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Sample records for aberdeen birth cohort

  1. Season of Birth and Childhood Intelligence: Findings from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, Debbie A.; Clark, Heather; Ronalds, Georgina; Leon, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In this study, 2 main hypotheses have been put forward to explain the variation in childhood intelligence or school performance by season of birth. In the first hypothesis, it is suggested that it is due to school policy concerning school entry, whereas the second suggests that a seasonally patterned exposure such as temperature,…

  2. Births and cohort size.

    PubMed

    de Beer, J

    1991-01-01

    Ahlburg (1983, 1986) tested a simple version of Easterlin's relative-cohort-size model of fertility on the basis of U.S. and Canadian post-war data. His conclusion was that the Easterlin model fits the data very well and can therefore be used for calculating forecasts. However, the model he estimated is oversimplified. In this paper an alternative specification is presented. The model is applied to Dutch fertility data. The Easterlin effect is found to affect the movement of births in the Netherlands during the period 1950-85, but a declining long-term trend in average family size proves far more important in explaining post-war births. The model forecasts a rise of births until 2000.

  3. Cohort Profile: Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline HD

    2015-01-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997–98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6–12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up. PMID:24609067

  4. [Criminality in a birth cohort].

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, M E

    1975-01-01

    Beginning with a group of approximately 10,000 boys born in 1945 who lived in Philadelphia from at least ages ten through seventeen, the Center for Studies in Criminology and Criminal Law, University of Pennsylvania has engaged in a longitudinal analysis of the delinquency of the birth cohort. The first publication which examines the dynamic flow of delinquency committed by 3500 of the boys was published by the University of Chicago Press in 1972 and is entitled Delinquency in a Birth Cohort. This study is the first in the United States to establish a base line of delinquency probabilities and to analyze the types of delinquency committed over time, with the recording of the seriousness of each of the 10,000 acts committed by the 3500 boys. The seriousness scores were derived from the earlier work by Sellin and Wolfgang, entitle The Measurement of Delinquency. A stochastic model was used to analyze the delinquent patterns and one of the major conclusions, at least up to age eighteen, was that there was no specific delinquency specialization by type of offense. Moreover, after the third offense, the probabilities of desistence, or refraining from further delinquent acts, remained stable, thus indicating that the most propitious point for social intervention would be after the third offense rather than at some time prior to the onset of delinquency or even after the first or second offense-offenses which are usually of a very minor character. The Center for Studies in Criminology and Criminal Law has continued to follow up a ten per cent sample of the original birth cohort by interviewing them to obtain additional social psychological dynamic features of their background, of the situations involving their first and last delinquencies, and of their adult careers. The follow-up indicates thus far that approximately 12 per cent new cases of criminality appeared, thus adding to the original 35 per cent of the birth cohort who had a delinquency record. The study will

  5. A Chinese Birth Cohort: Theoretical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Paul C.; Ren, Xin; Weitekamp, Elmar; Kerner, Hans-Jurgen; Taylor, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    Research on delinquency has shown consistent results across Western industrialized countries. Few studies have been done in non-Western cultures. This study reports on the results of a birth cohort study in China, which was started by Marvin Wolfgang but never completed. The cohort, born in 1973, was traced through official and community files.…

  6. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012–13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome. PMID:25733577

  7. Cohort profile: the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936.

    PubMed

    Deary, Ian J; Gow, Alan J; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M

    2012-12-01

    This cohort profile describes the origins, tracing, recruitment, testing and follow-up of the University of Edinburgh-based Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921; N = 550) and 1936 (LBC1936; N = 1091). The participants undertook a general intelligence test at age 11 years and were recruited for these cohorts at mean ages of 79 (LBC1921) and 70 (LBC1936). The LBC1921 have been examined at mean ages of 79, 83, 87 and 90 years. The LBC1936 have been examined at mean ages of 70 and 73 years, and are being seen at 76 years. Both samples have an emphasis on the ageing of cognitive functions as outcomes. As they have childhood intelligence test scores, the cohorts' data have been used to search for determinants of lifetime cognitive changes, and also cognitive change within old age. The cohorts' outcomes also include a range of physical and psycho-social aspects of well-being in old age. Both cohorts have a wide range of variables: genome-wide genotyping, demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, cognitive functions, medical history and examination, and biomarkers (from blood and urine). The LBC1936 participants also have a detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan. A range of scientific findings is described, to illustrate the possible uses of the cohorts.

  8. Cohort Profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-01-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings [E-mail: hamigo@med.uchile.cl]. PMID:24366489

  9. Cohort profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-08-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings. PMID:24366489

  10. Does idiopathic parkinsonism in Aberdeen follow intrauterine influenza?

    PubMed Central

    Ebmeier, K P; Mutch, W J; Calder, S A; Crawford, J R; Stewart, L; Besson, J O

    1989-01-01

    A study is presented which fails to replicate a recent report that peak years of birth of patients later developing Parkinson's disease are related to the influenza pandemics of the period 1890-1930. The years of birth of a whole population cohort of 243 patients suffering from Parkinson's disease examined in Aberdeen in 1983 and reexamined in 1986/7 were compared with deaths due to influenza in the City of Aberdeen in the years 1900-1930. Although a significant peak of Parkinson births (compared with the age profile of the Aberdeen population in 1983) occurred in 1902, there appeared to be no systematic relationship between Parkinson births and influenza deaths. In addition, no season of birth effect could be detected in a comparison with 232 matched controls. The presence of peaks of birth years, for whatever aetiological reason, is of significance to epidemiological studies in that prevalence estimates may be influenced by the year of study relative to these mini-cohorts. PMID:2769287

  11. Cohort shifts in the timing of births in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oheneba-sakyi, Y

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of cohorts of ever-married Chanaian women suggests evidence of a fertility transition beginning among younger women and select subgroups. Ghana's crude birth rate declined from a high of 50/1000 population in 1970 to 38.8/1000 in 1985. To ascertain whether marital fertility is now being controlled through conscious attempts to lengthen birth intervals, World Fertility Survey data from 1979-80 on the timing of births among different birth cohorts were analyzed. It was hypothesized that, as a result of the influence of Western values that stress independence from parents and the introduction of compulsory education, cohorts of the mid-1950s and 1960s would be more likely to postpone childbearing, more active in the modern sector of the economy, and more accepting of modern contraceptive usage for birth spacing than women in the 1930-39, 1940-49, and 1950-59 cohorts. For the 1940-49 cohort, it took 10.8 months for 25% to have a birth following 1st marriage, 18.7 months for 50% to have a 1st birth, and 27.4 months for 75% to complete this step. By comparison, these figures for the 1955-64 birth cohort were 9.9, 16.7, and 20.5 months, respectively. The significantly shorter (p 0.01) interval between marriage and 1st birth found among younger women in part reflects rising age at marriage; mean age at 1st marriage was 17.9 years for the 1940 cohort and 21.6 years for the most recent cohort. After the birth of the 1st child, recent cohorts were more likely to wait longer for the 2nd birth. For women born in 1950-64, it took 21.8, 36.7, and 44.6 months for 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively, to reach parity 2. This pattern of lengthened birth interval beyond the 1st birth was apparent at all parities in the youngest cohort and indicates increasing acceptance of contraception among those who have come of age during a period of rapid social change.

  12. Grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy and grandchildren's birth weight: comparisons by grandmother birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Harlow, Siobán D; Randolph, John F

    2014-09-01

    This study examined whether grandmothers' smoking behavior during pregnancy was associated with birth weights in their grandchildren, considering possible birth cohort effects in the grandmothers' generation. The birth weights of 935 singleton children were compared by grandmothers' and mothers' smoking status during pregnancy. In 2008, women (n = 397) from the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study were interviewed about their own birth history, including whether their own mother smoked while pregnant with them, and the birth histories of their offspring. While also accounting for family clustering, linear mixed models were used to evaluate whether birth weight differences in the grandchildren were associated with grandmothers' and mothers' smoking behavior during pregnancy. Associations were compared among grandmothers born from 1904 to 1928 versus grandmothers born from 1929 to 1945 to determine potential birth cohort effects. Forty-six (5 %) grandchildren had grandmothers and mothers who smoked while pregnant, while 455 (49 %) had grandmothers and mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. After adjustment, birth weight was an average of 346 (95 % confidence interval 64-628) grams higher in grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both smoked during pregnancy relative to grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both did not smoke during pregnancy, but only among grandmothers who were born from 1929 to 1945. For grandmothers born from 1904 to 1928, grandchildren birth weights did not differ by grandmother and mother smoking status. Birth weight may be associated with grandmother and mother smoking behaviors during pregnancy, but birth cohort effects should be considered.

  13. Grandmothers’ Smoking in Pregnancy and Grandchildren’s Birth Weight: Comparisons by Grandmother Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Harlow, Siobán D.; Randolph, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether grandmothers’ smoking behavior during pregnancy was associated with birth weights in their grandchildren, considering possible birth cohort effects in the grandmothers’ generation. Methods The birth weights of 935 singleton children were compared by grandmothers’ and mothers’ smoking status during pregnancy. In 2008, women (n=397) from the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study were interviewed about their own birth history, including whether their own mother smoked while pregnant with them, and the birth histories of their offspring. While also accounting for family clustering, linear mixed models were used to evaluate whether birth weight differences in the grandchildren were associated with grandmothers’ and mothers’ smoking behavior during pregnancy. Associations were compared among grandmothers born from 1904–1928 versus grandmothers born from 1929–1945 to determine potential birth cohort effects. Results Forty-six (5%) grandchildren had grandmothers and mothers who smoked while pregnant, while 455 (49%) had grandmothers and mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. After adjustment, birth weight was an average of 346 (95% confidence interval: 64 to 628) grams higher in grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both smoked during pregnancy relative to grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both did not smoke during pregnancy, but only among grandmothers who were born from 1929–1945. For grandmothers born from 1904–1928, grandchildren birth weights did not differ by grandmother and mother smoking status. Conclusions Birth weight may be associated with grandmother and mother smoking behaviors during pregnancy, but birth cohort effects should be considered. PMID:24337862

  14. Motor disability in children in three birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Rumeau-Rouquette, C; du Mazaubrun, C; Mlika, A; Dequae, L

    1992-04-01

    A systematic registration was carried out in 1985-1986 and 1989 in 14 French 'departments' in order to assess whether the prevalence rates of different components of motor disability (MD) in three different birth cohorts (1972, 1976 and 1981) had changed at a time when the preterm birth rate and neonatal mortality were decreasing and there was evidence of changing perinatal practice. A total of 1355 MD were registered amongst resident children born in 1972, 1976 and 1981 with a prevalence of 3.34 per 1000. The prevalence of the MD types due to different causes did not differ significantly amongst the three birth cohorts with the exception of an excess of hereditary and degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) among children born in 1981. The prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) remained stable in the three birth cohorts: it was 1.30, 1.06 and 1.08 per 1000 respectively, for children born in 1972, 1976 and 1981. The prevalence of pre- or perinatal-origin of other motor disabilities (OMD) and of CNS malformations did not differ amongst the three birth cohorts. The method of registration is discussed and the results are related to those of the French perinatal surveys performed in 1972, 1976 and 1981, which showed a decrease in preterm birthrate, an increase in perinatal care and a decrease in the mortality rate of high-risk infants. PMID:1428493

  15. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alasdair; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Aim In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify birth cohort studies in sub-Saharan Africa across the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, AFRO and OpenSIGLE. A total of 8110 papers were retrieved. Application of inclusion/exclusion criteria retained only 189 papers, of which 71 met minimum quality criteria and were retained for full text analysis. Results The search revealed 28 birth cohorts: 14 of which collected biological data, 10 collected blood samples and only one study collected DNA for storage. These studies face many methodological challenges: notably, high rates of attrition and lack of funding for several rounds of study follow up. Population-based ‘biobanks’ have emerged as a major approach to harness genomic technologies in health research and yet the sub-Saharan African region still awaits large scale birth cohort biobanks collecting DNA and associated health and lifestyle data. Conclusion Investment in this field, together with related endeavours to foster and develop research capacity for these studies, may lead to an improved understanding of the determinants of intrauterine growth and development, birth outcomes such as prematurity and low birth weight, the links between maternal and infant health, survival of infectious diseases in the first years of life, and response to vaccines and antibiotic treatment. PMID:23198102

  16. Intelligence, Social Class of Origin, Childhood Behavior Disturbance and Education as Predictors of Status Attainment in Midlife in Men: The Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie; Macintyre, Sally; Batty, David G.; Clark, Heather; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    In a birth cohort of 6281 men from Aberdeen, Scotland, social class of origin, childhood intelligence, childhood behavior disturbance and education were examined as predictors of status attainment in midlife (46 to 51 years). Social class of origin, intelligence and behavior disturbance were conceptualized as correlated predictors, whose effects…

  17. Cohort profile: The Isle of Man Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Stephanie A; Rolfe, Edna M; Golding, Jean

    2013-10-01

    The Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown Dependency situated equidistantly from England, Scotland and Ireland. In 1991, its population of ∼75,000 comprised ∼50% indigenous Manx and 50% immigrants, mainly from the surrounding countries. It was invited to join the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. The aim of the study was to enrol all pregnant women resident on the Island with an expected date of delivery in the 18-month period of January 1991-June 1992. A total of 1314 livebirths formed the eligible cohort. Questionnaires were completed by mothers and their partners during pregnancy and subsequently at 6 weeks, 6 months, 18 months, 3, 5, 7 and 15/16 years. Hands-on examination of the children occurred at age 7 years, when biological samples were collected. Teachers completed questionnaires at 7 and 15 years; medical records were extracted for the obstetric and childhood periods. Response rates varied from >80% from teachers and children at 15 years to only 23% from partners when their children were aged 7 years. Selected data sets are available to collaborators, although many of the data need funds for further collaboration. PMID:23095165

  18. Surrounding Greenness and Pregnancy Outcomes in Four Spanish Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Basagaña, Xavier; Ballester, Ferran; Lertxundi, Aitana; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Estarlich, Marisa; García-Esteban, Raquel; Mendez, Michelle A.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Green spaces have been associated with improved physical and mental health; however, the available evidence on the impact of green spaces on pregnancy is scarce. Objectives: We investigated the association between surrounding greenness and birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age at delivery. Methods: This study was based on 2,393 singleton live births from four Spanish birth cohorts (Asturias, Gipuzkoa, Sabadell, and Valencia) located in two regions of the Iberian Peninsula with distinct climates and vegetation patterns (2003–2008). We defined surrounding greenness as average of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (Landsat 4–5 TM data at 30 m × 30 m resolution) during 2007 in buffers of 100 m, 250 m, and 500 m around each maternal place of residence. Separate linear mixed models with adjustment for potential confounders and a random cohort effect were used to estimate the change in birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age for 1-interquartile range increase in surrounding greenness. Results: Higher surrounding greenness was associated with increases in birth weight and head circumference [adjusted regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) of 44.2 g (20.2 g, 68.2 g) and 1.7 mm (0.5 mm, 2.9 mm) for an interquartile range increase in average NDVI within a 500-m buffer] but not gestational age. These findings were robust against the choice of the buffer size and the season of data acquisition for surrounding greenness, and when the analysis was limited to term births. Stratified analyses indicated stronger associations among children of mothers with lower education, suggesting greater benefits from surrounding greenness. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a beneficial impact of surrounding greenness on measures of fetal growth but not pregnancy length. PMID:22899599

  19. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  20. Smoking and psychopathology increasingly associated in recent birth cohorts*

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Ardesheer; Wickramaratne, Priya J; Keyes, Katherine M; Hasin, Deborah S; Levin, Frances R; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, smoking has become an increasingly non-normative behavior. Because deviant behaviors are associated with greater clinical and genetic risks, current-generation smokers may have greater concentrations of psychiatric comorbidity than previous generations. We examined this question empirically by testing whether associations between measures of smoking, psychiatric diagnoses, and riskassociated personality traits, increased across seven birth-cohorts of the 20th century. Method: 4,326 subjects from a cross-sectional NIMH control sample were categorized into one of seven groups based on birth (born before 1930, and 1930s-‘80s) and one of three smoking levels (lifetime dependent smoker, never dependent smoker, never smoker smoking and ND were assessed using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence; psychiatric diagnoses (drug and alcohol dependence, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder) using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form, and personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Result: Lifetime prevalence of smoking decreased across the seven cohorts. Associations between smoking and drug dependence, generalized anxiety, and neuroticism, as well as total psychiatric comorbidity, were greater in more recent cohorts [smoking-by-cohort interaction: p<0.01], with greatest increases contributed by nicotine-dependent smokers. Smoking was also independently associated with alcohol dependence and depression, but these associations did not significantly vary across cohorts. Conclusions: More recent generations included fewer persons who smoked, but their smoking was associated with greater psychiatric morbidity. Failure to account for systematic variation in comorbidity across smoking cohorts may lead to unwanted heterogeneity in clinical, and possibly genetic, studies of nicotine dependence. PMID:24071570

  1. Incense Burning during Pregnancy and Birth Weight and Head Circumference among Term Births: The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Le-Yu; Ho, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incense burning for rituals or religious purposes is an important tradition in many countries. However, incense smoke contains particulate matter and gas products such as carbon monoxide, sulfur, and nitrogen dioxide, which are potentially harmful to health. Objectives: We analyzed the relationship between prenatal incense burning and birth weight and head circumference at birth using the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. We also analyzed whether the associations varied by sex and along the distribution of birth outcomes. Methods: We performed ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions analysis on a sample of 15,773 term births (> 37 gestational weeks; 8,216 boys and 7,557 girls) in Taiwan in 2005. The associations were estimated separately for boys and girls as well as for the population as a whole. We controlled extensively for factors that may be correlated with incense burning and birth weight and head circumference, such as parental religion, demographics, and health characteristics, as well as pregnancy-related variables. Results: Findings from fully adjusted OLS regressions indicated that exposure to incense was associated with lower birth weight in boys (–18 g; 95% CI: –36, –0.94) but not girls (1 g; 95% CI: –17, 19; interaction p-value = 0.31). Associations with head circumference were negative for boys (–0.95 mm; 95% CI: –1.8, –0.16) and girls (–0.71 mm; 95% CI: –1.5, 0.11; interaction p-values = 0.73). Quantile regression results suggested that the negative associations were larger among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Conclusions: OLS regressions showed that prenatal incense burning was associated with lower birth weight for boys and smaller head circumference for boys and girls. The associations were more pronounced among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Further research is necessary to confirm whether incense burning has differential effects by sex. Citation: Chen LY, Ho C. 2016. Incense burning during

  2. Preterm births, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction in three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil: 1982, 1993 and 2004.

    PubMed

    Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Horta, Bernardo L; Silveira, Mariângela F; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2008-01-01

    Three birth cohort studies from 1982, 1993 and 2004, in Pelotas, Southern Brazil provided the data for this study of trends in preterm births, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. We found a slight increase in the period in the low birth weight prevalence from 9% to 10%. Intrauterine growth restriction decreased from 14.8% in 1982 to 9.4% in 1993, and subsequently increased to 12% in 2004, whereas preterm births increased markedly, from 6.3% in 1982 to 14.7% in 2004. This striking increment could not be explained by changes in maternal characteristics, as mothers in 2004 were heavier, smoked less during pregnancy and attended antenatal clinics more often and earlier than those of previous cohorts. However, pregnancy interruptions due either to caesarean sections or to inductions significantly increased. Caesareans increased from 28% in 1982 to 45% in 2004, and inductions were 2.5% in 1982 but 11.1% in 2004. The increase in preterms could be partially explained by the growing number of pregnancy interruptions, but there must be other causes since this increase was also observed among babies born by non-induced vaginal deliveries.

  3. EPIPAGE 2: a preterm birth cohort in France in 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children born at low gestational ages face a range of risks and number of neonates surviving very preterm birth is increasing. We present the objectives and methods of a French national cohort of very and moderately preterm children, the EPIPAGE 2 study. It aims to examine short- and long-term outcomes of very preterm children and their determinants. Methods/Design Eligible participants for this prospective population-based study include all infants live born or stillborn and all terminations of pregnancy between 22 and 31 completed weeks of gestation in all the maternity units in 25 French regions. In addition, a sample of moderate preterm births, i.e. births and late terminations at 32–34 weeks, was included in the same regions. In all, 7804 babies (stillbirths and live births) and terminations of pregnancy out of 8400 eligible births in France in 2011 that were either very (22–31 weeks) or moderately preterm (32–34 weeks) were included. Data on pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal events were extracted from the obstetric and neonatal records. The follow-up will collect information at corrected ages of one and 2 years and at 5, 8, and 12 years of age. Of the 4467 children discharged alive from the hospital and eligible for follow-up, 155 (4%) families refused further follow-up and 22 died before one-year of age. Finally, 4290 were included in the follow-up. Eight additional projects investigating specific hypotheses among subsamples of the cohort by collecting specific data in addition to the core cohort data are being conducted to investigate 1) diagnosis of histologic chorioamnionitis, 2) early biomarkers of child health, 3) attitudes of care for extremely preterm infants, 4) painful procedures in neonatal intensive care units, 5) neonatal MRI cerebral abnormalities and their relation to executive functions, 6) associations between early gut colonization and early and late onset diseases, 7) impact of neonatal nutrition on child development

  4. Low Birth Weight and Cognitive Outcomes: Evidence for a Gradient Relationship in an Urban, Poor, African American Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Noonan, Kelly; Martin, Roy P.

    2007-01-01

    This study is one of the first to investigate the relationship between low birth weight and cognitive outcomes in an urban, poor, prospectively designed African-American birth cohort. Multivariate analyses of the Pathways to Adulthood study, a subset of the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal study, compared low birth weight African-American…

  5. Cohort profile: cerebral palsy in the Norwegian and Danish birth cohorts (MOBAND-CP)

    PubMed Central

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg; Petersen, Tanja Gram; Moster, Dag; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Wilcox, Allen J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. Participants MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts—the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. Findings to date Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies investigating various hypotheses regarding CP aetiology are currently on-going. Future plans Additional data can be harmonised as necessary to meet requirements of new projects. Biological specimens collected during pregnancy and at delivery are potentially available for assay, as are results from assays conducted on these specimens for other projects. The study size allows consideration of CP subtypes, which is rare in aetiological studies of CP. In addition, MOBAND-CP provides a platform within the context of a merged birth cohort of exceptional size that could, after appropriate permissions have been sought, be used for cohort and case-cohort studies of other relatively rare health conditions of infants and children. PMID:27591025

  6. Survey of motivation to participate in a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Midori; Fujita, Misuzu; Mori, Chisato; Hata, Akira

    2016-09-01

    For a longitudinal prospective cohort study to be successful, participants' motivation to provide information must be maintained. Therefore, this study aimed to identify items that effectively promote participants' motivation. Questionnaires were mailed to 4541 mothers and expectant mothers in Chiba Prefecture, Japan who participated in a nationwide birth cohort. A total of 2387 (52.6%) responses were received. The following items were identified as primary motivating factors among our cohort: "benefits to the participants' children", "monetary compensation" and "contribution to a better future environment". More than 30% of the respondents expressed a lack of understanding regarding the study purpose and requirements for participation. About 14% were concerned about the leakage of personal information, and 13% felt burdened by having to make a long-term commitment to the study. Cluster analysis identified four groups, two of which, one with extremely low levels of motivation and the other motivated by only money or goods, lacked an understanding of the study and tended to be concerned about the associated risks and burdens. Participants in these groups were considered to be at a high risk of dropout. Therefore, implementing measures to provide participants with a better understanding of cohort studies could lead to more successful results.

  7. Cohort fertility in Western Europe: comparing fertility trends in recent birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Hopflinger, F

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of fertility levels among cohorts of women born in 1940, 1945, 1950, 1955, and 1960 in 16 European countries was undertaken using vital statistics data. The average number of live birth/woman for each of the 5 cohorts by age 20, 25, 30, and 35 was computed by cumulating age-specific fertility rates of women born in specific years. Median age at childbirth and completed fertility were estimated for the 3 oldest cohorts (1940, 1945, and 1950). 2 estimations of completed fertility were made. 1 was based on the assumption of a constant age-specific fertility rate, and the other was based on a relational Gompertz model. Where possible cohort fertility was disaggregated by birth order. Since the data for the countries was not fully comparable, it was not possible to use sophisticated analytical techniques. Other limits of the study were that fertility, especially for the more recent cohorts was incomplete, parity specific data was not available for all the countries, and open cohorts rather than closed cohorts were used. The analysis indicated that completed cohort fertility was lower for the 1950 cohort than for the 1940 cohort in all 16 countries. For the 1940 cohort, only Germany's estimated completed fertility was less than 2.00. For the other 15 countries, estimated completed fertility ranged from 2.04 (Finland) to 3.36 (Ireland). For the 1950 cohort, estimated completed fertility was less than 2.00 in 8 of the countries. Estimated completed fertility was lowest in Finland and Switzerland (1.82) and highest in Ireland (3.33). No marked increase in childlessness was observed, and for the 1940 and 1950 cohorts, childlessness did not exceed 20% in any of the countries and was considerably less than 20% in most of the countries. There was a trend toward delayed childbearing in most of the countries. An examination of available parity data for the 1940 and 1950 cohorts lead to the conclusion that the major factor contributing toward the decline in

  8. Characterization of Dietary Patterns in the Danish National Birth Cohort in Relation to Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns better reflect eating habits as opposed to single dietary components. However, the use of dietary pattern analysis in nutritional epidemiology has been hampered by the complexity of interpreting and presenting multidimensional dietary data. Methods This study extracts and visualizes dietary patterns from self-reported dietary data collected in mid-pregnancy (25th week of gestation) from nearly 60,000 mother-child pairs part of a prospective, longitudinal cohort (Danish National Birth Cohort) and further examines their associations with spontaneous and induced preterm birth (gestational age<259 days (<37 weeks)). Results A total of seven dietary patterns were extracted by principal component analysis, characterized and visualized by color-coded spider plots, and referred to as: Vegetables/Prudent, Alcohol, Western, Nordic, Seafood, Candy and Rice/Pasta/Poultry. A consistent dose-response association with preterm birth was only observed for Western diet with an odds ratio of 1.30 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.49) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile. This association was primarily driven by induced preterm deliveries (odds ratio = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.11, comparing the highest to the lowest quintile) while the corresponding odds ratio for spontaneous preterm deliveries was more modest (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.39). All based on adjusted analyses. Conclusions In conclusion, this study presented a simple and novel framework for visualizing correlation structures between overall consumption of foods group and their relation to nutrient intake and maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that Western-type diet, high in meat and fats and low in fruits and vegetables, is associated with increased odds of induced preterm birth. PMID:24747715

  9. Status relations in school and their relevance for health in a life course perspective: findings from the Aberdeen children of the 1950's cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Viveca; Modin, Bitte

    2008-02-01

    In the class room a hierarchical structure of social relations typically develops in which the child's position is a marker of the view of the others, i.e. the extent to which he or she is an accepted and valued member of the group. The status distribution in the school class is likely to correspond to differences in personal characteristics, including behaviours and competencies, and to generate a differential distribution of perceived expectations, treatment, resources and emotions. We argue that these phenomena constitute parts in a developmental process which, through mediators such as self-view and subsequent life choices, may affect adult health. The purpose of this paper is to study whether and how peer status is associated with self-reported health in mid-life. Data was derived from a cohort study of individuals born in Aberdeen, Scotland, between 1950 and 1956. We use information about childhood circumstances, including peer status nominations, collected in the early 1960s, and information about adult circumstances derived from a postal questionnaire carried out among more than 6,000 individuals in 2001-2003. Multivariate analyses yielded a graded association between peer status and adult health problems in the form of limiting longstanding illness and less than good self-rated health. These associations could not be explained by socioeconomic circumstances or differences in individual behaviour and cognitive score in childhood. It was rather subsequent socioeconomic career that seemed to explain the association found among men. For women, a significant association remained, suggesting alternative pathways or mechanisms. PMID:18158207

  10. Cohort Profile update: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort follow-up visits in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria CF; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana MB

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we update the profile of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, with emphasis on a shift of priority from maternal and child health research topics to four main categories of outcome variables, collected throughout adolescence: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); (iv) human capital. We were able to trace 81.3% (n = 4106) of the original cohort at 18 years of age. For the first time, the 18-years visit took place entirely on the university premises, in a clinic equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for the assessment of body composition. We welcome requests for data analyses from outside scientists. For more information, refer to our website (http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.projetos_de_pesquisas/estudos/coorte_1993) or e-mail the corresponding author. PMID:24729426

  11. Infertility, infertility treatment, and congenital malformations: Danish national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether infertile couples (with a time to pregnancy of > 12 months), who conceive naturally or after treatment, give birth to children with an increased prevalence of congenital malformations. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Danish national birth cohort. Participants Three groups of liveborn children and their mothers: 50 897 singletons and 1366 twins born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy ≤ 12 months), 5764 singletons and 100 twins born of infertile couples who conceived naturally (time to pregnancy > 12 months), and 4588 singletons and 1690 twins born after infertility treatment. Main outcome measures Prevalence of congenital malformations determined from hospital discharge diagnoses. Results Compared with singletons born of fertile couples, singletons born of infertile couples who conceived naturally or after treatment had a higher prevalence of congenital malformations—hazard ratios 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.35) and 1.39 (1.23 to 1.57). The overall prevalence of congenital malformations increased with increasing time to pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to singletons born of infertile couples, babies born after treatment had an increased prevalence of genital organ malformations (hazard ratio 2.32, 1.24 to 4.35) compared with babies conceived naturally. No significant differences existed in the overall prevalence of congenital malformations among twins. Conclusions Hormonal treatment for infertility may be related to the occurrence of malformations of genital organs, but our results suggest that the reported increased prevalence of congenital malformations seen in singletons born after assisted reproductive technology is partly due to the underlying infertility or its determinants. The association between untreated infertility and congenital malformations warrants further examination. PMID:16893903

  12. Norovirus Gastroenteritis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Vipin Kumar; George, Santosh; Sarkar, Rajiv; Giri, Sidhartha; Samuel, Prasanna; Vivek, Rosario; Saravanabavan, Anuradha; Liakath, Farzana Begum; Ramani, Sasirekha; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Gray, James J.; Brown, David W.; Estes, Mary K.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis but little is known about disease and re-infection rates in community settings in Asia. Methods Disease, re-infection rates, strain prevalence and genetic susceptibility to noroviruses were investigated in a birth cohort of 373 Indian children followed up for three years. Stool samples from 1856 diarrheal episodes and 147 vomiting only episodes were screened for norovirus by RT-PCR. Norovirus positivity was correlated with clinical data, secretor status and ABO blood group. Results Of 1856 diarrheal episodes, 207 (11.2%) were associated with norovirus, of which 49(2.6%) were norovirus GI, 150(8.1%) norovirus GII, and 8 (0.4%) were mixed infections with both norovirus GI and GII. Of the 147 vomiting only episodes, 30 (20.4%) were positive for norovirus in stool, of which 7 (4.8%) were norovirus GI and 23 (15.6%) GII. At least a third of the children developed norovirus associated diarrhea, with the first episode at a median age of 5 and 8 months for norovirus GI and GII, respectively. Norovirus GI.3 and GII.4 were the predominant genotypes (40.3% and 53.0%) with strain diversity and change in the predominant sub-cluster over time observed among GII viruses. A second episode of norovirus gastroenteritis was documented in 44/174 (25.3%) ever-infected children. Children with the G428A homozygous mutation for inactivation of the FUT2 enzyme (se428se428) were at a significantly lower risk (48/190) of infection with norovirus (p = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report of norovirus documenting disease, re-infection and genetic susceptibility in an Asian birth cohort. The high incidence and apparent lack of genogroupII specific immunity indicate the need for careful studies on further characterization of strains, asymptomatic infection and shedding and immune response to further our understanding of norovirus infection and disease. PMID:27284939

  13. 15. OLD ROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN (EAST ABERDEEN) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OLD ROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN (EAST ABERDEEN) One mile E of Aberdeen, 1000 ft. N of (1978) U.S. 45 bridge. Oblique view of bridge, in early 1900s. Credit: Evans Memorial Library, Aberdeen, MS. No date. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  14. Diet and glycosylated haemoglobin in the 1946 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Prynne, CJ; Mander, A; Wadsworth, MEJ; Stephen, AM

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Raised glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration is a recognised risk factor for diabetes the incidence of which is rising world-wide. The intake of certain foods has been related to HbA1c concentration . The aim of this study was to investigate whether nutrient intake, sourced by these foods, was predictive of raised glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration in a British cohort. Subjects/methods: The subjects were 495 men and 570 women who were members of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, 1946 birth cohort. Diet was assessed from 5-day records in 1982, 1989 and 1999. HbA1c was measured in blood samples collected in 1999. Individuals in whom concentration of HbA1c was ≥ 6.3% were identified as being “at risk” and their nutrient intake was compared to those whose concentration of HbA1c was within the normal range (≤6.2%). Results: Lower intakes of protein, carbohydrate, non-starch polysaccharide, iron, folate, vitamin B12 and a higher percentage energy from fat in 1989 were significantly predictive of high HbA1c status in 1999. In 1999 there were no nutrient intakes that were predictive of HbA1c status. Global tests of whether the intakes of energy, carbohydrate, sodium, iron, riboflavin and vitamin B12 at all three time-points were related to HbA1c status in 1999, were significant. Conclusion: An increased intake of energy, carbohydrate, sodium, iron, riboflavin and vitamin B12 over 10 years was predictive of raised HbA1c status. Increased energy intake may have resulted in the increase in body weight that is a risk factor for diabetes. PMID:19550434

  15. [Proportional hazards model of birth intervals among marriage cohorts since the 1960s].

    PubMed

    Otani, K

    1987-01-01

    With a view to investigating the possibility of an attitudinal change towards the timing of 1st and 2nd births, proportional hazards model analysis of the 1st and 2nd birth intervals and univariate life table analysis were both carried out. Results showed that love matches and conjugal families immediately after marriage are accompanied by a longer 1st birth interval than others, even after controlling for other independent variables. Marriage cohort analysis also shows a net effect on the relative risk of having a 1st birth. Marriage cohorts since the mid-1960s demonstrate a shorter 1st birth interval than the 1961-63 cohort. With regard to the 2nd birth interval, longer 1st birth intervals, arranged marriages, conjugal families immediately following marriage, and higher ages at 1st marriage of women tended to provoke a longer 2nd birth interval. There is no interaction between the 1st birth interval and marriage cohort. Once other independent variables were controlled, with the exception of the marriage cohorts of the early 1970s, the authors found no effect of marriage cohort on the relative risk of having a 2nd birth. This suggests that an attitudinal change towards the timing of births in this period was mainly restricted to that of a 1st birth. Fluctuations in the 2nd birth interval during the 1970-72 marriage cohort were scrutinized in detail. As a result, the authors found that conjugal families after marriage, wives with low educational status, women with husbands in white collar professions, women with white collar fathers, and wives with high age at 1st marriage who married during 1970-72 and had a 1st birth interval during 1972-74 suffered most from the pronounced rise in the 2nd birth interval. This might be due to the relatively high sensitivity to a change in socioeconomic status; the oil crisis occurring around the time of marriage and 1st birth induced a delay in the 2nd birth. The unanimous decrease in the 2nd birth interval among the 1973

  16. Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kummeling, Ischa; Thijs, Carel; Penders, John; Snijders, Bianca E P; Stelma, Foekje; Reimerink, Johan; Koopmans, Marion; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Huber, Machteld; Jansen, Margje C J F; de Bie, Rob; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora composition, infections during the first year of life, and gene-environment interaction). The recruitment of pregnant women started in October 2000. First, participants with 'conventional lifestyles' (n = 2343) were retrieved from an ongoing prospective cohort study (n = 7020) on pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. In addition, pregnant women (n = 491) with 'alternative lifestyles' with regard to child rearing practices, dietary habits (organic, vegetarian), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics, were recruited through organic food shops, anthroposophic doctors and midwives, Steiner schools, and dedicated magazines. All participants were enrolled between 14 and 18 wk of gestation and completed an intake questionnaire on family history of atopy and infant care intentions. Documentation of other relevant variables started in the pregnant mother and covered the first and third trimester as well as early childhood by repeated questionnaires at 14-18, 30, and 34 wk of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months post-partum. A subgroup of participants, including both conventional and alternative lifestyles, was asked to consent to maternal blood sampling, breast milk and a faecal sample of the infant at 1 month post-partum, capillary blood at age 1 yr, venous blood and observation of manifestation of atopic dermatitis during home visits at the age of 2 yr (using the UK working party criteria and the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index), and buccal swabs for DNA isolation from child-parent trios. From the start, ethical approval and informed consent procedures included gene-environment interaction studies. Follow-up at 3 and 7 months post-partum was completed with

  17. Cohort trends in premarital first births: what role for the retreat from marriage?

    PubMed

    England, Paula; Wu, Lawrence L; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2013-12-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women's years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a "shotgun marriage"). For women born between 1920-1924 and 1945-1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945-1949 and 1960-1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions-a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning "marriageable" men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth.

  18. Cohort Trends in Premarital First Births: What Role for the Retreat From Marriage?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lawrence L.; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2015-01-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women’s years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a “shotgun marriage”). For women born between 1920–1924 and 1945–1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945–1949 and 1960–1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions—a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning “marriageable” men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth. PMID:24072609

  19. Birth Weights in Sickle Cell Disease Pregnancies: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Susan E.; Macleod, David

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) has been linked with an increased incidence of adverse foetal outcomes when compared to women without haemoglobinopathies (HbAA). There’s a paucity of data into foetal outcomes for infants born to women with SCD. Customised growth charts have been demonstrated to be better than population-based growth charts at identifying unhealthy small babies. We analysed the mean birth weight and customised birth weight centiles of infants born to mothers with SCD versus mothers with HbAA genotype, to quantify the risk of having a smaller baby. Birth weight and birth weight centiles were analysed for 88 women with SCD (50 HbSS; 38 HbSC) and 176 controls (HbAA). Statistically significant differences were seen in the mean birth weight (P value = 0.004) and the mean birth weight centiles (P value = 0.016). We conclude that SCD is a risk factor for having a smaller baby. PMID:27776167

  20. Birth cohort effects on adolescent alcohol use: The influence of social norms from 1976-2007

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Context The substantial changes adolescent alcohol use prevalence over time suggests that population-level environmental factors are important determinants of use, yet the potential influence of such environmental factors is inadequately understood. Objective The present study investigated whether adolescents in birth cohorts and/or time periods characterized by restrictive social norms towards alcohol were at decreased risk for alcohol use and binge drinking, controlling for individual attitudes (disapproval) towards use. Design Aggregated data from thirty-two annual national surveys of U.S. high school students. Participants A total of 1,032,052 students contributed data from 1976 through 2007. Exposure The social norm was measured by creating scores for each time period and birth cohort indicating the proportion disapproving of weekend binge drinking. Outcomes Frequency of past-year alcohol use and any instance of binge drinking (5+ drinks) in the past two-weeks, analyzed using multi-level models clustering individuals within time periods and birth cohorts. Period- and cohort-specific social norm scores were modeled as predictors, controlling for individual attitudes and demographics. Results Individuals who matured in birth cohorts with more restrictive social norms were less likely to use alcohol compared to individuals who matured in cohorts with more permissive norms; each 5% increase in the cohort-specific disapproval was associated with a 12% decrease in the odds of past-year alcohol use (OR=0.88, 99% C.I. 0.87-0.89). The effects of cohort-specific disapproval were notably stronger among White than non-White adolescents. Conclusions The present study documents the importance of considering time-varying population-level risk factors in the study of adolescent alcohol use, and indicates that even after an individual’s personal attitudes are accounted for, risk is shaped by cohort effects whereby the norms within the cohort contribute to the risk of

  1. Prenatal Ambient Air Pollution, Placental Mitochondrial DNA Content, and Birth Weight in the INMA (Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (Belgium) Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Diana B.P.; Casas, Maribel; Vilahur, Nadia; Begiristain, Haizea; Bustamante, Mariona; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Fernández, Mariana F.; Fierens, Frans; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Iñiguez, Carmen; Janssen, Bram G.; Lefebvre, Wouter; Llop, Sabrina; Olea, Nicolás; Pedersen, Marie; Pieters, Nicky; Santa Marina, Loreto; Souto, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondria are sensitive to environmental toxicants due to their lack of repair capacity. Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content may represent a biologically relevant intermediate outcome in mechanisms linking air pollution and fetal growth restriction. Objective: We investigated whether placental mtDNA content is a possible mediator of the association between prenatal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure and birth weight. Methods: We used data from two independent European cohorts: INMA (n = 376; Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (n = 550; Belgium). Relative placental mtDNA content was determined as the ratio of two mitochondrial genes (MT-ND1 and MTF3212/R3319) to two control genes (RPLP0 and ACTB). Effect estimates for individual cohorts and the pooled data set were calculated using multiple linear regression and mixed models. We also performed a mediation analysis. Results: Pooled estimates indicated that a 10-μg/m3 increment in average NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with a 4.9% decrease in placental mtDNA content (95% CI: –9.3, –0.3%) and a 48-g decrease (95% CI: –87, –9 g) in birth weight. However, the association with birth weight was significant for INMA (–66 g; 95% CI: –111, –23 g) but not for ENVIRONAGE (–20 g; 95% CI: –101, 62 g). Placental mtDNA content was associated with significantly higher mean birth weight (pooled analysis, interquartile range increase: 140 g; 95% CI: 43, 237 g). Mediation analysis estimates, which were derived for the INMA cohort only, suggested that 10% (95% CI: 6.6, 13.0 g) of the association between prenatal NO2 and birth weight was mediated by changes in placental mtDNA content. Conclusion: Our results suggest that mtDNA content can be one of the potential mediators of the association between prenatal air pollution exposure and birth weight. Citation: Clemente DB, Casas M, Vilahur N, Begiristain H, Bustamante M, Carsin AE, Fernández MF, Fierens F, Gyselaers W, Iñiguez C, Janssen BG

  2. Birth cohort and the specialization gap between same-sex and different-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples. PMID:24585040

  3. Birth cohort and the specialization gap between same-sex and different-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples.

  4. Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Maternal Serum and Indices of Fetal Growth: The Aarhus Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn; Matthiesen, Niels Bjerregård; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicated an association between intrauterine exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and lower birth weight. However, these perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have to some extent been substituted by other compounds on which little is known. Objectives: We investigated the association between specific PFAAs and birth weight, birth length, and head circumference at birth. Methods: We studied 1,507 mothers and their children from the Aarhus Birth Cohort (2008–2013). Nulliparous women were included during pregnancy, and serum levels of 16 PFAAs were measured between 9 and 20 completed gestational weeks (96% within 13 weeks). For compounds with quantifiable values in > 50% of samples (7 compounds), we report the associations with birth weight, birth length, and head circumference at birth determined by multivariable linear regression. Results: Estimated mean birth weights were lower among women with serum perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluoroheptane sulfonate, and PFOS concentrations above the lowest exposure quartile, but we found no consistent monotonic dose–response patterns. These associations were stronger when the population was restricted to term births (n = 1,426). For PFOS, the birth weight estimates for the highest versus lowest quartile were –50 g (95% CI: –123, 23 g) in all births and –62 g (95% CI: –126, 3 g) in term births. For the other PFAAs, the direction of the associations was inconsistent, and no overall association with birth weight was apparent. No PFAAs were associated with birth length or head circumference at birth. Conclusions: Overall, we did not find strong or consistent associations between PFAAs and birth weight or other indices of fetal growth, though estimated mean birth weights were lower among those with exposures above the lowest quartile for some compounds. Citation: Bach CC, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Olsen J, Matthiesen NB, Bonefeld-Jørgensen EC, Bossi R, Henriksen TB

  5. Mortality of an asbestos-exposed birth cohort. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reid, G; Kielkowski, D; Steyn, S D; Botha, K

    1990-11-17

    A pilot study on the health effects of environmental exposure to asbestos (in particular the development of mesothelioma) is almost complete. This is a record linkage study, using birth and death records as the primary sources of data. The vital status and, if applicable, the cause of death was examined for each of the 1227 members of the 'pilot' cohort (birth years 1932-1936). Preliminary results are presented. Eighty-seven per cent (399) of the white cohort members have been traced and the vital status of each has been determined. Sixty-six whites have died, 6 from mesothelioma. It is almost impossible to trace the black and coloured cohort members and the main study, covering the years of birth 1917-1936, may have to be restricted to whites.

  6. Age, Birth Cohorts, and Drinking: An Illustration of the Hazards of Inferring Effects from Cohort Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Norval D.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes problems in the use of cohort data as illustrated by cohort data on drinking alcoholic beverages taken from American national surveys conducted during the late 1950s, late 1960s, and late 1970s. Researchers are cautioned that all available "side information" should be considered before statistical cohort models are tested. (Author/RC)

  7. Association between In Utero arsenic exposure, placental gene expression, and infant birth weight: a US birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies and animal models suggest that in utero arsenic exposure affects fetal health, with a negative association between maternal arsenic ingestion and infant birth weight often observed. However, the molecular mechanisms for this association remain elusive. In the present study, we aimed to increase our understanding of the impact of low-dose arsenic exposure on fetal health by identifying possible arsenic-associated fetal tissue biomarkers in a cohort of pregnant women exposed to arsenic at low levels. Methods Arsenic concentrations were determined from the urine samples of a cohort of 133 pregnant women from New Hampshire. Placental tissue samples collected from enrollees were homogenized and profiled for gene expression across a panel of candidate genes, including known arsenic regulated targets and genes involved in arsenic transport, metabolism, or disease susceptibility. Multivariable adjusted linear regression models were used to examine the relationship of candidate gene expression with arsenic exposure or with birth weight of the baby. Results Placental expression of the arsenic transporter AQP9 was positively associated with maternal urinary arsenic levels during pregnancy (coefficient estimate: 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.05 – 0.45). Placental expression of AQP9 related to expression of the phospholipase ENPP2 which was positively associated with infant birth weight (coefficient estimate: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09 – 0.47). A structural equation model indicated that these genes may mediate arsenic’s effect on infant birth weight (coefficient estimate: -0.009; 95% confidence interval: -0.032 – -0.001; 10,000 replications for bootstrapping). Conclusions We identified the expression of AQP9 as a potential fetal biomarker for arsenic exposure. Further, we identified a positive association between the placental expression of phospholipase ENPP2 and infant birth weight. These findings suggest a path by which arsenic may affect

  8. Birth Outcomes in a Prospective Pregnancy–Birth Cohort Study of Environmental Risk Factors in Kuwait: The TRACER Study

    PubMed Central

    AlSeaidan, Mohammad; Al Wotayan, Rihab; Christophi, Costas A.; Al-Makhseed, Massouma; Awad, Yara Abu; Nassan, Feiby; Ahmed, Ayah; Abraham, Smitha; Boley, Robert Bruce; James-Todd, Tamarra; Wright, Rosalind J.; Dockery, Douglas W.; Behbehani, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid development and westernisation in Kuwait and other Gulf states have been accompanied by rising rates of obesity, diabetes, asthma, and other chronic conditions. Prenatal experiences and exposures may be important targets for intervention. We undertook a prospective pregnancy–birth cohort study in Kuwait, the TRansgenerational Assessment of Children’s Environmental Risk (TRACER) Study, to examine prenatal risk factors for early childhood obesity. This article describes the methodology and results of follow-up through birth. Methods Women were recruited at antenatal clinical visits. Interviewers administered questionnaires during the pregnancy and collected and banked biological samples. Children are being followed up with quarterly maternal interviews, annual anthropometric measurements, and periodic collection of biosamples. Frequencies of birth outcomes (i.e. stillbirth, preterm birth, small and large for gestational age, and macrosomia) were calculated as a function of maternal characteristics and behaviours. Results Two thousand four hundred seventy-eight women were enrolled, and 2254 women were followed to delivery. Overall, frequencies of stillbirth (0.6%), preterm birth (9.3%), and small for gestational age (7.4%) were comparable to other developed countries, but not strongly associated with maternal characteristics or behaviours. Macrosomia (6.1%) and large for gestational age (23.0%) were higher than expected and positively associated with pre-pregnancy maternal overweight/obesity. Conclusions A large birth cohort has been established in Kuwait. The collected risk factors and banked biosamples will allow examination of the effects of prenatal exposures on the development of chronic disease in children. Initial results suggest that maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be targeted to prevent macrosomia and its associated sequelae of childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:27193754

  9. Associations of birth defects with adult intellectual performance, disability and mortality: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eide, Martha G; Skjaerven, Rolv; Irgens, Lorentz M; Bjerkedal, Tor; Oyen, Nina

    2006-06-01

    Infants born with birth defects have poorer outcomes in terms of mortality and disability, but the long-term intellectual outcome in children with birth defects is generally unknown. We assessed the long-term associations of various birth defects with mortality and disability, and evaluated whether high mortality and disability were reflected in impaired intellectual performance at age 18. In this nationwide cohort study, records of 9,186 males with and 384,384 without birth defects, registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-1979) were linked to the National Conscript Service (1984-1999). Mortality and disability before military draft, and intelligence test score at conscription were the main outcome measures. Males with birth defects had a relative risk for disability of 6.0 compared with males without defects. Disability was low within categories of birth defects associated with low mortality, and high within defect categories associated with high mortality. The relative risk for not being drafted was highest if maternal educational level was low. Heart defects and cleft palate were the only subgroups in which intellectual performance was lower after adjustment for maternal education, maternal age, marital status and birth order. In particular, intellectual performance was not impaired among those with multiple compared with single defects. We conclude that for the majority of birth defect categories in the present birth cohort, our hypothesis that intellectual performance would be impaired was not confirmed. Thus, there seems to be little reason to fear an adverse intellectual outcome in non-disabled surviving infants with birth defects.

  10. Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children's health: cohort profile--updated 2013.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

    2013-11-01

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic

  11. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: report of a NIAID/NHLBI/MeDALL joint workshop.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Jean; Gern, James E; Martinez, Fernando D; Anto, Josep M; Johnson, Christine C; Holt, Patrick G; Lemanske, Robert F; Le Souëf, Peter N; Tepper, Robert S; von Mutius, Erika R M; Arshad, S Hasan; Bacharier, Leonard B; Becker, Allan; Belanger, Kathleen; Bergström, Anna; Bernstein, David I; Cabana, Michael D; Carroll, Kecia N; Castro, Mario; Cooper, Philip J; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; Henderson, John; Heinrich, Joachim; Hong, Soo-Jong; Jackson, Daniel J; Keil, Thomas; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Miller, Rachel L; Momas, Isabelle; Morgan, Wayne J; Noel, Patricia; Ownby, Dennis R; Pinart, Mariona; Ryan, Patrick H; Schwaninger, Julie M; Sears, Malcolm R; Simpson, Angela; Smit, Henriette A; Stern, Debra A; Subbarao, Padmaja; Valenta, Rudolf; Wang, Xiaobin; Weiss, Scott T; Wood, Robert; Wright, Anne L; Wright, Rosalind J; Togias, Alkis; Gergen, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. More than 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL; Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, Maryland, on September 11-12, 2012, with 3 objectives: (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies, and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development, and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This article presents the workgroup reports and provides Web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu), where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, the type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts.

  12. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: Report of a NIAID, NHLBI, MeDALL joint workshop

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, J; Gern, JE; Martinez, FD; Anto, JM; Johnson, CC; Holt, PG; Lemanske, RF; Le Souef, PN; Tepper, R; von Mutius, ERM; Arshad, SH; Bacharier, LB; Becker, A; Belanger, K; Bergstrom, A; Bernstein, D; Cabana, MD; Carroll, KN; Castro, M; Cooper, PJ; Gillman, MW; Gold, DR; Henderson, J; Heinrich, J; S-J, Hong; Jackson, DJ; Keil, T; Kozyrskyj, AL; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Miller, RL; Momas, I; Morgan, WJ; Noel, P; Ownby, DR; Pinart, M; Ryan, P; Schwaninger, JM; Sears, MR; Simpson, A; Smit, HA; Stern, D; Subbarao, P; Valenta, R; Wang, X; Weiss, ST; Wood, R; Wright, AL; Wright, RJ; Togias, A; Gergen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. Over 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), NHLBI (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute), MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy, Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, MD, USA September 11–12, 2012 with 3 objectives (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This manuscript presents the workgroup reports and provides web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu) where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts. PMID:24636091

  13. Consanguinity and Birth Defects in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harlap, S.; Kleinhaus, K.; Perrin, M.C.; Calderon-Margalit, R.; Paltiel, O.; Deutsch, L.; Manor, O.; Tiram, E.; Yanetz, R.; Friedlander, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background While parental consanguinity is known to increase the risk of birth defects in offspring, it is hard to quantify this risk in populations where consanguinity is prevalent. Methods To support ongoing studies of cancer and of psychiatric disease, we studied relationships of consanguinity to 1,053 major birth defects in 29,815 offspring, born in 1964–1976. To adjust for confounding variables (geographic origin, social class and hospital), we constructed logistic regression models, using GEE to take into account correlations between sibs. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence limits were estimated in comparison to a reference group of offspring with grandfathers born in different countries. Results With 10.1% of offspring having consanguineous parents, the adjusted OR for major birth defect was 1.41 (1.12–1.74). Offspring of marriages between uncles-nieces, first cousins and more distant relatives showed adjusted ORs of 2.36 (0.98–5.68), 1.59 (1.22–2.07) and 1.20 (0.89–1.59) respectively. For descendents of grandfathers born in the same country, but not known to be related, the OR was 1.05 (0.91–1.21); these showed increased risk associated with ancestries in Western Asia (1.27, 1.04–1.55, p < 0.02) or Europe (1.13, 0.79–1.80). Conclusions A strong association of consanguinity with poverty and low education points to the need to avoid exposure to environmental hazards in these families. PMID:18493143

  14. Birth Cohort Change in the Vocational Interests of Female and Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubany, Shawn T.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent to which vocational interests have changed across birth cohorts of college students to better understand how socio-cultural factors may have an impact on career development. Using meta-analytic data collection methods, dissertations and journal articles presenting interests scores…

  15. Birth Cohort Changes in Chinese College Students' Loneliness and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Sufei; Xin, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    With the dramatic recent changes in Chinese society, Chinese college students' average levels of loneliness and social support might also have changed across their birth cohorts. The present cross-temporal meta-analysis of 56 studies (N = 21,541) found that Chinese college students' scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3) increased…

  16. Vision and Intelligence at Age 83 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ross D.; Allerhand, Michael; Patton, Niall; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which visual function, measured as near and distant visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, is correlated with concurrently measured cognitive function and prior intellectual ability was investigated in a narrow age range group known as the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921 (LBC1921). Participants were aged approximately 83 years at the…

  17. Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…

  18. Epidemiology of Infantile Autism in Southern Ibaraki, Japan: Differences in Prevalence in Birth Cohorts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanoue, Yoko; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on an observational study of children (ages 3-7) screened at a child guidance center in Japan, the prevalence rate of infantile autism in each one-year birth cohort (1972-1978) fluctuated in a four-year cycle which was closely correlated with the number of children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract diseases. (JW)

  19. Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used data from a large longitudinal birth cohort study of primarily low-income children in urban areas, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), to investigate the effects of Head Start participation on children's school readiness. The fact that their sample was mainly made up of disadvantaged families…

  20. Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social…

  1. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  2. Partner Violence and Mental Health Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Ridder, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and extent of domestic violence and the consequences of domestic violence for mental health outcomes in a birth cohort of New Zealand young adults studied at age 25 years. A total of 828 young people (437 women and 391 men) were interviewed about the domestic violence victimization and violence perpetration in…

  3. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection and congenital birth defects: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hershko-Klement, A; Sukenik-Halevy, R; Biron Shental, T; Miller, N; Berkovitz, A

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to study the birth defect rates in intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) pregnancies. A cohort of couples presenting male factor infertility between January 2006 and January 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. Discharge letters and a telephone interview were performed for assessing pregnancy outcome. All clinical data were reviewed by a board certified medical geneticist. Main outcomes were fetal/birth defect and chromosomal abnormality rates. Two thousand two hundred and fifty-eight pregnancies were available for analysis, of them, 1669 (73.9%) resulting from ICSI and 2258 (26.1%) achieved by IMSI. Pregnancy outcome distribution did not show a significant difference. For the fresh embryo transfer cohort, fetal/birth defect rate was 4.5%, chromosomal aberration rate was 1.0%, and structural malformation rate was 3.5%. IMSI vs. ICSI pregnancies were less likely to involve a fetal/birth defect: 3.5% vs. 4.8%, respectively, but did not reach a statistical significance OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.39-1.22). Split by multiplicity, this trend existed only for singleton pregnancies; 1.4% structural malformations rate vs. 3.8%, respectively, OR 0.35 (95% CI 0.11-0.9). The frozen cohort demonstrated a significantly lower birth defect rate (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.58). We conclude that IMSI procedure does not involve an increased malformation rate and may offer a reduced anomaly incidence. Further studies are required.

  4. TP53 gene polymorphism: importance to cancer, ethnicity and birth weight in a Brazilian cohort.

    PubMed

    Thurow, Helena S; Haack, Ricardo; Hartwig, Fernando P; Oliveira, Isabel O De; Dellagostin, Odir A; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Collares, Tiago; Seixas, Fabiana K

    2011-12-01

    Arg72Pro SNP of p53 has been associated with many types of cancer as well as with survival and longevity. We evaluated the Arg72Pro SNP frequencies of a Brazilian birth cohort and their association with current, demographic and birth epidemiological parameters available. In 1982, all hospital births of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and studied prospectively. In 2004-5, blood samples were collected and DNA extracted. PCR-RFLP was used to genotype the Arg72Pro SNP in 3794 individual samples of the Brazil birth cohort and DNA sequencing was performed to confirm the genotypes. The genotype distribution, which was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, showed a predominance of the arginine amino acid with a frequency of 46.9% Arg/Arg, 42.2% Arg/Pro and 10.9% Pro/Pro. The allele frequency was 0.68 of Arginine and 0.32 of Proline. The Arg72Pro SNP genotype and allelic frequency were related to skin colour where proline amino acid was observed more among black subjects, while arginine amino acid was observed more among white subjects. The individuals without family history of cancer and those with low birth weight were associated with arginine amino acid. The Arg72Pro SNP was strongly associated with important epidemiological variables confirming that genetic profiles on cohort studies can improve our understanding of the susceptibility of diseases and its risk factors.

  5. Genotype × Cohort Interaction on Completed Fertility and Age at First Birth

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Daniel A.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    Microevolutionary projections use empirical estimates of genetic covariation between physical or psychological phenotypes and reproductive success to forecast changes in the population distributions of those phenotypes over time. The validity of these projections depends on relatively consistent heritabilities of fertility-relevant outcomes and consistent genetic covariation between fertility and other physical or psychological phenotypes across generations. However, well-documented, rapidly changing mean trends in the level and timing of fertility may have been accompanied by differences in the genetic mechanisms of fertility. Using a sample of 933 adult twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the United States study, we demonstrate that genetic influences on completed fertility and age at first birth were trivial for the 1920 to 1935 birth cohort, but rose substantially for the 1936 to 1955 birth cohort. For the 1956 to 1970 birth cohort, genetic influences on completed fertility, but not age at first birth, persisted. Because the heritability of fertility is subject to change dynamically with the social context, it is difficult to project selection pressures or the rate at which selection will occur. PMID:25491394

  6. Fetal growth restriction and 18-year growth and nutritional status: Aboriginal birth cohort 1987-2007.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Susan; Mott, Susan; Singh, Gurmeet

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to compare the growth and nutritional status of Australian Aboriginal term infants born with (n = 81) and without fetal growth restriction (n = 260). A prospective birth cohort study of 341 Aboriginal babies from the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia was recruited at birth (1987-1990) and re-examined at a mean age of 18.3 years (2006-2008) for outcome measures of growth and nutrition status. Those with growth restriction at birth were 3 cm shorter (P = 0.0026) and 9 kg lighter (P = 0.0001) with head circumferences 0.95 cm smaller (P = 0.0008) than those without growth restriction. The proportions of growth restricted participants with body mass index <18.5 kg/m(2) were significantly greater (P = 0.028), and those with BMI > 25 kg/m(2) and with fat percentage >85th percentile were significantly smaller (P = 0.012 and 0.004, respectively). In this cohort, those Aboriginal babies born smaller and lighter have remained smaller and lighter at 18 years of age. However, the highest risk of later chronic noncommunicable disease has been reported in subjects who were born small and become relatively larger in later life. The continued study of this Aboriginal birth cohort will give us an opportunity to determine if and when in later life the effects of birth weight are modified by environmental nutritional factors.

  7. Factors influencing enrolment: A case study from Birth to Twenty, the 1990 birth cohort in Soweto–Johannesburg

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda M.; Panday, Saadhna; Norris, Shane A.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal studies offer significant advantages in rendering data commensurate with the complexity of human development. However, incomplete enrolment and attrition over time can introduce bias. Furthermore, there is a scarcity of evaluative information on cohorts in developing countries. This paper documents various strategies adopted to minimize loss to follow up and describes a retrospective analysis of a small group of families who were missed during initial enrolment and through several subsequent rounds of data collection of the Birth to Twenty (BT20) birth cohort in Soweto–Johannesburg, South Africa that began in 1990. A purposive case study approach was used, and 10 of the 119 families missed at enrolment were interviewed to investigate why these families were not enrolled into the study. The findings demonstrate that high mobility, both within urban areas and between urban and rural areas, are a major challenge for longitudinal studies in densely populated urban areas. In addition, enrolment was also affected by individuals changing their names, largely motivated to facilitate access to employment under Apartheid, as well as varying motivations for participating in research. Longitudinal studies in the developing country context must be mindful of the political, social and economic climate that influences enrolment and ongoing cohort maintenance. PMID:19167071

  8. GROWTH FROM BIRTH TO ADULTHOOD AND PEAK BONE MASS AND DENSITY DATA FROM THE NEW DELHI BIRTH COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, N; Fall, CHD; Osmond, C; Sachdev, HPS; Prabhakaran, D; Ramakrishnan, L; Dey Biswas, SK; Ramji, S; Khalil, A; Gera, T; Reddy, KS; Barker, DJP; Cooper, C; Bhargava, SK

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study the relationship of height and body mass index (BMI) during childhood with adult bone mineral content (BMC), areal density (aBMD) and apparent density (BMAD, estimated volumetric density). Methods Participants were 565 men and women aged 33-39 years from the New Delhi Birth Cohort, India, whose weight and height were recorded at birth and annually during infancy (0-2 years), childhood (2-11 years) and adolescence (11 years-adult). Lumbar spine, femoral neck and forearm BMC and aBMD were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry; lumbar spine and femoral neck BMAD were calculated. Results Birth length, and height and height gain during infancy, childhood and adolescence were positively correlated with adult BMC (p≤0.01 all sites except birth length with femoral neck). Correlations increased with height from birth-6 years, then remained constant for later height measurements. There were no associations with BMAD. BMI at birth, and during childhood and adolescence was also positively correlated with BMC (p<0.01 all sites). BMI at 11 years, and BMI gain in childhood and adolescence, were correlated with aBMD and BMAD (p<0.001 for all); these correlations strengthened with increasing age of BMI measurement. The associations with height and BMI in early life became non-significant after adjustment for adult height and BMI. Conclusions Greater skeletal growth and BMI gain in utero and during infancy are associated with higher peak BMC, and greater BMI gain in childhood and adolescence is associated with higher peak aBMD and BMAD. These associations are mediated by the attainment of adult height and BMI respectively. PMID:22237812

  9. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Birth Defects: Prevalence and Risk in a Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; Autry, Andrew; Wines, Roberta; Moore, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects among children with autism, the prevalence of autism in children with birth defects, and the risk for autism associated with having birth defects. Method: Retrospective cohort including all children born in Atlanta, GA, USA, 1986 to 1993, who survived to age 3 years and were identified through…

  10. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian birth cohort studies. Such

  11. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert; Bergström, Anna; Bonde, Jens Peter; Botton, Jérémie; Chévrier, Cecile; Cordier, Sylvaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hohmann, Cynthia; Keil, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Tischer, Christina G; Toft, Gunnar; Wickman, Magnus; Vrijheid, Martine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2013-01-23

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners for a specific research

  12. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners for a specific research

  13. Relevance of birth cohorts to assessment of asthma persistence.

    PubMed

    Hancox, Robert J; Subbarao, Padmaja; Sears, Malcolm R

    2012-06-01

    The definition of persistent asthma in longitudinal studies reflects symptoms reported at every assessment with no substantive asymptomatic periods. Early-childhood wheezing may be transient, especially if it is of viral etiology. Longitudinal studies provide greater opportunity to confirm the diagnosis by variability of symptoms, objective measurements, and therapeutic responses. Several clinical phenotypes of childhood asthma have been identified, with general consistency between cohorts. Persistent wheezing is often associated with loss of lung function, which is evident from early-childhood and related to persistent inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Female sex, atopy, airway responsiveness, and personal smoking, but not exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, are risk factors for persistence of childhood asthma into adulthood. The effect of breastfeeding remains controversial, but gene-environment interactions may partly explain outcomes. Understanding the natural history and underlying causes of asthma may lead to development of strategies for primary prevention.

  14. Associations of maternal organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity with birth outcomes in SAWASDEE birth cohort, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Naksen, Warangkana; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Mangklabruks, Ampica; Chantara, Somporn; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Srinual, Niphan; Panuwet, Parinya; Ryan, P Barry; Riederer, Anne M; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure has been reported to be associated with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. However, the mechanisms of toxicity of OP pesticides on human fetal development have not yet been elucidated. Our pilot study birth cohort, the Study of Asian Women and Offspring's Development and Environmental Exposures (SAWASDEE cohort) aimed to evaluate environmental chemical exposures and their relation to birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment in 52 pregnant farmworkers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. A large array of data was collected multiple times during pregnancy including approximately monthly urine samples for evaluation of pesticide exposure, three blood samples for pesticide-related enzyme measurements and questionnaire data. This study investigated the changes in maternal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities and their relation to urinary diakylphosphates (DAPs), class-related metabolites of OP pesticides, during pregnancy. Maternal AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PON1 activities were measured three times during pregnancy and urinary DAP concentrations were measured, on average, 8 times from enrollment during pregnancy until delivery. Among the individuals in the group with low maternal PON1 activity (n=23), newborn head circumference was negatively correlated with log10 maternal ∑DEAP and ∑DAP at enrollment (gestational age=12±3 weeks; β=-1.0 cm, p=0.03 and β=-1.8 cm, p<0.01, respectively) and at 32 weeks pregnancy (β=-1.1cm, p=0.04 and β=-2.6 cm, p=0.01, respectively). Furthermore, among these mothers, newborn birthweight was also negatively associated with log10 maternal ∑DEAP and ∑DAP at enrollment (β=-219.7 g, p=0.05 and β=-371.3g, p=0.02, respectively). Associations between maternal DAP levels and newborn outcomes were not observed in the group of participants with high maternal PON1 activity. Our results support previous findings from US birth

  15. The Novel 10-Item Asthma Prediction Tool: External Validation in the German MAS Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Grabenhenrich, Linus B.; Reich, Andreas; Fischer, Felix; Zepp, Fred; Forster, Johannes; Schuster, Antje; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Bergmann, Renate L.; Bergmann, Karl E.; Wahn, Ulrich; Keil, Thomas; Lau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background A novel non-invasive asthma prediction tool from the Leicester Cohort, UK, forecasts asthma at age 8 years based on 10 predictors assessed in early childhood, including current respiratory symptoms, eczema, and parental history of asthma. Objective We aimed to externally validate the proposed asthma prediction method in a German birth cohort. Methods The MAS-90 study (Multicentre Allergy Study) recorded details on allergic diseases prospectively in about yearly follow-up assessments up to age 20 years in a cohort of 1,314 children born 1990. We replicated the scoring method from the Leicester cohort and assessed prediction, performance and discrimination. The primary outcome was defined as the combination of parent-reported wheeze and asthma drugs (both in last 12 months) at age 8. Sensitivity analyses assessed model performance for outcomes related to asthma up to age 20 years. Results For 140 children parents reported current wheeze or cough at age 3 years. Score distribution and frequencies of later asthma resembled the Leicester cohort: 9% vs. 16% (MAS-90 vs. Leicester) of children at low risk at 3 years had asthma at 8 years, at medium risk 45% vs. 48%. Performance of the asthma prediction tool in the MAS-90 cohort was similar (Brier score 0.22 vs. 0.23) and discrimination slightly better than in the original cohort (area under the curve, AUC 0.83 vs. 0.78). Prediction and discrimination were robust against changes of inclusion criteria, scoring and outcome definitions. The secondary outcome ‘physicians’ diagnosed asthma at 20 years' showed the highest discrimination (AUC 0.89). Conclusion The novel asthma prediction tool from the Leicester cohort, UK, performed well in another population, a German birth cohort, supporting its use and further development as a simple aid to predict asthma risk in clinical settings. PMID:25536057

  16. Longitudinal Intergenerational Birth Cohort Designs: A Systematic Review of Australian and New Zealand Studies

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Michelle L.; Riepsamen, Angelique; Georgiou, Christos; Flood, Victoria M.; Caputi, Peter; Wright, Ian M.; Davis, Warren S.; Jones, Alison; Larkin, Theresa A.; Williamson, Moira J.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The longitudinal birth cohort design has yielded a substantial contribution to knowledge of child health and development. The last full review in New Zealand and Australia in 2004 identified 13 studies. Since then, birth cohort designs continue to be an important tool in understanding how intrauterine, infant and childhood development affect long-term health and well-being. This updated review in a defined geographical area was conducted to better understand the factors associated with successful quality and productivity, and greater scientific and policy contribution and scope. Methods We adopted the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach, searching PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct and ProQuest between 1963 and 2013. Experts were consulted regarding further studies. Five inclusion criteria were used: (1) have longitudinally tracked a birth cohort, (2) have collected data on the child and at least one parent or caregiver (3) be based in Australia or New Zealand, (4) be empirical in design, and (5) have been published in English. Results 10665 records were initially retrieved from which 23 birth cohort studies met the selection criteria. Together these studies recruited 91,196 participants, with 38,600 mothers, 14,206 fathers and 38,390 live births. Seventeen studies were located in Australia and six in New Zealand. Research questions initially focused on the perinatal period, but as studies matured, longer-term effects and outcomes were examined. Conclusions This review demonstrates the significant yield from this effort both in terms of scientific discovery and social policy impact. Further opportunities have been recognised with cross-study collaboration and pooling of data between established and newer studies and international studies to investigate global health determinants. PMID:26991330

  17. Chapter 2: Birth-cohort-specific estimates of smoking behaviors for the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M; Dodd, Kevin W; Feuer, Eric J

    2012-07-01

    We present methods for estimating five-year birth-cohort-specific trends in smoking behavior for individuals born between 1910 and 1984. We combine cross-sectional survey data on smoking behavior from the National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted between 1965 and 2001 into a single data set. The cumulative incidence of smoking by year of age and calendar year is constructed for each birth cohort from this data set and the effect of differential mortality on ever smoking prevalence is adjusted by modeling the ever smoking prevalence of each cohort for each survey year and back extrapolating that effect to age 30. Cumulative incidence is then scaled to match the ever smoking prevalence at age 30. Survival analyses generate the cumulative cessation among ever smokers across year of age and calendar year and are used to estimate current smoking prevalence. Data from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health is used to divide those initiating smoking into quintiles of number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and the mean CPD for each quintile in each calendar year is estimated from the NHIS data. For five-year birth cohorts of white, african-american, Hispanic and all race/ethnicity groupings of males and females born between 1910 and 1984, estimates are provided for prevalence of current and ever smoking, incidence of cessation, incidence of initiation, and the distribution of smoking duration and CPD for each calendar year and each single year of age through the year 1999. We believe that we are the first to provide birth-cohort-specific estimates of smoking behaviors for the U.S. population that include distributions of duration of smoking and number of cigarettes per day. These additional elements substantively enhance the utility of these estimates for estimating lung cancer risks. PMID:22882884

  18. Associations between social networks and life satisfaction among older Japanese: Does birth cohort make a difference?

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Erika; Liang, Jersey; Sugawara, Ikuko; Fukaya, Taro; Shinkai, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2015-12-01

    Japanese older people experienced drastic changes in family structure and values after World War II at different life stages by birth cohorts. We examined how linkages between different types of social ties and life satisfaction (LS) vary across cohorts, in conjunction with age and survey year differences. Data from face-to-face interviews conducted in 1987, 1999, and 2012 with a nationally representative sample of older Japanese (N = 4,917) were analyzed. The participants were members of 4 birth cohorts (C1: 1901-1912, C2: 1913-1924, C3: 1925-1936, C4: 1937-1949), categorized into 6 groups based on cohort and age at time of measurement (young-old [YO]: 63-74; old-old [OO]: 75-86): C1OO, C2YO, C2OO, C3YO, C3OO, and C4YO. Effects of social networks on LS among the 6 groups were compared simultaneously and separately by gender using the Amos software. There were significant cohort variations in the linkages between family network and LS. The positive association between being married and LS was stronger for later cohorts (C3, C4) among men, whereas that of co-residence with a child and LS was stronger for the earlier cohorts (C1, C2) among women. Moreover, the positive association between meeting with nonfamily members and LS increased from 1987 to 2012 among women, indicating a period effect over a cohort effect. The effects of being married and participation in community groups on LS also changed with age. Our results suggest that linkages between social relations and LS should be interpreted within the context of individual and social changes over time.

  19. Challenges and strategies for cohort retention and data collection in an indigenous population: Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal prospective birth cohort studies are pivotal to identifying fundamental causes and determinants of disease and health over the life course. There is limited information about the challenges, retention, and collection strategies in the study of Indigenous populations. The aim is to describe the follow-up rates of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study and how they were achieved. Methods Participants were 686 babies enrolled between January 1987 and March 1990, born to a mother recorded in the Delivery Suite Register of the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) as a self-identified Aboriginal. The majority of the participants (70%) resided in Northern Territory within rural, remote and very remote Aboriginal communities that maintain traditional connections to their land and culture. The Aboriginal communities are within a sparsely populated (0.2 people/ km2) area of approximately 900,000 km2 (347sq miles), with poor communication and transport infrastructures. Follow-ups collecting biomedical and lifestyle data directly from participants in over 40 locations were conducted at 11.4 years (Wave-2) and 18.2 years (Wave-3), with Wave-4 follow-up currently underway. Results Follow-ups at 11 and 18 years of age successfully examined 86% and 72% of living participants respectively. Strategies addressing logistic, cultural and ethical challenges are documented. Conclusions Satisfactory follow-up rates of a prospective longitudinal Indigenous birth cohort with traditional characteristics are possible while maintaining scientific rigor in a challenging setting. Approaches included flexibility, respect, and transparent communication along with the adoption of culturally sensitive behaviours. This work should inform and assist researchers undertaking or planning similar studies in Indigenous and developing populations. PMID:24568142

  20. Pre-conceptional intake of folic acid supplements is inversely associated with risk of preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age birth: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Guan, Yuhong; Zhao, Yimin; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xuejuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Meilong; Wu, Lingping; Zhu, Shanlin; Liu, Huijuan; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2016-02-14

    Associations of folic acid supplementation with risk of preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were unclear for the Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations in a large Chinese prospective cohort study: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. In the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, 240 954 pregnant women visited local clinics or hospitals within their first trimester in Southeast China during 1999-2012. Information on anthropometric parameters, folic acid supplementation and other maternal characteristics were collected by in-person interviews during their first visit. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded during the follow-up of these participants. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of folic acid supplementation with pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of folic acid supplementation was 24·9% in the cohort. The prevalence of PTB and SGA birth was 3·48 and 9·2%, respectively. Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation was associated with 8% lower risk of PTB (relative risk (RR) 0·92; 95% CI 0·85, 1·00; P=0·04) and 19% lower risk of SGA birth (RR 0·81; 95% CI 0·70, 0·95; P=0·008), compared with non-users. Higher frequency of pre-conceptional folic acid use was associated with lower risk of PTB (P trend=0·032) and SGA birth (P trend=0·046). No significant association between post-conceptional initiation of folic acid supplementation and either outcome was observed. In conclusion, the present study suggests an association between pre-conceptional, but not post-conceptional, folic acid supplementation and lower risk of PTB and SGA birth in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. Further research in other cohorts of large sample size is needed to replicate these findings.

  1. Birth characteristics and all-cause mortality: a sibling analysis using the Uppsala birth cohort multigenerational study.

    PubMed

    Juárez, S; Goodman, A; De Stavola, B; Koupil, I

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the association between perinatal health and all-cause mortality for specific age intervals, assessing the contribution of maternal socioeconomic characteristics and the presence of maternal-level confounding. Our study is based on a cohort of 12,564 singletons born between 1915 and 1929 at the Uppsala University Hospital. We fitted Cox regression models to estimate age-varying hazard ratios of all-cause mortality for absolute and relative birth weight and for gestational age. We found that associations with mortality vary by age and according to the measure under scrutiny, with effects being concentrated in infancy, childhood or early adult life. For example, the effect of low birth weight was greatest in the first year of life and then continued up to 44 years of age (HR between 2.82 and 1.51). These associations were confirmed in within-family analyses, which provided no evidence of residual confounding by maternal characteristics. Our findings support the interpretation that policies oriented towards improving population health should invest in birth outcomes and hence in maternal health. PMID:27138055

  2. Internet-Based Birth-Cohort Studies: Is This the Future for Epidemiology?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background International collaborative cohorts the NINFEA and the ELF studies are mother-child cohorts that use the internet for recruitment and follow-up of their members. The cohorts investigated the association of early life exposures and a wide range of non-communicable diseases. Objective The objective is to report the research methodology, with emphasis on the advantages and limitations offered by an Internet-based design. These studies were conducted in Turin, Italy and Wellington, New Zealand. Methods The cohorts utilized various online/offline methods to recruit participants. Pregnant women who became aware volunteered, completed an online questionnaire, thus obtaining baseline information. Results The NINFEA study has recruited 7003 pregnant women, while the ELF study has recruited 2197 women. The cohorts targeted the whole country, utilizing a range of support processes to reduce the attrition rate of the participants. For the NINFEA and ELF cohorts, online participants were predominantly older (35% and 28.9%, respectively), highly educated (55.6% and 84.9%, respectively), and were in their final trimester of pregnancy (48.5% and 53.6%, respectively). Conclusions Internet-based cohort epidemiological studies are feasible, however, it is clear that participants are self-selective samples, as is the case for many birth cohorts. Internet-based cohort studies are potentially cost-effective and novel methodology for conducting long-term epidemiology research. However, from our experience, participants tend to be self-selective. In marked time, if the cohorts are to form part of a larger research program they require further use and exploration to address biases and overcome limitations. PMID:26071071

  3. Severe Obesity in Young Women and Reproductive Health: The Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nohr, Ellen A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Andersen, Camilla S.; Davey Smith, George; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about reproductive health in severely obese women. In this study, we present associations between different levels of severe obesity and a wide range of health outcomes in the mother and child. Methods From the Danish National Birth Cohort, we obtained self-reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI) for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. Principal Findings Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which increased with severity of obesity. They tended to have a higher risk of both pre- and post-term birth, and risk of cesarean and instrumental deliveries increased across obesity categories. After birth, severely obese women more often failed to initiate or sustain breastfeeding. Risk of weight retention 1.5 years after birth was similar to that of other women, but after adjustment for gestational weight gain, the risk was increased, especially in women in the lowest obesity category. In infants, increasing maternal obesity was associated with decreased risk of a low birth weight and increased risk of a high birth weight. Estimates for ponderal index showed the same pattern indicating an increasing risk of neonatal fatness with severity of obesity. Infant obesity measured one year after birth was also increased in children of severely obese mothers. Conclusion Severe obesity is correlated with a substantial disease burden in reproductive health. Although the causal mechanisms remain elusive, these findings are useful for making predictions and planning health care at

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides and Fetal Growth: Pooled Results from Four Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Vedar, Michelle G.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Whyatt, Robin M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Bradman, Asa; Rauh, Virginia A.; Yolton, Kimberly; Hornung, Richard W.; Wetmur, James G.; Chen, Jia; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Perera, Frederica P.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are associated with reduced fetal growth in animals, but human studies are inconsistent. Objectives: We pooled data from four cohorts to examine associations of prenatal OP exposure with birth weight (n = 1,169), length (n = 1,152), and head circumference (n = 1,143). Methods: Data were from the CHAMACOS, HOME, Columbia, and Mount Sinai birth cohorts. Concentrations of three diethyl phosphate (ΣDEP) and three dimethyl phosphate (ΣDMP) metabolites of OP pesticides [summed to six dialkyl phosphates (ΣDAPs)] were measured in maternal urine. Linear regression and mixed-effects models were used to examine associations with birth outcomes. Results: We found no significant associations of ΣDEP, ΣDMP, or ΣDAPs with birth weight, length, or head circumference overall. However, among non-Hispanic black women, increasing urinary ΣDAP and ΣDMP concentrations were associated with decreased birth length (β = –0.4 cm; 95% CI: –0.9, 0.0 and β = –0.4 cm; 95% CI: –0.8, 0.0, respectively, for each 10-fold increase in metabolite concentration). Among infants with the PON1192RR genotype, ΣDAP and ΣDMP were negatively associated with length (β = –0.4 cm; 95% CI: –0.9, 0.0 and β = –0.5 cm; 95% CI: –0.9, –0.1). Conclusions: This study confirms previously reported associations of prenatal OP exposure among black women with decreased infant size at birth, but finds no evidence of smaller birth weight, length, or head circumference among whites or Hispanics. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found stronger inverse associations of DAPs and birth outcome in infants with the less susceptible PON1192RR genotype. The large pooled data set facilitated exploration of interactions by race/ethnicity and PON1 genotype, but was limited by differences in study populations. Citation: Harley KG, Engel SM, Vedar MG, Eskenazi B, Whyatt RM, Lanphear BP, Bradman A, Rauh VA, Yolton K, Hornung RW, Wetmur JG, Chen J, Holland NT, Barr DB

  5. Smoking prevalence in US birth cohorts: the influence of gender and education.

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, L G; Peddicord, J P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To assess long-term trends in cigarette smoking according to the combined influence of sex and education, this study examined smoking prevalence in successive US birth cohorts. METHODS. Data from nationally representative surveys were examined to assess smoking prevalence for six successive 10-year birth cohorts stratified by race or ethnicity, sex, and educational attainment. RESULTS. Substantial declines in smoking prevalence were found among men who had a high school education or more, regardless of race or ethnicity, and slight declines among women of the same educational background were revealed. However, little change was found in smoking prevalence among men of all race/ethnic groups with less than a high school education, and large increases were found among women with the same years of schooling, especially if they were White or African American. CONCLUSIONS. These data suggest that persons of low educational attainment have yet to benefit from policies and education about the health consequences of cigarette smoking. PMID:8633741

  6. Birth weight and cognitive function in early adulthood: the Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pearce, M S; Mann, K D; Singh, G; Sayers, S M

    2014-06-01

    It has been suggested that in addition to genetic factors, fetal and post-natal growth influence cognition in early adulthood. However, most studies have been in developed populations, so it is unclear if the same findings would be seen in other, less developed, settings, and have used testing tools not applicable to an Australia Aboriginal population. This study investigated the relationships between cognitive function in early adulthood and birth weight and contemporary height. Simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT) and working memory (WM) were assessed using the CogState battery. A significant association was seen between birth weight and SRT in early adulthood, but not with the other two cognitive measures. Urban dwellers had significantly shorter SRT and CRT than their remote counterparts. Contemporary body mass index and maternal age were associated with CRT. Only fetal growth restriction was associated with WM, with greater WM in those with restricted growth. No associations were seen with contemporary height. These results suggest that fetal growth may be more important than the factors influencing post-natal growth in terms of cognition in early adulthood in this population, but that the associations may be inconsistent between cognitive outcomes. Further research is required to identify whether similar associations are seen in other, similar, populations and to assess why differences in cognitive outcome measures are seen.

  7. Etiological Survey on Intellectual Disability in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikura, Ulla; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Olsen, Paivi; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Taanila, Anja; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2005-01-01

    The etiology of intellectual disability was studied both in incident (n = 9,432) and prevalent (n = 9,351) populations in a one-year birth cohort born in Northern Finland in 1985-1986. Data from multiple sources were used to follow the children until the age of 11.5 years. Of the incident cases (n = 119) with intellectual disabilities, 66.4% had…

  8. Birth Cohort Testing for Hepatitis C Virus - Indian Health Service 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilley, Brigg; Leston, Jessica; Hariri, Susan; Neel, Lisa; Rudd, Miles; Galope, Megan; Ward, John; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a substantial and largely unrecognized public health problem. An estimated 3.5 million persons in the United States are currently living with HCV infection, at least half of whom are unaware of their infection (1-3). Persons born during 1945-1965 (the "baby boomer" birth cohort) have a sixfold higher prevalence (2.6%) than adults of other ages, and represent 81% of all persons chronically infected with HCV (4). Therefore, in addition to recommending testing for all persons at risk for HCV infection, CDC and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommend one-time HCV testing for the birth cohort (5,6). Compared with the national average, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons have approximately twofold the rate of acute HCV incidence and HCV associated mortality (2). In June 2012, the Indian Health Service (IHS) implemented HCV testing in the 1945-1965 birth cohort and created a nationally standardized performance measure to monitor implementation of the recommendation. As of June 2015, the proportion of the birth cohort screened for HCV increased from a baseline of 7.9% (14,402/182,503) to 32.5% (68,514/211,014) among the AI/AN population served by IHS nationwide; provider training and the use of clinical decision tools were associated with increases in HCV testing. With this fourfold increase in testing in just 3 years, IHS needs to prepare for the challenges associated with increased identification of persons living with HCV infection.

  9. Cord Blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Fetal Growth in the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Tong, Shi-lu; Hu, Wen-biao; Hao, Jia-hu; Tao, Rui-xue; Huang, Kun; Mou, Zhe; Zhou, Qi-fan; Jiang, Xiao-min; Tao, Fang-biao

    2015-01-01

    We determined the association of cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with birth weight and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA). As part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort (C-ABC) study, we measured cord blood levels of 25(OH)D in 1491 neonates in Hefei, China. The data on maternal sociodemographic characteristics, health status, lifestyle, birth outcomes were prospectively collected. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of 25(OH)D levels with birth weight and the risk of SGA. Compared with neonates in the lowest decile of cord blood 25(OH)D levels, neonates in four deciles (the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh deciles) had significantly increased birth weight and decreased risk of SGA. Multiple linear regression models showed that per 10 nmol/L increase in cord blood 25(OH)D, birth weight increased by 61.0 g (95% CI: 31.9, 89.9) at concentrations less than 40 nmol/L, and then decreased by 68.5 g (95% CI: -110.5, -26.6) at concentrations from 40 to 70 nmol/L. This study provides the first epidemiological evidence that there was an inverted U shaped relationship between neonatal vitamin D status and fetal growth, and the risk of SGA reduced at moderate concentration. PMID:26450157

  10. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  11. Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the National Birth Cohort in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, J L; Knudsen, L E; Andersen, A‐M N; Hjollund, N H; Olsen, J

    2006-01-01

    Aims To examine pregnancy outcomes in women doing laboratory work. Methods Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997–2003), the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 1025 female laboratory technicians and 8037 female teachers (as reference). The laboratory technicians were asked about laboratory work tasks during pregnancy in an interview (at around 16 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linking the cohort to the national registers. Hazard ratios (HRs) of late fetal loss and diagnosing of congenital malformations were calculated by using Cox regression, and odds ratios (ORs) of preterm birth and small for gestational age were calculated by using logistic regression. Results Overall, there were no significant differences in pregnancy outcomes between laboratory technicians and teachers. However, we found that laboratory technicians working with radioimmunoassay or radiolabelling had an increased risk of preterm birth (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 0.8 to 6.2 for radioimmunoassay, and OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.8 to 4.6 for radiolabelling) and “major” malformations (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.7 for radioimmunoassay, and HR = 1.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.7 for radiolabelling). The ORs of preterm birth doubled for women working with these tasks every day or several times a week. When an exposure matrix was applied, an increased risk of “major” malformations for exposure to organic solvents was seen. Conclusions The results did not indicate any high risk of reproductive failures in laboratory technicians in general. Exposure to radioisotopes may carry a high risk of preterm birth and congenital malformations. This finding deserves further investigation. PMID:16361406

  12. Men with severe hemophilia in the United States: birth cohort analysis of a large national database

    PubMed Central

    Mazepa, Marshall A.; Baker, Judith R.; Riske, Brenda K.; Soucie, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The availability of longitudinal data collected prospectively from 1998 to 2011 at federally funded US hemophilia treatment centers provided an opportunity to construct a descriptive analysis of how outcomes of men with severe hemophilia have been altered by the incremental advances and setbacks in hemophilia care in the last 50 years in the United States. This surveillance collaboration with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assembled the largest uniformly examined population with severe hemophilia (n = 4899 men with severe factor VIII and IX deficiency). To address the heterogeneity of this population, 4 successive birth cohorts, differentially affected by eras of hemophilia care, were examined separately in regard to demographics, complications of hemophilia and its treatment, and mortality. Severely affected men in each birth cohort were compared also with the corresponding mild hemophilia birth cohorts (n = 2587 men total) to control for outcomes that might be attributable to aging and environment independent of severely defective hemostasis. The analysis demonstrates improving access to standard of care therapy, correlating the proportion of men on prophylactic factor replacement and reduced bleeding frequency for the youngest men. Frequent bleeding persisted in one third to one half of men across all ages, however, and the disability gap between severe and mild hemophilia did not narrow. The greatest cause of death was liver failure, but attempted anti–hepatitis C virus therapy and cure were low. The study suggests a continued need for national surveillance to monitor and inform hemophilia interventions and outcomes. PMID:26983851

  13. Education and work in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Fernando C; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of biological and socioeconomic factors throughout life on entry into the university and insertion in the work force of young adults from the 1982 birth cohort. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 5,914 births that took place in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982. Data was collected by means of questionnaires applied on young adults when accompanying the 1982 cohort in 2004-5. Information was gathered concerning educational level and insertion in the labor market. Poisson Regression was utilized to study the effect of demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as birth weight and maternal breastfeeding, on the outcomes. RESULTS: On the average, these young adults had 9.4 (± 3.1) years of schooling and 42% of them were attending school in 2004-5. One in five young adults had entered a university and approximately two thirds were working during the month prior to the interview. Entry in the university was determined by economic conditions. Furthermore, women's birth weight and breastfeeding among men influenced this outcome. Insertion in the labor market was more frequent among the poorer men, but this did not affect women's outcomes in this respect. CONCLUSIONS: The low inclusion in the university and the need to enter the labor market among the poor families maintains a vicious circle that reproduces the dominant social hierarchy. PMID:19142341

  14. A 17-year oscillation in cancer mortality birth cohorts on three continents - synchrony to cosmic ray modulations one generation earlier.

    PubMed

    Juckett, David A

    2009-11-01

    Cross-generational effects (grandmother effects) associated with epigenetic imprinting, environmental exposures, and lifestyle choices are beginning to be explored by various investigators. The possibility that low-level background radiation can be a driver of such effects has been suggested previously and is explored further in this study. Age-period-cohort analysis was performed on United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Australian (AU) female breast cancer mortality of the twentieth century, as well as on UK female total cancer mortality, to extract the high-frequency oscillations in the birth cohort time series. US fetal and infant congenital mortality were examined to extend the birth cohorts to modern times. A approximately 17-year cycle was detected in all birth cohort series, which spanned approximately 180 years from 1820 to 2000. This suggests a global, environmental cause. To mimic previous work in examining a possible link to cosmic radiation, the 17- to 18-year cycles of the cosmogenic nuclide (14)C, the sunspot double-cycle, neutron monitors, and a compilation of ground-based magnetic field observations were examined in the birth cohort and germ cell cohort time frames. Evidence is presented that optimal alignments with extraterrestrial oscillations occur in the time frame of the germ-cell cohort, one generation before the birth cohorts. Furthermore, the alignment is optimized by accounting for the changes in the maternal age distribution over time. These findings have potential importance to the mechanisms of disease as well as species adaptation and evolution.

  15. Pre-gravid oral contraceptive use in relation to birth weight: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Elizabeth E; Hahn, Kristen A; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Riis, Anders H; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J; Wise, Lauren A

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have evaluated the association between pregravid oral contraceptive (OC) use and birth weight, and findings have been conflicting. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 5921 pregnancy planners in Denmark to evaluate recency, duration, and type of OC used before conception in relation to infant birth weight. Participants completed online questionnaires and reported detailed information on contraceptive history and covariates at baseline. Participants completed bimonthly follow-up questionnaires to update their pregnancy status for up to 12 months or until conception occurred. Birth weight data were ascertained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry for 4046 live births delivered by study participants between 2008 and 2010. We used multivariable linear and log-binomial regression analyses to control for confounding. Mean birth weight was higher among women who had used OCs within 0-1 months (mean difference = 97 g, CI 26, 168) or 2-6 months (mean difference = 40 g, CI -5, 85) before conception, compared with more than 12 months before conception. Mean birth weight was lower among women who had used OCs for long durations (mean difference comparing ≥12 with <4 years of OC use = -85 g, CI -158, -11). Our findings indicate that pregravid OC use within 6 months of conception may be associated with a small increase in birth weight, but that long duration of use may have the opposite effect. Results were stronger among male infants, among 2nd and 4th generation OC users, and among users of OCs with a higher estrogen dose.

  16. The AIDS epidemic among Spanish drug users: a birth cohort-associated phenomenon.

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, J; Pollán, M; López-Abente, G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Spain the number of new acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases among injection drug users continues to rise. The time trend up to 1994 has been analyzed, with special attention paid to the different generations. METHODS: The source for injection drug use-related cases was the Spanish AIDS Register. Independent analyses of annual specific rates were run for each sex with the use of an age-period-cohort log-linear model. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and year of diagnosis, AIDS incidence related to injection drug use is associated with specific birth cohorts. Rising values are observed in the successive generations born during the 1950s, peaking in men born in 1962 and women born in 1964. In subsequent cohorts, there is a marked falloff in incidence for both sexes, but this decline is seen to halt in men from the 1972 birth cohort onwards. The overall period effect is upward, yet the trend flattens in the last years. There is a pronounced age effect with maximum values in men and women at ages 29 and 27, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to urge avoidance of risk behaviors in new generations. PMID:9184504

  17. Incidence and risk factors of preterm birth in a rural Bangladeshi cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, about 15 million neonates are born preterm and about 85% of global preterm birth occurs in Asia and Africa regions. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk factors for preterm birth in a rural Bangladeshi cohort. Methods Between June 2007 and September 2009, community health workers prospectively collected data from 32,126 mother-live-born baby pairs on household socio-demographic status, pregnancy history, antenatal care seeking and newborn gestational age determined by recall of date of last menstrual period. Results Among all live births, 22.3% were delivered prior to 37 weeks of gestation (i.e. preterm); of which 12.3% were born at 35–36 weeks of gestation (late preterm), 7.1% were born at 32–34 weeks (moderate preterm), and 2.9% were born at 28–31 weeks of gestation (very preterm). Overall, the majority of preterm births (55.1%) were late preterm. Risk of preterm birth was lower among women with primary or higher level of education (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97), women who sought antenatal care at least once during the index pregnancy (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.90), and women who had completed all birth preparedness steps (RR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.34). In contrast, risk of preterm birth was higher among women with a history of child death (RR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10), who had mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) ≤250 mm, indicative of under nutrition (for women having MUAC <214 mm the risk was higher; RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.35), who reported an antenatal complication (RR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.53), and who received iron-folic acid supplementation for 2–6 months during the index pregnancy (RR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.44). Conclusions In resource poor settings with high burden of preterm birth, alike Bangladesh, preterm birth risk could be reduced by close monitoring and/or frequent follow-up of women with history of child death and antenatal complications, by encouraging women to seek antenatal care from qualified

  18. The Association of Childhood Intelligence with Mortality Risk from Adolescence to Middle Age: Findings from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, D. A.; Lawlor, D. A.; Clark, H.; Batty, G. D.; Macintyre, S.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that childhood IQ is inversely associated with mortality in later life. However, the specificity of this association in terms of causes of death, whether it is continuous over the whole range of IQ scores and whether it is the same according to age and sex is not clear. In a large cohort (N = 11,603) of a complete…

  19. The Impact of Parental Personality on Birth Outcomes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, Naho; Fujiwara, Takeo; Horikawa, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of parental personality on birth outcomes. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 727 pregnant women and 579 spouses receiving antenatal care at a single-center in rural Tokyo, Japan during 2010–2013. Methods We measured the association between maternal effect of parental personality traits assessed by the Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory on birth outcomes, using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics. Results Maternal self-transcendence personality was inversely associated with gestational age [-0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.51 to -0.01) weeks per unit] and positively associated with preterm birth [odds ratio (OR) 2.60 (95% CI: 1.00 to 6.75) per unit], while paternal self-transcendence personality was positively associated with gestational age [0.31 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.55) weeks per unit]. Maternal reward dependence was positively associated with fetal growth [0.30 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.59) per unit]. Other maternal and paternal personality traits associated with adverse maternal behavior, such as novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-directedness, were not associated with birth outcomes. Conclusion We found that specific parental personality traits can be associated with birth outcomes. PMID:27331908

  20. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success.

  1. Piccolipiù, a multicenter birth cohort in Italy: protocol of the study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The fetal and infant life are periods of rapid development, characterized by high susceptibility to exposures. Birth cohorts provide unique opportunities to study early-life exposures in association with child development and health, as well as, with longer follow-up, the early life origin of adult diseases. Piccolipiù is an Italian birth cohort recently set up to investigate the effects of environmental exposures, parental conditions and social factors acting during pre-natal and early post-natal life on infant and child health and development. We describe here its main characteristics. Methods/design Piccolipiù is a prospective cohort of expected 3000 newborns, who will be recruiting in six maternity units of five Italian cities (Florence, Rome, Trieste, Turin and Viareggio) since October 2011. Mothers are contacted during pregnancy or at delivery and are offered to participate in the study. Upon acceptance, their newborns are recruited at birth and followed up until at least 18 years of age. At recruitment, the mothers donate a blood sample and complete a baseline questionnaire. Umbilical cord blood, pieces of umbilical cord and heel blood spots are also collected. Postnatal follow-up currently occurs at 6, 12, and 24 months of age using on-line or postal self administered questionnaire; further questionnaires and medical examinations are envisaged. Questionnaires collect information on several factors, including mother’s and/or child’s environmental exposures, anthropometric measures, reproductive factors, diet, supplements, medical history, cognitive development, mental health and socioeconomic factors. Health promotion materials are also offered to parents. Discussion Piccolipiù will broaden our understanding of the contribution of early-life factors to infant and child health and development. Several hypotheses on the developmental origins of health can be tested or piloted using the data collected from the Piccolipiù cohort. By pooling

  2. The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976–2007

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Aims Studies of the relationship between social norms and marijuana use have generally focused on individual attitudes, leaving the influence of larger societal-level attitudes unknown. The present study investigated societal-level disapproval of marijuana use defined by birth cohort or by time period. Design Combined analysis of nationally-representative annual surveys of secondary school students in the U.S. conducted 1976–2007 as part of the Monitoring the Future study. Setting In-school surveys completed by adolescents in the U.S. Participants 986,003 adolescents in grades 8, 10, and 12 Measurements Main predictors included the percentage of students who disapproved of marijuana in each birth cohort and time period. Multi-level models with individuals clustered in time periods of observation and birth cohorts were modeled, with past-year marijuana use as the outcome. Findings Results indicated a significant and strong effect of birth cohort disapproval of marijuana use in predicting individual risk of marijuana use, after controlling for individual-level disapproval, perceived norms towards marijuana, and other characteristics. For example, compared to birth cohorts in which most (87–90.9%) adolescents disapproved of marijuana use, odds of marijuana use were 3.53 times higher in cohorts where less than half (42–46.9%) disapproved (99% C.I. 2.75, 4.53). Conclusions Individuals in birth cohorts that are more disapproving of marijuana use are less likely to use, independent of their personal attitudes towards marijuana use. Social norms and attitudes regarding marijuana use cluster in birth cohorts, and this clustering has a direct effect on marijuana use even after controlling for individual attitudes and perceptions of norms. PMID:21545669

  3. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy.

  4. Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Adults Born with Very Low Birth Weight: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Petteri; Andersson, Sture; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Kajantie, Eero; Mäkitie, Outi

    2009-01-01

    Background Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) infants have compromised bone mass accrual during childhood, but it is unclear whether this results in subnormal peak bone mass and increased risk of impaired skeletal health in adulthood. We hypothesized that VLBW is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood. Methods and Findings The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults is a multidisciplinary cohort study representative of all VLBW births within the larger Helsinki area from 1978 to 1985. This study evaluated skeletal health in 144 such participants (all born preterm, mean gestational age 29.3 wk, birth weight 1,127 g, birth weight Z score 1.3), and in 139 comparison participants born at term, matched for sex, age, and birth hospital. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at age 18.5 to 27.1 y. Adults born with VLBW had, in comparison to participants born at term, a 0.51-unit (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–0.75) lower lumbar spine Z score and a 0.56-unit (95% CI 0.34–0.78) lower femoral neck Z score for areal BMD. These differences remained statistically significant after adjustment for the VLBW adults' shorter height and lower self-reported exercise intensity. Conclusions Young adults born with VLBW, when studied close to the age of peak bone mass, have significantly lower BMD than do their term-born peers. This suggests that compromised childhood bone mass accrual in preterm VLBW children translates into increased risk for osteoporosis in adulthood, warranting vigilance in osteoporosis prevention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19707270

  5. Uterine Leiomyomata and Cesarean Birth Risk: A Prospective Cohort with Standardized Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Kara A.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Baird, Donna D.; Savitz, David A.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine if women with leiomyomata detected using uniform ultrasound methods are at increased risk of cesarean birth, without regard to indication. Methods Women were enrolled in Right from the Start (2000-2010), a prospective pregnancy cohort. Leiomyomata were counted, categorized, and measured during first trimester ultrasounds. Women provided information about demographics and reproductive history during first trimester interviews. Route of delivery was extracted from medical records or vital records, if the former were unavailable. Generalized estimating equations were used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of cesarean birth by leiomyoma presence and characteristics. Results Among 2,635 women, the prevalences of leiomyomata and cesarean birth were 11.2% and 29.8%, respectively. Women with leiomyomata, compared to those without, had a 27% increase in cesarean risk (RR 1.27, CI [1.17, 1.37]). The association was weaker following adjustment for maternal body mass index and age (adjusted RR (ARR) 1.11, CI [1.02, 1.20]). The adjusted risk was elevated for women with a single leiomyoma ≥3 centimeters in diameter (ARR 1.22, CI [1.14, 1.32]) and women with the largest total leiomyoma volumes (ARR 1.59, CI [1.44, 1.76]). Conclusions Women with leiomyomata were at increased risk for cesarean birth particularly, those with larger tumor volumes. PMID:24321612

  6. Maternal and Live-birth Outcomes of Pregnancies following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324

  7. Preconceptional Folate Supplementation and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D.; Porter, Flint T.; Nyberg, David A.; Comstock, Christine H.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J.; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D.; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E.; Carr, Stephen R.; Wolfe, Honor M.; D'Alton, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Methods and Findings In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08–0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24–0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28–0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm

  8. Initiation of Heroin and Prescription Opioid Pain Relievers by Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Novak, Scott P; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Wenger, Lynn; Chu, Daniel; Kral, Alex H

    2016-02-01

    We examined initiation patterns among different birth cohorts of people who used prescription opioids and heroin because of historical differences in drug use availability. We examined data from a community-based study of persons who inject drugs (n = 483) in California and a general population survey from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 1264) and found that individuals born after 1980 were more likely than were individuals born before 1980 to initiate opioids through nonmedical use of prescription opioids than heroin. PMID:26691120

  9. Initiation of Heroin and Prescription Opioid Pain Relievers by Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Novak, Scott P; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Wenger, Lynn; Chu, Daniel; Kral, Alex H

    2016-02-01

    We examined initiation patterns among different birth cohorts of people who used prescription opioids and heroin because of historical differences in drug use availability. We examined data from a community-based study of persons who inject drugs (n = 483) in California and a general population survey from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 1264) and found that individuals born after 1980 were more likely than were individuals born before 1980 to initiate opioids through nonmedical use of prescription opioids than heroin.

  10. Genetic causes of intellectual disability in a birth cohort: A population‐based study

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, Mariluce; Segal, Sandra L.; Félix, Têmis M.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects approximately 1–3% of the population and can be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Although many studies have investigated the etiology of intellectual disability in different populations, few studies have been performed in middle‐income countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of genetic causes related to intellectual disability in a cohort of children from a city in south Brazil who were followed from birth. Children who showed poor performance in development and intelligence tests at the ages of 2 and 4 were included. Out of 4,231 liveborns enrolled in the cohort, 214 children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis was established in approximately 90% of the children evaluated. Genetic causes were determined in 31 of the children and 19 cases remained unexplained even after extensive investigation. The overall prevalence of intellectual disability in this cohort due to genetic causes was 0.82%. Because this study was nested in a cohort, there were a large number of variables related to early childhood and the likelihood of information bias was minimized by collecting information with a short recall time. This study was not influenced by selection bias, allowing identification of intellectual disability and estimation of the prevalence of genetic causes in this population, thereby increasing the possibility of providing appropriate management and/or genetic counseling. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25728503

  11. Adverse effects of maternal lead levels on birth outcomes in the ALSPAC study: a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, CM; Golding, J; Emond, AM

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the associations of prenatal blood lead levels (B-Pb) with pregnancy outcomes in a large cohort of mother–child pairs in the UK. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Setting Avon area of Bristol, UK. Population Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Methods Whole blood samples were collected and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285). Data collected on the infants included anthropometric variables and gestational age at delivery. Linear regression models for continuous outcomes and logistic regression models for categorical outcomes were adjusted for covariates including maternal height, smoking, parity, sex of the baby and gestational age. Main outcome measures Birthweight, head circumference and crown–heel length, preterm delivery and low birthweight. Results The mean blood lead level (B-Pb) was 3.67 ± 1.47 μg/dl. B-Pb ≥ 5 μg/dl significantly increased the risk of preterm delivery (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.00 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.35–3.00) but not of having a low birthweight baby (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.86–2.18) in multivariable binary logistic models. Increasing B-Pb was significantly associated with reductions in birth weight (β −13.23, 95% CI −23.75 to −2.70), head circumference (β −0.04, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.06) and crown–heel length (β −0.05, 95% CI −0.10 to −0.00) in multivariable linear regression models. Conclusions There was evidence for adverse effects of maternal B-Pb on the incidence of preterm delivery, birthweight, head circumference and crown–heel length, but not on the incidence of low birthweight, in this group of women. PMID:24824048

  12. Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD), children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary. PMID:23727903

  13. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada. PMID:23356884

  14. Physical activity levels in three Brazilian birth cohorts as assessed with raw triaxial wrist accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Inácio CM; van Hees, Vincent T; Ramires, Virgílio V; Knuth, Alan G; Bielemann, Renata M; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on objectively measured physical activity are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured overall physical activity and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in individuals from the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, according to weight status, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. Methods: All children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in hospitals in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, constitute the sampling frame; of these 99% agreed to participate. The most recent follow-ups were conducted between 2010 and 2013. In total, 8974 individuals provided valid data derived from raw triaxial wrist accelerometry. The average acceleration is presented in milli-g (1 mg = 0.001g), and time (min/d) spent in MVPA (>100 mg) is presented in 5- and 10-min bouts. Results: Mean acceleration in the 1982 (mean age 30.2 years), 1993 (mean age 18.4 years) and 2004 (mean age 6.7 years) cohorts was 35 mg, 39 mg and 60 mg, respectively. Time spent in MVPA was 26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 25; 27], 43 (95% CI 42; 44) and 45 (95% CI 43; 46) min/d in the three cohorts, respectively, using 10-min bouts. Mean MVPA was on average 42% higher when using 5-min bouts. Males were more active than females and physical activity was inversely associated with age of the cohort and SES. Normal-weight individuals were more active than underweight, overweight and obese participants. Conclusions: Overall physical activity and time spent in MVPA differed by cohort (age), sex, weight status and SES. Higher levels of activity in low SES groups may be explained by incidental physical activity. PMID:25361583

  15. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy. PMID:25305301

  16. Prenatal and postnatal residential usage of insecticides in a multicenter birth cohort in Spain.

    PubMed

    Llop, Sabrina; Casas, Lidia; Santa Marina, Loreto; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Esplugues, Ana; Jimenez, Ana; Zock, Jan-Paul; Tardón, Adonina; Marco, Alfredo; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-02-15

    This study aimed to describe the residential use of insecticides in a birth cohort in Spain. Study subjects were 2,456 women enrolled into the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort followed prospectively during pregnancy and in the early postnatal period. The women were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy between 2003 and 2008 in four regions of Spain. Socio-demographic, environmental and lifestyle information was obtained at two interviews during pregnancy, one at the first (mean:13.8±2.6 weeks of gestation) and the other at the third trimester (mean: 33.3±2.3 weeks of gestation). Information about prenatal use of indoor and outdoor insecticides (type, timing, place of application, place of storage) was obtained from the second interview. In a 3rd interview (mean: 16.2±6.9 months of age of children), information about postnatal indoor and outdoor insecticide use was obtained. Regression models examined the association between demographic and lifestyle factors and pesticide use to determine which characteristics predicted use prenatally and postnatally. Fifty-four percent of women reported using indoor insecticides during pregnancy, 45% in their bedroom and 47% elsewhere in the house. Plug-in devices were the most frequent application methods used in the pregnant woman's bedroom and insecticide sprays elsewhere in the house. The maternal factors related to prenatal use of indoor insecticides were parity, country of birth, educational level, region of residence, having a garden or yard with plants, and living near an agricultural area. These products continued to be used postnatally, although 20% of the women stopped using them. Foetuses and children are especially vulnerable to pesticide exposure; thus knowing how pesticides are used during pregnancy and infancy may be a starting point for the study of their potential effects on health as well as useful for designing preventive actions.

  17. Risk Factors and Birth Outcomes of Anaemia in Early Pregnancy in a Nulliparous Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Khashan, Ali S.; Kenny, Louise C.; Baker, Philip N.; Nelson, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Objective The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of ‘low risk’ women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609), to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation. Methods The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization’s definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL). Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work) was the main method of analysis. Results The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%), that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78), and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes). Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without. Conclusion In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia’s conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy. PMID:25875012

  18. Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bell, A F; Carter, C S; Davis, J M; Golding, J; Adejumo, O; Pyra, M; Connelly, J J; Rubin, L H

    2016-04-01

    We investigated associations between aspects of childbirth and elevated postpartum symptoms of depression and anxiety. We employed secondary analysis of perinatal data (N = 4657-4946) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for covariates) examined predictors of elevated symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Predictors included the following: type of delivery (normal physiological vs. interventive non-physiological), immediate postpartum complications, and maternal perception of the recent birth experience. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed elevated symptoms of depression (score ≥ 13), and the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index assessed elevated symptoms of anxiety (score ≥ 9) at 2 and 8 months after delivery. A more negative perception of the recent birth experience was associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety at 2 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.85] and 8 months (OR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.60) postpartum but was not associated with elevated symptoms of depression at either time point. Type of delivery (physiological vs. non-physiological) and immediate postpartum complications were not associated with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety. Our findings suggest that improving women's childbirth experience may decrease the likelihood of postpartum anxiety, but not postpartum depression. PMID:26202722

  19. Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bell, A F; Carter, C S; Davis, J M; Golding, J; Adejumo, O; Pyra, M; Connelly, J J; Rubin, L H

    2016-04-01

    We investigated associations between aspects of childbirth and elevated postpartum symptoms of depression and anxiety. We employed secondary analysis of perinatal data (N = 4657-4946) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for covariates) examined predictors of elevated symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Predictors included the following: type of delivery (normal physiological vs. interventive non-physiological), immediate postpartum complications, and maternal perception of the recent birth experience. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed elevated symptoms of depression (score ≥ 13), and the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index assessed elevated symptoms of anxiety (score ≥ 9) at 2 and 8 months after delivery. A more negative perception of the recent birth experience was associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety at 2 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.85] and 8 months (OR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.60) postpartum but was not associated with elevated symptoms of depression at either time point. Type of delivery (physiological vs. non-physiological) and immediate postpartum complications were not associated with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety. Our findings suggest that improving women's childbirth experience may decrease the likelihood of postpartum anxiety, but not postpartum depression.

  20. A birth cohort study of viral infections in Vietnamese infants and children: study design, methods and characteristics of the cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, more than one-third of admissions to the two paediatric hospitals are attributable to four infectious syndromes: dengue, diarrhoeal disease, acute respiratory infection, and hand, foot and mouth disease. We have established a large prospective birth cohort study to investigate individual, environmental, virological, and immunological determinants of infection and disease in infants. Specific research questions are focused on the role of maternal antibody in protection against infection in infancy, and the adaptive immune response to vaccination and natural infection. This paper presents the cohort design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the participants enrolled in the first two years. Methods/design Women are enrolled prior to delivery at one hospital in each of two catchment areas: an urban district in central HCMC, and a mixed urban/rural district in the Mekong Delta 150 km southwest of HCMC. Infants are enrolled within 3 days of birth, and maternal and cord blood samples are collected. Routine blood samples and data on growth, health status and vaccinations are collected from infants at scheduled visits at 4, 9 and 12 months. Clinical data and specimens are collected from infants presenting at a study clinic, or admitted to hospital, with any of the the four infectious syndromes of interest. Discussion In four years since since the study began in July 2009, >6400 infants have been enrolled, and enrolment is ongoing. Attrition is low: 84% of participants have completed the full 12-month follow-up period. Baseline characteristics of the first 4300 enrollees are presented here. We have demonstrated the feasibility of establishing a large prospective study of infectious diseases in infancy in a resource-limited setting, with minimal loss to follow-up. Our linked socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data will help elucidate the viral aetiology and epidemiology of common infectious diseases of infancy, and

  1. Lifetime overweight and obesity and body composition in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Callo, Gabriela; Gigante, Denise Pretucci; Barros, Fernando C; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between overweight/obesity at different moments in the life cycle and body composition in early adulthood. Data were used from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, which has followed live born children of families residing in the urban area of Pelotas at different ages. At 30 years of age, 3,701 cohort members were interviewed and body composition was assessed using Bod Pod, 2,219 cohort members had at least one weight and height measurement taken in the three periods (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), 24% never presented overweight, and 68.6% were never classified as obese. Elevated body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat at 30 years of age were associated with individuals classified as overweight in all three periods or in adolescence and adulthood, while those with overweight/obesity only in childhood or adolescence showed mean BMI and percent body fat similar to those who had never presented overweight/obesity. The results indicate the benefit of early interruption of overweight/obesity.

  2. Low birth weight and features of neuroticism and mood disorder in 83 545 participants of the UK Biobank cohort

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Hazel M.; Mackay, Daniel; Deary, Ian J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Hotopf, Matthew; Kendrick, Tony; Pell, Jill P.; Smith, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been inconsistently associated with risk of developing affective disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, studies investigating possible associations between birth weight and bipolar disorder (BD), or personality traits known to predispose to affective disorders such as neuroticism, have not been conducted in large cohorts. Aims To assess whether very low birth weight (<1500 g) and low birth weight (1500–2490 g) were associated with higher neuroticism scores assessed in middle age, and lifetime history of either MDD or BD. We controlled for possible confounding factors. Method Retrospective cohort study using baseline data on the 83 545 UK Biobank participants with detailed mental health and birth weight data. Main outcomes were prevalent MDD and BD, and neuroticism assessed using the Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism scale - Revised (EPIN-R) Results Referent to normal birth weight, very low/low birth weight were associated with higher neuroticism scores, increased MDD and BD. The associations between birth weight category and MDD were partially mediated by higher neuroticism. Conclusions These findings suggest that intrauterine programming may play a role in lifetime vulnerability to affective disorders. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703752

  3. Do baby boomers use more healthcare services than other generations? Longitudinal trajectories of physician service use across five birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Canizares, Mayilee; Gignac, Monique; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Glazier, Richard H; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Objective In light of concerns for meeting the provision of healthcare services given the large numbers of ageing baby boomers, we compared the trajectories of primary care and specialist services use across the lifecourse of 5 birth cohorts and examined factors associated with birth cohort differences. Design Longitudinal panel. Setting Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994–2011). Population Sample of 10 186 individuals aged 20–69 years in 1994–1995 and who were from 5 birth cohorts: Generation X (Gen X; born: 1965–1974), Younger Baby Boomers (born: 1955–1964), Older Baby Boomers (born: 1945–1954), World War II (born: 1935–1944) and pre-World War II (born: 1925–1934). Main outcomes Use of primary care and specialist services. Results Although the overall pattern suggested less use of physician services by each successive recent cohort, this blinded differences in primary and specialist care use by cohort. Multilevel analyses comparing cohorts showed that Gen Xers and younger boomers, particularly those with multimorbidity, were less likely to use primary care than earlier cohorts. In contrast, specialist use was higher in recent cohorts, with Gen Xers having the highest specialist use. These increases were explained by the increasing levels of multimorbidity. Education, income, having a regular source of care, sedentary lifestyle and obesity were significantly associated with physician services use, but only partially contributed to cohort differences. Conclusions The findings suggest a shift from primary care to specialist care among recent cohorts, particularly for those with multimorbidity. This is of concern given policies to promote primary care services to prevent and manage chronic conditions. There is a need for policies to address important generational differences in healthcare preferences and the balance between primary and specialty care to ensure integration and coordination of healthcare delivery. PMID:27687902

  4. Mental disorders in new parents before and after birth: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Elizabeth; Binns, Colin; Homer, Caroline S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders of women during the postnatal period are a major public health problem. Compared with women’s mental disorders, much less attention has been paid to men’s mental disorders in the perinatal period. To date, there have been no reports in the literature describing secular changes of both maternal and paternal hospital admissions for mental disorders over the period covering the year before pregnancy (non-parents), during pregnancy (expectant parents) and up to the first year after birth (parents) based on linked parental data. The co-occurrences of couples’ hospital admissions for mental disorders have not previously been investigated. Aims To describe maternal and paternal hospital admissions for mental disorders before and after birth. To compare the co-occurrences of parents’ hospital admissions for mental disorder in the perinatal period. Method This is a cohort study using paired parents’ population data from the New South Wales (NSW) Perinatal Data Collection (PDC), Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages (RBDM) and Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC). The study included all parents (n=196 669 couples) who gave birth to their first child in NSW between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2009. Results The hospital admission rate for women with a principal mental disorder diagnosis in the period between the year before pregnancy and the first year after birth was significantly higher than that for men. Parents’ mental disorders influenced each other. If a man was admitted to hospital with a principal mental disorder diagnosis, his wife or partner was more likely to be admitted to hospital with a principal mental disorder diagnosis compared with women whose partner had not had a hospital admission, and vice versa. Conclusions Mothers’ mental disorders after birth increased more significantly than fathers. However, fathers’ mental disorders significantly impacted the co-occurrence of mothers’ mental disorders

  5. Bisphenol A and Adiposity in an Inner-City Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hoepner, Lori A.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Widen, Elizabeth M.; Hassoun, Abeer; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Mueller, Noel T.; Diaz, Diurka; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) may contribute to the development of obesity. Prospective evidence in humans on this topic is limited. Objectives: We examined prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures in relation to childhood measures of adiposity in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) New York City birth cohort. Methods: BPA concentrations were measured in prenatal (n = 375) and child ages 3 (n = 408) and 5 years (n = 518) spot urine samples. Childhood anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance outcomes included body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) at 5 and 7 years, and fat mass index (FMI), percent body fat (%BF), and waist circumference (WC) at 7 years. Associations were evaluated using multiple linear regression with continuous and tertile BPA concentrations. Results: Prenatal urinary BPA concentrations were positively associated with child age 7 FMI (β = 0.31 kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.60, p = 0.04), %BF (β = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.03, 1.55, p = 0.04), and WC (β = 1.29 cm; 95% CI: 0.29, 2.30, p = 0.01), but not BMIZ, or change in BMIZ between ages 5 and 7 years (all p-values > 0.1). FMI results were sex-specific. Child urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric outcomes (all p-values > 0.05). Conclusions: Analyses of the CCCEH longitudinal birth cohort found associations between prenatal urinary BPA concentrations and FMI, %BF, and WC. Our results suggest that prenatal BPA exposure may contribute to developmental origins of adiposity. These findings are consistent with several prior studies, raising concern about the pervasiveness of BPA. Citation: Hoepner LA, Whyatt RM, Widen EM, Hassoun A, Oberfield SE, Mueller NT, Diaz D, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Rundle AG. 2016. Bisphenol A and adiposity in an inner-city birth cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1644–1650; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP205 PMID:27187982

  6. Adolescent self-organization predicts midlife memory in a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man K; Jones, Peter B; Barnett, Jennifer H; Gaysina, Darya; Kuh, Diana; Croudace, Tim J; Richards, Marcus

    2013-12-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health have a lasting impact on adult life chances, with strong implications for subsequent health, including cognitive aging. Using the British 1946 birth cohort, the authors tested associations between adolescent conduct problems, emotional problems and aspects of self-organization, and verbal memory at 43 years and rate of decline in verbal memory from 43 to 60-64 years. After controlling for childhood intelligence, adolescent self-organization was positively associated with verbal memory at 43 years, mainly through educational attainment, although not with rate of memory decline. Associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and future memory were of negligible magnitude. It has been suggested that interventions to improve self-organization may save a wide range of societal costs; this study also suggests that this might also benefit cognitive function in later life. PMID:24364401

  7. Daytime sleep duration and the development of childhood overweight: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bolijn, R; Gubbels, J S; Sleddens, E F C; Kremers, S P J; Thijs, C

    2016-10-01

    Reduced nighttime sleep is a risk factor for childhood overweight, but the association between daytime sleep and overweight is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate daytime sleep duration as an independent risk factor for childhood overweight. Data from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study on daytime and nighttime sleep at 2 years (N = 2322), and body mass index (BMI) around 2, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 years were used. Multivariable general estimating equation regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of sleep duration with BMI (linear) and overweight (logistic). No associations between daytime sleep and BMI or overweight were found, whereas longer nighttime sleep was associated with lower BMI and lower risk of overweight persisting up to age 9. Daytime sleep duration is probably less relevant for prevention of childhood overweight.

  8. The case for launch of an international DNA-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor; Chopra, Mickey; Aulchenko, Yurii; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Edmond, Karen; Horta, Bernardo L.; Klugman, Keith P.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Nair, Harish; Qureshi, Zeshan; Rubens, Craig; Theodoratou, Evropi; Victora, Cesar G.; Wang, Wei; Weber, Martin W.; Wilson, James F.; Zgaga, Lina; Campbell, Harry

    2011-01-01

    The global health agenda beyond 2015 will inevitably need to broaden its focus from mortality reduction to the social determinants of deaths, growing inequities among children and mothers, and ensuring the sustainability of the progress made against the infectious diseases. New research tools, including technologies that enable high-throughput genetic and ‘-omics’ research, could be deployed for better understanding of the aetiology of maternal and child health problems. The research needed to address those challenges will require conceptually different studies than those used in the past. It should be guided by stringent ethical frameworks related to the emerging collections of biological specimens and other health related information. We will aim to establish an international birth cohort which should assist low- and middle-income countries to use emerging genomic research technologies to address the main problems in maternal and child health, which are still major contributors to the burden of disease globally. PMID:23198101

  9. Assessment of screening, treatment, and prevention of perinatal infections in the Philadelphia birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Amy B; Watson, Barbara; Mazar, Rebecca; Andrel, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Certain population groups are at risk for inadequate prenatal care and transmission of perinatal infections. Philadelphia's birth cohort comprises largely at-risk groups and its infant mortality rate is among the nation's highest. This study identifies factors associated with infectious disease screening, treatment, and prevention in Philadelphia. Delivery charts for a probability sample of 550 patients were reviewed. Demographic factors associated with prenatal and delivery care were identified through Pearson chi-square, analysis of variance, and stepwise logistic regression analysis. Nonstandard and incomplete documentation complicated abstraction. Some prenatal care was noted in 95% of the records and screening varied by disease. Factors independently associated with care include maternal race, insurance status, and maternal age. Screening for infections with well-established recommendations (hepatitis B virus, rubella, syphilis) occurred more often than for group B streptococcus, HIV, hepatitis C virus, and varicella. Adoption of standard reporting forms and processes could improve practice and aid in quality improvement efforts and patient communication.

  10. Undernutrition in early life and body composition of adolescent males from a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Lima, Rosângela C

    2007-05-01

    The evidence for an association between poor nutrition in early life and subsequent obesity is inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated the associations between stunting, wasting and underweight at 2 and 4 years of age, and body composition in adolescence in male subjects studied since birth. The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study included all children born in maternity hospitals and living in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All males born in 1982 were legally required to enlist in the army between January and April 2000. We were thus able to track 2250 subjects in 2000 (78.9% of the original cohort). Anthropometric measurements were collected in 1984 and 1986, and body composition was assessed in 2000. In the present analysis, we used as predictors the nutritional indices height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age presented in six categories. Outcomes included fat, lean and body mass indices and fat:lean mass ratio, derived from anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. ANOVA and linear regression were used in the analyses to adjust for confounding. All predictors were positively associated with fat and body mass indices. Height-for-age Z score at age 2 or 4 years was not associated with lean mass index, but all other predictors were associated. Fat:lean mass ratio was associated only with weight-for-height Z score. Our results suggest that undernutrition is not a risk factor for overweight and obesity in our population and may partially protect against fatness in adolescence.

  11. Typical intellectual engagement and cognition in the ninth decade of life: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921.

    PubMed

    von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J

    2012-09-01

    Investment traits--the tendency to seek out and engage in cognitive activity--might affect intellectual growth across the life span, specifically the development from fluid to crystallized intelligence. Here we explore how childhood IQ at age 11 years, IQ at age 79, and the investment trait Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) at age 81 affect the mean level and change in verbal fluency scores, used as an indicator of crystallized intelligence, across the ages 79, 83, and 87 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (maximum N = 569; Deary, Whiteman, Starr, Whalley, & Fox, 2004). A first latent growth model showed significant variance in the mean level of verbal fluency and significant decline in verbal fluency from age 79 to age 87. The rate of change was invariant across study participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. A second model found that IQ at age 11 significantly predicted IQ at age 79 (β = .66; p < .001), which in turn predicted verbal fluency and TIE in the ninth decade of life with standardized path parameters of .46 and .15 (p < .001), respectively. TIE had a significant association with verbal fluency (β = .14, p = .002); together, IQ at age 11 and 79 and TIE accounted for 25.5% of the variance in verbal fluency. A final model identified the TIE subfactor of intellectual curiosity as a significant mediator of the effect of IQ on verbal fluency; the TIE subfactors abstract thinking, reading, and problem solving showed no significant associations. In summary, TIE--in particular, intellectual curiosity--significantly mediated the effects of IQ on crystallized intelligence in old age. Because there was no significant between-subjects variance in verbal fluency trajectories in the current study, neither TIE nor IQ were associated with individual differences in cognitive decline.

  12. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  13. Premature birth and insulin resistance in infancy: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Payal, Vikas; Jora, Rakesh; Sharma, Pramod; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was done to determine the role of prematurity and other variables to predict insulin sensitivity in infancy. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective study, 36 preterm appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 11 preterm small for gestational age (SGA), and 17 term SGA included as study cohort and 36 term AGA as control cohort. Detailed anthropometry assessment was performed at birth, 3, 6, and 9 months and at 9 months, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin was done. Insulin resistance was determined by using homeostasis model assessment version 2. Results: It is found that preterm AGA (mean difference 0.617, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.43–0.80, P = 0.0001), preterm SGA (mean difference 0.764, 95% CI; 0.44–1.09, P = 0.0001), and term AGA (mean difference 0.725, 95% CI; 0.49–0.96, P = 0.0001) group had significantly higher insulin resistance than control. There was no significant difference in between preterm SGA and preterm AGA (mean difference 0.147 95% CI; −0.13–0.42, P = 0.927). In multiple regression models, SGA status (β =0.505) was more significant predictor of insulin resistance index than gestational age (β = −0.481), weight-for-length (β =0.315), and ponderal index (β = −0.194). Conclusion: Preterm birth is a risk factor for the future development of insulin resistance which may develop as early as infancy. PMID:27366716

  14. Childhood stunting and the metabolic syndrome components in young adults from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, L P; Gigante, D P; Horta, B L; de Barros, F C F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between stunting in the second year of life and metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood among subjects who have been prospectively followed-up since birth, in a city in Southern Brazil. Subjects/Methods: In 1984, we attempted to follow-up the entire cohort; the subjects were examined and their mothers interviewed. Stunting was defined by a length-for-age Z-score 2 s.d. or more below the mean, in accordance with the World Health Organization reference. Between 2004 and 2005, we again tried to follow the entire cohort; during this period the subjects were evaluated for the following metabolic syndrome components: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, random blood glucose, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Family income at the time of the baby's birth, asset index, mother's education, mother's smoking during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding were considered possible confounders. Linear regression was used in the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results: Among men, stunting was inversely associated with triglycerides (β=−11.90, confidence interval (CI)=−22.33 to −1.48) and waist circumference (β=−4.29, CI=−5.62 to −2.97), whereas for women stunting was negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (β=−4.50, CI=−6.47 to −2.52), triglycerides (β=−9.61, CI=−17.66 to −1.56) and waist circumference (β=−1.14, CI=−4.22 to −1.02). However, after controlling for confounding variables, these associations vanished. Conclusions: The findings suggest that stunting in childhood is not associated with metabolic syndrome components in young adults. PMID:26733042

  15. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  16. Psychosocial determinants of mistimed and unwanted pregnancy: the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC) study.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shun; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Matsumoto, Kaori; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Takei, Nori

    2012-07-01

    The terms mistimed pregnancy (MP) and unwanted pregnancy (UWP) refer to a woman's intentions regarding childbearing. Determinants for each type of pregnancy have not been well understood. The present study aims to investigate whether MP and UWP have different sets of psychosocial determinants compared to intended pregnancy, with a particular emphasis on any difference in the history of maternal psychiatric diagnosis. Using an ongoing birth cohort study, we consecutively enrolled parturients who were at mid-pregnancy (n = 780) and were expected to give birth at either of our two research sites. MP and UWP were defined according to previous studies. To avoid multiple testing, we adopted multinomial logistic regression to estimate the independent contribution of the determinants while simultaneously allowing for other variables. The dependent variable in the model had three classes: Intended pregnancy, MP and UWP. Determinants of MP included younger age (<25 years: OR = 2.6), currently working (OR = 1.6), and history of major depression (OR = 2.0). Determinants for UWP were multiparity (OR = 3.9), short (≤12 years, OR = 1.7) and long period of education (≥17 years, OR = 3.3), history of anxiety disorder (OR = 2.5), currently working (OR = 0.6) and high income (≥8 million JPY, OR = 0.4). Different sets of psychosocial determinants contribute to formulate MP and UWP. A history of mental illness plays a role in predicting pregnancy intention. PMID:21915677

  17. Manganese exposure through drinking water during pregnancy and size at birth: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Kippler, Maria; Ahmed, Sultan; Palm, Brita; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2015-06-01

    The essential element manganese (Mn) might be toxic at excess exposure. We assessed the impact of elevated Mn exposure through drinking water during pregnancy on birth size in a population-based cohort(n = 1695) in rural Bangladesh. Concentrations of water Mn (median = 236 μg/L, range = 7.1-6336; n = 1177) and erythrocyte Mn (median = 30 μg/kg, range = 6.3-114; n = 758) were measured using ICP-MS. In regression analyses, newborns of women in the highest tertile of water Mn (median = 1495 μg/L) were 0.49 cm (0.20 SD) shorter (B = -0.42; 95% CI: -0.77, -0.08) than those in the lowest tertile (56μg/L). The inverse association was significant in girls and also in boys of mothers with lowest hemoglobin values, likely due to higher absorption of Mn. Manganese concentrations in water and erythrocytes did not correlate, and the associations of the latter with birth size were less obvious. This study suggests that consumption of water with highly elevated Mn levels during pregnancy may impair fetal growth.

  18. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  19. Clinical Disorders in a Post War British Cohort Reaching Retirement: Evidence from the First National Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Mary B.; Silverwood, Richard J.; Nitsch, Dorothea; Adams, Judith E.; Stephen, Alison M.; Nip, Wing; Macfarlane, Peter; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. Methods and Findings The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60–64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0–9); only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%–56.7%), obesity (31.1%, 28.8%–33.5%), raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1–28.26%), and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6–27.5%). A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. Conclusions Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the

  20. Gene-Vitamin D Interactions on Food Sensitization: A prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Guoying; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Deli; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Zhang, Shanchun; Arguelles, Lester; Kumar, Rajesh; Wang, Hongjian; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Ying; Pearson, Colleen; Ortiz, Kathryn; Schleimer, Robert; Holt, Patrick; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Price, Heather E; Langman, Craig; Wang, Xiaobin

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency (VDD) contributes to the development of food sensitization (FS) and then food allergy. However, the epidemiological evidence is conflicting. We aim to examine if cord blood VDD is associated with FS and if such association can be modified by genetic variants in a prospective birth cohort. Methods This study included 649 children who were enrolled at birth and followed from birth onward at the Boston Medical Center. We defined VDD as cord blood 25(OH)D < 11ng/ml, and FS as specific IgE ≥ 0.35kUA/L to any of eight common food allergens in early childhood. We genotyped potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 genes known to be involved in regulating IgE and 25(OH)D concentrations. Logistic regressions were used to test the effects of VDD on FS individually and jointly with SNPs. Results Among the 649 children, 44% had VDD and 37% had FS. When examined alone, VDD was not associated with FS. When examined jointly with SNPs, a significant interaction between IL4 gene polymorphism (rs2243250) and VDD (pinteraction=0.003, pFDR=0.10) was found: VDD increased the risk of FS among children carrying CC/CT genotypes (OR=1.79, 95%CI: 1.15–2.77). Similar but weaker interactions were observed for SNPs in MS4A2 (rs512555), FCER1G (rs2070901), and CYP24A1 (rs2762934). When all four SNPs were simultaneously considered, a strong gene-VDD interaction was evident (pinteraction=9×10−6). Conclusions Our data demonstrate that VDD may increase the risk of FS among individuals with certain genotypes, providing evidence of gene-vitamin D interaction on FS. PMID:21819409

  1. Gestational Age and Neonatal Brain Microstructure in Term Born Infants: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wang, Changqing; Li, Yue; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Fortier, Marielle V.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37–41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth. Methods A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy. Results Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p<0.001), as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst ‘term’ infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb. PMID:25535959

  2. Preterm newborns at Kangaroo Mother Care: a cohort follow-up from birth to six months

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Maria Alexsandra da S.; Garcia, Daniela Cavalcante; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; Cipolotti, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical outcomes, growth and exclusive breastfeeding rates in premature infants assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care at birth, at discharge and at six months of life. METHODS: Prospective study of a premature infants cohort assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care in a tertiary public maternity in Northeast Brazil with birth weight ≤1750g and with clinical conditions for Kangaroo care. RESULTS: The sample was composed by 137 premature infants, being 62.8% female, with average birth weight of 1365±283g, average gestational age of 32±3 weeks and 26.2% were adequate for gestational age. They have been admitted in the Kangaroo Ward with a median of 13 days of life, weighing 1430±167g and, at this time, 57.7% were classified as small for corrected gestational age. They were discharged with 36.8±21.8 days of chronological age, weighing 1780±165g and 67.9% were small for corrected gestational age. At six months of life (n=76), they had an average weight of 5954±971g, and 68.4% presented corrected weight for gestational age between percentiles 15 and 85 of the World Health Organization (WHO) weight curve. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was 56.2% and, at six months of life, 14.4%. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied sample, almost two thirds of the children assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care were, at six months of life, between percentiles 15 and 85 of the WHO weight curves. The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding at six months was low. PMID:25119747

  3. Criminal victimization in childhood and adolescence according to official records: the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo Gallo, Erika Alejandra; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Murray, Joseph; Duarte da Silva, Luciana Anselmi; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This article describes different types of officially recorded victimization among 5,249 children in the 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Official data were obtained from the Secretariat for Public Security and the Special Court for Children and Youth. Victimization was registered for in 1,150 cohort members, with 1,396 incidents recorded as of December 31, 2012. The total incidence of victimization was 15.7 ocorrences per 1,000 person-years, with the majority involving violent victimization (12.7 per 1,000 person-years). Victimization increased gradually in childhood and rapidly throughout adolescence. The highest incidence rates were among females (p < 0.05), the poor (p < 0.05), children of adolescent mothers (p < 0.001), and children of single mothers (p < 0.05). The most common violent victimization types were physical injuries, robbery, and crimes against personal freedom; non-violent victimization mainly involved theft. Studies like this help identify lifetime risk and protective factors for victimization, highlighting the importance of surveillance and control measures against violence. PMID:27580232

  4. [A birth cohort study on allergic diseases among toddlers in Northwest Germany].

    PubMed

    Pohlabeln, H; Jacobs, S; Böhmann, J

    2012-06-01

    In the late 1990s, a birth cohort study was conducted in the cities of Delmenhorst, Wilhelmshaven and Leer, where more than 3,000 newborn children were recruited in five hospitals. The baseline survey in the clinics was followed by three follow-up surveys 6, 12 and 24 months later. The prime concern of the study was to estimate prevalences and to conduct analyses concerning the association between breastfeeding as well as exposure to pets and the occurrence of allergy symptoms. Children living together with a dog in the same household were at higher risk of disease only if a familial predisposition of allergic diseases was present - without such a familial predisposition a dog in the same household seems to reduce the risk for atopic diseases during the first 2 years of life. A protective effect due to long breastfeeding could be observed in our study in particular in case of a paternal history of allergic diseases, whereas an exclusive maternal history of allergic diseases seems to increase the risk. The concept of the study has proved itself. Contacting mothers in obstetrical departments in hospitals as well as in medical offices of self-employed pediatricians has proven to be very practicable. With comparatively little effort a relatively large cohort was recruited, which allowed us to analyze longitudinal data, adequately taking into account several confounders as well as effect-modifying factors. PMID:22736168

  5. Establishment of the MAL-ED birth cohort study site in Vellore, Southern India.

    PubMed

    John, Sushil M; Thomas, Rahul J; Kaki, Shiny; Sharma, Srujan L; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Raghava, Mohan V; Koshy, Beena; Bose, Anuradha; Rose, Anuradha; Rose, Winsley; Ramachandran, Anup; Joseph, A J; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-11-01

    The Indian Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) site is in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, in south India and is coordinated by the Christian Medical College, Vellore, which has many years of experience in establishing and following cohorts. India is a diverse country, and no single area can be representative with regard to many health and socioeconomic indicators. The site in Vellore is an urban semiorganized settlement or slum. In the study site, the average family size is 5.7, adults who are gainfully employed are mostly unskilled laborers, and 51% of the population uses the field as their toilet facility. Previous studies from Vellore slums have reported stunting in well over a third of children, comparable to national estimates. The infant mortality rate is 38 per 1000 live births, with deaths due mainly to perinatal and infectious causes. Rigorous staff training, monitoring, supervision and refinement of tools have been essential to maintaining the quality of the significantly large quantity of data collected. Establishing a field clinic within the site has minimized inconvenience to participants and researchers and enabled better rapport with the community and better follow-up. These factors contribute to the wealth of information that will be generated from the MAL-ED multisite cohort, which will improve our understanding of enteric infections and its interactions with malnutrition and development of young children.

  6. Criminal victimization in childhood and adolescence according to official records: the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Murray, Joseph; Silva, Luciana Anselmi Duarte da; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This article describes different types of officially recorded victimization among 5,249 children in the 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Official data were obtained from the Secretariat for Public Security and the Special Court for Children and Youth. Victimization was registered for in 1,150 cohort members, with 1,396 incidents recorded as of December 31, 2012. The total incidence of victimization was 15.7 ocorrences per 1,000 person-years, with the majority involving violent victimization (12.7 per 1,000 person-years). Victimization increased gradually in childhood and rapidly throughout adolescence. The highest incidence rates were among females (p < 0.05), the poor (p < 0.05), children of adolescent mothers (p < 0.001), and children of single mothers (p < 0.05). The most common violent victimization types were physical injuries, robbery, and crimes against personal freedom; non-violent victimization mainly involved theft. Studies like this help identify lifetime risk and protective factors for victimization, highlighting the importance of surveillance and control measures against violence. PMID:27580232

  7. Premorbid Anomalies and Risk of Schizophrenia and Depressive Disorders in a Birth Cohort Exposed to Prenatal Rubella

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Justin D.; Brown, Alan S.

    2007-01-01

    In a birth cohort prenatally exposed to rubella, we assessed whether prospectively documented premorbid neuromotor dysfunction, mannerisms, deviant behaviors, and temperament during childhood and adolescence were impaired in cases who developed depressive disorder (DD) relative to rubella-exposed controls and cases who developed schizophrenia…

  8. Intergenerational Class Mobility in Britain: A Comparative Look across Three Generations in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 sample is in a uniquely good position to provide relevant data on social class mobility patterns over most of the last century. These participants, with known ultimate social class attainment, took a validated mental test in the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 and were followed up at approximately age 70. Then, besides…

  9. Family Structure Transitions and Early Childhood Development in Taiwan: Evidence from a Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan has over the past three decades been experiencing demographic changes that may pose important concerns for children's quality of life. This study examines the relationships and potential pathways between family structure transitions and early childhood development. Our analysis is based on 19,499 children from the 2005 birth cohort who…

  10. The Association between Cognitive Ability across the Lifespan and Health Literacy in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Catherine; Johnson, Wendy; Wolf, Michael S.; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and four participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study took a validated IQ-type test at age 11 years and a battery of cognitive tests at age 70 years. Three tests of health literacy were completed at age 72 years; the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults…

  11. Gender Differences of Children's Developmental Trajectory from 6 to 60 Months in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Feng, Jui-Ying; Chen, Po-Fei; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The parental report instrument is the most efficient developmental detection method and has shown high validity with professional assessment instruments. The reliability and validity of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) 6-, 18- and 36-month scales have already been established. In this study, the reliability and validity of the 60-month scale…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  13. Oral health-related quality of life in a birth cohort of 32-year olds

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Herenia P.; Thomson, W. Murray; Broadbent, Jonathan M.; Poulton, Richie

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among New Zealand adults and assess the relationship between clinical measures of oral health status and a well-established OHRQoL measure, controlling for sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and use of dental services. Methods A birth cohort of 924 dentate adults (participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study) was systematically examined for dental caries, tooth loss, and periodontal attachment loss (CAL) at age 32 years. OHRQoL was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). The questionnaire also collected data on each study member’s occupation, self-rated oral health and reasons for seeing a dental care provider. SES was determined from each individual’s occupation at age 32 years. Results The mean total OHIP-14 score was 8.0 (SD 8.1); 23.4% of the cohort reported one or more OHIP problems ‘fairly often’ or ‘very often’. When the prevalence of impacts ‘fairly/very often’ was modeled using logistic regression, having untreated caries, two or more sites with CAL of 4+ mm and 1 or more teeth missing by age 32 years remained significantly associated with OHRQoL, after adjusting for sex and ‘episodic’ dental care. Multivariate analysis using Poisson regression determined that being in the low SES group was also associated with the mean number of impacts (extent) and the rated severity of impacts. Conclusions OHIP-14 scores were significantly associated with clinical oral health status indicators, independently of sex and socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. The prevalence of impacts (23.4%) in the cohort was significantly greater than age- and sex-standardized estimates from Australia (18.2%) and the UK (15.9%). PMID:18650957

  14. Gestational dating by metabolic profile at birth: a California cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L.; Norton, Mary E.; Baer, Rebecca J.; Santos, Nicole; Rutherford, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate gestational dating is a critical component of obstetric and newborn care. In the absence of early ultrasound, many clinicians rely on less accurate measures, such as last menstrual period or symphysis-fundal height during pregnancy, or Dubowitz scoring or the Ballard (or New Ballard) method at birth. These measures often underestimate or overestimate gestational age and can lead to misclassification of babies as born preterm, which has both short- and long-term clinical care and public health implications. Objective We sought to evaluate whether metabolic markers in newborns measured as part of routine screening for treatable inborn errors of metabolism can be used to develop a population-level metabolic gestational dating algorithm that is robust despite intrauterine growth restriction and can be used when fetal ultrasound dating is not available. We focused specifically on the ability of these markers to differentiate preterm births (PTBs) (<37 weeks) from term births and to assign a specific gestational age in the PTB group. Study Design We evaluated a cohort of 729,503 singleton newborns with a California birth in 2005 through 2011 who had routine newborn metabolic screening and fetal ultrasound dating at 11–20 weeks’ gestation. Using training and testing subsets (divided in a ratio of 3:1) we evaluated the association among PTB, target newborn characteristics, acylcarnitines, amino acids, thyroid-stimulating hormone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and galactose-1-phosphate-uridyl-transferase. We used multivariate backward stepwise regression to test for associations and linear discriminate analyses to create a linear function for PTB and to assign a specific week of gestation. We used sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value to evaluate the performance of linear functions. Results Along with birthweight and infant age at test, we included 35 of the 51 metabolic markers measured in the final multivariate model comparing PTBs and

  15. Large prospective birth cohort studies on environmental contaminants and child health – Goals, challenges, limitations and needs

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Meng; Fraser, William D.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The adverse health effects of environmental contaminants (ECs) are a rising public health concern, and a major threat to sustainable socioeconomic development. The developing fetuses and growing children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of ECs. However, assessing the health impact of ECs presents a major challenge, given that multiple outcomes may arise from one exposure, multiple exposures may result in one outcome, and the complex interactions between ECs, and between ECs, nutrients and genetic factors, and the dynamic temporal changes in EC exposures during the life course. Large-scale prospective birth cohort studies collecting extensive data and specimen starting from the prenatal or pre-conception period, although costly, hold promise as a means to more clearly quantify the health effects of ECs, and to unravel the complex interactions between ECs, nutrients and genotypes. A number of such large-scale studies have been launched in some developed counties. We present an overview of “why”, “what” and “how” behind these efforts with an objective to uncover major unidentified limitations and needs. Three major limitations were identified: (1) limited data and bio-specimens regarding early life EC exposure assessments in some birth cohort studies; (2) heavy participant burdens in some birth cohort studies may bias participant recruitment, and risk substantial loss to follow-up, protocol deviations limiting the quality of data and specimens collection, with an overall potential bias towards the null effect; (3) lack of concerted efforts in building comparable birth cohorts across countries to take advantage of natural “experiments” (large EC exposure level differences between countries) for more in-depth assessments of dose–response relationships, threshold exposure levels, and positive and negative effect modifiers. Addressing these concerns in current or future large-scale birth cohort studies may help to produce better

  16. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    EPA Science Inventory

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  17. Adverse birth outcomes among native-born and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan: A population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of children born to foreign-born mothers in Taiwan has significantly increased since the 1990s. These foreign-born mothers are mainly from China and Southeast Asia. Children born to foreign-born mothers, according to media reports, are subject to inferior health. This study sought to determine whether socioeconomic disparities in birth outcomes exist between native and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan. Methods Analysis data were obtained from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study of 20,090 nationally representative 6-month-old babies, born in 2005. The data on the babies were divided into two groups, those of foreign-born mothers and those of Taiwanese mothers. The health outcome variables that were examined included two adverse birth outcomes: low birth weight and preterm birth. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between income and foreign-born status, as well as birth outcomes among both groups. Results Children of native Taiwanese mothers had a higher prevalence of low birth weight (6.9%) than did children of China-born (4.7%) and Southeast Asia-born mothers (5.2%). The prevalence of preterm birth was also higher among children of native Taiwanese mothers (8.4%) than among children of Southeast Asia-born (7.2%) and China-born mothers (6.3%). Foreign-born status was associated with lower odds of low birth weight among families with a monthly family income < NT$30,000 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.14–0.42, p < 0.001), and lower odds of preterm birth among families with a monthly family income < NT$30,000 and NT$30,000–69,999 (AOR = 0.63, CI = 0.40–0.99, p < 0.05, and AOR = 0.68, CI = 0.53–0.88, p < 0.01, respectively). Having a higher monthly family income (NT$70,000+ and NT$30,000–69,999) was associated with lower odds of low birth weight (AOR = 0.59, CI = 0.46–0.77, p < 0.001 and AOR = 0.75, CI = 0.60–0.94, p < 0.05, respectively) among Taiwanese mothers, but not among

  18. Parity, age at first birth, and risk of death from asthma: evidence from a cohort in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-06-11

    This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between age at first birth and parity and risk of asthma death. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women in Taiwan who had a first live birth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We tracked each woman from the date of their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios of death from asthma associated with parity and age at first birth. A trend of increasing risk of asthma death was seen with increasing age at first birth. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-1.08) among women with two live births and 0.53 (95% CI = 0.36-0.78) among those with three or more births, compared with women who had one live birth. There was a significant decreasing trend in adjusted hazard ratios of asthma death with increasing parity. This study is the first to provide evidences to support an association between reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) and the risk of asthma death.

  19. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. Methods In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. Results In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. Conclusions It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. PMID:26678603

  20. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and the risk of preterm births in China: a large prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Folic acid-containing multivitamins have been associated with a reduced risk of preterm birth. We examined whether periconceptional use of folic acid alone reduced this risk. Methods: Data were derived from a large population-based cohort study conducted in China to evaluate the prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation. The sample comprised 207 936 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 20–42 weeks to women from two provinces in southern China. Healthcare workers recorded folic acid intake prospectively each month. Gestational age calculation was based on the first day of the last menstrual period. Preterm births were categorized into three clinical subtypes: iatrogenic preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and spontaneous preterm birth. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between folic acid use and the risk of preterm birth, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The incidence of preterm birth was significantly lower among folic acid users (5.28%) than among non-users (6.10%). Folic acid use showed a 14% risk reduction for preterm birth overall [adjusted risk ratio (RR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–0.90]. This association was strongest for spontaneous preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.78–0.86) and was not significant for iatrogenic preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.88–1.07) or PPROM (adjusted RR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.93–1.23). Conclusions: Daily intake of 400 μg folic acid alone during the periconceptional period was associated with a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm birth. PMID:24603317

  1. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts: Multi-Pollutant Models Based on Elastic Net Regression

    PubMed Central

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Rylander, Lars; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. Objectives We assessed associations between multiple correlated biomarkers of environmental exposure and birth weight. Methods We evaluated a cohort of 1,250 term (≥ 37 weeks gestation) singleton infants, born to 513 mothers from Greenland, 180 from Poland, and 557 from Ukraine, who were recruited during antenatal care visits in 2002‒2004. Secondary metabolites of diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. Results Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty regression. In an adjusted, unpenalized regression model of the four exposures, 2-SD increases in natural log–transformed MEHHP, PFOA, and p,p´-DDE were associated with lower birth weight: –87 g (95% CI: –137, –340 per 1.70 ng/mL), –43 g (95% CI: –108, 23 per 1.18 ng/mL), and –135 g (95% CI: –192, –78 per 1.82 ng/g lipid), respectively; and MOiNP was associated with higher birth weight (46 g; 95% CI: –5, 97 per 2.22 ng/mL). Conclusions This study suggests that several of the environmental contaminants, belonging to three chemical classes, may be independently associated with impaired fetal growth. These results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. Citation Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP

  2. Weight change before and after the introduction of solids: results from a longitudinal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    van Rossem, Lenie; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Looman, Caspar W N; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Mackenbach, Johan P; Moll, Henriëtte A; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-28

    We studied the association, and its direction, between the introduction of solids and weight-for-height (WFH) change between birth and 45 months. Pregnant women were asked to participate in a birth cohort during their first antenatal visit. Data from 3184 children were used. The timing of the introduction of solids was reported by the mother from a questionnaire at 12 months postpartum, and categorised into very early (0-3 months), early (3-6 months) and timely (after 6 months) introduction of solids. Anthropometric data were collected during standardised child health centre visits. WFH was converted into a z-score. Repeated-measurements analyses with splines positioned according to the moments of solid introduction were used to obtain estimates for WFH change before and after the introduction of solids. Analyses were adjusted for educational level, ethnicity, smoking during pregnancy, mother's BMI, breast-feeding, history of food allergy and infant's hospital admission. Before solids were introduced, weight gain was higher in children introduced to solids early (z= 0.65, 95 % CI 0.34, 0.95) than in children introduced to solids very early (z= 0.02, 95 % CI -0.03, 0.08) and timely (z= -0.04, 95 % CI -0.05, -0.03). Shortly after the introduction of solids, children introduced to solids very early and early showed a relative decrease in WFH. WFH change did not differ between the solid introduction groups after 12 months, and at that time, weight change was as expected (i.e. z= 0). We therefore conclude that differences in WFH in childhood are not the result of early introduction to solids.

  3. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Subjects/Methods We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. Results A total of 17721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; p=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047). Conclusions Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy. PMID:25233894

  4. Bronchial obstructive phenotypes in the first year of life among Paris birth cohort infants.

    PubMed

    Clarisse, Bénédicte; Demattei, Christophe; Nikasinovic, Lydia; Just, Jocelyne; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Momas, Isabelle

    2009-03-01

    As the natural history of respiratory and allergic manifestations is unclear, our ongoing Paris birth cohort study prospectively assesses the onset of these symptoms in early childhood. Data were collected by five questionnaires sent at regular intervals during the first year of life. Partitioning around medoids (PAM) was used to classify infants according to their bronchial obstructive symptoms. A polytomous logistic regression was performed to assess the eventual predictable power of various respiratory events and perinatal factors. Results are given for 2698 infants. Atopic dermatitis occurred in 17.9% of infants. The main respiratory symptoms in infancy were wheeze in the chest (22%), dyspnoea responsible for sleep disturbance (23.7%), nocturnal dry cough (14.5%) and shortness of breath (4.2%). The PAM method identified three groups of infants. Apart from the G0 group of infants mostly asymptomatic, two distinct clinical phenotypes (G1 and G2: 8.7% and 23.5% of total infants respectively) emerged. G2 was defined by severe bronchial obstructive disorders as all cases of dyspnoea with sleep disturbance were included in this group, while all infants assigned in G1 suffered from nocturnal dry cough. G2 group infants had significantly higher rates of respiratory events while a parental history of asthma, symptoms suggestive of rhino-conjunctivitis and birth season clearly differentiated the G1 group. Finally, G1 and G2 group infants should be closely followed up as they are expected to develop allergic and asthmatic phenotypes, possibly in relation to environmental and behavioural risk factors. PMID:18346096

  5. Seroprevalence of rubella in Colombia: a birth-year cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hincapie-Palacio, Doracelly; Lenis Ballesteros, Viviana; Ospina, Martha Ospina; Toro, Olga Lucía Pérez; Díaz, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the seroprevalence of rubella and associated factors. METHODS Population-based seroprevalence study in a random sample of 2,124 individuals, aged six to 64 years, representative by age, sex and area in Medellín, Colombia, 2009. Biological and socioeconomic variables were analyzed for their association with serum protection against rubella, according to birth-year cohort; those born before (1954-1990) and after (1991-2003) the introduction of universal immunization. Titer of IgG antibodies against the rubella virus was detected using a high sensitivity (AxSYM®Rubella IgG – Abbott Laboratories) and a high specificity test (VIDAS RUB IgG II®– BioMerieux Laboratories). Proportions and weighted averages derived from a complex sample, including a correction factor for differences in gender participation, were estimated. Association with protection for groups of biological and social variables according to birth cohort was analyzed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS Titers of IgG antibodies were higher in those born before (mean 110 UI/ml, 95%CI 100.5;120.2) compared to those born after (mean 64 UI/ml; 95%CI 54.4;72.8; p = 0.000) the introduction of mass immunization. The proportion of protection increased from 88.9% in those born 1990-1994, to 89.2% in those born 1995-1999 and to 92.1% in those born between 2000 and 2003, possibly due to boosters being administered from 1998 onwards. In those born before the introduction of the immunization, seroprotection was associated with previous contact with cases (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.1;5.9), self- perceived health status (OR 2.5; 95%CI 1.05;6.0), educational level (OR 0.2; 95%CI 0.08;0.8) and years of residence in the neighborhood (RD 0,96; 95%CI 0.98;1.0) after adjusting for all variables. In those born after, serum protection was associated with effective sleep time (OR 1,4; 95%CI 1.09;1.8) and self-perceived health status (OR 5.5; 95%CI 1.2;23.8). CONCLUSIONS The seroprevalence profile changed

  6. Intimate partner violence: associations with low infant birthweight in a South African birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Gail E.; Williams, John K.; Zhang, Muyu; Myer, Landon; Zar, Heather J.; Stein, Dan J.

    2015-01-01

    Violence against women is a global public health problem. Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including delivery of a low birthweight (LBW) infant. However, there is a paucity of data from low-middle income countries (LMIC). We examined the association between antenatal IPV and subsequent LBW in a South African birth cohort. This study reports data from the Drakenstein Child Lung Health Study (DCLHS), a multidisciplinary birth cohort investigation of the influence of a number of antecedent risk factors on maternal and infant health outcomes over time. Pregnant women seeking antenatal care were recruited at two different primary care clinics in a low income, semi-rural area outside Cape Town, South Africa. Antenatal trauma exposure was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and an IPV assessment tool specifically designed for the purposes of this study. Potential confounding variables including maternal sociodemographics, pregnancy intention, partner support, biomedical and mental illness, substance use and psychosocial risk were also assessed. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the association between IPV during pregnancy and delivery of an infant with LBW and/or low weight-for-age z (WAZ) scores. The final study sample comprised 263 mother-infant dyads. In multiple regression analyses, the model run was significant [r2=0.14 (adjusted r2=0.11, F(8, 212) = 4.16, p=0.0001]. Exposure to physical IPV occurring during the past year was found to be significantly associated with LBW [t=−2.04, p=0.0429] when controlling for study site (clinic), maternal height, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, substance use and childhood trauma. A significant association with decreased WAZ scores was not demonstrated. Exposure of pregnant women to IPV may impact newborn health. Further research is needed in this field to assess the

  7. Childhood IQ and risk of bipolar disorder in adulthood: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jana; Zammit, Stanley; Meyer, Thomas D.; Pell, Jill P.; Mackay, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Aims Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. Method We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features assessed at age 22–23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n=1881 individuals). An ordinary least squares linear regression model was used, with normal childhood IQ (range 90–109) as the referent group. We adjusted analyses for confounding factors, including gender, ethnicity, handedness, maternal social class at recruitment, maternal age, maternal history of depression and maternal education. Results There was a positive association between IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features at age 22–23 years (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.159 (95% CI 0.120–0.198), P>0.001). Individuals in the lowest decile of manic features had a mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) which was almost 10 points lower than those in the highest decile of manic features: mean FSIQ 100.71 (95% CI 98.74–102.6) v. 110.14 (95% CI 107.79–112.50), P>0.001. The association between IQ and manic features was present for FSIQ, VIQ and for PIQ but was strongest for VIQ. Conclusions A higher childhood IQ score, and high VIQ in particular, may represent a marker of risk for the later development of bipolar disorder. This finding has implications for understanding of how liability to bipolar disorder may have been selected through generations. It will also inform future genetic studies at the interface of intelligence, creativity and bipolar disorder and is relevant to the developmental trajectory of bipolar disorder. It may also improve approaches to earlier

  8. Prenatal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment at 24 Months: An Analysis of Four Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Stephanie M.; Bradman, Asa; Wolff, Mary S.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Harley, Kim G.; Yang, Jenny H.; Hoepner, Lori A.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Yolton, Kimberly; Vedar, Michelle G.; Xu, Yingying; Hornung, Richard W.; Wetmur, James G.; Chen, Jia; Holland, Nina T.; Perera, Frederica P.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are used in agriculture worldwide. Residential use was common in the United States before 2001. Objectives: We conducted a pooled analysis of four birth cohorts (children’s centers; n = 936) to evaluate associations of prenatal exposure to OPs with child development at 24 months. Methods: Using general linear models, we computed site-specific and pooled estimates of the association of total dialkyl (ΣDAP), diethyl (ΣDEP), and dimethylphosphate (ΣDMP) metabolite concentrations in maternal prenatal urine with mental and psychomotor development indices (MDI/PDI) and evaluated heterogeneity by children’s center, race/ethnicity, and PON1 genotype. Results: There was significant heterogeneity in the center-specific estimates of association for ΣDAP and ΣDMP and the MDI (p = 0.09, and p = 0.05, respectively), as well as heterogeneity in the race/ethnicity-specific estimates for ΣDAP (p = 0.06) and ΣDMP (p = 0.02) and the MDI. Strong MDI associations in the CHAMACOS population per 10-fold increase in ΣDAP (β = –4.17; 95% CI: –7.00, –1.33) and ΣDMP (β = –3.64; 95% CI: –5.97, –1.32) were influential, as were associations among Hispanics (β per 10-fold increase in ΣDAP = –2.91; 95% CI: –4.71, –1.12). We generally found stronger negative associations of ΣDAP and ΣDEP with the 24-month MDI for carriers of the 192Q PON1 allele, particularly among blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions: Data pooling was complicated by center-related differences in subject characteristics, eligibility, and changes in regulations governing residential use of OPs during the study periods. Pooled summary estimates of prenatal exposure to OPs and neurodevelopment should be interpreted with caution because of significant heterogeneity in associations by center, race/ethnicity, and PON1 genotype. Subgroups with unique exposure profiles or susceptibilities may be at higher risk for adverse neurodevelopment following prenatal

  9. Exploring racial differences in IgE-mediated food allergy in the WHEALS birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Christine L.M.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Havstad, Suzanne; Nicholas, Charlotte; Nageotte, Christian; Misiak, Rana; Enberg, Robert; Ezell, Jerel; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2016-01-01

    Background Suspected food allergies are the cause of more than 200,000 visits to the emergency department annually. Racial differences in the prevalence of food allergy have also been reported, but the evidence is less conclusive. Researchers continue to struggle with the identification of food allergy for epidemiologic studies. Objective To explore racial differences in IgE-mediated food allergy (IgE-FA) in a birth cohort. Methods We used a panel of board-certified allergists to systematically identify IgE-FA to egg, milk, or peanut in a multiethnic birth cohort in which patient medical history, patient symptoms, and clinical data were available through 36 months of age. Results Of the 590 infants analyzed, 52.9% were male and 65.8% African American. Sensitization (serum specific IgE >0.35 IU/mL) to the food allergens was significantly higher for African American children compared with non–African American children as has been previously reported. No statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in IgE-FA were observed; however, a higher proportion of African American children were designated as having peanut allergy, and the percentage of African American children with an IgE level greater than 95% predictive decision points for peanut was 1.7% vs 0.5% for non–African American children. With the use of logistic regression, race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with IgE-FA (adjusted odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.58–2.17; P = .75) but was associated with sensitization to more than 1 of the food allergens (adjusted odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.22–2.65; P = .003). Conclusion We did not observe an elevated risk of IgE-FA for African American children, although established differences in sensitization were observed. Racial/ethnic differences in sensitization must be taken into consideration when investigating disparities in asthma and allergy. PMID:26837607

  10. Issues in Design and Implementation in an Urban Birth Cohort Study: The Syracuse AUDIT Project

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Judith A.; Hargrave, Teresa M.; Hunt, Andrew; Liu, Chien-Chih; Anbar, Ran D.; Hall, Geralyn E.; Naishadham, Deepa; Czerwinski, Maria H.; Webster, Noah; Lane, Sandra D.

    2006-01-01

    The Syracuse AUDIT (Assessment of Urban Dwellings for Indoor Toxics) project is a birth cohort study of wheezing in the first year of life in a low-income urban setting. Such studies are important because of the documented serious risks to children's health and the lack of attention and published work on asthma development and intervention in communities of this size. We studied 103 infants of mothers with asthma, living predominantly in inner-city households. Our study combines measurements of a large panel of indoor environmental agents, in-home infant assessments, and review of all prenatal and postnatal medical records through the first year of life. We found multiple environmental pollution sources and potential health risks in study homes including high infant exposure to tobacco smoke. The prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy was 54%; postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was nearly 90%. The majority (73%) of homes showed signs of dampness. Participants' lives were complicated by poverty, unemployment and single-parenthood. Thirty-three percent of fathers were not involved with their children, and 62% of subjects moved at least once during the study period. These socioeconomic issues had an impact on project implementation and led to modification of study eligibility criteria. Extensive outreach, follow up, and relationship-building were required in order to recruit and retain families and resulted in considerable work overload for study staff. Our experiences implementing the project will inform further studies on this and other similar populations. Future reports on this cohort will address the role of multiple environmental variables and their effects on wheezing outcome during the first year of life. PMID:16845500

  11. Dietary factors and biomarkers of systemic inflammation in older people: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    PubMed

    Corley, Janie; Kyle, Janet A M; Starr, John M; McNeill, Geraldine; Deary, Ian J

    2015-10-14

    Epidemiological studies have reported inverse associations between various single healthy diet indices and lower levels of systemic inflammation, but rarely are they examined in the same sample. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential relationships between biomarkers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen) and overall foods (dietary patterns), single foods (fruits and vegetables), and specific nutritive (antioxidants) and non-nutritive (flavonoids) food components in the same narrow-age cohort of older adults. The dietary intake of 792 participants aged 70 years from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 was assessed using a 168-item FFQ. Models were adjusted for age, sex, childhood cognitive ability, lifestyle factors and history of disease. Using logistic regression analyses, CRP (normal v. elevated) was favourably associated (at P< 0·05) with the 'health-aware' (low-fat) dietary pattern (unstandardised β = (0·200, OR 0·82, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·99) and fruit intake (unstandardised β = (0·100, OR 0·91, 95 % CI 0·82, 0·99), including flavonoid-rich apples (unstandardised β = (0·456, OR 0·63, 95 % CI 0·439, 0·946). Using linear regression analyses, fibrinogen (continuous) was inversely associated (at P< 0·05) with the Mediterranean dietary pattern (standardised β = (0·100), fruit intake (standardised β = (0·083), and combined fruit and vegetable intake (standardised β = (0·084). We observed no association between food components (antioxidant nutrients or specific flavonoid subclasses) and inflammatory markers. In the present cross-sectional study, nutrient-dense dietary patterns were associated with lower levels of systemic inflammation in older people. The results are consistent with dietary guidelines that promote a balanced diet based on a variety of plant-based foods.

  12. Associations of birth weight, linear growth and relative weight gain throughout life with abdominal fat depots in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo de França, G V; Lucia Rolfe, E De; Horta, B L; Gigante, D P; Yudkin, J S; Ong, K K; Victora, C G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported on associations of size at birth and early growth with general and central obesity; however, few have examined the potential effects of birth weight and postnatal growth on separate abdominal fat compartments. We investigated the effects of size at birth, linear growth and relative weight gain from birth to adulthood on visceral (VFT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAFT) fat thicknesses at age 30 years. Methods: A total of 2663 participants from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study had complete information on ultrasound measures of abdominal fat at age 30 years, and anthropometric measurements for at least five visits (0/2/4/23/30 years). We estimated weight and height Z-score changes, conditional relative weight gain and conditional height at several ages. Results: In both men and women, VFT and SAFT showed positive associations with conditional relative weight gain during all age periods beyond 2 years and birth, respectively (all P⩽0.01). Women born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) had greater VFT than other women (difference=0.15 s.d., 95% CI: 0.01–0.29), and they showed a stronger positive influence of infant weight gain 0–2 years on VFT (IUGR: β=0.17 s.d., 95% CI: 0.05–0.29; non-IUGR: β=0.01 s.d., 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.06; Pinteraction=0.02). Stunting at 2 years was associated with lower SAFT but not VFT, and it modified the influence of weight gain 2–4 years on SAFT in both sexes (both Pinteraction<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the advantages of being born with an appropriate birth weight, and the hazards of rapid postnatal gains in weight relative to linear growth, particularly after the critical window of the first 1000 days. PMID:26395747

  13. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: “Children of 1997” (n = 8,327). Results Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Conclusions Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk. PMID:27088360

  14. Does amblyopia affect educational, health, and social outcomes? Findings from 1958 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, J S; Cumberland, P M; Peckham, C S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine any association of amblyopia with diverse educational, health, and social outcomes in order to inform current debate about population screening for this condition. Design, setting, and participants Comparison of 8432 people with normal vision in each eye with 429 (4.8%) people with amblyopia (childhood unilateral reduced acuity when tested with correction and unaccounted for by eye disease) from the 1958 British birth cohort, with respect to subsequent health and social functioning. Results No functionally or clinically significant differences existed between people with and without amblyopia in educational outcomes, behavioural difficulties or social maladjustment, participation in social activities, unintended injuries (school, workplace, or road traffic accidents as driver), general or mental health and mortality, paid employment, or occupation based social class trajectories. Conclusions It may be difficult to distinguish, at population level, between the lives of people with amblyopia and those without, in terms of several important outcomes. A pressing need exists for further concerted research on what it means to have amblyopia and, specifically, how this varies with severity and how it changes with treatment, so that screening programmes can best serve those who have the most to gain from early identification. PMID:16520328

  15. Investigation of mortality and pathological changes in a 14-month birth cohort of boxer puppies.

    PubMed

    Nielen, A L; van der Gaag, I; Knol, B W; Schukken, Y H

    1998-05-30

    This paper presents puppy mortality and postmortem findings for a birth cohort of boxer puppies born in the Netherlands between January 1994 and March 1995. In all, 457 litters were registered, of which 414 (90.6 per cent) were involved in the study. The 414 litters contained 2629 puppies, a mean litter size of 6.4 puppies. Of the 2629 puppies 571 (21.7 per cent) died or were euthanased before they were weaned at 50 days of age; there were 147 (25.7 per cent) stillbirths; 102 (17.9 per cent) were euthanased because they were white; 269 (47.1 per cent) of the puppies died during the first 21 days of life and 53 (9.3 per cent) puppies died between days 22 and 50. The cause of death or the reason for euthanasia was assessed by either the breeder or the veterinarian in 176 of these 269 puppies but was not determined in the other 93 puppies. Three hundred and two puppies were examined postmortem; the most important cause of death or reasons for euthanasia were inflammatory disorders (102; 33.8 per cent), non-inflammatory disorders such as asphyxia and malnutrition (66; 21.9 per cent), euthanasia because they were white (51; 16.9 per cent), and congenital abnormalities (45; 14.9 per cent). No cause of death or reason for euthanasia could be found for 38 puppies (12.6 percent) PMID:9682419

  16. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3–4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set. PMID:25805254

  17. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  18. Do childhood sleeping problems predict obesity in young adulthood? Evidence from a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Abdullah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Cramb, Susanna; O'Callaghan, Michael; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake

    2007-12-15

    It has been suggested that sleeping problems are causally associated with obesity in early life, but most studies examining this association have been cross-sectional. The authors used a population-based birth cohort of 2,494 children who were born between 1981 and 1983 in Brisbane, Australia, to examine the prospective association between early-life sleeping problems (at ages 6 months and 2-4 years) and obesity at age 21 years. The authors compared mean body mass indices (BMIs; weight (kg)/height (m)2) and persons in the categories of overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9) and obesity (BMI > or =30) among offspring at age 21 years according to maternally reported childhood sleeping problems. They found that young adult BMI and the prevalence of obesity were greater in offspring who had had sleeping problems at ages 2-4 years than in with those who had not had sleeping problems. These associations were robust to adjustment for a variety of potential confounders, including offspring sex, maternal mental health, and BMI, and several mediators, including adolescent dietary patterns and television-watching. These findings provide some evidence for a long-term impact of childhood sleeping problems on the later development of obesity.

  19. The Pregnancy Exposome: Multiple Environmental Exposures in the INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Oliver; Basagaña, Xavier; Agier, Lydiane; de Castro, Montserrat; Hernandez-Ferrer, Carles; Gonzalez, Juan R; Grimalt, Joan O; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi; Slama, Rémy; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-09-01

    The "exposome" is defined as "the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome" and its holistic approach may advance understanding of disease etiology. We aimed to describe the correlation structure of the exposome during pregnancy to better understand the relationships between and within families of exposure and to develop analytical tools appropriate to exposome data. Estimates on 81 environmental exposures of current health concern were obtained for 728 women enrolled in The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort, in Sabadell, Spain, using biomonitoring, geospatial modeling, remote sensors, and questionnaires. Pair-wise Pearson's and polychoric correlations were calculated and principal components were derived. The median absolute correlation across all exposures was 0.06 (5th-95th centiles, 0.01-0.54). There were strong levels of correlation within families of exposure (median = 0.45, 5th-95th centiles, 0.07-0.85). Nine exposures (11%) had a correlation higher than 0.5 with at least one exposure outside their exposure family. Effectively all the variance in the data set (99.5%) was explained by 40 principal components. Future exposome studies should interpret exposure effects in light of their correlations to other exposures. The weak to moderate correlation observed between exposure families will permit adjustment for confounding in future exposome studies.

  20. Tracking of physical activity during adolescence: the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mario Renato; Menezes, Ana Maria; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Gonçalves, Helen; Arumi, Ignasi; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze physical activity during adolescence in participants of the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil. METHODS Data on leisure time physical activity at 11, 15, and 18 years of age were analyzed. At each visit, a cut-off point of 300 min/week was used to classify adolescents as active or inactive. A total of 3,736 participants provided data on physical activity at each of the three age points. RESULTS A significant decline in the proportion of active adolescents was observed from 11 to 18 years of age, particularly among girls (from 32.9% to 21.7%). The proportions of girls and boys who were active at all three age points were 28.0% and 55.1%, respectively. After adjustment for sex, economic status, and skin color, participants who were active at 11 and 15 years of age were 58.0% more likely to be active at 18 years of age compared with those who were inactive at 11 and 15 years of age. CONCLUSIONS Physical activity declined during adolescence and inactivity tended to track over time. Our findings reinforce the need to promote physical activity at early stages of life, because active behavior established early tends to be maintained over time. PMID:26039395

  1. Prenatal origins of hospitalization for personality disorders: the Helsinki birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Marius; Räikkönen, Katri; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Heinonen, Kati; Forsén, Tom; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Eriksson, Johan G

    2010-09-30

    Although a suboptimal prenatal environment has been linked with schizophrenia and depression, possible associations with personality disorders remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of body size at birth and length of gestation with hospitalization for personality disorders in a cohort study of 6506 men and 5857 women born in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. International Classification of Diseases (-8, -9, -10) diagnoses of personality disorders were extracted from the national Finnish Hospital Discharge Register since 1969. 102 men and 80 women had been hospitalized due to any personality disorder. 41 men and 30 women had dramatic personality disorders. Among men, head circumference showed an inverse J-shaped, nonlinear association with hospitalization for personality disorders. Men with a small head circumference were at increased risk. Also in men, a smaller head-to-length ratio linearly predicted personality disorders. Among women, a smaller placental area predicted increased risk of hospitalization for dramatic personality disorders. Vulnerability to personality disorders may be programmed during fetal life. PMID:20493545

  2. Effect of Vaccination Coordinators on Socioeconomic Disparities in Immunization Among the 2006 Connecticut Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kudish, Kathy S.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Soto, Kristen; Hadler, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined socioeconomic status (SES) disparities and the influence of state Immunization Action Plan–funded vaccination coordinators located in low-SES areas of Connecticut on childhood vaccination up-to-date (UTD) status at age 24 months. Methods. We examined predictors of underimmunization among the 2006 birth cohort (n = 34 568) in the state’s Immunization Information System, including individual demographic and SES data, census tract SES data, and residence in an area with a vaccination coordinator. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results. Overall, 81% of children were UTD. Differences by race/ethnicity and census tract SES were typically under 5%. Not being UTD at age 7 months was the strongest predictor of underimmunization at age 24 months. Among children who were not UTD at age 7 months, only Medicaid enrollment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5, 0.7) and residence in an area with a vaccination coordinator (AOR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) significantly decreased the odds of subsequent underimmunization. Conclusions. SES disparities associated with underimmunization at age 24 months were limited. Efforts focused on vaccinating infants born in low SES circumstances can minimize disparities. PMID:24228642

  3. Social integration and maternal smoking: A longitudinal analysis of a national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social support and engagement are related to smoking behavior in general populations, but it is unknown whether these measures of social integration as experienced by recent mothers are related to longitudinal maternal smoking patterns. The purpose of this study is, first, to describe longitudinal patterns of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy through the early childhood parenting years, as well as variation in these patterns; and second, to examine these patterns in relation to social integration, emotional, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors. Methods Among 9,050 mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (a nationally representative probability sample of children born in 2001), we estimated trajectories of maternal smoking with general growth mixture model (GGMM), and examined how baseline predictors are associated with these patterns over a 5 to 6 year period beginning three months prior to pregnancy. Results A 5-class solution identified trajectories of nonsmokers (70.5%), temporary quitters (9.4%), pregnancy-inspired quitters (3.3%), delayed initiators (5.1%), and persistent smokers (11.7%). Modifiable risk factors included postpartum alcohol consumption and behavioral cues from co-resident smokers, while breastfeeding beyond six months and social engagement through religious service attendance were protective characteristics. Conclusions Prevention of and treatment for maternal perinatal and postpartum smoking is best informed by mothers’ emotional, behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics. Religious service attendance, but not measures of social support or social engagement, is a protective factor for maternal smoking trajectories. PMID:26987858

  4. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set. PMID:25805254

  5. Childhood sleep disturbance and risk of psychotic experiences at 18: UK birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A.; Lereya, S. T.; Lewis, G.; Zammit, S.; Fisher, H. L.; Wolke, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in the psychosis prodrome, but rarely explored in relation to psychotic experiences. Aims To investigate the relationship between specific parasomnias (nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking) in childhood and later adolescent psychotic experiences. Method The sample comprised 4720 individuals from a UK birth cohort. Mothers reported on children's experience of regular nightmares at several time points between 2 and 9 years. Experience of nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking was assessed using a semi-structured interview at age 12. Psychotic experiences were assessed at ages 12 and 18 using a semi-structured clinical interview. Results There was a significant association between the presence of nightmares at 12 and psychotic experiences at 18 when adjusted for possible confounders and psychotic experiences at 12 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.19–2.20). The odds ratios were larger for those who reported persistent psychotic experiences. Conclusions The presence of nightmares might be an early risk indicator for psychosis. PMID:25953892

  6. The Aberdeen Indian Health Service Infant Mortality Study: Design, Methodology, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Leslie L.; Krogh, Christopher; Welty, Thomas K.; Willinger, Marian; Iyasu, Solomon

    2001-01-01

    Of all Indian Health Service areas, the Aberdeen Area has consistently had the highest infant mortality rate. Among some tribes in this area the rate has exceeded 30/1000 live birth and half the infant deaths have been attributed to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, a rate four to five times higher than the national average. The Indian Health Service,…

  7. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2016-03-15

    Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. The association between birth weight and adult PLC, separately in men and women was investigated, using a large cohort of 217,227 children (51% boys), born from 1936 to 1980, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, and followed them until 2010 in national registers. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of PLC (30 years or older) were estimated by Cox regression models stratified by birth cohort. During 5.1 million person-years of follow-up, 185 men and 65 women developed PLC. Sex modified the association between birth weight and adult PLC (p values for interaction = 0.0005). Compared with a sex-specific reference group of birth weights between 3.25 and 3.75 kg, men with birth weights between 2.00 and 3.25 kg and 3.75-5.50 kg, had HRs of 1.48 (1.06-2.05) and 0.85 (0.56-1.28), respectively. Among women the corresponding HRs were 1.71 (0.90-3.29) and 3.43 (1.73-6.82). Associations were similar for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across year of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders, viral hepatitis and biliary cirrhosis. Prenatal exposures influenced the risk of adult PLC, and the effects at the high birth weight levels appeared to be sex-specific. These findings underscore the importance of considering sex-specific mechanisms in the early origins of adult PLC.

  8. Longitudinal telomere length shortening and cognitive and physical decline in later life: The Lothian Birth Cohorts 1936 and 1921

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sarah E.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Cox, Simon R.; Corley, Janie; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length is hypothesised to be a biological marker of both cognitive and physical ageing. Here we measure telomere length, and cognitive and physical abilities at mean ages 70, 73 and 76 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936), and at mean ages 79, 87, 90 and 92 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC1921). We investigate whether telomere length change predicts change in cognitive and physical abilities. In LBC1936 telomere length decreased by an average of 65 base pairs per year and in LBC1921 by 69 base pairs per year. However, change in telomere length did not predict change in cognitive or physical abilities. This study shows that, although cognitive ability, walking speed, lung function and grip strength all decline with age, they do so independently of telomere length shortening. PMID:26876762

  9. Longitudinal telomere length shortening and cognitive and physical decline in later life: The Lothian Birth Cohorts 1936 and 1921.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sarah E; Marioni, Riccardo E; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J; Cox, Simon R; Corley, Janie; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-03-01

    Telomere length is hypothesised to be a biological marker of both cognitive and physical ageing. Here we measure telomere length, and cognitive and physical abilities at mean ages 70, 73 and 76 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936), and at mean ages 79, 87, 90 and 92 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC1921). We investigate whether telomere length change predicts change in cognitive and physical abilities. In LBC1936 telomere length decreased by an average of 65 base pairs per year and in LBC1921 by 69 base pairs per year. However, change in telomere length did not predict change in cognitive or physical abilities. This study shows that, although cognitive ability, walking speed, lung function and grip strength all decline with age, they do so independently of telomere length shortening.

  10. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Susan M; Mackerras, Dorothy; Singh, Gurmeet; Bucens, Ingrid; Flynn, Kathryn; Reid, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population. PMID:12659639

  11. Factors Influencing Enrolment: A Case Study from Birth to Twenty, the 1990 Birth Cohort in Soweto-Johannesburg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Linda M.; Panday, Saadhna; Norris, Shane A.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal studies offer significant advantages in rendering data commensurate with the complexity of human development. However, incomplete enrolment and attrition over time can introduce bias. Furthermore, there is a scarcity of evaluative information on cohorts in developing countries. This paper documents various strategies adopted to…

  12. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Danilo R; Costa, Jaderson C; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Halpern, Ricardo; Dumith, Samuel; Karam, Simone; Barros, Fernando C

    2010-05-01

    Many children are at risk of not achieving their full potential for development. Epidemiological studies have the advantage of being able to identify a number of associated factors potentially amenable to intervention. Our purpose was to identify risk factors for suspected developmental delay (SDD) at age 2 years among all children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004. This study was part of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The Battelle Screening Developmental Inventory (BSDI) was administered to cohort children at age 2 years. A hierarchical model of determination for SDD with confounder adjustment was built including maternal sociodemographic, reproductive and gestational characteristics, as well as child and environmental characteristics. Multivariable analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] were calculated. In the results, 3.3% of the 3869 children studied screened positive for SDD. After confounder control, children more likely to show SDD were: those with positive BSDI at age 12 months (PR = 5.51 [3.59, 8.47]); with 5-min Apgar <7 (PR = 3.52 [1.70, 7.27]); with mothers who had <4 years of schooling (PR = 3.35 [1.98, 5.66]); from social classes D and E (PR = 3.00 [1.45, 6.19]); with a history of gestational diabetes (PR = 2.77 [1.34, 5.75]); born <24 months after the last sibling (PR = 2.46 [1.42, 4.27]); were not told child stories in the preceding week (PR 2.28 [1.43, 3.63]); did not have children's literature at home (PR = 2.08 [1.27, 3.39]); with low birthweight (PR = 1.75 [1.00, 3.07]); were born preterm (PR = 1.74 [1.07, 2.81]); with <6 antenatal care appointments (PR = 1.70 [1.07, 2.68]); with history of hospitalisation (PR = 1.65 [1.09, 2.50]); and of male sex (PR = 1.43 [1.00, 2.04]). These risk factors may constitute potential targets for intervention by public policies and may provide help to paediatricians in preventing developmental delay.

  13. Incidence of Otitis Media in a Contemporary Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Todberg, Tanja; Koch, Anders; Andersson, Mikael; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Lous, Jørgen; Homøe, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In recent years welfare in Denmark has increased which might be expected to reduce otitis media (OM) incidence. We examined the age-specific incidence of OM in a nation-wide cohort of children aged 0–7 years born in 1996–2003 (Danish National Birth Cohort, DNBC). Only selection was ability to understand and speak Danish. Methods Information of OM and ventilation tubes (VT) was collected through three maternal interviews at 6-month, 18-month and 7-years of age and based on this age-specific and cumulative incidence of OM was calculated. As different numbers of the total population answered the different interviews, the calculations are done with different denominators. The information in DNBC was validated against two population based registries containing information of VT insertions. Results Cumulative incidence of OM at 7 years was 60.6% (31,982/52,755). For children with OM, 16.2% (7143/44194) had their first OM episodes between 0–6 months of age, 44.3% (19579/44194) between 7–18 months, and 39.5% (17472/44194) between 19 months and 7 years. Four or more OM episodes before 7 years were reported by 39.5% (12620/31982) and by 64.0% (2482/3881) of those who had their OM debut between 0–6 months; by 48.2% (4998/10378) with debut between 7–18 months; and by 28.7% (4996/17344) with debut between 19 months and 7 years. These figures are essentially unchanged from earlier figures from Denmark. VT insertion at least once was reported by 26,1% in the 7-year interview. Assuming recordings in the Danish National Patient Registry to be gold standard, maternal self-reportings in DNBC of insertion of VT showed high sensitivity (96.4%), specificity (98.2%), and positive (94.8%) and negative predictive values (98.8%). Conclusion OM affects nearly 2/3 of preschool children in Denmark despite reduction in known OM risk factors. PMID:25545891

  14. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2011-02-10

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term consequences of positive wellbeing in childhood in the general population. We used the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) to test associations between adolescent positive wellbeing and social functioning in midlife. METHOD: Temperament and behaviour at ages 13 and 15 years were rated by school teachers on a range of criteria. These mostly referred to absence or presence of conduct and emotional problems, but four items allowed positive ratings: 'very popular with other children', 'unusually happy and contented', 'makes friends extremely easily' and 'extremely energetic, never tired'. In addition, at age 16 years survey members self-completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory, from which a summary measure of extraversion was derived, as this was previously found to be associated with midlife positive wellbeing in this cohort. RESULTS: Being a happy child, defined as receiving at least two of the above teacher ratings, was positively associated with midlife functioning and wellbeing, specifically a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, a high frequency of contact with friends or relatives, engagement in social activities, and to a lesser extent feeling satisfied with accomplishments in working life. These associations were independent of father's social class, childhood cognition, educational attainment, and midlife occupational social class. There were no independent associations between being a happy child and educational or occupational attainment, being married, engagement in prosocial activities, taking leadership in community activities, and with life satisfaction in general or with family life. Extraversion was associated with a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, high engagement in social activities, being married, general midlife life satisfaction, and satisfaction with family life, but not with social contact, prosocial activity, leadership

  15. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2011-02-10

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term consequences of positive wellbeing in childhood in the general population. We used the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) to test associations between adolescent positive wellbeing and social functioning in midlife. METHOD: Temperament and behaviour at ages 13 and 15 years were rated by school teachers on a range of criteria. These mostly referred to absence or presence of conduct and emotional problems, but four items allowed positive ratings: 'very popular with other children', 'unusually happy and contented', 'makes friends extremely easily' and 'extremely energetic, never tired'. In addition, at age 16 years survey members self-completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory, from which a summary measure of extraversion was derived, as this was previously found to be associated with midlife positive wellbeing in this cohort. RESULTS: Being a happy child, defined as receiving at least two of the above teacher ratings, was positively associated with midlife functioning and wellbeing, specifically a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, a high frequency of contact with friends or relatives, engagement in social activities, and to a lesser extent feeling satisfied with accomplishments in working life. These associations were independent of father's social class, childhood cognition, educational attainment, and midlife occupational social class. There were no independent associations between being a happy child and educational or occupational attainment, being married, engagement in prosocial activities, taking leadership in community activities, and with life satisfaction in general or with family life. Extraversion was associated with a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, high engagement in social activities, being married, general midlife life satisfaction, and satisfaction with family life, but not with social contact, prosocial activity, leadership

  16. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the long-term consequences of positive wellbeing in childhood in the general population. We used the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) to test associations between adolescent positive wellbeing and social functioning in midlife. Method Temperament and behaviour at ages 13 and 15 years were rated by school teachers on a range of criteria. These mostly referred to absence or presence of conduct and emotional problems, but four items allowed positive ratings: ‘very popular with other children’, ‘unusually happy and contented’, ‘makes friends extremely easily’ and ‘extremely energetic, never tired’. In addition, at age 16 years survey members self-completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory, from which a summary measure of extraversion was derived, as this was previously found to be associated with midlife positive wellbeing in this cohort. Results Being a happy child, defined as receiving at least two of the above teacher ratings, was positively associated with midlife functioning and wellbeing, specifically a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, a high frequency of contact with friends or relatives, engagement in social activities, and to a lesser extent feeling satisfied with accomplishments in working life. These associations were independent of father’s social class, childhood cognition, educational attainment, and midlife occupational social class. There were no independent associations between being a happy child and educational or occupational attainment, being married, engagement in prosocial activities, taking leadership in community activities, and with life satisfaction in general or with family life. Extraversion was associated with a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, high engagement in social activities, being married, general midlife life satisfaction, and satisfaction with family life, but not with social contact, prosocial activity

  17. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  18. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  19. Dietary Predictors of Maternal Prenatal Blood Mercury Levels in the ALSPAC Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Colin D.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Lowery, Tony; Jones, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very high levels of prenatal maternal mercury have adverse effects on the developing fetal brain. It has been suggested that all possible sources of mercury should be avoided. However, although seafood is a known source of mercury, little is known about other dietary components that contribute to the overall levels of blood mercury. Objective: Our goal was to quantify the contribution of components of maternal diet to prenatal blood mercury level. Methods: Whole blood samples and information on diet and sociodemographic factors were collected from pregnant women (n = 4,484) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The blood samples were assayed for total mercury using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry. Linear regression was used to estimate the relative contributions of 103 dietary variables and 6 sociodemographic characteristics to whole blood total mercury levels (TBM; untransformed and log-transformed) based on R2 values. Results: We estimated that maternal diet accounted for 19.8% of the total variation in ln-TBM, with 44% of diet-associated variability (8.75% of the total variation) associated with seafood consumption (white fish, oily fish, and shellfish). Other dietary components positively associated with TBM included wine and herbal teas, and components with significant negative associations included white bread, meat pies or pasties, and french fries. Conclusions: Although seafood is a source of dietary mercury, seafood appeared to explain a relatively small proportion of the variation in TBM in our UK study population. Our findings require confirmation, but suggest that limiting seafood intake during pregnancy may have a limited impact on prenatal blood mercury levels. Citation: Golding J, Steer CD, Hibbeln JR, Emmett PM, Lowery T, Jones R. 2013. Dietary predictors of maternal prenatal blood mercury levels in the ALSPAC birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1214

  20. Sleep Duration Trajectories and Body Composition in Adolescents: Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Antônio Augusto; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Dahly, Darren Lawrence; Meller, Fernanda Oliveira; Gonçalves, Helen; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the association between sleep duration trajectories and body composition in adolescents. We used data from participants of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study who were later followed up at age 18 years (response rate of 81.3%). At the time, 3974 adolescents had complete data on body composition, which was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Sleep duration was self-reported by participants at ages 11 and 18 years. Analyses were sex-stratified. The mean sleep duration at 11 years was 9.7 (SD 1.4) and 8.4 (SD 1.9) at 18 years. Sleep duration was dichotomized as inadequate (<8 hours/day) or adequate (≥8 hours/day). Mean body mass, fat mass, and fat-free mass indices at 18 years were 23.4 kg/m2 (SD 4.5), 6.1 kg/m2 (SD 3.9) and 17.3 kg/m2 (SD 2.5), respectively. Girls who reported inadequate sleep duration at 11 years of age, but adequate sleep duration at 18, on average experienced an increase in body mass index (β = 0.39 z-scores; 95% CI 0.13, 0.65), fat mass index (β = 0.30 z-scores; 95% CI 0.07, 0.53), and fat-free mass index (β = 0.24 z-scores; 95% CI 0.08, 0.39) compared to those who had adequate sleep duration at both time points. The results suggest that changes in sleep duration across adolescence may impact body composition in later adolescence and that this may differ by sex. PMID:27010312

  1. PRENATAL PHTHALATE EXPOSURE AND PERFORMANCE ON THE NEONATAL BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT SCALE IN A MULTIETHNIC BIRTH COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Stephanie M.; Zhu, Chenbo; Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Silva, Manori J.; Miodovnik, Amir; Wolff, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between prenatal maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and neonatal behavior in their 295 children enrolled in a multiethnic birth cohort between 1998 and 2002 at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Trained examiners administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) to children within 5 days of delivery. We measured metabolites of 7 phthalate esters in maternal urine that was collected between 25 and 40 weeks’ gestation. All but two phthalate metabolites were over 95% detectable. We summed metabolites on a molar basis into low and high molecular weight phthalates. We hypothesized the existence of sex-specific effects from phthalate exposure a priori given the hormonal activity of these chemicals. Overall we found few associations between individual phthalate metabolites or their molar sums and most of the BNBAS domains. However, we observed significant sex-phthalate metabolite interactions (p < 0.10) for the Orientation and Motor domains and the overall Quality of Alertness score. Among girls, there was a significant linear decline in adjusted mean Orientation score with increasing urinary concentrations of high molecular weight phthalate metabolites (B = -0.37, p = 0.02). Likewise, there was a strong linear decline in their adjusted mean Quality of Alertness score (B = -0.48, p < 0.01). In addition, boys and girls demonstrated opposite patterns of association between low and high molecular weight phthalate metabolite concentrations and Motor performance, with some indication of improved Motor performance with increasing concentration of low molecular weight phthalate metabolites among boys. This is the first study to report an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and neurological effects in humans or animals, and as such requires replication. PMID:19375452

  2. Infant Arterial Stiffness and Maternal Iron Status in Pregnancy: A UK Birth Cohort (Baby VIP Study)

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen A.; Cade, Janet E.; McArdle, Harry J.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hayes, Helen E.; Ciantar, Etienne; Simpson, Nigel A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In animal studies, iron deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to increased offspring cardiovascular risk. No previous population studies have measured arterial stiffness early in life to examine its association with maternal iron status. Objective This study aimed to examine the association between maternal iron status in early pregnancy with infant brachio-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Methods The Baby VIP (Baby's Vascular Health and Iron in Pregnancy) study is a UK-based birth cohort which recruited 362 women after delivery from the Leeds Teaching Hospitals postnatal wards. Ferritin and transferrin receptor levels were measured in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester. Infant brachio-femoral PWV was measured during a home visit at 2–6 weeks. Results Iron depletion (ferritin <15 µg/l) was detected in 79 (23%) women in early pregnancy. Infant PWV (mean = 6.7 m/s, SD = 1.3, n = 284) was neither associated with maternal ferritin (adjusted change per 10 µg/l = 0.02, 95% CI: −0.01, 0.1), nor with iron depletion (adjusted change = −0.2, 95% CI: −0.6, 0.2). No evidence of association was observed between maternal serum transferrin receptor level and its ratio to ferritin with infant PWV. Maternal anaemia (<11 g/dl) at <20 weeks’ gestation was associated with a 1.0-m/s increase in infant PWV (adjusted 95% CI: 0.1, 1.9). Conclusion This is the largest study to date which has assessed peripheral PWV as a measure of arterial stiffness in infants. There was no evidence of an association between markers of maternal iron status early in pregnancy and infant PWV. PMID:25790854

  3. Birth by Caesarean Section and the Risk of Adult Psychosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Sinéad M; Curran, Eileen A; Dalman, Christina; Kenny, Louise C; Kearney, Patricia M; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Khashan, Ali S

    2016-05-01

    Despite the biological plausibility of an association between obstetric mode of delivery and psychosis in later life, studies to date have been inconclusive. We assessed the association between mode of delivery and later onset of psychosis in the offspring. A population-based cohort including data from the Swedish National Registers was used. All singleton live births between 1982 and 1995 were identified (n= 1,345,210) and followed-up to diagnosis at age 16 or later. Mode of delivery was categorized as: unassisted vaginal delivery (VD), assisted VD, elective Caesarean section (CS) (before onset of labor), and emergency CS (after onset of labor). Outcomes included any psychosis; nonaffective psychoses (including schizophrenia only) and affective psychoses (including bipolar disorder only and depression with psychosis only). Cox regression analysis was used reporting partially and fully adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sibling-matched Cox regression was performed to adjust for familial confounding factors. In the fully adjusted analyses, elective CS was significantly associated with any psychosis (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.24). Similar findings were found for nonaffective psychoses (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.99, 1.29) and affective psychoses (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05, 1.31) (χ(2)for heterogeneityP= .69). In the sibling-matched Cox regression, this association disappeared (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78, 1.37). No association was found between assisted VD or emergency CS and psychosis. This study found that elective CS is associated with an increase in offspring psychosis. However, the association did not persist in the sibling-matched analysis, implying the association is likely due to familial confounding by unmeasured factors such as genetics or environment. PMID:26615187

  4. Limited representation of drinking-water contaminants in pregnancy-birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S

    2014-01-15

    Water contamination and noise have been consistently the least assessed environmental/lifestyle exposures in pregnancy-birth cohorts (PBC). Water quality surveillance data collected during the past decade within urban drinking-water distribution systems call for re-evaluation of water and health issues in the developed world. The objectives of this scientific commentary were to (i) highlight the extent of appraisal of water contamination in exposure assessment studies of PBC, worldwide, and (ii) propose recommendations to increase awareness of emerging water-related risks through their improved representation into PBC study designs in urban centers. Three scientific literature databases (Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science) were used for a systematic search on worldwide PBC and their publications that considered water contamination and health outcomes. Publicly-available e-databases (ENRIECO, BIRTHCOHORTS, and CHICOS) were also employed for detailed exploration of existing European Union (EU)-based PBC. Out of the 76 PBC identified in the EU territory, only 12 of them incorporated water contamination into their study designs. Among which only 6 PBC published scientific articles that either included data on water contamination and/or water intake estimates. Trihalomethanes but not other disinfection by-products were mostly studied in the PBC around the globe, while fluoride, atrazine, perfluorinated compounds, tetrachloroethylene, and lead were studied to a lesser extent as water contaminants. It appears that chemical-based water contamination and corresponding human exposures represent a largely underappreciated niche of exposure science pertaining to pregnant mother and children's health in PBC. Future PBC studies should grasp this opportunity to substantially reform elements of water contamination in their exposure assessment protocols and effectively combine them with their epidemiological study designs.

  5. Body size dissatisfaction among young adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mintem, G C; Horta, B L; Domingues, M R; Gigante, D P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with body dissatisfaction. Subjects/Methods: Birth cohort study investigating 4100 subjects (2187 men and 1913 women) aged between 22 and 23 years who answered questionnaires, including the body satisfaction Stunkard Scale were included in the study; they were weighed and measured. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the crude and adjusted analyses. Results: The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 64% (95% CI, 62.7–65.6); 42% (95% CI, 40.6–43.6) of the subjects reported feeling larger than the desired body size, and 22% (95% CI, 20.7–23.3) reported feeling smaller than desired. Underweight subjects, subjects with less schooling, poor and sedentary male subjects with low psychological well-being and female subjects who were already mothers were more likely to express body dissatisfaction, perceiving their body as smaller than the desirable body size. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was also high among overweight subjects, subjects with a high socioeconomic status and married female subjects, who perceived their body size as too large. Minor psychiatric disorders were associated with body dissatisfaction in all subjects, regardless of perceiving themselves as larger or smaller than the desired body size. Most women perceived themselves as larger, but similar proportions of men perceived themselves as too small or too large. Conclusions: Body dissatisfaction was observed among men and women with normal weight, but it was more evident in the obese individuals. Regardless of the nutritional status, both men and women should be appropriately counseled because body size perception can lead to unhealthy behaviors in relation to diet and physical activity. PMID:25074390

  6. Limited representation of drinking-water contaminants in pregnancy-birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S

    2014-01-15

    Water contamination and noise have been consistently the least assessed environmental/lifestyle exposures in pregnancy-birth cohorts (PBC). Water quality surveillance data collected during the past decade within urban drinking-water distribution systems call for re-evaluation of water and health issues in the developed world. The objectives of this scientific commentary were to (i) highlight the extent of appraisal of water contamination in exposure assessment studies of PBC, worldwide, and (ii) propose recommendations to increase awareness of emerging water-related risks through their improved representation into PBC study designs in urban centers. Three scientific literature databases (Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science) were used for a systematic search on worldwide PBC and their publications that considered water contamination and health outcomes. Publicly-available e-databases (ENRIECO, BIRTHCOHORTS, and CHICOS) were also employed for detailed exploration of existing European Union (EU)-based PBC. Out of the 76 PBC identified in the EU territory, only 12 of them incorporated water contamination into their study designs. Among which only 6 PBC published scientific articles that either included data on water contamination and/or water intake estimates. Trihalomethanes but not other disinfection by-products were mostly studied in the PBC around the globe, while fluoride, atrazine, perfluorinated compounds, tetrachloroethylene, and lead were studied to a lesser extent as water contaminants. It appears that chemical-based water contamination and corresponding human exposures represent a largely underappreciated niche of exposure science pertaining to pregnant mother and children's health in PBC. Future PBC studies should grasp this opportunity to substantially reform elements of water contamination in their exposure assessment protocols and effectively combine them with their epidemiological study designs. PMID:24013514

  7. Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. RESULTS Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth’s age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. CONCLUSIONS There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health. PMID:19142344

  8. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age. PMID:25929653

  9. Weight Loss and Premature Death: The 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Emiliano; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Guralnik, Jack M.; Patel, Kushang V.; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship between weight loss and mortality has important clinical and public health significance but has proved to be complex. Evidence is mixed and particularly limited on the association between weight loss in mid-life and premature death (i.e. before 65 years of age), a small albeit important segment of total mortality. We aimed to study the association between midlife weight change and mortality accounting for health and lifestyle characteristics, and also considering potential bias due to preexisting chronic diseases and smoking status. Design Longitudinal, population-based, ‘the 1946 British’ birth cohort study. Subjects and Measures In 2750 men and women, mortality from age 53 through 65 years was analyzed according to categories of measured 10 year weight change between 43 and 53 years. Cox's hazard ratios (HR) were progressively adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics. Results Nearly 20% of participants lost weight and over 50% gained 5 kg or more in midlife. There were 164 deaths. Compared to those who gained between 2 and 5 kg, those who lost 5 kg or more had an increased risk of premature death independently of midlife physical activity, socio-economic circumstances and educational attainment. This association was unaltered when highest weight loss (lost more than 15 Kg) (p = 0.04) and early deaths were excluded (p<0.001), but was no longer significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and health status (HR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.9 to 3.5). Conclusion The inverse association between weight loss in midlife and higher risk of premature death may be explained by vascular risk factors and ill health. In consideration of the burden of premature death, closer monitoring of weight loss in mid-life is warranted. PMID:24466002

  10. Length velocity acceleration at 9 months of age in a representative birth cohort of Dutch infants.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, J; Brand, R; Massa, G; Herngreen, W P; Wit, J M

    2000-01-01

    According to the ICP (infancy-childhood-puberty) growth model, statural growth can be divided into three partially superimposed components assumed to represent different physiologic mechanisms. This model predicts a sudden acceleration of length velocity (LV) at the onset of the childhood component around 9 months. The existence of such an infancy-childhood growth spurt has not yet been firmly corroborated by epidemiological studies. In the present study length measurements were made at the target ages of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months in a birth cohort of 2034 infants. In order to check whether length growth showed a continuous smooth pattern, different mathematical models were fitted to the individual growth curves. The models included Count and Guo functions, 5th order polynomial and combinations of 5th order polynomial with the logarithmic term of the Count function and the square root term of the Guo function. We showed that in boys and girls there is a small but systematic lack of fit of the mathematical modeling, due to a sudden acceleration of LV around 9 months. In addition there was an increase in variation of attained length at this age. Comparison of unbalanced ANOVA models with and without addition of dummy variables for the target ages confirmed that there was an acceleration around 9 months that, if corrected for, leads to a significantly improved model fit (likelihood ratio test p < 0.0001). In absolute terms of LV, the misfit at 9 months was not greater than 0.5 cm/year on average. We conclude that the results of this study support the existence of a late infancy growth spurt. In our opinion, however, the magnitude of the phenomenon does not legitimate construction and use of discontinuous growth references such as the ICP reference.

  11. Multiple Norovirus Infections in a Birth Cohort in a Peruvian Periurban Community

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mayuko; Goel-Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Velasquez, Daniel; Cabrera, Lilia; Loli, Sebastian; Crabtree, Jean E.; Black, Robert E.; Kosek, Margaret; Checkley, William; Zimic, Mirko; Bern, Caryn; Cama, Vitaliano; Gilman, Robert H.; Xiao, L.; Kelleher, D.; Windle, H. J.; van Doorn, L. J.; Varela, M.; Verastegui, M.; Calderon, M.; Alva, A.; Roman, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Human noroviruses are among the most common enteropathogens globally, and are a leading cause of infant diarrhea in developing countries. However, data measuring the impact of norovirus at the community level are sparse. Methods. We followed a birth cohort of children to estimate norovirus infection and diarrhea incidence in a Peruvian community. Stool samples from diarrheal episodes and randomly selected nondiarrheal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for norovirus genogroup and genotype. Excretion duration and rotavirus coinfection were evaluated in a subset of episodes. Results. Two hundred twenty and 189 children were followed to 1 and 2 years of age, respectively. By 1 year, 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75%–85%) experienced at least 1 norovirus infection and by 2 years, 71% (95% CI, 65%–77%) had at least 1 episode of norovirus-associated diarrhea. Genogroup II (GII) infections were 3 times more frequent than genogroup 1 (GI) infections. Eighteen genotypes were found; GII genotype 4 accounted for 41%. Median excretion duration was 34.5 days for GII vs 8.5 days for GI infection (P = .0006). Repeat infections by the same genogroup were common, but repeat infections by the same genotype were rare. Mean length-for-age z score at 12 months was lower among children with prior norovirus infection compared to uninfected children (coefficient: −0.33 [95% CI, −.65 to −.01]; P = .04); the effect persisted at 24 months. Conclusions. Norovirus infection occurs early in life and children experience serial infections with multiple genotypes, suggesting genotype-specific immunity. An effective vaccine would have a substantial impact on morbidity, but may need to target multiple genotypes. PMID:24300042

  12. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness of males and females of northern Finland birth cohort of 1966 at age 31.

    PubMed

    Tammelin, T; Näyhä, S; Rintamäki, H

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to measure cardiorespiratory fitness of about 9000 males and females at age 31, to produce the reference values and relate them to the level of physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Study population was the Northern Finland birth cohort of 1966. At age 31, 8786 persons responded to a postal inquiry including questions about physical activity and 5497 of them also performed a step test. A sample of 123 persons performed a maximal exercise test with direct measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)). This was done to develop VO(2peak) prediction models on the basis of heart rate after a step test, BMI and frequency of brisk physical activity. These models were used to calculate VO(2peak) for the whole study population. Mean VO(2peak) +/- standard deviation was 43.0 +/- 4.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4071 males and 34.3 +/- 4.3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4367 females. A graded dose-response relationship was observed in males and females between the frequency of participation in brisk exercise and VO(2peak). Similar dose-response relationship was also observed in overweight and obese persons, although the level of VO(2peak) was lower in persons with increased BMI. At age 31, very low levels of VO(2peak) seemed to be associated with a combination of infrequent participation in brisk exercise and increased BMI. These reference values can be used in the interpretation of fitness test results and in physical activity counselling.

  14. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed for PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development -II (BSID) were administered at 16 months of age to over 750 children who also had prenatal PCB measurements. Results Based on final multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, maternal mono-ortho-substituted PCBs were significantly associated with lower scores on both the psychomotor (PDI) and mental development indices (MDI). Also a significant association between cord mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and reduced PDI was observed, but the association with MDI was marginal (p = 0.05). Anti-estrogenic and di-ortho-substituted PCBs did not show any statistically significant association with cognitive scores, but a suggestive association between di-ortho-substituted PCBs measured in cord serum and poorer PDI was observed. Conclusion Children with higher prenatal mono-ortho-substituted PCB exposures performed more poorly on the Bayley Scales. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that prenatal dioxin-like PCB exposure, including mono-ortho congeners, may interfere with brain development in utero. Non-dioxin-like di-ortho-substituted PCBs require further investigation. PMID:20731829

  15. Birth by Caesarean Section and the Risk of Adult Psychosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Sinéad M; Curran, Eileen A; Dalman, Christina; Kenny, Louise C; Kearney, Patricia M; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Khashan, Ali S

    2016-05-01

    Despite the biological plausibility of an association between obstetric mode of delivery and psychosis in later life, studies to date have been inconclusive. We assessed the association between mode of delivery and later onset of psychosis in the offspring. A population-based cohort including data from the Swedish National Registers was used. All singleton live births between 1982 and 1995 were identified (n= 1,345,210) and followed-up to diagnosis at age 16 or later. Mode of delivery was categorized as: unassisted vaginal delivery (VD), assisted VD, elective Caesarean section (CS) (before onset of labor), and emergency CS (after onset of labor). Outcomes included any psychosis; nonaffective psychoses (including schizophrenia only) and affective psychoses (including bipolar disorder only and depression with psychosis only). Cox regression analysis was used reporting partially and fully adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sibling-matched Cox regression was performed to adjust for familial confounding factors. In the fully adjusted analyses, elective CS was significantly associated with any psychosis (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.24). Similar findings were found for nonaffective psychoses (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.99, 1.29) and affective psychoses (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05, 1.31) (χ(2)for heterogeneityP= .69). In the sibling-matched Cox regression, this association disappeared (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78, 1.37). No association was found between assisted VD or emergency CS and psychosis. This study found that elective CS is associated with an increase in offspring psychosis. However, the association did not persist in the sibling-matched analysis, implying the association is likely due to familial confounding by unmeasured factors such as genetics or environment.

  16. Increase in child behavior problems among urban Brazilian 4-year olds: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of reports on time trends in child and adolescent psychological problems but none from low- and middle-income countries, and very few covering the preschool period. The aim was to investigate changes in preschool behavioral/emotional problems in two birth cohorts from a middle-income country born 11 years apart. Methods We analyzed data from the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohort studies from Brazil. A subsample of 4-year olds from the 1993 cohort (634) and all 4-year olds from the 2004 cohort (3750) were assessed for behavioral/emotional problems through maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Response rates in these two population-based cohorts were above 90%. Results We found a significant increase in CBCL total problems, internalizing and externalizing mean scores over the 11-year period. For 1993 and 2004 Pelotas cohorts, respectively, CBCL mean values (SE) total problems scores were 27.9 (0.8) and 34.7 (0.3); for internalizing scores, 5.7 (0.2) and 6.3 (0.1) and for externalizing scores, 12.4 (0.4) and 15.5 (0.1). After adjusting for confounding variables, the largest increase from 1993 to 2004 was identified in the aggressive behavior syndrome score (Cohen's d = .50), followed by the externalizing problem score (Cohen's d = .40) and CBCL total problem score (Cohen's d = .36), respectively. The rise in child psychological problems was more marked in children from families with fewer assets and with less educated mothers. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a substantial increase in preschool behavioral problems among children in Brazil over an 11-year period. PMID:24735354

  17. Perinatal outcome of 12,021 singleton and 3108 twin births after non-IVF-assisted reproduction: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, Willem; Martens, Guy; De Sutter, Petra; Gerris, Jan; Bosmans, Eugene; Ruyssinck, Gunther; Defoort, Paul; Molenberghs, Geert; Gyselaers, Wilfried

    2006-04-01

    Perinatal outcome of pregnancies caused by assisted reproduction technique (ART) is substantially worse when compared with pregnancies following natural conception. We investigated the possible risks of non-IVF ART on perinatal health. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with two exposure groups: a study group of pregnancies after controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), with or without artificial insemination (AI), and a naturally conceived comparison group. We used the data from the regional registry of all hospital deliveries in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium during the period from January 1993 until December 2003 to investigate differences in perinatal outcome of singleton and twin pregnancies. 12 021 singleton and 3108 twin births could be selected. Naturally conceived subjects were matched for maternal age, parity, fetal sex and year of birth. The main outcome measures were duration of pregnancy, birth weight, perinatal morbidity and perinatal mortality. Our overall results showed a significantly higher incidence of prematurity (<32 and <37 weeks), low and very low birth weight, transfer to the neonatal intensive care unit and most neonatal morbidity parameters for COS/AI singletons. Twin pregnancies resulting from COS/AI showed an increased rate of neonatal mortality, assisted ventilation and respiratory distress syndrome. After excluding same-sex twin sets, COS/AI twin pregnancies were at increased risk for extreme prematurity and very low birth weight. In conclusion, COS/AI singleton and twin pregnancies are significantly disadvantaged compared to naturally conceived children.

  18. The Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Birth Outcomes in a Cohort of Pregnant Women in Lao PDR, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Sonja J.; Mirza, Sara A.; Vonglokham, Phouvanh; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Chitry, Bounlap; Pholsena, Vathsana; Chitranonh, Visith; Omer, Saad B.; Moen, Ann; Bresee, Joseph S.; Corwin, Andrew; Xeuatvongsa, Anonh

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies suggest that maternal influenza vaccination can improve birth outcomes. However, there are limited data from tropical settings, particularly Southeast Asia. We conducted an observational study in Laos to assess the effect of influenza vaccination in pregnant women on birth outcomes. Methods We consented and enrolled a cohort of pregnant woman who delivered babies at 3 hospitals during April 2014–February 2015. We collected demographic and clinical information on mother and child. Influenza vaccination status was ascertained by vaccine card. Primary outcomes were the proportion of live births born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm and mean birth weight. Multivariate models controlled for differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women and influenza virus circulation. Results We enrolled 5103 women (2172 [43%] were vaccinated). Among the 4854 who had a live birth, vaccinated women were statistically significantly less likely than unvaccinated women to have an infant born preterm during the period of high influenza virus circulation (risk ratio [RR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI], .45–.70), and the effect remained after adjusting for covariates (adjusted RR, 0.69; 95% CI, .55–.87). There was no effect of vaccine on SGA or mean birth weight. The population-prevented fraction was 18.0%. Conclusions In this observational study, we found indirect evidence of influenza vaccine safety during pregnancy, and women who received vaccine had a reduced risk of delivering a preterm infant during times of high influenza virus circulation. Vaccination may prevent 1 in 5 preterm births that occur during periods of high influenza circulation. PMID:27143672

  19. How Do Persons with Intellectual Disability Manage in the Open Labour Markets? A Follow-Up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taanila, A.; Rantakallio, P.; Koiranen, M.; von Wendt, L.; Jarvelin, M.-R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to study how many of the individuals with intellectual disability (ID; IQ70) in an age cohort were not receiving a disability pension by the age of 34 years and what their life situation was like in terms of employment, education and morbidity. In 2000, the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=12058 live-born) included 129 individuals…

  20. Increasing trends in childlessness in recent birth cohorts - a registry-based study of the total Danish male population born from 1945 to 1980.

    PubMed

    Priskorn, L; Holmboe, S A; Jacobsen, R; Jensen, T K; Lassen, T H; Skakkebaek, N E

    2012-06-01

    The fertility rate has recently declined in many parts of the World, including Europe. To a large extent, this change can be explained by the socio-economic development. However, increasing fertility problems and widespread occurrence of poor semen quality could in part explain the few births. The objective of this registry based study was to investigate birth cohort related trends in fertility and childlessness among Danish men. The study population comprised all 1 616 677 men in Denmark born from 1945 to 1980 of whom 1 359 975 (84.1%) were native Danes. Data were obtained from Statistics Denmark and contained information from The National Danish Birth Registry and The Danish In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Registry. For consecutive birth cohorts of native Danish men cumulative fertility rates at age 45 declined from 1.91 children per man in the 1945 birth cohort to 1.71 for men born in 1960. The proportion of childless men at age 45 increased from 14.8% to 21.9% in the same birth cohorts. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) seemed to compensate partly for the lower fertility and to reduce the proportion of childless men. In contrast, recent reports on corresponding birth cohorts of Danish women showed that the proportion remaining childless throughout life has been lower than in men and has not shown a similar increase. In conclusion, using unique Danish registries the study showed a birth cohort related decline in fertility rates and an increase in childlessness among men. In the more recent cohorts more than one in five men remained childless. The causes behind the findings are likely multi-factorial. Hitherto, most attention has been given to socio-economic factors which undoubtedly play a major role. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the high prevalence of low sperm counts among young Danish men may be a contributing factor.

  1. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Results From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). Conclusions In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. PMID:26685027

  2. Elevated Maternal C-Reactive Protein is Associated with Increased Risk of Schizophrenia in a National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Canetta, Sarah; Sourander, Andre; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Leiviskä, Jaana; Kellendonk, Christoph; McKeague, Ian W.; Brown, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate an association between early gestational C-reactive protein (CRP), an established inflammatory biomarker, prospectively assayed in maternal sera, and schizophrenia in a large national birth cohort with an extensive serum biobank. Methods This study utilized a nested case-control design from the Finnish Prenatal Study of Schizophrenia cohort. 777 schizophrenia cases (630 with schizophrenia, 147 with schizoaffective disorder) that had maternal sera available for CRP testing were identified and matched to 777 controls in the analysis. Maternal CRP levels were assessed using a latex immunoassay from archived maternal serum specimens. Results Increasing maternal CRP levels, classified as a continuous variable, were significantly associated with schizophrenia in offspring (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10-1.56, p=0.003). This finding remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders including maternal and parental history of psychiatric disorders, twin/singleton birth, urbanicity, province of birth, and maternal socioeconomic status. Conclusion This finding provides the most robust evidence to date that maternal inflammation may play a significant role in schizophrenia, with possible implications for identifying preventive strategies and pathogenic mechanisms in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24969261

  3. Violent delinquency in a Brazilian birth cohort: the roles of breast feeding, early poverty and demographic factors

    PubMed Central

    Caicedo, Beatriz; Gonçalves, Helen; González, David A; Victora, Cesar G

    2010-01-01

    Caicedo B, Gonçalves H, González DA, Victora CG. Violent delinquency in a Brazilian birth cohort: the roles of breast feeding, early poverty and demographic factors. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2010; 24: 12–23. We investigated the association between breast feeding, economic factors and conviction for violent delinquency by age 25 years among subjects of the 1982 Birth Cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Information on breast-feeding pattern and duration was collected in childhood, during the 1983, 1984 and 1986 follow-ups. Information on socio-economic and family characteristics was also obtained between 1982 and 1996. Of the 5914 livebirths enrolled in the cohort, 5228 had obtained an identification document within the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and could thus be identified in judiciary databases. The outcome studied was conviction due to a violent act between ages 12 and 25 years. A total of 106 young people had been convicted at least once (3.0% of men and 1.0% of women). Subjects born to black or mixed mothers and coming from low-income families were at higher risk of having been convicted. Neither crude nor adjusted analyses showed any association between breast feeding and conviction for violent delinquency. Violent delinquency apparently depends more on social factors than on individual factors such as breast feeding. PMID:20078825

  4. Breast feeding and cognitive development in childhood: a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Oddy, Wendy H; Kendall, Garth E; Blair, Eve; De Klerk, Nicholas H; Stanley, Fiona J; Landau, Louis I; Silburn, S; Zubrick, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine prospectively the relation between duration of breast feeding and cognitive outcomes. A cohort study of 2860 children enrolled before birth provided data from 2393 term infants of English-speaking mothers. Of these, complete infant feeding data in the first year of life and verbal cognitive IQ (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - PPVT-R) were available for 1450 children at 6 years, and a performance subtest (Perceptual organisation WISC - Block Design) for 1375 children at 8 years. Full breast feeding was categorised as none,> 0 to < 4 months, 4-6 months and> 6 months. Associations between breast-feeding duration and PPVT-R at 6 years and Block Design at 8 years were estimated before and after adjustment for gender, gestational age, maternal age, maternal education, parental smoking and the presence of older siblings. The early cessation of full breast feeding was associated with reduced verbal IQ and the performance subtest. In unadjusted analysis, mean standardised PPVT-R scores were 6.44 points greater (P < 0.0001) in children fully breast fed for> 6 months compared with those never breast fed. After adjustment, mean PPVT-R scores were 3.56 points higher in children fully breast fed for> 6 months compared with those children never breast fed (P = 0.003). Similarly, Block Design scores were higher in those fully breast fed for> 6 months compared with those never breast fed in unadjusted (P = 0.001) but not adjusted analyses (P = 0.223). Interactions between maternal education (four levels) and breast feeding demonstrated a positive association of maternal education on verbal IQ (F = 2.64; P = 0.005) in children breast fed for longer but not on performance (F = 0.74; P = 0.67). The early introduction of milk other than breast milk was associated with reduced verbal IQ after adjustment for social and perinatal confounders. Although these effects were interacting with maternal education, they may act through undefined mechanisms in

  5. Outdoor characterization of radio frequency electromagnetic fields in a Spanish birth cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Calvente, I.; Pérez-Lobato, R.; Dávila-Arias, C.; Ocón, O.; Ramos, R.; and others

    2015-04-15

    There is considerable public concern in many countries about the possible adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation electromagnetic fields, especially in vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental exposure profiles within the frequency range 100 kHz–6 GHz in the immediate surrounds of the dwellings of 123 families from the INMA-Granada birth cohort in Southern Spain, using spot measurements. The arithmetic mean root mean-square electric field (E{sub RMS}) and power density (S{sub RMS}) values were, respectively, 195.79 mV/m (42.3% of data were above this mean) and 799.01 µW/m{sup 2} (30% of values were above this mean); median values were 148.80 mV/m and 285.94 µW/m{sup 2}, respectively. Exposure levels below the quantification limit were assigned a value of 0.01 V/m. Incident field strength levels varied widely among different areas or towns/villages, demonstrating spatial variability in the distribution of exposure values related to the surface area population size and also among seasons. Although recorded values were well below International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels, there is a particular need to characterize incident field strength levels in vulnerable populations (e.g., children) because of their chronic and ever-increasing exposure. The effects of incident field strength have not been fully elucidated; however, it may be appropriate to apply the precautionary principle in order to reduce exposure in susceptible groups. - Highlights: • Spot measurements were performed in the immediate surrounds of children's dwellings. • Mean root mean-square electric field and power density values were calculated. • Most recorded values were far below international standard guideline limits. • Data demonstrate spatial variability in the distribution of exposure levels. • While adverse effects are proven, application of the precautionary principle may be

  6. Regulatory Cytokine Expression and Preterm Birth: Case-Control Study Nested in a Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Thaís Basso de Brito; Thomaz, Erika Barbara Abreu Fonseca; do Nascimento, Flávia Raquel Fernandes; dos Santos, Ana Paula Silva de Azevedo; Batista, Rosângela Lucena Fernandes; Bettiol, Heloisa; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently known risk factors explain only a small fraction of preterm birth (PTB). Previous PTB is one of the most important predictors. However, this information is not available in primiparous women. Few studies have looked at associations between regulatory cytokine expression (RCE) and PTB and the results are conflicting. Objective To investigate the association of RCE–Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β)–with PTB, and to assess whether bacterial vaginosis (BV) is involved in this relationship. Methods This was a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort–called BRISA. Women with singleton pregnancies were interviewed from 22 to 25 weeks of gestational age (GA). Women were recruited from health services in São Luís, Brazil. A blood sample was collected and gynecological examination was performed. Serum IL-10 and TGF-β were determined using cytometric bead array. Nugent score >7 and/or the presence of clue cells were used for BV diagnosis. All PTB estimated by ultrasound dating performed before 20 weeks of gestational age were considered cases. Controls were selected by simple random sampling from the rest of the cohort, at a 2:1 ratio. Different models were tested, according to the main independent variable. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated by regression analyses. Results The study included 327 pregnant women, 109 cases and 218 controls. No associations were found between BV and PTB (P = 1.44; 95%CI: 0.51–3.77). Low levels of IL-10 (OR = 2.92 95%CI: 1.38–6.16) or TGF-β (OR = 16.90 95%CI: 6.42–44.51) or both simultaneously (OR = 77.16 95%CI: 7.99–744.88) were associated with increasing odds of PTB, even after adjustment for confounding. Conclusion Decreased RCE is a risk factor for PTB. This relationship, however, is not triggered by the presence of BV. Low IL-10/TGF-β levels from 22 to 25 weeks of GA could be used as early predictors of PTB. We suggest

  7. Congenital heart disease in men – birth characteristics and reproduction: a national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Women with congenital heart disease (CHD) are more often born preterm or small-for-gestational age and with a caesarean section. This pattern together with an increased risk of congenital anomalies seems to be repeated in the next generation. Information on the effect of paternal CHD on their offspring is sparse. In this study we investigated if men with CHD differ from those who do not have CHD with respect to characteristics related to their own births, their reproductive patterns and the neonatal outcomes of their children. Methods In this national cohort study data were derived from Swedish population-based registries. The population consists of all men born in 1973-1983 who were alive and living in Sweden at 13 years of age (n = 522 216). The index group is men with CHD (n = 2689). Men diagnosed with CHD were compared with men without CHD. The CHD were also divided into two groups, complex and simple CHD and comparisons between the groups were made. Results Men with CHD are more likely to have been born preterm (p < 0.001), small-for gestational-age (p < 0.001) or large-for-gestational-age (p < 0.001) than men without CHD. They are also more likely to have been the result of a twin pregnancy (p < 0.001) and to have been delivered by caesarean section (p < 0.001). Men with CHD have a decreased likelihood to become fathers compared to non-CHD men and in this study their offspring do not have a higher incidence of CHD than offspring to non-CHD fathers. The neonatal outcomes of children of men with CHD do not differ from the outcomes of children of non-CHD men. Conclusions Men with CHD were more often born with non-optimal characteristics compared to men without the condition. However, the increased risk does not repeat itself in the next generation. This knowledge can lead to improved preconception counselling for couples in which the father has a CHD. PMID:24890365

  8. Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mpairwe, Harriet; Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Kizito, Dennison; Kakande, Mohammed; Jones, Frances M; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Muwanga, Moses; Rodrigues, Laura C; Dunne, David W; Elliott, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Background Worms may protect against allergy. Early-life worm exposure may be critical, but this has not been fully investigated. Objectives To investigate whether worms in pregnancy and in early childhood are associated with childhood eczema incidence. Methods The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, an anthelminthic treatment trial, enrolled pregnant women between 2003 and 2005 in Uganda. Mothers were investigated for worms during pregnancy and children annually. Eczema was doctor-diagnosed from birth to age five years. A planned observational analysis was conducted within the trial cohort to investigate associations between worms and eczema. Results Data for 2345 live-born children were analysed. Hookworm was the most prevalent maternal worm (45%). Childhood worms were less prevalent. Eczema incidence was 4.68/100 person-years. Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced eczema incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p-value: 0.71(0.51–0.99), 0.04] and modified effects of known risk factors for eczema: Dermatophagoides-specific IgE in children was positively associated with eczema incidence if the mother had no hookworm [2.72(1.11–6.63), 0.03], but not if the mother had hookworm [0.41(0.10–1.69), 0.22], interaction p-value = 0.03. Similar interactions were seen for maternal history of eczema {[2.87(1.31–6.27, 0.008) vs. [0.73(0.23–2.30), 0.60], interaction p-value = 0.05}, female gender {[1.82(1.22–2.73), 0.004 vs. [0.96(0.60–1.53), 0.87], interaction p-value = 0.04} and allergen-specific IgE. ChildhoodTrichuris trichiura and hookworm were inversely associated with eczema. Conclusions Maternal hookworm modifies effects of known risk factors for eczema. Mechanisms by which early-life worm exposures influence allergy need investigation. Worms or worm products, and intervention during pregnancy have potential for primary prevention of allergy. PMID:25171741

  9. Child maltreatment and household dysfunction: associations with pubertal development in a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Li, Leah; Denholm, Rachel; Power, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to establish the association between adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) and pubertal maturation, which is associated with later health outcome(s). Methods: The 1958 British birth cohort (n = 17 638) includes all born in one week, March 1958, followed up to mid adulthood. Pubertal stage was rated by medical personnel at 11 and 16 years of age (y). Childhood maltreatment (neglect or abuse) and household dysfunction scores were constructed from information ascertained in childhood and at 45 y. Results: Childhood neglect, assessed at 7 y, was associated with late pubertal development on several markers after adjusting for early life circumstances: relative risk ratio (RRRadjusted) was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.06,1.21) and 1.06 (1.00,1.12) for late menarche and breast development (females) per unit increase in neglect score ranging 0–7, respectively; 1.14 (1.08,1.20) for late voice change and 1.07 (1.02,1.13) for pubic hair growth (males). The RRRadjusted for late pubic hair (females) and genitalia and facial hair (males) development was 1.04 (P = 0.052 to 0.085). Abuse score (0–3, for physical, sexual or psychological abuse) was associated in females with late menarche [RRRadjusted = 1.17 (1.01,1.36)] and in males with late pubic hair growth [RRRadjusted = 1.16 (1.01,1.34)] per unit increase, but not with other pubertal markers. Neither score (neglect or abuse) was associated with early puberty, but sexual abuse was associated with early [RRRadjusted = 1.86 (1.06,3.29)] as well as late menarche [RRRadjusted = 1.66 (1.02,2.71)] and witnessing abuse with early genitalia development [RRRadjusted = 1.57 (1.02,2.41)]. Household dysfunction score was not associated consistently with pubertal markers. Conclusions: Cumulative neglect by 7 y was associated with delayed development of several pubertal markers. The underlying role of pubertal development in linking childhood neglect with future adult health warrants further

  10. Parental childhood growth and offspring birthweight: Pooled analyses from four birth cohorts in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Addo, OY; Stein, AD; Fall, CHD; Gigante, DP; Guntupalli, AM; Horta, BL; Kuzawa, CW; Lee, N; Norris, SA; Osmond, C; Prabhakaran, P; Richter, LM; Sachdev, HPS; Martorell, R

    2015-01-01

    Objective Associations between parental and offspring size at birth are well established, but the relative importance of parental growth at different ages as predictors of offspring birthweight is less certain. Here we model parental birthweight and postnatal conditional growth in specific age periods as predictors of offspring birthweight. Methods We analyzed data from 3,392 adults participating in four prospective birth cohorts and 5,506 of their offspring. Results There was no significant heterogeneity by study site or offspring sex. 1SD increase in maternal birthweight was associated with offspring birthweight increases of 102 g, 1SD in maternal length growth 0–2 year with 46 g, and 1SD in maternal height growth Mid-childhood (MC)-adulthood with 27 g. Maternal relative weight measures were associated with 24 g offspring birth weight increases (2 year- MC) and 49 g for MC-adulthood period but not with earlier relative weight 0–2 year. For fathers, birthweight, and linear/length growth from 0–2 year were associated with increases of 57 and 56 g in offspring birthweight, respectively but not thereafter. Conclusions Maternal and paternal birthweight and growth from birth to 2 year each predict offspring birthweight. Maternal growth from MC-adulthood, relative weight from 2-MC and MC-adulthood also predict offspring birthweight. These findings suggest that shared genes and/or adequate nutrition during early life for both parents may confer benefits to the next generation, and highlight the importance of maternal height and weight prior to conception. The stronger matrilineal than patrilineal relationships with offspring birth weight are consistent with the hypothesis that improving the early growth conditions of young females can improve birth outcomes in the next generation. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 27:99–105, 2015. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25186666

  11. Cohort Profile Update: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Body composition, mental health and genetic assessment at the 6 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Matijasevich, Alicia; Zanini, Roberta; Chrestani Cesar, Maria Aurora; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio Alberto; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    This is an update of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort profile, originally published in 2011. In view of the high prevalence of overweight and mental health problems among Brazilian children, together with the availability of state-of-the-art equipment to assess body composition and diagnostic tests for mental health in childhood, the main outcomes measured in the fifth follow-up (mean age 6.8 years) included child body composition, mental health and cognitive ability. A total of 3722 (90.2%) of the original mothers/carers were interviewed and their children examined in a clinic where they underwent whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography and a 3D photonic scan. Saliva samples for DNA were obtained. Clinical psychologists applied the Development and Well-Being Assessment questionnaire and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to all children. Results are being compared with those of the two earlier cohorts to assess the health effects of economic growth and full implementation of public policies aimed at reducing social inequalities in the past 30 years. For further information visit the programme website at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/coorte_2004/questionarios.php]. Applications to use the data should be made by contacting 2004 cohort researchers and filling in the application form available at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/estudos/formularios.php]. PMID:25063002

  12. The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20th Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?

    PubMed Central

    Hermalin, Albert I.; Lowry, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908–1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20th century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument. PMID:22904585

  13. School Readiness among Children of Immigrants in the US: Evidence from a Large National Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wen-Jui; Lee, RaeHyuck; Waldfogel, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ≈ 6,800), we examined the factors explaining variation in school readiness in a large and nationally representative sample of children in immigrant and non-immigrant families. In OLS regression models with rich controls to account for selection, we found that language background was a key factor in explaining children of immigrants’ expressive language and early reading at kindergarten, whereas both socioeconomic status and language background helped explain their performance in math. PMID:22711952

  14. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  15. Relation between in Utero Arsenic Exposure and Birth Outcomes in a Cohort of Mothers and Their Newborns from New Hampshire

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Baker, Emily R.; Korrick, Susan A.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2016-01-01

    -Diamond D, Emond JA, Baker ER, Korrick SA, Karagas MR. 2016. Relation between in utero arsenic exposure and birth outcomes in a cohort of mothers and their newborns from New Hampshire. Environ Health Perspect 124:1299–1307; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510065 PMID:26955061

  16. VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background

    Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

  17. Lack of neurodevelopmental adversity by prenatal exposure of infants to current lowered PCB levels: comparison of two German birth cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Michael; Ranft, Ulrich; Krämer, Ursula; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Lemm, Friederike; Fürst, Peter; Eberwein, Georg; Winneke, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent environmental contaminants, may affect neurodevelopment of infants following prenatal exposure. A negative impact of prenatal PCB exposure on neurodevelopment was found in the Dusseldorf (Germany) cohort study (1993-2000). PCB levels of the sum of the three indicator congeners in breast milk were negatively associated with mental/motor development as assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) in infants. Since general exposure to PCB has decreased, a new birth cohort study was initiated in 2000 in the industrial city of Duisburg, which is located 30 km downstream from Dusseldorf on the River Rhine. A subgroup of the Duisburg birth cohort study was used to compare PCB exposure and developmental effects with results from the Dusseldorf cohort. The recruitment phase of the Duisburg cohort study occurred from 2000 to 2002. Mental and motor development was assessed by means of the BSID at the ages of 12 and 24 mo. Prenatal PCB exposure of newborns from Duisburg cohort was about two- to threefold lower than the Dusseldorf cohort. Although in the Dusseldorf birth cohort mental and motor development at ages 18 and 30 mo were negatively associated with PCB exposure, there was no association observed in the Duisburg study. Evidence indicates that exposure to PCB at current exposure levels no longer apparently impair neurodevelopment of infants.

  18. Work-energy level, personal characteristics, and fatal heart attack: a birth-cohort effect.

    PubMed

    Paffenbarger, R S; Hale, W E; Brand, R J; Hyde, R T

    1977-03-01

    In a 22-year followup of 3686 San Francisco longshoremen, a cohort analysis assessed job activity and six personal characteristics in relation to 395 fatal heart attacks. Four cohorts aged 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 in 1951 were studied annually for job shifts affecting energy output and for sudden or delayed death from heart attack by age 75. All subjects underwent multiphasic screening for heavy cigarette smoking, higher blood pressure, history of prior heart disease, obesity, abnormal glucose metabolism, and higher blood cholesterol. The first three of these characteristics added risk of fatal heart attack. The amount of risk varied in the four cohorts. Higher energy output on the job reduced risk of fatal heart attack, especially sudden death, in the two younger cohorts, where less active workers were at threefold increased risk. Lack of this effect in the two older cohorts could imply real differences in their work habits, such as being less energetic in heavy jobs or more energetic in light jobs than the younger cohorts. Or, before the study began, early deaths may have winnowed susceptibles from the two older cohorts. Combined low-energy output, heavy smoking, and higher blood pressure increased risk by as much as 20-fold. By elimination of these adverse influences, this population might have had an 88% reduction in its rate of fatal heart attack during the 22 years.

  19. Twin-singleton differences in intelligence: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to determine the difference in intelligence between singletons and twins in young adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. The study base consisted of data on the 445,463 males who were born alive in either single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20). Within this study base, there were data on 1,653 sibships of full brothers that included at least one man born in single birth and at least one man born in twin birth (4,307 persons, including 2,378 twins and 1,929 singletons). The intelligence scores of the singletons were 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-14%) of a standard deviation higher than those of the twins, after adjustment for birth year, birth order, parental ages at delivery, parental education levels, and other factors. The adjusted within-family difference was also 11% (95 % CI: 6-16%) of a standard deviation, indicating that unmeasured factors shared by siblings (e.g., maternal body height) have not influenced the estimate in important ways. When gestational age at birth was added to the model, the estimate for the difference in intelligence score was approximately the same. Including birth weight in the model strongly reduced the estimate. In conclusion, twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 had slightly lower intelligence in early adulthood compared with the singletons.

  20. Childhood Behavior Problems and Health at Midlife: 35-Year Follow-Up of a Scottish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Jokela, Markus; Clark, Heather; Batty, G. David

    2011-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavior problems are associated with premature mortality. To identify plausible pathways that may account for this association, we explored the extent to which childhood behavior problems relate to health behaviors and health outcomes at midlife. Methods: The Aberdeen Children of the 1950s (ACONF) study comprises 12,500…

  1. The Effect of Fetal and Childhood Growth over Depression in Early Adulthood in a Southern Brazilian Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gonçalves, Helen; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Barros, Fernando C.; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor nutrition and growth during fetal life and childhood might be associated with depression in adulthood; however, studies evaluating these associations present controversial results, especially when comparing studies using different proxies for fetal growth. We evaluated the association of fetal and childhood growth/nutrition with depression, in adulthood, using different approaches and measurement methods. Method In 1982, hospital births (n = 5914) in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were examined and have been prospectively followed. At 30 years, the presence of major depression and depressive symptoms severity was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). The present study assessed their association with birth weight, premature birth, small for gestational age (SGA), stunting and conditional growth during childhood. Results At 30 years, 3576 individuals were evaluated and 7.9% had major depression. Low birth weight (PR = 1.01 95%CI [0.64–1.60]), having been born SGA (PR = 0.87 95%CI [0.64–1.19]) and premature birth (PR = 1.22 95%CI [0.72–2.07]) were not associated with major depression in multivariable models. However, those born SGA who were also stunted in childhood had a higher prevalence of major depression (PR = 1.87 95%CI [1.06–3.29]) and greater odds of scoring a higher level of depression in the BDI-II (OR = 2.18 95%CI [1.34–3.53]). Conclusion In this Brazilian cohort of young adults, those born SGA who were also stunted during childhood had a higher risk of depression in adulthood. Our results show that the effect of growth impairment on depression is cumulative. PMID:26469192

  2. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Shari; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Fisher, Mandy; Fraser, William D.; Ettinger, Adrienne; King, Will

    2015-07-15

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  3. Association between black stains and dental caries in primary teeth: findings from a Brazilian population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    França-Pinto, C C; Cenci, M S; Correa, M B; Romano, A R; Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Demarco, F F

    2012-01-01

    Lower dental caries experience has been observed in children and teenagers with the presence of black stains on dental structures. However, none of the previous investigations were population-based studies or adjusted the analysis for potential confounders. This study assessed the prevalence of black stains at the age of 5 in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil and investigated the association between black stains and dental caries. A total of 1,129 children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort were examined at age 5, and their mothers were interviewed at their households. Dental examinations included a search for black stains and dental caries on the primary dentition through the dmf-s index. The mothers' questionnaire comprised data on demographic, social, and behavior aspects. Prevalence of black stains was 3.5% (95% CI 2.5-4.7) and the prevalence of dental caries was 48.4% (95% CI 45.4-51.4). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between black stains and dental caries. Adjusted analysis revealed that the presence of black stains was associated with lower levels of dental caries (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99). The results of the present study suggest that black stains are a protective factor for dental caries development.

  4. Persistence of Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis: Assessment of a Low-Birth-Weight Cohort at Ages 2, 6, and 9 Years.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Steven J; Feldman, Judith F; Lorenz, John M; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Whitaker, Agnes H; Paneth, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    We examined the stability of nondisabling and disabling cerebral palsy at age 2 in a longitudinally followed tri-county low-birth-weight (<2000 g) birth cohort. A total of 1105 newborns were enrolled, 901 (81.5%) survived to age 2, and 86% (n = 777) were followed up. Of the 113 cerebral palsy diagnoses at age 2, 61 (9% of the cohort, n = 61/777) had disabling cerebral palsy and 52 (7%, n = 52/777) had nondisabling cerebral palsy. Of 48 followed children diagnosed with disabling cerebral palsy at age 2, 98% were again classified as having cerebral palsy at school age, and 1 had an uncertain cerebral palsy status. By contrast, 41% (n = 17) of the 43 children diagnosed with nondisabling cerebral palsy at age 2 were classified as not having cerebral palsy. Of the 517 followed children who were not diagnosed with cerebral palsy at age 2, 7% (n = 35) were classified as having late emerging nondisabling cerebral palsy at school age.

  5. Association between Black Stains and Dental Caries in Primary Teeth: Findings from a Brazilian Population-Based Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    França-Pinto, C.C.; Cenci, M.S.; Correa, M.B.; Romano, A.R.; Peres, M.A.; Peres, K.G.; Matijasevich, A.; Santos, I.S.; Barros, A.J.D.; Demarco, F.F.

    2012-01-01

    Lower dental caries experience has been observed in children and teenagers with the presence of black stains on dental structures. However, none of the previous investigations were population-based studies or adjusted the analysis for potential confounders. This study assessed the prevalence of black stains at the age of 5 in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil and investigated the association between black stains and dental caries. A total of 1,129 children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort were examined at age 5, and their mothers were interviewed at their households. Dental examinations included a search for black stains and dental caries on the primary dentition through the dmf-s index. The mothers’ questionnaire comprised data on demographic, social, and behavior aspects. Prevalence of black stains was 3.5% (95% CI 2.5–4.7) and the prevalence of dental caries was 48.4% (95% CI 45.4–51.4). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between black stains and dental caries. Adjusted analysis revealed that the presence of black stains was associated with lower levels of dental caries (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26–0.99). The results of the present study suggest that black stains are a protective factor for dental caries development. PMID:22488298

  6. Association between black stains and dental caries in primary teeth: findings from a Brazilian population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    França-Pinto, C C; Cenci, M S; Correa, M B; Romano, A R; Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Demarco, F F

    2012-01-01

    Lower dental caries experience has been observed in children and teenagers with the presence of black stains on dental structures. However, none of the previous investigations were population-based studies or adjusted the analysis for potential confounders. This study assessed the prevalence of black stains at the age of 5 in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil and investigated the association between black stains and dental caries. A total of 1,129 children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort were examined at age 5, and their mothers were interviewed at their households. Dental examinations included a search for black stains and dental caries on the primary dentition through the dmf-s index. The mothers' questionnaire comprised data on demographic, social, and behavior aspects. Prevalence of black stains was 3.5% (95% CI 2.5-4.7) and the prevalence of dental caries was 48.4% (95% CI 45.4-51.4). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between black stains and dental caries. Adjusted analysis revealed that the presence of black stains was associated with lower levels of dental caries (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99). The results of the present study suggest that black stains are a protective factor for dental caries development. PMID:22488298

  7. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma: European Union-funded initiatives - a MeDALL, CHICOS, ENRIECO, and GA²LEN joint paper.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vrijheid, Martine; Keil, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks.

  8. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Aberdeen Pesticide Dumps Site, Aberdeen, NC, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit Three (OU3) of the Aberdeen Pesticide Dumps Site (the 'Site'), in Aberdeen, North Carolina. The remedy selected addresses groundwater, sediment, and surface water contamination and ecological concerns to eliminate or reduce the risks posed by the Site.

  9. The Association Between Childhood Seizures and Later Childhood Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings From a Nationally Representative Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, Symon M.; Newton, Charles R.J.C.; Prince, Martin J.; Das-Munshi, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Emotional/behavioral disorders are often comorbid with childhood epilepsy, but both may be predicted by social disadvantage and fetal risk indicators (FRIs). We used data from a British birth cohort, to assess the association of epilepsy, single unprovoked seizures, and febrile seizures with the later development of emotional/behavioral problems. Methods A total of 17,416 children in the 1958 British birth cohort were followed up until age 16 years. Logistic and modified Poisson regression models were used to determine a) the association of social disadvantage at birth and FRI with epilepsy, single unprovoked seizures, and febrile seizures at 7 years, and emotional/behavioral disorders in later childhood, and (ii) the association of childhood seizures by age 7 years with emotional/behavioral disorders in later childhood, after accounting for social disadvantage and FRI. Results Higher scores on FRI and social disadvantage were associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 7, 11, and 16 years, but not with seizure disorders at age 7 years. Epilepsy was associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 7 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29–4.84), 11 years (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.04–3.81), and 16 years (OR = 5.47, 95% CI = 1.65–18.08), whereas single unprovoked seizures were associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 16 years (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.02–2.01), after adjustment for FRI and social disadvantage. Febrile convulsions were not associated with increased risk for emotional/behavioral problems. Conclusions Emotional/behavioral problems in children are related to an earlier diagnosis of epilepsy and single unprovoked seizures after accounting for social disadvantage and FRI, whereas febrile convulsions are not associated with emotional/behavioral problems. PMID:26894324

  10. Patterns of deliveries in a Brazilian birth cohort: almost universal cesarean sections for the better-off

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Silveira, Mariângela; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of deliveries in a birth cohort and to compare vaginal and cesarean section deliveries. METHODS All children born to mothers from the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004, were recruited for a birth cohort study. Mothers were contacted and interviewed during their hospital stay when extensive information on the gestation, the birth and the newborn, along with maternal health history and family characteristics was collected. Maternal characteristics and childbirth care financing – either private or public healthcare (SUS) patients - were the main factors investigated along with a description of C-sections distribution according to day of the week and delivery time. Standard descriptive techniques, χ2 tests for comparing proportions and Poisson regression to explore the independent effect of C-section predictors were the methods used. RESULTS The overall C-section rate was 45%, 36% among SUS and 81% among private patients, where 35% of C-sections were reported elective. C-sections were more frequent on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, reducing by about a third on Sundays, while normal deliveries had a uniform distribution along the week. Delivery time for C-sections was markedly different among public and private patients. Maternal schooling was positively associated with C-section among SUS patients, but not among private patients. CONCLUSIONS C-sections were almost universal among the wealthier mothers, and strongly related to maternal education among SUS patients. The patterns we describe are compatible with the idea that C-sections are largely done to suit the doctor’s schedule. Drastic action is called for to change the current situation. PMID:21670862

  11. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births). In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3) and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9), respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children. PMID:20653949

  12. Early growth and coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes: findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS).

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G

    2011-12-01

    A slow rate of intrauterine growth is a major risk factor for several common noncommunicable diseases, which include the following: coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Likewise, growth patterns in infancy and childhood have been identified as important factors linked to the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this overview, patterns of growth associated with CHD, type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic traits in adult life are presented on the basis of findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) 1934-1944. Later risk of CHD was associated with small body size at birth and during infancy, followed by an increase in body size later in childhood. This pattern of growth has been associated with dyslipidemia in later life, which offers an explanation for the observed findings. Type 2 diabetes and CHD share several risk factors. The early growth of persons who later develop type 2 diabetes includes a small body size at birth as well as a small body size during infancy. An early age at adiposity rebound was associated with a markedly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The patterns of growth associated with type 2 diabetes are also associated with alterations in body composition, which predisposes to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. The presented findings suggest that to be able to understand the pathogenesis of several noncommunicable diseases, the diseases need to be studied from a life-course perspective, and prenatal and childhood growth as well as adult characteristics need to be taken into account.

  13. Neonatal Genome-Wide Methylation Patterns in Relation to Birth Weight in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Stephanie M.; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Wu, Michael C.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Håberg, Siri E.; Ueland, Per Magne; Nystad, Wenche; Nilsen, Roy M.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Peddada, Shyamal D.; London, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Although epigenetic regulation plays a critical role in embryonic development, few studies have examined the relationship of epigenome-wide methylation with fetal growth. Using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, California) in a substudy of 1,046 infants from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) enrolled between 1999 and 2008, we examined epigenome-wide cord blood DNA methylation in relation to birth weight. In multivariable-adjusted robust linear regression models, we identified differential methylation at 19 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) associated with either decreased (AT-rich interactive domain 5B (MRF1-like) (ARID5B), 2 CpGs) or increased (x-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 3 (XRCC3), 4 CpGs) birth weight. ARID5B knockout mice have less adipose tissue and significantly lower weight in the postnatal period. XRCC3 plays a key role in the maintenance of chromosome stability and the repair of DNA damage. Although there are fewer data on the other implicated genes, many of these genes have been shown to have roles in developmental processes. This constitutes the largest and most robust study of birth weight using an epigenome-wide methylation platform and offers potential insights into epigenetic mechanisms of fetal growth. PMID:24561991

  14. Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Messer, Lynne C; Kaufman, Jay S; Dole, Nancy; Herring, Amy; Laraia, Barbara A

    2006-01-01

    Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the reproductive and public health literature. When crime has been used in research, it has been variably defined, resulting in non-comparable associations across studies. Methods Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel models, this paper explored the relevance of four spatial violent crime exposures: two proximal violent crime categorizations (count of violent crime within a one-half mile radius of maternal residence and distance from maternal residence to nearest violent crime) and two area-level crime categorizations (count of violent crimes within a block group and block group rate of violent crimes) for adverse birth events among women in living in the city of Raleigh NC crime report area in 1999–2001. Models were adjusted for maternal age and education and area-level deprivation. Results In black and white non-Hispanic race-stratified models, crime characterized as a proximal exposure was not able to distinguish between women experiencing adverse and women experiencing normal birth outcomes. Violent crime characterized as a neighborhood attribute was positively associated with preterm birth and low birth weight among non-Hispanic white and black women. No statistically significant interaction between area-deprivation and violent crime category was observed. Conclusion Crime is variably categorized in the literature, with little rationale provided for crime type or categorization employed. This research represents the first time multiple crime categorizations have been directly compared in association with health outcomes. Finding an effect of area-level violent crime suggests crime may best be characterized as a neighborhood attribute with important implication for adverse birth outcomes. PMID:16707017

  15. Attrition in a 30-year follow-up of a perinatal birth risk cohort: factors change with age

    PubMed Central

    Hokkanen, Laura; Laasonen, Marja; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Virta, Maarit; Lipsanen, Jari; Tienari, Pentti J.; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Attrition is a major cause of potential bias in longitudinal studies and clinical trials. Attrition rate above 20% raises concern of the reliability of the results. Few studies have looked at the factors behind attrition in follow-ups spanning decades. Methods. We analyzed attrition and associated factors of a 30-year follow-up cohort of subjects who were born with perinatal risks for neurodevelopmental disorders. Attrition rates were calculated at different stages of follow-up and differences between responders and non-responders were tested. To find combinations of variables influencing attrition and investigate their relative importance at birth, 5, 9, 16 and 30 years of follow-up we used the random forest classification. Results. Initial loss of potential participants was 13%. Attrition was 16% at five, 24% at nine, 35% at 16 and 46% at 30 years. The only group difference that emerged between responders and non-responders was in socioeconomic status (SES). The variables identified by random forest classification analysis were classified into Birth related, Development related and SES related. Variables from all these categories contributed to attrition, but SES related variables were less important than birth and development associated variables. Classification accuracy ranged between 0.74 and 0.96 depending on age. Discussion. Lower SES is linked to attrition in many studies. Our results point to the importance of the growth and development related factors in a longitudinal study. Parents’ decisions to participate depend on the characteristics of the child. The same association was also seen when the child, now grown up, decided to participate at 30 years. In addition, birth related medical variables are associated with the attrition still at the age of 30. Our results using a data mining approach suggest that attrition in longitudinal studies is influenced by complex interactions of a multitude of variables, which are not necessarily evident

  16. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  17. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Näslund Thagaard, Ida; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Olesen Larsen, Severin; Holm, Jens-Christian; Christiansen, Michael; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. Methods A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. Results The change from use of second to first trimester measurements for dating was associated with a significant increase in the rate of post-term deliveries from 2.1–2.9% and a significant decrease in the rate of pre-term deliveries from 5.4–4.6% caused by systematic discrepancies. Thereby 25.1% would pass 41 weeks when GA is defined by CRL and 17.3% when BPD (2nd trimester) is used. Calibration for these discrepancies resulted in a lower post-term birth rate, from 3.1–1.4%, when first compared to second trimester dating was used. Conclusions Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration of pregnancy. This should be corrected in clinical practice to avoid an overestimation of post-term birth and unnecessary inductions when first trimester formulas are used. PMID:26760299

  18. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life—The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Küpers, Leanne K.; L’Abée, Carianne; Bocca, Gianni; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Methods In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education) were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1–6, 6–12 and 12–24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains. Results Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%). Conclusion Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role. PMID:26192417

  19. Teenage Pregnancy and Female Educational Underachievement: A Prospective Study of a New Zealand Birth Cohort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2000-01-01

    Study examined the relationship between teenage pregnancy and educational underachievement in a sample of women studied from birth to 21 years. Findings suggest that rates of teenage pregnancy might be elevated among women who leave school early, rather than rates of early school leaving being elevated among women who become pregnant. (Author/JDM)

  20. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…

  1. Birth defects among a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women on antiretroviral medication

    PubMed Central

    Watts, D. Heather; Huang, Sharon; Culnane, Mary; Kaiser, Kathleen A.; Scheuerle, Angela; Mofenson, Lynne; Stanley, Kenneth; Newell, Marie-Louise; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois; Cunningham, Coleen K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine rate of and risk factors for birth defects in infants born to HIV-infected women receiving nucleoside and protease inhibitor antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Methods Birth defects were evaluated among infants on the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 316 trial that studied addition of peripartum nevirapine to established ARV regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Maternal therapy was categorized by trimester of earliest exposure. Birth defects were coded using conventions of the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry. Results Birth defects were detected in 60/1414 (4.2%; 95% CI 3.3–5.4%) infants including 30/636 (4.7%; 95% CI 3.2–6.7%) with first trimester ARV exposure and 30/778 (3.9%; 95% CI 2.6–5.5%) with exposure only after the first trimester (P=0.51). Rates of classes of defects were similar between first trimester compared to later exposure groups except heart defects which occurred in 16 (2.5%; 95% CI 1.4–4.1%) with first trimester ARV exposure and in six (0.8%; 95% CI 0.3–1.7%) infants with later exposure (P=0.02). Exposure to ARV was not associated with specific types of heart defects. Two cases of cardiomyopathy were noted. Conclusion ARV use in early pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of birth defects overall. The possible association of ARV exposure with heart defects requires further surveillance. PMID:21142844

  2. Birth cohort differences in fluid cognition in old age: comparisons of trends in levels and change trajectories over 30 years in three population-based samples.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Peter; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Gudmundsson, Pia; Johansson, Boo

    2015-03-01

    Later-born cohorts of older adults tend to outperform earlier born on fluid cognition (i.e., Flynn effect) when measured at the same chronological ages. We investigated cohort differences in level of performance and rate of change across three population-based samples born in 1901, 1906, and 1930, drawn from the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies in Gothenburg, Sweden (H70), and measured on tests of logical reasoning and spatial ability at ages 70, 75, and 79 years. Estimates from multiple-group latent growth curve models (LGCM) revealed, in line with previous studies, substantial differences in level of performance where later-born cohorts outperformed earlier born cohorts. Somewhat surprisingly, later-born cohorts showed, on average, a steeper decline than the earlier-born cohort. Gender and education only partially accounted for observed cohort trends. Men outperformed women in the 1906 and 1930 cohorts but no difference was found in the 1901 cohort. More years of education was associated with improved performance in all three cohorts. Our findings confirm the presence of birth cohort effects also in old age but indicate a faster rate of decline in later-born samples. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  3. Birth by Caesarean Section and Prevalence of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Young Adults: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo L.; Gigante, Denise P.; Lima, Rosangela C.; Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Conflicting findings on the risk of obesity among subjects born by caesarean section have been published. Caesarean section should also increase the risk of obesity related cardiovascular risk factors if type of delivery is associated with obesity later in life. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of type of delivery on metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood. Methodology and Principal Findings In 1982, maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were visited and those livebirths whose family lived in the urban area of the city have been followed. In 2000, when male subjects undertook the Army entrance examination (n=2200), fat mass and fat free mass were estimated through bioimpedance. In 2004–2005, we attempted to follow the whole cohort (n=4297), and the following outcomes were studied: blood pressure; HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; random blood glucose, C-reactive protein, waist circumference and body mass index. The estimates were adjusted for the following confounders: family income at birth; maternal schooling; household assets index in childhood; maternal skin color; birth order; maternal age; maternal prepregnancy weight; maternal height; maternal smoking during pregnancy; birthweight and family income at early adulthood. Results In the crude analyses, blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure) and body mass index were higher among subjects who were delivered through caesarean section. After controlling for confounders, systolic blood pressure was 1.15 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.05; 2.25) higher among subjects delivered by caesarean section, and BMI 0.40 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 0.08; 0.71). After controlling for BMI the effect on systolic blood pressure dropped to 0.60 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -0.47; 1.67). Fat mass at 18 years of age was also higher among subjects born by caesarean section. Conclusion Caesarean section was associated with a small increased in systolic

  4. Pregnancy rate and birth outcomes among women receiving antiretroviral therapy in Burkina Faso: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Poda, Armel; Hema, Arsène; Konaté, Aina; Kaboré, Firmin; Zoungrana, Jacques; Kamboulé, Euloges; Soré, Ibrahim; Bado, Guillaume; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Ouédraogo, Macaire; Meda, Nicolas; Sawadogo, Adrien Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Sub-Saharan Africa, few studies reported pregnancy incidence and outcomes in women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). This survey aims to estimate the incidence and outcomes of pregnancy in a cohort of HIV positive women initiating ART in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods We carried out a retrospective cohort study. We selected women in childbearing age initiating ART and followed up in Bobo-Dioulasso teaching hospital between January 2005 and June 2011. The incidence of pregnancies during follow-up was calculated. Childbirth was defined by the expulsion of a fetus after 22 weeks of amenorrhea. Before this term, it is an abortion. Childbirth is said premature if it occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, to term if it occurs between the 38th and the 42nd week. The annual age-standardized fertility rates were calculated using the baseline population from the 2010 demographic and health survey (DHS) in Burkina Faso. Results A total of 1,763 women of childbearing age under ART were included in the study. They ranged between 18 and 48 years old with a median of 35 years old. A total of 222 pregnancies were observed during 4639 women-years of follow-up, corresponding to an incidence density of 5 pregnancies for 100 women-years (95% CI: 4.2-5.5). Among the 222 pregnancies recorded, 9(4.0%) ended with abortion, 205(92.4%) with childbirth (including 15 premature childbirths); the outcome of 8(3.6%) pregnancies were unknown abortion. Live birth and stillborn rates were 94.0% (193/205) and 6.0% respectively. The standard fertility rate in our cohort was 45 live births for 1,000 women-years. The general decrease in fertility rates was 66.0% among women infected with HIV compared to the overall population Conclusion This study shows a low pregnancy incidence among women initiating ART as compared to their peers from the general population. Pregnancies that occurred during ART generally end with live births. Care packages for HIV infected women of

  5. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth: A Pooled Analysis of Seven European Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Verner, Marc-André; White, Richard A.; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; Pelé, Fabienne; Botton, Jérémie; Chevrier, Cécile; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Ranft, Ulrich; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Klümper, Claudia; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-01-01

    Background Infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may contribute to obesity. However, many studies so far have been small, focused on transplacental exposure, used an inappropriate measure to assess postnatal exposure through breastfeeding if any, or did not discern between prenatal and postnatal effects. Objectives We investigated prenatal and postnatal exposure to POPs and infant growth (a predictor of obesity). Methods We pooled data from seven European birth cohorts with biomarker concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB-153) (n = 2,487), and p,p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) (n = 1,864), estimating prenatal and postnatal POPs exposure using a validated pharmacokinetic model. Growth was change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24 months. Per compound, multilevel models were fitted with either POPs total exposure from conception to 24 months or prenatal or postnatal exposure. Results We found a significant increase in growth associated with p,p´-DDE, seemingly due to prenatal exposure (per interquartile increase in exposure, adjusted β = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22). Due to heterogeneity across cohorts, this estimate cannot be considered precise, but does indicate that an association with infant growth is present on average. In contrast, a significant decrease in growth was associated with postnatal PCB-153 exposure (β = –0.10; 95% CI: –0.19, –0.01). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of POPs exposure and infant growth, and it contains state-of-the-art exposure modeling. Prenatal p,p´-DDE was associated with increased infant growth, and postnatal PCB-153 with decreased growth at European exposure levels. Citation Iszatt N, Stigum H, Verner MA, White RA, Govarts E, Palkovicova Murinova L, Schoeters G, Trnovec T, Legler J, Pelé F, Botton J, Chevrier C, Wittsiepe J, Ranft U, Vandentorren S, Kasper-Sonnenberg M, Klümper C, Weisglas-Kuperus N, Polder A, Eggesbø M, OBELIX

  6. Subtypes versus Severity Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…

  7. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  8. Prenatal Phthalate Exposure and Childhood Growth and Blood Pressure: Evidence from the Spanish INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Romaguera, Dora; Monfort, Nuria; Ventura, Rosa; Martinez, David; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Background Human evidence on the effects of early life phthalate exposure on obesity and cardiovascular disease risks, reported by experimental studies, is limited to a few cross-sectional studies. Objectives We evaluated the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and childhood growth and blood pressure in a Spanish birth cohort study. Methods We assessed exposure using the average of two phthalate metabolite spot-urine concentrations collected from the mothers in the first and third pregnancy trimesters (creatinine-adjusted, n = 391). Study outcomes were the difference in age- and sex-specific z-scores for weight between birth and 6 months of age; and repeated age- and sex-specific z-scores for body mass index (BMI) at 1, 4, and 7 years; waist-to-height ratio at 4 and 7 years; and age- and height-specific z-scores for systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 4 and 7 years. Results The sum of five high-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (ΣHMWPm) was associated with lower weight z-score difference between birth and 6 months (β per doubling of exposure = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.75, –0.06) and BMI z-scores at later ages in boys (β = –0.28; 95% CI: –0.60, 0.03) and with higher weight z-score difference (β = 0.24; 95% CI: –0.16, 0.65) and BMI z-scores in girls (β = 0.30; 95% CI: –0.04, 0.64) (p for sex interaction = 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). The sum of three low-molecular-weight phthalates (ΣLMWPm) was not significantly associated with any of the growth outcomes. ΣHMWPm and ΣLMWPm were associated with lower systolic blood pressure z-scores in girls but not in boys. Conclusions This study suggests that prenatal phthalate exposure may be associated with postnatal growth and blood pressure in a sex-specific manner. Inconsistencies with previous cross-sectional findings highlight the necessity for evaluating phthalate health effects in prospective studies. Citation Valvi D, Casas M, Romaguera D, Monfort N, Ventura R, Martinez D, Sunyer J

  9. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness at Age 30, Birth Weight, Accelerated Growth during Infancy and Breastfeeding: A Birth Cohort Study in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Rogério da Silva; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; de Barros, Fernando Celso Lopes Fernandes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) at age 30 and birth characteristics, growth during infancy, and breastfeeding duration, among subjects who have been prospectively followed since birth. Methods and Results In 1982, all births in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and those children (n = 5,914) whose families lived in the urban area of the city have been followed and evaluated at several time points. The cohort participants were evaluated in 2012–13, and IMT was measured at the posterior wall of the right and left common carotid arteries in longitudinal planes using ultrasound imaging. We obtained valid IMT measurements for 3,188 individuals. Weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at age 2 years, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at age 4, height-for-age z-score (HAZ) at 4 years, WAZ at age 4 and relative conditional weight at 4 years were positively associated with IMT, even after controlling for confounding variables. The beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. WAZ at age 2 (compared to those with a <–1 s.d.) was 3.62 μm (95% CI 0.86 to 6.38). The beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. WHZ at 4 (in relation to <–1 s.d) was 3.83 μm (95% CI 0.24 to 7.42). For HAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient for ≥1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.19 μm (95% CI 1.14 to 7.25). For WAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.28 μm (95% CI 1.59 to 6.97). The beta-coefficient associated with conditional weight gain at age 2–4 was 1.26 μm (95% CI 0.49 to 2.02). Conclusion IMT at age 30 was positively associated with WAZ at age 2 years, WHZ at age 4, HAZ at age 4, WAZ at age 4 and conditional weight gain at age 4 years. PMID:25611747

  10. The trend in age at menarche in Indonesia: birth cohorts 1944–1988.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-05-01

    Employing the Indonesian Family Life Survey, this paper depicts the trend in age at menarche in Indonesia for women born in 1944–1988. Mean age at menarche decreased from 14.39 years for birth year 1944 to 13.18 years for birth year 1988. Subsequently, this trend is related to the improvement in material conditions, measured by GDP per capita in childhood. The OLS results indicate that this decrease is largely explained by the improvement in material conditions. If age at menarche is considered an indicator of biological standard of living, these results suggest that the improvement in material conditions during the period converted to an improvement in biological standard of living.

  11. Restrained and External-Emotional Eating Patterns in Young Overweight Children–Results of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Stephanie; Moss, Anja; Weck, Melanie; Florath, Ines; Wabitsch, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Schimmelmann, Benno G.; Christiansen, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in Western countries. Abnormal eating behavior is thought to be a developmental trajectory to obesity. The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) has not been used for children as young as eight years, and possible associations with body weight have not yet been established. Five hundred and twenty-one children of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS; age eight) filled out the EPI-C and BMI was assessed. Adequacy of the scales was tested with confirmatory factor analysis and a MANOVA and cluster analysis established associations between eating patterns and BMI. The factor structure of the EPI-C was confirmed (GFI = .968) and abnormal eating behavior was associated with overweight (χ2(8) = 79.29, p<.001). The EPI-C is a valid assessment tool in this young age group. Overweight children consciously restrain their eating. PMID:25141134

  12. The stability of intelligence from age 11 to age 90 years: the Lothian birth cohort of 1921.

    PubMed

    Deary, Ian J; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M

    2013-12-01

    As a foundation for studies of human cognitive aging, it is important to know the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability across the life course. Few studies of cognitive ability have tested the same individuals in youth and old age. We examined the stability and concurrent and predictive validity of individual differences in the same intelligence test administered to the same individuals (the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921, N = 106) at ages 11 and 90 years. The correlation of Moray House Test scores between age 11 and age 90 was .54 (.67 when corrected for range restriction). This is a valuable foundation for estimating the extent to which cognitive-ability differences in very old age are accounted for by the lifelong stable trait and by the causes of cognitive change across the life course. Moray House Test scores showed strong concurrent and predictive validity with "gold standard" cognitive tests at ages 11 and 90.

  13. Specific association of teratogen and toxicant metals in hair of newborns with congenital birth defects or developmentally premature birth in a cohort of couples with documented parental exposure to military attacks: observational study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Manduca, Paola; Naim, Awny; Signoriello, Simona

    2014-05-01

    This study was undertaken in Gaza, Palestine, in a cohort of babies born in 2011. Hair samples of newborns were analyzed for metal load by DRC-ICP-MS. We report specific level of contamination by teratogen/toxicants metals of newborn babies, environmentally unexposed, according to their phenotypes at birth: normal full term babies, birth defects or developmentally premature. The occurrence of birth defects was previously shown to be correlated in this cohort to documented exposure of parents to weapons containing metal contaminants, during attacks in 2009. We detect, in significantly higher amounts than in normal babies, different specific teratogen or toxicant elements, known weapons' components, characteristic for each of birth defect or premature babies. This is the first attempt to our knowledge to directly link a phenotype at birth with the in utero presence of specific teratogen and/or toxicant metals in a cohort with known episodes of acute exposure of parents to environmental contamination by these same metals, in this case delivered by weaponry The babies were conceived 20-25 months after the major known parental exposure; the specific link of newborn phenotypes to war-remnant metal contaminants, suggests that mothers' contamination persists in time, and that the exposure may have a long term effect.

  14. Specific Association of Teratogen and Toxicant Metals in Hair of Newborns with Congenital Birth Defects or Developmentally Premature Birth in a Cohort of Couples with Documented Parental Exposure to Military Attacks: Observational Study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Manduca, Paola; Naim, Awny; Signoriello, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken in Gaza, Palestine, in a cohort of babies born in 2011. Hair samples of newborns were analyzed for metal load by DRC-ICP-MS. We report specific level of contamination by teratogen/toxicants metals of newborn babies, environmentally unexposed, according to their phenotypes at birth: normal full term babies, birth defects or developmentally premature. The occurrence of birth defects was previously shown to be correlated in this cohort to documented exposure of parents to weapons containing metal contaminants, during attacks in 2009. We detect, in significantly higher amounts than in normal babies, different specific teratogen or toxicant elements, known weapons’ components, characteristic for each of birth defect or premature babies. This is the first attempt to our knowledge to directly link a phenotype at birth with the in utero presence of specific teratogen and/or toxicant metals in a cohort with known episodes of acute exposure of parents to environmental contamination by these same metals, in this case delivered by weaponry The babies were conceived 20–25 months after the major known parental exposure; the specific link of newborn phenotypes to war-remnant metal contaminants, suggests that mothers’ contamination persists in time, and that the exposure may have a long term effect. PMID:24830451

  15. Gestational age at birth and morbidity, mortality, and growth in the first 4 years of life: findings from three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We assessed anthropometric status, breastfeeding duration, morbidity, and mortality outcomes during the first four years of life according to gestational age, in three population-based birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Methods Total breastfeeding duration, neonatal mortality, infant morbidity and mortality, and anthropometric measures taken at 12 and 48 months were evaluated in children of different gestational ages born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in Southern Brazil. Results Babies born <34 weeks of gestation and those born between 34–36 weeks presented increased morbidity and mortality, were breastfed for shorter periods, and were more likely to be undernourished at 12 months of life, in comparison with the 39–41 weeks group. Children born with 37 weeks were more than twice as likely to die in the first year of life, and were also at increased risk of hospitalization and underweight at 12 months of life. Post-term infants presented an increased risk of neonatal mortality. Conclusion The increased risks of morbidity and mortality among preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) and post-term (>41 weeks) are well known. In our population babies born at 37 also present increased risk. As the proportion of preterm and early term babies has increased markedly in recent years, this is a cause for great concern. PMID:23114098

  16. Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively. PMID:23579316

  17. Associations between respiratory symptoms, lung function and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a population-based birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, Robert J; Poulton, Richie; Taylor, D Robin; Greene, Justina M; McLachlan, Christene R; Cowan, Jan O; Flannery, Erin M; Herbison, G Peter; Sears, Malcolm R; Talley, Nicholas J

    2006-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported an association between asthma and gastro-oesophageal reflux, but it is unclear which condition develops first. The role of obesity in mediating this association is also unclear. We explored the associations between respiratory symptoms, lung function, and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a birth cohort of approximately 1000 individuals. Methods Information on respiratory symptoms, asthma, atopy, lung function and airway responsiveness was obtained at multiple assessments from childhood to adulthood in an unselected birth cohort of 1037 individuals followed to age 26. Symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux and irritable bowel syndrome were recorded at age 26. Results Heartburn and acid regurgitation symptoms that were at least "moderately bothersome" at age 26 were significantly associated with asthma (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.6–6.4), wheeze (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.7–7.2), and nocturnal cough (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 2.1–8.7) independently of body mass index. In women reflux symptoms were also associated with airflow obstruction and a bronchodilator response to salbutamol. Persistent wheezing since childhood, persistence of asthma since teenage years, and airway hyperresponsiveness since age 11 were associated with a significantly increased risk of heartburn and acid regurgitation at age 26. There was no association between irritable bowel syndrome and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Reflux symptoms are associated with respiratory symptoms in young adults independently of body mass index. The mechanism of these associations remains unclear. PMID:17147826

  18. Leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, M; Jørgensen, T; Jensen, ML; Juhl, M; Olsen, J; Andersen, PK; Nybo Andersen, A-M

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Design Prospective study with elements of retrospective data collection. Setting Denmark 1996–2002. Population A total of 92 671 pregnant women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort and interviewed subsequently. Methods Data on exercise during pregnancy and potential confounders were obtained through computer-assisted telephone interviews either during pregnancy or after an early miscarriage. Outcome of pregnancy was identified by register linkage. Using Cox regression analysis, we estimated the hazard ratio (HR) of miscarriage according to weekly amount of exercise and the type of exercise. The HR was estimated for <11, 11–14, 15–18, and 19–22 weeks of gestation, respectively. Main outcome measures Miscarriage, defined as fetal loss before 22 completed weeks of gestation. Results A stepwise increasing relation was found between amount of exercise and risk of miscarriage, where risk of miscarriage increased by amount of exercise up to HR = 3.7 (95% CI 2.9–4.7) for women who exercised more than 7 hours per week compared with nonexercisers. Particularly ‘high-impact exercise’ was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. No association was seen between exercise and risk of miscarriage after 18 weeks of gestation. Conclusions This study suggests that exercise early in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. The results should, however, be interpreted cautiously as potential bias arising from retrospective data collection may explain part of the association. Please cite this paper as: Madsen M, Jørgensen T, Jensen M, Juhl M, Olsen J, Andersen P, Nybo Andersen A. Leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. BJOG 2007;114:1419–1426. PMID:17877774

  19. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non

  20. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures: prospective study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sesilje B; Rasmussen, Morten A; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Vestergaard, Peter; Mølgaard, Christian; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Strøm, Marin

    2015-04-01

    Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) during 1996-2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (< 16 year) (n = 53,922). In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01-1.23) of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06). The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research. PMID:25849947

  1. Early growth and coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes: findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS).

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G

    2011-12-01

    A slow rate of intrauterine growth is a major risk factor for several common noncommunicable diseases, which include the following: coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Likewise, growth patterns in infancy and childhood have been identified as important factors linked to the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this overview, patterns of growth associated with CHD, type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic traits in adult life are presented on the basis of findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) 1934-1944. Later risk of CHD was associated with small body size at birth and during infancy, followed by an increase in body size later in childhood. This pattern of growth has been associated with dyslipidemia in later life, which offers an explanation for the observed findings. Type 2 diabetes and CHD share several risk factors. The early growth of persons who later develop type 2 diabetes includes a small body size at birth as well as a small body size during infancy. An early age at adiposity rebound was associated with a markedly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The patterns of growth associated with type 2 diabetes are also associated with alterations in body composition, which predisposes to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. The presented findings suggest that to be able to understand the pathogenesis of several noncommunicable diseases, the diseases need to be studied from a life-course perspective, and prenatal and childhood growth as well as adult characteristics need to be taken into account. PMID:21613556

  2. Associations of Pet Ownership with Wheezing and Lung Function in Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Simon M.; Granell, Raquel; Westgarth, Carri; Murray, Jane; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Henderson, A. John

    2015-01-01

    Background Asthma is a heterogeneous condition and differential effects of pet ownership on non-atopic versus atopic asthma have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pet ownership during pregnancy and early childhood was associated with wheezing from birth to age 7 years and with lung function at age 8 years in a UK population-based birth cohort. Methods Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used to investigate associations of pet ownership at six time-points from pregnancy to age 7 years with concurrent episodes of wheezing, wheezing trajectories (phenotypes) and lung function at age 8 years using logistic regression models adjusted for child’s sex, maternal history of asthma/atopy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and family adversity. Results 4,706 children had complete data on pet ownership and wheezing. From birth to age 7 years, cat ownership was associated with an overall 6% lower odds of wheezing (OR=0.94 (0.89-0.99)). Rabbit and rodent ownership was associated with 21% (OR=1.21 (1.12-1.31)) and 11% (OR=1.11 (1.02–1.21)) higher odds of wheezing, respectively, with strongest effects evident during infancy. Rabbit and rodent ownership was positively associated with a ‘persistent wheeze’ phenotype. Pet ownership was not associated with lung function at age 8 years, with the exception of positive associations of rodent and bird ownership with better lung function. Conclusions Cat ownership was associated with reduced risk, and rabbit and rodent ownership with increased risk, of wheezing during childhood. The mechanisms behind these differential effects warrant further investigation. PMID:26061067

  3. Relationships between birthweight and biomarkers of chronic disease in childhood: Aboriginal Birth Cohort Study 1987-2001.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Susan; Singh, Gurmeet; Mott, Susan; McDonnell, Joseph; Hoy, Wendy

    2009-11-01

    Reports of relationships between lower birthweight and later chronic diseases are mainly from populations with low rates of low birthweight (LBW) and growth-restricted births. A prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal birth cohort with a mean birthweight of 3050 g (SD 630), 16% LBW and 28% fetal growth restriction was used to examine the relationships between birthweight and selected biomarkers of chronic adult disease. At a mean age of 11.4 years (range 8.9-14), the mean weight was 35.7 kg (SD 11.8) and the mean height was 143.8 cm (SD 10.6). Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 growth references, weight and height-for-age z-scores were -0.8 (SD 1.4) and -0.5 (SD 1.07) respectively and using World Health Organisation criteria, 19% of children were classified as underweight (weight for age Z-score <2.0). The relationships between birthweight and blood pressure (n = 475), total cholesterol (n = 461), Apolipoprotein A-1 (n = 343), Apolipoprotein B (n = 390), respiratory function tests (n = 427), kidney size determined by ultrasound (n = 446), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (n = 420) and fasting triglycerides (n = 281), insulin (n = 272) and glucose (n = 279) were examined using regression models adjusted for sex, gestational age, current age and puberty status. In this population with high rates of fetal growth restriction at birth and an excess of under-nutrition at age 11 years we found that birthweight had a negative relationship with child blood pressure only, while current child weight was positively related to blood pressure, total cholesterol, Apolipoprotein B, respiratory function tests, kidney size, and fasting triglycerides, insulin and glucose.

  4. Parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and male genital malformations: A study in the danish national birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sex hormones closely regulate development of the male genital organs during fetal life. The hypothesis that xenobiotics may disrupt endogenous hormonal signalling has received considerable scientific attention, but human evidence is scarce. Objectives We analyse occurrence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism according to maternal and paternal occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals. Methods We conducted a follow-up study of 45,341 male singleton deliveries in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1997-2009. Information on work during pregnancy was obtained by telephone interviews around gestational week 16. Parents' job titles were classified according to DISCO-88. A job exposure matrix for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was implemented to assess occupational exposures. The Medical Birth and National Hospital Register provided data on congenital anomalies diagnosed at birth or during follow-up, which ended in 2009. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were obtained from Cox regression models. Results Among all pregnancies, 6.3% were classified as possibly or probably exposed to EDCs. The most prevalent occupations conferring possible exposure were cleaners, laboratory technicians, hairdressers and agricultural workers (58% of all potentially exposed). The final cumulative incidence of cryptorchidism in boys was 2.2% (1002 cases), and of hypospadias 0.6% (262 cases). The occurrence of hypospadias increased when mothers were probably [HRa = 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-2.6)] or possibly exposed to one or more EDCs [HRa = 2.6 (95% CI 1.8-3.4). Possible paternal exposure to heavy metals increased the risk of hypospadias [HRa 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0-3.4)] and cryptorchidism [HRa 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-2.7)]. None of the exposure groups reached statistical significance. Conclusion The study provides some but limited evidence that occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals during pregnancy increases the risk of hypospadias. PMID

  5. Infant malnutrition and obesity in three population-based birth cohort studies in Southern Brazil: trends and differences.

    PubMed

    Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar G; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Araújo, Cora L; Barros, Fernando C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the evolution of nutritional deficits and overweight in one-year-old children from three birth cohorts started in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples from the 1982 and 1993 cohorts and all children from 2004 were weighed and measured, and their mothers interviewed. Anthropometric deficits and overweight were assessed using both NCHS and WHO growth standards. A comparison of the existence of nutritional deficits showed that, after a decline between 1982 and 1993, its prevalence stabilized between 1993 and 2004. Across the whole period, a decrease in all deficits was observed. Obesity, on the other hand, increased. A deficit in the ratio of body length to age was found to be strongly associated with family income. The group with income below one minimum wage was the only to present a significant reduction of stunting during the study period. The most significant improvements in the reduction of nutritional deficits occurred in the first half of the study period, while social differentials remained. Fighting malnutrition is still necessary among the 40% of the population considered poor, and must be accompanied by efforts to combat overweight which is being observed in all social strata.

  6. Preschool: First Findings from the Preschool Follow-Up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). First Look. NCES 2008-025

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernoff, Jodi Jacobson; Flanagan, Kristin Denton; McPhee, Cameron; Park, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) is designed to provide detailed information on children's development, health, and early learning experiences in the years leading up to entry into school. The ECLS-B is the first nationally representative study within the United States to directly assess children's early mental and…

  7. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B): Methodology Report for the 9-Month Data Collection (2001-02). Volume 2: Sampling. NCES 2005-147

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethel, James; Green, James L.; Nord, Christine; Kalton, Graham; West, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    This report is Volume 2 of the methodology report that provides information about the development, design, and conduct of the 9-month data collection of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). This volume begins with a brief overview of the ECLS-B, but focuses on the sample design, calculation of response rates, development…

  8. Failure to Thrive in the Term and Preterm Infants of Mothers Depressed in the Postnatal Period: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewett, Robert; Blair, Peter; Emmett, Pauline; Emond, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine the relationship between failure to thrive in preterm and term infants and postnatal depression in their mothers. Method: In a whole population birth cohort of 12,391 infants (excluding those born after term or with major congenital abnormalities) failure to thrive over the first nine months was identified using a conditional…

  9. Increased Burden of Respiratory Disease in the First Six Months of Life Due to Prenatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Krakow Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Galas, Alek Sander; Flak, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Penar, Agnieszka; Spengler, John; Perera, Frederica P.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of our study was to assess the effects of prenatal tobacco smoke on respiratory symptoms and on doctor consultations in a birth cohort of 445 infants who had no smoking mothers and who had no postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Before and after delivery, questionnaires and interviews with mothers were…

  10. IQ in Childhood and the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle Age: Extended Follow-Up of the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, David G.

    2009-01-01

    IQ in early adulthood has been inversely associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome in midlife. We tested this association in the British 1946 birth cohort, which assessed IQ at age eight years and ascertained the metabolic syndrome at age 53 years based on modified (non-fasting blood) ATPIII criteria. Childhood IQ was inversely associated…

  11. Adaptation and Validation of the HOME-SF as a Caregiver-Report Home Environment Measure for Use in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang; Bradley, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a brief caregiver-report instrument for measuring the home environment of children aged three and under, as part of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS). Instrument development was conducted by translating and adapting the Home Observation for the Measurement of Environment Inventory-Short Form (HOME-SF) which comprises…

  12. Impact of perinatal different intrauterine environments on child growth and development in the first six months of life - IVAPSA birth cohort: rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last twenty years, retrospective studies have shown that perinatal events may impact the individual health in the medium and long term. However, only a few prospective studies were designed to address this phenomenon. This study aims to describe the design and methods of the Impact of Perinatal Environmental Variations in the First Six Months of Life - the IVAPSA Birth Cohort. Method/Design This is a clinical study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mothers from different clinical backgrounds (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having an intrauterine growth restricted child for idiopathic reasons, and controls) will be invited to join the study twenty-four hours after the birth of their child. Data on economic, social, and maternal health care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and neuropsychological evaluation will be obtained in interviews at postpartum, 7 and 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months of life. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first thematic cohort focused on the effects of intrauterine growth restriction to prospectively enroll mothers from different clinical backgrounds. The IVAPSA Birth Cohort is a promising research platform that can contribute to the knowledge on the relationship between perinatal events and their consequences on the children's early life. PMID:22471837

  13. An Analysis of Associations between Residential and School Mobility and Educational Outcomes in South African Urban Children: The Birth to Twenty Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Carren; Richter, Linda M.; Fleisch, Brahm; Norris, Shane A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from Birth to Twenty, a cohort of South African urban children, the current paper investigates the relationships between residential and school mobility and a set of educational outcomes. The findings provide some evidence of a positive association between changes in residence and numeracy and literacy scores, and school mobility was…

  14. Childhood ADHD Is Strongly Associated with a Broad Range of Psychiatric Disorders during Adolescence: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Voigt, Robert G.; Killian, Jill M.; Weaver, Amy L.; Katusic, Slavica K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Methods: Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we…

  15. A Birth Cohort Study of Maternal and Infant Serum PCB-153 and DDE Concentrations and Responses to Infant Tuberculosis Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Lee, Sue Y.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Verner, Marc-André; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Drobná, Beata; Kočan, Anton; Fabišiková, Anna; Čonka, Kamil; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reasons for the highly variable and often poor protection conferred by the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine are multifaceted and poorly understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether early-life exposure to PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] reduces 6-month infant BCG vaccine response. Methods: Data came from families participating in a prospective birth cohort in eastern Slovakia. At birth, maternal and cord blood were collected for chemical analyses, and infants were immunized with BCG. Blood was collected from infants for chemical analyses and to determine 6-month BCG-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA levels. Multivariable linear regression models were fit to examine chemical–BCG associations among approximately 500 mother–infant pairs, with adjustment for confounders. Results: The median 6-month infant concentration of the prevalent congener PCB-153 was 113 ng/g lipid [interquartile range (IQR): 37–248], and 388 ng/g lipid (IQR: 115–847) for DDE. Higher 6-month infant concentrations of PCB-153 and DDE were strongly associated with lower 6-month BCG-specific antibody levels. For instance, BCG-specific IgG levels were 37% lower for infants with PCB-153 concentrations at the 75th percentile compared to the 25th percentile (95% CI: –42, –32; p < 0.001). Results were similar in magnitude and precision for DDE. There was also evidence of PCB–DDE additivity, where exposure to both compounds reduced anti-BCG levels more than exposure to either compound alone. Conclusions: The associations observed in this study indicate that environmental exposures may be overlooked contributors to poorer responses to BCG vaccine. The overall association between these exposures and tuberculosis incidence is unknown. Citation: Jusko TA, De Roos AJ, Lee SY, Thevenet-Morrison K, Schwartz SM, Verner MA, Palkovicova Murinova L, Drobná B, Kočan A, Fabišiková A, Čonka K

  16. Pathogenicity and phenotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from a birth cohort of children in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Adel; Shaheen, Hind I; Amine, Mohamed; Hassan, Khaled; Sanders, John W; Riddle, Mark S; Armstrong, Adam W; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sebeny, Peter J; Klena, John D; Young, Sylvia Y N; Frenck, Robert W

    2014-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has consistently been the predominant bacterial cause of diarrhea in many birth cohort- and hospital-based studies conducted in Egypt. We evaluated the pathogenicity of ETEC isolates in a birth cohort of children living in a rural community in Egypt. Between 2004 and 2007, we enrolled and followed 348 children starting at birth until their second year of life. A stool sample and two rectal swabs were collected from children during twice-weekly visits when they presented with diarrhea and were collected every 2 weeks if no diarrhea was reported. From routine stool cultures, five E. coli-like colonies were screened for ETEC enterotoxins using a GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The isolates were screened against a panel of 12 colonization factor antigens (CFAs) by a dot blot assay. A nested case-control study evaluated the association between initial or repeat excretion of ETEC and the occurrences of diarrhea. The pathogenicity of ETEC was estimated in symptomatic children compared to that in asymptomatic controls. ETEC was significantly associated with diarrhea (crude odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 1.52). The distribution of ETEC enterotoxins varied between the symptomatic children (44.2% heat-labile toxin [LT], 38.5% heat-stable toxin [ST], and 17.3% LT/ST) and asymptomatic children (55.5% LT, 34.6% ST, and 9.9% LT/ST) (P < 0.001). The CFAs CFA/I (n = 61), CS3 (n = 8), CS1 plus CS3 (n = 24), CS2 plus CS3 (n = 18), CS6 (n = 45), CS5 plus CS6 (n = 11), CS7 (n = 25), and CS14 (n = 32) were frequently detected in symptomatic children, while CS6 (n = 66), CS12 (n = 51), CFA/I (n = 43), and CS14 (n = 20) were detected at higher frequencies among asymptomatic children. While all toxin phenotypes were associated with diarrheal disease after the initial exposure, only ST and LT/ST-expressing ETEC isolates (P < 0.0001) were associated with disease in repeat infections. The role of enterotoxins and

  17. Birth Weight in Relation to Leisure Time Physical Activity in Adolescence and Adulthood: Meta-Analysis of Results from 13 Nordic Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars; Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Bengtsson, Calle; Canoy, Dexter; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eriksson, Marit; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lissner, Lauren; Nilsen, Tom I.; Osler, Merete; Overvad, Kim; Rasmussen, Finn; Salonen, Minna K.; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prenatal life exposures, potentially manifested as altered birth size, may influence the later risk of major chronic diseases through direct biologic effects on disease processes, but also by modifying adult behaviors such as physical activity that may influence later disease risk. Methods/Principal Findings We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific analyses. Birth weight showed a reverse U-shaped association with later LTPA; within the range of normal weight the association was negligible but weights below and above this range were associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA. Compared with the reference category (3.26–3.75 kg), the birth weight categories of 1.26–1.75, 1.76–2.25, 2.26–2.75, and 4.76–5.25 kg, had odds ratios of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.94), 0.72 (0.59, 0.88), 0.89 (0.79, 0.99), and 0.65 (0.50, 0.86), respectively. The shape and strength of the birth weight-LTPA association was virtually independent of sex, age, gestational age, educational level, concurrent body mass index, and smoking. Conclusions/Significance The association between birth weight and undertaking LTPA is very weak within the normal birth weight range, but both low and high birth weights are associated with a lower probability of undertaking LTPA, which hence may be a mediator between prenatal influences and later disease risk. PMID:20016780

  18. Bias from conditioning on live birth in pregnancy cohorts: an illustration based on neurodevelopment in children after prenatal exposure to organic pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-01-01

    Only 60–70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to ‘live-birth bias’) that arises from studying the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental factors on long-term health outcomes among live births only in pregnancy cohorts. To illustrate this we used prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-aged children as an example. PFAS are persistent organic pollutants that may impact human fecundity and be toxic for neurodevelopment. We simulated several hypothetical scenarios based on characteristics from the Danish National Birth Cohort and found that a weak inverse association may appear even if PFAS do not cause ADHD but have a considerable effect on fetal survival. The magnitude of the negative bias was generally small, and adjusting for common causes of the outcome and fetal loss can reduce the bias. Our example highlights the need to identify the determinants of pregnancy loss and the importance of quantifying bias arising from conditioning on live birth in observational studies. PMID:25604449

  19. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  20. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yuki; Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  1. Perinatal and sociodemographic factors at birth predicting conduct problems and violence to age 18 years: comparison of Brazilian and British birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Maughan, Barbara; Menezes, Ana M B; Hickman, Matthew; MacLeod, John; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gonçalves, Helen; Anselmi, Luciana; Gallo, Erika A G; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries have high levels of violence. Research in high-income countries shows that risk factors in the perinatal period are significant precursors of conduct problems which can develop into violence. It is not known whether the same early influences are important in lower income settings with higher rates of violence. This study compared perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors between Brazil and Britain, and their role in explaining higher rates of conduct problems and violence in Brazil. Methods Prospective population-based birth cohort studies were conducted in Pelotas, Brazil (N = 3,618) and Avon, Britain (N = 4,103). Eleven perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors were measured in questionnaires completed by mothers during the perinatal period. Conduct problems were measured in questionnaires completed by mothers at age 11, and violence in self-report questionnaires completed by adolescents at age 18. Results Conduct problems were predicted by similar risk factors in Brazil and Britain. Female violence was predicted by several of the same risk factors in both countries. However, male violence in Brazil was associated with only one risk factor, and several risk factor associations were weaker in Brazil than in Britain for both females and males. Almost 20% of the higher risk for conduct problems in Brazil compared to Britain was explained by differential exposure to risk factors. The percentage of the cross-national difference in violence explained by early risk factors was 15% for females and 8% for males. Conclusions A nontrivial proportion of cross-national differences in antisocial behaviour are related to perinatal and sociodemographic conditions at the start of life. However, risk factor associations are weaker in Brazil than in Britain, and influences in other developmental periods are probably of particular importance for understanding male youth violence in Brazil. PMID:25471542

  2. Hospital work and pregnancy outcomes: a study in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Varela, María M Morales; Kaerlev, Linda; Zhu, Jin Liang; Bonde, Jens Peter; Nøhr, Ellen-Aagaard; Llopis-González, Agustín; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    In hospitals, women of reproductive age do a range of work tasks, some of which are known to carry potential risks. Tasks such as working with radiation, chemicals, and infectious agents, as well as performing heavy lifting or tasks requiring erratic sleep patterns have been reported to increase the risk of reproductive failures. Our aim was to study pregnancy outcomes in female hospital workers in Denmark. We performed a cohort study of 5976 female hospital workers and used as a reference group 60,890 women employed outside of hospitals. The reproductive health of hospital workers working during pregnancy is comparable to those of non-hospital workers for the majority of reproductive failures studied. However, an increased prevalence of congenital abnormalities was noted in some subgroups of hospital workers, which may indicate that some hospital work still entails fetotoxic hazards. PMID:19886351

  3. Relationship between birth weight and adult lung function: controlling for maternal factors

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Osman, L; Godden, D; Campbell, D; Douglas, J

    2003-01-01

    Methods: In 2001 the cohort was assessed for current lung function, smoking status, and respiratory symptoms. Birth details obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank recorded birth weight, gestation, parity, and mother's age and height. Results: 381 subjects aged 45–50 years were traced and tested for lung function; 323 (85%) had birth details available. A significant linear trend (p<0.01) was observed between birth weight and current forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values (adjusted for height, age, sex, weight, deprivation category (Depcat), childhood group, and smoking status). This trend remained significant after adjusting birth weight for gestation, parity, sex, mother's height and weight (p = 0.01). The relationship between birth weight and FEV1 and FVC remained significant when adjusted for smoking history. There was no association between birth weight and current wheezing symptoms. Conclusion: There is a positive linear trend between birth weight, adjusted for maternal factors, and lung function in adulthood. The strength of this association supports the "fetal origins hypothesis" that impairment of fetal growth is a significant influence on adult lung function. PMID:14645976

  4. Gene–environment interaction in externalizing problems among adolescents: evidence from the Pelotas 1993 Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kieling, Christian; Hutz, Mara H; Genro, Júlia P; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Anselmi, Luciana; Camey, Suzi; Hallal, Pedro C; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Menezes, Ana M B; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of gene–environment interactions (G × E) is one of the most promising strategies to uncover the origins of mental disorders. Replication of initial findings, however, is essential because there is a strong possibility of publication bias in the literature. In addition, there is a scarcity of research on the topic originated from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of this study was to replicate G × E hypotheses for externalizing problems among adolescents in a middle-income country. Methods As part of the Pelotas 1993 Birth Cohort Study, 5,249 children were enrolled at birth and followed up to the age of 15 years, with an 85.7% retention rate. We sought an interaction between the homozygosity of the 10-repeat allele at the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene and prenatal maternal smoking in the development of hyperactivity problems during adolescence assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We also tested for an interaction between the uVNTR polymorphism at the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and the experience of childhood maltreatment in the occurrence of conduct problems among adolescent boys. Results Although there was a clear association between prenatal maternal smoking and hyperactivity scores in adolescence (p < 0.001), no main genetic or interaction effects for the DAT1 gene were detected. Similarly, childhood maltreatment showed to be associated with conduct problems among boys (p < 0.001), with no observable main genetic or interaction effects for the MAOA gene. Conclusions In the largest mental health G × E study performed in a LMIC to date, we did not replicate previous positive findings from the literature. Despite the presence of main environmental effects, there was no evidence of effect modification by genotype status. Additional replication efforts to measure G × E are needed to better understand the origins of mental health and illness, especially in LMIC. PMID:23215821

  5. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  6. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  7. Preconception Blood Pressure and Risk of Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age: A Large Cohort Study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Zhu, Yibing; Li, Shun; Yang, Na; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to examine whether high blood pressure in the preconception period was associated with low birth weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) in Chinese women. Data were obtained from the China-US Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defects Prevention, a large population-based cohort study. We included 43 718 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 28-45 weeks to women who were registered before pregnancy in 7 counties in southern China. Blood pressure was measured during registration by trained healthcare workers, and other health-related information was recorded prospectively. We used logistic regression to evaluate the associations between preconception blood pressure and the risk of LBW and SGA, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypertension in the preconception study population was 4.62% (2019/43 718). The incidences of LBW and SGA were 2.33% and 5.05% for the hypertension group and 2.01% and 5.68% for the nonhypertension group. Compared with the nonhypertension group, the hypertension group did not show significantly increased risk for LBW overall (adjusted risk ratio =1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.57) or SGA (adjusted risk ratio =0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.09). When participants with normal blood pressure were used as the reference, the adjusted risk ratio of SGA for prehypertensive women was 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.25). Our results do not support an association between hypertension or higher blood pressure before pregnancy and increased risk of LBW or SGA.

  8. Particular characteristics of allergic symptoms in tropical environments: follow up to 24 months in the FRAAT birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early wheezing and asthma are relevant health problems in the tropics. Mite sensitization is an important risk factor, but the roles of others, inherent in poverty, are unknown. We designed a birth-cohort study in Cartagena (Colombia) to investigate genetic and environmental risk factors for asthma and atopy, considering as particular features perennial exposure to mites, parasite infections and poor living conditions. Methods Pregnant women representative of the low-income suburbs of the city were randomly screened for eligibility at delivery; 326 mother-infant pairs were included at baseline and biological samples were collected from birth to 24 months for immunological testing, molecular genetics and gene expression analysis. Pre and post-natal information was collected using questionnaires. Results 94% of families were from the poorest communes of the city, 40% lacked sewage and 11% tap-water. Intestinal parasites were found as early as 3 months; by the second year, 37.9% of children have had parasites and 5.22% detectable eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in stools (Median 3458 epg, IQR 975-9256). The prevalence of "wheezing ever" was 17.5% at 6 months, 31.1% at 12 months and 38.3% at 24 months; and recurrent wheezing (3 or more episodes) 7.1% at 12 months and 14.2% at 24 months. Maternal rhinitis [aOR 3.03 (95%CI 1.60-5.74), p = 0.001] and male gender [aOR 2.09 (95%CI 1.09 - 4.01), p = 0.026], increased risk for wheezing at 6 months. At 24 months, maternal asthma was the main predisposing factor for wheezing [aOR 3.65 (95%CI 1.23-10.8), p = 0.01]. Clinical symptoms of milk/egg allergy or other food-induced allergies were scarce (1.8%) and no case of atopic eczema was observed. Conclusions Wheezing is the most frequent phenotype during the first 24 months of life and is strongly associated with maternal asthma. At 24 months, the natural history of allergic symptoms is different to the "atopic march" described in some industrialized countries. This cohort

  9. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI. PMID:26996222

  10. Life-Course Partnership Status and Biomarkers in Midlife: Evidence From the 1958 British Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J.; DeStavola, Bianca; Grundy, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between trajectories of partnership status over the life course and objectively measured health indicators in midlife. Methods. We used data from 4 waves (1981, 1991, 2000, and 2002–2004) of the British National Child Development Study (NCDS), a prospective cohort study that includes all people born in Britain during 1 week in March 1958 (n = 18 558). Results. After controlling for selection attributable to early-life and early-adulthood characteristics, we found that life-course trajectories of partnership status were associated with hemostatic and inflammatory markers, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and respiratory function in midlife. Never marrying or cohabiting was negatively associated with health in midlife for both genders, but the effect was more pronounced in men. Women who had married in their late 20s or early 30s and remained married had the best health in midlife. Men and women in cohabiting unions had midlife health outcomes similar to those in formal marriages. Conclusions. Partnership status over the life course has a cumulative effect on a wide range of objectively measured health indicators in midlife. PMID:26066911

  11. Dengue virus infections and maternal antibody decay in a prospective birth cohort study of Vietnamese infants.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Anders, Katherine L; Wolbers, Marcel; Lien, Le Bich; Hieu, Lu Thi Minh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy; Whitehead, Stephen; Simmons, Cameron P

    2009-12-15

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever can occur in primary dengue virus (DENV) infection of infants. The decay of maternally derived DENV immunoglobulin (Ig) G and the incidence of DENV infection were determined in a prospectively studied cohort of 1244 Vietnamese infants. Higher concentrations of total IgG and DENV-reactive IgG were found in cord plasma relative to maternal plasma. Maternally derived DENV-neutralizing and E protein-reactive IgG titers declined to below measurable levels in >90% of infants by 6 months of age. In contrast, IgG reactive with whole DENV virions persisted until 12 months of age in 20% of infants. Serological surveillance identified 10 infants with asymptomatic DENV infection for an incidence of 1.7 cases per 100 person-years. DENV-neutralizing antibodies remained measurable for > or = 1 year after infection. These results suggest that whereas DENV infection in infants is frequently subclinical, there is a window between 4 and 12 months of age where virion-binding but nonneutralizing IgG could facilitate antibody-dependent enhancement.

  12. The impact of HPV vaccination on future cervical screening: a simulation study of two birth cohorts in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Lynge, Elsebeth; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert; Vazquez-Prada Baillet, Miguel; Brodersen, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the interplay between primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer by estimating future screening outcomes in women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination when they were sexually naïve. Design Estimation of outcome of liquid-based cytology screening for a post-HPV vaccination cohort using pre-vaccination screening data combined with HPV vaccination efficacy data reported in the literature. Setting Denmark. Data The number of screening diagnoses at first screen in a pre-vaccination birth cohort was multiplied by reported risk reductions expected for women who were vaccinated for HPV before sexual debut. All identified studies were reviewed by two authors, and weighted pooled estimates of vaccine efficacies were used. Main outcome measures Proportions of positive and false-positive cervical cytologies and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated using cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2+ and 3+ as cut-off values. Results The proportion of positive screening tests was reduced from 8.7% before vaccination to 6.5% after vaccination, and the proportion of false-positive screening tests using CIN2+ as a cut-off was reduced from 5.5% pre-vaccination to 4.3% post-vaccination, and using CIN3+ as a cut-off from 6.2% to 4.7%. PPVs were reduced from 23% to 19% (cut-off CIN2+), and from 14% to 12% (cut-off CIN3+). Conclusions In our calculations, the proportion of positive screening results with liquid-based cytology will be reduced as a consequence of HPV vaccination, but the reduction is small, and the expected decline in PPV is very limited. In this situation, the information general practitioners will have to provide to their patients will be largely unchanged. PMID:26275901

  13. Early life characteristics and late life burden of cerebral small vessel disease in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    PubMed Central

    Field, Thalia S.; Doubal, Fergus N.; Johnson, Wendy; Backhouse, Ellen; McHutchison, Caroline; Cox, Simon; Corley, Janie; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Shenkin, Susan; Cvoro, Vera; Morris, Zoe; Staals, Julie; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether relations between early-life factors and overall health in later life apply to burden of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), a major cause of stroke and dementia. We explored relations between early-life factors and cSVD in the Lothian Birth Cohort, a healthy aging cohort. Participants were recruited at age 70 (N = 1091); most had completed a test of cognitive ability at age 11 as part of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947. Of those, 700 participants had brain MRI that could be rated for cSVD conducted at age 73. Presence of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were summed in a score of 0-4 representing all MRI cSVD features. We tested associations with early-life factors using multivariate logistic regression. Greater SVD score was significantly associated with lower age-11 IQ (OR higher SVD score per SD age-11 IQ = .78, 95%CI 0.65-.95, p=.01). The associations between SVD score and own job class (OR higher job class, .64 95%CI .43-.95, p=.03), age-11 deprivation index (OR per point deprivation score, 1.08, 95%CI 1.00-1.17, p=.04), and education (OR some qualifying education, .60 95%CI .37-.98, p=.04) trended towards significance (p<.05 for all) but did not meet thresholds for multiple testing. No early-life factor was significantly associated with any one individual score component. Early-life factors may contribute to age-73 burden of cSVD. These relations, and the potential for early social interventions to improve brain health, deserve further study. PMID:27652981

  14. The influence of early life exposures on food sensitization and food allergy in an inner-city birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Emily C.; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Gergen, Peter J.; Visness, Cynthia M.; Jaffee, Katy F.; Sandel, Megan; O’Connor, George; Kattan, Meyer; Gern, James; Wood, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Previous data suggest that food allergy may be more common in inner-city children; however, these studies have not collected data on both sensitization and clinical reactivity, or early life exposures. Methods Children in the URECA birth cohort were followed through age 5 years. Household exposures, diet, clinical history, and physical examinations were assessed yearly; specific-IgE to milk, egg, and peanut were measured at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years. Based on sensitization (IgE≥0.35 kU/L) and clinical history over the five-year period, children were classified as food allergic (FA), possibly allergic, sensitized but tolerant, or not allergic/not sensitized. Results 516 children were included. Overall, 55.4% were sensitized (milk 46.7%, egg 31.0%, peanut 20.9%), while 9.9% were categorized as FA (peanut 6.0%, egg 4.3%, milk 2.7%, 2.5% >1 food). The remaining children were categorized as possibly allergic (17.0%), sensitized but tolerant (28.5%), and not sensitized (44.6%). Eighteen (3.5%) reported reactions to foods for which IgE was not measured. Food-specific IgE levels were similar in FA versus sensitized but tolerant children, except for egg, which was higher in FA at ages 1 and 2. FA was associated with recurrent wheeze, eczema, aeroallergen sensitization, male gender, breastfeeding, and lower endotoxin exposure in year 1, but not with race/ethnicity, income, tobacco exposure, maternal stress, or early introduction of solid foods. Conclusions Even given that this was designed to be a high-risk cohort, the cumulative incidence of food allergy is extremely high, especially considering the strict definition of food allergy that was applied and that only 3 common allergens were included. PMID:25129677

  15. Cord blood vitamin D status and neonatal outcomes in a birth cohort in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Catherine; Dodds, Linda; Langille, Donald B.; Weiler, Hope A.; Armson, B. Anthony; Forest, Jean-Claude; Giguère, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Some evidence suggests that low maternal vitamin D status adversely affects perinatal health but few studies have examined cord blood vitamin D status. This project aimed to determine the association between the cord blood concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and neonatal outcomes. Methods A nested case–control study was conducted in Quebec City, Canada from 2005 to 2010. Included were 83 cases of low birthweight (LBW; <2500 g), 301 cases of small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile), 223 cases of preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks’ gestation), and 1027 controls. Levels of 25(OH)D were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with logistic regression. Results Cord blood [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L was associated with a lower risk of LBW compared to [25(OH)D] ≥75 nmol/L (OR 0.47 95 % CI 0.23–0.97). For 25(OH)D levels 50–75 nmol/L, a significant association was not demonstrated (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.34–1.01). No significant associations were observed between [25(OH)D] and either SGA or PTB after adjustment. Conclusions Although our findings suggest that [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L is associated with reduced risk of having a LBW infant, prenatal vitamin D recommendations require an examination of the literature that considers the full spectrum of maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26404451

  16. Childbearing in adolescence: intergenerational dejà-vu? Evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnancy in adolescence tends to repeat over generations. This event has been little studied in middle and low-income societies undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition. To assess this association it is important to adjust for socioeconomic conditions at different points in lifetime. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the independent effect of adolescent childbearing in a generation on its recurrence in the subsequent generation, after adjusting for socioeconomic status at different points in life. Methods The study was conducted on a prospective cohort of singleton liveborn females from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, evaluated in 1978/79, and their daughters assessed in 2002/04. A total of 1059 mother-daughter pairs were evaluated. The women who had their first childbirth before 20 years of age were considered to be adolescent mothers. The risk of childbearing in adolescence for the daughter was modeled as a function of the occurrence of teenage childbearing in her mother, after adjustment for socio-demographic variables in a Poisson regression model. Results The rate of childbearing during adolescence was 31.4% in 1978/79 and 17.1% in 2002/04. Among the daughters of the 1st generation adolescent mothers, this rate was 26.7%, as opposed to 12.7% among the daughters of non adolescent mothers. After adjustments the risk of adolescent childbearing for the 2nd generation was 35% higher for women whose mothers had been pregnant during adolescence – RR = 1.35 (95% CI 1.04-1.74). Conclusion Adolescent childbearing in the 1st generation was a predictor of adolescent childbearing in the 2nd, regardless of socioeconomic factors determined at different points in lifetime. PMID:23855747

  17. Interaction between parental psychosis and early motor development and the risk of schizophrenia in a general population birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Keskinen, E.; Marttila, A.; Marttila, R.; Jones, P.B.; Murray, G.K.; Moilanen, K.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H.; Mäki, P.; Isohanni, M.; Jääskeläinen, E.; Miettunen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed motor development in infancy and family history of psychosis are both associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, but their interaction is largely unstudied. Aim To investigate the association of the age of achieving motor milestones and parental psychosis and their interaction in respect to risk of schizophrenia. Methods We used data from the general population-based prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10,283). Developmental information of the cohort members was gathered during regular visits to Finnish child welfare clinics. Several registers were used to determine the diagnosis of schizophrenia among the cohort members and psychosis among the parents. Altogether 152 (1.5%) individuals had schizophrenia by the age of 46 years, with 23 (15.1%) of them having a parent with psychosis. Cox regression analysis was used in analyses. Results Parental psychosis was associated (P < 0.05) with later achievement of holding the head up, grabbing an object, and walking without support. In the parental psychosis group, the risk for schizophrenia was increased if holding the head up (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.46; degrees of freedom [df] = 1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07–5.66) and touching the thumb with the index finger (HR: 1.84; df = 1; 95% CI: 1.11–3.06) was later. In the group without parental psychosis, a delay in the following milestones increased the risk of schizophrenia: standing without support and walking without support. Parental psychosis had an interaction with delayed touching thumb with index finger (HR: 1.87; df = 1; 95% CI: 1.08–3.25) when risk of schizophrenia was investigated. Conclusions Parental psychosis was associated with achieving motor milestones later in infancy, particularly the milestones that appear early in a child's life. Parental psychosis and touching the thumb with the index finger had a significant interaction on risk of schizophrenia. Genetic risk for psychosis may interact

  18. Are fetal growth impairment and preterm birth causally related to child attention problems and ADHD? Evidence from a comparison between high-income and middle-income cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Elizabeth; Pearson, Rebecca; Fernandes, Michelle; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Stein, Alan; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-cohort comparison is an established method for improving causal inference. This study compared 2 cohorts, 1 from a high-income country and another from a middle-income country, to (1) establish whether birth exposures may play a causal role in the development of childhood attention problems; and (2) identify whether confounding structures play a different role in parent-reported attention difficulties compared with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses. Methods Birth exposures included low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational age (SGA), small head circumference (HC) and preterm birth (PTB)). Outcomes of interest were attention difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) and ADHD (Development and Well-Being Assessment, DAWBA). Associations between exposures and outcomes were compared between 7-year-old children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in the UK (N=6849) and the 2004 Pelotas cohort in Brazil (N=3509). Results For attention difficulties (SDQ), the pattern of association with birth exposures was similar between cohorts: following adjustment, attention difficulties were associated with SGA (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.19) and small HC (OR=1.64, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.41) in ALSPAC and SGA (OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.75) in Pelotas. For ADHD, however, the pattern of association following adjustment differed markedly between cohorts. In ALSPAC, ADHD was associated with LBW (OR=2.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.80) and PTB (OR=2.33, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.42). In the Pelotas cohort, however, ADHD was associated with SGA (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.82). Conclusions The findings suggest that fetal growth impairment may play a causal role in the development of attention difficulties in childhood, as similar associations were identified across both cohorts. Confounding structures, however, appear to play a greater role in determining whether a child meets the full diagnostic criteria for ADHD. PMID

  19. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing.

  20. Recovery from stunting and cognitive outcomes in young children: evidence from the South African Birth to Twenty Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Casale, D; Desmond, C

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyse the implications for cognitive function of recovery from stunting in early childhood. More specifically, we test whether children who met the definition for stunted at age 2, but not at age 5, perform better in cognitive tests than children who remain stunted over this period. The sample is drawn from the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study, a prospective data set of children born in 1990 in urban South Africa. The measure of cognitive function that we use is based on the Revised Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire implemented when the children were age 5. We employ multivariate regression in the analysis to control for child-specific characteristics, socio-economic status, the home environment and caregiver inputs. We find that recovery from stunting is not uncommon among young children in our sample. However, children who recover from stunting by age 5 still perform significantly worse on cognitive tests than children who do not experience early malnutrition, and almost as poorly as children who remain stunted. These findings suggest that the timing of nutritional inputs in the early years is key in a child's cognitive development, with implications for school readiness and achievement. PMID:26399543

  1. Effects of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Vertebral Dimensions in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    PubMed Central

    Oura, Petteri; Paananen, Markus; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tuija; Herrala, Sauli; Auvinen, Juha; Korpelainen, Raija; Junno, Juho-Antti; Karppinen, Jaro

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are a common burden amongst elderly and late middle aged people. Vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) is a major determinant of vertebral strength and thus associated with vertebral fracture risk. Previous studies suggest that physical activity affects vertebral CSA. We aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) from adolescence to middle age and vertebral dimensions in adulthood. We utilized the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 1188 subjects had records of LTPA at 14, 31 and 46 years, and had undergone lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the mean age of 47 years. Using MRI data, we measured eight dimensions of the L4 vertebra. Socioeconomic status, smoking habits, height and weight were also recorded at 14, 31 and 46 years. We obtained lifetime LTPA (14–46 years of age) trajectories using latent class analysis, which resulted in three categories (active, moderately active, inactive) in both genders. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between LTPA and vertebral CSA with adjustments for vertebral height, BMI, socioeconomic status and smoking. High lifetime LTPA was associated with larger vertebral CSA in women but not men. Further research is needed to investigate the factors behind the observed gender-related differences. PMID:27282350

  2. Decentralizing Maternity Services to Increase Skilled Attendance at Birth and Antenatal Care Utilization in Rural Rwanda: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Lisa M; Shi, Quihu; Plewniak, Kari; Zhang, Charles; Nsabimana, Damien; Sklar, Marc; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin R; Einstein, Mark H; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of decentralizing ambulatory reproductive and intrapartum services to increase rates of antenatal care (ANC) utilization and skilled attendance at birth (SAB) in Rwanda. A prospective cohort study was implemented with one control and two intervention sites: decentralized ambulatory reproductive healthcare and decentralized intrapartum care. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with primary outcome of lack of SAB and secondary outcome of ≥3 ANC visits. 536 women were entered in the study. Distance lived from delivery site significantly predicted SAB (p = 0.007), however distance lived to ANC site did not predict ≥3 ANC visits (p = 0.81). Neither decentralization of ambulatory reproductive healthcare (p = 0.10) nor intrapartum care (p = 0.40) was significantly associated with SAB. The control site had the greatest percentage of women receive ≥3 ANC visits (p < 0.001). Receiving <3 ANC visits was associated with a 3.98 times greater odds of not having SAB (p = 0.001). No increase in adverse outcomes was found with decentralization of ambulatory reproductive health care or intrapartum care. The factors that predict utilization of physically accessible services in rural Africa are complex. Decentralization of services may be one strategy to increase rates of SAB and ANC utilization, but selection biases may have precluded accurate analysis. Efforts to increase ANC utilization may be a worthwhile investment to increase SAB. PMID:25652061

  3. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  4. Patterns of Leisure-Time Physical Activity Participation in a British Birth Cohort at Early Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kathryn R.; Cooper, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B.; Brage, Soren; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative British birth cohort we characterized the type and diversity of leisure-time physical activity that 2,188 participants (age 60–64 years) engaged in throughout the year by gender and obesity. Participants most commonly reported walking (71%), swimming (33%), floor exercises (24%) and cycling (15%). Sixty-two percent of participants reported ≥2 activities in the past year and 40% reported diversity on a regular basis. Regular engagement in different types of activity (cardio-respiratory, balance/flexibility and strength) was reported by 67%, 19% and 11% of participants, respectively. We found gender differences, as well as differences by obesity status, in the activities reported, the levels of activity diversity and activity type. Non-obese participants had greater activity diversity, and more often reported activities beneficial for cardio-respiratory health and balance/flexibility than obese participants. These findings may be used to inform the development of trials of physical activity interventions targeting older adults, and those older adults with high body mass index. PMID:24911018

  5. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    BELSKY, DANIEL W.; CASPI, AVSHALOM; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; BLEIDORN, WIEBKE; FONAGY, PETER; GOODMAN, MARIANNE; HOUTS, RENATE; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis–stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology. PMID:22293008

  6. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age. PMID:26785760

  7. Is Toxoplasma Gondii Infection Related to Brain and Behavior Impairments in Humans? Evidence from a Population-Representative Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, Karen; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Pinto, Lauriane; Poulton, Richie; Williams, Benjamin S.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a protozoan parasite present in around a third of the human population. Infected individuals are commonly asymptomatic, though recent reports have suggested that infection might influence aspects of the host’s behavior. In particular, Toxoplasma infection has been linked to schizophrenia, suicide attempt, differences in aspects of personality and poorer neurocognitive performance. However, these studies are often conducted in clinical samples or convenience samples. Methods/Results In a population-representative birth-cohort of individuals tested for presence of antibodies to T. gondii (N = 837) we investigated the association between infection and four facets of human behavior: neuropsychiatric disorder (schizophrenia and major depression), poor impulse control (suicidal behavior and criminality), personality, and neurocognitive performance. Suicide attempt was marginally more frequent among individuals with T. gondii seropositivity (p = .06). Seropositive individuals also performed worse on one out of 14 measures of neuropsychological function. Conclusion On the whole, there was little evidence that T. gondii was related to increased risk of psychiatric disorder, poor impulse control, personality aberrations or neurocognitive impairment. PMID:26886853

  8. Adolescent Self-control Predicts Midlife Hallucinatory Experiences: 40-Year Follow-up of a National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Atsushi; Xu, Kate Man; Croudace, Tim; Jones, Peter B.; Barnett, Jenifer; Richards, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Associations between self-control in adolescence and adult mental health are unclear in the general population; to our knowledge, no study has investigated self-control in relation to psychotic-like symptoms. Aims: To investigate the relationship between adolescent self-control and the midlife mental health outcomes of anxiety and depression symptoms and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), controlling for the effect of adolescent conduct and emotional problems and for parental occupational social class and childhood cognition. Methods: A population-based sample, the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was contacted 23 times between ages 6 weeks and 53 years. Teachers completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviors, from which factors measuring self-control, behavioral, and emotional problems were extracted. At age 53 years, PLEs were self-reported by 2918 participants using 4 items from the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire; symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results: After adjustment for the above covariates, poor adolescent self-control was associated with the presence of PLEs in adulthood, specifically hallucinatory experiences at age 53 years, even after adjustment for GHQ-28 scores. Conclusions: Lower self-control in adolescence is a risk factor for hallucinatory experiences in adulthood. PMID:24714378

  9. IQ and non-clinical psychotic symptoms in 12-year-olds: results from the ALSPAC birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Jeremy; Salvi, Giovanni; Thomas, Kate; Duffy, Larisa; Gunnell, David; Hollis, Chris; Lewis, Glyn; Menezes, Paulo; Thompson, Andrew; Wolke, Dieter; Zammit, Stanley; Harrison, Glynn

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-clinical psychotic symptoms appear common in children, but it is possible that a proportion of reported symptoms result from misinterpretation. There is a well-established association between pre-morbid low IQ score and schizophrenia. Psychosis-like symptoms in children may also be a risk factor for psychotic disorder but their relationship with IQ is unclear. Aims To investigate the prevalence, nature and frequency of psychosis-like symptoms in 12-year-old children and study their relationship with IQ. Method Longitudinal study using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. A total of 6455 children completed screening questions for 12 psychotic symptoms followed by a semi-structured clinical assessment. IQ was assessed at 8 years of age using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd UK edition). Results The 6-month period prevalence for one or more symptoms was 13.7% (95% CI 12.8–14.5). After adjustment for confounding variables, there was a non-linear association between IQ score and psychosis-like symptoms, such that only those with below average IQ score had an increased risk of reporting such symptoms. Conclusions Non-clinical psychotic symptoms occur in a significant proportion of 12-year-olds. Symptoms are associated with low IQ and also less strongly with a high IQ score. The pattern of association with IQ differs from that observed in schizophrenia. PMID:18757973

  10. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Young Adults: Findings From the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dylan M; Palaniswamy, Saranya; Sebert, Sylvain; Buxton, Jessica L; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2016-02-01

    Higher vitamin D status, lower adiposity, and longer telomere length are each reportedly associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. However, direct relationships between vitamin D status (measured by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration), adiposity, and telomere length are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of associations of 25(OH)D and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) with mean relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using data gathered on 5,096 participants from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at age 31 years (1997). 25(OH)D was not associated with LTL in either basic or confounder/mediator-adjusted models. BMI was inversely associated with LTL after adjustment for potential confounding by age, sex, socioeconomic position, physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol intake, and use of oral contraceptives (per 1-unit increase in BMI, mean difference in LTL = -0.4%, 95% confidence interval: -0.6, -0.2). The BMI-LTL association was also independent of 25(OH)D and was attenuated slightly, but remained, after adjustment for C-reactive protein, a marker of low-grade inflammation (mean difference in LTL = -0.3%, 95% confidence interval -0.6, -0.1). These findings suggest that vitamin D status is unlikely to be an important determinant of LTL, at least by young adulthood. Inflammation may partly mediate associations of adiposity with LTL.

  11. Effects of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Vertebral Dimensions in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    PubMed

    Oura, Petteri; Paananen, Markus; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tuija; Herrala, Sauli; Auvinen, Juha; Korpelainen, Raija; Junno, Juho-Antti; Karppinen, Jaro

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are a common burden amongst elderly and late middle aged people. Vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) is a major determinant of vertebral strength and thus associated with vertebral fracture risk. Previous studies suggest that physical activity affects vertebral CSA. We aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) from adolescence to middle age and vertebral dimensions in adulthood. We utilized the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 1188 subjects had records of LTPA at 14, 31 and 46 years, and had undergone lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the mean age of 47 years. Using MRI data, we measured eight dimensions of the L4 vertebra. Socioeconomic status, smoking habits, height and weight were also recorded at 14, 31 and 46 years. We obtained lifetime LTPA (14-46 years of age) trajectories using latent class analysis, which resulted in three categories (active, moderately active, inactive) in both genders. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between LTPA and vertebral CSA with adjustments for vertebral height, BMI, socioeconomic status and smoking. High lifetime LTPA was associated with larger vertebral CSA in women but not men. Further research is needed to investigate the factors behind the observed gender-related differences. PMID:27282350

  12. Retinal Vascular Fractal Dimension, Childhood IQ, and Cognitive Ability in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Adele M.; MacGillivray, Thomas J.; Henderson, Ross D.; Ilzina, Lasma; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cerebral microvascular disease is associated with dementia. Differences in the topography of the retinal vascular network may be a marker for cerebrovascular disease. The association between cerebral microvascular state and non-pathological cognitive ageing is less clear, particularly because studies are rarely able to adjust for pre-morbid cognitive ability level. We measured retinal vascular fractal dimension (Df) as a potential marker of cerebral microvascular disease. We examined the extent to which it contributes to differences in non-pathological cognitive ability in old age, after adjusting for childhood mental ability. Methods Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study (LBC1936) had cognitive ability assessments and retinal photographs taken of both eyes aged around 73 years (n = 648). IQ scores were available from childhood. Retinal vascular Df was calculated with monofractal and multifractal analysis, performed on custom-written software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine associations between retinal vascular Df and general cognitive ability (g), processing speed, and memory. Results Only three out of 24 comparisons (two eyes × four Df parameters × three cognitive measures) were found to be significant. This is little more than would be expected by chance. No single association was verified by an equivalent association in the contralateral eye. Conclusions The results show little evidence that fractal measures of retinal vascular differences are associated with non-pathological cognitive ageing. PMID:25816017

  13. Increasing sample size in prospective birth cohorts: back-extrapolating prenatal levels of persistent organic pollutants in newly enrolled children.

    PubMed

    Verner, Marc-André; Gaspar, Fraser W; Chevrier, Jonathan; Gunier, Robert B; Sjödin, Andreas; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-03-17

    Study sample size in prospective birth cohorts of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited by costs and logistics of follow-up. Increasing sample size at the time of health assessment would be beneficial if predictive tools could reliably back-extrapolate prenatal levels in newly enrolled children. We evaluated the performance of three approaches to back-extrapolate prenatal levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and four polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners from maternal and/or child levels 9 years after delivery: a pharmacokinetic model and predictive models using deletion/substitution/addition or Super Learner algorithms. Model performance was assessed using the root mean squared error (RMSE), R2, and slope and intercept of the back-extrapolated versus measured levels. Super Learner outperformed the other approaches with RMSEs of 0.10 to 0.31, R2s of 0.58 to 0.97, slopes of 0.42 to 0.93 and intercepts of 0.08 to 0.60. Typically, models performed better for p,p'-DDT/E than PBDE congeners. The pharmacokinetic model performed well when back-extrapolating prenatal levels from maternal levels for compounds with longer half-lives like p,p'-DDE and BDE-153. Results demonstrate the ability to reliably back-extrapolate prenatal POP levels from levels 9 years after delivery, with Super Learner performing best based on our fit criteria. PMID:25698216

  14. Area deprivation across the life course and physical capability in midlife: findings from the 1946 British Birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Murray, Emily T; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tilling, Kate; Southall, Humphrey; Aucott, Paula; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2013-08-01

    Physical capability in later life is influenced by factors occurring across the life course, yet exposures to area conditions have only been examined cross-sectionally. Data from the National Survey of Health and Development, a longitudinal study of a 1946 British birth cohort, were used to estimate associations of area deprivation (defined as percentage of employed people working in partly skilled or unskilled occupations) at ages 4, 26, and 53 years (residential addresses linked to census data in 1950, 1972, and 1999) with 3 measures of physical capability at age 53 years: grip strength, standing balance, and chair-rise time. Cross-classified multilevel models with individuals nested within areas at the 3 ages showed that models assessing a single time point underestimate total area contributions to physical capability. For balance and chair-rise performance, associations with area deprivation in midlife were robust to adjustment for individual socioeconomic position and prior area deprivation (mean change for a 1-standard-deviation increase: balance, -7.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): -12.8, -2.8); chair rise, 2.1% (95% CI: -0.1, 4.3)). In addition, area deprivation in childhood was related to balance after adjustment for childhood socioeconomic position (-5.1%, 95% CI: -8.7, -1.6). Interventions aimed at reducing midlife disparities in physical capability should target the socioeconomic environment of individuals-for standing balance, as early as childhood.

  15. No Effect of Genome-Wide Copy Number Variation on Measures of Intelligence in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Andrew T. M.; Horwood, L. John; Liu, Youfang; Fergusson, David M.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Kennedy, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Variation in human intelligence is approximately 50% heritable, but understanding of the genes involved is limited. Several forms of genetic variation remain under-studied in relation to intelligence, one of which is copy number variation (CNV). Using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -based microarrays, we genotyped CNVs genome-wide in a birth cohort of 723 New Zealanders, and correlated them with four intelligence-related phenotypes. We found no significant association for any common CNV after false discovery correction, which is consistent with previous work. In contrast to a previous study, however, we found no effect on any cognitive measure of rare CNV burden, defined as total number of bases inserted or deleted in CNVs rarer than 5%. We discuss possible reasons for this failure to replicate, including interaction between CNV and aging in determining the effects of rare CNVs. While our results suggest that no CNV assayable by SNP chips contributes more than a very small amount to variation in human intelligence, it remains possible that common CNVs in segmental duplication arrays, which are not well covered by SNP chips, are important contributors. PMID:23383111

  16. Decentralizing Maternity Services to Increase Skilled Attendance at Birth and Antenatal Care Utilization in Rural Rwanda: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Lisa M; Shi, Quihu; Plewniak, Kari; Zhang, Charles; Nsabimana, Damien; Sklar, Marc; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin R; Einstein, Mark H; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of decentralizing ambulatory reproductive and intrapartum services to increase rates of antenatal care (ANC) utilization and skilled attendance at birth (SAB) in Rwanda. A prospective cohort study was implemented with one control and two intervention sites: decentralized ambulatory reproductive healthcare and decentralized intrapartum care. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with primary outcome of lack of SAB and secondary outcome of ≥3 ANC visits. 536 women were entered in the study. Distance lived from delivery site significantly predicted SAB (p = 0.007), however distance lived to ANC site did not predict ≥3 ANC visits (p = 0.81). Neither decentralization of ambulatory reproductive healthcare (p = 0.10) nor intrapartum care (p = 0.40) was significantly associated with SAB. The control site had the greatest percentage of women receive ≥3 ANC visits (p < 0.001). Receiving <3 ANC visits was associated with a 3.98 times greater odds of not having SAB (p = 0.001). No increase in adverse outcomes was found with decentralization of ambulatory reproductive health care or intrapartum care. The factors that predict utilization of physically accessible services in rural Africa are complex. Decentralization of services may be one strategy to increase rates of SAB and ANC utilization, but selection biases may have precluded accurate analysis. Efforts to increase ANC utilization may be a worthwhile investment to increase SAB.

  17. Decentralizing Maternity Services to Increase Skilled Attendance at Birth and Antenatal Care Utilization in Rural Rwanda: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Lisa M.; Shi, Quihu; Plewniak, Kari; Zhang, Charles; Nsabimana, Damien; Sklar, Marc; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin R.; Einstein, Mark H.; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of decentralizing ambulatory reproductive and intrapartum services to increase rates of antenatal care (ANC) utilization and skilled attendance at birth (SAB) in Rwanda. A prospective cohort study was implemented with one control and two intervention sites: decentralized ambulatory reproductive healthcare and decentralized intrapartum care. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with primary outcome of lack of SAB and secondary outcome of ≥3 ANC visits. 536 women were entered in the study. Distance lived from delivery site significantly predicted SAB (p = 0.007), however distance lived to ANC site did not predict ≥3 ANC visits (p = 0.81). Neither decentralization of ambulatory reproductive healthcare (p = 0.10) nor intrapartum care (p = 0.40) was significantly associated with SAB. The control site had the greatest percentage of women receive ≥3 ANC visits (p < 0.001). Receiving <3 ANC visits was associated with a 3.98 times greater odds of not having SAB (p = 0.001). No increase in adverse outcomes was found with decentralization of ambulatory reproductive health care or intrapartum care. The factors that predict utilization of physically accessible services in rural Africa are complex. Decentralization of services may be one strategy to increase rates of SAB and ANC utilization, but selection biases may have precluded accurate analysis. Efforts to increase ANC utilization may be a worthwhile investment to increase SAB. PMID:25652061

  18. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val158Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14–1.34; p < 0.001) at 11 years of age. However, no evidence was found for an association between COMT genotypes and conduct scores or for an interaction between maternal smoking and this gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09–1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings. PMID:27426045

  19. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  20. Ambient Air Pollution and Newborn Size and Adiposity at Birth: Differences by Maternal Ethnicity (the Born in Bradford Study Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    de Hoogh, Kees; Pedersen, Marie; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Hoek, Gerard; Petherick, Emily S.; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with reduced size of newborns; however, the modifying effect of maternal ethnicity remains little explored among South Asians. Objectives We investigated ethnic differences in the association between ambient air pollution and newborn’s size. Method Pregnant women were recruited between 2007 and 2010 for the Born in Bradford cohort study, in England. Exposures to particulate matter (≤ 10 μm, PM10; ≤ 2.5 μm, PM2.5), PM2.5 absorbance, and nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO2) were estimated using land-use regressions models. Using multivariate linear regression models, we evaluated effect modification by maternal ethnicity (“white British” or “Pakistani origin,” self-reported) on the associations of air pollution and birth weight, head circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. Results A 5-μg/m3 increase in mean third trimester PM2.5 was associated with significantly lower birth weight and smaller head circumference in children of white British mothers (–43 g; 95% CI: –76, –10 and –0.28 cm; 95% CI: –0.39, –0.17, respectively), but not in children of Pakistani origin (9 g; 95% CI: –17, 35 and –0.08 cm; 95% CI: –0.17, 0.01, respectively) (pint = 0.03 and < 0.001). In contrast, PM2.5 was associated with significantly larger triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses in children of Pakistani origin (0.17 mm; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.25 and 0.21 mm; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.29, respectively), but not in white British children (–0.02 mm; 95% CI: –0.14, 0.01 and 0.06 mm; 95% CI: –0.06, 0.18, respectively) (pint = 0.06 and 0.11). Patterns of associations for PM10 and PM2.5 absorbance according to ethnicity were similar to those for PM2.5, but associations of the outcomes with NO2 and NOx were mostly nonsignificant in both ethnic groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that associations of ambient PM exposures with newborn size and adiposity differ between white British and

  1. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; P<0.001) and birth skinfold thickness (β=6.9 μm/mm, 95%CI 3.3, 10.5; P<0.001) were associated with aortic IMT at 6 weeks. The association between birth skinfold thickness and aortic IMT was independent of birth weight. In addition, greater postnatal weight gain was associated with increased aortic IMT, independent of birth weight and age at time of scan (β=11.3 μm/kg increase, 95%CI 2.2, 20.3; P=0.01). Increased infant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  2. Long-Term Impact of Preterm Birth on Exercise Capacity in Healthy Young Men: A National Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Svedenkrans, Jenny; Henckel, Ewa; Kowalski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of survivors of preterm birth are growing into adulthood today. Long-term health-effects of prematurity are still poorly understood, but include increased risk for diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. To test if reduced physical fitness may be a link in the causal chain of preterm birth and diseases in later life, the association of preterm birth and adult exercise capacity was investigated. The hypothesis was that preterm birth contributes independently of other risk factors to lower physical fitness in adulthood. Methods and Findings Population-based national cohort study of all males conscripting for military service in 1993–2001 and born in Sweden 1973–1983, n = 218,820. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Conscript Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Population and Housing Census 1990. Primary outcome was the results from maximal exercise test (Wmax in Watt) performed at conscription. Association to perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors, other co-variates and confounders were analysed. General linear modelling showed that preterm birth predicted low Wmax in a dose-response related pattern, with 25 Watt reduction in Wmax for the lowest gestational ages, those born ≤27 weeks. Low birth weight for gestational age also independently predicted low Wmax compared to normal and high birth weight (32 Watt reduction for those with a birth weight Standard Deviation Score <2). Low parental education was significantly associated with reduced Wmax (range 17 Watt), as well as both low and high current BMI, with severe obesity resulting in a 16 Watt deficit compared to Wmax top performance. Conclusion Being born preterm as well as being born small for gestational age predicts low exercise capacity in otherwise healthy young men. The effect size of being born preterm equal or exceed that of other known risk factors for unfitness in adults, such as low parental education and overweight. PMID:24324639

  3. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; P<0.001) and birth skinfold thickness (β=6.9 μm/mm, 95%CI 3.3, 10.5; P<0.001) were associated with aortic IMT at 6 weeks. The association between birth skinfold thickness and aortic IMT was independent of birth weight. In addition, greater postnatal weight gain was associated with increased aortic IMT, independent of birth weight and age at time of scan (β=11.3 μm/kg increase, 95%CI 2.2, 20.3; P=0.01). Increased infant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk. PMID:26666445

  4. The influence of childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure on asthma, allergy and sensitization: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of birth cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Bowatte, G; Lodge, C; Lowe, A J; Erbas, B; Perret, J; Abramson, M J; Matheson, M; Dharmage, S C

    2015-03-01

    The impact of early childhood traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure on development of asthma and allergies remains unclear. Birth cohort studies are the best available study design to answer this question, but the evidence from such studies has not been synthesized to date. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of published birth cohort studies to understand the association between early childhood TRAP exposure, and subsequent asthma, allergies and sensitization. Increased longitudinal childhood exposure to PM2.5 and black carbon was associated with increasing risk of subsequent asthma in childhood (PM2.5 : OR 1.14, 95%CI 1.00 to 1.30 per 2 μg/m(3) and black carbon: OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.38 per 1 × 10(-5) m(-1) ). Also, early childhood exposure to TRAP was associated with development of asthma across childhood up to 12 years of age. The magnitude of these associations increased with age, and the pattern was prominent for PM2.5 . Increasing exposure to PM2.5 was associated with sensitization to both aero- and food allergens. There was some evidence that TRAP was associated with eczema and hay fever. In summary, exposure to TRAP was related to asthma and allergic diseases. However, the substantial variability across studies warrants long-term birth cohort studies with regular repeated follow-ups to confirm these findings.

  5. Polymorphisms in ABC Transporter Genes and Concentrations of Mercury in Newborns – Evidence from Two Mediterranean Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Llop, Sabrina; Engström, Karin; Ballester, Ferran; Franforte, Elisa; Alhamdow, Ayman; Pisa, Federica; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Mazej, Datja; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Bustamante, Mariona; Sunyer, Jordi; Sofianou-Katsoulis, Αikaterini; Prasouli, Alexia; Antonopoulou, Eleni; Antoniadou, Ioanna; Nakou, Sheena; Barbone, Fabio; Horvat, Milena; Broberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetic background may influence methylmercury (MeHg) metabolism and neurotoxicity. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters actively transport various xenobiotics across biological membranes. Objective To investigate the role of ABC polymorphisms as modifiers of prenatal exposure to MeHg. Methods The study population consisted of participants (n = 1651) in two birth cohorts, one in Italy and Greece (PHIME) and the other in Spain (INMA). Women were recruited during pregnancy in Italy and Spain, and during the perinatal period in Greece. Total mercury concentrations were measured in cord blood samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy was determined from questionnaires. Polymorphisms (n = 5) in the ABC genes ABCA1, ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCC2 were analysed in both cohorts. Results ABCB1 rs2032582, ABCC1 rs11075290, and ABCC2 rs2273697 modified the associations between maternal fish intake and cord blood mercury concentrations. The overall interaction coefficient between rs2032582 and log2-transformed fish intake was negative for carriers of GT (β = −0.29, 95%CI −0.47, −0.12) and TT (β = −0.49, 95%CI −0.71, −0.26) versus GG, meaning that for a doubling in fish intake of the mothers, children with the rs2032582 GG genotype accumulated 35% more mercury than children with TT. For rs11075290, the interaction coefficient was negative for carriers of TC (β = −0.12, 95%CI −0.33, 0.09), and TT (β = −0.28, 95%CI −0.51, −0.06) versus CC. For rs2273697, the interaction coefficient was positive when combining GA+AA (β = 0.16, 95%CI 0.01, 0.32) versus GG. Conclusion The ABC transporters appear to play a role in accumulation of MeHg during early development. PMID:24831289

  6. Methodology for Establishing a Population-Based Birth Cohort Focusing on Couple Fertility and Children’s Development, the Upstate KIDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Hediger, Mary L.; Bell, Erin M.; Kus, Christopher A.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; McLain, Alexander C.; Yeung, Edwina; Hills, Elaine A.; Thoma, Marie E.; Druschel, Charlotte M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Critical data gaps remain regarding infertility treatment and child development. We assessed the utility of a birth certificate registry for developing a population cohort aimed at answering such questions. Methods We utilized the Upstate New York live birth registry (N=201,063) to select births conceived with (n=4,024) infertility treatment or exposed infants, who were then frequency-matched by residence and plurality to a random sample of infants conceived without (n=14,455) treatment or unexposed infants, 2008–2010. Mothers were recruited at 2–4 months postpartum and queried about their reproductive histories including infertility treatment for comparison with birth certificate data. Overall, 1,297 (32%) mothers of exposed and 3,692 of unexposed (26%) infants enrolled. Results Twins represented 22% of each infant group. The percentage of infants conceived with/without infertility treatment was similar whether derived from the birth registry or maternal report: 71% none, 16% drugs or intrauterine insemination, and 14% ART. Concordant reporting between the two data sources was 93% for no treatment, 88% for ART and 83% for fertility drugs, but differed by plurality. Exposed infants had slightly (p<0.01) earlier gestations than unexposed infants (38.3±2.8 and 38.7±2.7 weeks, respectively) based upon birth certificates but not maternal report (38.7±2.7 and 38.7±2.9, respectively). Conversely, mean birthweight was comparable using birth certificates (3157±704 and 3194±679 grams, respectively), but differed using maternal report (3167±692 and 3224±661, respectively p<0.05). Conclusions The birth certificate registry is a suitable sampling framework as measured by concordance with maternally reported infertility treatment. Future efforts should address the impact of factors associated with discordant reporting on research findings. PMID:24665916

  7. Childhood and maternal effects on physical health related quality of life five decades later: the British 1946 birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gita D; Black, Stephanie; Stafford, Mai; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Limited research has been done on the relationships between childhood factors and adult physical health related quality of life, with the underlying pathways not fully elucidated. Data from 2292 participants of the British 1946 birth cohort were used to examine the relationship of childhood characteristics and family environment with principal component summary (PCS) scores and the physical functioning (PF) subscale of the SF-36 at age 60-64 years. Impaired physical functioning was defined as the lowest quartile scores in the PF subscale. Childhood factors (father in manual social class versus non-manual (β =  -2.34; 95%CI: -3.39, -1.28) and poor maternal health versus good/excellent maternal health (β =  -6.18; -8.78, -3.57)) were associated with lower PCS scores at 60-64 years. Adult health behaviours (increasing BMI, lifelong smoking, and lower physical activity) at 53 years were identified as strong risk factors for lower PCS scores. After adjusting for these factors and education level (N = 1463), only poor maternal health remained unattenuated (β =  -5.07; -7.62, -2.51). Similarly poor maternal health doubled the risk of reporting impaired PF (Odds ratio =  2.45; 95%CI: 1.39, 4.30); serious illness in childhood (OR = 1.44; 1.01, 2.06) and lower educational level attained were also risk factors for impaired PF (N = 1526). While findings suggest the influence of father's social class on physical health related quality of life are mediated by modifiable adult social factors and health behaviours; health professionals should also be mindful of the inter-generational risk posed by poor maternal health on the physical health related quality of life of her offspring almost five decades later.

  8. Placental mitochondrial methylation and exposure to airborne particulate matter in the early life environment: An ENVIRONAGE birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Bram G; Byun, Hyang-Min; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Lefebvre, Wouter; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Nawrot, Tim S

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date has focused on epigenetic modifications in the nuclear genome, with little attention devoted to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Placental mtDNA content has been shown to respond to environmental exposures that induce oxidative stress, including airborne particulate matter (PM). Damaged or non-functioning mitochondria are specifically degraded through mitophagy, exemplified by lower mtDNA content, and could be primed by epigenetic modifications in the mtDNA. We studied placental mtDNA methylation in the context of the early life exposome. We investigated placental tissue from 381 mother-newborn pairs that were enrolled in the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort. We determined mtDNA methylation by bisulfite-pyrosequencing in 2 regions, i.e., the D-loop control region and 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1), and measured mtDNA content by qPCR. PM2.5 exposure was calculated for each participant's home address using a dispersion model. An interquartile range (IQR) increment in PM2.5 exposure over the entire pregnancy was positively associated with mtDNA methylation (MT-RNR1: +0.91%, P = 0.01 and D-loop: +0.21%, P = 0.05) and inversely associated with mtDNA content (relative change of −15.60%, P = 0.001) in placental tissue. mtDNA methylation was estimated to mediate 54% [P = 0.01 (MT-RNR1)] and 27% [P = 0.06 (D-loop)] of the inverse association between PM2.5 exposure and mtDNA content. This study provides new insight into the mechanisms of altered mitochondrial function in the early life environment. Epigenetic modifications in the mitochondrial genome, especially in the MT-RNR1 region, substantially mediate the association between PM2.5 exposure during gestation and placental mtDNA content, which could reflect signs of mitophagy and mitochondrial death. PMID:25996590

  9. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Young Adults: Findings From the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dylan M.; Palaniswamy, Saranya; Sebert, Sylvain; Buxton, Jessica L.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Higher vitamin D status, lower adiposity, and longer telomere length are each reportedly associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. However, direct relationships between vitamin D status (measured by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration), adiposity, and telomere length are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of associations of 25(OH)D and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) with mean relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using data gathered on 5,096 participants from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at age 31 years (1997). 25(OH)D was not associated with LTL in either basic or confounder/mediator-adjusted models. BMI was inversely associated with LTL after adjustment for potential confounding by age, sex, socioeconomic position, physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol intake, and use of oral contraceptives (per 1-unit increase in BMI, mean difference in LTL = −0.4%, 95% confidence interval: −0.6, −0.2). The BMI-LTL association was also independent of 25(OH)D and was attenuated slightly, but remained, after adjustment for C-reactive protein, a marker of low-grade inflammation (mean difference in LTL = −0.3%, 95% confidence interval −0.6, −0.1). These findings suggest that vitamin D status is unlikely to be an important determinant of LTL, at least by young adulthood. Inflammation may partly mediate associations of adiposity with LTL. PMID:26797572

  10. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078

  11. Urban Tree Canopy and Asthma, Wheeze, Rhinitis, and Allergic Sensitization to Tree Pollen in a New York City Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Gina S.; O’Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P.M.; Lu, Jacqueline W.T.; Sheehan, Daniel; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; MacFaden, Sean W.; King, Kristen L.; Matte, Thomas; Miller, Rachel L.; Hoepner, Lori A.; Perera, Frederica P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urban landscape elements, particularly trees, have the potential to affect airflow, air quality, and production of aeroallergens. Several large-scale urban tree planting projects have sought to promote respiratory health, yet evidence linking tree cover to human health is limited. Objectives: We sought to investigate the association of tree canopy cover with subsequent development of childhood asthma, wheeze, rhinitis, and allergic sensitization. Methods: Birth cohort study data were linked to detailed geographic information systems data characterizing 2001 tree canopy coverage based on LiDAR (light detection and ranging) and multispectral imagery within 0.25 km of the prenatal address. A total of 549 Dominican or African-American children born in 1998–2006 had outcome data assessed by validated questionnaire or based on IgE antibody response to specific allergens, including a tree pollen mix. Results: Tree canopy coverage did not significantly predict outcomes at 5 years of age, but was positively associated with asthma and allergic sensitization at 7 years. Adjusted risk ratios (RRs) per standard deviation of tree canopy coverage were 1.17 for asthma (95% CI: 1.02, 1.33), 1.20 for any specific allergic sensitization (95% CI: 1.05, 1.37), and 1.43 for tree pollen allergic sensitization (95% CI: 1.19, 1.72). Conclusions: Results did not support the hypothesized protective association of urban tree canopy coverage with asthma or allergy-related outcomes. Tree canopy cover near the prenatal address was associated with higher prevalence of allergic sensitization to tree pollen. Information was not available on sensitization to specific tree species or individual pollen exposures, and results may not be generalizable to other populations or geographic areas. PMID:23322788

  12. Longitudinal association of neighborhood variables with Body Mass Index in Dutch school-age children: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Swantje C; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Sanne I; Gubbels, Jessica; Thijs, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the neighborhood environment may explain part of the rapid increase in childhood overweight and obesity during the last decades. To date few theory-driven rather than data-driven studies have explored longitudinal associations between multiple neighborhood characteristics and child body weight development. We aimed to assess the relationship between physical, social and perceived safety related characteristics of the neighborhood and Body Mass Index (BMI) development in children during early school age, using a longitudinal design. We included an examination of moderating and confounding factors based on a conceptual model adapted from the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention) and empirical research. Analyses included 1887 children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study followed from baseline age 4-5 years until 8-9 years. For children age 4-5 years, parents completed a questionnaire measuring characteristics of the neighborhood. Reliability and factor analyses were used to identify constructs for neighborhood characteristics. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between neighborhood constructs and BMI z-scores cross-sectionally at age 4-5 years and longitudinally using Generalized Estimating Equations with BMI z-scores over 5 repeated measurements until age 8-9 years. Fourteen constructs were identified and grouped in three domains including perceived physical, social, or safety related characteristics of the neighborhood. Cross-sectionally, a lower BMI z-score was associated with higher perceived physical attractiveness of the neighborhood environment (standardized regression coefficient (β) -0.078, 95% CI -0.123 to -0.034) and a higher level of social capital (β -0.142, -0.264 to -0.019). Longitudinally, similar associations were observed with potentially even stronger regression coefficients. This study suggests that BMI in children is mainly related to the modifiable physical

  13. The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Pia; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Clemmensen, Lars; Munkholm, Anja; Rimvall, Martin Kristian; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; van Os, Jim; Petersen, Liselotte; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2015-09-01

    Psychotic experiences (PE) in individuals of the general population are hypothesized to mark the early expression of the pathology underlying psychosis. This notion of PE as an intermediate phenotype is based on the premise that PE share genetic liability with psychosis. We examined whether PE in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder with psychosis, or of nonpsychotic mental disorder, vs no diagnoses was associated with increased risk of PE in offspring (hierarchical exposure variable). The occurrence of PE in offspring was significantly associated with a history of psychosis among the first-degree relatives (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.82-5.93). The risk increased for combined hallucinations and delusions (adjusted RR = 5.90, 95% CI: 2.64-13.16). A history of nonpsychotic mental disorders in first-degree relatives did not contribute to the risk of PE in offspring nor did any mental disorder among second-degree relatives. Our findings support the notion of PE as a vulnerability marker of transdiagnostic psychosis. The effect of psychosis in first-degree relatives may operate through shared genetic and environmental factors.

  14. Maternal use of acetaminophen during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders in childhood: A Danish national birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Virk, Jasveer; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most commonly used pain and fever medication during pregnancy. Previously, a positive ecological correlation between acetaminophen use and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported but evidence from larger studies based on prospective data is lacking. We followed 64,322 children and mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC; 1996-2002) for average 12.7 years to investigate whether acetaminophen use in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of ASD in the offspring. Information on acetaminophen use was collected prospectively from three computer-assisted telephone interviews. We used records from the Danish hospital and psychiatric registries to identify diagnoses of ASD. At the end of follow up, 1,027 (1.6%) children were diagnosed with ASD, 345 (0.5%) with infantile autism. We found that 31% of ASD (26% of infantile autism) have also been diagnosed with hyperkinetic disorders. More than 50% women reported ever using acetaminophen in pregnancy. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confident interval (CI). Prenatal use of acetaminophen was associated with an increased risk of ASD accompanied by hyperkinetic symptoms (HR = 1.51 95% CI 1.19-1.92), but not with other ASD cases (HR = 1.06 95% CI 0.92-1.24). Longer duration of use (i.e., use for >20 weeks in gestation) increased the risk of ASD or infantile autism with hyperkinetic symptoms almost twofold. Maternal use of acetaminophen in pregnancy was associated with ASD with hyperkinetic symptoms only, suggesting acetaminophen exposure early in fetal life may specifically impact this hyperactive behavioral phenotype. Autism Res 2016, 9: 951-958. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Placental mitochondrial methylation and exposure to airborne particulate matter in the early life environment: An ENVIRONAGE birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Bram G; Byun, Hyang-Min; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Lefebvre, Wouter; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Nawrot, Tim S

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date has focused on epigenetic modifications in the nuclear genome, with little attention devoted to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Placental mtDNA content has been shown to respond to environmental exposures that induce oxidative stress, including airborne particulate matter (PM). Damaged or non-functioning mitochondria are specifically degraded through mitophagy, exemplified by lower mtDNA content, and could be primed by epigenetic modifications in the mtDNA. We studied placental mtDNA methylation in the context of the early life exposome. We investigated placental tissue from 381 mother-newborn pairs that were enrolled in the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort. We determined mtDNA methylation by bisulfite-pyrosequencing in 2 regions, i.e., the D-loop control region and 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1), and measured mtDNA content by qPCR. PM2.5 exposure was calculated for each participant's home address using a dispersion model. An interquartile range (IQR) increment in PM2.5 exposure over the entire pregnancy was positively associated with mtDNA methylation (MT-RNR1: +0.91%, P = 0.01 and D-loop: +0.21%, P = 0.05) and inversely associated with mtDNA content (relative change of -15.60%, P = 0.001) in placental tissue. mtDNA methylation was estimated to mediate 54% [P = 0.01 (MT-RNR1)] and 27% [P = 0.06 (D-loop)] of the inverse association between PM2.5 exposure and mtDNA content. This study provides new insight into the mechanisms of altered mitochondrial function in the early life environment. Epigenetic modifications in the mitochondrial genome, especially in the MT-RNR1 region, substantially mediate the association between PM2.5 exposure during gestation and placental mtDNA content, which could reflect signs of mitophagy and mitochondrial death. PMID:25996590

  16. Low resting heart rate is associated with violence in late adolescence: a prospective birth cohort study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Hallal, Pedro C; Mielke, Gregore I; Raine, Adrian; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Youth violence is a major global public health problem. Three UK and Swedish studies suggest that low resting heart rate predicts male youth violence, but this has not been tested in other social settings nor for females. Methods: A prospective, population-based birth cohort study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. Heart rate was measured using a wrist monitor at ages 11, 15 and 18 years. Violent crime and non-violent crime were measured at age 18 in self-reports and official records (N = 3618). Confounding variables were assessed in the perinatal period and at age 11, in interviews with mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between quartiles of heart rate at each age, and violent and non-violent crime at age 18, separately for males and females. Results: Lower resting heart rate was a robust correlate of violent and non-violent crime for males. Comparing males in the lowest and top quartiles of heart rate at age 15 years, adjusted odds ratios were 1.9 for violent crime [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–2.7] and 1.7 for non-violent crime (95% CI 1.1–2.6). For females, crime outcomes were associated only with low resting heart rate at age 18. Associations were generally linear across the four heart rate quartiles. There was no evidence that associations differed according to socioeconomic status at age 15. Conclusions: Low resting heart rate predicted violent and non-violent crime for males, and was cross-sectionally associated with crime for females. Biological factors may contribute to individual propensity to commit crime, even in a middle-income setting with high rates of violence. PMID:26822937

  17. Microbial Succession in the Gut: Directional Trends of Taxonomic and Functional Change in a Birth Cohort of Spanish Infants

    PubMed Central

    Vallès, Yvonne; Artacho, Alejandro; Pascual-García, Alberto; Ferrús, Maria Loreto; Gosalbes, María José; Abellán, Juan José; Francino, M. Pilar

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its major impact on life-long health, the process of microbial succession in the gut of infants remains poorly understood. Here, we analyze the patterns of taxonomic and functional change in the gut microbiota during the first year of life for a birth cohort of 13 infants. We detect that individual instances of gut colonization vary in the temporal dynamics of microbiota richness, diversity, and composition at both functional and taxonomic levels. Nevertheless, trends discernible in a majority of infants indicate that gut colonization occurs in two distinct phases of succession, separated by the introduction of solid foods to the diet. This change in resource availability causes a sharp decrease in the taxonomic richness of the microbiota due to the loss of rare taxa (p = 2.06e-9), although the number of core genera shared by all infants increases substantially. Moreover, although the gut microbial succession is not strictly deterministic, we detect an overarching directionality of change through time towards the taxonomic and functional composition of the maternal microbiota. Succession is however not complete by the one year mark, as significant differences remain between one-year-olds and their mothers in terms of taxonomic (p = 0.009) and functional (p = 0.004) microbiota composition, and in taxonomic richness (p = 2.76e-37) and diversity (p = 0.016). Our results also indicate that the taxonomic composition of the microbiota shapes its functional capacities. Therefore, the observed inter-individual variability in taxonomic composition during succession is not fully compensated by functional equivalence among bacterial genera and may have important physiological consequences. Finally, network analyses suggest that positive interactions among core genera during community assembly contribute to ensure their permanence within the gut, and highlight an expansion of complexity in the interactions network as the core of taxa shared by

  18. Distribution of Glycated Haemoglobin According to Early-Life and Contemporary Characteristics in Adolescents and Adults without Diabetes: The 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Silveira, Vera M.; Miranda, Jaime J.; Gonçalves, Helen D.; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Gigante, Denise P.; Menezes, Ana Maria; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of glucose control in individuals with diabetes mellitus, is also related with the incidence of cardiometabolic risk in populations free of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of HbA1c levels according to early-life and contemporary factors in adolescents and adults without diabetes mellitus. Methods HbA1c was measured in adults aged 30 years and adolescents aged 18 years who are participants in the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe the HbA1c mean values according to early-life and contemporary characteristics collected prospectively since birth. Results The distribution of the HbA1c was approximately normal in both cohorts, with a mean (SD) 5.10% (0.43) in the 1982 cohort, and 4.89% (0.50) in the 1993 cohort. HbA1c mean levels were significantly higher in individuals self-reported as black/brown skin color compared to those self-reported as white in both cohorts. Parental history of diabetes was associated with higher HbA1c mean in adults, while stunting at one year old presented an inverse relation with the outcome in adolescents. No other early and contemporary factors were associated with HbA1c levels in adults or adolescents. Conclusions We found a consistent relationship between HbA1c and skin color in both cohorts. Further research is needed to understand the role of genomic ancestry on levels of HbA1c concentrations which may inform policies and preventive actions for diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic risk. PMID:27626274

  19. Use of cannabis during pregnancy and birth outcomes in an Aboriginal birth cohort: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephanie J; Mensah, Fiona K; Ah Kit, Jackie; Stuart-Butler, Deanna; Glover, Karen; Leane, Cathy; Weetra, Donna; Gartland, Deirdre; Newbury, Jonathan; Yelland, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Indigenous women continue to experience rates of stillbirth, preterm birth and low birth weight, two to three times higher than other women in high-income countries. The reasons for disparities are complex and multifactorial. We aimed to assess the extent to which adverse birth outcomes are associated with maternal cannabis use and exposure to stressful events and social health issues during pregnancy. Design/setting Cross-sectional, population-based survey of women giving birth to Aboriginal babies in South Australia, July 2011–June 2013. Data include: maternal cannabis use, exposure to stressful events/social health issues, infant birth weight and gestation. Participants 344 eligible women with a mean age of 25 years (range 15–43 years), enrolled in the study. Participants were representative in relation to maternal age, infant birth weight and gestation. Results 1 in 5 women (20.5%) used cannabis during pregnancy, and 52% smoked cigarettes. Compared with mothers not using cannabis or cigarettes, mothers using cannabis had babies on average 565 g lighter (95% CI −762 to −367), and were more likely to have infants with a low birth weight (OR=6.5, 95% CI 3.0 to 14.3), and small for gestational age (OR=3.8, 95% CI 1.9 to 7.6). Controlling for education and other social characteristics, including stressful events/social health issues did not alter the conclusion that mothers using cannabis experience a higher risk of negative birth outcomes (adjusted OR for odds of low birth weight 3.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 11.2). Conclusions The findings provide a compelling case for stronger efforts to address the clustering of risk for adverse outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, and point to the need for antenatal care to address broader social determinants of adverse perinatal outcomes. Integrated responses—collaboratively developed with Aboriginal communities and organisations—that focus on constellations of risk factors, and a

  20. Marital Status and Reproduction: Associations with Childhood Intelligence and Adult Social Class in the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood intelligence (age 11) and occupational social status at midlife (age 46 to 51) was associated with marital status and reproduction in a sample from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s cohort study (N = 9614). Male and female divorcees had lower childhood intelligence test scores than their married counterparts, but no meaningful…

  1. The trends and the risk of type 1 diabetes over the past 40 years: an analysis by birth cohorts and by parental migration background in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hussen, Hozan Ismael; Persson, Martina; Moradi, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the trends and the risk of developing type 1 diabetes in the offspring of Swedes and immigrants by specific parental migration background, age, sex and birth cohort. Design Registry-based cohort study. Setting Using Swedish nationwide data we analysed the risk of developing type 1 diabetes in 3 457 486 female and 3 641 304 male offspring between 0 and 30 years of age, born to native Swedes or immigrants and born and living in Sweden between 1969 and 2009. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. We further calculated age-standardised rates (ASRs) of type 1 diabetes, using the world population as standard. Results We observed a trend of increasing ASRs among offspring below 15 years of age born to native Swedes and a less evident increase among offspring of immigrants. We further observed a shift towards a younger age at diagnosis in younger birth cohorts in both groups of offspring.Compared with offspring of Swedes, children (0–14 years) and young adults (15–30 years) with one parent born abroad had an overall 30% and 15–20% lower IRR, respectively, after multivariable adjustment. The reduction in IRR was even greater among offspring of immigrants if both parents were born abroad. Analysis by specific parental region of birth revealed a 45–60% higher IRR among male and female offspring aged 0–30 years of Eastern Africa. Conclusions Parental country of birth and early exposures to environmental factors play an important role in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. PMID:24176793

  2. Sex- and Age-Specific Incidence of Healthcare-Register-Recorded Eating Disorders in the Complete Swedish 1979–2001 Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Javaras, Kristin N.; Runfola, Cristin D.; Thornton, Laura M.; Agerbo, Esben; Birgegård, Andreas; Norring, Claes; Yao, Shuyang; Råstam, Maria; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sex- and age-specific incidence of healthcare-register-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and other eating disorders (OED) in a complete birth cohort, and assess whether incidence varies by diagnostic period and (sub-) birth cohort. Method We used the actuarial method and Poisson models to examine the incidence of AN and OED from 1987–2009 (when individuals were 8–30 years) for a cohort of 2.3 million individuals (48.7% female) born from 1979–2001 in Sweden, identified using Swedish registers. Results For both sexes, incidences of AN and OED increased considerably for diagnostic periods after 2000, but differed little by birth cohort. In 2009, AN incidence in the peak age category was 205.9 cases/100,000 persons (95% CI: 178.2, 233.5) for females (14–15 years), versus 12.8 cases/100,000 (95% CI: 5.6, 20.1) for males (12–13 years). OED incidence in the peak age category was 372.1 cases/100,000 (95% CI: 336.4, 407.9) for females (16–17 years), versus 22.2 cases/100,000 (95% CI: 13.3, 31.1) for males (14–15 years). Discussion Our finding of an increase in healthcare register-recorded eating disorders for diagnostic periods after 2000 likely reflects improved detection and expanded register coverage in Sweden. The peak of eating disorder incidence in adolescence, which began unexpectedly early for AN in males, suggests the importance of vigilance for signs of AN in young boys and early primary prevention efforts. Waiting until later could miss critical windows for intervention that could prevent disorders from taking root. PMID:26769444

  3. 14. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN Reach by foot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN Reach by foot from E end of Vine St. St. Louis and San Francisco RR bridge. Bridge built 1887, replaced, 1969. Credit: Evans Memorial Library, Aberdeen, Ms. No date. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  4. Birth Weight, Ethnicity, and Exposure to Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water during Pregnancy in the Born in Bradford Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel B.; Edwards, Susan C.; Best, Nicky; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Toledano, Mireille B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence for a relationship between trihalomethane (THM) or haloacetic acid (HAA) exposure and adverse fetal growth is inconsistent. Disinfection by-products exist as complex mixtures in water supplies, but THMs and HAAs have typically been examined separately. Objectives: We investigated joint exposure at the individual level to THMs and HAAs in relation to birth weight in the multi-ethnic Born in Bradford birth cohort. Methods: Pregnant women reported their water consumption and activities via questionnaire. These data were combined with area-level THM and HAA concentrations to estimate integrated uptake of THMs into blood and HAA ingestion, accounting for boiling/filtering. We examined the relationship between THM and HAA exposures and birth weight of up to 7,438 singleton term babies using multiple linear regression, stratified by ethnicity. Results: Among Pakistani-origin infants, mean birth weight was significantly lower in association with the highest versus lowest tertiles of integrated THM uptake (e.g., –53.7 g; 95% CI: –89.9, –17.5 for ≥ 1.82 vs. < 1.05 μg/day of total THM) and there were significant trends (p < 0.01) across increasing tertiles, but there were no associations among white British infants. Neither ingestion of HAAs alone or jointly with THMs was associated with birth weight. Estimated THM uptake via showering, bathing, and swimming was significantly associated with lower birth weight in Pakistani-origin infants, when adjusting for THM and HAA ingestion via water consumption. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest DBP and fetal growth study to date with individual water use data, and the first to examine individual-level estimates of joint THM–HAA exposure. Our findings demonstrate associations between THM, but not HAA, exposure during pregnancy and reduced birth weight, but suggest this differs by ethnicity. This study suggests that THMs are not acting as a proxy for HAAs, or vice-versa. Citation: Smith RB

  5. Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age and Preterm Births before and after the Economic Collapse in Iceland: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eiríksdóttir, Védís Helga; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður Ingibjörg; Kaestner, Robert; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW). We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Study design The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing <2500 grams at birth, PB infants as those born before 37 weeks of gestation and SGA as those with a birth weight for gestational age more than 2 standard deviations (SD's) below the mean according to the Swedish fetal growth curve. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios [OR] and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals [95% CI] of adverse birth outcomes by exposure to calendar time of the economic collapse, i.e. after October 6th 2008. Results Compared to the preceding period, we observed an increased adjusted odds in LBW-deliveries following the collapse (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52]), particularly among infants born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.25, 2.72]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.10, 2.35]). Similarly, we found a tendency towards higher incidence of SGA-births (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.86, 1.51]) particularly among children born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.09, 3.23]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI [1.09, 3.17]). No change in risk of PB was observed. The increase of LBW was most distinct 6–9 months after the collapse. Conclusion The results suggest an increase in risk of LBW shortly after the collapse of the Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation. PMID:24324602

  6. Work and disability at the age of 30 years. A sociomedical study of a birth-cohort from Bergen. V. Social background and recruitment to the school system.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, D; Kinge, F O

    1979-01-01

    The basis of the present study is a cohort of 1570 persons, all live births in 1940 of mothers then residing in Bergen. This birth-control was followed up in the compulsory school system at the age of 14 years. Information from the "parsons' lists" (birth registers) was gathered concerning the parents' social background, while facts about the students' recruitment to the compulsory school system in Bergen were obtained from the local files of the various schools and the files of The National Services for the Mentally Retarded. For the purpose of collecting more detailed information, a sample was taken from the birthcohort. This sample was formed on the basis of a stratification of the cohort according to type of school attended at 14 years of age. By supplementing the group comprising persons attending Special Schools for the Educable Mentally Retarded and the group including persons cared for by the National Services for the Mentally Retarded, a total sample of 262 persons was reached. It is found that recruitment to the school system varies considerably with socio-economic background. Children of higher officials were highly over-represented in Junior High School, while children of workers were noticeably under-represented at this type of school. Children of workers were over-represented in Continuation School, Elementary School classes for slow learners and Special Schools for the educable mentally retarded. However, a proportionally very similar representation of the social groups in the services for the mentally retarded was found.

  7. Intrauterine Inflammation and Maternal Exposure to Ambient PM2.5 during Preconception and Specific Periods of Pregnancy: The Boston Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, Rebecca Massa; Mao, Guangyun; Zhang, Xingyou; Hong, Xiumei; Chen, Zhu; Soria, Claire Sampankanpanich; He, Huan; Wang, Guoying; Caruso, Deanna; Pearson, Colleen; Biswal, Shyam; Zuckerman, Barry; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to ambient PM2.5, (i.e., fine particulate matter, aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) has been associated with preterm birth and low birth weight. The association between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and intrauterine inflammation (IUI), an important risk factor for preterm birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes, has not been evaluated. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to PM2.5 and IUI in the Boston Birth Cohort, a predominantly urban low-income minority population. Methods: This analysis included 5,059 mother–infant pairs in the Boston Birth Cohort. IUI was assessed based on intrapartum fever and placenta pathology. PM2.5 exposure was assigned using data from the U.S. EPA’s Air Quality System. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) quantified the association of maternal PM2.5 exposure during preconception and various periods of pregnancy with IUI. Results: Comparing the highest with the lowest PM2.5 exposure quartiles, the multi-adjusted association with IUI was significant for all exposure periods considered, including 3 months before conception (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.89), first trimester (OR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.55, 2.40), second trimester (OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.08), third trimester (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.90), and whole pregnancy (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.55, 2.37). Conclusions: Despite relatively low exposures, our results suggest a monotonic positive relationship between PM2.5 exposure during preconception and pregnancy and IUI. IUI may be a sensitive biomarker for assessing early biological effect of PM2.5 exposure on the developing fetus. Citation: Nachman RM, Mao G, Zhang X, Hong X, Chen Z, Soria CS, He H, Wang G, Caruso D, Pearson C, Biswal S, Zuckerman B, Wills-Karp M, Wang X. 2016. Intrauterine inflammation and maternal exposure to ambient PM2.5 during preconception and specific periods of pregnancy: the Boston Birth Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1608–1615;

  8. Adolescent self-control behavior predicts body weight through the life course: a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Koike, S; Hardy, R; Richards, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Weight gain has become one of the biggest issues for healthy aging in middle- and high-income countries. Self-control of emotional reward cues is an important behavioral factor for regulation of weight gain through voluntary diet control and physical activity. Methods: We tested the associations between teacher-rated self-control at ages 13 and 15 years, and measured body mass index (BMI) between ages 15 and 60–64 years, controlling for confounding factors such as affective symptoms and cognition, using 3873 study members in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, also known as the British 1946 birth cohort. Results: Multivariable regression analysis after adjustment for all covariates showed that lower self-control was associated with higher BMI in all measure points (P<0.05). Multilevel modeling using a cubic model showed that there was an association between self-control and BMI at 15 years in females (male: BMI=−0.00 kg m−2 per 1 s.d. on the self-control score (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.12 to 0.11), P =0.94; female: BMI=−0.27 (−0.42 to −0.11), P<0.001). The association became stronger with age in both sexes (BMI=−0.065 (−0.082 to −0.048), P<0.001; BMI=−0.036 (−0.057 to −0.015), P<0.001). By age 60–64 years, the association between self-control and BMI in men had increased to −0.70 (−0.96 to −0.44) and −0.67 (−1.04 to −0.30) in women. Conclusions: Lower adolescent self-control was associated with higher BMI through the life course, and this becomes stronger with age. Investigations to test whether intervention to self-control improves obesity are recommended. PMID:26449420

  9. Digit ratio and autism spectrum disorders in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: a birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, Anna Louise; Heron, Jon; Knight, Bernice Le Cornu; Golding, Jean; Rai, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a measure commonly used as a proxy for fetal testosterone exposure, is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as predicted by the extreme male brain theory of autism. Design A birth cohort study. Setting The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants 6015 ALSPAC children with data on digit ratio, at least 1 outcome measure and information on potential confounding variables (parental occupational class, maternal education and age at digit ratio measurement). Digit ratio was measured by the photocopy and calliper method. Outcomes ASD diagnosis (cases were identified previously by record linkage or maternal report) and 4 measures that combine optimally within ALSPAC to predict ASD: the Children's Communication Checklist (coherence subscale), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist, a repetitive behaviour measure, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability scale (sociability subscale). These measures were dichotomised, with approximately 10% defined as the ‘risk’ group. Results Using logistic regression, we examined the association of 2D:4D with ASDs and 4 dichotomised ASD traits. Covariates were occupational class, maternal education and age at 2D:4D measurement. 2D:4D was not associated with ASDs in males (adjusted OR per 1 SD increase in mean 2D:4D, 0.88 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.21), p=0.435) or females (adjusted OR=1.36 (95% CI 0.81 to 2.28), p=0.245). Similar results were observed after adjustment for IQ. There was 1 weak association between reduced coherence and increased left 2D:4D in males, in the opposite direction to that predicted by the extreme male brain theory (adjusted OR=1.15 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.29), p=0.023). Given multiple comparisons, this is consistent with chance. Conclusions In this population-based study, there was no strong evidence of an association between 2D:4D and ASD diagnosis or traits, although the CIs were wide. These

  10. Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes APOE and TOMM40, and brain white matter integrity in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    PubMed

    Lyall, Donald M; Harris, Sarah E; Bastin, Mark E; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Murray, Catherine; Lutz, Michael W; Saunders, Ann M; Roses, Allen D; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C; Royle, Natalie A; Starr, John M; Porteous, David J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-06-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε genotype has previously been significantly associated with cognitive, brain imaging, and Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes (e.g., age of onset). In the TOMM40 gene, the rs10524523 ("523") variable length poly-T repeat polymorphism has more recently been associated with similar ph/enotypes, although the allelic directions of these associations have varied between initial reports. Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography, the present study aimed to investigate whether there are independent effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and TOMM40 genotypes on human brain white matter integrity in a community-dwelling sample of older adults, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (mean age = 72.70 years, standard deviation = 0.74, N approximately = 640-650; for most analyses). Some nominally significant effects were observed (i.e., covariate-adjusted differences between genotype groups at p < 0.05). For APOE, deleterious effects of ε4 "risk" allele presence (vs. absence) were found in the right ventral cingulum and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. To test for biologically independent effects of the TOMM40 523 repeat, participants were stratified into APOE genotype subgroups, so that any significant effects could not be attributed to APOE variation. In participants with the APOE ε3/ε4 genotype, effects of TOMM40 523 status were found in the left uncinate fasciculus, left rostral cingulum, left ventral cingulum, and a general factor of white matter integrity. In all 4 of these tractography measures, carriers of the TOMM40 523 "short" allele showed lower white matter integrity when compared with carriers of the "long" and "very-long" alleles. Most of these effects survived correction for childhood intelligence test scores and vascular disease history, though only the effect of TOMM40 523 on the left ventral cingulum integrity survived correction for false discovery rate. The effects of APOE in this older population are more specific and

  11. Menopause, Reproductive Life, Hormone Replacement Therapy, and Bone Phenotype at Age 60–64 Years: A British Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, S.; Cooper, R.; Moore, A.; Mackinnon, K.; Cooper, C.; Adams, J. E.; Hardy, R.; Ward, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Previous studies of menopausal age and length of reproductive life on bone are limited by retrospective reproductive histories, being cross-sectional, or lacking gold standard bone technologies or information on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or surgical treatment. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate age at menopause, length of reproductive life, and HRT use in relation to volumetric and areal bone mineral density (vBMD, aBMD), bone size, and strength in women aged 60–64 years. Design: This was a birth cohort study that followed up for 64 years with prospective measures of age at menarche and menopause and monthly HRT histories. Setting: The study was conducted in England, Scotland, and Wales. Participants: Participants included 848 women with a known type of menopause and bone measures at 60–64 years. Main Outcome Measures: Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements of the distal radius total and trabecular vBMD were measured. Diaphyseal radius total and medullary cross-sectional area, cortical vBMD, and polar strength strain index (SSI); dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of aBMD at the lumbar spine and total hip were also measured. Results: A 10-year increase in age at natural (but not surgical) menopause was associated with 8.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3%–15.1%, P = .02) greater trabecular vBMD and a 6.0% (95% CI 0.51%–11.5%, P = .03) greater total vBMD; findings were similar for length of reproductive life. A 10-year difference in HRT use was associated with a 6.0% (95% CI 2.6%–9.3%, P < .001) greater polar SSI and a 0.9% (95% CI 0.4%–1.5%, P = .001) greater cortical vBMD. These estimates changed little on adjustment. Estimates for aBMD were consistent with those for peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Conclusions: The positive effects on trabecular vBMD of later natural menopause and longer reproductive life persisted into early old age. HRT use was associated with greater

  12. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  13. Prenatal recruitment of participants for a birth cohort study including cord blood collection: results of a feasibility study in Bremen, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Günther, Kathrin; Frambach, Torsten; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prospective birth cohort studies comprising follow up of children from pregnancy or birth over a long period of time, and collecting various biological samples at different times through the life-course offer a promising approach to enhance etiologic knowledge of various diseases. Especially for those where early lifetime exposures and conditions are thought to play an important role. The collection and storage of biological samples is a critical component in epidemiological studies, notably for research regarding prenatal exposures to various environmental factors as well as for DNA extraction. Our feasibility study for a birth cohort within the scope of etiology of childhood leukemia with prospective sampling of mothers and their future newborns aimed to investigate the willingness of pregnant women to participate in a birth cohort study involving collection of blood and umbilical cord blood samples. The overall aim was to develop practice-based research recommendations for a possible German birth cohort study. Methods: The study was conducted in Bremen, Germany, between January 2012 and March 2013. Pregnant women were eligible for recruitment if (i) their expected date of delivery was during the study recruitment phase (September 2012–February 2013), (ii) they planned to give birth at the cooperating hospital’s obstetric unit and (iii) their knowledge of the German language was sufficient to understand study materials, details of participation and to fill out the prenatal self-administered questionnaire. Maternal blood and umbilical cord blood samples to be used for later research activities were collected and stored at a stem cell bank already collaborating with the hospital. 22 primary care gynecologists were invited to enroll pregnant women for the study and cooperation with one hospital was established. Expectant women were recruited during the last trimester of pregnancy, either during one of their prenatal care visits at their primary care

  14. Associations between late and moderately preterm birth and smoking, alcohol, drug use and diet: a population-based case–cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Draper, Elizabeth S; Evans, T Alun; Field, David J; Johnson, Samantha J; Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Marlow, Neil; Petrou, Stavros; Boyle, Elaine M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explores the associations between lifestyle factors and late and moderate preterm birth (LMPT: 32+0–36+6 weeks' gestation), a relatively under-researched group. Study design A population-based case–cohort study was undertaken involving 922 LMPT and 965 term (37+ weeks' gestation) singleton live and stillbirths born between 1 September 2009 and 31 December 2010 to women residing in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, UK. Poisson multivariable regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RR) of LMPT birth associated with maternal smoking, alcohol and recreational drug use, and diet. Results Women who smoked during pregnancy were at 38% increased risk of LMPT birth compared with non-smokers (RR 1.38, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.84)). Low consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 31% increased risk compared with those who reported eating higher consumption levels (RR 1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)). Women who did not have any aspects of a Mediterranean diet were nearly twice as likely to deliver LMPT compared with those whose diet included more Mediterranean characteristics (RR 1.81 (1.04 to 3.14)). Women who smoked and consumed low levels of fruit and vegetables (5% of women) were at particularly high risk (RR=1.81 (1.29 to 2.55)). There was no significant effect of alcohol or recreational drug use on LMPT birth. Conclusions Smoking and poor diet during pregnancy, factors that strongly impact on very preterm birth, are also important at later gestations and experienced together are associated with an elevated rate of risk. Our findings suggest early cessation of smoking during pregnancy may be an effective strategy to reduce LMPT births. PMID:25972442

  15. Associations between particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Elaine; MacIntyre, Elaina; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Bucci, Simone; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cirach, Marta; Cyrys, Josef; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Gruzieva, Olena; Hoffmann, Barbara; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Keuken, Menno; Klümper, Claudia; Kooter, Ingeborg; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Mölter, Anna; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Pershagen, Göran; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje S; Simpson, Angela; Smit, Henriette A; Sugiri, Dorothea; Sunyer, Jordi; Wang, Meng; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    Evidence for a role of long-term particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infections is growing. However, which components of particulate matter may be causative remains largely unknown. We assessed associations between eight particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohort studies (N total=15,980): BAMSE (Sweden), GASPII (Italy), GINIplus and LISAplus (Germany), INMA (Spain), MAAS (United Kingdom) and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Annual average exposure to copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc, each respectively derived from particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5), were estimated using standardized land use regression models and assigned to birth addresses. Cohort-specific associations between these exposures and parental reports of physician-diagnosed pneumonia between birth and two years were assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for host and environmental covariates and total PM10 or PM2.5 mass. Combined estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. There was substantial within and between-cohort variability in element concentrations. In the adjusted meta-analysis, pneumonia was weakly associated with zinc derived from PM10 (OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.18) per 20 ng/m(3) increase). No other associations with the other elements were consistently observed. The independent effect of particulate matter mass remained after adjustment for element concentrations. In conclusion, associations between particulate matter mass exposure and pneumonia were not explained by the elements we investigated. Zinc from PM10 was the only element which appeared independently associated with a higher risk of early-life pneumonia. As zinc is primarily attributable to non-tailpipe traffic emissions, these results may suggest a potential adverse effect of non-tailpipe emissions on health.

  16. Trends in the incidence and mortality of multiple births by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England: population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy K; Manktelow, Bradley N; Draper, Elizabeth S; Boyle, Elaine M; Johnson, Samantha J; Field, David J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate temporal trends in multiple birth rates and associated stillbirth and neonatal mortality by socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age in England. Design Population cohort study. Setting England. Participants All live births and stillbirths (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2008). Main outcome measures Multiple maternity rate, stillbirth and neonatal death rate by year of birth, decile of socioeconomic deprivation and maternal age. Results The overall rate of multiple maternities increased over time (+0.64% per annum 95% CI (0.47% to 0.81%)) with an increase in twin maternities (+0.85% per annum 95% CI (0.67% to 1.0%)) but a large decrease in triplet and higher order maternities (−8.32% per annum 95% CI (−9.39% to −7.25%)). Multiple maternities were significantly lower in the most deprived areas, and this was most evident in the older age groups. Women over 40 years of age from the most deprived areas had a 34% lower rate of multiple births compared with similar aged women from the most deprived areas (rate ratio (RR) 0.66 95% CI (0.61 to 0.73)). Multiple births remain at substantially higher risk of neonatal mortality (RR 6.30 95% CI (6.07 to 6.53)). However, for stillbirths, while twins remain at higher risk, this has decreased over time (1997–2000: RR 2.89 (2.69 to 3.10); 2005–2008: RR 2.22 95% CI (2.06 to 2.40)). Socioeconomic inequalities existed in mortality for singletons and multiple births. Conclusions This period has seen increasing rates of twin pregnancies and decreasing rates of higher order births which have coincided with changes in recommendations regarding assisted reproductive techniques. Socioeconomic differences in multiple births may reflect differential access to these treatments. Improved monitoring of multiple pregnancies is likely to have led to the reductions in stillbirths over this time. PMID:24699461

  17. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional transition: data from 1982, 1993 and 2004 pelotas birth cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in child nutrition may change rapidly over time, particularly in populations undergoing the nutrition transition. Yet, the few available studies are repeated cross-sectional surveys. By studying three prospective birth cohorts in the same city over a period of more than two decades, we describe secular trends in overweight and stunting at different ages, according to socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were launched in the city of Pelotas (Brazil) in 1982, 1993 and 2004, with follow-up visits at twelve, 24 and 48 months. Children were weighed and measured at every visit. Z-scores of length/height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated using the WHO Child Growth Standards. The slope and relative indices of inequality, based on family income quintiles, were estimated for each follow-up visit. Results Between the 1982 and 2004 cohorts, stunting among four-year-olds declined (from 10.9% to 3.6%), while overweight increased (from 7.6% to 12.3%). In every visit, stunting prevalence was inversely related to income. Both absolute and relative inequalities declined over time; among four-year-olds stunting dropped from 26.0% in the 1982 cohort to 6.7% in the 2004 cohort in the poorest group, while in the richest group stunting prevalence dropped from 2.7% in 1982 to 1.1% in the 2004 cohort study. The secular trend towards increased overweight was evident for four-year-olds, in almost all socioeconomic groups, but not among one and two-year-olds. Among four-year old children, overweight prevalence increased in all income quintiles, by 130% in the middle-income group, 64% in the poorest and 41% in the richest group. Conclusions The decline in stunting is remarkable, but the increase in overweight among four-year olds – particularly among the poorest and the middle-income groups– requires concerted efforts to prevent the long term consequences of child overweight. PMID:22776157

  18. Positive Effect of Human Milk Feeding during NICU Hospitalization on 24 Month Neurodevelopment of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Italian Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibertoni, Dino; Corvaglia, Luigi; Vandini, Silvia; Rucci, Paola; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fantini, Maria Pia; Faldella, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage—periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother’s human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age. PMID:25590630

  19. The natural course of eczema from birth to age 7 years and the association with asthma and allergic rhinitis: a population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chian-Yin; Lin, Ming-Chih; Lin, Heng-Kuei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Fu, Lin-Shien; Fu, Yun-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Although "atopic march" is a popular concept, the relationship between eczema and subsequent asthma is far from clear. However, some cohort studies have shown the possibility of two different allergic phenotypes in those who present with early eczema in terms of their persistency. We checked the cohort data from 308,849 children born in 2000 in Taiwan, to evaluate the different courses of eczema and their relationships to subsequent asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) at age 7 years. We examined the age prevalence of eczema, asthma, and AR up to 7 years of age. We grouped all cases according to their course of eczema, as well as wheezing, and determined the rates of asthma and AR at age 7 years. We checked the adjusted risk factors by multiple logistic regression model. We also examined the distributions of wheezing types in different eczema groups. We found the "atopic march" pattern of allergic diseases based on their age prevalence. Early eczema was associated with asthma and AR at the age of 7 years. Those with eczema symptoms persisting after 36 months of age had a higher risk than those with transient eczema. Early wheeze also contributed to asthma and AR later in childhood. In addition, late-onset eczema had a completely different wheeze distribution compared with other groups and also had a higher risk for asthma and AR than transient eczema. In conclusion, different eczema phenotypes could be found in this population-based cohort. This article emphasizes the special attention to the persistency and late-onset eczema in clinical practice.

  20. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Atsushi; Cadar, Dorina; Xu, Man K; Croudace, Timothy; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time.

  1. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time. PMID:26752724

  2. Adolescent Self-Organization and Adult Smoking and Drinking over Fifty Years of Follow-Up: The British 1946 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Atsushi; Cadar, Dorina; Xu, Man K; Croudace, Timothy; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Variations in markers of adolescent self-organization predict a range of economic and health-related outcomes in general population studies. Using a population-based birth cohort study we investigated associations between adolescent self-organization and two common factors over adulthood influencing health, smoking and alcohol consumption. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) was used to test associations between a dimensional measure of adolescent self-organization derived from teacher ratings, and summary longitudinal measures of smoking and alcohol consumption over the ensuing five decades. Multinomial regression models were adjusted for sex, adolescent emotional and conduct problems, occupational social class of origin, childhood cognition, educational attainment and adult occupational social class. With all covariates adjusted, higher adolescent self-organization was associated with fewer smoking pack years, although not with quitting; there was no association with alcohol consumption across adulthood (none or heavy compared with light to moderate). Adolescent self-organization appears to be protective against smoking, but not against heavy alcohol consumption. Interpretation of this differential effect should be embedded in an understanding of the social and sociodemographic context in which these health behaviours occur over time. PMID:26752724

  3. The C9ORF72 expansion sizes in patients with psychosis: a population-based study on the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    PubMed

    Solje, Eino; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttila, Riikka; Helisalmi, Seppo; Laitinen, Marjo; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Isohanni, Matti; Hiltunen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Remes, Anne M

    2016-04-01

    Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) have many psychotic symptoms, especially at the onset of the disease. The C9ORF72 expansion is the most common genetic etiology observed with bvFTD and the prevalence of the expansion is notably high among Finnish bvFTD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the C9ORF72 expansion among the clearly characterized patients with psychosis, mainly schizophrenia, in early midlife. The C9ORF72 repeat sizes were analyzed in 130 (48% women) patients with psychosis from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N=11,017), the mean onset age being 27.9 (SD 7.0) years. Despite the high frequency of psychiatric symptoms in bvFTD patients and the extremely high prevalence of the C9ORF72 expansion in Finland, pathogenic expansion (>40 repeats) was not detected among the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 individuals with psychosis, indicating that these disorders, especially schizophrenia before the age of 43 years, may not be associated with the C9ORF72 expansion. However, we identified four cases with intermediate size repeats (17-26), but the role of the intermediate repeats in the etiology of psychosis is unknown.

  4. The paradox of longer sperm telomeres in older men's testes: a birth-cohort effect caused by transgenerational telomere erosion in the female germline.

    PubMed

    Stindl, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Longer telomeres in the somatic cells of an individual have been regarded as a marker of youth and biological fitness within a population. Yet, several research groups have reported the surprising findings of longer telomeres in the germ cells of older men, which translated into longer leukocyte telomere length in their offspring. Although all these studies were purely cross-sectional, a longitudinal trend in the aging testes of individual males was taken for granted. Recently, a high-profile study reported a negative birth-cohort effect on leukocyte mean telomere length in human populations, namely the progressive loss of telomeric sequence between healthy human generations. This is what I based my theory of telomere-driven macroevolution on, 12 years ago. On the basis of published data on telomere length inheritance, I identified the source of human intergenerational telomere erosion in the female germline. Accordingly, because of the resulting birth-cohort effect, there is no need for any paradoxical telomere lengthening in older men's gonads to interpret the old-father-long-telomered-offspring data. PMID:26858775

  5. Sports, smoking, and overweight during adolescence as predictors of sciatica in adulthood: a 28-year follow-up study of a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Rivinoja, Anni E; Paananen, Markus V; Taimela, Simo P; Solovieva, Svetlana; Okuloff, Annaleena; Zitting, Paavo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Karppinen, Jaro I

    2011-04-15

    Lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity, and level of physical activity predict low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. The authors investigated whether participating in sports, smoking, and being overweight or obese at 14 years of age predicted hospitalizations due to LBP or sciatica in adulthood. In 1980, at the age of 14 years, a total of 11,399 members of the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort returned the postal questionnaire. Patients from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort who were hospitalized because of LBP or sciatica were followed to the end of 2008 through the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Data were analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards multistate model with the Markov clock forward time scale. During follow-up, 119 females (2.7%) and 254 males (5.6%) had been hospitalized at least once because of LBP or sciatica. Among females, overweight was associated with an increased risk of second-time hospitalization for surgical treatment for sciatica (hazard ratio = 7.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 34.4). Among males, smoking was associated with an increased risk of first-time nonsurgical hospitalization (hazard ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.7) and second-time surgical hospitalization (hazard ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 8.2). The authors found potentially modifiable risk factors in adolescence that predicted hospital treatments for low back disorders during adolescence and young adulthood.

  6. Initiation of use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and other substances in US birth cohorts since 1919.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R A; Gerstein, D R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined recent trends in initiation of psychoactive drug use. METHODS: Data from the 1991 through 1993 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse were used to compare the percentages of US cohorts born from 1919 through 1975 who began using drugs before the ages of 15, 21, and 35. RESULTS: Initiation of cigarette smoking by males peaked in the 1941-1945 cohort, then declined steadily. For females, early smoking initiation rose through the 1951-1955 cohort and then stabilized. Initiation of alcohol use was less common than smoking for pre1950 cohorts but increased steadily, approaching cigarette use for cohorts born in the early 1970s. Only 2% of teenagers born in 1930-1940 tried marijuana; half the teenagers born in 1956-1965 did so. The percentage initiating marijuana use declined in the 1980s, more so among young adults than among teenagers. The use of cocaine and other illicit drugs echoed the rise of marijuana use but peaked later and showed less evidence of subsequent decline. Sex differences declined over time for every drug. CONCLUSIONS: Cohorts born since World War II have had much higher rates of illicit drug use initiation, but trends have varied by drug type, possibly reflecting changes in relative prices. PMID:9584029

  7. Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Atopy at 1 Year of Age in a Multi-Center Canadian Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ryan W.; Becker, Allan; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Mandhane, Piush; Scott, James A.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Subbarao, Padmaja; Takaro, Tim K.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Brauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure in the development of allergic sensitization in children is unclear, and few birth cohort studies have incorporated spatiotemporal exposure assessment. Objectives We aimed to examine the association between TRAP and atopy in 1-year-old children from an ongoing national birth cohort study in four Canadian cities. Methods We identified 2,477 children of approximately 1 year of age with assessment of atopy for inhalant (Alternaria, Der p, Der f, cat, dog, cockroach) and food-related (milk, eggs, peanuts, soy) allergens. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated from city-specific land use regression models accounting for residential mobility and temporal variability in ambient concentrations. We used mixed models to examine associations between atopy and exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life, including adjustment for covariates (maternal atopy, socioeconomic status, pets, mold, nutrition). We also conducted analyses stratified by time-location patterns, daycare attendance, and modeled home ventilation. Results Following spatiotemporal adjustment, TRAP exposure after birth increased the risk for development of atopy to any allergens [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10 μg/m3 NO2 = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.41], but not during pregnancy (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.22). This association was stronger among children not attending daycare (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.01) compared with daycare attendees (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.28). Trends to increased risk were also found for food (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47) and inhalant allergens (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76). Conclusion Using refined exposure estimates that incorporated temporal variability and residential mobility, we found that traffic-related air pollution during the first year of life was associated with atopy. Citation Sbihi H, Allen RW, Becker A, Brook JR, Mandhane P, Scott JA, Sears MR, Subbarao P, Takaro TK, Turvey SE

  8. Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections during the First 3 Years of Life in the Tropics; Findings from a Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Stefanie K.; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha; Sandoval, Carlos; Broncano, Nely; Guadalupe, Irene; Cooper, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infect more than 2 billion humans worldwide, causing significant morbidity in children. There are few data on the epidemiology and risk factors for infection in pre-school children. To investigate risk factors for infection in early childhood, we analysed data prospectively collected in the ECUAVIDA birth cohort in Ecuador. Methods and Findings Children were recruited at birth and followed up to 3 years of age with periodic collection of stool samples that were examined microscopically for STH parasites. Data on social, demographic, and environmental risk factors were collected from the mother at time of enrolment. Associations between exposures and detection of STH infections were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Data were analysed from 1,697 children for whom a stool sample was obtained at 3 years. 42.3% had at least one STH infection in the first 3 years of life and the most common infections were caused by A. lumbricoides (33.2% of children) and T. trichiura (21.2%). Hookworm infection was detected in 0.9% of children. Risk of STH infection was associated with factors indicative of poverty in our study population such as Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicity and low maternal educational level. Maternal STH infections during pregnancy were strong risk factors for any childhood STH infection, infections with either A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura, and early age of first STH infection. Children of mothers with moderate to high infections intensities with A. lumbricoides were most at risk. Conclusions Our data show high rates of infection with STH parasites during the first 3 years of life in an Ecuadorian birth cohort, an observation that was strongly associated with maternal STH infections during pregnancy. The targeted treatment of women of childbearing age, in particular before pregnancy, with anthelmintic drugs could offer a novel approach to the prevention of STH infections in pre-school children. PMID:24587469

  9. Low Birth Weight and Risk of Progression to End Stage Renal Disease in IgA Nephropathy—A Retrospective Registry-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Svarstad, Einar; Leh, Sabine; Marti, Hans-Peter; Reisæther, Anna Varberg

    2016-01-01

    Background Low Birth Weight (LBW) is a surrogate for fetal undernutrition and is associated with impaired nephron development in utero. In this study, we investigate whether having been born LBW and/or small for gestational age (SGA) predict progression to ESRD in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. Study Design Retrospective registry-based cohort study. Settings & Participants The Medical Birth Registry has recorded all births since 1967 and the Norwegian Renal Registry has recorded all patients with ESRD since 1980. Based on data from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry we included all patients diagnosed with IgAN in Norway from 1988–2013. These registries were linked and we analysed risk of progression to ESRD associated with LBW (defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile) and/or SGA (defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational week) by Cox regression statistics. Results We included 471 patients, of whom 74 developed ESRD. As compared to patients without LBW, patients with LBW had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.1–3.7) for the total cohort, 2.2 (1.1–4.4) for males and 1.3 (0.30–5.8) for females. Corresponding HRs for SGA were 2.2 (1.1–4.2), 2.7 (1.4–5.5) and 0.8 (0.10–5.9). Further analyses showed that as compared to patients with neither LBW nor SGA, patients with either SGA or LBW did not have significantly increased risks (HRs of 1.3–1.4) but patients who were both LBW and SGA had an increased risk (HR 3.2 (1.5–6.8). Limitation Mean duration of follow-up only 10 years and maximum age only 46 years. Conclusion Among IgAN patients, LBW and/or SGA was associated with increased risk for progression to ESRD, the association was stronger in males. PMID:27092556

  10. 8. VIEW OF THE ABERDEEN NO. 1 NORTH OPENING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE ABERDEEN NO. 1 NORTH OPENING AND FAN, SHOWING COLLAPSED HOIST HOUSE, CUT-STONE SLOPE ENTRY AND METAL FAN HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  11. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  12. Boothby Hill Road Bridge. Aberdeen, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boothby Hill Road Bridge. Aberdeen, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 66.88. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. Do environments in infancy moderate the association between stress and inflammation in adulthood? Initial evidence from a birth cohort in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    McDade, Thomas W.; Hoke, Morgan; Borja, Judith B.; Adair, Linda S.; Kuzawa, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a potentially important pathway through which psychosocial stressors increase risk for cardiovascular disease. However, prior research on stress and inflammation has been conducted almost exclusively in high income, industrialized populations with low levels of infectious disease. In this study we test the hypothesis that psychosocial stressors are associated with elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) among young adults in the Philippines (n=1,622), who have grown up in an ecological and epidemiological setting that differs substantially from that of the US. In addition, we apply a developmental, ecological perspective to consider whether microbial and nutritional environments in infancy alter patterns of association between stressors and CRP. Data come from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a prospective cohort study that began collecting data in 1983-84 when participants were in utero. A series of regression models indicate trends toward significant interactions between perceived stress and environmental factors in infancy, including exposure to animal feces, season of birth, and birth weight. Parental absence in childhood was a significant predictor of CRP in adulthood in interaction with exposure to animal feces in infancy. Positive associations between stressors and CRP were only evident for individuals with lower levels of microbial exposure in infancy, or lower birth weight. These results suggest that early environments influence the development of inflammatory phenotypes in ways that moderate sensitivity to psychosocial stressors in adulthood, and they underscore the value of a comparative, developmental approach to research on social environments, inflammation, and disease. PMID:22960631

  14. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Mark D.; Khalil, Anita; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Tandon, Nikhil; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Ramji, Siddharth; Gera, Tarun; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Dey Biswas, S. K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg) were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009). Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm) and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm). A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function. PMID:26831418

  15. METHODS OF PROJECTING BIRTHS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OKADA, TETSUO

    THIS NOTE DESCRIBES AND CRITICIZES THE VARIOUS METHODS CURRENTLY IN USE FOR PROJECTING BIRTHS--(1) COHORT-FERTILITY, (2) AGE-SPECIFIC, (3) COHORT-FERTILITY (SCRIPPS), AND (4) MARRIAGE-PARITY-PROGRESSION. VARIABLES USED IN THE VARIOUS METHODS ARE AGE OF MOTHER, COMPLETED FERTILITY, MARRIAGE STATUS, TIME SINCE MARRIAGE, PARITY, AND BIRTH INTERVAL.…

  16. Does childhood adversity account for poorer mental and physical health in second-generation Irish people living in Britain? Birth cohort study from Britain (NCDS)

    PubMed Central

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Clark, Charlotte; Dewey, Michael E; Leavey, Gerard; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Prince, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Worldwide, the Irish diaspora experience elevated mortality and morbidity across generations, not accounted for through socioeconomic position. The main objective of the present study was to assess if childhood disadvantage accounts for poorer mental and physical health in adulthood, in second-generation Irish people. Design Analysis of prospectively collected birth cohort data, with participants followed to midlife. Setting England, Scotland and Wales. Participants Approximately 17 000 babies born in a single week in 1958. Six per cent of the cohort were of second-generation Irish descent. Outcomes Primary outcomes were common mental disorders assessed at age 44/45 and self-rated health at age 42. Secondary outcomes were those assessed at ages 23 and 33. Results Relative to the rest of the cohort, second-generation Irish children grew up in marked material and social disadvantage, which tracked into early adulthood. By midlife, parity was reached between second-generation Irish cohort members and the rest of the sample on most disadvantage indicators. At age 23, Irish cohort members were more likely to screen positive for common mental disorders (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.94). This had reduced slightly by midlife (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.69). Although at age 23 second-generation cohort members were just as likely to report poorer self-rated health (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.43), by midlife this difference had increased (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.60). Adjustment for childhood and early adulthood adversity fully attenuated differences in adult health disadvantages. Conclusions Social and material disadvantage experienced in childhood continues to have long-range adverse effects on physical and mental health at midlife, in second-generation Irish cohort members. This suggests important mechanisms over the life-course, which may have important policy implications in the settlement of migrant families. PMID:23457320

  17. A consolidated environmental monitoring plan for Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1997-04-01

    The US Army operates facilities in Edgewood and Aberdeen under several licenses from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Compliance with each license is time consuming and could potentially result in duplicated efforts to demonstrate compliance with existing environmental regulations. The goal of the ERM plan is to provide the sampling necessary to ensure that operations at Edgewood and Aberdeen are within applicable regulatory guidelines and to provide a means of ensuring that adverse effects to the environment are minimized. Existing sampling plans and environmental data generated from those plans are briefly reviewed as part of the development of the present ERM plan. The new ERM plan was designed to provide data that can be used for assessing risks to the environment and to humans using Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. Existing sampling is modified and new sampling is proposed based on the results of the long-term DU fate study. In that study, different environmental pathways were identified that would show transport of DU at Aberdeen. Those pathways would also be impacted by other radioactive constituents from Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. The ERM plan presented in this document includes sampling from Edgewood and Aberdeen facilities. The main radioactive constituents of concern at Edgewood are C, P, N, S, H, I, Co, Cs, Ca, Sr and U that are used in radiolabeling different compounds and tracers for different reactions and syntheses. Air and water sampling are the thrust of efforts at the Edgewood area.

  18. The first 1000 days of life: prenatal and postnatal risk factors for morbidity and growth in a birth cohort in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Sivarathinaswamy, Prabhu; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Naumova, Elena N; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Ward, Honorine; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the burden and assess prenatal and postnatal determinants of illnesses experienced by children residing in a semiurban slum, during the first 1000 days of life. Design Community-based birth cohort Setting Southern India Participants Four hundred and ninety-seven children of 561 pregnant women recruited and followed for 2 years with surveillance and anthropometry. Main outcome measure Incidence rates of illness; rates of clinic visits and hospitalisations; factors associated with low birth weight, various illnesses and growth. Results Data on 10 377.7 child-months of follow-up estimated an average rate of 14.8 illnesses/child-year. Gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses were 20.6% and 47.8% of the total disease burden, respectively. The hospitalisation rate reduced from 46/100 child-years during infancy to 19/100 child-years in the second year. Anaemia during pregnancy (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.08 to 5.18), less than four antenatal visits (OR=6.8, 95% CI=2.1 to 22.5) and preterm birth (OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.1 to 9.7) were independent prenatal risk factors for low birth weight. Female gender (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79 to 0.99) and 6 months of exclusive breast feeding (HR=0.76, 95% CI=0.66 to 0.88) offered protection against all morbidity. Average monthly height and weight gain were lower in female child and children exclusively breast fed for 6 months. Conclusions The high morbidity in Indian slum children in the first 1000 days of life was mainly due to prenatal factors and gastrointestinal and respiratory illness. Policymakers need disease prevalence and pathways to target high-risk groups with appropriate interventions in the community. PMID:25056979

  19. The Heritability of Gestational Age in a Two-million Member Cohort: Implications for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wilfred; Witherspoon, David J.; Fraser, Alison; Clark, Erin A. S.; Rogers, Alan; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Manuck, Tracy A.; Chen, Karin; Esplin, M. Sean; Smith, Ken R.; Varner, Michael W.; Jorde, Lynn B.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as birth prior to a gestational age (GA) of 37 completed weeks, affects more than 10% of births worldwide. PTB is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and is associated with a broad spectrum of lifelong morbidity in survivors. The etiology of spontaneous PTB (SPTB) is complex and has an important genetic component. Previous studies have compared monozygotic and dizygotic twin mothers and their families to estimate the heritability of SPTB, but these approaches cannot separate the relative contributions of the maternal and the fetal genomes to GA or SPTB. Using the Utah Population Database, we assessed the heritability of GA in more than 2 million post-1945 Utah births, the largest familial GA dataset ever assembled. We estimated a narrow-sense heritability of 13.3% for GA and a broad-sense heritability of 24.5%. A maternal effect (which includes the effect of the maternal genome) accounts for 15.2% of the variance of GA, and the remaining 60.3% is contributed by individual environmental effects. Given the relatively low heritability of GA and SPTB in the general population, multiplex SPTB pedigrees are likely to provide more power for gene detection than will samples of unrelated individuals. Furthermore, nongenetic factors provide important targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25920518

  20. Organic Food Consumption during Pregnancy and Hypospadias and Cryptorchidism at Birth: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Torjusen, Hanne; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alexander, Jan; Lieblein, Geir; Roos, Gun; Holten, Jon Magne; Swartz, Jackie; Haugen, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    Background The etiologies of the male urogenital anomalies hypospadias and cryptorchidism remain unclear. It has been suggested that maternal diet and environmental contaminants may affect the risk of these anomalies via placental or hormonal disturbances. Objectives We examined associations between organic food consumption during pregnancy and prevalence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism at birth. Methods Our study includes 35,107 women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) who delivered a singleton male infant. Information about use of six groups of organically produced food (vegetables, fruit, bread/cereal, milk/dairy products, eggs, and meat) during pregnancy was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Women who indicated that they sometimes, often, or mostly consumed organic foods in at least one of the six food groups were classified as organic food consumers in analyses. Hypospadias and cryptorchidism diagnoses were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multiple logistic regression. Results Seventy-four male newborns were diagnosed with hypospadias (0.2%), and 151 with cryptorchidism (0.4%). Women who consumed any organic food during pregnancy were less likely to give birth to a boy with hypospadias (OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.70, based on 21 exposed cases) than women who reported they never or seldom consumed organic food. Associations with specific organic foods were strongest for vegetable (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.85; 10 exposed cases) and milk/dairy (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.17, 1.07; 7 exposed cases) consumption. No substantial association was observed for consumption of organic food and cryptorchidism. Conclusions Consumption of organically produced foods during pregnancy was associated with a lower prevalence of hypospadias in our study population. These findings were based on small numbers of cases and require replication in other

  1. Maternal Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Methylation Efficiency, and Birth Outcomes in the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) Pregnancy Cohort in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Jessica E.; Bailey, Kathryn A.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Olshan, Andrew F.; Smeester, Lisa; Drobná, Zuzana; Herring, Amy H.; Stýblo, Miroslav; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) from drinking water is a global public health problem, yet much remains unknown about the extent of exposure in susceptible populations. Objectives: We aimed to establish the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) prospective pregnancy cohort in Gómez Palacio, Mexico, to better understand the effects of iAs exposure on pregnant women and their children. Methods: Two hundred pregnant women were recruited for this study. Concentrations of iAs in drinking water (DW-iAs) and maternal urinary concentrations of iAs and its monomethylated and dimethylated metabolites (MMAs and DMAs, respectively) were determined. Birth outcomes were analyzed for their relationship to DW-iAs and to the concentrations and proportions of maternal urinary arsenicals. Results: DW-iAs for the study subjects ranged from < 0.5 to 236 μg As/L. More than half of the women (53%) had DW-iAs that exceeded the World Health Organization’s recommended guideline of 10 μg As/L. DW-iAs was significantly associated with the sum of the urinary arsenicals (U-tAs). Maternal urinary concentrations of MMAs were negatively associated with newborn birth weight and gestational age. Maternal urinary concentrations of iAs were associated with lower mean gestational age and newborn length. Conclusions: Biomonitoring results demonstrate that pregnant women in Gómez Palacio are exposed to potentially harmful levels of DW-iAs. The data support a relationship between iAs metabolism in pregnant women and adverse birth outcomes. The results underscore the risks associated with iAs exposure in vulnerable populations. Citation: Laine JE, Bailey KA, Rubio-Andrade M, Olshan AF, Smeester L, Drobná Z, Herring AH, Stýblo M, García-Vargas GG, Fry RC. 2015. Maternal arsenic exposure, arsenic methylation efficiency, and birth outcomes in the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) pregnancy cohort in Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 123:186–192; http://dx.doi.org/10

  2. Vaccination timing of low-birth-weight infants in rural Ghana: a population-based, prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sara; Hurt, Lisa; Floyd, Sian; Shannon, Caitlin; Newton, Sam; Thomas, Gyan; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Tawiah-Agyemang, Charlotte; Gram, Lu; Hurt, Chris; Bahl, Rajiv; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty; Edmond, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate delays in first and third dose diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP1 and DTP3) vaccination in low-birth-weight infants in Ghana, and the associated determinants. Methods We used data from a large, population-based vitamin A trial in 2010–2013, with 22 955 enrolled infants. We measured vaccination rate and maternal and infant characteristics and compared three categories of low-birth-weight infants (2.0–2.4 kg; 1.5–1.9 kg; and < 1.5 kg) with infants weighing ≥ 2.5 kg. Poisson regression was used to calculate vaccination rate ratios for DTP1 at 10, 14 and 18 weeks after birth, and for DTP3 at 18, 22 and 24 weeks (equivalent to 1, 2 and 3 months after the respective vaccination due dates of 6 and 14 weeks). Findings Compared with non-low-birth-weight infants (n = 18 979), those with low birth weight (n = 3382) had an almost 40% lower DTP1 vaccination rate at age 10 weeks (adjusted rate ratio, aRR: 0.58; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.43–0.77) and at age 18 weeks (aRR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.50–0.80). Infants weighing 1.5–1.9 kg (n = 386) had vaccination rates approximately 25% lower than infants weighing ≥ 2.5 kg at these time points. Similar results were observed for DTP3. Lower maternal age, educational attainment and longer distance to the nearest health facility were associated with lower DTP1 and DTP3 vaccination rates. Conclusion Low-birth-weight infants are a high-risk group for delayed vaccination in Ghana. Efforts to improve the vaccination of these infants are warranted, alongside further research to understand the reasons for the delays. PMID:27274596

  3. Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Neutzling, Marilda B.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%), butter or margarine (74.6%), beans (66.4%) and milk (48.5%). Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber. PMID:20963287

  4. Prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic events in a healthy birth cohort of very young children in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Ford, Julian D; Fraleigh, Lisa; McCarthy, Kimberly; Carter, Alice S

    2010-12-01

    Prevalence estimates of very young children's exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are limited. The study objective was to estimate the lifetime prevalence and correlates of noninterpersonal PTEs and violence exposure in a representative healthy birth cohort (ages 1-3 years) from an urban-suburban region of the United States (37.8% minority, 20.2% poverty). Parents completed 2 surveys approximately 1-year apart. By 24-48 months of age, the prevalence of exposure was 26.3% (14.5% noninterpersonal, 13.8% violence). Exposure was common among children living in poverty (49.0% overall, 19.7% noninterpersonal, 33.7% violence). The most consistent factors associated with exposure were poverty, parental depressive symptoms, and single parenting. Findings underscore the potential for prevention and intervention in early childhood to advance public health and reduce morbidity.

  5. Birth Weight, Growth and Feeding Pattern in Early Infancy Predict Overweight/Obesity Status at Two Years of Age: A Birth Cohort Study of Chinese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianduan; Himes, John H.; Guo, Yuan; Jiang, Jingxiong; Yang, Liu; Lu, Qiaozhen; Ruan, Haiyan; Shi, Shuhua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. Methods A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls) were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3rd and 24th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity), model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight). Results Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95th >BMI ≥85th p and BMI ≥95th p, referring to WHO BMI standards) at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80–1.88), relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15–1.16) and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30–1.57) were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09–1.12), paternal BMI (OR: 1.06), and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54–1.57) or formula feeding (OR: 1.90–1.93) in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. Conclusion Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies. PMID:23755127

  6. Predicted vitamin D status during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures in childhood: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sesilje B; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Granström, Charlotta; Vestergaard, Peter; Mølgaard, Christian; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2015-12-14

    In a prospective cohort study, the association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures during childhood and adolescence was analysed in 30 132 mother and child pairs recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Data on characteristics, dietary factors and lifestyle factors were collected on several occasions during pregnancy. We analysed the association between predicted vitamin D status, based on a subsample with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) biomarker measurements (n 1497) from gestation week 25, and first-time forearm fractures among offspring between birth and end of follow-up. Diagnoses were extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between predicted vitamin D status (based on smoking, season, dietary and supplementary vitamin D intake, tanning bed use and outdoor physical activity) in pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. Likewise, measured 25(OH)D, tanning bed use and dietary vitamin D intake were not associated with offspring forearm fractures. In mid-pregnancy, 91 % of the women reported intake of vitamin D from dietary supplements. Offspring of women who took >10 µg/d in mid-pregnancy had a significantly increased risk for fractures compared with the reference level of zero intake (hazard ratios (HR) 1·31; 95% CI 1·06, 1·62), but this was solely among girls (HR 1·48; 95% CI 1·10, 2·00). Supplement use in the peri-conceptional period exhibited similar pattern, although not statistically significant. In conclusion, our data indicated no protective effect of maternal vitamin D status with respect to offspring forearm fractures.

  7. Burden of severe maternal morbidity and association with adverse birth outcomes in sub–Saharan Africa and south Asia: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The AMANHI morbidity study aims to quantify and describe severe maternal morbidities and assess their associations with adverse maternal, fetal and newborn outcomes in predominantly rural areas of nine sites in eight South Asian and sub–Saharan African countries. Methods AMANHI takes advantage of on–going population–based cohort studies covering approximately 2 million women of reproductive age with 1– to 3–monthly pregnancy surveillance to enrol pregnant women. Morbidity information is collected at five follow–up home visits – three during the antenatal period at 24–28 weeks, 32–36 weeks and 37+ weeks of pregnancy and two during the postpartum period at 1–6 days and after 42–60 days after birth. Structured–questionnaires are used to collect self–reported maternal morbidities including hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, infections, difficulty in labor and obstetric fistula, as well as care–seeking for these morbidities and outcomes for mothers and babies. Additionally, structured questionnaires are used to interview birth attendants who attended women’s deliveries. All protocols were harmonised across the sites including training, implementation and operationalising definitions for maternal morbidities. Importance of the AMANHI morbidity study Availability of reliable data to synthesize evidence for policy direction, interventions and programmes, remains a crucial step for prioritization and ensuring equitable delivery of maternal health interventions especially in high burden areas. AMANHI is one of the first large harmonized population–based cohort studies being conducted in several rural centres in South Asia and sub–Saharan Africa, and is expected to make substantial contributions to global knowledge on maternal morbidity burden and its implications. PMID:27648256

  8. An ADAM33 Polymorphism Associates with Progression of Preschool Wheeze into Childhood Asthma: A Prospective Case-Control Study with Replication in a Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen, Ester M. M.; Penders, John; Jöbsis, Quirijn; van de Kant, Kim D. G.; Thijs, Carel; Mommers, Monique; van Schayck, Constant P.; van Eys, Guillaume; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Dompeling, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of asthma candidate genes on the development from wheeze to asthma in young children still needs to be defined. Objective To link genetic variants in asthma candidate genes to progression of wheeze to persistent wheeze into childhood asthma. Materials and Methods In a prospective study, children with recurrent wheeze from the ADEM (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring) study were followed until the age of six. At that age a classification (transient wheeze or asthma) was based on symptoms, lung function and medication use. In 198 children the relationship between this classification and 30 polymorphisms in 16 asthma candidate genes was assessed by logistic regression. In case of an association based on a p<0.10, replication analysis was performed in an independent birth cohort study (KOALA study, n = 248 included for the present analysis). Results In the ADEM study, the minor alleles of ADAM33 rs511898 and rs528557 and the ORMDL3/GSDMB rs7216389 polymorphisms were negatively associated, whereas the minor alleles of IL4 rs2243250 and rs2070874 polymorphisms were positively associated with childhood asthma. When replicated in the KOALA study, ADAM33 rs528557 showed a negative association of the CG/GG-genotype with progression of recurrent wheeze into childhood asthma (0.50 (0.26-0.97) p = 0.04) and no association with preschool wheeze. Conclusion Polymorphisms in ADAM33, ORMDL3/GSDMB and IL4 were associated with childhood asthma in a group of children with recurrent wheeze. The replication of the negative association of the CG/GG-genotype of rs528557 ADAM33 with childhood asthma in an independent birth cohort study confirms that a compromised ADAM33 gene may be implicated in the progression of wheeze into childhood asthma. PMID:25768087

  9. Burden of severe maternal morbidity and association with adverse birth outcomes in sub–Saharan Africa and south Asia: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The AMANHI morbidity study aims to quantify and describe severe maternal morbidities and assess their associations with adverse maternal, fetal and newborn outcomes in predominantly rural areas of nine sites in eight South Asian and sub–Saharan African countries. Methods AMANHI takes advantage of on–going population–based cohort studies covering approximately 2 million women of reproductive age with 1– to 3–monthly pregnancy surveillance to enrol pregnant women. Morbidity information is collected at five follow–up home visits – three during the antenatal period at 24–28 weeks, 32–36 weeks and 37+ weeks of pregnancy and two during the postpartum period at 1–6 days and after 42–60 days after birth. Structured–questionnaires are used to collect self–reported maternal morbidities including hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, infections, difficulty in labor and obstetric fistula, as well as care–seeking for these morbidities and outcomes for mothers and babies. Additionally, structured questionnaires are used to interview birth attendants who attended women’s deliveries. All protocols were harmonised across the sites including training, implementation and operationalising definitions for maternal morbidities. Importance of the AMANHI morbidity study Availability of reliable data to synthesize evidence for policy direction, interventions and programmes, remains a crucial step for prioritization and ensuring equitable delivery of maternal health interventions especially in high burden areas. AMANHI is one of the first large harmonized population–based cohort studies being conducted in several rural centres in South Asia and sub–Saharan Africa, and is expected to make substantial contributions to global knowledge on maternal morbidity burden and its implications.

  10. Methodologic and Logistic Issues in Conducting Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies: Lessons Learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Gladstone, Eleanor A.; Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Drew, Christina H.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Holland, Nina T.; Lanphear, Bruce; Meisel, Stefanie J.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Sweeney, Anne; Whyatt, Robin M.; Yolton, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    In anticipation of the National Children’s Study, lessons can be learned from the smaller birth cohort studies conducted by five Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The populations studied are diverse in ethnicity and social class and reside in urban and rural environments. Although almost all of the centers chose to enroll participants through medical care facilities, they had to develop independent staffs and structures because of the overburdened medical care system. Some of the lessons learned by the centers include the importance of continuous funding, building community partnerships to conduct culturally appropriate research, hiring bilingual and bicultural staff from the community, prioritizing research goals, developing biorepositories to ensure future utility of samples, instituting quality control procedures for all aspects of specimen and data collection, maintaining frequent contact with study participants, ensuring ethical conduct of the research in a changing medical-legal climate, and communicating results in a timely and appropriate manner to participants and the wider community. All centers underestimated the necessary start-up time, staff, and costs in conducting these birth cohort studies. Despite the logistical complexity and added expenses, all centers emphasize the importance of studying the impact of environmental exposures on those children most at risk, those living in minority and low-income communities. These centers present barriers encountered, solutions found, and considerations for future research, with the hope that the lessons learned can help inform the planning and conduct of the National Children’s Study. PMID:16203258

  11. Delivery Mode, Duration of Labor, and Cord Blood Adiponectin, Leptin, and C-Reactive Protein: Results of the Population-Based Ulm Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Chad A.; Thiel, Larissa; Bornemann, Rebecca; Koenig, Wolfgang; Reister, Frank; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Genuneit, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have reported associations between delivery mode and health outcomes in infancy and later life. Previous smaller studies indicated a relationship between delivery mode and newborn inflammation potentially constituting a mediating factor. We aimed to determine the influence of delivery mode and duration of labor on cord blood concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Methods In the Ulm SPATZ Health Study, 934 singleton newborns and their mothers were recruited during their hospital stay in the University Medical Center Ulm, Southern Germany, from 04/2012-05/2013. Inflammatory biomarkers were measured by ELISAs (n = 836). Delivery mode was analyzed categorically (elective cesarean (reference), active labor delivery: emergency cesarean, assisted vaginal, and spontaneous vaginal); duration of labor continuously. Following log-transformation, linear regression was used to estimate geometric means ratios (GMR) adjusted for potential confounders for the effects of delivery mode and duration of labor on each biomarker separately. Independent replication was sought in the similarly conducted Ulm Birth Cohort Study recruited from 11/2000-11/2001. Results Individually, active labor delivery modes as well as increasing duration of labor were associated with higher leptin and hs-CRP concentrations. After mutual adjustment, the associations with delivery modes were attenuated but those for duration of labor remained statistically significant (GMR (95%CI) 1.10 (1.00; 1.21) and 1.15 (1.04; 1.27) for leptin and hs-CRP per hour of labor, respectively). No significant adjusted associations were observed between delivery modes and adiponectin concentrations. These findings were replicated in an independent birth cohort study. Conclusions Cord blood leptin and hs-CRP concentrations were associated with duration of labor rather than delivery mode. Further research is warranted to investigate these associations

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and DNA Methylation: Epigenome-Wide Association in a Discovery Sample of Adolescents and Replication in an Independent Cohort at Birth through 17 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ken W.K.; Richmond, Rebecca; Hu, Pingzhao; French, Leon; Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Gaunt, Tom; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan; Woodward, Geoff; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline; Paus, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (prenatal smoke exposure) had been associated with altered DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth. Objective: We examined whether such alterations are present from birth through adolescence. Methods: We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip to search across 473,395 CpGs for differential DNAm associated with prenatal smoke exposure during adolescence in a discovery cohort (n = 132) and at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in a replication cohort (n = 447). Results: In the discovery cohort, we found five CpGs in MYO1G (top-ranking CpG: cg12803068, p = 3.3 × 10–11) and CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, p = 4.0 × 10–9) to be differentially methylated between exposed and nonexposed individuals during adolescence. The CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2 were associated, respectively, with higher and lower DNAm in exposed versus nonexposed adolescents. The same CpGs were differentially methylated at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in the replication cohort. In both cohorts and at all developmental time points, the differential DNAm was in the same direction and of a similar magnitude, and was not altered appreciably by adjustment for current smoking by the participants or their parents. In addition, four of the five EWAS (epigenome-wide association study)–significant CpGs in the adolescent discovery cohort were also among the top sites of differential methylation in a previous birth cohort, and differential methylation of CpGs in CYP1A1, AHRR, and GFI1 observed in that study was also evident in our discovery cohort. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifications of DNAm associated with prenatal maternal smoking may persist in exposed offspring for many years—at least until adolescence. Citation: Lee KW, Richmond R, Hu P, French L, Shin J, Bourdon C, Reischl E, Waldenberger M, Zeilinger S, Gaunt T, McArdle W, Ring S, Woodward G, Bouchard L, Gaudet D, Davey Smith G, Relton C, Paus T

  13. Parent-reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in US-born children: an assessment of changes within birth cohorts from the 2003 to the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Schieve, Laura A; Rice, Catherine; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Boyle, Coleen A; Kogan, Michael D; Drews, Carolyn; Devine, Owen

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) was twice the 2003 NSCH estimate for autism. From each NSCH, we selected children born in the US from 1990 to 2000. We estimated autism prevalence within each 1-year birth cohort to hold genetic and non-genetic prenatal factors constant. Prevalence differences across surveys thus reflect survey measurement changes and/or external identification effects. In 2003, parents were asked whether their child was ever diagnosed with autism. In 2007, parents were asked whether their child was ever diagnosed with an ASD and whether s/he currently had an ASD. For the 1997-2000 birth cohorts (children aged 3-6 years in 2003 and 7-10 years in 2007), relative increases between 2003 autism estimates and 2007 ASD estimates were 200-600 %. For the 1990-1996 birth cohorts (children aged 7-13 years in 2003) increases were lower; nonetheless, differences between 2003 estimates and 2007 "ever ASD" estimates were >100 % for 6 cohorts and differences between 2003 estimates and 2007 "current ASD" estimates were >80 % for 3 cohorts. The magnitude of most birth cohort-specific differences suggests continuing diagnosis of children in the community played a sizable role in the 2003-2007 ASD prevalence increase. While some increase was expected for 1997-2000 cohorts, because some children have later diagnoses coinciding with school entry, increases were also observed for children ages ≥ 7 years in 2003. Given past ASD subtype studies, the 2003 "autism" question might have missed a modest amount (≤ 33 %) of ASDs other than autistic disorder. PMID:22476793

  14. Association between Prenatal Exposure to Antiretroviral Therapy and Birth Defects: An Analysis of the French Perinatal Cohort Study (ANRS CO1/CO11)

    PubMed Central

    Sibiude, Jeanne; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Blanche, Stéphane; Le Chenadec, Jérôme; Boullag-Bonnet, Naima; Faye, Albert; Dollfus, Catherine; Tubiana, Roland; Bonnet, Damien; Lelong, Nathalie; Khoshnood, Babak; Warszawski, Josiane

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV) drug used. Methods and Findings The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388) were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%–4.7%), according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267), adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3–3.7), p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%). Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1–10.4), p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1–13.8), p = 0

  15. Understanding the dimensions of socioeconomic status that influence toddlers' health: unique impact of lack of money for basic needs in Quebec's birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, L.; Xu, Q.; Gauvin, L.; Zunzunegui, M.; Potvin, L.; Frohlich, K.

    2005-01-01

    Study objectives: To examine the unique impact of financial difficulties as measured by a lack of money for basic needs on the occurrence of health problems between the ages of 17 and 29 months, controlling for mother's level of education and neonatal health problems. Design and participants: Analyses were performed on the 29 month data of the Quebec longitudinal study of child development. This longitudinal study followed up a birth cohort annually. Interviews were conducted in the home with the mother in 98.8% of cases. This information was supplemented with data from birth records. At 29 months, the response rate was 94.2% of the initial sample (n = 1946). The main outcome measures were mothers' report of acute health problems, asthma episodes, and hospitalisation as well as growth delay and a composite index of health problems (acute problems, asthma attack, growth delay). Main results: Children raised in a family experiencing a serious lack of money for basic needs during the preceding year were more likely to be reported by their mothers as presenting acute health problems, a growth delay, two or more health problems, and to have been hospitalised for the first time within the past few months as compared with babies living in a family not experiencing a lack of money for basic needs regardless of the mother's level of education and of neonatal health problems. Conclusion: Financial difficulties as measured by a lack of money for basic needs have a significant and unique impact on toddlers' health. PMID:15598725

  16. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values <0.05). The strongest individual association between life course measurements and physical performance in old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life.

  17. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values <0.05). The strongest individual association between life course measurements and physical performance in old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life. PMID:26499818

  18. Maternal dietary intake of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and birth size in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Caspersen, Ida H; Kvalem, Helen E; Knutsen, Helle K; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kogevinas, Manolis; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha

    2013-10-01

    Maternal diet not only provides essential nutrients to the developing fetus but is also a source of prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants. We investigated the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy and birth size. The study included 50,651 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary information was collected by FFQs and intake estimates were calculated by combining food consumption and food concentration of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth. The contribution of fish and seafood intake during pregnancy was 41% for dietary dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs and 49% for dietary non-dioxin-like PCBs. Further stratified analysis by quartiles of seafood intake during pregnancy was conducted. We found an inverse dose-response association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth after adjustment for confounders. Newborns of mothers in the upper quartile of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs intake had 62g lower birth weight (95% CI: -73, -50), 0.26cm shorter birth length (95% CI: -0.31, -0.20) and 0.10cm shorter head circumference (95% CI: -0.14, -0.06) than newborns of mothers in the lowest quartile of intake. Similar negative associations for intake of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were found after excluding women with intakes above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI=14pg TEQ/kg bw/week). The negative association of dietary dioxins and PCBs with fetal growth was weaker as seafood intake was increasing. No association was found between dietary dioxin and PCB intake and the risk for small-for-gestational age neonate. In conclusion, dietary intakes of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy were negatively associated with fetal growth, even at intakes below the TWI.

  19. THE PRENATAL PARENTAL REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING QUESTIONNAIRE: EXPLORING FACTOR STRUCTURE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A NEW MEASURE IN THE FINN BRAIN BIRTH COHORT PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Linnea; Halme-Chowdhury, Elina; Öst, Camilla; Luyten, Patrick; Mayes, Linda; Karlsson, Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Parental reflective functioning (PRF) is the capacity to focus on experience and feelings in oneself and in the child. Individual differences in PRF reportedly affect child attachment and socioemotional development. In this study, we report work on developing a questionnaire to assess PRF during pregnancy (Prenatal Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire; P-PRFQ). The factor structure of the 33-item version of the P-PRFQ was explored using pilot study data from the Finn Brain Birth Cohort Study (n = 124 mothers, n = 82 fathers). Construct validity was assessed against the Pregnancy Interview (PI; A. Slade, L. Grunebaum, L. Huganir, & M. Reeves, 1987, 2002, 2011) in a subsample of 29 mothers from the same pilot sample. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a 14-item P-PRFQ, with three factors which seem to capture relevant aspects of prenatal parental mentalization-F1: "Opacity of mental states," F2: "Reflecting on the fetus-child," and F3: "The dynamic nature of the mental states." Functioning of the factor structure was further tested in the large cohort with 600 mothers and 600 fathers. Correlations with the PI result were high, both regarding total and factor scores of the P-PRFQ. Cost-effective tools to assess key areas of early parenting are needed for both research and clinical purposes. The 14-item P-PRFQ seems to be an applicable and promising new tool for assessing very early parental mentalizing capacity. PMID:26096692

  20. The spatial distribution of overweight and obesity among a birth cohort of young adult Filipinos (Cebu Philippines, 2005): an application of the Kulldorff spatial scan statistic

    PubMed Central

    Dahly, D L; Gordon-Larsen, P; Emch, M; Borja, J; Adair, L S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to test for spatial clustering of obesity in a cohort of young adults in the Philippines, to estimate the locations of any clusters, and to relate these to neighborhood-level urbanicity and individual-level socioeconomic status (SES). Subjects: Data are from a birth cohort of young adult (mean age 22 years) Filipino males (n=988) and females (n=820) enrolled in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Methods: We used the Kulldorff spatial scan statistic to detect clusters associated with unusually low or high prevalences of overweight or obesity (defined using body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage). Cluster locations were compared to neighborhood-level urbanicity, which was measured with a previously validated scale. Individual-level SES was adjusted for using a principal components analysis of household assets. Results: High-prevalence clusters were typically centered in urban areas, but often extended into peri-urban and even rural areas. There were also differences in clustering by both sex and the measure of obesity used. Evidence of clustering in males, but not females, was much weaker after adjustment for SES. PMID:23817443

  1. Low preconception body mass index is associated with birth outcome in a prospective cohort of Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Ronnenberg, Alayne G; Wang, Xiaobin; Xing, Houxun; Chen, Chanzhong; Chen, Dafang; Guang, Wenwei; Guang, Aiqun; Wang, Lihua; Ryan, Louise; Xu, Xiping

    2003-11-01

    Low maternal prepregnancy BMI is associated with adverse birth outcomes, but the BMI at which risk increases is not well defined. We assessed whether the relationship between prepregnancy BMI and birth outcomes is influenced by the extent to which mothers were underweight in a prospective study in Anhui, China. The women (n = 575) were 20-34 y old, married, nulliparous and nonsmokers. All measures of infant growth increased with increasing maternal BMI until a plateau was reached at a BMI of 22-23 kg/m2. Infants born to the 27% of women who were severely underweight before pregnancy (BMI < or = 18.5 kg/m2) were at increased risk for fetal growth deficits associated with infant morbidity. Compared with a normal BMI, being severely underweight was associated with mean (+/- SEM) reductions of 219 +/- 40 g in infant birthweight and 6.7 +/- 1.3% in the birthweight ratio and an 80% increase in risk of intrauterine growth restriction [odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0, 3.3; P = 0.05]. Being severely underweight was also associated with smaller infant head circumference and lower ponderal index. Being moderately underweight (18.5 < BMI < 19.8 kg/m2) was not significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Gestational age and risk of preterm birth were not associated with maternal BMI. More than half of the women in this study were underweight before pregnancy. Although being moderately underweight was not associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, being severely underweight was an important risk factor for reduced fetal growth. PMID:14608057

  2. Environmental exposures to metals in Native communities and implications for child development: basis for the Navajo birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Johnnye; Gonzales, Melissa; Burnette, Courtney; Benally, Malcolm; Seanez, Paula; Shuey, Christopher; Nez, Helen; Nez, Christopher; Nez, Seraphina

    2015-01-01

    Two disparate statistics often cited for the Western United States raise concern about risks for developmental disabilities in Native American children. First, 13 of the states with the highest percentage of Native American population are located in the Western United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 ). Second, more than 161,000 abandoned hard-rock mines are located in 12 Western states (General Accounting Office, 2014 ). Moreover, numerous studies have linked low-level metals exposure with birth defects and developmental delays. Concern has emerged among tribal populations that metals exposure from abandoned mines might threaten development of future generations. PMID:26151586

  3. Environmental exposures to metals in Native communities and implications for child development: basis for the Navajo birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Johnnye; Gonzales, Melissa; Burnette, Courtney; Benally, Malcolm; Seanez, Paula; Shuey, Christopher; Nez, Helen; Nez, Christopher; Nez, Seraphina

    2015-01-01

    Two disparate statistics often cited for the Western United States raise concern about risks for developmental disabilities in Native American children. First, 13 of the states with the highest percentage of Native American population are located in the Western United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 ). Second, more than 161,000 abandoned hard-rock mines are located in 12 Western states (General Accounting Office, 2014 ). Moreover, numerous studies have linked low-level metals exposure with birth defects and developmental delays. Concern has emerged among tribal populations that metals exposure from abandoned mines might threaten development of future generations.

  4. African American Fathers' Contributions to Children's Early Academic Achievement: Evidence from Two-Parent Families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study utilized a large sample ("N" = 750) of 2-parent families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to examine the contributions of African American fathers' home literacy involvement, play activities, and caregiving at 24 months to children's reading and math achievement in…

  5. Children Born in 2001: First Results from the Base Year of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS?B). E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-036.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Kristin Denton; West, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    This E.D. TAB provides descriptive information about children born in the United States in 2001. It is the first publication based on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS?B), and it presents information on certain child and family characteristics, on children's mental and physical skills, on children's first experiences in…

  6. Age 2: Findings from the 2-Year-Old Follow-Up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-043

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Gail M.; Flanagan, Kristin Denton

    2006-01-01

    This E.D. TAB is the first report produced using data from the second round of data collection for the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a study of a nationally representative sample of children born in the year 2001. The report provides descriptive information about these children when they were about 2 years old. It…

  7. A longitudinal analysis of associations between traffic-related air pollution with asthma, allergies and sensitization in the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Fuertes, Elaine; Standl, Marie; Cyrys, Josef; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Krämer, Ursula; Sugiri, Dorothea; Lehmann, Irina; Koletzko, Sibylle; Carlsten, Chris; Brauer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background. There is a need to study whether the adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on childhood asthma and allergic diseases documented during early-life persist into later childhood. This longitudinal study examined whether TRAP is associated with the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and aeroallergen sensitization in two German cohorts followed from birth to 10 years. Materials. Questionnaire-derived annual reports of doctor diagnosed asthma and allergic rhinitis, as well as eye and nose symptoms, were collected from 6,604 children. Aeroallergen sensitization was assessed for 3,655 children who provided blood samples. Associations between these health outcomes and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µg/m3 (PM2.5) mass, PM2.5 absorbance and ozone, individually estimated for each child at the birth, six and 10 year home addresses, were assessed using generalized estimation equations including adjustments for relevant covariates. Odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] per increase in interquartile range of pollutant are presented for the total population and per geographical area (GINI/LISA South, GINI/LISA North and LISA East, Germany). Results. The risk estimates for the total population were generally null across outcomes and pollutants. The area-specific results were heterogeneous. In GINI/LISA North, all associations were null. In LISA East, associations with ozone were elevated for all outcomes, and those for allergic rhinitis and eyes and nose symptom prevalence reached statistical significance (1.30 [1.02, 1.64] and 1.35 [1.16, 1.59], respectively). For GINI/LISA South, two associations with aeroallergen sensitization were significant (0.84 [0.73, 0.97] for NO2 and 0.87 [0.78, 0.97] for PM2.5 absorbance), as well as the association between allergic rhinitis and PM2.5 absorbance (0.83 [0.72, 0.96]). Conclusions. This study did not find consistent evidence that TRAP increases the prevalence of

  8. In Utero Fine Particle Air Pollution and Placental Expression of Genes in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Pathway: An ENVIRONAGE Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Saenen, Nelly D.; Plusquin, Michelle; Bijnens, Esmée; Janssen, Bram G.; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Cox, Bianca; Fierens, Frans; Molenberghs, Geert; Penders, Joris; Vrijens, Karen; De Boever, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental processes in the placenta and the fetal brain are shaped by the same biological signals. Recent evidence suggests that adaptive responses of the placenta to the maternal environment may influence central nervous system development. Objectives We studied the association between in utero exposure to fine particle air pollution with a diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and placental expression of genes implicated in neural development. Methods Expression of 10 target genes in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway were quantified in placental tissue of 90 mother–infant pairs from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Trimester-specific PM2.5 exposure levels were estimated for each mother’s home address using a spatiotemporal model. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association between the target genes and PM2.5 exposure measured in different time windows of pregnancy. Results A 5-μg/m3 increase in residential PM2.5 exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with a 15.9% decrease [95% confidence interval (CI): –28.7, –3.2%, p = 0.015] in expression of placental BDNF at birth. The corresponding estimate for synapsin 1 (SYN1) was a 24.3% decrease (95% CI: –42.8, –5.8%, p = 0.011). Conclusions Placental expression of BDNF and SYN1, two genes implicated in normal neurodevelopmental trajectories, decreased with increasing in utero exposure to PM2.5. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings and evaluate the potential relevance of associations between PM2.5 and placental expression of BDNF and SYN1 on neurodevelopment. We provide the first molecular epidemiological evidence concerning associations between in utero fine particle air pollution exposure and the expression of genes that may influence neurodevelopmental processes. Citation Saenen ND, Plusquin M, Bijnens E, Janssen BG, Gyselaers W, Cox B, Fierens F, Molenberghs G, Penders

  9. Long-term Exposure to PM10 and NO2 in Association with Lung Volume and Airway Resistance in the MAAS Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Agius, Raymond M.; de Vocht, Frank; Lindley, Sarah; Gerrard, William; Lowe, Lesley; Belgrave, Danielle; Custovic, Adnan; Simpson, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Background: Findings from previous studies on the effects of air pollution exposure on lung function during childhood have been inconsistent. A common limitation has been the quality of exposure data used, and few studies have modeled exposure longitudinally throughout early life. Objectives: We sought to study the long-term effects of exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on specific airway resistance (sRaw) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) before and after bronchodilator treatment. Subjects were from the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS) birth cohort (n = 1,185). Methods: Spirometry was performed during clinic visits at ages 3, 5, 8, and 11 years. Individual-level PM10 and NO2 exposures were estimated from birth to 11 years of age through a microenvironmental exposure model. Longitudinal and cross-sectional associations were estimated using generalized estimating equations and multivariable linear regression models. Results: Lifetime exposure to PM10 and NO2 was associated with significantly less growth in FEV1 (percent predicted) over time, both before (–1.37%; 95% CI: –2.52, –0.23 for a 1-unit increase in PM10 and –0.83%; 95% CI: –1.39, –0.28 for a 1-unit increase in NO2) and after bronchodilator treatment (–3.59%; 95% CI: –5.36, –1.83 and –1.20%; 95% CI: –1.97, –0.43, respectively). We found no association between lifetime exposure and sRaw over time. Cross-sectional analyses of detailed exposure estimates for the summer and winter before 11 years of age and lung function at 11 years indicated no significant associations. Conclusions: Long-term PM10 and NO2 exposures were associated with small but statistically significant reductions in lung volume growth in children of elementary-school age. Citation: Mölter A, Agius RM, de Vocht F, Lindley S, Gerrard W, Lowe L, Belgrave D, Custovic A, Simpson A. 2013. Long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 in

  10. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Childhood Autism in Association with Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances: A Nested Case–Control Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited. Objectives: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. Methods: Among 83,389 mother–child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996–2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301 childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases each of ADHD and autism, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child’s sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early or mid-pregnancy. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) using generalized linear models, taking into account sampling weights. Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples; four other PFASs were quantified in ≥ 90% of the samples. We did not find consistent evidence of associations between mother’s PFAS plasma levels and ADHD [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.02); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.16)] or autism [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.22); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.31)]. We found positive as well as negative associations between higher PFAS quartiles and ADHD in models that simultaneously adjusted for all PFASs, but these estimates were imprecise. Conclusions: In this study we found no consistent evidence to suggest that prenatal PFAS exposure increases the risk of ADHD or childhood autism in children. Citation: Liew Z, Ritz B, von Ehrenstein OS, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Fei CY

  11. Life Course Association of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Offspring's Height: Data From the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany; Menezes, Ana M.B.; González, David A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gigante, Denise P.; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of (1) maternal smoking during pregnancy; and (2) partner smoking on offspring's height in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Methods All hospital live births from 1993 (5,249) were identified, and these infants were followed up at several ages. Height for age, expressed as z-scores using the World Health Organization growth curves, was measured at all follow-up visits. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was collected retrospectively at birth and analyzed as number of cigarettes/day smoked categorized in four categories (never smoked, <10, 10–19, and ≥20 cigarettes/day). Partner smoking was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (No/Yes). Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were performed by use of linear regression. Results The prevalence of self-reported maternal smoking during pregnancy was 33.5%. In the crude analysis, the number of cigarettes/day smoked by the mother during pregnancy negatively affected offspring's height in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. After adjustment for confounders and mediators, this association remained statistically significant, although the magnitude of the regression coefficients was reduced. Paternal smoking was not associated with offspring's height in the adjusted analyses. Conclusions In addition to the well-known harmful effects of smoking, maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively affects offspring's height. Public health policies aimed at continuing to reduce the prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy must be encouraged. PMID:23283162

  12. Contrasting Patterns of Serologic and Functional Antibody Dynamics to Plasmodium falciparum Antigens in a Kenyan Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Indu; Wang, Xuelie; Babineau, Denise; Yeo, Kee Thai; Anderson, Timothy; Kimmel, Rhonda J.; Angov, Evelina; Lanar, David E.; Narum, David; Dutta, Sheetij; Richards, Jack; Beeson, James G.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Cowman, Alan F.; Horii, Toshihiro; Muchiri, Eric; Mungai, Peter L.; King, Christopher L.; Kazura, James W.

    2015-01-01

    IgG antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum are transferred from the maternal to fetal circulation during pregnancy, wane after birth, and are subsequently acquired in response to natural infection. We examined the dynamics of malaria antibody responses of 84 Kenyan infants from birth to 36 months of age by (i) serology, (ii) variant surface antigen (VSA) assay, (iii) growth inhibitory activity (GIA), and (iv) invasion inhibition assays (IIA) specific for merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and sialic acid-dependent invasion pathway. Maternal antibodies in each of these four categories were detected in cord blood and decreased to their lowest level by approximately 6 months of age. Serologic antibodies to 3 preerythrocytic and 10 blood-stage antigens subsequently increased, reaching peak prevalence by 36 months. In contrast, antibodies measured by VSA, GIA, and IIA remained low even up to 36 months. Infants sensitized to P. falciparum in utero, defined by cord blood lymphocyte recall responses to malaria antigens, acquired antimalarial antibodies at the same rate as those who were not sensitized in utero, indicating that fetal exposure to malaria antigens did not affect subsequent infant antimalarial responses. Infants with detectable serologic antibodies at 12 months of age had an increased risk of P. falciparum infection during the subsequent 24 months. We conclude that serologic measures of antimalarial antibodies in children 36 months of age or younger represent biomarkers of malaria exposure rather than protection and that functional antibodies develop after 36 months of age in this population. PMID:26656119

  13. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (<-0.67), on track (-0.67 to 0.67), rapid (0.67 to 1.28), and extremely rapid (>1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5(th) and ≥85(th) percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:27417566

  14. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (<-0.67), on track (-0.67 to 0.67), rapid (0.67 to 1.28), and extremely rapid (>1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5(th) and ≥85(th) percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity.

  15. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O.; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L.; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (<−0.67), on track (−0.67 to 0.67), rapid (0.67 to 1.28), and extremely rapid (>1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5th and ≥85th percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:27417566

  16. Birth-cohort trends in older-age functional disability and their relationship with socio-economic status: Evidence from a pooling of repeated cross-sectional population-based studies for the UK.

    PubMed

    Morciano, Marcello; Hancock, Ruth M; Pudney, Stephen E

    2015-07-01

    We examine birth-cohort trends behind recent changes in the prevalence of functional disability in the older population living in private households in the United Kingdom (UK). By using three different socio-economic indicators available in the nationally representative cross-sectional data on older individuals interviewed between 2002 and 2012 in the Family Resource Survey (FRS) (96,733 respondents), we investigate the extent to which the overall trends have been more favourable among more advantaged than disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Compared to the cohort of people born in 1924, successive cohorts of older men have lower odds of having at least one functional difficulty (FD), whereas no significant trend was found for women. Among people with at least one FD, however, the number of disabilities increases for each successive cohort of older women (incidence rate ratio 1.027, 95% confidence interval 1.023 to 1.031, P < 0.001) and men (incidence rate ratio 1.028, 95% confidence interval 1.024 to 1.033, P < 0.001). By allowing interactions between birth cohort and SES indicators, a significant increasing cohort trend in the number of reported FDs was found among older men and women at lower SES, whereas an almost stable pattern was observed at high SES. Our results suggest that the overall slightly increasing birth-cohort trend in functional difficulties observed among current cohorts of older people in the UK h