and call outcomes are reported for 1,431 crisis calls. Empathy and respect, as well as factor-analytically derived scales of supportive approach and good…

  11. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part H. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #25--Household Appliance Mechanic; #26--Lineworker; #27--Painter Helper, Spray; #28--Painter, Brush; #29--Carpenter Apprentice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This fifth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Household Appliance Mechanic; Lineworker; Painter Helper, Spray; Painter, Brush; and Carpenter Apprentice. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE…

  12. Transforming growth factor-beta controls T helper type 1 cell development through regulation of natural killer cell interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Laouar, Yasmina; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Gorelik, Leonid; Flavell, Richard A

    2005-06-01

    Interferon-gamma and interleukin 12 produced by the innate arm of the immune system are important regulators of T helper type 1 (T(H)1) cell development, but signals that negatively regulate their expression remain controversial. Here we show that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) controlled T(H)1 differentiation through the regulation of interferon-gamma produced by natural killer (NK) cells. Blockade of TGF-beta signaling in NK cells caused the accumulation of a large pool of NK cells secreting copious interferon-gamma, responsible for T(H)1 differentiation and protection from leishmania infection. In contrast, blockade of TGF-beta signaling in dendritic cells did not affect dendritic cell homeostasis or interleukin 12 production, thus indicating a previously undescribed demarcation of the function of TGF-beta in NK cells versus dendritic cells.

  13. Saponins from soy bean and mung bean inhibit the antigen specific activation of helper T cells by blocking cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk Jun; Bae, Joonbeom; Kim, Sunhee; Jeong, Seonah; Choi, Chang-Yong; Choi, Sang-Pil; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Jung, Woon-Won; Imm, Jee-Young; Kim, Sae Hun; Chun, Taehoon

    2013-02-01

    Treatment of helper T (Th) cells with saponins from soy bean and mung bean prevented their activation by inhibiting cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. However, the saponins did not affect the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (A(b)) and co-stimulatory molecule (CD86) on professional antigen-presenting cells. Instead, the saponins directly inhibited Th cell proliferation by blocking the G(1) to S phase cell cycle transition. Moreover, blocking of the cell cycle by the saponins was achieved by decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and constitutive expression of p27(KIP1). Saponins also increased stability of p27(KIP1) in Th cells after antigenic stimulation.

  14. Cellular basis for neonatally induced T-suppressor activity. Primary B cell maturation is blocked by suppressor-helper interactions restricted by loci on chromosome 12

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The cellular mechanism and genetic restriction of neonatally induced HA- specific suppressor T (Ts) cells have been examined. The in vivo effect of these Ts cells on antibody production, primary B cell proliferation, B cell surface marker changes, and helper T (Th) cell priming during primary responses to HA have been determined. The results indicate that, although antigen-induced B cell proliferative responses and surface marker changes occur in the presence of Ts cells, differentiation to Ig secretion, and long-lived memory B cell production are prevented. Further, antigen-specific Th cell priming is completely ablated by Ts cells, suggesting that Ts act by preventing the delivery of Th signals required for both the later stages of primary B cell maturation, and the formation of memory B cell populations. Finally, in vivo cell mixing experiments using congenic mice indicate that this Ts-Th interaction is restricted by loci on mouse chromosome 12. PMID:2580040

  15. Effect of ginseng polysaccharides and dendritic cells on the balance of Th1/Th2 T helper cells in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junjie; Liu, Huiping; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of thorascopic administration.of ginseng polysaccharides (GPS) plus dendritic cells (DC) on T helper cell type 1/T helper cell type 2 (Th1/Th2) balance in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 96 NSCLC patients were divided evenly into two groups. The control group was treated with DCs alone and the treatment group was treated with DCs plus GPS. After DCs and GPS were administered thoracoscopically, once a week, 4 times for 30 days, the patients' quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment-Lung (FACT-L) questionnaire before and after treatment. Serum interferon-γ (INF-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-2 and IL-5 were examined before and after treatments. The level of Th1 cytokines (INF-γ, IL-2) and the ratio of Th1/Th2 cytokines (INF-γ/IL-4, IL-2/ IL-5) increased in both treatment groups, while Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and FACT-L scores decreased (P < 0.01). Furthermore, after treatment Th1 cytokines (INF-γ, IL-2) and the ratio of Th1/Th2 cytokines (INF-γ/IL-4, IL-2/IL-5) were higher in the DCs + GPS group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conversely, FACT-L scores and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) were higher in the control group than in the DCs + GPS group (P < 0.05). The treatment regime of DCs plus GPS had a greater effect on NSCLC patients' immune function as compared with DCs alone. This was evident by increased expression of Th1 cytokines (INF-γ, IL-2) and the ratio of Th1/Th2 (INF-γ/IL-4, IL-2/IL-5), as well as by decreased FACT-L scores and the expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5).

  16. Murine Adseverin (D5), a Novel Member of the Gelsolin Family, and Murine Adseverin Are Induced by Interleukin-9 in T-Helper Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Robbens, Johan; Louahed, Jamila; De Pestel, Kathleen; Van Colen, Inge; Ampe, Christophe; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Renauld, Jean-Christophe

    1998-01-01

    We identified a number of upregulated genes by differential screening of interleukin-9-stimulated T-helper lymphocytes. Interestingly, two of these messengers encode proteins that are similar to proteins of the gelsolin family. The first displays a typical structure of six homologous domains and shows a high level of identity (90%) with bovine adseverin (or scinderin) and may therefore be considered the murine adseverin homolog. The second encodes a protein with only five segments. Sequence comparison shows that most of the fifth segment and a short amino-terminal part of the sixth segment (amino acids 528 to 628 of adseverin) are missing, and thus, this form may represent an alternatively spliced product derived from the same gene. The corresponding protein is called mouse adseverin (D5). We expressed both proteins in Escherichia coli and show that mouse adseverin displays the typical characteristics of all members of the gelsolin family with respect to actin binding (capping, severing, and nucleation) and its regulation by Ca2+. In contrast, mouse adseverin (D5) fails to nucleate actin polymerization, although like mouse adseverin and gelsolin, it severs and caps actin filaments in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Adseverin is present in all of the tissues and most of the cell lines tested, although at low concentrations. Mouse adseverin (D5) was found only in blood cells and in cell lines derived from T-helper lymphocytes and mast cells, where it is weakly expressed. In a gel filtration experiment, we demonstrated that mouse adseverin forms a 1:2 complex with G actin which is stable only in the presence of Ca2+, while no stable complex was observed for mouse adseverin (D5). PMID:9671468

  17. Dietary phytosterols modulate T-helper immune response but do not induce apparent anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of acute, aseptic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Benítez, Sonia; Bancells, Cristina; González-Sastre, Francesc; Palomer, Xavier; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2007-05-01

    Although most studies have focused on the cholesterol-lowering activity of phytosterols, other biological actions have been ascribed to these plant sterol compounds, one of which is a potential immune modulatory effect. To gain insight into this issue, we used a mouse model of acute, aseptic inflammation induced by a single subcutaneous turpentine injection. Hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice, fed with or without a 2% phytosterol supplement, were treated with turpentine or saline and euthanized 48 h later. No differences were observed in spleen lymphocyte subsets between phytosterol- and control-fed apoE(-/-) mice. However, cultured spleen lymphocytes of apoE(-/-) mice fed with phytosterols and treated with turpentine showed increased IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion (T-helper type1, Th1 lymphocyte cytokines) compared with turpentine-treated, control-fed animals. In contrast, there was no change in Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. Phytosterols also inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption in wild-type C57BL/6J mice but, in this case, without decreasing plasma cholesterol. Spleen lymphocytes of turpentine-treated C57BL/6J mice fed with phytosterols also showed increased IL-2 production, but IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 production was unchanged. The Th1/Th2 ratio was significantly increased both in phytosterol-fed apoE(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice. We conclude that phytosterols modulate the T-helper immune response in vivo, in part independently of their hypocholesterolemic effect in a setting of acute, aseptic inflammation. Further study of phytosterol effects on immune-based diseases characterized by an exacerbated Th2 response is thus of interest.

  18. ROCK2 signaling is required to induce a subset of T follicular helper cells through opposing effects on STATs in autoimmune settings.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan M; Chen, Wei; Nyuydzefe, Melanie S; Trzeciak, Alissa; Flynn, Ryan; Tonra, James R; Marusic, Suzana; Blazar, Bruce R; Waksal, Samuel D; Zanin-Zhorov, Alexandra

    2016-07-19

    Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) determines the balance between human T helper 17 (TH17) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. We investigated its role in the generation of T follicular helper (TFH) cells, which help to generate antibody-producing B cells under normal and autoimmune conditions. Inhibiting ROCK2 in normal human T cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) decreased the number and function of TFH cells induced by activation ex vivo. Moreover, inhibition of ROCK2 activity decreased the abundance of the transcriptional regulator Bcl6 (B cell lymphoma 6) and increased that of Blimp1 by reducing the binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and increasing that of STAT5 to the promoters of the genes Bcl6 and PRDM1, respectively. In the MRL/lpr murine model of SLE, oral administration of the selective ROCK2 inhibitor KD025 resulted in a twofold reduction in the numbers of TFH cells and antibody-producing plasma cells in the spleen, as well as a decrease in the size of splenic germinal centers, which are the sites of interaction between TFH cells and B cells. KD025-treated mice showed a substantial improvement in both histological and clinical scores compared to those of untreated mice and had reduced amounts of Bcl6 and phosphorylated STAT3, as well as increased STAT5 phosphorylation. Together, these data suggest that ROCK2 signaling plays a critical role in controlling the development of TFH cells induced by autoimmune conditions through reciprocal regulation of STAT3 and STAT5 activation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Differential induction of CD94 and NKG2 in CD4 helper T cells. A consequence of influenza virus infection and interferon-γ?

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Christine M; Christensen, Jillian R; Thomas, D Brian

    2007-01-01

    Influenza A virus causes worldwide epidemics and pandemics and the investigation of memory T helper (Th) cells that help maintain serological memory following infection is important for vaccine design. In this study we investigated CD94 and NKG2 gene expression in memory CD4 T-cell clones established from the spleens of C57BL/10 (H-2b) and BALB/c (H-2d) mice infected with influenza A virus (H3N2). CD94 and NKG2A/C/E proteins form heterodimeric membrane receptors that are involved in virus recognition. CD94 and NKG2 expression have been well characterized in natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T cells. Despite CD94 being potentially an important marker for Th1 cells involved in virus infection, however, there has been little investigation of its expression or function in the CD4 T-cell lineage and no studies have looked at in-vivo-generated Th cells or memory cells. We show in this study that in-vivo-generated CD4 Th1 cells, but not Th2 cells, exhibited full-length CD94 and NKG2A gene expression following activation with viral peptide. For NKG2A, a novel ‘short’ (possibly redundant) truncated isoform was detectable in a Th2 cell clone. Another member of the NK receptor family, NKG2D, but not NKG2C or E, was also differentially expressed in Th1 cells. We show here that CD94 and NKG2A may exist as multiple isoforms with the potential to distinguish helper T-cell subsets. PMID:17462078

  20. Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Spikes Local Inflammation That Induces Th2 Cell and T Follicular Helper Cell Responses to the Coadministered Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Motoyasu; Ozasa, Koji; Kobiyama, Kouji; Ohata, Keiichi; Kitano, Mitsutaka; Taniguchi, Keiichi; Homma, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Sato, Akihiko; Katakai, Yuko; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Wijaya, Edward; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Ise, Wataru; Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Vandenbon, Alexis; Standley, Daron M.; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Coban, Cevayir; Aoshi, Taiki; Kuroda, Etsushi

    2015-01-01

    Cyclodextrins are commonly used as a safe excipient to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of hydrophobic pharmaceutical agents. Their efficacies and mechanisms as drug-delivery systems have been investigated for decades, but their immunological properties have not been examined. In this study, we reprofiled hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as a vaccine adjuvant and found that it acts as a potent and unique adjuvant. HP-β-CD triggered the innate immune response at the injection site, was trapped by MARCO+ macrophages, increased Ag uptake by dendritic cells, and facilitated the generation of T follicular helper cells in the draining lymph nodes. It significantly enhanced Ag-specific Th2 and IgG Ab responses as potently as did the conventional adjuvant, aluminum salt (alum), whereas its ability to induce Ag-specific IgE was less than that of alum. At the injection site, HP-β-CD induced the temporary release of host dsDNA, a damage-associated molecular pattern. DNase-treated mice, MyD88-deficient mice, and TBK1-deficient mice showed significantly reduced Ab responses after immunization with this adjuvant. Finally, we demonstrated that HP-β-CD–adjuvanted influenza hemagglutinin split vaccine protected against a lethal challenge with a clinically isolated pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and the adjuvant effect of HP-β-CD was demonstrated in cynomolgus macaques. Our results suggest that HP-β-CD acts as a potent MyD88- and TBK1-dependent T follicular helper cell adjuvant and is readily applicable to various vaccines. PMID:25681338

  1. Construction of genetically engineered M13K07 helper phage for simultaneous phage display of gold binding peptide 1 and nuclear matrix protein 22 ScFv antibody.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Farnaz; Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad; Mazlomi, Mohammad Ali; Asadi-Ghalehni, Majid; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil

    2017-11-01

    The most common techniques of antibody phage display are based on the use of M13 filamentous bacteriophages. This study introduces a new genetically engineered M13K07 helper phage displaying multiple copies of a known gold binding peptide on p8 coat proteins. The recombinant helper phages were used to rescue a phagemid vector encoding the p3 coat protein fused to the nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) ScFv antibody. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed that the expression of gold binding peptide 1 (GBP1) on major coat protein p8 significantly enhances the gold-binding affinity of M13 phages. The recombinant bacteriophages at concentrations above 5×10 4 pfu/ml red-shifted the UV-vis absorbance spectra of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs); however, the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was not changed by the wild type bacteriophages at concentrations up to 10 12 pfu/ml. The phage ELISA assay demonstrated the high affinity binding of bifunctional bacteriophages to NMP22 antigen at concentrations of 10 5 and 10 6 pfu/ml. Thus, the p3 end of the bifunctional bacteriophages would be able to bind to specific target antigen, while the AuNPs were assembled along the coat of virus for signal generation. Our results indicated that the complex of antigen-bacteriophages lead to UV-vis spectral changes of AuNPs and NMP22 antigen in concentration range of 10-80μg/ml can be detected by bifunctional bacteriophages at concentration of 10 4 pfu/ml. The ability of bifunctional bacteriophages to bind to antigen and generate signal at the same time, makes this approach applicable for identifying different antigens in immunoassay techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rat eosinophils stimulate the expansion of Cryptococcus neoformans-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with a T-helper 1 profile

    PubMed Central

    Garro, Ana P; Chiapello, Laura S; Baronetti, José L; Masih, Diana T

    2011-01-01

    Experimental Cryptococcus neoformans infection in rats has been shown to have similarities with human cryptococcosis, revealing a strong granulomatous response and a low susceptibility to dissemination. Moreover, it has been shown that eosinophils are components of the inflammatory response to C. neoformans infections. In this in vitro study, we demonstrated that rat peritoneal eosinophils phagocytose opsonized live yeasts of C. neoformans, and that the phenomenon involves the engagement of FcγRII and CD18. Moreover, our results showed that the phagocytosis of opsonized C. neoformans triggers eosinophil activation, as indicated by (i) the up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, MHC class II and costimulatory molecules, and (ii) an increase in interleukin (IL)-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. However, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) synthesis by eosinophils was down-regulated after interaction with C. neoformans. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes isolated from spleens of infected rats and cultured with C. neoformans-pulsed eosinophils proliferate in an MHC class II- and class I-dependent manner, respectively, and produce important amounts of T-helper 1 (Th1) type cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, in the absence of T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokine synthesis. In summary, the present study demonstrates that eosinophils act as fungal antigen-presenting cells and suggests that C. neoformans-loaded eosinophils might participate in the adaptive immune response. PMID:21039463

  3. Engaging the CD40-CD40L pathway augments T-helper cell responses and improves control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Bizzell, Erica; Madan-Lala, Ranjna

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) impairs dendritic cell (DC) functions and induces suboptimal antigen-specific CD4 T cell immune responses that are poorly protective. Mucosal T-helper cells producing IFN-γ (Th1) and IL-17 (Th17) are important for protecting against tuberculosis (TB), but the mechanisms by which DCs generate antigen-specific T-helper responses during Mtb infection are not well defined. We previously reported that Mtb impairs CD40 expression on DCs and restricts Th1 and Th17 responses. We now demonstrate that CD40-dependent costimulation is required to generate IL-17 responses to Mtb. CD40-deficient DCs were unable to induce antigen-specific IL-17 responses after Mtb infection despite the production of Th17-polarizing innate cytokines. Disrupting the interaction between CD40 on DCs and its ligand CD40L on antigen-specific CD4 T cells, genetically or via antibody blockade, significantly reduced antigen-specific IL-17 responses. Importantly, engaging CD40 on DCs with a multimeric CD40 agonist (CD40LT) enhanced antigen-specific IL-17 generation in ex vivo DC-T cell co-culture assays. Further, intratracheal instillation of Mtb-infected DCs treated with CD40LT significantly augmented antigen-specific Th17 responses in vivo in the lungs and lung-draining lymph nodes of mice. Finally, we show that boosting CD40-CD40L interactions promoted balanced Th1/Th17 responses in a setting of mucosal DC transfer, and conferred enhanced control of lung bacterial burdens following aerosol challenge with Mtb. Our results demonstrate that CD40 costimulation by DCs plays an important role in generating antigen-specific Th17 cells and targeting the CD40-CD40L pathway represents a novel strategy to improve adaptive immunity to TB. PMID:28767735

  4. A shift in the collagen V antigenic epitope leads to T helper phenotype switch and immune response to self-antigen leading to chronic lung allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Tiriveedhi, V; Angaswamy, N; Brand, D; Weber, J; Gelman, A G; Hachem, R; Trulock, E P; Meyers, B; Patterson, G; Mohanakumar, T

    2012-01-01

    Immune responses to human leucocyte antigen (HLA) and self-antigen collagen V (Col-V) have been proposed in the pathogenesis of chronic rejection (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, BOS) following human lung transplantation (LTx). In this study, we defined the role for the shift in immunodominant epitopes of Col-V in inducing T helper phenotype switch leading to immunity to Col-V and BOS. Sera and lavage from BOS(+) LTx recipients with antibodies to Col-V were analysed. Two years prior to BOS, patients developed antibodies to both Col-V,α1(V) and α2(V) chains. However, at clinical diagnosis of BOS, antibodies became restricted to α1(V). Further, lung biopsy from BOS(+) patients bound to antibodies to α1(V), indicating that these epitopes are exposed. Fourteen Col-V peptides [pep1-14, pep1-4 specific to α1(V), pep5-8 to α1,2(V) and pep9-14 to α2(V)] which bind to HLA-DR4 and -DR7, demonstrated that prior to BOS, pep 6, 7, 9, 11 and 14 were immunodominant and induced interleukin (IL)-10. However, at BOS, the response switched to pep1, 4 and 5 and induced interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-17 responses, but not IL-10. The T helper (Th) phenotype switch is accompanied by decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) in the lavage. LTx recipients with antibodies to α1(V) also demonstrated increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation with decreased MMP inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), suggesting that MMP activation may play a role in the exposure of new Col-V antigenic epitopes. We conclude that a shift in immunodominance of self-antigenic determinants of Col-V results in induction of IFN-γ and IL-17 with loss of tolerance leading to autoimmunity to Col-V, which leads to chronic lung allograft rejection. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  5. Human germinal center CD4+CD57+ T cells act differently on B cells than do classical T-helper cells.

    PubMed

    Bouzahzah, F; Bosseloir, A; Heinen, E; Simar, L J

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated two subtypes of helper T cells from human tonsils: CD4+CD57+ cells, mostly located in the germinal center (GC), and CD4+CD57- cells, distributed through the interfollicular areas but also present in the GC. In a functional study, we have compared the capacities of these T-cell subtypes to stimulate B cells in cocultures. In order to block T-cell proliferation while maintaining their activation level, we pretreated isolated T cells with mitomycin C prior to culture in the presence of B cells and added polyclonal activators such as PHA and Con A, combined or not with IL-2. Contrary to CD4+ CD57- cells, CD4+CD57+ cells did not markedly enhance B-cell proliferation. Even when sIgD.B cells typical of germinal center cells were tested, the CD4+CD57+ cells had no significant effect. This is in accordance with the location of these cells: They mainly occupy the light zones of the GC where few B cells divide. Even when added to preactivated, actively proliferating cells, CD4+CD57 cells failed to modulate B-cell multiplication. On the supernatants of B-cell-T-cell cocultures, we examined by the ELISA technique the effect of T cells on Ig synthesis. Contrary to CD57+ T cells, whose effect was strong, CD57- T cells weakly stimulated Ig synthesis. More IgM than IgG was generally found. Because CD57 antigen is a typical marker of natural killer cells, we tested the cytolytic activity of tonsillar CD4+CD57+ cells on K562 target cells. Unlike NK cells, neither CD4+CD57+ nor CD4+CD57- cells exhibit any cytotoxicity. Thus, germinal center CD4+CD57+ cells are not cytolytic and do not strongly stimulate either B-cell proliferation or Ig secretion. CD4+CD57- cells, however, enhance B-cell proliferation and differentiation, thus acting like the classical helper cells of the T-dependent areas.

  6. Conventional and monocyte-derived CD11b(+) dendritic cells initiate and maintain T helper 2 cell-mediated immunity to house dust mite allergen.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Maud; Guilliams, Martin; Vanheerswynghels, Manon; Deswarte, Kim; Branco-Madeira, Filipe; Toussaint, Wendy; Vanhoutte, Leen; Neyt, Katrijn; Killeen, Nigel; Malissen, Bernard; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2013-02-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for mounting allergic airway inflammation, but it is unclear which subset of DCs performs this task. By using CD64 and MAR-1 staining, we reliably separated CD11b(+) monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) from conventional DCs (cDCs) and studied antigen uptake, migration, and presentation assays of lung and lymph node (LN) DCs in response to inhaled house dust mite (HDM). Mainly CD11b(+) cDCs but not CD103(+) cDCs induced T helper 2 (Th2) cell immunity in HDM-specific T cells in vitro and asthma in vivo. Studies in Flt3l(-/-) mice, lacking all cDCs, revealed that moDCs were also sufficient to induce Th2 cell-mediated immunity but only when high-dose HDM was given. The main function of moDCs was the production of proinflammatory chemokines and allergen presentation in the lung during challenge. Thus, we have identified migratory CD11b(+) cDCs as the principal subset inducing Th2 cell-mediated immunity in the LN, whereas moDCs orchestrate allergic inflammation in the lung. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serial Monitoring of Immune Markers Being Represented Regulatory T Cell/T Helper 17 Cell Ratio: Indicating Tolerance for Tapering Immunosuppression after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jhun, JooYeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Soon Kyu; Kim, Hee Yeon; Jung, Eun Sun; Kim, Dong Goo; Choi, JeongWon; Bae, Si Hyun; Yoon, Seung Kew; Chung, Byung Ha; Yang, Chul Woo; Cho, Mi-La; Choi, Jong Young

    2018-01-01

    Recipients of liver transplantation (LT) require long-term immunosuppressive drug treatment, but lifelong immunosuppressive treatment has severe side effects. It is known that some LT recipients develop immune tolerance, and although the development of such operational tolerance should allow a decrease in the burden of immunosuppressive drug treatment, the factors that indicate operational tolerance are not clear. This study aimed to monitor immunological markers over time in LT recipients to identify those markers indicating the development of operational tolerance. We performed a prospective pilot study measuring immune markers, including the ratio of regulatory T (Treg) and T helper (Th) 17 cells in peripheral blood in the 14 most immunologically stable patients among 70 clinically stable LT recipients. The doses of immunosuppressive drugs given to these 14 LT recipients were tapered over time and they were monitored for immunological markers related to the development of immune tolerance. As the doses of immunosuppressive drugs were reduced, the Treg/Th17, Th1/Th17, and CD8/Th17 ratio in tolerant recipients was significantly increased compared with that of nontolerant recipients. These results suggest that monitoring of changes in the immune makers, including Treg/Th17 ratio during tapering of immunosuppression may allow prediction of the development of tolerance. PMID:29545795

  8. Depressed primary in vitro antibody response in untreated systemic lupus erythematosus. T helper cell defect and lack of defective suppressor cell function.

    PubMed Central

    Delfraissy, J F; Segond, P; Galanaud, P; Wallon, C; Massias, P; Dormont, J

    1980-01-01

    The in vitro antibody response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 19 patients with untreated systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was compared with that of 20 control patients and 44 normal subjects. Trinitrophenyl polyacrylamide beads (TNP-PAA) were used to induce IgM anti-TNP plaque-forming cells. SLE patients displayed a markedly depressed, and in most instances virtually absent, response. This was not due to an unusual kinetics of the response; nor could it be induced by preincubation of SLE patients' PBL. In co-cultures of SLE patients and normal PBL, the former, with few exceptions, did not exert a suppressive effect. In four patients the anti-TNP response of either unfractionated or T-depleted SLE PBL could be restored by T cells from a normal individual. Conversely in three of these patients, SLE T cells could not support the response of normal B cells, suggesting a T helper cell defect in SLE PBL. Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced suppressor cells of the antibody response could be assayed by two approaches: (a) in responder SLE patients, by the direct addition of Con A to TNP-PAA-stimulated cultures; (b) in seven patients by transfer of Con A-activated cells to the responding culture of a normal allogeneic donor. In both cases SLE PBL were able to exert a suppressive effect to the same extent as normal PBL. PMID:6447163

  9. Multivalent presentation of MPL by porous silicon microparticles favors T helper 1 polarization enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy of doxorubicin nanoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Meraz, Ismail M; Hearnden, Claire H; Liu, Xuewu; Yang, Marie; Williams, Laura; Savage, David J; Gu, Jianhua; Rhudy, Jessica R; Yokoi, Kenji; Lavelle, Ed C; Serda, Rita E

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (pSi) microparticles, in diverse sizes and shapes, can be functionalized to present pathogen-associated molecular patterns that activate dendritic cells. Intraperitoneal injection of MPL-adsorbed pSi microparticles, in contrast to free MPL, resulted in the induction of local inflammation, reflected in the recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and proinflammatory monocytes, and the depletion of resident macrophages and mast cells at the injection site. Injection of microparticle-bound MPL resulted in enhanced secretion of the T helper 1 associated cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α by peritoneal exudate and lymph node cells in response to secondary stimuli while decreasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. MPL-pSi microparticles independently exhibited anti-tumor effects and enhanced tumor suppression by low dose doxorubicin nanoliposomes. Intravascular injection of the MPL-bound microparticles increased serum IL-1β levels, which was blocked by the IL-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra. The microparticles also potentiated tumor infiltration by dendritic cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and F4/80+ macrophages, however, a specific reduction was observed in CD204+ macrophages.

  10. Immunomodulation and T Helper TH1/TH2 Response Polarization by CeO2 and TiO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Schanen, Brian C.; Das, Soumen; Reilly, Christopher M.; Warren, William L.; Self, William T.; Seal, Sudipta; Drake, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Immunomodulation by nanoparticles, especially as related to the biochemical properties of these unique materials, has scarcely been explored. In an in vitro model of human immunity, we demonstrate two catalytic nanoparticles, TiO2 (oxidant) and CeO2 (antioxidant), have nearly opposite effects on human dendritic cells and T helper (TH) cells. For example, whereas TiO2 nanoparticles potentiated DC maturation that led towards TH1-biased responses, treatment with antioxidant CeO2 nanoparticles induced APCs to secrete the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, and induce a TH2-dominated T cell profile. In subsequent studies, we demonstrate these results are likely explained by the disparate capacities of the nanoparticles to modulate ROS, since TiO2, but not CeO2 NPs, induced inflammatory responses through an ROS/inflammasome/IL-1β pathway. This novel capacity of metallic NPs to regulate innate and adaptive immunity in profoundly different directions via their ability to modulate dendritic cell function has strong implications for human health since unintentional exposure to these materials is common in modern societies. PMID:23667525

  11. Somatic mutations and affinity maturation are impaired by excessive numbers of T follicular helper cells and restored by Treg cells or memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Preite, Silvia; Baumjohann, Dirk; Foglierini, Mathilde; Basso, Camilla; Ronchi, Francesca; Fernandez Rodriguez, Blanca M; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sallusto, Federica

    2015-11-01

    We previously reported that Cd3e-deficient mice adoptively transferred with CD4(+) T cells generate high numbers of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, which go on to induce a strong B-cell and germinal center (GC) reaction. Here, we show that in this system, GC B cells display an altered distribution between the dark and light zones, and express low levels of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Furthermore, GC B cells from Cd3e(-/-) mice accumulate fewer somatic mutations as compared with GC B cells from wild-type mice, and exhibit impaired affinity maturation and reduced differentiation into long-lived plasma cells. Reconstitution of Cd3e(-/-) mice with regulatory T (Treg) cells restored Tfh-cell numbers, GC B-cell numbers and B-cell distribution within dark and light zones, and the rate of antibody somatic mutations. Tfh-cell numbers and GC B-cell numbers and dynamics were also restored by pre-reconstitution of Cd3e(-/-) mice with Cxcr5(-/-) Treg cells or non-regulatory, memory CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, these findings underline the importance of a quantitatively regulated Tfh-cell response for an efficient and long-lasting serological response. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Circulating CXCR5+PD-1+ICOS+ Follicular T Helper Cells Are Increased Close to the Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes in Children With Multiple Autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Viisanen, Tyyne; Ihantola, Emmi-Leena; Näntö-Salonen, Kirsti; Hyöty, Heikki; Nurminen, Noora; Selvenius, Jenni; Juutilainen, Auni; Moilanen, Leena; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Veijola, Riitta; Toppari, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Ilonen, Jorma; Kinnunen, Tuure

    2017-02-01

    Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is primarily perceived as a T cell-driven autoimmune disease, islet autoantibodies are the best currently available biomarker for autoimmunity and disease risk. These antibodies are produced by autoreactive B cells, the activation of which is largely dependent on the function of CD4 + CXCR5 + follicular T helper cells (Tfh). In this study, we have comprehensively characterized the Tfh- as well as B-cell compartments in a large cohort of children with newly diagnosed T1D or at different stages of preclinical T1D. We demonstrate that the frequency of CXCR5 + PD-1 + ICOS + -activated circulating Tfh cells is increased both in children with newly diagnosed T1D and in autoantibody-positive at-risk children with impaired glucose tolerance. Interestingly, this increase was only evident in children positive for two or more biochemical autoantibodies. No alterations in the circulating B-cell compartment were observed in children with either prediabetes or diabetes. Our results demonstrate that Tfh activation is detectable in the peripheral blood close to the presentation of clinical T1D but only in a subgroup of children identifiable by positivity for multiple autoantibodies. These findings suggest a role for Tfh cells in the pathogenesis of human T1D and carry important implications for targeting Tfh cells and/or B cells therapeutically. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Epitope mapping and evaluation of specificity of T-helper sites in four major antigenic peptides of chicken riboflavin carrier protein in outbred rats.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sarada; Andal, S; Karande, Anjali A; Radhakantha Adiga, P

    2003-11-07

    This paper reviews our studies on synthetic peptides spanning the major antigenic determinants of the chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP; 219 AA). These determinants are composed of residues 4-24 (YGC), 64-83 (CED), 130-147 (GEN), and 200-219 (HAC) and function as minivaccines in terms of eliciting anti-peptide antibodies which recognize the native protein and are particularly promising contraceptive vaccine candidates. We have used 15-residue synthetic peptides to define short sequences involved in interaction with antibody and with T-cells. We have mapped the boundaries of T-cell epitopes of these peptides in outbred rats by immunizing the animals with each peptide and assaying the popliteal lymph node cell proliferation against a series of overlapping synthetic 15-mers covering the entire length of the individual peptides. The peptides YGC, GEN, and HAC harboured a single T-cell epitope each whereas the peptide CED exhibited bimodal response possessing two epitopes, one at N-terminus and the other at the C-terminus. These studies provide insight into the way in which an immunogen is viewed by the immune system. In addition, preferential T-cell helper function for B cells recognizing unique determinants on the same molecule was demonstrated. This information helps in exploiting synthetic peptides in the construction of designer immunogens which have potential as candidate vaccines.

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ agonists inhibit T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 responses in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kanakasabai, Saravanan; Chearwae, Wanida; Walline, Crystal C; Iams, Wade; Adams, Suzanne M; Bright, John J

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder that affects more than a million people world-wide. The aetiology of MS is not known and there is no medical treatment available that can cure MS. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease model of MS. The pathogenesis of EAE/MS is a complex process involving activation of immune cells, secretion of inflammatory cytokines and destruction of myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptor transcription factors that regulate cell growth, differentiation and homeostasis. PPAR agonists have been used in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, cancer and inflammation. We and others have shown that PPARγ, α and δ agonists inhibit CNS inflammation and demyelination in the EAE model of MS. In this study we show that the PPARδ agonists GW501516 and L165041 ameliorate MOGp35-55-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice by blocking interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17 production by T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells. The inhibition of EAE by PPARδ agonists was also associated with a decrease in IL-12 and IL-23 and an increase in IL-4 and IL-10 expression in the CNS and lymphoid organs. These findings indicate that PPARδ agonists modulate Th1 and Th17 responses in EAE and suggest their use in the treatment of MS and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:20406305

  15. Indirubin, a purple 3,2- bisindole, inhibited allergic contact dermatitis via regulating T helper (Th)-mediated immune system in DNCB-induced model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Yang, Gabsik; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Nam, Dongwoo; Yang, Woong Mo

    2013-01-09

    Indirubin, isolated from Indigo naturalis (Apiaceae) is a purple 3,2- bisindole and a stable isomer of indigo. Although it is known to have anti-inflammatory activities, its mechanism of action has not been elucidated. Seven-week-old female BALB/c mice were sensitized with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) to induce skin inflammation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to assess epidermal and dermal hyperplasia, which were determined by measuring the thicknesses of the epidermis and dermis, respectively. We also evaluated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and cytokines production, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-4, 6 and Interferon (IFN)-gamma. In addition, we investigated nuclear factor (NF)-κB, IκB-α and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activities for verifying the molecular mechanism of inflammation. Indirubin treatment suppressed skin inflammation in DNCB-exposed mice. The skin lesions were significantly thinner in the Indirubin-treated group than in untreated controls, and the hyperkeratosis disappeared. Indirubin reduced the total serum IgE level and cytokines production. In addition, it normalized NF-κB, IκB-α and MAP kinase expression. Indirubin might be a useful treatment for allergic contact dermatitis via regulating the co-expression of T helper (Th) 1 and 2 cell-mediated immune responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of suppressive and pro-resolving effects of EPA and DHA in human primary monocytes and T-helper cells[S

    PubMed Central

    Jaudszus, Anke; Gruen, Michael; Watzl, Bernhard; Ness, Christina; Roth, Alexander; Lochner, Alfred; Barz, Dagmar; Gabriel, Holger; Rothe, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Despite their beneficial anti-inflammatory properties, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may increase the infection risk at high doses, likely by generating an immune-depressed state. To assess the contribution of different immune cell populations to the immunomodulatory fatty acid effect, we comparatively investigated several aspects of inflammation in human T-helper (Th) cells and monocytes. Both fatty acids, but DHA to a lesser extent compared with EPA, selectively and dose-dependently reduced the percentage of cytokine-expressing Th cells in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-dependent fashion, whereas the expression of the cell surface marker CD69 was unaltered on activated T cells. In monocytes, both EPA and DHA increased interleukin (IL)-10 without affecting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6. Cellular incorporation of EPA and DHA occurred mainly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Concomitantly, thromboxane B (TXB)2 and leukotriene B (LTB)4 in supernatants decreased, while levels of TXB3 and LTB5 increased. This increase was independent of activation and in accordance with cyclooxygenase expression patterns in monocytes. Moreover, EPA and DHA gave rise to a variety of mono- and trihydroxy derivatives of highly anti-inflammatory potential, such as resolvins and their precursors. Our results suggest that EPA and DHA do not generally affect immune cell functions in an inhibitory manner but rather promote pro-resolving responses. PMID:23349208

  17. The Absence of Interleukin 1 Receptor–Related T1/St2 Does Not Affect T Helper Cell Type 2 Development and Its Effector Function

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Katsuaki; Kashiwamura, Shin-ichiro; Kuribayashi, Kozo; Kodama, Taku; Tsujimura, Tohru; Nakanishi, Kenji; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo

    1999-01-01

    T1/ST2, an orphan receptor with homology with the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family, is expressed constitutively and stably on the surface of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, but not on Th1 cells. T1/ST2 is also expressed on mast cells, which are critical for Th2-mediated effector responses. To evaluate whether T1/ST2 is required for Th2 responses and mast cell function, we have generated T1/ST2-deficient (T1/ST2−/−) mice and examined the roles of T1/ST2. Naive CD4+ T cells isolated from T1/ST2−/− mice developed to Th2 cells in response to IL-4 in vitro. T1/ST2−/− mice showed normal Th2 responses after infection with the helminthic parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis as well as in the mouse model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. In addition, differentiation and function of bone marrow–derived cultured mast cells were unaffected. These findings demonstrate that T1/ST2 does not play an essential role in development and function of Th2 cells and mast cells. PMID:10562328

  18. Thy1+IL-7+ lymphatic endothelial cells in iBALT provide a survival niche for memory T-helper cells in allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Kenta; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Iinuma, Tomohisa; Ichikawa, Tomomi; Suzuki, Akane S.; Sugaya, Kaoru; Tumes, Damon J.; Yamamoto, Heizaburo; Hara, Takahiro; Tani-ichi, Shizue; Ikuta, Koichi; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Memory CD4+ T helper (Th) cells are central to long-term protection against pathogens, but they can also be pathogenic and drive chronic inflammatory disorders. How these pathogenic memory Th cells are maintained, particularly at sites of local inflammation, remains unclear. We found that ectopic lymphoid-like structures called inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) are formed during chronic allergic inflammation in the lung, and that memory-type pathogenic Th2 (Tpath2) cells capable of driving allergic inflammation are maintained within the iBALT structures. The maintenance of memory Th2 cells within iBALT is supported by Thy1+IL-7–producing lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). The Thy1+IL-7–producing LECs express IL-33 and T-cell–attracting chemokines CCL21 and CCL19. Moreover, ectopic lymphoid structures consisting of memory CD4+ T cells and IL-7+IL-33+ LECs were found in nasal polyps of patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Thus, Thy1+IL-7–producing LECs control chronic allergic airway inflammation by providing a survival niche for memory-type Tpath2 cells. PMID:27140620

  19. Dectin-1 diversifies Aspergillus fumigatus–specific T cell responses by inhibiting T helper type 1 CD4 T cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Tobias M.; Collins, Nichole; Leiner, Ingrid; Gallegos, Alena; Saijo, Shinobu; Coward, Jesse W.; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary infection of mice with Aspergillus fumigatus induces concurrent T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 responses that depend on Toll-like receptor/MyD88 and Dectin-1, respectively. However, the mechanisms balancing Th1 and Th17 CD4 T cell populations during infection remain incompletely defined. In this study, we show that Dectin-1 deficiency disproportionally increases Th1 responses and decreases Th17 differentiation after A. fumigatus infection. Dectin-1 signaling in A. fumigatus–infected wild-type mice reduces IFN-γ and IL-12p40 expression in the lung, thereby decreasing T-bet expression in responding CD4 T cells and enhancing Th17 responses. Absence of IFN-γ or IL-12p35 in infected mice or T-bet in responding CD4 T cells enhances Th17 differentiation, independent of Dectin-1 expression, in A. fumigatus–infected mice. Transient deletion of monocyte-derived dendritic cells also reduces Th1 and boosts Th17 differentiation of A. fumigatus–specific CD4 T cells. Our findings indicate that Dectin-1–mediated signals alter CD4 T cell responses to fungal infection by decreasing the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ in innate cells, thereby decreasing T-bet expression in A. fumigatus–specific CD4 T cells and enabling Th17 differentiation. PMID:21242294

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus infection of helper T cell clones. Early proliferative defects despite intact antigen-specific recognition and interleukin 4 secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, J; Friedman, S M; Chartash, E K; Crow, M K; Posnett, D N

    1989-01-01

    HIV selectively inhibited the proliferative response of clonal CD4+ T lymphocytes to alloantigen while other alloantigen-dependent responses were unperturbed. Specifically, impaired blastogenesis could be dissociated from alloantigen-specific induction of the B cell activation molecule CD23, IL-4 release, and inositol lipid hydrolysis. In addition, membrane expression of pertinent T cell receptor molecules, including CD2, CD3, and T cell antigen receptor (Ti), remained intact. Using two MHC class II-specific human CD4+ helper T cell clones, the proliferative defect was shown to be an early consequence of HIV infection, occurring within 4 d of viral inoculation and preceding increases in mature virion production. It was generalizable to three distinct methods of T cell activation, all independent of antigen-presenting cells: anti-CD3 mediated cross-linking of the CD3/Ti complex; anti-CD2 and phorbol 12-myristic 13-acetate (PMA); and anti-CD28 plus PMA. These abnormalities were not mitigated by addition of exogenous IL-2, even though expression of the IL-2 receptor (CD25) was unaltered. These studies define a selective blockade in T cell function early after HIV exposure that could serve as a model for certain in vivo manifestations of AIDS. PMID:2470786

  1. Multivalent Presentation of MPL by Porous Silicon Microparticles Favors T Helper 1 Polarization Enhancing the Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Doxorubicin Nanoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuewu; Yang, Marie; Williams, Laura; Savage, David J.; Gu, Jianhua; Rhudy, Jessica R.; Yokoi, Kenji; Lavelle, Ed C.; Serda, Rita E.

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (pSi) microparticles, in diverse sizes and shapes, can be functionalized to present pathogen-associated molecular patterns that activate dendritic cells. Intraperitoneal injection of MPL-adsorbed pSi microparticles, in contrast to free MPL, resulted in the induction of local inflammation, reflected in the recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and proinflammatory monocytes, and the depletion of resident macrophages and mast cells at the injection site. Injection of microparticle-bound MPL resulted in enhanced secretion of the T helper 1 associated cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α by peritoneal exudate and lymph node cells in response to secondary stimuli while decreasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. MPL-pSi microparticles independently exhibited anti-tumor effects and enhanced tumor suppression by low dose doxorubicin nanoliposomes. Intravascular injection of the MPL-bound microparticles increased serum IL-1β levels, which was blocked by the IL-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra. The microparticles also potentiated tumor infiltration by dendritic cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and F4/80+ macrophages, however, a specific reduction was observed in CD204+ macrophages. PMID:24736547

  2. T helper cell 2 immune skewing in pregnancy/early life: chemical exposure and the development of atopic disease and allergy.

    PubMed

    McFadden, J P; Thyssen, J P; Basketter, D A; Puangpet, P; Kimber, I

    2015-03-01

    During the last 50 years there has been a significant increase in Western societies of atopic disease and associated allergy. The balance between functional subpopulations of T helper cells (Th) determines the quality of the immune response provoked by antigen. One such subpopulation - Th2 cells - is associated with the production of IgE antibody and atopic allergy, whereas, Th1 cells antagonize IgE responses and the development of allergic disease. In seeking to provide a mechanistic basis for this increased prevalence of allergic disease, one proposal has been the 'hygiene hypothesis', which argues that in Westernized societies reduced exposure during early childhood to pathogenic microorganisms favours the development of atopic allergy. Pregnancy is normally associated with Th2 skewing, which persists for some months in the neonate before Th1/Th2 realignment occurs. In this review, we consider the immunophysiology of Th2 immune skewing during pregnancy. In particular, we explore the possibility that altered and increased patterns of exposure to certain chemicals have served to accentuate this normal Th2 skewing and therefore further promote the persistence of a Th2 bias in neonates. Furthermore, we propose that the more marked Th2 skewing observed in first pregnancy may, at least in part, explain the higher prevalence of atopic disease and allergy in the first born. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Zoledronic Acid-Induced Expansion of γδ T Cells from Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients: Effect of IL-18 on Helper NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sugie, Tomoharu; Murata-Hirai, Kaoru; Iwasaki, Masashi; Morita, Craig T.; Li, Wen; Okamura, Haruki; Minato, Nagahiro; Toi, Masakazu; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Human γδ T cells display potent cytotoxicity against various tumor cells pretreated with zoledronic acid (Zol). Zol has shown benefits when added to adjuvant endocrine therapy for patients with early-stage breast cancer or to standard chemotherapy for patients with multiple myeloma. Although γδ T cells may contribute to this additive effect, the responsiveness of γδ T cells from early-stage breast cancer patients has not been fully investigated. In this study, we determined the number, frequency, and responsiveness of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from early- and late-stage breast cancer patients and examined the effect of IL-18 on their ex vivo expansion. The responsiveness of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from patients with low frequencies of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells was significantly diminished. IL-18, however, enhanced ex vivo proliferative responses of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells and helper NK cells from patients with either low or high frequencies of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. Treatment of breast cancer patients with Zol alone decreased the number of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells and reduced their ex vivo responsiveness. These results demonstrate that Zol can elicit immunological responses by γδ T cells from early-stage breast cancer patients but that frequent in vivo treatment reduces Vγ2Vδ2 T cell numbers and their responsiveness to stimulation. PMID:23151944

  4. Pre-employment medical examination of Indonesian domestic helpers in a private clinic in Johor Bahru--an eight year review.

    PubMed

    Leong, C C

    2006-12-01

    On review of 3117 patients' records (all were female Indonesian foreign workers over the span of eight years (1997 to 2004 in a private clinic in Johor Bahru, 223 cases (7.2%) were found to have various medical problems. These 3117 foreigners were to be employed as domestic helpers in Malaysia. They were examined upon arrival in Johor Bahru even though our government did not require this pre-requisite (before 1st August 2005) as they were examined and certified fit in their country of origin before embarking to Malaysia. The proportion of female Indonesian foreign workers who were afflicted with category 1 conditions was 55.6% (which rendered them unfit for employment) and category 2 conditions was 44.4%. The medical problem detected most frequently was hypertension. Sixty-one (80.3%) out of 76 workers had stage 2 hypertension (JNC 7 report). Pulmonary tuberculosis ranked second in this review and is a category 1 condition. This paper supports the recent move by the Malaysian Ministry of Health to implement mandatory medical examinations for all foreign workers arriving in Malaysia within one month of arrival regardless of whether or not they are certified fit in their countries of origin.

  5. Rescue administration of a helper-dependent adenovirus vector with long-term efficacy in dogs with glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Crane, B; Luo, X; Demaster, A; Williams, K D; Kozink, D M; Zhang, P; Brown, T T; Pinto, C R; Oka, K; Sun, F; Jackson, M W; Chan, L; Koeberl, D D

    2012-04-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) stems from glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency and causes hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, hypercholesterolemia and lactic acidemia. Three dogs with GSD-Ia were initially treated with a helper-dependent adenovirus encoding a human G6Pase transgene (HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 5) on postnatal day 3. Unlike untreated dogs with GSD-Ia, all three dogs initially maintained normal blood glucose levels. After 6-22 months, vector-treated dogs developed hypoglycemia, anorexia and lethargy, suggesting that the HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 5 vector had lost efficacy. Liver biopsies collected at this time revealed significantly elevated hepatic G6Pase activity and reduced glycogen content, when compared with affected dogs treated only by frequent feeding. Subsequently, the HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 2 vector was administered to two dogs, and hypoglycemia was reversed; however, renal dysfunction and recurrent hypoglycemia complicated their management. Administration of a serotype 2 HDAd vector prolonged survival in one GSD-Ia dog to 12 months of age and 36 months of age in the other, but the persistence of long-term complications limited HDAd vectors in the canine model for GSD-Ia.

  6. T Follicular Helper Cell-Germinal Center B Cell Interaction Strength Regulates Entry into Plasma Cell or Recycling Germinal Center Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Ise, Wataru; Fujii, Kentaro; Shiroguchi, Katsuyuki; Ito, Ayako; Kometani, Kohei; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Kawakami, Eiryo; Yamashita, Kazuo; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Okada, Takaharu; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2018-04-17

    Higher- or lower-affinity germinal center (GC) B cells are directed either to plasma cell or GC recycling, respectively; however, how commitment to the plasma cell fate takes place is unclear. We found that a population of light zone (LZ) GC cells, Bcl6 lo CD69 hi expressing a transcription factor IRF4 and higher-affinity B cell receptors (BCRs) or Bcl6 hi CD69 hi with lower-affinity BCRs, favored the plasma cell or recycling GC cell fate, respectively. Mechanistically, CD40 acted as a dose-dependent regulator for Bcl6 lo CD69 hi cell formation. Furthermore, we found that expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) in Bcl6 lo CD69 hi cells was higher than in Bcl6 hi CD69 hi cells, thereby affording more stable T follicular helper (Tfh)-GC B cell contacts. These data support a model whereby commitment to the plasma cell begins in the GC and suggest that stability of Tfh-GC B cell contacts is key for plasma cell-prone GC cell formation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Helper T lymphocyte response in the peripheral blood of patients with intraepithelial neoplasia submitted to immunotherapy with pegylated interferon-α.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Márcia Antoniazi; Montes, Letícia; Nomelini, Rosekeila Simões; Trovó, Marco Aurélio; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2015-03-10

    Immunotherapy in cancer patients is a very promising treatment and the development of new protocols and the study of the mechanisms of regression is imperative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of cytokines in helper T (CD4+) lymphocytes during immunotherapy with pegylated IFN-α in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We conducted a prospective study with 17 patients with CIN II-III using immunotherapy with pegylated IFN-α subcutaneouly weekly, and using flow cytometry we evaluated the peripheric CD4+ T lymphocytes. The results show that in the regression group the patients presented a significant increase in the amount of IFN-γ during the entire immunotherapy, compared with the group without a response. The amount of CD4+ T lymphocytes positive for IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β is significantly lower in patients with good clinical response. The results also demonstrate that patients with regression have a higher amount of intracellular TNF-α in CD4+ T lymphocytes before the start of treatment. Analyzing these data sets, it can be concluded that immunotherapy is a viable clinical treatment for patients with high-grade CIN and that the regression is dependent on the change in the immune response to a Th1 pattern.

  8. Helper T Lymphocyte Response in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Intraepithelial Neoplasia Submitted to Immunotherapy with Pegylated Interferon-α

    PubMed Central

    Michelin, Márcia Antoniazi; Montes, Letícia; Nomelini, Rosekeila Simões; Trovó, Marco Aurélio; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy in cancer patients is a very promising treatment and the development of new protocols and the study of the mechanisms of regression is imperative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of cytokines in helper T (CD4+) lymphocytes during immunotherapy with pegylated IFN-α in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We conducted a prospective study with 17 patients with CIN II-III using immunotherapy with pegylated IFN-α subcutaneouly weekly, and using flow cytometry we evaluated the peripheric CD4+ T lymphocytes. The results show that in the regression group the patients presented a significant increase in the amount of IFN-γ during the entire immunotherapy, compared with the group without a response. The amount of CD4+ T lymphocytes positive for IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β is significantly lower in patients with good clinical response. The results also demonstrate that patients with regression have a higher amount of intracellular TNF-α in CD4+ T lymphocytes before the start of treatment. Analyzing these data sets, it can be concluded that immunotherapy is a viable clinical treatment for patients with high-grade CIN and that the regression is dependent on the change in the immune response to a Th1 pattern. PMID:25764160

  9. Potyvirus helper component-proteinase self-interaction in the yeast two-hybrid system and delineation of the interaction domain involved.

    PubMed

    Urcuqui-Inchima, S; Walter, J; Drugeon, G; German-Retana, S; Haenni, A L; Candresse, T; Bernardi, F; Le Gall, O

    1999-05-25

    Using the yeast two-hybrid system, a screen was performed for possible interactions between the proteins encoded by the 5' region of potyviral genomes [P1, helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro), and P3]. A positive self-interaction involving HC-Pro was detected with lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) and potato virus Y (PVY). The possibility of heterologous interaction between the HC-Pro of LMV and of PVY was also demonstrated. No interaction involving either the P1 or the P3 proteins was detected. A series of ordered deletions from either the N- or C-terminal end of the LMV HC-Pro was used to map the domain involved in interaction to the 72 N-terminal amino acids of the protein, a region known to be dispensable for virus viability but necessary for aphid transmission. A similar but less detailed analysis mapped the interacting domain to the N-terminal half of the PVY HC-Pro. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. De novo generation of helper virus-satellite chimera RNAs results in disease attenuation and satellite sequence acquisition in a host-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Pyle, J D; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2018-01-15

    Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) is a helper RNA virus for satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and a satellite virus (SPMV). Here, we describe modifications that occur at the 3'-end of a satRNA of PMV, satS. Co-infections of PMV+satS result in attenuation of the disease symptoms induced by PMV alone in Brachypodium distachyon and proso millet. The 375 nt satS acquires ~100-200 nts from the 3'-end of PMV during infection and is associated with decreased abundance of the PMV RNA and capsid protein in millet. PMV-satS chimera RNAs were isolated from native infections of St. Augustinegrass and switchgrass. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the chimeric RNAs clustered according to the host species from which they were isolated. Additionally, the chimera satRNAs acquired non-viral "linker" sequences in a host-specific manner. These results highlight the dynamic regulation of viral pathogenicity by satellites, and the selective host-dependent, sequence-based pressures for driving satRNA generation and genome compositions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CD19+CD24hiCD38hiBregs involved in downregulate helper T cells and upregulate regulatory T cells in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Yuan, Xiangliang; Chen, Hui; Xie, Guohua; Ma, Yanhui; Zheng, Yingxia; Zhou, Yunlan; Shen, Lisong

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory B cells (Bregs) play a critical role in inflammation and autoimmune disease. We characterized the role of Bregs in the progression of gastric cancer. We detected an increase in Bregs producing IL-10 both in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in gastric tumors. Multicolor flow cytometry analysis revealed that a subset of CD19+CD24hiCD38hi B cells produces IL-10. Functional studies indicated that increased Bregs do not inhibit the proliferation of CD3+T cells or CD4+ helper T cells (Th cells). However, Bregs do suppress the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α by CD4+Th cells. CD19+CD24hiCD38hiBregs were also found to correlate positively with CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Neutralization experiments showed that Bregs convert CD4+CD25− effector T cells to CD4+FoxP3+Tregs via TGF-β1. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that increased Bregs play a immunosuppressive role in gastric cancer by inhibiting T cells cytokines as well as conversion to Tregs. These results may provide new clues about the underlying mechanisms of immune escape in gastric cancer. PMID:26378021

  12. Influenza virus site recognized by a murine helper T cell specific for H1 strains. Localization to a nine amino acid sequence in the hemagglutinin molecule.

    PubMed

    Hackett, C J; Dietzschold, B; Gerhard, W; Ghrist, B; Knorr, R; Gillessen, D; Melchers, F

    1983-08-01

    The functional helper T cell line Vir-2, derived from a PR8 (H1N1) influenza virus-immunized BALB/c mouse, proliferates in response to syngeneic antigen-presenting cells and naturally occurring strains of subtype H1 human influenza virus from 1934-1957 and 1977-1980 isolates. A conserved region of the hemagglutinin molecule around amino acid position 115 in the heavy chain (HA1) was implicated as being important in this recognition by the lack of stimulatory activity associated with a glutamic acid to lysine substitution at position 115 in the laboratory mutant RV6, derived from wild-type PR8. Characterization of the stimulatory determinant on the wild-type hemagglutinin molecule was then undertaken using cleavage products and synthetic peptides. Vir-2 cells recognized the reduced and alkylated purified HA1 of PR8 virus, and this reactivity was retained after cleavage at methionine and tryptophan residues. High-pressure liquid chromatography separation of cleavage fragments indicated that a short sequence of the HA1 containing residue 115 was being recognized. This recognition was localized to a nine amino acid segment (positions 111-119) by assaying stimulation with synthetic peptide homologues of different lengths from that region. As with native hemagglutinin, Vir-2 cells responded to active peptides when presented by H-2d but not H-2k antigen-presenting cells.

  13. The retained templates as "helpers" for the spherical meso-silica in adsorption of heavy metals and impacts of solution chemistry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhijie; Shi, Wenxin; Zhao, Zhiwei; Sun, Tianyi; Cui, Fuyi

    2017-06-15

    The spherical mesoporous silica (meso-silica) MCM-41 and those with different dosage of the retained templates were prepared and characterized. Particularly, effects of the retained template and its dosage on the adsorption of typical heavy metals (Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ ) in the synthesized materials were investigated. The results indicated that the retained templates acted as "helpers" for the adsorption of Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ in the spherical meso-silica MCM-41, and the maximum adsorption capacities (Q max ) increased with the increase of the retained template dosage. The interaction between the metal ions and the cationic heads of the templates contributed to the enhancement effect due to the anions (Cl - and OH - ) electronically adsorbed on the interface of the template micelles. Additionally, the presented results indicated that the adsorption of Cu 2+ and Cd 2+ depended on pH and high ion strength of the solution but not on the coexisted humic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrating Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These articles focus on art as a component of interdisciplinary integration. (1) "Integrated Curriculum and the Visual Arts" (Anna Kindler) considers various aspects of integration and implications for art education. (2) "Integration: The New Literacy" (Tim Varro) illustrates how the use of technology can facilitate…

  15. Novel Role for Interleukin-17 in Enhancing Type 1 Helper T Cell Immunity in the Female Genital Tract following Mucosal Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bagri, Puja; Anipindi, Varun C.; Nguyen, Philip V.; Vitali, Danielle; Stämpfli, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is well established that interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4+ T cells is critical for antiviral immunity against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) genital infection. However, the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) production by CD4+ T cells in HSV-2 antiviral immunity is yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that IL-17A plays an important role in enhancing antiviral T helper type 1 (Th1) responses in the female genital tract (FGT) and is essential for effective protection conferred by HSV-2 vaccination. While IL-17A did not play a critical role during primary genital HSV-2 infection, seen by lack of differences in susceptibility between IL-17A-deficient (IL-17A−/−) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, it was critical for mediating antiviral responses after challenge/reexposure. Compared to WT mice, IL-17A−/− mice (i) infected intravaginally and reexposed or (ii) vaccinated intranasally and challenged intravaginally demonstrated poor outcomes. Following intravaginal HSV-2 reexposure or challenge, vaccinated IL-17A−/− mice had significantly higher mortality, greater disease severity, higher viral shedding, and higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in vaginal secretions. Furthermore, IL-17A−/− mice had impaired Th1 cell responses after challenge/reexposure, with significantly lower proportions of vaginal IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells. The impaired Th1 cell responses in IL-17A−/− mice coincided with smaller populations of IFN-γ+ CD4+ tissue resident memory T (TRM) cells in the genital tract postimmunization. Taken together, these findings describe a novel role for IL-17A in regulating antiviral IFN-γ+ Th1 cell immunity in the vaginal tract. This strategy could be exploited to enhance antiviral immunity following HSV-2 vaccination. IMPORTANCE T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity, specifically interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4+ T cells, is critical for protection against genital herpesvirus (HSV-2) infection, and

  16. Novel Role for Interleukin-17 in Enhancing Type 1 Helper T Cell Immunity in the Female Genital Tract following Mucosal Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Puja; Anipindi, Varun C; Nguyen, Philip V; Vitali, Danielle; Stämpfli, Martin R; Kaushic, Charu

    2017-12-01

    It is well established that interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4 + T cells is critical for antiviral immunity against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) genital infection. However, the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) production by CD4 + T cells in HSV-2 antiviral immunity is yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that IL-17A plays an important role in enhancing antiviral T helper type 1 (T h 1) responses in the female genital tract (FGT) and is essential for effective protection conferred by HSV-2 vaccination. While IL-17A did not play a critical role during primary genital HSV-2 infection, seen by lack of differences in susceptibility between IL-17A-deficient ( IL-17A -/- ) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, it was critical for mediating antiviral responses after challenge/reexposure. Compared to WT mice, IL-17A -/- mice (i) infected intravaginally and reexposed or (ii) vaccinated intranasally and challenged intravaginally demonstrated poor outcomes. Following intravaginal HSV-2 reexposure or challenge, vaccinated IL-17A -/- mice had significantly higher mortality, greater disease severity, higher viral shedding, and higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in vaginal secretions. Furthermore, IL-17A -/- mice had impaired T h 1 cell responses after challenge/reexposure, with significantly lower proportions of vaginal IFN-γ + CD4 + T cells. The impaired T h 1 cell responses in IL-17A -/- mice coincided with smaller populations of IFN-γ + CD4 + tissue resident memory T (T RM ) cells in the genital tract postimmunization. Taken together, these findings describe a novel role for IL-17A in regulating antiviral IFN-γ + T h 1 cell immunity in the vaginal tract. This strategy could be exploited to enhance antiviral immunity following HSV-2 vaccination. IMPORTANCE T helper type 1 (T h 1) immunity, specifically interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4 + T cells, is critical for protection against genital herpesvirus (HSV-2) infection, and

  17. [The helpers' stress: Effectiveness of a web-based intervention for professionals working with trauma survivors in reducing job burnout and improving work engagement].

    PubMed

    Rogala, Anna; Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Żukowska, Katarzyna; Kowalska, Martyna; Cieślak, Roman

    The study aimed at evaluating effectiveness of the web-based intervention, "The Helpers' Stress," in reducing job burnout and enhancing work engagement among professionals working with trauma survivors. Participants were randomly allocated to 1 of the 3 intervention modules: 1 - the self-efficacy enhancement (N = 87), 2 - the social support enhancement (N = 85), or to 3 - the educational module (comparison group, N = 81). Participants completed the online questionnaires before the intervention (T1), immediately after (T2), and 4 weeks after the intervention (T3). Due to high drop-out rate at T2 and T3 in social support enhancement module, we excluded from analysis participants assigned to this condition. Participants assigned to the self-efficacy enhancement module presented higher levels of self-efficacy (at T2 and T3), compared to those assigned to the educational module. Job burnout decreased significantly between T1 and T2, and between T2 and T3, and work engagement increased significantly between T1 and T2, and between T1 and T3, among participants assigned to both modules mentioned above. Self-efficacy (T2) mediated the relationship between the group assignment (educational module vs. self-efficacy enhancement module) and respectively job burnout (T3) or work engagement (T3). The results of our study highlight the role of self-efficacy in reducing job burnout and increasing work engagement. Med Pr 2016;67(2):223-237. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  18. An aptamer-siRNA chimera suppresses HIV-1 viral loads and protects from helper CD4(+) T cell decline in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Neff, Charles Preston; Zhou, Jiehua; Remling, Leila; Kuruvilla, Jes; Zhang, Jane; Li, Haitang; Smith, David D; Swiderski, Piotr; Rossi, John J; Akkina, Ramesh

    2011-01-19

    Therapeutic strategies designed to treat HIV infection with combinations of antiviral drugs have proven to be the best approach for slowing the progression to AIDS. Despite this progress, there are problems with viral drug resistance and toxicity, necessitating new approaches to combating HIV-1 infection. We have therefore developed a different combination approach for the treatment of HIV infection in which an RNA aptamer, with high binding affinity to the HIV-1 envelope (gp120) protein and virus neutralization properties, is attached to and delivers a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that triggers sequence-specific degradation of HIV RNAs. We have tested the antiviral activities of these chimeric RNAs in a humanized Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) (RAG-hu) mouse model with multilineage human hematopoiesis. In this animal model, HIV-1 replication and CD4(+) T cell depletion mimic the situation seen in human HIV-infected patients. Our results show that treatment with either the anti-gp120 aptamer or the aptamer-siRNA chimera suppressed HIV-1 replication by several orders of magnitude and prevented the viral-induced helper CD4(+) T cell decline. In comparison to the aptamer alone, the aptamer-siRNA combination provided more extensive inhibition, resulting in a significantly longer antiviral effect that extended several weeks beyond the last injected dose. The aptamer thus acts as a broad-spectrum HIV-neutralizing agent and an siRNA delivery vehicle. The combined aptamer-siRNA agent provides an attractive, nontoxic therapeutic approach for treatment of HIV infection.

  19. Induction of IL21 in Peripheral T Follicular Helper Cells Is an Indicator of Influenza Vaccine Response in a Previously Vaccinated HIV-Infected Pediatric Cohort.

    PubMed

    de Armas, Lesley R; Cotugno, Nicola; Pallikkuth, Suresh; Pan, Li; Rinaldi, Stefano; Sanchez, M Celeste; Gonzalez, Louis; Cagigi, Alberto; Rossi, Paolo; Palma, Paolo; Pahwa, Savita

    2017-03-01

    HIV-infected patients of all ages frequently underperform in response to seasonal influenza vaccination, despite virologic control of HIV. The molecular mechanisms governing this impairment, as well as predictive biomarkers for responsiveness, remain unknown. This study was performed in samples obtained prevaccination (T0) from HIV-infected children who received the 2012-2013 seasonal influenza vaccine. Response status was determined based on established criterion for hemagglutination inhibition titer; participants with a hemagglutination titer ≥1:40 plus a ≥4-fold increase over T0 at 3 wk postvaccination were designated as responders. All children had a history of prior influenza vaccinations. At T0, the frequencies of CD4 T cell subsets, including peripheral T follicular helper (pTfh) cells, which provide help to B cells for developing into Ab-secreting cells, were similar between responders and nonresponders. However, in response to in vitro stimulation with influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) Ag, differential gene expression related to pTfh cell function was observed by Fluidigm high-density RT-PCR between responders and nonresponders. In responders, H1N1 stimulation at T0 also resulted in CXCR5 induction (mRNA and protein) in CD4 T cells and IL21 gene induction in pTfh cells that were strongly associated with H1N1-specific B cell responses postvaccination. In contrast, CD4 T cells of nonresponders exhibited increased expression of IL2 and STAT5 genes, which are known to antagonize peripheral Tfh cell function. These results suggest that the quality of pTfh cells at the time of immunization is important for influenza vaccine responses and provide a rationale for targeted, ex vivo Ag-driven molecular profiling of purified immune cells to detect predictive biomarkers of the vaccine response. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. The Nucleolar Fibrillarin Protein Is Required for Helper Virus-Independent Long-Distance Trafficking of a Subviral Satellite RNA in Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Lee, Shu-Chuan; Lo, Yih-Shan; Wang, Jiun-Da; Shaw, Jane; Chang, Ban-Yang

    2016-01-01

    RNA trafficking plays pivotal roles in regulating plant development, gene silencing, and adaptation to environmental stress. Satellite RNAs (satRNAs), parasites of viruses, depend on their helper viruses (HVs) for replication, encapsidation, and efficient spread. However, it remains largely unknown how satRNAs interact with viruses and the cellular machinery to undergo trafficking. Here, we show that the P20 protein of Bamboo mosaic potexvirus satRNA (satBaMV) can functionally complement in trans the systemic trafficking of P20-defective satBaMV in infected Nicotiana benthamiana. The transgene-derived satBaMV, uncoupled from HV replication, was able to move autonomously across a graft union identified by RT-qPCR, RNA gel blot, and in situ RT-PCR analyses. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the major nucleolar protein fibrillarin is coprecipitated in the P20 protein complex. Notably, silencing fibrillarin suppressed satBaMV-, but not HV-, phloem-based movement following grafting or coinoculation with HV. Confocal microscopy revealed that the P20 protein colocalized with fibrillarin in the nucleoli and formed punctate structures associated with plasmodesmata. The mobile satBaMV RNA appears to exist as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex composed of P20 and fibrillarin, whereas BaMV movement proteins, capsid protein, and BaMV RNA are recruited with HV coinfection. Taken together, our findings provide insight into movement of satBaMV via the fibrillarin-satBaMV-P20 RNP complex in phloem-mediated systemic trafficking. PMID:27702772

  1. Obesity promotes prolonged ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation modulating T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 immune responses in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, F M C; Oliveira, E E; Gouveia, A C C; Brugiolo, A S S; Alves, C C; Correa, J O A; Gameiro, J; Mattes, J; Teixeira, H C; Ferreira, A P

    2017-07-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obesity affects the development and phenotype of asthma by inducing inflammatory mechanisms in addition to eosinophilic inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of obesity on allergic airway inflammation and T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses using an experimental model of asthma in BALB/c mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and analyses were performed at 24 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. Obesity induced an increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-expressing macrophages and neutrophils which peaked at 48 h after the last OVA challenge, and was associated with higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-9, IL-17A, leptin and interferon (IFN)-γ in the lungs. Higher goblet cell hyperplasia was associated with elevated mast cell influx into the lungs and trachea in the obese allergic mice. In contrast, early eosinophil influx and lower levels of IL-25, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), CCL11 and OVA-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) were observed in the obese allergic mice in comparison to non-obese allergic mice. Moreover, obese mice showed higher numbers of mast cells regardless of OVA challenge. These results indicate that obesity affects allergic airway inflammation through mechanisms involving mast cell influx and the release of TSLP and IL-25, which favoured a delayed immune response with an exacerbated Th1, Th2 and Th17 profile. In this scenario, an intense mixed inflammatory granulocyte influx, classically activated macrophage accumulation and intense mucus production may contribute to a refractory therapeutic response and exacerbate asthma severity. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Epitope analysis of HLA-DR-restricted helper T-cell responses to Der p II, a major allergen molecule of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Okano, M; Nagano, T; Nakada, M; Masuda, Y; Kino, K; Yasueda, H; Nose, Y; Nishimura, Y; Ohta, N

    1996-01-01

    T-cell epitopes of Der p II, a major allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, were analyzed by using human T-cell clones. We tested 38 cloned T cells from two Japanese patients with allergic rhinitis, and identified at least two peptides (K33-T47 and I58-C73) as helper T-cell epitopes. The former epitope was shown to be restricted by HLA-DRB1*1502, and the latter by HLA-DRB1*0405, both of which are typical Japanese HLA-DR alleles, suggesting that those T-cell epitopes might be important for the onset of house-dust mite allergy in the Japanese population. We prepared 15 analog peptides of the HLA- DRB1*1502-restricted 15-mer peptide. Of those 15 residues, five (F35, L37, A39, F41, and E42) were critical for the epitope activity, and three residues (F35, A39, and E42) seemed to be included in anchor motifs for HLA-DRB1*1502. The epitope peptide was also recognized by HLA-DRB1*1502-positive healthy donors; however, only allergic T cells showed Th2 functions. Antigen-presenting cells of nonallergic donors were able to activate allergic T cells to express Th2 function. This seemed to suggest that antigen recognition of T cells, as well as additional unknown factors which promote Th2, rather than Th1, responses, might be important for the onset of house-dust mite allergy.

  3. A critical role of T follicular helper cells in human mucosal anti-influenza response that can be enhanced by immunological adjuvant CpG-DNA.

    PubMed

    Aljurayyan, A N; Sharma, R; Upile, N; Beer, H; Vaughan, C; Xie, C; Achar, P; Ahmed, M S; McNamara, P S; Gordon, S B; Zhang, Q

    2016-08-01

    T Follicular helper cells (TFH) are considered critical for B cell antibody response, and recent efforts have focused on promoting TFH in order to enhance vaccine efficacy. We studied the frequency and function of TFH in nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) from children and adults, and its role in anti-influenza antibody response following stimulation by a live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or an inactivated seasonal virus antigen (sH1N1). We further studied whether CpG-DNA promotes TFH and by which enhances anti-influenza response. We showed NALT from children aged 1.5-10 years contained abundant TFH, suggesting efficient priming of TFH during early childhood. Stimulation by LAIV induced a marked increase in TFH that correlated with a strong production of anti-hemagglutinin (HA) IgA/IgG/IgM antibodies in tonsillar cells. Stimulation by the inactivated sH1N1 antigen induced a small increase in TFH which was markedly enhanced by CpG-DNA, accompanied by enhanced anti-HA antibody responses. In B cell co-culture experiment, anti-HA responses were only seen in the presence of TFH, and addition of plasmacytoid dendritic cell to TFH-B cell co-culture enhanced the TFH-mediated antibody production following CpG-DNA and sH1N1 antigen stimulation. Induction of TFH differentiation from naïve T cells was also shown following the stimulation. Our results support a critical role of TFH in human mucosal anti-influenza antibody response. Use of an adjuvant such as CpG-DNA that has the capacity to promote TFH by which to enhance antigen-induced antibody responses in NALT tissue may have important implications for future vaccination strategies against respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells from human cord blood modulate T-helper cell response towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Köstlin, Natascha; Vogelmann, Margit; Spring, Bärbel; Schwarz, Julian; Feucht, Judith; Härtel, Christoph; Orlikowsky, Thorsten W; Poets, Christian F; Gille, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Infections are a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The outstandingly high susceptibility to infections early in life is mainly attributable to the compromised state of the neonatal immune system. One important difference to the adult immune system is a bias towards T helper type 2 (Th2) responses in newborns. However, mechanisms regulating neonatal T-cell responses are incompletely understood. Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (GR-MDSC) are myeloid cells with a granulocytic phenotype that suppress various functions of other immune cells and accumulate under physiological conditions during pregnancy in maternal and fetal blood. Although it has been hypothesized that GR-MDSC accumulation during fetal life could be important for the maintenance of maternal-fetal tolerance, the influence of GR-MDSC on the immunological phenotype of neonates is still unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of GR-MDSC isolated from cord blood (CB-MDSC) on the polarization of Th cells. We demonstrate that CB-MDSC inhibit Th1 responses and induced Th2 responses and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Th1 inhibition was cell-contact dependent and occurred independent of other cell types, while Th2 induction was mediated independently of cell contact through expression of ArgI and reactive oxygen species by CB-MDSC and partially needed the presence of monocytes. Treg cell induction by CB-MDSC also occurred cell-contact independently but was partially mediated through inducible nitric oxide synthase. These results point towards a role of MDSC in regulating neonatal immune responses. Targeting MDSC function in neonates could be a therapeutic opportunity to improve neonatal host defence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Immunogenicity of a chimeric peptide corresponding to T helper and B cell epitopes of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The immunogenicity of a chimeric T/B cell peptide corresponding to antigenically characterized epitopes of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) was studied in mice to further define its potential use in the development of a subunit vaccine in preventing blinding trachoma in humans. The chimeric peptide, designated A8-VDI, corresponds to a conserved MOMP T helper (Th) cell epitope(s) (A8, residues 106-130) and serovar A VDI (residues 66-80), which contains the serovar-specific neutralizing epitope 71VAGLEK76. Mice immunized with peptide A8-VDI produced high-titered polyclonal IgG antibodies which recognized the VAGLEK-neutralizing epitope. Peptide A8-VDI primed A/J mice to produce high-titered serum-neutralizing antibodies in response to a secondary immunization with intact chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs). Peptide A8-VDI, but not peptide VDI alone, was immunogenic in six different inbred strains of mice disparate at H-2, indicating that the Th cell epitope(s) contained in the A8 portion of the chimera was recognized in the context of multiple major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes. An unexpected finding of this work was that different inbred strains of mice immunized with the chimeric peptide produced antibodies of differing fine specificities to the VDI portion of the chimera. Some mouse strains produced anti-VDI antibodies that did not recognize the VAGLEK-neutralizing epitope. The ability of mice to respond to the VAGLEK-neutralizing site was not dependent on MHC haplotype since mouse strains of the same H-2 haplotype produced anti-VDI antibodies of differing fine specificity. PMID:1370528

  6. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) attenuates food allergy symptoms by regulating type 1/type 2 helper T cells (Th1/Th2) balance in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Bae, Min-Jung; Sung, Ki-Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-04

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has traditionally been used to treat pain, fever, allergic and inflammatory diseases such as bronchitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. In particular, turmeric and its active component, curcumin, were effective in ameliorating immune disorders including allergies. However, the effects of turmeric and curcumin have not yet been tested on food allergies. Mice were immunized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) and alum. The mice were orally challenged with 50mg OVA, and treated with turmeric extract (100mg/kg), curcumin (3mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 16 days. Food allergy symptoms including decreased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis were evaluated. In addition, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were evaluated using ELISA. Turmeric significantly attenuated food allergy symptoms (decreased rectal temperature and anaphylactic response) induced by OVA, but curcumin showed weak improvement. Turmeric also inhibited IgE, IgG1, and mMCP-1 levels increased by OVA. Turmeric reduced type 2 helper cell (Th2)-related cytokines and enhanced a Th1-related cytokine. Turmeric ameliorated OVA-induced food allergy by maintaining Th1/Th2 balance. Furthermore, turmeric was confirmed anti-allergic effect through promoting Th1 responses on Th2-dominant immune responses in immunized mice. Turmeric significantly ameliorated food allergic symptoms in a mouse model of food allergy. The turmeric as an anti-allergic agent showed immune regulatory effects through maintaining Th1/Th2 immune balance, whereas curcumin appeared immune suppressive effects. Therefore, we suggest that administration of turmeric including various components may be useful to ameliorate Th2-mediated allergic disorders such as food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of T Helper Cell Type 2 Cell Differentiation and Immunoglobulin E Response by Ligand-Activated Vα14 Natural Killer T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Junqing; Watanabe, Naohiro; Kawano, Tetsu; Yamashita, Masakatsu; Kamata, Tohru; Shimizu, Chiori; Kimura, Motoko; Shimizu, Eiko; Koike, Jyunzo; Koseki, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Yujiro; Taniguchi, Masaru; Nakayama, Toshinori

    1999-01-01

    Murine Vα14 natural killer T (NKT) cells are thought to play a crucial role in various immune responses, including infectious, allergic, and autoimmune diseases. Because Vα14 NKT cells produce large amounts of both interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ upon in vivo stimulation with a specific ligand, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), or after treatment with anti-CD3 antibody, a regulatory role on helper T (Th) cell differentiation has been proposed for these cells. However, the identity of the cytokine produced by Vα14 NKT cells that play a dominant role on the Th cell differentiation still remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate by using Vα14 NKT-deficient mice that Vα14 NKT cells are dispensable for the induction of antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E responses induced by ovalbumin immunization or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection. However, upon in vivo activation with α-GalCer, Vα14 NKT cells are found to suppress antigen-specific IgE production. The suppression appeared to be IgE specific, and was not detected in either Vα14 NKT– or IFN-γ–deficient mice. Consistent with these results, we also found that ligand-activated Vα14 NKT cells inhibited Th2 cell differentiation in an in vitro induction culture system. Thus, it is likely that activated Vα14 NKT cells exert a potent inhibitory effect on Th2 cell differentiation and subsequent IgE production by producing a large amount of IFN-γ. In marked contrast, our studies have revealed that IL-4 produced by Vα14 NKT cells has only a minor effect on Th2 cell differentiation. PMID:10499917

  8. Regulatory T cells inhibit acute IFN-γ synthesis without blocking T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) differentiation via a compartmentalized requirement for IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Dorothy K.; Fowell, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    CD4+CD25+Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) control immune responses to self and foreign antigens in secondary lymphoid organs and at tissue sites of inflammation. Tregs can modify the function of many immune cells and have been proposed to block early proliferation, differentiation, and effector function. Acute ablation of Tregs has revealed rapid cytokine production immediately after Treg removal, suggesting that Tregs may regulate effector function acutely rather than regulating the programming for immune function. We developed in vitro and in vivo models that enabled the direct test of Treg regulation of T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) differentiation. CD28 signaling is known to abrogate Treg suppression of IL-2 secretion and proliferation, but our studies show that Treg suppression of IFN-γ during Th1 priming proceeds despite enhanced CD28 signaling. Importantly, during Th1 differentiation, Tregs inhibited early IFN-γ transcription without disrupting expression of Th1-specific T-box transcription factor (Tbet) and Th1 programming. Acute shutoff of effector cytokine production by Tregs was selective for IFN-γ but not TNF-α and was independent of TGF-β and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3. In vivo, Tregs potently controlled CD4 IFN-γ and CD4 effector cell expansion in the lymph node (four- to fivefold reduction) but not Th1 programming, independent of IL-10. Tregs additionally reduced CD4 IFN-γ in the inflamed dermis (twofold reduction) dependent on their production of IL-10. We propose a model for Treg inhibition of effector function based on acute cytokine regulation. Interestingly, Tregs used different regulatory mechanisms to regulate IFN-γ (IL-10–dependent or –independent) subject to the target T-cell stage of activation and its tissue location. PMID:22025707

  9. Immunochemoradiotherapy for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma: augmentation of OK-432-induced helper T cell 1 response by 5-FU and X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tano, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Masato; Kan, Shin; Bando, Takashi; Goda, Hiroyuki; Nakashiro, Koh-ichi; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Koido, Shigeo; Homma, Sadamu; Fujita, Tomonobu; Sato, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Naomi; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Yutaka

    2013-07-01

    Eighty-one patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) received oral fluoropyrimidine UFT and radiotherapy (RT) with or without an immunotherapeutic agent OK-432. Both overall survival and progression-free survival of patients who received RT + UFT + OK-432 were significantly longer than those of patients who received RT + UFT (P = .0075 and P = .0175, respectively). Clinical response was also more favorable in RT + UFT + OK-432 group than in RT + UFT group (P = .0066). Next, in vitro experiments were conducted to examine the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and X-ray irradiation in OK-432-induced immunity. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with OK-432 produced helper T cell 1 (Th1)-type cytokines as well as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which are produced by Th2 and regulatory T cells (Tregs), respectively, and are inhibitory in antitumor immunity. OK-432-induced IL-10 and TGF-β but not Th1 cytokines were significantly inhibited by 5-FU and/or X-ray. 5-FU and X-ray also inhibited the expression of mRNAs for GATA-3 and Foxp3, which are transcription factors for Th2 and Tregs, respectively, but not for T-bet, a transcription factor for Th1. In addition, 5-FU and X-ray decreased the expression of mRNAs for suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3. Antisense oligonucleotides for SOCS1 and SOCS3 markedly reduced OK-432-induced IL-10 and TGF-β. This is the first report clearly demonstrating that OK-432-based immunotherapy significantly enhanced the therapeutic effects of chemoradiotherapy in patients with OSCC as well as elucidating the mechanism of the synergistic effect of immunochemoradiotherapy in which 5-FU and radiation enhanced OK-432-induced Th1 response mediated by the inhibition of SOCS1 and SOCS3 gene expression.

  10. Immunochemoradiotherapy for Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Augmentation of OK-432-Induced Helper T Cell 1 Response by 5-FU and X-ray Irradiation1

    PubMed Central

    Tano, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Masato; Kan, Shin; Bando, Takashi; Goda, Hiroyuki; Nakashiro, Koh-ichi; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Koido, Shigeo; Homma, Sadamu; Fujita, Tomonobu; Sato, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Naomi; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-one patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) received oral fluoropyrimidine UFT and radiotherapy (RT) with or without an immunotherapeutic agent OK-432. Both overall survival and progression-free survival of patients who received RT + UFT + OK-432 were significantly longer than those of patients who received RT + UFT (P = .0075 and P = .0175, respectively). Clinical response was also more favorable in RT + UFT + OK-432 group than in RT + UFT group (P = .0066). Next, in vitro experiments were conducted to examine the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and X-ray irradiation in OK-432-induced immunity. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with OK-432 produced helper T cell 1 (Th1)-type cytokines as well as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which are produced by Th2 and regulatory T cells (Tregs), respectively, and are inhibitory in antitumor immunity. OK-432-induced IL-10 and TGF-β but not Th1 cytokines were significantly inhibited by 5-FU and/or X-ray. 5-FU and X-ray also inhibited the expression of mRNAs for GATA-3 and Foxp3, which are transcription factors for Th2 and Tregs, respectively, but not for T-bet, a transcription factor for Th1. In addition, 5-FU and X-ray decreased the expression of mRNAs for suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3. Antisense oligonucleotides for SOCS1 and SOCS3 markedly reduced OK-432-induced IL-10 and TGF-β. This is the first report clearly demonstrating that OK-432-based immunotherapy significantly enhanced the therapeutic effects of chemoradiotherapy in patients with OSCC as well as elucidating the mechanism of the synergistic effect of immunochemoradiotherapy in which 5-FU and radiation enhanced OK-432-induced Th1 response mediated by the inhibition of SOCS1 and SOCS3 gene expression. PMID:23814492

  11. Thiols decrease cytokine levels and down-regulate the expression of CD30 on human allergen-specific T helper (Th) 0 and Th2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Å; Lundberg, M; Avila-Cariño, J; Jacobsson, G; Holmgren, A; Scheynius, A

    2001-01-01

    The thiol antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), known as a precursor of glutathione (GSH), is used in AIDS treatment trials, as a chemoprotectant in cancer chemotherapy and in treatment of chronic bronchitis. In vitro, GSH and NAC are known to enhance T cell proliferation, production of IL-2 and up-regulation of the IL-2 receptor. The 120-kD CD30 surface antigen belongs to the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. It is expressed by activated T helper (Th) cells and its expression is sustained in Th2 cells. We have analysed the effect of GSH and NAC on the cytokine profile and CD30 expression on human allergen-specific T cell clones (TCC). TCC were stimulated with anti-CD3 antibodies in the presence of different concentrations of GSH and NAC. Both thiols caused a dose dependent down-regulation of IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ levels in Th0 and Th2 clones, with the most pronounced decrease of IL-4. Furthermore, they down-regulated the surface expression of CD30, and the levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30) in the culture supernatants were decreased. In contrast, the surface expression of CD28 or CD40 ligand (CD40L) was not significantly changed after treatment with 20 mm NAC. These results indicate that GSH and NAC favour a Th1 response by a preferential down-regulation of IL-4. In addition, the expression of CD30 was down regulated by GSH and NAC, suggesting that CD30 expression is dependent on IL-4, or modified by NAC. In the likely event that CD30 and its soluble counterpart prove to contribute to the pathogenesis in Th2 related diseases such as allergy, NAC may be considered as a future therapeutic agent in the treatment of these diseases. PMID:11298119

  12. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) Immune Response in Mice by an Extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

  13. Comprehensive intestinal T helper cell profiling reveals specific accumulation of IFN-γ+IL-17+coproducing CD4+ T cells in active inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Globig, Anna-Maria; Hennecke, Nadine; Martin, Bianca; Seidl, Maximilian; Ruf, Günther; Hasselblatt, Peter; Thimme, Robert; Bengsch, Bertram

    2014-12-01

    Skewed T helper (TH) cell responses and specific functions of TH1, TH2, TH17, and Treg cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that led to the establishment of the pathogenic TH1/TH2 and TH17/Treg cell imbalance paradigms. However, the relevant TH cell population driving mucosal inflammation is still unknown. We performed a comprehensive TH cell profiling of circulating and intestinal lymphocytes isolated from patients with Crohn's disease (CD; n = 69) and ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 41) undergoing endoscopy or surgical resection and compared them with healthy controls (n = 45). Mucosal inflammation was assessed endoscopically and histologically. TH cells were analyzed by flow cytometric evaluation of cytokine production and differentiation marker expression. Specialized TH cell populations were enriched in the intestinal mucosa compared with peripheral blood. Specifically, we observed a concomitant upregulation of TH17 cells and Tregs in active inflammatory lesions in patients with both CD and UC compared with quiescent/mildly inflamed lesions and healthy tissue. Of note, interferon γ+ interleukin (IL)-17+coproducing CD4+ T cells with high expression of T-bet, CD26, and IL-22 resembling recently described pathogenic TH17 cells were specifically enriched in the inflamed mucosal tissue. Our results argue against the controversial TH1/TH2 or TH17/Treg paradigms. In contrast, they suggest that a subpopulation of TH17 cells sharing a TH1 signature may be specifically involved in intestinal inflammation in CD and UC. These findings provide a better understanding of IBD pathogenesis and may help explain the efficacy of anti-IL-12p40/IL-23 and failure of anti-IL-17A therapies despite the enrichment of TH17 cells.

  14. Induction of IL-21 in Peripheral T Follicular Helper cells is Indicator of Influenza Vaccine Response in Previously Vaccinated HIV-Infected Pediatric Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Armas, Lesley R.; Cotugno, Nicola; Pallikkuth, Suresh; Pan, Li; Rinaldi, Stefano; Sanchez, M. Celeste; Gonzalez, Louis; Cagigi, Alberto; Rossi, Paolo; Palma, Paolo; Pahwa, Savita

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected patients of all ages frequently underperform in responsiveness to seasonal influenza vaccination despite virologic control of HIV. Molecular mechanisms governing this impairment as well as predictive biomarkers for responsiveness remain unknown. This study was performed in pre-vaccination samples (T0) of HIV-infected children who received the 2012–2013 seasonal influenza vaccine. Response status was determined based on established criteria of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer; participants with HAI ≥ 1:40 plus ≥ 4-fold increase over T0 at three weeks post-vaccination (T1) were designated as responders. All children had a history of prior influenza vaccinations. At T0, frequencies of CD4 T cell subsets, including peripheral T follicular helper (pTfh) cells which provide help to B cells for developing into Ab secreting cells were similar between responders and non-responders. However, in response to in vitro stimulation with H1N1 antigen, differential gene expression related to pTfh function was observed by Fluidigm high density RT-PCR between responders and non-responders. In responders, H1N1 stimulation at pre-vaccination also resulted in CXCR5 induction (mRNA and protein) in CD4 T cells and IL21 gene induction in pTfh cells that strongly associated with H1N1-specific B cell responses post-vaccination. In contrast, CD4 T cells of non-responders exhibited increased expression of IL2 and STAT5 genes which are known to antagonize pTfh function. These results suggest that the quality of pTfh at the time of immunization are important for influenza vaccine responses and provide a rationale for targeted, ex vivo antigen-driven molecular profiling of purified immune cells to detect predictive biomarkers of vaccine response. PMID:28130496

  15. Changes in DNA Methylation from Age 18 to Pregnancy in Type 1, 2, and 17 T Helper and Regulatory T-Cells Pathway Genes

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Sabrina; Lockett, Gabrielle A.; Arshad, S. Hasan; Zhang, Hongmei; Kaushal, Akhilesh; Tetali, Sabarinath R.; Mukherjee, Nandini

    2018-01-01

    To succeed, pregnancies need to initiate immune biases towards T helper 2 (Th2) responses, yet little is known about what establishes this bias. Using the Illumina 450 K platform, we explored changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cell pathway genes before and during pregnancy. Female participants were recruited at birth (1989), and followed through age 18 years and their pregnancy (2011–2015). Peripheral blood DNAm was measured in 245 girls at 18 years; from among these girls, the DNAm of 54 women was repeatedly measured in the first (weeks 8–21, n = 39) and second (weeks 22–38, n = 35) halves of pregnancy, respectively. M-values (logit-transformed β-values of DNAm) were analyzed: First, with repeated measurement models, cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites (CpGs) of pathway genes in pregnancy and at age 18 (nonpregnant) were compared for changes (p ≤ 0.05). Second, we tested how many of the 348 pathway-related CpGs changed compared to 10 randomly selected subsets of all other CpGs and compared to 10 randomly selected subsets of other CD4+-related CpGs (348 in each subset). Contrasted to the nonpregnant state, 27.7% of Th1-related CpGs changed in the first and 36.1% in the second half of pregnancy. Among the Th2 pathway CpGs, proportions of changes were 35.1% (first) and 33.8% (second half). The methylation changes suggest involvement of both Th1 and Th2 pathway CpGs in the immune bias during pregnancy. Changes in regulatory T cell and Th17 pathways need further exploration. PMID:29415463

  16. Preclinical Evaluation of a Replication-Deficient Recombinant Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccine Expressing Guanylate Cyclase C and the PADRE T-helper Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Snook, Adam E.; Baybutt, Trevor R.; Hyslop, Terry; Waldman, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for improved therapeutics for colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy only marginally improves survival in some patients and has no benefit in others, underscoring the clinical opportunity for novel immunotherapeutic approaches to improve survival in colorectal cancer. In that context, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is an established biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic colorectal cancer with immunological characteristics that promote durable antitumor efficacy without autoimmunity. Preliminary studies established non-replicating human type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) expressing GUCY2C as safe and effective to induce GUCY2C-specific immune responses and antitumor immunity in mice. This study characterized the biodistribution, immunogenicity, and safety of a vector expressing GUCY2C fused with the human CD4+ T helper cell epitope PADRE (Ad5-GUCY2C-PADRE) to advance this vaccine into clinical trials in colorectal cancer patients. Ad5-GUCY2C-PADRE levels were highest in the injection site and distributed in vivo primarily to draining lymph nodes, the liver, spleen and, unexpectedly, to the bone marrow. Immune responses following Ad5-GUCY2C-PADRE administration were characterized by PADRE-specific CD4+ T-cell and GUCY2C-specific B-cell and CD8+ T-cell responses, producing antitumor immunity targeting GUCY2C-expressing colorectal cancer metastases in the lungs, without acute or chronic autoimmune or other toxicities. Collectively, these data support Ad5-GUCY2C-PADRE as a safe and effective vaccination strategy in preclinical models and position Ad5-GUCY2C-PADRE for Phase I clinical testing in colorectal cancer patients. PMID:27903079

  17. Comparing standard versus prosocial internet support groups for patients with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial of the helper therapy principle.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Stephen J; Buzaglo, Joanne S; Lieberman, Morton A; Golant, Mitch; Greener, Judith R; Davey, Adam

    2014-12-20

    Internet support group (ISG) members benefit from receiving social support and, according to the helper therapy principle, by providing support to others. To test the mental health benefits of providing support to others, this trial compared the efficacy of a standard ISG (S-ISG) and an enhanced prosocial ISG (P-ISG). A two-armed randomized controlled trial with 1-month pretest and post-test assessments was conducted with women (N = 184) diagnosed in the past 36 months with nonmetastatic breast cancer who reported elevated anxiety or depression. Women were randomly assigned to either the S-ISG or P-ISG condition. Both conditions included six professionally facilitated live chat sessions (90-minute weekly sessions) and access to an asynchronous discussion board; P-ISG also included structured opportunities to help and encourage others. Relative to the S-ISG, participants in the P-ISG condition exhibited more supportive behaviors (emotional, informational, and companionate support), posted more messages that were other-focused and fewer that were self-focused, and expressed less negative emotion (P < .05). Relative to the S-ISG, participants in the P-ISG condition had a higher level of depression and anxiety symptoms after the intervention (P < .05). Despite the successful manipulation of supportive behaviors, the P-ISG did not produce better mental health outcomes in distressed survivors of breast cancer relative to an S-ISG. The prosocial manipulation may have inadvertently constrained women from expressing their needs openly, and thus, they may not have had their needs fully met in the group. Helping others may not be beneficial as a treatment for distressed survivors of breast cancer. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Evaluation of accessory cell heterogeneity. I. Differential accessory cell requirement for T helper cell activation and for T-B cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ramila, G; Studer, S; Kennedy, M; Sklenar, I; Erb, P

    1985-01-01

    Several Ia+ tumor cell lines and peritoneal exudate macrophages were tested as accessory cells (AC) for the activation of antigen-specific T cells and for T-B cooperation. The macrophages and all the Ia+ tumor lines tested induced the release of lymphokines from T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted fashion and reconstituted the antibody responses of AC-depleted spleen cells or of purified T and B cells. However, only the normal macrophages but none of the tumor lines induced carrier-specific T helper (Th) cells which help B cells for specific antihapten antibody responses by linked recognition. For T-B cooperation accessory cells were also required, but in contrast to Th cell activation any type of Ia+ AC (e.g. macrophage or tumor line) was effective. Strong MHC-restriction between the lymphocytes and the AC was seen if antigen-pulsed AC were added into the AC-depleted T-B cooperation cultures. If the AC and antigen were concomitantly added to the AC-depleted T-B cultures, MHC-restriction was less obvious. Concanavalin A supernatant reconstituted the response of AC-depleted T-B cultures provided antigen-specific Th cells and the hapten-carrier conjugate were present. If, however, tumor line-activated T cells were added instead of macrophage-induced Th cells, no cooperation with B cells took place even in the presence of Con A supernatant. The results obtained demonstrate a differential AC requirement for the induction of Th cells depending on the differentiation stage of the Th cells.

  19. Analysis of T cell-replacing factor-like activity: potent induction of T helper activity for human B cells by residual concanavalin A and interleukin 2.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, R W; Van der Meer, W G; Aarden, L A

    1987-08-01

    At least two factors with the capacity to induce IgM synthesis in human B cells were found to be present in the 15-20-kDa fraction of the supernatant of mononuclear cells activated with concanavalin A (Con A) and phorbol ester. Previously, it has been shown (Sauerwein, R. W. et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 1985. 15: 611) that interleukin 2 (IL2) in this material is able to induce T cell-dependent IgM secretion in normal B cells. Evidence was obtained for the presence of another factor distinct from IL2 that could replace T cells in the induction of B cell differentiation. We have analyzed this factor with the use of a neoplastic B cell population of prolymphocytic origin that was functionally nonresponsive to IL2. T cell-replacing factor (TRF)-like activity and IL2 could be separated by ion-exchange chromatography, although a small amount of IL2 was recovered in the TRF fractions. This small amount of IL2 was found to be crucial for the observed TRF activity. Moreover, a substantial amount of monomeric Con A was detected in the TRF preparation. Our studies show that Con A in the presence of IL2 can act as a potent inducer of helper function in lower numbers of T cells for normal and neoplastic B cells. Functional assays for T cell contamination in B cell suspensions are therefore of limited value because they are determined by the efficiency of the stimulating signal. Particularly in those B cell factor preparations, obtained from mitogen-activated T cells with an obligatory or unidentified role of IL2, the possible effect of a contaminating mitogen must be considered.

  20. The values and qualities of being a good helper: A qualitative study of adult foster home caregivers for persons with serious mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Piat, Myra; Ricard, Nicole; Sabetti, Judith; Beauvais, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background Canadian foster homes for adults with serious mental illness are operated by non-professional caregivers, usually women, whose mandate is to support residents and reintegrate them into the community. While mental health professionals recognize that adult foster homes are an important service for this population, there is little understanding of how caregivers impact on the lives of their residents. Aims and objectives This article draws on the findings of a larger study which examined both caregiver and resident perspectives on the helping relationship in adult foster homes. Caregiver perspectives on the values and qualities required to help people living in foster homes are reported. Design and methods With no pre-set theoretical framework, this qualitative study employed an inductive approach within a naturalistic paradigm. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 caregivers. Data analysis was an ongoing, 2-year process, involving the identification of categories and themes through several distinct stages. Setting The study included Montreal adult foster homes (n = 242) for persons with serious mental illness, supervised by two university-affiliated psychiatric hospitals. Participants Twenty caregivers, selected according to years of experience and number of residents in the home, were diverse in terms of age, cultural background, family composition, education and occupational background. Results Caregivers possess a clearly articulated value system, and 21 specific qualities which reflect the attributes of both professional and informal helpers. These values and qualities provide caregivers with a “professional” or “vocational” orientation. Conclusions A deeply held system of values and qualities is critically important to caregiver effectiveness and job satisfaction. Findings suggest that caregivers are highly motivated, and should be recognized as full participants in the mental health system at both policy and practice levels. PMID

  1. A shift toward T helper 2 responses and an increase in modulators of innate immunity in depressed patients treated with escitalopram.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pei-Shen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Huang, San-Yuan; Liang, Chih-Sung

    2015-03-01

    Depression is hypothesized to involve inflammatory processes, and identifying the key cytokines targeted by antidepressant drugs is critical for tailoring treatment to specific cases. However, investigating a limited number of cytokines at one time cannot provide a broad picture of antidepressant-associated immunomodulation. Cytokines act in a network where one could demonstrate pleiotropism, redundancy, synergy, and antagonism with other cytokine functions. This study was aimed at determining whether escitalopram functions as an anti-inflammatory agent and, if so, how it influences cytokine networks. A total of 24 healthy controls and 26 patients with clinical depression requiring inpatient treatment were recruited. A multiplex assay, an efficient tool to simultaneously measure 27 cytokines, was applied in patients with depression before and after 4-week escitalopram treatment. Healthy controls did not take escitalopram and completed cytokine analyses once. We demonstrated that escitalopram increased the levels of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist and IL-2. Moreover, escitalopram contributed to a shift toward T helper 2 responses and an increase in modulators of innate immunity, leading to a decrease of immune system activation, both innate and adaptive. We suggest that escitalopram modulates the balance of IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist and improves the function and number of T regulatory cells. However, diverse conclusions could be drawn if only a few cytokines were assessed or different significance levels were used. Further studies should investigate a wide range of cytokines in a reliable and valid way, which is key to disentangling the effects of different antidepressants on inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral administration with diosgenin enhances the induction of intestinal T helper 1-like regulatory T cells in a murine model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Hsiung; Wang, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yu-Chin; Hori, Masatoshi; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Although the development of T helper (Th)1-like regulatory T (Treg) cells under Th1 inflammatory conditions has been reported, the role of Th1-like Treg cells in Th2 allergic responses remains mostly unclear. We previously demonstrated that diosgenin, the major sapogenin contained in the Chinese yam, attenuated food allergy and augmented Th1 and Treg immune responses. In this study, we hypothesized that diosgenin may enhance the induction of Th1-like Treg cells in the gut of mice with food allergy. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice were gavaged daily with diosgenin and received repeatedly intragastric ovalbumin challenges to induce intestinal allergic responses. The induction of Foxp3 + Treg cells co-expressing Th1-type transcription factors, cytokines and chemokines in the intestine was examined, and the mRNA expression of the chemokines corresponding to Th1-like Treg cells was measured. Diosgenin administration increased the number of Foxp3 + Treg cells co-expressing Th1 markers, including CCR5, CXCR3, IFN-γ and T-bet in the intestine, and enhanced populations of Foxp3 + IFN-γ + and Foxp3 + T-bet + cells that expressed the regulatory cytokine IL-10 in the Peyer's patches. Diosgenin also augmented the intestinal expression of CXCR3, CCL3, and CXCL10. Concordantly, diosgenin increased the number of CXCR3 + Foxp3 + IL-10 cells in the Peyer's patches. Our data demonstrated the enhanced induction of Th1-like Treg cells in allergic mice treated with diosgenin, providing evidence to suggest a role for Th1-like Treg cells in diosgenin-mediated anti-allergic effects against Th2-type allergy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased numbers of circulating ICOS⁺ follicular helper T and CD38⁺ plasma cells in patients with newly diagnosed primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Sun, Xiguang; Qiu, Jinpeng; Cai, Yanjun; Ma, Liang; Zhao, Pingwei; Jiang, Yanfang

    2015-02-01

    Aberrant activation of follicular helper T (TFH) and B cells is associated with the development of autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about the potential role of these cells in the development of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This study aimed at characterizing the numbers of different subsets of circulating Tfh and B cells as well as evaluating their potential association with the levels of immunoglobulins and autoantibodies in newly diagnosed PBC patients. The numbers of circulating CD27(+), CD38(+), CD86(+) and CD95(+) B cells as well as inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS)(+) and programmed death-1 (PD-1)(+), IL-21(+) TFH cells were examined in 58 patients with newly diagnosed PBC and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs). The numbers of circulating CD38(+)CD19(+), CD86(+)CD19(+), and CD95(+)CD19(+) B cells; CD3(+)CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+)CXCR5(+)PD-1(+) Tfh cells; and the levels of serum IL-21 in the PBC patients were significantly greater, but the numbers of CD27(+)CD19(+) B cells were significantly less than those in the HCs (p < 0.05). The numbers of CD3(+)CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(+) Tfh cells were positively correlated with the numbers of CD38(+)CD19(+) and CD86(+)CD38(+)CD19(+) B cells and the levels of serum anti-mitochondrial antibodies against M2 antigen (AMA-M2), AMA and immunolgubin M (IgM) in the PBC patients. The levels of serum IL-21 were positively correlated with the levels of serum AMA-M2, AMA, IgG and IgM, but negatively with the numbers of CD27(+)CD19(+) B cells in the PBC patients. Increased numbers of circulating ICOS(+) and IL-21(+) Tfh and CD38(+) plasma cells may be exhibited by patients with recent diagnoses of PBC.

  4. CD1d-dependent expansion of NKT follicular helper cells in vivo and in vitro is a product of cellular proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rampuria, Pragya; Lang, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    NKT follicular helper cells (NKTfh cells) are a recently discovered functional subset of CD1d-restricted NKT cells. Given the potential for NKTfh cells to promote specific antibody responses and germinal center reactions, there is much interest in determining the conditions under which NKTfh cells proliferate and/or differentiate in vivo and in vitro. We confirm that NKTfh cells expressing the canonical semi-invariant Vα14 TCR were CXCR5(+)/ICOS(+)/PD-1(+)/Bcl6(+) and increased in number following administration of the CD1d-binding glycolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GC) to C57Bl/6 mice. We show that the α-GC-stimulated increase in NKTfh cells was CD1d-dependent since the effect was diminished by reduced CD1d expression. In vivo and in vitro treatment with α-GC, singly or in combination with IL-2, showed that NKTfh cells increased in number to a greater extent than total NKT cells, but proliferation was near-identical in both populations. Acquisition of the NKTfh phenotype from an adoptively transferred PD-1-depleted cell population was also evident, showing that peripheral NKT cells differentiated into NKTfh cells. Therefore, the α-GC-stimulated, CD1d-dependent increase in peripheral NKTfh cells is a result of cellular proliferation and differentiation. These findings advance our understanding of the immune response following immunization with CD1d-binding glycolipids. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Increased PD-1+CD154+ Tfh cells are possibly the most important functional subset of PD-1+ T follicular helper cells in adult patients with minimal change disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Shi, Yunpeng; Sun, Weixia; Wang, Haifeng; Wang, Quan; Jiang, Yanfang

    2018-02-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, especially programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) + Tfh cells, exert important functions in the normal immune response. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of different subsets of PD-1 + Tfh cells and their functional effects in adult patients with minimal change disease (MCD). The frequencies of circulating PD-1 + , PD-1 + CD154 + , and PD-1 + interleukin (IL)-21 + Tfh cells, and CD38 + CD19 + and CD38 + CD19 + CD40 + B cells, as well as serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-21, and interferon (IFN)-γ were significantly increased in the MCD patients compared with the healthy controls (HCs) (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in PD-1 + BCL-6 + or PD-1 + ICOS + Tfh cells. Furthermore, the percentages of PD-1 + Tfh and PD-1 + CD154 + Tfh cells were negatively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), but positively correlated with the 24-h urinary protein concentration and serum IL-21 level. The percentages of PD-1 + Tfh and PD-1 + CD154 + Tfh cells were positively correlated with the percentages of CD38 + plasma cells and active CD38 + CD40 + plasma cells, respectively. After an 8-12-week treatment with prednisolone, the percentages of PD-1 + , PD-1 + CD154 + , and PD-1 + IL-21 + Tfh cells as well as the serum level of IL-21 were significantly reduced; in contrast, the serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were increased (P < 0.05). We conclude that increased PD-1 + CD154 + Tfh cells are possibly the most important functional subset of PD-1 + Tfh cells and may contribute towards the pathogenesis of MCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A helper virus-free HSV-1 vector containing the vesicular glutamate transporter-1 promoter supports expression preferentially in VGLUT1-containing glutamatergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-rong; Geller, Alfred I

    2010-05-17

    Multiple potential uses of direct gene transfer into neurons require restricting expression to specific classes of glutamatergic neurons. Thus, it is desirable to develop vectors containing glutamatergic class-specific promoters. The three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are expressed in distinct populations of neurons, and VGLUT1 is the predominant VGLUT in the neocortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex. We previously reported a plasmid (amplicon) Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vector that placed the Lac Z gene under the regulation of the VGLUT1 promoter (pVGLUT1lac). Using helper virus-free vector stocks, we showed that this vector supported approximately 90% glutamatergic neuron-specific expression in postrhinal (POR) cortex, in rats sacrificed at either 4 days or 2 months after gene transfer. We now show that pVGLUT1lac supports expression preferentially in VGLUT1-containing glutamatergic neurons. pVGLUT1lac vector stock was injected into either POR cortex, which contains primarily VGLUT1-containing glutamatergic neurons, or into the ventral medial hypothalamus (VMH), which contains predominantly VGLUT2-containing glutamatergic neurons. Rats were sacrificed at 4 days after gene transfer, and the types of cells expressing ss-galactosidase were determined by immunofluorescent costaining. Cell counts showed that pVGLUT1lac supported expression in approximately 10-fold more cells in POR cortex than in the VMH, whereas a control vector supported expression in similar numbers of cells in these two areas. Further, in POR cortex, pVGLUT1lac supported expression predominately in VGLUT1-containing neurons, and, in the VMH, pVGLUT1lac showed an approximately 10-fold preference for the rare VGLUT1-containing neurons. VGLUT1-specific expression may benefit specific experiments on learning or specific gene therapy approaches, particularly in the neocortex. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here wemore » examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.« less

  8. Suppressive effects of metformin on T-helper 1-related chemokines expression in the human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chun; Kuo, Chang-Hung; Tsai, Ying-Ming; Lin, Yi-Ching; Hsiao, Hui-Pin; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Wang, Shih-Ling; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2018-04-09

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are chronic T-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. Metformin is a widely used drug for type 2 DM that reduces the need for insulin in type 1 DM. However, whether metformin has an anti-inflammatory effect for treating DM is unknown. We investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of metformin in the human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. The human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 was pretreated with metformin and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The production of T-helper (Th)-1-related chemokines including interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Th2-related chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine, and the proinflammatory chemokine tumor necrosis factor-α was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracellular signaling pathways were investigated using Western blot analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Metformin suppressed LPS-induced IP-10 and MCP-1 production as well as LPS-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Moreover, metformin suppressed LPS-induced acetylation of histones H3 and H4 at the IP-10 promoter. Metformin suppressed the production of Th1-related chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1 in THP-1 cells. Suppressive effects of metformin on IP-10 production might be attributed at least partially to the JNK, p38, ERK, and NF-κB pathways as well as to epigenetic regulation through the acetylation of histones H3 and H4. These results indicated the therapeutic anti-inflammatory potential of metformin.

  9. The asparagine residue in the FRNK box of potyviral helper-component protease is critical for its small RNA binding and subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Jain, R K; Palukaitis, Peter; Canto, Tomas; Praveen, Shelly

    2014-05-01

    The multifunctional potyviral helper-component protease (HcPro) contains variable regions with some functionally conserved domains, such as the FRNK box. Natural variants occur at the FRNK box, a conserved central domain, known for its role in RNA binding and RNAi suppression activities, although no dominant natural variants for the N(182) residue are known to occur. Here, a mutant at HcPro(N182L) was developed to investigate its role in natural populations. Using in vitro studies, we found an increase in the small RNA (sRNA) binding potential of HcPro(N182L) without affecting its protein-protein interaction properties, suggesting that the presence of N(182) is critical to maintain threshold levels of sRNAs, but does not interfere in the self-interaction of HcPro. Furthermore, we found that expression of HcPro(N182L) in Nicotiana benthamiana affected plant growth. Transient expression of HcPro(N182L) induced reporter gene expression in 16c GFP transgenic plants more than HcPro did, suggesting that replacement of asparagine in the FRNK box favours RNA silencing suppression. HcPro was found to be distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas HcPro(N182L) was observed only in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in N. benthamiana leaves, when fused to a GFP tag and expressed by agro-infiltration, suggesting mutation favours oligomerization of HcPro. These findings suggest that amino acid N(182) of the conserved FRNK box may regulate RNA silencing mechanisms, and is required for maintenance of the subcellular localization of the protein for its multi-functionality. Hence, the N(182) residue of the FRNK box seems to be indispensable for potyvirus infection during evolution.

  10. Teaching Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Sue; Butts, Jennifer Lease

    2011-01-01

    Integrity is one of those essential yet highly ambiguous concepts. For the purpose of this chapter, integrity is defined as that combination of both attributes and actions that makes entities appear to be whole and ethical, as well as consistent. Like the concepts of leadership or wisdom or community or collaboration, integrity is a key element of…

  11. Targeting Inflammatory T Helper Cells via Retinoic Acid-Related Orphan Receptor Gamma t Is Ineffective to Prevent Allo-Response-Driven Colitis.

    PubMed

    Buchele, Vera; Abendroth, Benjamin; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Vogler, Tina; Rothamer, Johanna; Ghimire, Sakhila; Ullrich, Evelyn; Holler, Ernst; Neurath, Markus F; Hildner, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a life-threatening, inflammatory donor T cell-mediated complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In the light of the reported efficacy of interleukin-23 (IL-23)-blockade to mitigate syngeneic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease patients, targeting IL-23 and thereby interleukin-17a (IL-17a) producing T helper (Th17) cells as the T cell subset assumed to be mostly regulated by IL-23, has emerged as a putatively general concept to harness immune-mediated mucosal inflammation irrespective of the underlying trigger. However, the role of Th17 cells during allo-response driven colitis remains ambiguous due to a series of studies with inconclusive results. Interestingly, we recently identified granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF + ) T cells to be promoted by interleukin-7 (IL-7) signaling and controlled by the activating protein-1 transcription factor family member basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like (BATF) as critical mediators of intestinal GvHD in mice. Given the dual role of BATF, the contribution of IL-23-mediated signaling within donor T cells and bona fide Th17 cells remains to be delineated from the regulation of GM-CSF + T cells in the absence of BATF. Here, we found in a complete MHC class I-mismatched model that genetic inactivation of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) or the transcription factor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) within donor T cells similarly ablated Th17 cell formation in vivo but preserved the T cells' ability to induce intestinal GvHD in a compared to wild-type controls indistinguishable manner. Importantly, RORγt-independent manifestation of intestinal GvHD was completely dependent on BATF-regulated GM-CSF + T cells as BATF/RORγt double-deficient T cells failed to induce colitis and the antibody-mediated blockage of IL-7/IL-7R interaction and GM-CSF significantly diminished signs

  12. Frequent associations between CTL and T-Helper epitopes in HIV-1 genomes and implications for multi-epitope vaccine designs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epitope vaccines have been suggested as a strategy to counteract viral escape and development of drug resistance. Multiple studies have shown that Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte (CTL) and T-Helper (Th) epitopes can generate strong immune responses in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1). However, not much is known about the relationship among different types of HIV epitopes, particularly those epitopes that can be considered potential candidates for inclusion in the multi-epitope vaccines. Results In this study we used association rule mining to examine relationship between different types of epitopes (CTL, Th and antibody epitopes) from nine protein-coding HIV-1 genes to identify strong associations as potent multi-epitope vaccine candidates. Our results revealed 137 association rules that were consistently present in the majority of reference and non-reference HIV-1 genomes and included epitopes of two different types (CTL and Th) from three different genes (Gag, Pol and Nef). These rules involved 14 non-overlapping epitope regions that frequently co-occurred despite high mutation and recombination rates, including in genomes of circulating recombinant forms. These epitope regions were also highly conserved at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels indicating strong purifying selection driven by functional and/or structural constraints and hence, the diminished likelihood of successful escape mutations. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive systematic survey of CTL, Th and Ab epitopes that are both highly conserved and co-occur together among all subtypes of HIV-1, including circulating recombinant forms. Several co-occurring epitope combinations were identified as potent candidates for inclusion in multi-epitope vaccines, including epitopes that are immuno-responsive to different arms of the host immune machinery and can enable stronger and more efficient immune responses, similar to responses achieved with adjuvant therapies. Signature of strong

  13. Inhibition of Gαs/cAMP Signaling Decreases TCR-Stimulated IL-2 transcription in CD4(+) T Helper Cells.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Thomas R; Yost, Evan A; Yost, Stacy M; Hartle, Cassandra M; Ott, Braden J; Berlot, Catherine H

    2015-07-06

    The role of cAMP in regulating T cell activation and function has been controversial. cAMP is generally known as an immunosuppressant, but it is also required for generating optimal immune responses. As the effect of cAMP is likely to depend on its cellular context, the current study investigated whether the mechanism of activation of Gαs and adenylyl cyclase influences their effect on T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA levels. The effect of blocking Gs-coupled receptor (GsPCR)-mediated Gs activation on TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels in CD4(+) T cells was compared with that of knocking down Gαs expression or inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity. The effect of knocking down Gαs expression on TCR-stimulated cAMP accumulation was compared with that of blocking GsPCR signaling. ZM-241385, an antagonist to the Gs-coupled A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR), enhanced TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels in primary human CD4(+) T helper cells and in Jurkat T cells. A dominant negative Gαs construct, GαsDN3, also enhanced TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels. Similar to GsPCR antagonists, GαsDN3 blocked GsPCR-dependent activation of both Gαs and Gβγ. In contrast, Gαs siRNA and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA), an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, decreased TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels. Gαs siRNA, but not GαsDN3, decreased TCR-stimulated cAMP synthesis. Potentiation of IL-2 mRNA levels by ZM-241385 required at least two days of TCR stimulation, and addition of ddA after three days of TCR stimulation enhanced IL-2 mRNA levels. GsPCRs play an inhibitory role in the regulation of TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels whereas Gαs and cAMP can play a stimulatory one. Additionally, TCR-dependent activation of Gαs does not appear to involve GsPCRs. These results suggest that the context of Gαs/cAMP activation and the stage of T cell activation and differentiation determine the effect on TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels.

  14. T-helper 17 cytokines (interleukins 17, 21, 22, and 6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) in patients with alopecia areata: association with clinical type and severity.

    PubMed

    Atwa, Mona A; Youssef, Nahed; Bayoumy, Nervana M

    2016-06-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by T-cell infiltrates and cytokine production. T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Our aim was to assess the association of Th17 with AA. We examined interleukin (IL)-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in the serum of patients with AA and studied their association with clinical type and severity of AA. The serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-6, and TNF-α were measured in 47 patients with AA and 40 healthy controls. The clinical type of AA was determined, and the severity of hair loss was assessed in accordance with the Alopecia Areata Investigational Assessment Guideline criteria. The serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly higher in patients with AA as compared with healthy controls (mean: IL-17 33.23 ± 11.58 vs. 4.62 ± 1.88 pg/ml; P = 0.000, IL-21 62.10 ± 6.11 vs. 48.38 ± 3.31 pg/ml; P = 0.000, IL-22 19.27 ± 3.36 vs. 7.09 ± 1.62 pg/ml; P = 0.000, IL-6 17.18 ± 3.08 vs. 4.59 ± 1.66 pg/ml; P = 0.000, TNF-α 19.94 ± 3.59 vs. 9.95 ± 2.42 pg/ml; P = 0.000, respectively). There were significant positive correlations between serum IL-17, TNF-α, and disease severity. There was also significant positive correlation between serum IL-22 and duration of AA. Our results showed high serum levels of Th17 cytokines among patients with AA that may suggest a functional role of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of this important skin disease. It could also provide the rationale for new treatment strategies in AA. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. The role of dietary sodium intake on the modulation of T helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Massaro, Laura; Barbati, Cristiana; Vomero, Marta; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Riccieri, Valeria; Spagnoli, Alessandra; Alessandri, Cristiano; Desideri, Giovambattista; Conti, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    We aimed at investigating whether the frequency and function of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) are affected by a restriction of dietary sodium intake in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We enrolled RA and SLE patients not receiving drugs known to increase urinary sodium excretion. Patients underwent a dietary regimen starting with a restricted daily sodium intake followed by a normal-sodium daily intake. The timepoints were identified at baseline (T0), after 3 weeks of low-sodium dietary regimen (T3), after 2 weeks of normal-sodium dietary regimen (T5). On these visits, we measured the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, the frequency and function of Th17 and Treg cells in the peripheral blood, the serum levels of cytokines. Analysis of urinary sodium excretion confirmed adherence to the dietary regimen. In RA patients, a trend toward a reduction in the frequencies of Th17 cells over the low-sodium dietary regimen followed by an increase at T5 was observed, while Treg cells exhibited the opposite trend. SLE patients showed a progressive reduction in the percentage of Th17 cells that reached a significance at T5 compared to T0 (p = 0.01) and an increase in the percentage of Treg cells following the low-sodium dietary regimen at both T1 and T3 compared to T0 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). No significant apoptosis or proliferation modulation was found. In RA patients, we found a reduction at T5 compared to T0 in serum levels of both TGFβ (p = 0.0016) and IL-9 (p = 0.0007); serum IL-9 levels were also reduced in SLE patients at T5 with respect to T0 (p = 0.03). This is the first study investigating the effects of dietary sodium intake on adaptive immunity. Based on the results, we hypothesize that a restricted sodium dietary intake may dampen the inflammatory response in RA and SLE patients. PMID:28877244

  16. The role of dietary sodium intake on the modulation of T helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Scrivo, Rossana; Massaro, Laura; Barbati, Cristiana; Vomero, Marta; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Riccieri, Valeria; Spagnoli, Alessandra; Alessandri, Cristiano; Desideri, Giovambattista; Conti, Fabrizio; Valesini, Guido

    2017-01-01

    We aimed at investigating whether the frequency and function of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) are affected by a restriction of dietary sodium intake in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We enrolled RA and SLE patients not receiving drugs known to increase urinary sodium excretion. Patients underwent a dietary regimen starting with a restricted daily sodium intake followed by a normal-sodium daily intake. The timepoints were identified at baseline (T0), after 3 weeks of low-sodium dietary regimen (T3), after 2 weeks of normal-sodium dietary regimen (T5). On these visits, we measured the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, the frequency and function of Th17 and Treg cells in the peripheral blood, the serum levels of cytokines. Analysis of urinary sodium excretion confirmed adherence to the dietary regimen. In RA patients, a trend toward a reduction in the frequencies of Th17 cells over the low-sodium dietary regimen followed by an increase at T5 was observed, while Treg cells exhibited the opposite trend. SLE patients showed a progressive reduction in the percentage of Th17 cells that reached a significance at T5 compared to T0 (p = 0.01) and an increase in the percentage of Treg cells following the low-sodium dietary regimen at both T1 and T3 compared to T0 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). No significant apoptosis or proliferation modulation was found. In RA patients, we found a reduction at T5 compared to T0 in serum levels of both TGFβ (p = 0.0016) and IL-9 (p = 0.0007); serum IL-9 levels were also reduced in SLE patients at T5 with respect to T0 (p = 0.03). This is the first study investigating the effects of dietary sodium intake on adaptive immunity. Based on the results, we hypothesize that a restricted sodium dietary intake may dampen the inflammatory response in RA and SLE patients.

  17. MHC class II/ESO tetramer-based generation of in vitro primed anti-tumor T-helper lines for adoptive cell therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Poli, Caroline; Raffin, Caroline; Dojcinovic, Danijel; Luescher, Immanuel; Ayyoub, Maha; Valmori, Danila

    2013-02-01

    Generation of tumor-antigen specific CD4(+) T-helper (T(H)) lines through in vitro priming is of interest for adoptive cell therapy of cancer, but the development of this approach has been limited by the lack of appropriate tools to identify and isolate low frequency tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. Here, we have used recently developed MHC class II/peptide tetramers incorporating an immunodominant peptide from NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a tumor antigen frequently expressed in different human solid and hematologic cancers, to implement an in vitro priming platform allowing the generation of ESO-specific T(H) lines. We isolated phenotypically defined CD4(+) T-cell subpopulations from circulating lymphocytes of DR52b(+) healthy donors by flow cytometry cell sorting and stimulated them in vitro with peptide ESO(119-143), autologous APC and IL-2. We assessed the frequency of ESO-specific cells in the cultures by staining with DR52b/ESO(119-143) tetramers (ESO-tetramers) and TCR repertoire of ESO-tetramer(+) cells by co-staining with TCR variable β chain (BV) specific antibodies. We isolated ESO-tetramer(+) cells by flow cytometry cell sorting and expanded them with PHA, APC and IL-2 to generate ESO-specific T(H) lines. We characterized the lines for antigen recognition, by stimulation with ESO peptide or recombinant protein, cytokine production, by intracellular staining using specific antibodies, and alloreactivity, by stimulation with allo-APC. Using this approach, we could consistently generate ESO-tetramer(+) T(H) lines from conventional CD4(+)CD25(-) naïve and central memory populations, but not from effector memory populations or CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg. In vitro primed T(H) lines recognized ESO with affinities comparable to ESO-tetramer(+) cells from patients immunized with an ESO vaccine and used a similar TCR repertoire. In this study, using MHC class II/ESO tetramers, we have implemented an in vitro priming platform allowing the generation of ESO

  18. Hypercholesterolemia is associated with a T helper (Th) 1/Th2 switch of the autoimmune response in atherosclerotic apo E-knockout mice.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X; Paulsson, G; Stemme, S; Hansson, G K

    1998-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory-fibrotic response to accumulation of cholesterol in the artery wall. In hypercholesterolemia, low density lipoproteins (LDL) accumulate and are oxidized to proinflammatory compounds in the arterial intima, leading to activation of endothelial cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes. We have studied immune cell activation and the autoimmune response to oxidized LDL in atherosclerotic apo E-knockout mice. Autoantibodies to oxidized LDL exhibited subclass specificities indicative of T cell help, and the increase in antibody titers in peripheral blood was associated with increased numbers of cytokine-expressing T cells in the spleen. In addition to T cell-dependent antibodies, IgM antibodies to oxidized LDL were also increased in apo E-knockout mice. This suggests that both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent epitopes may be present on oxidized LDL. In moderate hypercholesterolemia, IgG antibodies were largely of the IgG2a isotype, suggesting that T cell help was provided by proinflammatory T helper (Th) 1 cells, which are prominent components of atherosclerotic lesions. In severe hypercholesterolemia induced by cholesterol feeding of apo E-knockout mice, a switch to Th2-dependent help was evident. It was associated with a loss of IFN-gamma-producing Th1 cells in the spleen, whereas IL-4-producing Th2 cells were more resistant to hypercholesterolemia. IFN-gamma but not IL-4 mRNA was detected in atherosclerotic lesions of moderately hypercholesterolemic apo E-knockout mice, but IL-4 mRNA appeared in the lesions when mice were made severely hypercholesterolemic by cholesterol feeding. These data show that IFN-gamma-producing Th1 cells infiltrate atherosclerotic lesions and provide T cell help for autoimmune responses to oxidized LDL in apo E-knockout mice. However, severe hypercholesterolemia is associated with a switch from Th1 to Th2, which results not only in the formation of IgG1 autoantibodies to oxidized LDL, but also in the

  19. Human CD4+ T-cell response to hepatitis delta virus: identification of multiple epitopes and characterization of T-helper cytokine profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Nisini, R; Paroli, M; Accapezzato, D; Bonino, F; Rosina, F; Santantonio, T; Sallusto, F; Amoroso, A; Houghton, M; Barnaba, V

    1997-01-01

    The T-cell-mediated immune response plays a crucial role in defense against hepatotropic viruses as well as in the pathogenesis of viral chronic hepatitides. However, very little is known about the role of specific T cells during hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in humans. In this study, the T-cell response to HDV in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers with HDV superinfection was investigated at different levels. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in response to a recombinant form of large hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) revealed that 8 of 30 patients studied (27%) specifically responded to HDAg. By employing synthetic peptides spanning the entire HDAg sequence, we found that T-cell recognition was directed against different antigenic determinants, with patient-to-patient variation in the pattern of response to peptides. Interestingly, all responders had signs of inactive HDV-induced disease, while none of the patients with active disease and none of the control subjects showed any significant proliferation. More accurate information about the specific T-cell response was obtained at the clonal level. A panel of HDAg-specific CD4+ T-cell clones from three HDV-infected individuals and fine-specificity analysis revealed that the clones tested individually recognized four epitopes corresponding to amino acids (aa) 26 to 41, 50 to 65, 66 to 81, or 106 to 121 of HDAg sequence. The study of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) restriction revealed that peptides 50 to 65 and 106 to 121 were presented to specific T cells in association with multiple class II molecules. In addition, peptide 26 to 41 was efficiently generated after processing of HDAg through the endogenous processing pathway. Cytokine secretion analysis showed that all the CD4+ T-cell clones assayed were able to produce high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), belonging either to T helper-1 (Th1) or Th0 subsets and that some of them were cytotoxic in a specific assay

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Stacie J; Singh, Shree R; Yilma, Abebayehu N; Waffo, Alain B; Subbarayan, Praseetha; Dixit, Saurabh; Taha, Murtada A; Cambridge, Chino D; Dennis, Vida A

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) potentiates T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP), characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm), zeta potential (-14.30 mV), apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1) and interleukin (IL)-12p40 (Th1/Th17) than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2) cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgG2a (Th1) than IgG1 (Th2) rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund's adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C. trachomatis vaccine. The capacity of PLGA-rMOMP to trigger primarily Th1 immune responses in mice promotes it as a highly desirable candidate nanovaccine against C. trachomatis.

  1. Impact of combined sodium chloride and saturated long-chain fatty acid challenge on the differentiation of T helper cells in neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anna; Schliep, Anne; Jörg, Stefanie; Haghikia, Aiden; Gold, Ralf; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Müller, Dominik N; Linker, Ralf A

    2017-09-12

    There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake indeed aggravates T helper (Th) cell responses and neuroinflammation. Naïve CD4 + T cells were treated with an excess of 40 mM NaCl and/or 250 μM lauric acid (LA) in vitro to analyze effects on Th cell differentiation, cytokine secretion, and gene expression. We employed ex vivo analyses of the model disease murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to investigate whether salt and LCFA may affect disease severity and T cell activation in vivo. LCFA, like LA, together with NaCl enhance the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine and gene expression in vitro. In cell culture, we observed an additive effect of LA and hypertonic extracellular NaCl (NaCl + LA) in Th17 differentiation assays as well as on IL-17, GM-CSF, and IL-2 gene expression. In contrast, NaCl + LA reduced Th2 frequencies. We employed EAE as a model of Th1/Th17 cell-mediated autoimmunity and show that the combination of a NaCl- and LA-rich diet aggravated the disease course and increased T cell infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) to the same extent as dietary NaCl. Our findings demonstrate a partially additive effect of NaCl and LA on Th cell polarization in vitro and on Th cell responses in autoimmune neuroinflammation. These data may help to better understand the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases such as MS.

  2. Increased T-helper 17 cell differentiation mediated by exosome-mediated microRNA-451 redistribution in gastric cancer infiltrated T cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Bu, Zhouyan; Zhao, Feng; Xiao, Daping

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-451 is a cell metabolism-related miRNA that can mediate cell energy-consuming models by several targets. As miR-451 can promote mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, and increased mTOR activity is related to increased differentiation of T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, we sought to investigate whether miR-451 can redistribute from cancer cells to infiltrated T cells and enhance the distribution of Th17 cells through mTOR. Real-time PCR was used for detecting expression of miR-451 in gastric cancer, tumor infiltrated T cells and exosomes, and distribution of Th17 was evaluated by both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Immunofluorescence staining was used in monitoring the exosome-enveloped miR-451 from cancer cells to T cells with different treatments, and signaling pathway change was analyzed by western blot. miR-451 decreased significantly in gastric cancer (GC) tissues but increased in infiltrated T cells and exosomes; tumor miR-451 was negatively related to infiltrated T cells and exosome miR-451. Exosome miR-451 can not only serve as an indicator for poor prognosis of post-operation GC patients but is also related to increased Th17 distribution in gastric cancer. miR-451 can redistribute from cancer cells to T cells with low glucose treatment. Decreased 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased mTOR activity was investigated in miR-451 redistributed T cells and the Th17 polarized differentiation of these T cells were also increased. Exosome miR-451 derived from tumor tissues can serve as an indicator for poor prognosis and redistribution of miR-451 from cancer cells to infiltrated T cells in low glucose treatment can enhance Th17 differentiation by enhancing mTOR activity. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Primary cutaneous follicular helper T-cell lymphoma: a new subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma reported in a series of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Battistella, Maxime; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Bachelez, Hervé; Rivet, Jacqueline; Vergier, Béatrice; Bagot, Martine

    2012-07-01

    Peripheral nodal follicular T-cell lymphomas expressing follicular helper T-cell (T(FH)) markers have recently been identified. Such lymphomas are characterized by a nodal neoplastic T-cell proliferation accompanied by numerous reactive B cells and demonstrate some overlap with nodal angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). We identified 5 cases of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with a peculiar pathologic aspect and expression of T(FH) markers. The mean age of the patients was 61 years (range, 33-78 years). Four patients had multiple papules, plaques, and nodules predominating on the trunk and the head. One had a nodular plaque on the face. Lesional T-cell clonality was found in all 5 patients, and blood T-cell clonality in 4 of the 5. Nodal involvement was never found. Patients had no systemic symptoms and no biological signs of AITL. In 3 cases, findings from skin biopsy specimens were initially misdiagnosed as primary cutaneous follicle B-cell lymphoma due to major B-cell infiltrate and CD10 positivity. Rituximab-containing therapies were ineffective in these cases, and biopsy specimens after treatment with rituximab showed medium- to large-sized atypical T-cell skin infiltrate expressing T(FH) markers (CD10, Bcl-6, PD-1, CXCL13, and ICOS). The final diagnosis proposed for all patients was cutaneous T(FH) lymphoma. The patient with localized disease was successfully treated with radiotherapy. Patients with diffuse disease showed marked resistance to treatments, with only 1 case of complete remission after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation followed by bortezomib and donor-lymphocyte infusion. Bexarotene, methotrexate, thalidomide, interferon alfa, gemcitabine, liposomal doxorubicin, or multiagent chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) were either ineffective or induced transitory partial remission. We describe an original clinicopathologic series of primary cutaneous lymphomas with T(FH) phenotype

  4. Systemic Inflammation in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Involves Follicular T-Helper, Th17- and Activated B-Cells and Correlates with Progression

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jeppe Romme; Börnsen, Lars; Ratzer, Rikke; Piehl, Fredrik; Khademi, Mohsen; Olsson, Tomas; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Pathology studies of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) indicate a major role of inflammation including Th17-cells and meningeal inflammation with ectopic lymphoid follicles, B-cells and plasma cells, the latter indicating a possible role of the newly identified subset of follicular T-helper (TFH) cells. Although previous studies reported increased systemic inflammation in progressive MS it remains unclear whether systemic inflammation contributes to disease progression and intrathecal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate systemic inflammation in progressive MS and its relationship with disease progression, using flow cytometry and gene expression analysis of CD4+ and CD8+T-cells, B-cells, monocytes and dendritic cells. Furthermore, gene expression of cerebrospinal fluid cells was studied. Flow cytometry studies revealed increased frequencies of ICOS+TFH-cells in peripheral blood from relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive (SPMS) MS patients. All MS subtypes had decreased frequencies of Th1 TFH-cells, while primary progressive (PPMS) MS patients had increased frequency of Th17 TFH-cells. The Th17-subset, interleukin-23-receptor+CD4+T-cells, was significantly increased in PPMS and SPMS. In the analysis of B-cells, we found a significant increase of plasmablasts and DC-SIGN+ and CD83+B-cells in SPMS. ICOS+TFH-cells and DC-SIGN+B-cells correlated with disease progression in SPMS patients. Gene expression analysis of peripheral blood cell subsets substantiated the flow cytometry findings by demonstrating increased expression of IL21, IL21R and ICOS in CD4+T-cells in progressive MS. Cerebrospinal fluid cells from RRMS and progressive MS (pooled SPMS and PPMS patients) had increased expression of TFH-cell and plasmablast markers. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate the potential involvement of activated TFH-cells in MS. The increased frequencies of Th17-cells, activated TFH- and B-cells parallel findings from pathology studies

  5. Interaction between Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway and follicular helper CD4+ T cells contributes to viral persistence in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Ya; Zhang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Hong-Jie; Qin, Lei; Wang, Yan-Ping; Liu, A-Min; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Both Galectin 9 (Gal-9)/T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3) pathway and follicular helper CD4 + T (Tfh) cells play important roles in persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Thus, we aimed to investigate the regulatory role of interaction between Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway and Tfh cells in chronic hepatitis C. A total of 44 chronic hepatitis C patients and 19 normal controls (NCs) were enrolled in this study. Purified CD4 + T cells were cultured by TIM-3 Fc protein, recombinant Gal-9, or IL-21 for 48h. TIM-3 expression, Tfh proportion, and IL-21 production was measured, respectively. The immunomodulatory role of Gal-9/TIM-3 and IL-21 was also investigated in HCV cell culture system in vitro. We found that the percentage corresponding to both TIM-3-positive and CXCR5 + ICOS + Tfh cells within CD4 + T cells, which correlated with HCV RNA replication, was significantly elevated in patients with chronic hepatitis C in comparison with those in NCs. Moreover, blockade of Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway by TIM-3 Fc protein increased Tfh cells proportion, IL-21 mRNA and protein expression within purified CD4 + T cells, while activation of Gal-9/TIM-3 signaling by Gal-9 stimulation decreased IL-21 production in both patients with chronic HCV infection and healthy individuals. Meanwhile, high concentrations (100 and 200ng/mL) of IL-21 stimulation also elevated TIM-3 expression on CD4 + T cells in chronic hepatitis C. Furthermore, TIM-3 blockage and IL-21 stimulation suppressed mRNA expressions of HCV-induced antiviral proteins (myxovirus resistance A and oligoadenylate synthetase) in Huh7.5 cells without affecting viral replication in HCV cell culture system. The interaction between Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway and Tfh cells contributed to viral persistent in chronic HCV infection, which might be pivotal for development of new therapeutic approaches for chronic hepatitis C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinovitz, Stewart

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for integrated data and voice networks implemented at the University of Michigan is described. These networks often use multi-technologies, multi-vendors, and multi-transmission media that will be fused into a single integrated network. Transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber optics, and microwave. (Author/MLW)

  7. Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnanakan, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This book upholds the idea of learning and education as a means to individual development and social empowerment. It presents a holistic picture, looking at learning as an integral part of one's social and physical life. Strongly differing from existing classroom perspectives, the book analyses integrated learning at its broadest possible…

  8. Integrative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Dean

    1995-01-01

    In contrast with subject-bound education, integrative education promotes the construction of broad "mental programs" that require students to use skills and information in new, realistic contexts. Early childhood education has long been a model of integrative education, emphasizing the whole child and offering a wide range of experiences that…

  9. Meet David, Our Teacher's Helper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, William; And Others

    1984-01-01

    DAVID, Dynamic Audio Video Instructional Device, is composed of a conventional videotape recorder, a microcomputer, and a video controller, and has been successfully used for speech reading and sign language instruction with deaf students. (CL)

  10. AHSP: a novel hemoglobin helper

    PubMed Central

    Bank, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the small protein α hemoglobin–stabilizing protein (AHSP) was identified and found to specifically bind α-globin, stabilize its structure, and limit the toxic effects of excess α-globin, which are manifest in the inherited blood disorder β thalassemia. In this issue of the JCI, Yu, Weiss, and colleagues show that AHSP is also critical to the formation and stabilization of normal amounts of hemoglobin, even when α-globin is deficient, indicating unique and previously unidentified roles for this molecule (see the related article beginning on page 1856). PMID:17607349

  11. Integrated care

    PubMed Central

    Gröne, Oliver; Garcia-Barbero, Mila

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The WHO European Office for Integrated Health Care Services in Barcelona is an integral part of the World Health Organizations' Regional Office for Europe. The main purpose of the Barcelona office is within the integration of services to encourage and facilitate changes in health care services in order to promote health and improve management and patient satisfaction by working for quality, accessibility, cost-effectiveness and participation. This position paper outlines the need for Integrated Care from a European perspective, provides a theoretical framework for the meaning of Integrated Care and its strategies and summarizes the programmes of the office that will support countries in the WHO European Region to improve health services. PMID:16896400

  12. Integrative psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica

    2008-09-01

    The main purposes of the article are to present the history of integration in psychotherapy, the reasons of the development integrative approaches, and the approaches to integration in psychotherapy. Three approaches to integration in psychotherapy exist: theoretical integration, theoretical eclecticism, and common factors in different psychotherapeutic trends. In integrative psychotherapy, the basic epistemology, theory, and clinical practice are based on the phenomenology, field theory, holism, dialogue, and co-creation of dialogue in the therapeutic relationship. The main criticism is that integrative psychotherapy suffers from confusion and many unresolved controversies. It is difficult to theoretically and methodologically define the clinically applied model that is based on such a different epistemological and theoretical presumptions. Integrative psychotherapy is a synthesis of humanistic psychotherapy, object relations theory, and psychoanalytical self psychology. It focuses on the dynamics and potentials of human relationships, with a goal of changing the relations and understanding internal and external resistances. The process of integrative psychotherapy is primarily focused on the developmental-relational model and co-creation of psychotherapeutic relationship as a single interactive event, which is not unilateral, but rather a joint endeavor by both the therapist and the patient/client. The need for a relationship is an important human need and represents a process of attunement that occurs as a response to the need for a relationship, a unique interpersonal contact between two people. If this need is not met, it manifests with the different feelings and various defenses. To meet this need, we need to have another person with whom we can establish a sensitive, attuned relationship. Thus, the therapist becomes this person who tries to supplement what the person did not receive. Neuroscience can be a source of integration through different therapies. We

  13. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  14. Feedback Integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Dong Eui; Jiménez, Fernando; Perlmutter, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    A new method is proposed to numerically integrate a dynamical system on a manifold such that the trajectory stably remains on the manifold and preserves the first integrals of the system. The idea is that given an initial point in the manifold we extend the dynamics from the manifold to its ambient Euclidean space and then modify the dynamics outside the intersection of the manifold and the level sets of the first integrals containing the initial point such that the intersection becomes a unique local attractor of the resultant dynamics. While the modified dynamics theoretically produces the same trajectory as the original dynamics, it yields a numerical trajectory that stably remains on the manifold and preserves the first integrals. The big merit of our method is that the modified dynamics can be integrated with any ordinary numerical integrator such as Euler or Runge-Kutta. We illustrate this method by applying it to three famous problems: the free rigid body, the Kepler problem and a perturbed Kepler problem with rotational symmetry. We also carry out simulation studies to demonstrate the excellence of our method and make comparisons with the standard projection method, a splitting method and Störmer-Verlet schemes.

  15. Functional Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, Pierre; DeWitt-Morette, Cecile

    2006-11-01

    Acknowledgements; List symbols, conventions, and formulary; Part I. The Physical and Mathematical Environment: 1. The physical and mathematical environment; Part II. Quantum Mechanics: 2. First lesson: gaussian integrals; 3. Selected examples; 4. Semiclassical expansion: WKB; 5. Semiclassical expansion: beyond WKB; 6. Quantum dynamics: path integrals and operator formalism; Part III. Methods from Differential Geometry: 7. Symmetries; 8. Homotopy; 9. Grassmann analysis: basics; 10. Grassmann analysis: applications; 11. Volume elements, divergences, gradients; Part IV. Non-Gaussian Applications: 12. Poisson processes in physics; 13. A mathematical theory of Poisson processes; 14. First exit time: energy problems; Part V. Problems in Quantum Field Theory: 15. Renormalization 1: an introduction; 16. Renormalization 2: scaling; 17. Renormalization 3: combinatorics; 18. Volume elements in quantum field theory Bryce DeWitt; Part VI. Projects: 19. Projects; Appendix A. Forward and backward integrals: spaces of pointed paths; Appendix B. Product integrals; Appendix C. A compendium of gaussian integrals; Appendix D. Wick calculus Alexander Wurm; Appendix E. The Jacobi operator; Appendix F. Change of variables of integration; Appendix G. Analytic properties of covariances; Appendix H. Feynman's checkerboard; Bibliography; Index.

  16. Functional Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, Pierre; DeWitt-Morette, Cecile

    2010-06-01

    Acknowledgements; List symbols, conventions, and formulary; Part I. The Physical and Mathematical Environment: 1. The physical and mathematical environment; Part II. Quantum Mechanics: 2. First lesson: gaussian integrals; 3. Selected examples; 4. Semiclassical expansion: WKB; 5. Semiclassical expansion: beyond WKB; 6. Quantum dynamics: path integrals and operator formalism; Part III. Methods from Differential Geometry: 7. Symmetries; 8. Homotopy; 9. Grassmann analysis: basics; 10. Grassmann analysis: applications; 11. Volume elements, divergences, gradients; Part IV. Non-Gaussian Applications: 12. Poisson processes in physics; 13. A mathematical theory of Poisson processes; 14. First exit time: energy problems; Part V. Problems in Quantum Field Theory: 15. Renormalization 1: an introduction; 16. Renormalization 2: scaling; 17. Renormalization 3: combinatorics; 18. Volume elements in quantum field theory Bryce DeWitt; Part VI. Projects: 19. Projects; Appendix A. Forward and backward integrals: spaces of pointed paths; Appendix B. Product integrals; Appendix C. A compendium of gaussian integrals; Appendix D. Wick calculus Alexander Wurm; Appendix E. The Jacobi operator; Appendix F. Change of variables of integration; Appendix G. Analytic properties of covariances; Appendix H. Feynman's checkerboard; Bibliography; Index.

  17. Role of B7 costimulatory molecules in immune responses and T-helper cell differentiation in response to recombinant HagB from Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Martin, Michael; Yang, Qiu-Bo; Michalek, Suzanne M; Katz, Jannet

    2004-02-01

    In addition to antigen-specific signals mediated through the T-cell receptor, T cells also require antigen nonspecific costimulation for activation. The B7 family of molecules on antigen-presenting cells, which include B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), play important roles in providing costimulatory signals required for development of antigen-specific immune responses. Hemagglutinin B (HagB) is a nonfimbrial adhesin of the periodontopathic microorganism Porphyromonas gingivalis and is thought to be involved in the attachment of the bacterium to host tissues. However, the immune mechanisms involved in responses to HagB and their roles in pathogenesis have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of B7 costimulatory molecules on T-helper-cell differentiation for the induction of immune responses to HagB. Mice deficient in either or both of the costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 were used to explore their role in immune responses to HagB after subcutaneous immunization. B7-1(-/-) mice had levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-HagB antibody activity in serum similar to those of wild-type mice, whereas lower serum IgG anti-HagB antibody responses were seen in B7-2(-/-) mice. Moreover, significantly lower numbers of IgG antibody-secreting cells and lower levels of CD4(+)-T-cell proliferation were observed in B7-2(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. No serum IgG response to HagB was detected in B7-1/B7-2(-/-) mice. Analysis of the subclass of the serum IgG responses and the cytokines induced in response to HagB revealed that B7-2(-/-) mice had significantly lower IgG1 and higher IgG2a anti-HagB antibody responses compared to wild-type mice. The B7-2(-/-) mice also had significantly reduced levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 and enhanced level of gamma interferon. Furthermore, assessment of B7-1 and B7-2 expression on B cells and macrophages derived from wild-type BALB/c mice after in vitro stimulation with HagB revealed a