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Sample records for aberdeen south dakota

  1. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  2. Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential

  3. Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2000-01-01

    The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of Hydro

  4. Preliminary assessment of potential well yields and the potential for artificial recharge of the Elm and Middle James aquifers in the Aberdeen area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A complex hydrologic system exists in the glacial drift overlying the bedrock in the Aberdeen, South Dakota, area. The hydrologic system has been subdivided into three aquifers: the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James. These sand-and-gravel outwash aquifers generally are separated from each other by till or other fine-grained sediments. The Elm aquifer is the uppermost and largest of the aquifers and underlies about 204 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Elm aquifer is 1,400 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1,225 ft. The Middle James aquifer underlies about 172 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Middle James aquifer is 1,250 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1 ,150 ft. The lower-most Deep James aquifer was not evaluated. The quality of the water from the Elm and Middle James aquifer varies considerably throughout the study area. The predominant chemical constituents in the water from the aquifers are sodium and sulfate ions; however, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, or chloride may dominate locally. The calculated theoretical total well yield from the Elm and Middle James aquifers ranges from a minimum of 64 cu ft/sec, which may be conservative, to a maximum of 640 cu ft/sec. Based on available data, yields of 100 to 150 cu ft/sec probably can be obtained from properly sited and constructed wells. The feasibility of artificially recharging an aquifer, using the technique of water spreading, depends on the geologic and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and of the sediments overlying the aquifer through which the recharge water must percolate. The sites suitable for artificial recharge in the study area were defined as those areas where the average aquifer thickness was > 20 ft and the average thickness of the fine-grained sediments overlying the aquifer was < 10 ft. Using these criteria, about 14 sq mi of the study area are suitable for artificial recharge. Infiltration rates in

  5. Ladybugs of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 79 species of Coccinellidae occurring in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-familial classification, and lengths and widths....

  6. Workforce Brief: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In South Dakota, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2012, healthcare and healthcare support occupations will see growth of about 25 percent; over 2,500 new practitioners and technicians will be needed. There will be a 24 percent increase in the number of…

  7. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  8. Libraries in South Dakota: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southdakota.html Libraries in South Dakota To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Huron Huron Public Library Library 521 Dakota South Huron, SD 57350-2797 ...

  9. South Dakota Kids Count Project: 1994 Factbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry; Dykstra, De Vee

    This factbook provides data on the well-being of South Dakota children. It is intended as a vehicle for policy makers, advocates, the media, and service providers to raise awareness on the status of children in South Dakota. Section 1 of the factbook is an introduction and overview on South Dakota demographics. Section 2 presents special reports…

  10. Faculty Development Programs in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jacqueline D., Ed.; Young, Robert E., Ed.

    Faculty development programs in Minnesota, South Dakota, and North Dakota, which were funded by the Bush Foundation, are described. Activities include advising, curriculum development and course review, department reviews, grants, humanistic studies, internships and interdisciplinary teaching, journals, leave supplements, master teachers,…

  11. South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

  12. South Dakota Public Higher Education System Opportunities Plan: A Report to the South Dakota Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The South Dakota Opportunities Plan is being presented to the South Dakota Legislature in fulfillment of the Legislature's directive from the 2006 session (House Bill 1238). The plan is intended to provide insight into the critical issues confronting higher education in South Dakota, responses made by the Board of Regents to these situations, and…

  13. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South... public that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Dakota Grassland... Grassland Conservation Area on September 21, 2011, with the purchase of a 318.18-acre grassland easement...

  14. Ladybugs of South Dakota, 2nd edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 80 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as lady beetles, that occur in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. The second edition updates information, including the addition of a species new to South Dakota. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-fami...

  15. The state of South Dakota's child: 2006.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ann L

    2007-01-01

    The year 2005 brought an increase in the number of births in South Dakota and a decrease in both low birth weight and infant mortality for both its white and American Indian babies. Paralleling national trends, this report shows that South Dakota has declining rates of smoking during pregnancy, births to women less than 18 years of age, and failure to access prenatal care or to access it during the final months of pregnancy. The South Dakota rates on these indicators of perinatal health, however, are higher for American Indian women than for white women. Relationships between the rates of maternal smoking, youthful mothers, prenatal care and birth weight to infant mortality are discussed. Another positive observation in the South Dakota 2005 data is a decrease in the rate of death due to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The current South Dakota SIDS rate reflects a decline that is approaching what is observed nationally. PMID:17319291

  16. Grizzly Gulch Fire, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Burning next door to the South Dakota towns of Deadwood and Lead, the Grizzly Gulch fire forced the evacuation of many residents in the first week of July, 2002. In addition, smoke closed many of the roads in the area. At the time the fire's behavior was extreme, with 'torching, spotting, and running.' In other words, the fire was primarily burning along the ground, with entire trees occasionally erupting into flame (torching). At the same time, burning embers were being thrown ahead of the fire (spotting). In some areas the fire was spreading from the crown of one tree to another (running). (This glossary of fire terms has a good list of definitions) The above image shows the fire on the morning of July 1, 2002. Actively burning areas, concentrated on the east (right) side of the fire, are colored red and orange. Dark red areas indicate burn scars, while forest and other vegetation appears green. The exposed rock of the Homestake gold mine, now the National Underground Science Laboratory, is pinkish-brown. The total extent of the fire is oulined in yellow. The image was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. More news about current wildfires in the United States is available from the National Fire Information Center. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  17. 76 FR 46349 - South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Assistance Only for ] the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1984-DR), dated 05/13/2011. Incident: Flooding... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of South Dakota, dated 05/13/2011, is hereby amended...

  18. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.427 Section 81.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value §...

  19. South Dakota Social Studies Content Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This document presents the South Dakota Content Standards for K-12 Social Studies. The document outlines the four major areas of social studies: history, geography, civics, and economics. Standards are provided for each major area according to grade level, separately for grades K-8 and collectively for grades 9-12. Grade level standards represent…

  20. Indian Place Names in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasque, Thomas J.

    A cursory examination of place names on a map of South Dakota does not reflect the important role that Indians have played in the state and their relation to the land framed by its borders. Only three towns with populations over 1,000 bear names that clearly come from Indian languages: Sioux Falls, Sisseton, and Yankton. The hostile relationship…

  1. Philip, South Dakota geothermal district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    The geothermal heating project in Philip, South Dakota which uses the waste water from the Haakon School has now been in operation for 15 years. This project was one of the 23 cost shared by the U.S. DOE starting in 1978, of which 15 became operational. This article describes the geothermal heating system for eight buildings in downtown Philip.

  2. A Profile of Homeschooling in South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boschee, Bonni F.; Boschee, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a statewide study to determine which factors influenced parents' decision making in electing to homeschool their children rather than send them to public school education in South Dakota. Analysis of data, using frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations revealed that the most prevalent reasons for homeschooling…

  3. Educational Renewal in Rural South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stangohr, Mary

    2000-01-01

    At Howard High School (Miner County, South Dakota), educational reform focuses on student understanding of community history, economics, and government; entrepreneurship; sustainability of agriculture, environment, and community; and democratic values. The school aims to nurture community and give students the option of staying in the community.…

  4. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  5. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

  6. South Dakota KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) low birth…

  7. 76 FR 7810 - Notice of Proposed Change to Section I of the South Dakota and North Dakota State Technical Guides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Proposed Change to Section I of the South Dakota and... Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of Availability of proposed changes in the South Dakota and North... South Dakota and North Dakota have determined that changes must be made to the NRCS State...

  8. Spring 1996 Enrollment. South Dakota Public and Private Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Board of Regents, Pierre.

    This compendium of data tables summarizes state enrollment data for six public universities in South Dakota -- Black Hills State University, Dakota State University, Northern State University, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, South Dakota State University, and the University of South Dakota -- and 12 private institutions: Augustana…

  9. Healthy people, malaria and South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Mark K

    2012-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2020 goals call for a reduction in the number of cases of malaria in the United States. Historically, South Dakota has had a low incidence of this infection, but a demographic shift has poised the state for a potential increase in the number of cases. The reasons for this are reviewed, and proactive steps that can be taken to avoid this rise are presented.

  10. Facts on Kids in South Dakota, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Pat, Ed.; Blad, Amy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Kids Count report consists of four issues in a series of fact sheets that examine specific indicators of the well-being of children in South Dakota. Issue one focuses on teens and motor vehicle crashes. The fact sheet notes that teen death rates from car crashes have been higher than the national rate for 4 of the 5 years between 1992-1996.…

  11. Midland, South Dakota geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    This article describes historical aspects and present usage of geothermal district heating systems in the town of Midland, South Dakota. The use of geothermal resources exists due to a joint venture between the school district and the city back in the early 1960`s. A total of approximately 30,000 square feet (2800 square meters) of floor space is heated using geothermal energy in Midland. This provides an estimated annual saving in propane cost of $15,000 to the community.

  12. South Dakota Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN)

    DOE Data Explorer

    WRAN is a network of instrument stations sited throughout South Dakota. As of 2010, there are eleven stations, and some have been collecting data since 2001. The purpose of the WRAN:

    There are several reasons why the WRAN was built. One of the most obvious is that it will allow verification of the existing resource assessments of our state. South Dakota has tremendous potential as an exporter of wind-generated electricity. There has recently been a great deal of publicity over a Pacific Northwest National Laboratories study conducted in the early 1990s that ranked the contiguous 48 states in terms of their potential to produce windpower. (Click here for the results of this study as given by the American Wind Energy Association.) South Dakota ranked fourth in that study. Also, more recently, detailed maps of the wind resource in South Dakota were produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Unfortunately, both of these studies had to rely heavily on computer-generated models and very sparse measured data, because very little appropriate measured data exists. The WRAN will provide valuable data that we anticipate will validate the NREL maps, and perhaps suggest minor adjustments.

    There are many other benefits the WRAN will provide. The data it will measure will be at heights above ground that are more appropriate for predicting the performance of large modern wind turbines, as opposed to data collected at National Weather Service stations whose anemometers are usually only about 9 m (30 feet) above ground. Also, we will collect some different types of data than most wind measurement networks, which will allow a series of important studies of the potential impact and value of South Dakota's windpower. In addition, all of the WRAN data will be made available to the public via this WWWeb site. This will hopefully enable extensive informed discussion among all South Dakotans on such important topics as rural economic development and

  13. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), the requirement to post an exploration reclamation bond (section 19), the prohibition of explosives... necessary because of the unique nature of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  14. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), the requirement to post an exploration reclamation bond (section 19), the prohibition of explosives... necessary because of the unique nature of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  15. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), the requirement to post an exploration reclamation bond (section 19), the prohibition of explosives... necessary because of the unique nature of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  16. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), the requirement to post an exploration reclamation bond (section 19), the prohibition of explosives... necessary because of the unique nature of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  17. 30 CFR 941.700 - South Dakota Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), the requirement to post an exploration reclamation bond (section 19), the prohibition of explosives... necessary because of the unique nature of South Dakota's terrain, climate, biological, chemical, or...

  18. Education in South Dakota: A Statistical Profile, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This document presents statistical data on South Dakota and its 176 school districts for the 1998-99 school year. In 1998-99, South Dakota had 757 public schools serving 129,709 students. About half of the schools enrolled 100 or fewer students, and about one-quarter of school districts served fewer than 200 students. Minority group enrollment was…

  19. Ancient Granite Gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Zartman, R E; Norton, J J; Stern, T W

    1964-07-31

    Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota, provides a link between ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

  20. Ancient granite gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Norton, J.J.; Stern, T.W.

    1964-01-01

    Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota , provides a link betweeen ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

  1. Education in South Dakota: District & Statewide Profiles, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This volume presents in a single volume information about South Dakota education previously presented in the Statistical Digest and the Academic Progress Report. The information is presented in the form of district profiles and statewide summaries, giving users a complete snapshot of each public school district in South Dakota. The easy-to-use…

  2. Geothermal resource assessment, South Dakota: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, W.D. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Seven geothermal aquifers in South Dakota contain an accessible resource base of about 11,207 x 10/sup 18/ J. The potentially productive geothermal aquifers are: Deadwood Formation (Cambrian), Winnipeg Formation + Red River Formation + Englewood Limestone (Ordovician through Devonian), Madison Limestone (Mississippian), Minnelusa Formation (Mississippian-Permian), Inyan Kara Group (Cretaceous), and Newcastle Sandstone (Cretaceous). The resource estimate was obtained by first using heat flow, thermal conductivity, temperature gradient, and stratigraphic data to estimate aquifer temperatures. The heat content of each aquifer was determined from the product of the volumetric heat capacity, aquifer volume, and temperature difference between the aquifer and the mean annual temperature for a 14 x 14 grid of 240 km/sup 2/ cells. Geothermal fluid temperatures range from about 120/sup 0/C in the Deadwood Formation in the Williston Basin to about 30/sup 0/C for the Newcastle Sandstone in south-central South Dakota. The area containing the resource lies largely west of the Missouri River. About 10,000 km/sup 2/ of the resource area is characterized by anomalously high heat flow values greater than 100 mW m/sup -2/.

  3. Water resources of Yankton County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bugliosi, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    The major surface-water sources in Yankton County, South Dakota are Lewis and Clark Lake, Marindahl and Beaver Lakes, and the Missouri and James Rivers. The James River has an average flow of 375 cu ft/sec and the Missouri River at Yankton has an average flow of 26,410 cu ft/sec. Major aquifers are the Dakota, the Niobrara, and the Lower James-Missouri glacial outwash. Depth to the Dakota aquifer, which underlies the entire county, ranges from about 300 to more than 500 ft below land surface. Wells completed in this artesian aquifer below altitudes of 1 ,260 ft will flow from 3 to 60 gallons/min at the land surface when properly constructed. Recharge is by subsurface inflow from the west. The water is a calcium sulfate type and is suitable in most cases for domestic, livestock, and irrigation uses. The Niobrara aquifer, which underlies the northeast and southwest parts of the county, may be under artesian or water-table conditions. Well yields vary but usually are suitable only for domestic use. Recharge to the northeast part of the aquifer is from precipitation infiltrating the overlying glacial deposits. The southwest part receives recharge as subsurface inflow from the west and from precipitation. The water is a magnesium sulfate type. The Lower James-Missouri aquifer underlies almost 50% of the county. Water in the aquifer is present under both artesian and water-table conditions. Wells can be expected to yield at least 1,000 gallons/min. Recharge is from subsurface inflow from the north and west, the Missouri River to the south, and from precipitation. The water is predominantly calcium sodium sulfate type, and specific conductance and hardness average 1,910 micromhs and 870 milligrams/L, respectively. (USGS)

  4. Sarcocystis of deer in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Emnett, C W; Hugghins, E J

    1982-04-01

    The prevalence of Sarcocystis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) in South Dakota was determined through microscopic examination of tongue samples. The percentage of Sarcocystis infection for both species of deer was determined for prairies east of the Missouri River, west of the Missouri River, and Black Hills of western South Dakota. Sixteen percent (N = 62) of the white-tailed deer tongues from East River, 69% (N = 42) from West River, and 74% (N = 23) from the Black Hills were infected. Prevalence for mule deer was 88% (N = 24), 78% (N = 63), and 75% (N = 12) from East River, West River, and the Black Hills, respectively. Of 50 tongue samples obtained from both species of deer during a special antlerless deer hunt in the Black Hills in 1978, 66% were infected. Coyotes (Canis latrans), dogs (Canis familiaris), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), a gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcat (Felis rufus), and raccoon (Procyon lotor) were fed muscle from white-tailed deer and mule deer naturally infected with Sarcocystis to determine their role as definitive hosts. All coyotes, dogs, and the gray fox shed sporocysts, while none were recovered from the other animals. Sporocysts shed by coyotes were counted and concentrated into an inoculum and administered to a white-tailed deer fawn, which was necropsied 85 days after inoculation. Sections of heart, tongue, esophagus, diaphragm, and skeletal muscle were found to be heavily infected with sarcocysts, while sarcocysts were not detected in a control fawn.

  5. Paleoenvironment of Fort Union Formation, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, C.

    1983-08-01

    Rocks of Paleocene age are represented in the Cave Hills of northwestern South Dakota by the Ludlow, Cannonball, and Tongue River members of the Fort Union Formation. The Cave Hills are situated within the southern margin of the Williston basin, 80 mi (130 km) north of the Black Hills, South Dakota. Numerous fine-grained, fining-upward sedimentary sequences comprise the Ludlow Member and are attributed to meandering streams occupying a low-gradient lower alluvial to upper deltaic plain. The Cannonball Member is 130 ft (40 m) thick in the North Cave Hills and is represented by two fine-grained, coarsening-upward sandstone mudstone sequences. A distinct vertical succession of sedimentary facies occur within each sequence representing offshore/lower shoreface through upper shoreface/foreshore depositional environment. A north to northeast depositional strike for the Cannonball shoreline is inferred from ripple crest and cross-bed orientations. The basal part of the Tongue River consists of approximately 40 to 50 ft (12 to 15 m) of lenticular sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, thin-bedded lignite, and kaolinite beds representing thin broad channels, point-bar, levee, overbank, and nearshore swamp depositional environments. Massive fluvial channel sandstones measuring several tens of ft in thickness overlie the fine-grained basal Tongue River lithologies. These channel sandstones represent the continued progradation of continental/fluvial/coastal plain depositional environments eastward over the marine sandstones of the Cannonball Member.

  6. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Mitchell Quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the Mitchell map area. The purpose of this program is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1479 line miles are in this quadrangle.

  7. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Huron quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the Huron map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1459 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States.

  8. The Arts in South Dakota: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Ron, Comp.; Bell, Rebecca L., Comp.; Amiotte, Arthur D., Comp.; Murray, Janette K., Comp.; Huenemann, Lynn F., Comp.

    This bibliography pulls together some of the available resources on the arts in South Dakota and the Dakota Territory. In preparing this bibliography, the arts were defined as broadly as possible. The major arts areas identified are: (1) Visual Arts (painting, sculpture, photography, graphic arts and printing, architecture, decorative and…

  9. Distance Education in South Dakota: A Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauck, Tamara

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the history of distance education in South Dakota. Highlights include interactive videoconferencing on the Digital Dakota Network (DDN); four video consortiums for K-12 schools; the Rural Development Telecommunications Network; the Electronic University Consortium; higher Education opportunities via the Internet, satellites,…

  10. Connecting the Schools: Another Phase of South Dakota's Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2001-01-01

    Explains South Dakota's Connecting the Schools project that distributed hardware and software for K-12 schools, as well as provided training; developed the Digital Dakota Network (DDN), a high-speed statewide telecommunications network that provides data and video services to educational and governmental communities and helps with network design;…

  11. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Best, R. G.; Dalsted, K. J.; Devries, M. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.; Fowler, R.; Heilman, J.; Schmer, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cooperative projects between RSI and numerous South Dakota agencies have provided a means of incorporating remote sensing techniques into operational programs. Eight projects discussed in detail are: (1) detection of high moisture zones near interstate 90; (2) thermal infrared census of Canada geese in South Dakota; (3) dutch elm disease detection in urban environment; (4) a feasibility study for monitoring effective precipitation in South Dakota using TIROS-N; (5) open and abandoned dump sites in Spink county; (6) the influence of soil reflectance on LANDSAT signatures of crops; (7) A model implementation program for Lake Herman watershed; and (8) the Six-Mile Creek investigation follow-on.

  12. Hydrogeology of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, M.J.; Adolphson, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    Data on which this report is based, including logs of wells and test holes, chemical analyses of water and records of wells and springs, have been summarized by the authors in a basic-data report published jointly by the South Dakota Geological Survey and South Dakota Water Resources Commission (Water Resources Report 4, Basic hydrogeologic data - Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota).  A selected bibliography of reports pertaining to the geology of the area has been included in the basic-data report.  This atlas will be more useful if studied in conjunction with a copy of the basic-data report.

  13. Water resources of Walworth County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kume, Jack; Howells, Lewis

    1987-01-01

    The water resources of Walworth County, South Dakota are for the most part undeveloped. In 1978, only about 10,000 acre-feet of water was used for irrigation, stock, domestic, and public supplies; most of this water came form Lake Oahe on the Missouri River, and was used for irrigation. The lake stores about 22 million acre-feet of water; the average annual flow of the Missouri River is about 16 million acre-feet. Tributary streams normally are dry at least 10 months per year. Average annual net surface runoff from the county is 7,900 acre-feet. At least 99 percent of the precipitation per year is lost by evapotranspiration. An estimated 1.2 million acre-feet of water is stored in eight aquifers in the glacial drift. The water generally is suitable for irrigation, stock, and domestic use. It is estimated that more than 55 million acre-feet of water is stored in nine aquifers in the bedrock. These aquifers are in the Dakota Formation, Inyan Kara Group, Sundance and Minnelusa Formations, Madison Group, Devonian strata, and Stony Mountain, Red River, and Deadwood Formations. The water is slightly to very saline and, at best, is suitable for livestock and marginally acceptable for domestic supplies. (USGS)

  14. US hydropower resource assessment for South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    A total of 33 sites have been identified and assessed for their hydropower potential. Information as to the potential megawatts of capacity for 4 of the sites was not available; however, these sites have been identified as having hydropower potential and are included in the group of 33. The Hydropower Evaluation Software results for site capacities range from 35 kilowatts to 234 megawatts. Most of the sites have potential capacities of under 1 megawatts. The unadjusted hydropower potential for South Dakota was identified as being 1,124 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software results lower this estimate 38% to 695 megawatts. The greatest reduction in undeveloped potential occurs at developed sites with current power production. These sites have a Hydropower Evaluation Software estimated capacity of 285 megawatts, a 50% reduction in capacity. The number of sites does not change, only the identified capacity is reassessed.

  15. The state of South Dakota's child: 2010.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ann L

    2011-01-01

    The year 2009 brought the second consecutive year of a decreased number of births, declining from the recent 2007 crest noted in the state and nationwide. This decrease could be an echo from the decline in births noted after the 1980 crest or could also reflect effects of the economic recession. The 2009 cohort of births included 21 percent of racial minority newborns that parallels national observations. A sharp decrease is noted in infant deaths in 2009 (for a rate of 6.7 per 1,000 population), returns its rate to a level comparable to previous years but slightly higher than the preliminary 2009 national rate of 6.3. Changing perceptions of hazards accompanying infant sleep may be affecting the designated causes given for sudden deaths of sleeping infants. Sudden unexplained infant death remains more frequent in South Dakota than nationwide. PMID:21337919

  16. 78 FR 55771 - South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00061

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ..., Tornadoes, and Flooding. Incident Period: 06/19/2013 through 06/29/2013. DATES: Effective Date: 08/27/2013... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of South Dakota, dated...

  17. Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Found in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae), a Palearctic lady beetles established in North America, is reported for the first time from the state of South Dakota, U.S.A. Implications for biological control and future research are discussed....

  18. Water resources of Spink County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, L.J.; Howells, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    Spink County, an agricultural area of about 1,505 square miles, is in the flat to gently rolling James River lowland of east-central South Dakota. The water resources are characterized by the highly variable flows of the James River and its tributaries and by aquifers both in glacial deposits of sand and gravel, and in sandstone in the bedrock. Glacial aquifers underlie about half of the county, and bedrock aquifers underlie most of the county. The James River is an intermittent prairie stream that drains nearly 8,900 square miles north of Spink County and has an average annual discharge of about 124 cubic feet per second where it enters the county. The discharge is augmented by the flow of Snake and Turtle Creeks, each of which has an average annual flow of about 25 to 30 cubic feet per second. Streamflow is unreliable as a water supply because precipitation, which averages 18.5 inches annually, is erratic both in volume and in distribution, and because the average annual potential evapotranspiration rate is 43 inches. The flow of tributaries generally ceases by summer, and zero flows are common in the James River in fall and winter. Aquifers in glacial drift deposits store nearly 3.3 million acre-feet of fresh to slightly saline water at depths of from near land surface to more than 500 feet below land surface beneath an area of about 760 square miles. Yields of properly developed wells in the more productive aquifers exceed 1,000 gallons per minute in some areas. Withdrawals from the aquifers, mostly for irrigation, totaled about 15,000 acre-feet of water in 1990. Water levels in observation wells generally have declined less than 15 feet over several decades of increasing pumpage for irrigation, but locally have declined nearly 30 feet. Water levels generally rose during the wet period of 1983-86. In Spink County, bedrock aquifers store more than 40 million acre-feet of slightly to moderately saline water at depths of from 80 to about 1,300 feet below land

  19. Estimated water use in South Dakota, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Rick D.; Winterton, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Water use in South Dakota during 1985 is estimated to have been 674 million gal/day. This is a slight decrease from the 1980 estimate of 690 million gal/day. Of the total use, 63% was from surface-water sources and 37% was from groundwater sources. About 75% of the total water use was for agriculture, 16% was for domestic and commercial use, 8% was for industrial and mining use, and 1% was for thermoelectric and geothermal uses. Of the total used, 361 million gal/day were consumed and 313 million gal/day were returned to the surface- and groundwater system. Water use by agriculture, the largest user, was mostly for irrigation. Total use was 516,000 acre-ft (460 million gal/day) for irrigation of 397,000 acres. Non-irrigation use, mainly for livestock, was 47.1 million gal/day. About 12% of the total use was by public-water suppliers. Seventy-five percent of the deliveries by public-water suppliers were for domestic use by 78% of the population. In addition to offstream use, instream use was substantial because of hydroelectric-power generation by the four dams on the Missouri River. During 1985, 60,500 million gal/day were used to generate 6,095 gigawatt-hr of electricity. (USGS)

  20. Water resources of the Lake Traverse Reservation, South and North Dakota, and Roberts County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe; Roberts County; and the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Geological Survey Program, began a 6-year investigation to describe and quantify the water resources of the area within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County. Roberts County is located in extreme northeastern South Dakota, and the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation encompasses much of Roberts County and parts of Marshall, Day, Codington, and Grant Counties in South Dakota and parts of Richland and Sargent Counties in southeast North Dakota. This report includes descriptions of the quantity, quality, and availability of surface and ground water, the extent of the major glacial and bedrock aquifers and named outwash groups, and surface- and ground-water uses within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County. The surface-water resources within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County include rivers, streams, lakes, and wetlands. The Wild Rice and Bois de Sioux Rivers are tributaries of the Red River within the Souris-Red-Rainy River Basin; the Little Minnesota, Jorgenson, and North Fork Whetstone Rivers are tributaries of the Minnesota River within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, and the James and Big Sioux Rivers are tributaries within the Missouri River Basin. Several of the larger lakes within the study area have been developed for recreation, while many of the smaller lakes and wetlands are used for livestock watering or as wildlife production areas. Statistical summaries are presented for the water-quality data of six selected streams within the study area, and the dominant chemical species are listed for 17 selected lakes within the study area. The glacial history of the study area has led to a rather complex system of glacial

  1. Distribution of burrowing owls in east-central South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Jill A; Thiele, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) populations have declined across much of western North America, particularly at the northern and eastern edges of the species’ breeding range (Martell et al. 2001, Murphy et al. 2001, Shyry et al. 2001, Skeel et al. 2001, Klute et al. 2003). In South Dakota, the burrowing owl is a summer resident that historically was relatively common throughout the state, but its range has decreased in recent decades, especially in the eastern half of the state (Whitney et al. 1978, South Dakota Ornithologists’ Union [SDOU] 1991, Peterson 1995). Tallman et al. (2002) described the species as uncommon to locally common in western South Dakota, uncommon in the north-central part of the state, and casual (i.e., not within the species’ normal range, but with 3–10 records in the past 10 years) elsewhere in the eastern half. The burrowing owl is a Species of Greatest Conservation Need (South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks [SDGFP] 2006) and a Level I Priority Species in South Dakota (Bakker 2005).

  2. First detection of Aster Yellows caused by phytoplasma on Camelina sativa L. in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina is an oilseed crop that has been introduced to South Dakota primarily for biofuel production. Camelina plants (cv. ‘S0-40’) exhibiting symptoms typical of aster yellows infection were observed in a 10-acre demonstration plot at the Dakota Lakes Research Farm in Hughes County, South Dakota ...

  3. Soil-moisture ground truth, Hand County, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Soil types were determined from the Soil Survey of Hand County, South Dakota. The soil types encountered on the soil moisture lines are summarized. The actual soil moisture data are presented. The data have been divided by range, township and section. The soil moisture data obtained in fields of winter wheat and spring wheat are briefly summarized.

  4. 78 FR 48764 - South Dakota Disaster # SD-00061

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION South Dakota Disaster SD-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  5. South Dakota's Resource List for Children, Youth, and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This directory lists contact information for educational programs, human services, and other resources for children, youth, and families in South Dakota. Sections cover adult basic education programs, alcohol and drug treatment facilities, career learning centers, clothing, community health nurses, community mental health centers, consumer credit…

  6. Space for the Mentally Retarded in South Dakota. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Health, Pierre. Mental Retardation Planning Office.

    The 10 priority recommendations for aiding the mentally retarded in South Dakota are presented. Summaries are provided of recommendations for federal and state legislative action and for state agencies, communities, state medical and hospital associations, and private organizations. The State and the method of planning are discussed; mental…

  7. South Dakota School Health Profiles. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the status of elementary health and health education in public schools throughout South Dakota during the 2005-2006 school year. The study was designed to provide current data collected from both elementary and secondary school principals and teachers regarding health and physical education curricula,…

  8. 78 FR 42147 - South Dakota Disaster #SD-00059

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... State of South Dakota (FEMA-4125-DR), dated 06/28/2013. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornado, and Flooding... major disaster declaration on 06/28/2013, Private Non- Profit organizations that provide essential... Bennett County. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage: Non-Profit Organizations With...

  9. 78 FR 32415 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance...-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...

  10. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of South Dakota. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste,…

  11. South Dakota Low Income Families and Migration. Bulletin 637.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Marco; And Others

    Using the U.S. Census definition of poverty, an attempt was made to determine: how many poverty level South Dakota families there were in 1970 and where they resided; the socioeconomic factors explaining county differences in poverty incomes; whether those factors explaining poverty incidence would correlate with county differences in the extent…

  12. 76 FR 35935 - South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement...

  13. 76 FR 35936 - South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement...

  14. South Dakota Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Human Services, Pierre.

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey was cooperatively developed by Centers for Disease Control and state and local departments of health to assess six health risk behaviors of adolescents that result in the greatest number of morbidity, mortality, and social problems. All public, private, and Bureau of Indian Affairs schools in South Dakota, containing…

  15. The Instructional Media Center at South Dakota State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Instructional Media Center (IMC) at South Dakota State University. Highlights include its mission and goals; staff--professional, career service employees and student assistants; four service groups--instructional technologies, media production, instructional telecommunications, and media resources; budget; and successes. (AEF)

  16. 78 FR 69739 - South Dakota Disaster # D-00063

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION South Dakota Disaster D-00063 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  17. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2002. Tenth Annual Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole; Nelson-Kraayenbrink, Briana

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Dakotas children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economics, and safety. The indicators include: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) racial groups; (3) single age years; (4) households and families; (5) infant…

  18. South Dakota Department of Education 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    South Dakota has many things to be proud of: Its students consistently outperform their peers on national assessments. The state has a high graduation rate, and it ranks among the top states in the nation for students going on to postsecondary. Credit for these achievements goes to the state's local school districts. This annual report covers key…

  19. 75 FR 13144 - South Dakota Disaster #SD-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... State of South Dakota (FEMA-1887-DR), dated 03/10/2010. Incident: Severe Winter Storm. Incident Period: 01/20/2010 through 01/26/2010. Effective Date: 03/10/2010. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 05/10/2010. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date: 12/10/2010. ADDRESSES:...

  20. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  1. Agreement between South Dakota Board of Regents and Council of Higher Education, an Affiliate of the South Dakota Education Association and the National Education Association, May 22, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Board of Regents, Pierre.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the South Dakota Board of Regents and the Council of Higher Education (COHE), an affiliate of the South Dakota Education Association and the National Education Association (NEA), is presented, covering the period July 1, 1987 through June 30, 1988. It sets forth the conditions of employment for all…

  2. Fish community persistence in Eastern North and South Dakota Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearer, J.S.; Berry, C.R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the James River in North and South Dakota has experienced records in minimum and maximum discharge. Our objectives were to compare: (1) the fish community in the main river after dry (1988-90) and wet (1993-2000) years, and (2) the fish community of both the main river and tributaries between dry (1975) and wet (1998-2000) years. In South Dakota in the main river, there were 10 families and 29 species after several dry years and 11 families and 35 species after several wet years. Percichthyidae was the additional family after the wet years. Basinwide, there were 41 species present after the dry 1970s and 50 species after the wet 1990s. Overall, 93% of the species collected in 1975 have persisted. Our results provide some support for the flood pulse concept, and the findings suggest that the fish community can be useful for biomonitoring of prairie streams.

  3. Floods in eastern Nebraska and southeastern South Dakota, June 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, G.B.; Benson, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Thunderstorms during 1984 produced significant rainfall and subsequent runoff that caused substantial flooding in eastern Nebraska and southeastern South Dakota. The storms ocurred in rapid succession over the area, and the rain fell on ground that was near saturation from greater-than-normal precipitation during April and May. Flooding ocurred in the Loup River, Blue River, Platte River, Elkhorn River, and Weeping Water Creek basins in Nebraska and the James River, Vermillion River, and Big Sioux river basins in South Dakota. Record and near-record peak discharges occurred on many streams. The floodflows from tributary streams caused the highest stages and the most widespread flooding along the Missouri River from Sioux City, Iowa, to Rulo, Nebraska, since April 1952. (USGS)

  4. Remote sensing applications to resource problems in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The procedures used as well as the results obtained and conclusions derived are described for the following applications of remote sensing in South Dakota: (1) sage grouse management; (2) censusing Canada geese; (3) monitoring grasshopper infestation in rangeland; (4) detecting Dutch elm disease in an urban environment; (5) determining water usage from the Belle Fourche River; (6) resource management of the Lower James River; and (7) the National Model Implantation Program: Lake Herman watershed.

  5. 75 FR 78208 - Black Hills National Forest, Northern Hills Ranger District; South Dakota; Steamboat Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... land northwest of Rapid City, South Dakota. Proposed actions include a combination of vegetation and... construction would be necessary to carry out the proposed vegetation management actions. DATES:...

  6. Results of Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) drought analysis (South Dakota drought 1976)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    LACIE using techniques developed from the southern Great Plains drought analysis indicated the potential for drought damage in South Dakota. This potential was monitored and as it became apparent that a drought was developing, LACIE implemented some of the procedures used in the southern Great Plains drought. The technical approach used in South Dakota involved the normal use of LACIE sample segments (5 x 6 nm) every 18 days. Full frame color transparencies (100 x 100 nm) were used on 9 day intervals to identify the drought area and to track overtime. The green index number (GIN) developed using the Kauth transformation was computed for all South Dakota segments and selected North Dakota segments. A scheme for classifying segments as drought affected or not affected was devised and tested on all available 1976 South Dakota data. Yield model simulations were run for all CRD's Crop Reporting District) in South Dakota.

  7. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 8, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The States of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming compose the 392,764-square-mile area of Segment 8, which is in the north-central part of the continental United States. The area varies topographically from the high rugged mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and Wyoming to the gently undulating surface of the Central Lowland in eastern North Dakota and South Dakota (fig. 1). The Black Hills in southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming interrupt the uniformity of the intervening Great Plains. Segment 8 spans the Continental Divide, which is the drainage divide that separates streams that generally flow westward from those that generally flow eastward. The area of Segment 8 is drained by the following major rivers or river systems: the Green River drains southward to join the Colorado River, which ultimately discharges to the Gulf of California; the Clark Fork and the Kootenai Rivers drain generally westward by way of the Columbia River to discharge to the Pacific Ocean; the Missouri River system and the North Platte River drain eastward and southeastward to the Mississippi River, which discharges to the Gulf of Mexico; and the Red River of the North and the Souris River drain northward through Lake Winnipeg to ultimately discharge to Hudson Bay in Canada. These rivers and their tributaries are an important source of water for public-supply, domestic and commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses. Much of the surface water has long been appropriated for agricultural use, primarily irrigation, and for compliance with downstream water pacts. Reservoirs store some of the surface water for flood control, irrigation, power generation, and recreational purposes. Surface water is not always available when and where it is needed, and ground water is the only other source of supply. Ground water is obtained primarily from wells completed in unconsolidated-deposit aquifers that consist mostly of sand and gravel, and from wells

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  9. School Library Media Programs: A Resource & Planning Guide for South Dakota Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This resource guide is designed to assist local schools in South Dakota to evaluate and improve their library media programs. The information provided is non-regulatory in nature (with the exception of information from the "Administrative Rules of South Dakota"), and represents a foundation for building a quality library media program. The guide…

  10. 40 CFR 272.2101 - South Dakota State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Program: Final Authorization. 272.2101 Section 272.2101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS South Dakota § 272.2101 South Dakota State-Administered Program: Final Authorization. (a) Pursuant to...

  11. 75 FR 61414 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: South Dakota PrairieWinds Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: South Dakota PrairieWinds Project AGENCY...) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed South Dakota PrairieWind Project...-megawatt wind-powered generation facility. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the ROD, or for...

  12. South Dakota State University's Library: A History. Hilton M. Briggs Library Occasional Paper Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip

    Tracing the history of South Dakota State University's Hilton M. Briggs Library over the past 102 years, this occasional paper describes the development of what is now the largest library (over 1.1 million total pieces) in the South Dakota Library Network from its inception as part of a small land grant college. Administrative eras are reviewed,…

  13. Creative Speech Communication for South Dakota. K-12 Curriculum Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Speech Association.

    Intended for regular elementary and secondary teachers, the South Dakota curriculum guide presents motivating activities to stimulate speech development of under-communicating, gifted, experientially different, or average students. Suggested situations are reported to be coordinated with South Dakota literature, the best of children's literature,…

  14. The Death of Distance: Documenting the Effects of Distance Education in South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Steve; Amiotte, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    South Dakota has arguably the most technologically advanced educational system in the United States. The state boasts a population of approximately 750,000 residents, distributed across an area measuring approximately 250 by 400 miles. South Dakota is experiencing a shortage of specialist teachers and university faculty, and the vast geographical…

  15. South Dakota Arts Council: Long Range Plan. Fiscal Years 2006-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Arts Council, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The South Dakota Arts Council submitted this FY 2006 annual report to the Governor and Legislature. It presents the 530 grants that were awarded with funds from the State of South Dakota and the National Endowment for the Arts, a federal agency. Fiscal Year 2006 grant funds of $977,000 generated $12 million in local cash matching funds. These…

  16. 76 FR 64968 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... surveyed are: Black Hills Meridian, South Dakota T. 12 N., R. 24 E. The plat, in three sheets, representing..., Township 12 North, Range 24 East, Black Hills Meridian, South Dakota, was accepted September 28, 2011. We... CODE 4310-DN-P...

  17. 76 FR 3926 - Notice and Request for Comments: LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming Migrant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Notice and Request for Comments: LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming Migrant Service... Comments--LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming Migrant Service Areas. SUMMARY: The Legal Services Corporation will eliminate the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming migrant service...

  18. Newcastle folio, Wyoming-South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darton, N. H.

    1904-01-01

    The Newcastle quadrangle embraces the quarter of a square degree which lies between parallels 43° 30' and 44° north latitude and meridians 104° and 104° 30' west longitude.  It measures approximately 34 1/2 miles from north to south and 25 1/8 from east to west, and its area is 863 4/5 square miles.  It lies mainly in the eastern portion of Weston County, Wyo., but includes also a narrow area of western Custer and Pennington counties, S. Dak.  The northeastern portion of the quadrangle lies on the slopes of the Black Hills, but the larger part of it belongs to the Great Plains, although these plains are lower here than in the greater part of adjoining portions of Nebraska and Wyoming.  The district is drained by branches of the South Branch of Cheyenne River.

  19. West Short Pine Hills field, Harding County, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Strothman, B.

    1988-07-01

    The West Short Pine Hills field is a shallow gas field that produces from the Shannon Sandstone Member, on the Camp Crook anticline in southwestern Harding County, South Dakota. The Alma McCutchin 1-17 Heikkila discovery was drilled in the NW1/4, Sec. 17, T16N, R2E, to a depth of 1600 ft and completed in October 1977 for 600 MCFGD from perforations at 1405-1411 ft. To date, 40 gas wells have been completed with total estimated reserves of more than 20 bcf. The field encompasses 12,000 ac, with a current drill-site spacing unit of 160 ac. The field boundaries are fairly well defined, except on the south edge of the field. The wells range in depth from 1250 to 2200 ft, and cost $60,000-$85,000 to drill and complete. Core and log analyses indicate that the field has 70 ft of net pay, with average porosity of 30% and average permeability of 114 md. Most wells have been completed with nitrogen-sand frac. Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company of Bismarck, North Dakota, operates a compressor station and 2.5 mi of 4-in. line that connects the field to their 160 in. north-south transmission line to the Rapid City area. Currently, producers are netting $1.10-$1.25/million Btu. The late Mathew T. Biggs of Casper, Wyoming, was the geologist responsible for mapping and finding this gas deposit.

  20. Multidate mapping of mosquito habitat. [Nebraska, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodzick, T. L.; Maxwell, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT data from three overpasses formed the data base for a multidate classification of 15 ground cover categories in the margins of Lewis and Clark Lake, a fresh water impoundment between South Dakota and Nebraska. When scaled to match topographic maps of the area, the ground cover classification maps were used as a general indicator of potential mosquito-breeding habitat by distinguishing productive wetlands areas from nonproductive nonwetlands areas. The 12 channel multidate classification was found to have an accuracy 23% higher than the average of the three single date 4 channel classifications.

  1. Suicide Among the American Indians: Two Workshops (Aberdeen, South Dakota, September 1967; Lewistown, Montana, November 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Health problems among the American Indians have been of major concern to the U.S. Public Health Service for some time. As major inroads are now being made into infectious diseases, maternal and child health, and many chronic illnesses, the problems of the mental health of Indians come into a more central focus. Within the framework of mental…

  2. Nontarget bird exposure to DRC-1339 during fall in North Dakota and spring in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul M.; Linz, George M.; Sileo, Louis; Stahl, Randal S.; Johnston, John J.; Linz, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Blackbirds frequently use ripening sunflower (Heltantbus annuus) as a food source in the northern Great Plains. In 1999 and 2000, the avicide DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride) was used experimentally on fall-ripening sunflower fields in North Dakota so researchers could evaluate its effectiveness for reducing crop depredations by blackbirds. DRC-1339 was applied to rice and broadcast on the ground in a confined area within ripening sunflower fields. One objective of this study was to determine whether nontarget birds, birds other than blackbirds, were eating rice and were exposed to the DRC-1339. In 1999, 8 of 11 (73%) sparrows collected by shotgun in sunflower fields treated with DRe-1339 had rice in their gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. In 2000, 5 mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) and 3 sparrows were collected by shotgun in sunflower fields treated with DRC-1339. Three doves had rice in their GI tracts, 4 doves and all 3 sparrows had measurable DRC1339 concentrations in their GI tracts, and 3 mourning doves and 1 savannah sparrow (Passerculus sanduncbensis) exhibited histopathological signs of kidney damage. In April 2002, untreated rice was applied to corn stubble plots in South Dakota to determine which bird species ate rice. In 2002, 3 of 3 song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) collected by shotgun had rice in their GI tracts. Our results demonstrate that the use of DRC-1339 to control blackbirds in the northern Great Plains will likely expose nontarget birds to the DRC-1339 bait.

  3. Estimated use of water in South Dakota, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Franklin D.

    2002-01-01

    During 2000, the total amount of water withdrawn from ground- and surface-water sources in South Dakota was about 528 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). Of this amount, about 222 Mgal/d, or 42 percent of the total, was from ground water. Surface-water withdrawals were about 306 Mgal/d, or 58 percent of the total. Total withdrawals for six categories of offstream use in South Dakota during 2000 were compiled. The withdrawals include: 93.3 Mgal/d for public supply, 9.53 Mgal/d for self-supplied domestic, 5.12 Mgal/d for industrial, 372.7 Mgal/d for irrigation, 5.24 Mgal/d for thermoelectric power, and 42.0 Mgal/d for livestock. Water use for hydroelectric power was the only instream use compiled in this report. About 57,794 Mgal/d was used by the hydroelectric powerplants to generate about 6,151 gigawatt-hours of electricity during 2000.

  4. Transition year labeling error characterization study. [Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, N. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Labeling errors made in the large area crop inventory experiment transition year estimates by Earth Observation Division image analysts are identified and quantified. The analysis was made from a subset of blind sites in six U.S. Great Plains states (Oklahoma, Kansas, Montana, Minnesota, North and South Dakota). The image interpretation basically was well done, resulting in a total omission error rate of 24 percent and a commission error rate of 4 percent. The largest amount of error was caused by factors beyond the control of the analysts who were following the interpretation procedures. The odd signatures, the largest error cause group, occurred mostly in areas of moisture abnormality. Multicrop labeling was tabulated showing the distribution of labeling for all crops.

  5. Dakota :

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Brian M.; Ebeida, Mohamed Salah; Eldred, Michael S; Jakeman, John Davis; Swiler, Laura Painton; Stephens, John Adam; Vigil, Dena M.; Wildey, Timothy Michael; Bohnhoff, William J.; Eddy, John P.; Hu, Kenneth T.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bauman, Lara E; Hough, Patricia Diane

    2014-05-01

    The Dakota (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a exible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. Dakota contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quanti cation with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the Dakota toolkit provides a exible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a theoretical manual for selected algorithms implemented within the Dakota software. It is not intended as a comprehensive theoretical treatment, since a number of existing texts cover general optimization theory, statistical analysis, and other introductory topics. Rather, this manual is intended to summarize a set of Dakota-related research publications in the areas of surrogate-based optimization, uncertainty quanti cation, and optimization under uncertainty that provide the foundation for many of Dakota's iterative analysis capabilities.

  6. South Dakota School of Mines, Keystone, South Dakota solar-energy-system performanceevaluation, June 1980-April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    The South Dakota School of Mines site is the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Visitor's Center in Keystone, South Dakota. The active solar energy system is a retrofit designed to supply 45% of the heating load and 53% of the observation room cooling load. The system is equipped with 2000 square feet of flat-plate collector panels double-glazed with a black chrome absorber surface; 3000 gallons of water in an insulated tank for sensible heat storage; a two-stage fuel oil furnace for auxiliary heating; and direct expansion electric air conditioning units for auxiliary cooling. The actual heating and cooling provided are 42% and 12% respectively. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fueld savings, electrical energy expense, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are among the performance data listed. A control problem is reported that kept the collector pump running 24 hours a day for 18 days. Performance data are given for each subsystem as well as for the overall system. Typical system operation and the system operating sequence for a day are given. The system's use of solar energy and the percentage of losses are given. Also included are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, long-term weather data, chemical analysis of the antifreeze solutions, sensor technology, and typical weather and performance data for a month. (LEW)

  7. Water resources of Aurora and Jerauld Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Large quantities of slightly saline ground water are available for future water requirements in Aurora and Jerauld Counties, 1 ,236 square miles of glaciated, till-covered hills and plains in southeastern South Dakota. More than one million acre-feet of ground water is stored in five major glacial aquifers, outwash sand and gravel, beneath 340 square miles. About 58 million acre-feet is stored in bedrock, in the Niobrara marl aquifer, the Codell sandstone aquifer, and the Dakota sandstone aquifer. Recharge of aquifers by infiltration of precipitation totals 31 ,000 acre-feet annually. Effects of increased ground-water withdrawals generally have been small for glacial aquifers and large for some bedrock aquifers. Water levels declined 0.6 to 4 feet in glacial aquifers during 1978-80 within a mile of irrigation wells pumping 300 to 1,000 gallons per minute. In contrast, water levels declined 40 feet near a well pumping 1 ,500 gallons per minute from the Niobrara aquifer because of small artesian storage. Artesian pressure of the Dakota aquifer declined about 200 feet between 1909 and 1979 because of large withdrawals through flowing wells. The availability of surface water is limited because streams are ephemeral and have large flows only during spring of wet years. Most of the lakes are small, semipermanent, and shallow. Most surface water in the study area contains low concentrations of dissolved solids but most of the ground water is very hard and slightly saline. Some ground water has a very high-salinity hazard for irrigation. Water from the Niobrara and Codell aquifers also has a high sodium hazard and high boron concentrations. (USGS)

  8. Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  9. Emerging infections and old friends: remaining prepared in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Tinguely, Jennifer; Lindemann, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports of serious infection outbreaks internationally remind us of the importance of accurate information and continual vigilance. The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has captured headlines as the most severe outbreak in the history of this disease. West Nile disease, measles, pertussis and tuberculosis infect South Dakota patients on a yearly basis. A significant rise in syphilis cases has prompted recommendations for increased prenatal screening. The more unusual viral diseases, Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and Chikungunha virus, receive media attention but present minimal risk to the state, while the annual influenza epidemic continues to plague us all. We review these infections, both old and emerging, and describe national and local preparedness practices. PMID:25985609

  10. National uranium resource evaluation, Rapid City Quadrangle, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Nanna, R.F.; Milton, E.J.

    1982-04-01

    The Rapid City (1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/) Quadrangle, South Dakota, was evaluated for environments favorble for uranium deposits to a depth of 1500 m. Criteria used were those of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Field reconnaissance involved the use of hand-held scintillometers to investigate uranium occurrences reported in the literature and anomalies in aerial radiometric surveys, and geochemical samples of stream sediments and well waters. Gamma-ray logs were used to define the favorable environments in the subsurface. Environments favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits occur in the Inyan Kara Group, the Fox Hills Sandstone, and the Hell Creek Formation. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits include all Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary rocks other than those identified as favorable.

  11. An occurrence of autunite, Lawrence County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, Rollin C.

    1953-01-01

    In July 1952 an occurrence of autunite was found in the northern part of the Black Hills, South Dakota, during a reconnaissance for radioactive deposits. The autunite occurs as fracture coatings and disseminations in siltstone of the Deadwood formation of Cambrian age and is concentrated mainly in the lower 2 feet of the siltstone at the contact with an intrusive rhyolite porphyry; the radioactive zone is exposed in two old workings, which are 90 feet apart. An 18-inch vertical channel sample of the autanite-bearing siltstene contained 0. 048 percent uranium. The gangue minerals are fluorite and limonite. The uranium is believed to have been introduced into the siltstone by solutions of magmatic origin that migrated along the lower contact of the siltstone after or during emplacement of the porphyry'

  12. Insecticide residues in big game mammals of South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, R.J.; Greichus, Y.A.; Hugghins, E.J.

    1967-01-01

    An analysis was made of eight insecticide residues in the renal fat tissue of 23 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 13 mule deer (O. hemionus), 9 pronghorns (Antilocapra americana), and 2 elk (Cervus canadensis) collected in South Dakota during the fall of 1964. Identification and quantitative analysis of the insecticide residues were accomplished by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography. Eighty-five percent of the samples had residues of DDT with an average of 0.13 ppm. DDD residues were found in 11 percent of the samples, DDE in 38 percent, dieldrin in 38 percent, and lindane in 15 percent, with an average of 0.07, 0.04, 0.03, and 0.04 ppm, respectively. Heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and aldrin were not detected in concentrations above the limits of the experiment set by the investigators.

  13. Records of water levels in unconsolidated deposits in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, Wendell L.

    1981-01-01

    Water levels in unconsolidated deposits measured by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies throughout eastern South Dakota during the period 1948-1980 are presented in tabular and graphic form. (USGS)

  14. Status of Exotic and Previously Common Native Coccinellids (Coleoptera) in South Dakota Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last two decades, three previously common coccinellids (Adalia bipunctata (L.), Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Coccinella novemnotata Herbst) have declined in abundance in South Dakota, while two invasive species (Coccinella septempunctata (L.) and Harmonia axyridis (Pall...

  15. South Dakota Geothermal Commercialization Project. Final report, July 1979-October 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wegman, S.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the South Dakota Energy Office in providing technical assistance, planning, and commercialization projects for geothermal energy. Projects included geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, and active demonstration/commercialization projects. (ACR)

  16. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota.

  17. 40 CFR 272.2101 - South Dakota State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the South Dakota regulations that are..., 3rd Floor, State Capitol, 500 East Capitol Avenue, Pierre, SD 57501, (Phone: 605-773-3251). (i)...

  18. Continuing Development of a Collaborative Plan to Further Engage South Dakota in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farwell, Sherry O.; DeTroye, Diane (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An ongoing set of research planning activities have occurred in South Dakota as a consequence of the past two years of NASA-EPSCoR Preparation Grants. During this time a group of approximately 60 scientists, engineers, and university administrators in South Dakota have been directly involved as "theme team" members in a series of five all-day meetings to identify the research and technological priorities that are consistent both with NASA-ESE's interests and the State's expertise. Institutions represented within the group's membership include: South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, South Dakota State University, Augustana College, University of South Dakota, USGS EROS Data Center, Si ranks College, Santa Gleska University, Sisseton Wahpeton Community College, USGS Water Resources Division, US National Weather Service, and the SD Department of Environment & Natural Resources. Many of these organizations are also members and affiliates of the SD Space Grant Consortium. The evolving plan has been guided by the following desirable actions: 1. To establish new contacts and strengthen existing linkages with NASA Centers, relevant NASA researchers, and key personnel at the USGS EROS Data Center. 2. To promote participation from the State's major research institutions, State agencies, and relevant businesses in South Dakota that are interested in strengthening our scientific and technological enterprises. 3. To develop the State's scientific talent and infrastructure for enhanced competitiveness in research, development, and technology-based economic development. 4. To encourage greater participation by under represented groups, especially Native Americans, in scientific education and research. 5. To build greater public and political support in South Dakota for the overall science, engineering, and technology enterprise. 6. To communicate the benefits of current and future NASA programs to the progress and development of South Dakota, the Northern Great Plains Region

  19. 2009 Spring floods in North Dakota, western Minnesota, and northeastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Gross, Tara A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, record-breaking snowfalls and additional spring moisture caused severe flooding in parts of the Missouri River and Red River of the North (Red River) Basins in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota. There were 48 peak of record stages and 36 discharges recorded at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages located in both basins between March 20 and May 15, 2009. High water continued to affect many communities up and down the rivers' main stems and tributaries for nearly 2 months. Record snowfall for single-day totals, as well as monthly totals, occurred throughout the Missouri River and Red River of the North Basins. Additional moisture in the spring as well as the timing of warmer temperatures caused record flooding in many places in both basins with many locations reporting two flood crests. Ice jams on the Missouri River, located north and south of Bismarck, N. Dak., caused flooding. Southwest Bismarck was evacuated as rising waters first began inundating homes in low-lying areas along the river and then continued flowing into the city's lower south side. On March 24, 2009, the peak stage of the Missouri River at Bismarck, N. Dak. streamgage was 16.11 feet, which was the highest recorded stage since the completion of Garrison Dam in 1954. South of Bismarck, the Missouri River near Schmidt, N. Dak. streamgage recorded a peak stage of 24.24 feet on March 25, 2009, which surpassed the peak of record of 23.56 feet that occurred on December 9, 1976. While peak stage reached record levels at these streamgages, the discharge through the river at these locations did not reach record levels. The record high stages resulted from ice jams occurring on the Missouri River north and south of the cities of Bismarck and Mandan. At the Red River of the North at Fargo, N. Dak. streamgage, the Red River reached a record stage of 40.84 feet surpassing the previous peak of record stage of 39.72 feet set in 1997. The associated peak streamflow of 29,500 cubic feet per second

  20. Selected Science Educational Outcomes as a Function of South Dakota Educational Reform Policies 1995-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Tien, K. C.

    2005-05-01

    This research investigates selected South Dakota science educational outcomes as a function of selected educational reform policies. In the state of South Dakota, echoing divergent reform initiatives from "A Nation at Risk" to "No Child Left Behind," new guidelines and requirements have been instituted. Yet, very little effort has been made to assess the progress of these educational changes. In this study, selected educational outcomes-SAT8/9/10 scores-as a function of selected South Dakota educational reform policies were examined. School districts, ranked in the top and bottom five percent of socioeconomic status (SES) in the state, were selected for analysis. Comparison on student's science educational outcomes was also be made between the two major ethnic populations-Caucasians and Native Americans. All research questions were stated in the null form for hypothesis for statistical testing. Critical t was the statistic technique used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that the selected reform policies in South Dakota appeared to assist students from the higher socioeconomic backgrounds to perform better than pupils from the lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The academic performance for the ethnic and social class minorities remained unchanged within the study timeline for reform. Examined from the prism of Michael Apple's critical theory, the selected South Dakota reform policies have paid little attention to the issues of social equality. Continuing and collective efforts to promote equitable reform policies for enhancing the learning experience of all children in South Dakota seem necessary.

  1. Water resources of Brookings and Kingsbury counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Surface water and groundwater resources are widely distributed in Brookings and Kingsbury Counties, an area of nearly 1,700 sq mi of glaciated plains of the Coteau des Prairies plateau in eastern South Dakota. The resources are relatively undeveloped except for large withdrawals for irrigation from shallow glacial aquifers. Groundwater withdrawals accounted for 90% of the 16 ,000 acre-ft of water withdrawn in 1985. The Big Sioux River drains an area of about 2,400 sq mi and flows southward through Brookings County. Discharge of the Big Sioux River near Brookings has averaged 117,000 acre-ft/yr but can decrease to 17 ,600 acre-ft/yr during drought periods. West of the river are thousands of shallow ponds, marshes, and lakes. The largest, Lake Thompson in central Kingsbury County, rose nearly 20 ft during 1985-86 because of record precipitation and large overflow from upstream lakes. Six major glacial aquifers of outwash sand and gravel store 8 million acre-ft of fresh to slightly saline, very hard water beneath nearly 1,300 sq mi at depths ranging from land surface to more than 700 ft. Concentrations of dissolved solids and hardness of water from the aquifers exceed 1,000 mg/L at many places. The 600 sq mi of the surficial, freshwater Big Sioux and Vermillion East Fork aquifers contain more than 200 large-capacity wells that can be pumped from 200 to as much as 1,300 gal/min. Three extensive bedrock aquifers store 67 million acre-ft of slightly saline, soft water at depths ranging from 320 to 1,300 ft. Maximum yields for wells in the sandstone of the Codell and Dakota aquifers are estimated to be 100 gal/min. (USGS)

  2. Estimated Use of Water in South Dakota, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    During 2005, withdrawals from ground-water and surface-water sources in South Dakota for the eight categories of offstream use totaled about 500 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Of total withdrawals, about 271 Mgal/d was withdrawn from ground water and about 230 Mgal/d was withdrawn from surface water. The largest use of water in South Dakota during 2005 was irrigation, which accounted for about 58 percent of the total water withdrawn, followed by public supply, which accounted for about 20 percent of withdrawals. Public-supply systems served about 666,210 people, or about 86 percent of South Dakota's population in 2005. Public-supply systems withdrew about 100 Mgal/d in 2005. Ground-water withdrawals accounted for about 66 percent of the total withdrawals (66 Mgal/d), and surface-water withdrawals accounted for about 34 percent of total withdrawals (35 Mgal/d). Total public-supply withdrawals averaged about 151 gallons per day (gal/d) per capita. About 65 percent of the public-supply water was used for domestic purposes, and the average per capita domestic use was 99 gal/d. Self-supplied domestic withdrawals were about 8 Mgal/d, all of which was from ground water. About 109,750 people obtained household water from private wells in 2005, and per capita use was about 70 gal/d. Industrial self-supplied water use during 2005 was about 4 Mgal/d, of which about 98 percent was from ground water and about 2 percent was from surface water. Total withdrawals for thermoelectric use were about 5 Mgal/d, of which about 1 Mgal/d was from ground water and about 4 Mgal/d was from surface water. Total mining water use was about 10 Mgal/d, of which about 5 Mgal/d came from ground water and about 6 Mgal/d came from surface water. Total livestock water use was about 48 Mgal/d, of which about 19 Mgal/d came from ground water and about 28 Mgal/d came from surface water. Total aquaculture use was about 33 Mgal/d, of which about 19 Mgal/d came from ground water and about 14 Mgal/d came

  3. Thunderstorm Charge Structures in South Dakota, Colorado, and New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilles, J.; Thomas, R. J.; Rison, W.; Warner, T. A.; Helsdon, J.; Krehbiel, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    With little exception, New Mexico thunderstorms contain a main negative charge region and a lower (weaker) positive region, whereby the dominate polarity of cloud-to-ground lightning is negative. This Normal Polarity (NP) charge structure is observable via the New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), which has been operated by Langmuir Laboratory since the late 1990s. In contrast, an LMA deployed for the 2012 Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project revealed that thunderstorm charge structures were predominantly anomalous—i.e. not NP—in north-central Colorado. These anomalous charge structures are characterized by positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning, and lower-than-normal CG rates. The difference in charge structure between the two geographic locations could possibly be correlated with the scale of forcing: New Mexico storms are predominantly formed by mesoscale (small-scale) forcing, whereas Colorado can have larger synoptically-forced thunderstorms. To gain further insight into the relationship between the scale of forcing and the resulting charge structures, LMA data from the 2014 Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) will be used to determine electrical characteristics of thunderstorms in western South Dakota. The charge structures of similar storm morphologies from each geographic location—central New Mexico, north-central Colorado, and western South Dakota—will be compared.

  4. Increased arterial stiffness in South Dakota American Indian children.

    PubMed

    Litz, Andrew M; Van Guilder, Gary P

    2016-02-01

    Arterial stiffness has been observed in white American obese children, yet there are no data in American Indian youth, who are affected disproportionately by the cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity and its accompanying risk factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of childhood overweight-obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors with arterial stiffness in South Dakota white American and American Indian children. Thirty-six (28 white American and 8 American Indian) children (age, 13 ± 1 years; grades 6-8) from a rural South Dakota elementary and middle school were studied: 18 had a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI), 19.5 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)) and 18 were overweight-obese (BMI, 26.8 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)). Arterial stiffness was assessed using applanation tonometry via pulse wave analysis to determine carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV) and aortic augmentation index (AIx). There were no differences (P = 0.94) in crPWV between healthy weight (7.1 ± 1.4 m/s) and overweight-obese (7.3 ± 1.0 m/s) children, even after controlling for risk factors. However, crPWV was markedly elevated (P = 0.002) in overweight-obese American Indian children (7.7 ± 1.1 m/s) compared with white American children (6.8 ± 0.5 m/s), and these differences remained after controlling for blood pressure and more severe obesity in the American Indians. An obesity-matched subgroup analysis indicated that crPWV (7.7 ± 1.1 vs 6.8 ± 0.4 m/s) remained significantly greater in the American Indians (P = 0.03). There were no between-group differences in aortic AIx. These findings indicate an adverse influence of American Indian ethnicity on arterial stiffening in children with elevated adiposity. Arterial stiffness in American Indian children may accelerate early adulthood vascular disease. PMID:26761621

  5. Lightning fires in North Dakota grasslands and in pine-savanna lands of South Dakota and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    Lightning strike fires which occurred between 1940 and 1981 were studied in mixed-grass prairie grasslands and in pine-savanna lands in the Northern Great Plains region. A majority (73%) of ignitions occurred during July and August, while a lesser number was recorded in April, May, June, and September. The April-September period is also the average time of the freeze-free period and approximates the average distribution period for thunderstorm activity in this region. The area burned by each of 293 lightning fires (most of which were suppressed) ranged from 0.004-1158.3 ha (mean = 10.8 ha). The frequency of lightning fires in mixed-grass prairie grasslands averaged 6.0/yr per 10,000 km2 in eastern North Dakota, 22.4/yr per 10,000 km2 in southcentral North Dakota, 24.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in western North Dakota, and 91.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in pine-savanna lands in northwestern South Dakota and southeastern Montana. The ecological role of lightning-set fires is discussed relative to the development of resource research and management plans and to the interpretation of historical records of natural fire occurrence in the Northern Great Plains region.

  6. Sediment accumulation and distribution in Lake Kampeska, Watertown, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.; Sando, Steven K.

    2002-01-01

    Lake Kampeska is a natural lake of about 5,075 acres located within the city limits of Watertown, South Dakota. The lake is important as a water supply and recreational resource. Sediment accumulation has been a concern for many years, and several studies have been conducted to learn more about the sediment, including how fast it is accumulating. This study attempted to evaluate previously estimated sediment-accumulation rates and to describe the distribution of sediment in the lake. Analysis of cesium-137 concentrations in sediment cores and changes in lake-bottom elevation over time led to the conclusion that during about the last 50 years, the sediment has been accumulating at a rate on the order of 0.01 foot per year or less. Changes in lake-bottom elevation during this time period indicate that the only significant deposition occurred in the area near the connection of Lake Kampeska to the Big Sioux River. Direct physical measurements and marine seismic surveys indicate that the flat-bottom interior part of the lake has 10 feet or more of sediment over a relatively irregular subbottom.

  7. Water movement in till of east-central South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, S.J.; Ruedisili, L.C.; Barari, A.

    1985-01-01

    Factors that control the flow of water through till are poorly understood. Hydrographic analyses, field hydraulic conductivity measurements, and major-ion sampling were conducted on weathered and unweathered tills at 22 sites in east-central South Dakota. Water from a buried outwash aquifer was also chemically analyzed and carbon age dated. The upper part of most till has been weathered and exhibits extensive secondary permeability. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -4/ cm/sec; typically 10 to 200 times higher than the hydraulic conductivity of unweathered till. Hydraulic gradients within weathered tills average seven times lower than within unweathered till. Water infiltrating below plant roots is believed to principally recharge and discharge the weathered till. Total dissolved solids were significantly higher in the weathered till than in the unweathered till. Water extracted from unweathered till is, in turn, up to three time higher in major-ion concentrations than water from the underlying outwash aquifer. Carbon-14 age dates from outwash aquifer water exceed 9000 years before present. Results indicate that Tittle to no water passes from the weathered till through the unweathered till into the buried outwash aquifer. Discharge from the weathered till is hypothesized to be primarily local lateral flow to sloughs, streams and ponds, combined with evapotranspiration losses during periods of high water table.

  8. ENSO's Effects on the Wind Energy Production of South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, B. R.

    2005-12-01

    An aging infrastructure, environmental concerns, and growing demand threaten to undermine the reliability and long-term sustainability of the current fossil fuel electricity supply and transmission system. It is widely agreed that renewable energy sources will become increasingly important in the evolution to a next generation electric grid. In this study we investigated the use and value of climate information in determining the location and performance of wind power turbines in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Fifty years of hourly wind speed data were used to evaluate the possible influence of seasonal and interannual climate variability on wind power production at four location in South Dakota. The El Nino Southern Oscillation is a documented source of climate variability in the Northern Great Plains. Our results documented a dominant El Nino influence on the probability of a lull in wind speed, with a stronger influence in the eastern half of the state. Information on wind speed lulls in important to the wind energy industry because these are periods when no energy is being produced. All of the locaitons also showed a slight decrease in power production potential during El Nino events. Our preliminary results confirmed that information on climate variability and change can be of significant use and value to future wind power planning, siting, and performance.

  9. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Newcastle Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, E S; Robinson, K; Geer, K A; Blattspieler, J G

    1982-09-01

    Uranium resources of the Newcastle 1/sup 0/x2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft) using available surface and subsurface geologic information. Many of the uranium occurrences reported in the literature and in reports of the US Atomic Energy Commission were located, sampled and described. Areas of anomalous radioactivity, interpreted from an aerial radiometric survey, were outlined. Areas favorable for uranium deposits in the subsurface were evaluated using gamma-ray logs. Based on surface and subsurface data, two areas have been delineated which are underlain by rocks deemed favorable as hosts for uranium deposits. One of these is underlain by rocks that contain fluvial arkosic facies in the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations of Tertiary age; the other is underlain by rocks containing fluvial quartzose sandstone facies of the Inyan Kara Group of Early Cretaceous age. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Tertiary age above the Wasatch Formation, all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and most rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and all rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group.

  10. Soil moisture variation patterns observed in Hand County, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.; Owe, M.; Schmugge, T. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Soil moisture data were taken during 1976 (April, June, October), 1977 (April, May, June), and 1978 (May, June, July) Hand County, South Dakota as part of the ground truth used in NASA's aircraft experiments to study the use of microwave radiometers for the remote sensing of soil moisture. The spatial variability observed on the ground during each of the sampling events was studied. The data reported are the mean gravimetric soil moisture contained in three surface horizon depths: 0 to 2.5, 0 to 5 and 0 to 10 cm. The overall moisture levels ranged from extremely dry conditions in June 1976 to very wet in May 1978, with a relatively even distribution of values within that range. It is indicated that well drained sites have to be partitioned from imperfectly drained areas when attempting to characterize the general moisture profile throughout an area of varying soil and cover type conditions. It is also found that the variability in moisture content is greatest in the 0 to 2.5 cm measurements and decreases as the measurements are integrated over a greater depth. It is also determined that the sampling intensity of 10 measurements per km is adequate to estimate the mean moisture with an uncertainty of + or - 3 percent under average moisture conditions in areas of moderate to good drainage.

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Geothermal Potential at the Cheyenee River Sioux Reservation, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Bergfeld, D.; Bruton, C.; Goff, F.; Counce, D.

    1999-10-01

    A geochemical investigation of well waters from the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in South Dakota revealed considerable diversity in the chemistry of the fluids and indicated that waters from the Dakota Formation were the best candidates for direct-use geothermal applications. Geothermometry calculations for all wells suggest that formation temperatures are <90 C. Potential scaling problems from utilization of the waters would most likely be restricted to carbonate scale and could be offset by maintaining CO{sub 2} gas in solution.

  12. Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magness, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

  13. Advancing Postsecondary Opportunity, Completion, and Productivity: Essential Performance Indicators for South Dakota and Selected Peer States. 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midwestern Higher Education Compact, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report portrays various performance indicators that are intended to facilitate an assessment of the postsecondary education system in South Dakota. Descriptive statistics are presented for South Dakota and five other comparison states as well as the nation. Comparison states were selected according to the degree of similarity of population…

  14. 78 FR 48904 - United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota; Public Comment and Response on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota; Public Comment and... was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern Division of South Dakota on August 5... response are available for inspection at the Department of Justice, Antitrust Division, 450 Fifth Street...

  15. Developing an Engaged Institution: South Dakota State University's 2+2+2 Project and American Indian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayongo-Male, Diane; Nichols, Laurie Stenberg; Nichols, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    The authors examine South Dakota's 2+2+2 Project, a collaborative effort between South Dakota State University (SDSU) and the state's tribal colleges designed to enhance educational opportunities for American Indians, through the W. K. Kellogg Foundation's indicators of an engaged institution. Indicators include responsiveness, respect for…

  16. Analysis of flood-flow frequency, flow duration, and channel-forming flow for the James River in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The James River, which originates in North Dakota and joins the Missouri River near Yankton, South Dakota, is about 747 miles long, with about 474 river miles located in South Dakota. The James River basin includes 21,116 sq mi, with 14,428 sq mi located in South Dakota. Bankfull capacity of the James River in South Dakota ranges from a minimum of about 200 cu ft/sec near the mouth. Discharges that produce bankfull conditions on much of the river in South Dakota occur on an average of once in about 2 years. The 10-year flood flows, which range from 1,620 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Stratford) to 8,870 cu ft/sec (at the gage near Scotland), cause major flooding on most of the river in South Dakota. The river also has potential for extending periods of low or zero flow, especially in the northern portion within South Dakota. Generally, low flows occur from late summer until spring snowmelt. The James River at Columbia had zero flow for 623 consecutive days from July 13, 1958, through March 26, 1960. The channel pattern (channel alignment) has changed little since 1922. This channel stability indicates that channel formation is approaching a state of equilibrium. It does not appear that velocities in the river are sufficient to carry the sediment being delivered by the tributaries. (Author 's abstract)

  17. Science achievement in secondary school students across rural and urban South Dakota locales.

    PubMed

    Maas, Teresa; Amolins, Michael; Vitiello, Peter

    2015-05-01

    While many efforts have been made at the graduate level to train physicians for rural South Dakota, there has been little work to identify how geographic locale affects the science achievement of high school students. This study utilized the urban-central locale code system to analyze South Dakota high school student ACT science scores. Rural student achievement was significantly lower than students from city and town locales. By analyzing such correlations, unique strategies can be developed to improve secondary rural science education and increase the number of students pursuing careers in rural medicine. PMID:26058258

  18. Estimation of Potential Bridge Scour at Bridges on State Routes in South Dakota, 2003-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2008-01-01

    Flowing water can erode (scour) soils and cause structural failure of a bridge by exposing or undermining bridge foundations (abutments and piers). A rapid scour-estimation technique, known as the level-1.5 method and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, was used to evaluate potential scour at bridges in South Dakota in a study conducted in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Transportation. This method was used during 2003-07 to estimate scour for the 100-year and 500-year floods at 734 selected bridges managed by the South Dakota Department of Transportation on State routes in South Dakota. Scour depths and other parameters estimated from the level-1.5 analyses are presented in tabular form. Estimates of potential contraction scour at the 734 bridges ranged from 0 to 33.9 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 35.8 feet for the 500-year flood. Abutment scour ranged from 0 to 36.9 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 45.9 feet for the 500-year flood. Pier scour ranged from 0 to 30.8 feet for the 100-year flood and from 0 to 30.7 feet for the 500-year flood. The scour depths estimated by using the level-1.5 method can be used by the South Dakota Department of Transportation and others to identify bridges that may be susceptible to scour. Scour at 19 selected bridges also was estimated by using the level-2 method. Estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour calculated by using the level-1.5 and level-2 methods are presented in tabular and graphical formats. Compared to level-2 scour estimates, the level-1.5 method generally overestimated scour as designed, or in a few cases slightly underestimated scour. Results of the level-2 analyses were used to develop regression equations for change in head and average velocity through the bridge opening. These regression equations derived from South Dakota data are compared to similar regression equations derived from Montana and Colorado data. Future level-1.5 scour investigations in South

  19. Revisited: The South Dakota Board of Nursing theory-based regulatory decisioning model.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Gloria; Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2012-07-01

    The authors of this column describe the South Dakota Board of Nursing's 11 year journey utilizing a humanbecoming theory-based regulatory decisioning model. The column revisits the model with an emphasis on the cocreation of a strategic plan guiding the work of the South Dakota Board of Nursing through 2014. The strategic plan was influenced by the latest refinements of the humanbecoming postulates and the humanbecoming community change concepts. A graphic picture of the decisioning model is presented along with future plans for the theory-based model.

  20. Selected hydrologic data, through water year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bradford, Wendell L.; Moran, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents water-level and water-quality data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1998, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term coop-erative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). This report is the third in a series of project data reports produced for the study. Daily water-level data are presented for 71 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells include a network of observation wells that are maintained in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tables of daily water levels. Annual measurements of water levels collected during water years 1995-98 from a net-work of 18 additional, miscellaneous wells are presented. These wells are part of a statewide network of wells completed in bedrock aquifers that was operated from 1959 through 1989 in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Site descriptions and hydrographs for the entire period of record for each site also are presented. Water-quality data are presented for 9 surface-water sites, 19 ground-water sites, and 30 sites that have been classified as areas of surface- and ground-water interaction in the Black Hills area. The surface- and ground-water interaction sites are further divided into three categories that include 11 loss zone sites, 8 headwater spring sites, and 11 downgradient spring sites.

  1. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Higley, Debra K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 6.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.53 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations in the Williston Basin Province of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

  3. Precambrian basement geology of North and South Dakota.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, J.S.; King, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Combined analysis of drill-hole, gravity and magnetic data indicates that the Precambrian rocks in the basement of the Dakotas may be divided into a series of lithotectonic terrains. On the basis of an analysis of geological and geophysical data in the Dakotas and from the surrounding states and Canada, it is shown how the exposed Precambrian rocks of the adjacent shield areas project into the study area. Brief comments are made on the tectonic implications of this study. Geological and geophysical characteristics of 11 terrains are tabulated. -P.Br.

  4. Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Development of energy-related resources in the northern Great Plains of the US will require large quantities of ground water. Because Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming are semiarid, the primary local sources of nonappropriated water are the deep bedrock aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. The US Geological Survey undertook a 4-year interdisciplinary study that has culminated in a digital-simulation model of the regional flow system and incorporates the results of geochemical, hydrologic, and geologic studies. Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age form at least five artesian aquifers that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. The aquifers extend for more than 600 mi to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in Manitoba. In general, the direction of flow in each aquifer is east to northeast, but flow is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of brine (200,000-350,000 mg/l), halite beds, geologic structures, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Fracture systems and lineaments transverse the entire area and act either as conduits or as barriers to ground-water flow, depending on their hydrogeologic and geochemical history. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale with low permeability, by halite beds, and by stratigraphic traps or low-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. However, interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments and fractures. Interaquifer leakage may be a major consideration in determining the quality of water produced from wells.

  5. Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downey, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age underlie the entire northern Great Plains of the United States. These rocks form 5 artesian aquifer systems that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming and extend more than 600 miles to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in the Canadian Province of Manitoba. Generally, the principal direction of flow in each aquifer is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of geologic structure, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Major fracture systems or lineaments traverse the geologic section and are either vertical or horizontal conduits, or barriers to, groundwater flow. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale of minimal permeability, halite beds, and stratigraphic traps or minimal-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. Interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments. During the Pleistocene Epoch, thick ice sheets completely covered the discharge areas of the bedrock aquifers. This effectively blocked flow northeastward from the system and, at some locations, it may have caused a reversal of flow. The existing flow, system therefore, may not have reached hydrologic equilibrium with the stress of the last glacial period. (USGS)

  6. Interlibrary Loan Time Study at I. D. Weeks Library, University of South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprules, Marcia L.

    This report describes a study designed to improve the interlibrary loan service offered by the I. D. Weeks Library at the University of South Dakota (USD); the study which examined both the actual time elapsed in filling interlibrary loan requests and the causes for delays. An introduction to the problem is provided; the library staffing and…

  7. 77 FR 22610 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State...

  8. Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates. South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    National and regional trends mask important variation among states in the supply of high school graduates. This profile provides brief indicators for South Dakota related to: current levels of educational attainment, projections of high school graduates into the future, and two common barriers to student access and success--insufficient academic…

  9. Localizing the Message of "Death by Cheeseburger" to Newspaper Professionals in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lyle D.; Giago, Doris

    1996-01-01

    Describes a presentation before newspaper professionals based on Freedom Forum's "Death by Cheeseburger" and ERIC/REC's "Journalism Kids Do Better." States that a survey of high school newspaper advisors furnished current information on the general status of high school journalism in South Dakota; the presentation gave four reasons for scholastic…

  10. South Dakota Statewide Core Curriculum, Career Ladder and Challenge System: Volumes I and II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    The two volume final report of the South Dakota Statewide Core Curriculum, Career Ladder, and Challenge System Project, coordinating associated health and nursing education on a statewide basis to achieve a more systematic production and utilization of health manpower, is presented. Volume 1 includes five chapters: (1) and (2) outlining funding…

  11. Northeastern South Dakota's Country Schools. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip L.

    Northeastern South Dakota's country schools are examined in this volume of the Mountain Plains Library Association's eight-state research effort to locate and preserve information related to country schools. Rural school buildings are discussed in the broad social and historical context that shaped their form and style. Both national trends in…

  12. Faculty Internationalization: Experiences, Attitudes, and Involvement of Faculty at Public Universities in South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Internationalization in higher education is an issue of growing importance as the forces of globalism continue to push both social and economic connections from local to global. While this topic is becoming increasingly vital to the health and influence of educational institutions, many, including those within South Dakota, are unaware of the…

  13. 76 FR 64096 - South Dakota; Amendment No. 9 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency South Dakota; Amendment No. 9 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends the... Miller, Office of Response and Recovery, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street,...

  14. 75 FR 81187 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    .... Standardized Permits for 70 FR 53420-53478 South Dakota Code RCRA Hazardous Waste September 8, 2005. Annotated... 17, 1991 (56 FR 15503); September 8, 1993, effective November 8, 1993 (58 FR 47216); January 10, 1994, effective March 11, 1994 (59 FR 01275); July 24, 1996, effective September 23, 1996 (61 FR 38392); May...

  15. 77 FR 47302 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Register at 75 FR 81187. Response to Comments: The EPA proposed to authorize South Dakota's State Hazardous waste management Program revisions published in the December 27, 2010 Federal Register at 75 FR 81187... be found at 67 FR 45684 through 45686 (July 10, 2002). II. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews...

  16. Black Hills State University Research and Scholarly Work Symposium Proceedings (Spearfish, South Dakota, May 2, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnopoulos, Cheryl, Ed.; Ochse, Roger, Ed.; Wolff, Roger, Ed.

    This proceedings contains papers from a symposium conducted to promote the professional sharing of scholarly accomplishments of Black Hills State University (South Dakota) faculty and students. The symposium also provided a forum for discussion of current issues related to the presentations. The papers, representing a variety of disciplines, are…

  17. Access to Quality. A Planning Document for South Dakota's Public Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Board of Regents, Pierre.

    This planning document for South Dakota's public universities emphasizes that the primary mission of the state's colleges and universities is to utilize available resources to provide an environment that supports students in their intellectual, cultural, and ethical development and affirms the State Board's commitment to diverse campus communities…

  18. Relationships among Selected Variables in the South Dakota All-State Band Auditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Joelle L.; Humphreys, Jere T.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the data from the 1992-97 South Dakota all-state band auditions. Focuses on the effects of school enrollment, distance to audition site, sex of auditionees, and the type of instrument. Presents the results of the study in detail. Includes references. (CMK)

  19. South Dakota 1996 KIDS COUNT Factbook: Key Indicators of Child Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kids Count--South Dakota, Vermillion.

    This KIDS COUNT statistical report is the fourth to examine trends in children's and adolescents' well-being in South Dakota using indicators of health, education, social, and economic well-being, along with information on family income, household relationships, population, and AFDC/food stamp usage for each county. The information is organized in…

  20. Report of an Evaluation of the Vocational-Technical Program in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Advisory Council on Vocational and Technical Education, Pierre.

    The results of an evaluation study made to determine how well South Dakota has met vocational-technical education objectives and goals are provided. The three sections of the report are as follows: Section I: Presentation, Analysis, Interpretation of Data and Evaluation of Outcome Objectives (15 tables and 4 charts); Section II: Part A.…

  1. Non-Traditional Sources of Revenue for High Schools: South Dakota's Experience in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnos, Michael L.

    A survey of superintendents and principals in 91 percent of South Dakota school districts examined the extent and nature of nontraditional funding acquired by high schools, and administrator attitudes toward this funding. Sources of funding were categorized as donor sources (cash or other donations from individuals or organizations); enterprise…

  2. The Relationship between Student Attendance and Academic Achievement in a Selected South Dakota High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research available on the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement in secondary school. This quantitative, non-experimental study, conducted within a South Dakota high school of students in grades 9-12 during the years 2006-2012, examined the relationship between student attendance and academic achievement…

  3. 77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... the Federal Register on Monday, August 8, 2011 (76 FR 48120). This corrected notice of intent is being...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota--Mountain Pine... environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: This project proposes to treat areas newly infested by mountain...

  4. Demography and Socio-Economic Characteristics of South Dakota and lts Economic Regions. Bulletin Number 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, W. H.

    The information about South Dakota presented in this booklet is intended for use by both private and government sector planners and decisionmakers at every level who would profit from knowledge of the character of the underlying trends and forces at work within the State. The first half of the booklet is devoted to the State in general: History…

  5. 75 FR 7029 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the South Dakota Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-16

    ...; ] COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the South Dakota Advisory Committee Notice... Civil Rights and the regulations of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), that a meeting of the... training; discuss recent Commission and regional activities, discuss current civil rights issues in...

  6. South Dakota School Principals' Preferred Leadership Styles for Leading Change to Face Poverty and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soka, John Alex

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study identified perceptions regarding leadership styles of a sample of high school, middle school, and elementary school principals serving in South Dakota public and tribal/BIE (Bureau of Indian Education) schools in 2011. From 152 public school districts and 20 tribal/BIE schools, a sample of 148 school principals was…

  7. 75 FR 69436 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...) Primacy Program by adopting federal regulations for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of South Dakota AGENCY... 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice...

  8. Factors Affecting the Outcomes of School Bond Elections in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Carleton Roland

    School administrators in South Dakota and throughout the United States, in order to fund educational facility replacement and renovation projects, initiate school bond elections that they often have difficulty planning to successful conclusions. This study uses an exploratory data analysis to determine the factors within a community and within the…

  9. Administrative Guidelines: Education of Gifted Students [and] Plan for Education of the Gifted in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This document is intended to assist South Dakota schools in the development and implementation of Gifted Education Plans, and includes state laws and rules pertaining to gifted education, guidelines for reporting, and explanations of the necessary components of a district's written plan. A brief statement of philosophy addresses characteristics of…

  10. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: South Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Ronald G.; Stover, Penny W.

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summarizes data collected from 207 South Dakota farm operators (a 29.6% response) and 182 spouses (a 26% response) as part of large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  11. 40 CFR 272.2101 - South Dakota State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the South Dakota regulations that are..., 3rd Floor, State Capitol, 500 East Capitol Avenue, Pierre, SD 57501, (Phone: 605-773-3251). (i) The... July 1, 2004, Title 34, Public Health and Safety: Chapter 34-21, Radiation and Uranium...

  12. 40 CFR 272.2101 - South Dakota State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the South Dakota regulations that are..., 3rd Floor, State Capitol, 500 East Capitol Avenue, Pierre, SD 57501, (Phone: 605-773-3251). (i) The... July 1, 2004, Title 34, Public Health and Safety: Chapter 34-21, Radiation and Uranium...

  13. 40 CFR 272.2101 - South Dakota State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the South Dakota regulations that are..., 3rd Floor, State Capitol, 500 East Capitol Avenue, Pierre, SD 57501, (Phone: 605-773-3251). (i) The... July 1, 2004, Title 34, Public Health and Safety: Chapter 34-21, Radiation and Uranium...

  14. State Teacher Policy Yearbook: What States Can Do to Retain Effective New Teachers, 2008. South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the South Dakota edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's 2008 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook." The 2008 "Yearbook" focuses on how state policies impact the retention of effective new teachers. This policy evaluation is broken down into three areas that encompass 15 goals. Broadly, these goals examine the impact of…

  15. Influence of ecologic factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection in South Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A; Grovenburg, Troy W; Klaver, Robert W; Dubay, Shelli A

    2015-04-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  16. Where We'Re At . . . Statistical Report on Status of Minorities and Women in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEldowney, Mary Ellen

    The Commission on Human Rights enforces the South Dakota Human Relations Act of 1972 which prohibits discrimination because of race, color, creed, religion, sex, national origin or ancestry in employment, labor unions, housing, property rights, education, public accomodations and public services in the state. The purpose of this paper was to draw…

  17. 76 FR 50748 - South Dakota; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency South Dakota; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends...

  18. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  19. An Evaluation of the Preparation of Industrial Arts Graduates of South Dakota State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Kenneth Keith, Jr.

    Questionnaires were used to gather data from 1955-1969 industrial arts graduates and state public secondary school administrators in order to evaluate the undergraduate industrial arts program at South Dakota State University. Among the findings were: (1) 53 percent of the graduates are teaching, (2) Prevalent teaching areas are woodworking,…

  20. Compilation of selected hydrologic data, through water year 1992, Black Hills Hydrology Study, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bradford, Wendell

    1994-01-01

    This report presents water-level, water-quailty, and springflow data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1992, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). Water-level data are presented for 32 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells are part of a network of observation wells maintained by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tabular data. Water- quality data are presented for 12 surface-water sites and 5 ground-water sites. Data presented include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, cyanide, phenols, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Spring data are presented for 83 springs and 21 stream reaches with significant springflow components. Data presented include site information, discharge, and field water-quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH.

  1. Water resources of Mellette and Todd counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Mellette and Todd Counties are located in south-central South Dakota and have a combined area of 2,694 square miles. The White River and its tributaries, which include the Little White River, drain Mellette County and about one-half of Todd County. Tributaries to the Niobrara River, which include the Keya Paha River, drain the other one-half of Todd County. The average discharge of the Little White River is about 56 cubic feet per second as the river enters Todd County and is about 131 cubic feet per second as it discharges to the White River in northern Mellette County. The average discharge of the Keya Paha River just outside Todd County is about 39 cubic feet per second. The average annual runoff for Mellette and Todd Counties ranges from 0.94 to 2.36 inches based on records from nine streamflow-gaging stations in and near the counties. The average annual runoff is 1.62 inches, which compares with the average annual precipitation of about 19 inches. In Todd County, shallow wells completed in the alluvial, Ogallala, Arikaree, and White River aquifers generally can supply water that has low concentrations of dissolved solids, is fresh, and is soft to moderately hard. Ground water from shallow aquifers is limited in Mellette County; therefore, deep wells, often greater than 1,000 feet, are sometimes installed. The Pierre Shale often is used to supply rural domestic and stock wells in Mellette County even though well yields are low and the water has high dissolved solids, is moderately saline, and is very hard. Alluvial aquifers are present in both counties and store an estimated 1.6 million acre-feet of water. The water quality of the alluvial aquifers is dependent on the underlying deposits, and generally the water has low concentrations of dissolved solids, is fresh, and is soft to moderately hard where underlain by the Ogallala and Arikaree Formations; has moderate concentrations of dissolved solids, is slightly saline, and is hard where underlain by the White

  2. Detection of reproducing populations of Coccinella novemnotata within coccinellid assemblages (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western South Dakota and western Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...

  3. South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the

  4. Summary of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) activities in South Dakota, 2000-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heakin, Allen J.; Neitzert, Kathleen M.; Shearer, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated data-collection activities for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-West (EMAP-West) in South Dakota during 2000. The objectives of the study were to develop the monitoring tools necessary to produce unbiased estimates of the ecological condition of surface waters across a large geographic area of the western United States, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of those tools in a large-scale assessment. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks (GF&P) established a cooperative agreement and assumed responsibility for completing the remaining assessments for the perennial, wadable streams of the EMAP-West in the State. Stream assessment sites were divided into two broad categories-the first category of sites was randomly selected and assigned by the USEPA for South Dakota. The second category consisted of sites that were specifically selected because they appeared to have reasonable potential for representing the best available physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the State. These sites comprise the second category of assessment sites and were called 'reference' sites and were selected following a detailed evaluation process. Candidate reference site data will serve as a standard or benchmark for assessing the overall ecological condition of the randomly selected sites. During 2000, the USEPA completed 22 statewide stream assessments in South Dakota. During 2001-2003, the USGS and GF&P completed another 42 stream assessments bringing the total of randomly selected stream assessments within South Dakota to 64. In addition, 18 repeat assessments designed to meet established quality-assurance/quality-control requirements were completed at 12 of these 64 sites. During 2002-2004, the USGS in cooperation with GF&P completed stream assessments at 45 candidate reference sites. Thus, 109 sites had stream assessments completed in South

  5. 15. OLD ROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN (EAST ABERDEEN) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OLD ROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN (EAST ABERDEEN) One mile E of Aberdeen, 1000 ft. N of (1978) U.S. 45 bridge. Oblique view of bridge, in early 1900s. Credit: Evans Memorial Library, Aberdeen, MS. No date. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  6. Catastrophic flood origin, little Missouri River valley, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, E.N.

    1988-07-01

    Mosaics of photographically reduced topographic maps demonstrate the Little Missouri River valley was developed by gigantic floods. Catastrophic flood landforms, oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, cross the entire Little Missouri drainage basin. Field evidence, consisting of abundant flood-deposited alluvium, supports map evidence. Flood-produced landforms, cut in easily eroded claystone bedrock, appear fresh, suggesting that floods occurred late during the last glacial cycle. Sheets of water, several hundred kilometers wide, flowed in a southeast direction, parallel with a continental ice margin. Erosion lowered the regional surface from a level corresponding to the tops of the highest present-day buttes to the surface now crossed by the headwaters of the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Green Rivers. Spillway trenches served to channel flow and rapidly cut headward into easily eroded claystone. These trenches include the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Missouri valleys. The Missouri valley in western North Dakota became the dominant spillway as tributary trenches systematically cut off flow feeding competing spillways. Formation of the Little Missouri spillway, first as a north-trending valley, progressively cut off floodwaters flowing into the Heart, Cannonball, Grand, and Moreau spillways. The north end of the Little Missouri spillway also was cut off by a deeper east-trending spillway. Huge sheets of floodwater continued to pour across the divide west of the Little Missouri continuing to lower that surface. These floodwaters were cut off by development of the Yellowstone spillway in eastern Montana.

  7. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-03-04

    The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  8. Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, C.C.; Larson, D.L.; Larson, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We monitored populations of Canada thistle biocontrol agents Cassida rubiginosa, Ceutorhynchus litura, Larinus (= Hadroplantus) planus, Urophora cardui, Orellia (= Terellia) ruficauda, and Rhinocyllus conicus on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) at two national wildlife refuges in South Dakota from 1999 through 2003. C. litura, U. cardui, O. ruficauda, and R. conicus were present on both refuges. Agent populations were low except for C. litura, which was present in up to 90% of stems in some plots. C. litura infestation did not reduce thistle flowering, stem length, or over-winter survival. There was no change in thistle stem numbers over the study period and no difference in stem numbers in areas of high C. litura populations compared to areas of low C. litura populations. Our results suggest that insect biological control agents are inadequate for reduction of Canada thistle in southern South Dakota.

  9. Evaluation of factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehus, Colin A.

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT), conducted a study to evaluate factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota. The focus of this ice-force evaluation was on maximum ice thickness and ice-crushing strength, which are the most important variables in the SDDOT bridge-design equations for ice forces in South Dakota. Six sites, the James River at Huron, the James River near Scotland, the White River near Oacoma/Presho, the Grand River at Little Eagle, the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge, and the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge, were selected for collection of ice-thickness and ice-crushing-strength data. Ice thickness was measured at the six sites from February 1999 until April 2001. This period is representative of the climate extremes of record in South Dakota because it included both one of the warmest and one of the coldest winters on record. The 2000 and 2001 winters were the 8th warmest and 11th coldest winters, respectively, on record at Sioux Falls, South Dakota, which was used to represent the climate at all bridges in South Dakota. Ice thickness measured at the James River sites at Huron and Scotland during 1999-2001 ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 feet and 0 to 1.7 feet, respectively, and ice thickness measured at the White River near Oacoma/Presho site during 2000-01 ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 feet. At the Grand River at Little Eagle site, ice thickness was measured at 1.2 feet in 1999, ranged from 0.5 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 feet in 2001. Ice thickness measured at the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge site ranged from 1.7 to 1.8 feet in 1999, 0.9 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and 0 to 2.2 feet in 2001. At the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge site, ice thickness ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 feet in 2001. Historical ice-thickness data measured by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at eight selected streamflow-gaging stations in South Dakota

  10. Early Tertiary Age of Pitchstone in the Northern Black Hills, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redden, Jack A.; Obradovich, John D.; Naeser, Charles W.; Zartman, Robert E.; Norton, James J.

    1983-06-01

    A block of pitchstone in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota, is Paleocene in age, according to potassium-argon dating of biotite and fission-track dating of zircon in the sample. These data invalidate published suggestions that the age is much younger. The pitchstone is not extrusive in its present position but instead is in a volcanic pipe with other fragments that came downward from as much as 1100 meters above the modern surface.

  11. Analyses of flood-flow frequency for selected gaging stations in South Dakota through September 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, E.B.; Freese, M.E.; Winter, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Analyses of flood-flow frequency were made for 80 active continuous-record gaging stations and 105 discontinued crest-stage partial-record stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of record. The analyses were developed using the log-Pearson Type III procedure recommended by the U.S. Water Resources Council (Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1981.) (USGS)

  12. Availability of selected meteorological data in computer-based files of the U.S. Geological Survey, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Brenda L.; Cary, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Meteorological data were located, acquired, and stored from selected stations in Montana and North Dakota coal regions and adjacent areas including South Dakota and Wyoming. Data that were acquired have potential use in small watershed modeling studies. Emphasis was placed on acquiring data that was collected during the period 1970 to the present (1984). A map shows the location and type of stations selected. A narration summarizing conventions used in acquiring and storing the meteorological data is provided along with the various retrieval options available. Individual station descriptions are followed by tables listing the meteorological variables collected, period of obtained record, percentage of data recovery, and the instruments used and their description. (USGS)

  13. Water resources of Hanson and Davison Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Five glacial and four bedrock aquifers were delineated in Hanson and Davison Counties. The glacial aquifers, outwash deposits confined by as much as 275 feet of glacial till, are the Floyd, Plum Creek, Ethan, Warren, and Alexandria. The bedrock aquifers are the Niobrara, Codell, Dakota, and Sioux Quartzite Wash, and may be as much as 80, 350, 700, and 500 feet below land surface, respectively. The glacial aquifers averaged 13 to 40 feet in thickness and contain about 670,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Recharge to the Floyd and Plum Creek aquifers is from the Sioux Quartzite Wash aquifer and from fractures in the Sioux Quartzite. Recharge to the Ethan and Warren aquifers is from the Niobrara aquifer. Reported yield to wells from the Floyd and Plum Creek aquifers was as much as 1,000 gallons per minute. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the glacial aquifers are sulfate, calcium, and sodium. The bedrock aquifers averaged 40 to 110 feet in the thickness and contain about 11.3 million acre-feet of water in storage. The direction of water movement in the aquifers is to the northeast. The average reported yield from wells in the bedrock aquifers ranged from 1 to 75 gallons per minute. Reported yield from wells in the Niobrara aquifer was as much as 1,000 gallons per minute. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the Niobrara and Codell aquifers were sulfate, sodium, and calcium. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the Dakota and Sioux Quartzite wash were sulfate and calcium. (USGS)

  14. Water resources of Codington and Grant counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The primary sources of surface water in Codington and Grant Counties are Lakes Kampeska and Pelican and numerous potholes in western Codington County. Seasonal variations in streamflow and lake levels are directly related to seasonal variations in precipitation and evapotranspiration. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water from streams and lakes increase as stream discharge decreases and lake levels decline. Seven aquifers in glacial-outwash deposits and two bedrock aquifers were delineated in Codington and Grant Counties. The extent of the outwash aquifers ranges from 30 sq mi for the Antelope Valley aquifer to 860 sq mi for the Altamost aquifer. The average thickness of the glacial aquifers ranges from 20 ft for the Prairie Coteau to 63 ft for the Revillo. The Big Sioux and Antelope Valley aquifers are less than 10 ft below land surface. The Veblen, Prairie Coteau, and the Lonesome Lake aquifers are less than 380 ft below land surface. The Revillo and Altamost aquifers are less than 668 ft below land surface. Reported well yields are as much as 800 gal/min for the Big Sioux, Antelope Valley, and Prairie Coteau aquifers. Predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate in water from the Big Sioux, Antelope Valley, Prairie Coteau, Veblen, Revillo, and Lonesome Lake aquifers. Sulfate also is predominant in water from the Veblen aquifer. Average dissolved-solids concentrations in water from the aquifers range 350 to 2,120 mg/L. The two bedrock aquifers delineated are the Dakota and granite wash. The water level has declined 10 ft from 1958 to 1985. Predominant ions in water from the Dakota and granite wash aquifers are sodium and sulfate. (USGS)

  15. Water resources of Lake and Moody counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The primary sources of surface water in Lake and Moody Counties are the Big Sioux River and its intermittent tributaries, and Lakes Herman, Madison, and Brant. Seasonal variations in streamflow and lake levels are directly related to seasonal variations in precipitation. Dissolved-solids concentration in water from streams and lakes increases as streamflow decreases and lake levels decline. Eight glacial aquifers and four bedrock aquifers were delineated in Lake and Moody Counties. The Big Sioux, North Skunk Creek, Pipestone Creek, Battle Creek, and East Fork Vermillion aquifers are composed of glacial outwash. These aquifers are less than 60 feet below land surface, and are in hydraulic connection with the river or creek of the same name. The Rutland, Ramona, and Howard aquifers are composed of glacial outwash and are overlain by 50 to 470 feet of till. The four bedrock aquifers are the Niobrara, Codell, Dakota, and Quartzite wash. The average thickness of the Big Sioux, Pipestone Creek, North Skunk Creek, Battle Creek, and East Fork Vermillion aquifers ranges from 14 feet for the Battle Creek aquifer to 39 feet for the North Skunk Creek aquifer. The average thickness of the Rutland, Ramona, and Howard aquifers ranges from 18 feet for the Ramona aquifer to 40 feet for the Howard aquifer. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the Big Sioux, North Skunk Creek, and Pipestone Creek aquifers are calcium and bicarbonate. Predominant chemical constituents in the Battle Creek and East Fork Vermillion aquifers are calcium and sulfate. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the Rutland, Ramona, and Howard aquifers are calcium, sulfate and biocarbonate. The average thickness of the four bedrock aquifers ranges from 60 to 400 feet. The aquifers are under artesian conditions. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the Niobrara aquifer are calcium, sodium, and sulfate; from the Codell and Dakota aquifers are sodium and sulfate; and from the Quartzite

  16. Geology of the Williston basin, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, C.A.

    1962-01-01

    The southern Williston basin, which underlies about 110,000 square miles #n North Dakota, South Dakota, and eastern Montana, is part of a large structural and sedimentary basin. Its surface is a flat to gently rolling plain, standing about 1,500 to 3,500 feet above sea level and locally studded by a few high buttes. The sedimentary sequence that fills the basin has a maximum thickness of about 16,700 feet and rests on Precambrian metamorphic rocks at depths of 500 to 13,900 feet below sea level. It contains rocks of every geologic system, from Cambrian to Quaternary. Rocks of Middle Cambrian through Middle Ordovician age are largely shale and sandstone, as much as 1,200 feet thick; rocks of Late Ordovician through Pennsylvanian age are largely limestone and dolomite, as much as 7,500 feet thick; and rocks of Permian through Tertiary age are predominantly shale and siltstone, as much as 8,000 feet thick. Pleistocene glacial drift mantles the northern and eastern parts of the area. Rocks of the Williston basin are gently folded and regional dips are 1? or less from the margins to the basin center. Dips on the flanks of the major anticlinal folds, the Nesson and cedar Creek anticlines and the Poplar and Bowdoin domes, generally are about 1? to 3? except on the steep west limb of the Cedar Creek anticline. The basin was shaped by Laramide orogeny during latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Most of the present structural features, however, were initiated during the Precambrian and reactivated by several subsequent orogenies, of which the latest was the Laramide. The most important mineral resource of the area is oil, which is produced predominantly from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence and largely on three of the major anticlinal folds, and lignite, which is present near the surface in Paleocene rocks. The subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes at some places in the Williston basin appears to be geographically and geologically feasible. Many sites, at which

  17. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in South Dakota; fiscal years 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decker, E. M.

    1987-01-01

    In South Dakota, the first collection of streamflow data by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was in 1903. Despite its early beginning, it was not until October 16, 1944, that the Bismarck District, comprising the states of North Dakota and South Dakota , was created to assess the water resources of the two states. The next major increase in collection of surface water records occurred during the mid-1940 's as a result of the Pick-Sloan Plan for Missouri Basin development. Since 1944, about 98 water resources studies have been made in South Dakota. These range from reconnaissance-type studies of counties and Indian reservations to research on small basin runoff and toxic wastes, the quality of water in lakes, the use of remote sensing for defining aquifers, and studies using digital models to describe the groundwater regimen and surface water hydraulics such as those currently underway in the James River basin and the Big Sioux River basin. During the past 20 years, 140 formal reports describing the studies and results of investigations have been prepared to inform the public and the scientific community. The location of surface water stations and observation wells in bedrock are tabulated. Brief (1 page) descriptions of current water resources projects in South Dakota include information on the location, purpose, period of performance, cooperating agencies, project leader, and completed reports. (Lantz-PTT)

  18. A preliminary assessment of the hydrologic characteristics of the James River in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The James River in South Dakota has very restricted channel capacities within the Lake Dakota Plain. Channel capacities in Brown County are as little as 200 cubic feet per second, and spring flooding can be expected on an average of every other year. The river has potential for extended periods of flooding an average of once in 10 years. Extended periods of no flow during late-summer and winter also can be expected. Excluding flows of a very large magnitude, average travel time between Columbia and Scotland (a distance of 382 river miles) is estimated to be 25-30 days for most flows. The upstream reach of the James River within the Lake Dakota Plain generally loses discharge with distance whereas the downstream reach generally gains discharge with distance. Ground water - surface water interaction does not appear to be significant along upstream reaches of the James River. Some interaction, although not quantified, does occur in Hanson, Davison, and Yankton Counties. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, located just downsteam from the State line and containing Sand and Mud Lakes (combined capacity = 24,600 acre-feet), is a major source of water loss between LaMoure, N. Dak. and Columbia, S. Dak. Gross evaporation losses from the lakes during 1969-81 is estimated to have been slightly more than 29,000 acre-feet per year. Unaccounted-for losses in the lake system are estimated to have been slightly more than 19,000 acre-feet per year. (USGS)

  19. A new fossil mustelid from the Miocene of South Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jong-Deock; Martin, L. D.

    2002-03-01

    A skull from the Barstovian of South Dakota has typical leptarctine characteristics, including robust zygomatic arches, double sagittal crests, grooves on the lingual side of the lower canines, and bony projections from the tympanic bullae. The robust mandibles and expanded masseteric fossa of this specimen indicate that it had large jaw muscles. Dental morphology and other characters lead us to agree with earlier suggestions that Hypsoparia is a valid genus. The morphology of Hypsoparia suggests that leptarctines were more herbivorous than most other Carnivora.

  20. Interrelationships between Fish Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Water Quality for South Dakota Natural Lakes and Impoundments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipps, Steven R.; Stetler, Larry; Stone, James J.; McCutcheon, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether water quality parameters commonly associated with primary productivity may be used to predict the susceptibility of a specific water body to exceed proposed fish consumption advisory limitation of 0.3 mg kg−1. South Dakota currently has nine lakes and impoundments that exceed fish tissue mercury advisory limits of 1.0 mg kg−1 total mercury, far exceeding US Environmental Protection Agency and Food and Drug Administration 0.3 mg kg−1 consumption criteria. Previous studies suggest that increased aquatic productivity may mitigate the effects of biological production and subsequent uptake of methyl mercury through bio-dilution; however, it is uncertain whether these trends may exist within highly alkaline and highly productive aquatic conditions common to South Dakota lakes and impoundments. Water quality parameters and fish tissue mercury data for northern pike and walleye were collected and assessed using existing South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and Game Fish and Parks data. The data was initially screened using both parametric linear regression and non-parametric Mann–Whitney rank sum comparisons and further assessed using binary logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression methodology. Three separate phosphorus measurements (total, total dissolved, and Trophic State Index) and pH were determined to significantly correlate with increased mercury concentrations for the northern pike-in-impoundments model. However, phosphorus surprisingly was not a strong predictor for the remaining scenarios modeled. For the northern pike-in-natural lakes models, alkalinity was the most significant water quality parameter predicting increased mercury concentrations. Mercury concentrations for the walleye-in-natural lakes models were further influenced by pH and alkalinity. The water quality and fish tissue mercury interrelationships determined within this study suggest aquatic

  1. Geothermal heating project at St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota, with the assistance of the US Department of Energy, drilled a 2176 ft well into the Madison Aquifer ot secure 108/sup 0/F artesian flow water at 385 gpm (475 psig shut-in pressure). The objective was to provide heat for domestic hot water and to space heat 163,768 sq. ft. Cost savings for the first three years were significant and, with the exception of a shutdown to replace some corroded pipe, the system has operated reliably and continuously for the last four years.

  2. Lake Levels in Northeastern South Dakota Reach Historical Maximum Elevations in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. T.; Driscoll, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    The hydroclimatic conditions in the winter and spring of 2011 in eastern South Dakota combined to raise lake levels to historical maximums in northeastern South Dakota. The high lake levels caused extensive damage to lakeside homes and the transportation grid of rural, county, and State roads. These lake levels are one more manifestation of long-term upward trends of precipitation and streamflow conditions for the area. For example, upward trends are evident in the annual streamflow records for the James and Big Sioux Rivers in eastern South Dakota (Anderson and others, 2008). Levels in Waubay Lake in Day County reached an elevation of 1805.36 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 on July 18, 2011, exceeding the previous maximum level that occurred in 1999 by 1.36 feet. Anecdotal evidence and measurements indicate that many other lakes also reached maximum levels in 2011, such as Bitter Lake (1802.98 feet), Blue Dog Lake (1805.80), and Rush Lake (1805.75). These lakes are within a closed basin, with Bitter Lake being the terminal lake. At an estimated elevation of about 1811 feet, water in the Waubay-Bitter Lake system would begin to flow into the Big Sioux River. Some areas of the glaciated terrain of eastern South Dakota have such low topographic relief, that comparatively small increases in lake levels can inundate large land areas. The valuable historical archive of freely available satellite imagery from the U.S. Geological Survey permits analysis of the areal extent of flooding. Landsat and France's SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) imagery are coupled with lake-level hydrographs to clearly depict change in land-surface inundation over time. Image analysis will present the change in flooded acreage from minimum lake levels in 1976 to maximum levels in July 2011 for Day County. The hydroclimatic trends are indicating wetter conditions, which leaves open the possibility that lake levels may continue to rise in future years.

  3. The South Dakota cooperative land use effort: A state level remote sensing demonstration project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessar, P. A.; Hood, D. R.; Todd, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing technology can satisfy or make significant contributions toward satisfying many of the information needs of governmental natural resource planners and policy makers. Recognizing this potential, the South Dakota State Planning Bureau and the EROS Data Center together formulated the framework for an ongoing Land Use and Natural Resource Inventory and Information System Program. Statewide land use/land cover information is generated from LANDSAT digital data and high altitude photography. Many applications of the system are anticipated as it evolves and data are added from more conventional sources. The conceptualization, design, and implementation of the program are discussed.

  4. Potentiometric surface of the Deadwood Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  5. Altitude of the Top of the Minnekahta Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoli, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara. Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  6. Potentiometric surface of the Minnelusa Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  7. Altitude of the top of the Inyan Kara Group in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  8. Altitude of the Top of the Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  9. Potentiometric surface of the Inyan Kara Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  10. Altitude of the Top of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  11. Potentiometric surface of the Madison Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory L.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  12. Altitude of the Top of the Madison Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study arca arc Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  13. Potentiometric surface of the Minnekahta Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  14. Distribution of hydrogeologic units in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Jarrell, Gregory J.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Schleicher, John R.; Fahrenbach, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. The map in this report is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps that are being produced for the study. Other maps include structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally

  15. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; Whetstone, Zachary D.; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M.

    2016-01-01

    Because 222Rn is a progeny of 238U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. PMID:26472478

  16. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Whetstone, Zachary D; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M

    2016-01-01

    Because (222)Rn is a progeny of (238)U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. PMID:26472478

  17. Nesting success and resource selection of greater sage grouse in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Jensen, Kent C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Rumble, Mark A.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Martin, Kathy; Segelbacher, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse nesting success and resource selection in South Dakota during 2006-2007. Radiomarked females were tracked to estimate nesting rates, nest success, and habitat resources selected for nesting. Nest initiation was 98.0%, with a maximum likelihood estimate of nest success of 45.6 ± 5.3%. Females selected nest sites that had greater sagebrush canopy cover and visual obstruction of the nest bowl compared to random sites. Nest survival models indicated that taller grass surrounding nests increased nest survival. Tall grass may supplement the low sagebrush cover in this area in providing suitable nest sites for Greater Sage-Grouse. Land managers on the eastern edge of Greater Sage-Grouse range could focus on increasing sagebrush density while maintaining tall grass by developing range management practices that accomplish this goal. To achieve nest survival rates similar to other populations, predictions from our models suggest 26 cm grass height would result in approximately 50% nest survival. Optimal conditions could be accomplished by adjusting livestock grazing systems and stocking rates.

  18. Direct utilization of geothermal energy in western South Dakota agribusiness. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    This project involved the direct utilization of geothermal energy for (1) space heating of farm and ranch buildings, (2) drying grain, and (3) providing warm stock water during the winter. The site for this demonstration project was the Diamond Ring Ranch north of Midland, South Dakota. Geothermal water flowing from an existing well into the Madison Aquifer was used to heat four homes, a shop, a hospital barn for cattle, and air for a barn and grain dryer. This site is centrally located in the western region of South Dakota where geothermal water is available from the Madison Aquifer. The first year of the project involved the design of the heating systems and its construction while the following years were for operation, testing, demonstrating, and monitoring the system. Required modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating experience showed that such application of geothermal resources is feasible and can result in substantial fuel savings. Economic analyses under a variety of assumptions generally gave payback periods of less than ten years. Numerous technical recommendations are made. The most significant being the necessity of passive protection from freezing of remote geothermal systems subject to winter shut downs caused by power or equipment failure. The primary institutional recommendation is to incorporate a use for the geothermal water such as irrigation or stock watering into agribusiness-related geothermal development.

  19. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Whetstone, Zachary D; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M

    2016-01-01

    Because (222)Rn is a progeny of (238)U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns.

  20. JV 38-APPLICATION OF COFIRING AND COGENERATION FOR SOUTH DAKOTA SOYBEAN PROCESSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-11-01

    Cogeneration of heat and electricity is being considered by the South Dakota Soybean Processors for its facility in Volga, South Dakota, and a new facility to be located in Brewster, Minnesota. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed a feasibility study, with 40% funding provided from the U.S. Department of Energy's Jointly Sponsored Research Program to determine the potential application of firing biomass fuels combined with coal and comparative economics of natural gas-fired turbines. Various biomass fuels are available at each location. The most promising options based on availability are as follows. The economic impact of firing 25% biomass with coal can increase return on investment by 0.5 to 1.5 years when compared to firing natural gas. The results of the comparative economics suggest that a fluidized-bed cogeneration system will have the best economic performance. Installation for the Brewster site is recommended based on natural gas prices not dropping below a $4.00/MMBtu annual average delivered cost. Installation at the Volga site is only recommended if natural gas prices substantially increase to $5.00/MMBtu on average. A 1- to 2-year time frame will be needed for permitting and equipment procurement.

  1. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the upper Minnesota River basin, west-central Minnesota, northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Upper Minnesota River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, north-eastern South Dakota, and southeastern North Dakota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both laker and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, highflow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  2. Native American Student Perceptions of the Cultural Environment and Factors for Academic Success at the University of South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grignon, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the high retention rates for Native American students in 2009 and 2008 in the two semesters at the University of South Dakota, there is a need to know the Native student perceptions of factors for their academic success. Native professors and administrators would benefit to know this information to continue to make improvements in…

  3. The Planning Process on the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux Indian Reservations in South Dakota: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard Ellsworth

    A comparative analysis of the planning processes on the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux Indian reservations in South Dakota is presented in this master's thesis. The planning process is basically the same as is utilized in planning for a city, county, or region, but the problems facing reservation planning bodies are greater due to the greater…

  4. A multifaceted approach to prioritize and design bank stabilization measures along the Big Sioux River, South Dakota, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multifaceted approach was used to manage fine-grained sediment loadings from river bank erosion along the Big Sioux River between Dell Rapids and Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Simulations with the RVR Meander and CONCEPTS river-morphodynamics computer models were conducted to identify stream-ban...

  5. Geochemical data from groundwater at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery mine, Edgemont, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.

    2012-01-01

    This report releases groundwater geochemistry data from samples that were collected in June 2011 at the Dewey Burdock proposed uranium in-situ recovery site near Edgemont, South Dakota. The sampling and analytical methods are summarized, and all of the data, including quality assurance/quality control information are provided in data tables.

  6. Collective Bargaining Agreement between South Dakota Board of Regents and the Council of Higher Education (NEA), June 30, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Board of Regents, Pierre.

    The collective bargaining agreement between South Dakota Board of Regents and the Council of Higher Education Chapter of the National Education Association is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: definitions; unit recognition; management rights; campus facilities and services; nondiscrimination; grievance procedure; tenure contracts;…

  7. Thermostable hemicellulases of a bacterium, Geobacillus sp. DC3, isolated from the former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thermophilic strain, Geobacillus sp. DC3, capable of producing hemicellulolytic enzymes was isolated from the 1.5-km depth of the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota. The DC3 strain expressed a high level of extracellular endoxylanase at 39.5 U/mg protein with additional hemicellulase...

  8. The Development of Criteria for Industrial Arts in the Public Secondary Schools and its Application to South Dakota Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs, Marvin George

    A total of 168 South Dakota industrial arts teachers (83 percent) returned questionnaires which were designed to survey public secondary school industrial arts programs and compare them with developed evaluative criteria. The findings were: (1) Industrial arts teachers accepted the philosophy and the objectives as stated in the criteria, (2)…

  9. Research, Issues, and Practices. Annual Curriculum and Instruction Research Symposium Conference Proceedings (1st, Vermillion, South Dakota, April 22, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. School of Education.

    The purpose of the conference reported in this document was to promote the professional sharing of current educational issues, to provide a forum for dialogue concerning relevant educational topics, and to share University of South Dakota faculty research interests. The proceedings are comprised of 10 presentations: (1) "Japan Related Education in…

  10. Historic and unregulated monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit in North Dakota may have various effects on the quantity and quality of streamflow in the Sheyenne River and the Red River of the North. To model the effects that the Garrison Diversion Unit could have on water quality, gaged and estimated historic streamflow data and estimated unregulated streamflow data were compiled to develop a complete monthly streamflow record for January 1931 through September 1999 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota.During the entire data-development period, gaged streamflow data were available for only 4 of the 35 sites, incomplete data of various length were available for 10 sites, and no data were available for 21 sites. Drainage- area ratio and Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1 methods were used to estimate the historic streamflow for months when no data were available.Unregulated streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, Mud Lake, Lake Ashtabula, and surface-water withdrawals. Modeled flows at the Red River of the North at Wahpeton by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were used to eliminate the effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, and Mud Lake, and water-balance procedures were used to eliminate the effects of Lake Ashtabula.

  11. Estimation of Monthly Evaporation from Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota, 1931-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.

    2003-01-01

    Reservoirs on tributaries of the Red River of the North provide water for Fargo and Grand Forks, N. Dak., and other cities along the river. Adequate estimates of evaporative losses from the reservoirs are needed to determine the total water supply in the Basin. Many equations could be used to estimate lake or reservoir evaporation. However, in addition to measurements of air temperature, the equations require measurements of net radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity. Evaporation and air temperature data from energy budget evaporation sites at Wetland P1 in North Dakota and at Williams Lake in Minnesota are available. Air temperature data collected from climate stations near Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, from Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and from Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota also are available. Therefore, the combined data sets were used to estimate monthly evaporation from Lake Ashtabula, Orwell Lake, and Lake Traverse. Averaged monthly mean air temperatures determined for each reservoir study site were used to calculate monthly evaporation data sets for 1931-2001. Results from the procedure that estimates reservoir evaporation indicate that slight downward trends in annual evaporation occurred from 1931-2001. The trends may have been caused by the selected time period of the study, which began with the drought conditions in the mid 1930's and ended with the more wet conditions in the late 1990's. Average annual evaporation values for each reservoir for 1931-2001 correspond well with published average annual lake evaporation values for 1946-55.

  12. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  13. Distribution of boron in the Tip Top pegmatite, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.

    1986-02-01

    Experimental evidence has shown the importance of boron on the crystallization behavior of granitic systems; however, the intercrystalline and intracrystalline distribution of boron in mineral phases crystallizing from granitic systems is not well documented. The distribution of boron between coexisting phases in the Tip Top pegmatite, South Dakota, is as follows: beryl ca = quartz ca = triphylite ca = montebrasite ca = potassium feldspar < biotite < albite < muscovite < spodumene << tourmaline. The bulk boron content of the Tip Top pegmatite decreases significantly with the termination of tourmaline crystallization. The significant decrease in boron in the inner zones of the pegmatite is consistent with the depletion of boron in the granite melt by either the crystallization of tourmaline from the granitic melt or the partitioning of boron into an exsolved aqueous solutions. 35 references.

  14. Maps Showing Geology, Structure, and Geophysics of the Central Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redden, Jack A.; DeWitt, Ed

    2008-01-01

    This 1:100,000-scale digital geologic map details the complex Early Proterozoic granitic rocks, Early Proterozoic supracrustal metamorphic rocks, and Archean crystalline basement of the Black Hills. The granitic rocks host pegmatite deposits renowned for their feldspar, mica, spodumene, and beryl. The supracrustal rocks host the Homestake gold mine, which produced more than 40 million ounces of gold over a 125-year lifetime. The map documents the Laramide deformation of Paleozoic and Mesozoic cover rocks; and shows the distribution of Laramide plutonic rocks associated with precious-metals deposits. Four 1:300,000-scale maps summarize Laramide structures; Early Proterozoic structures; aeromagnetic anomalies; and gravity anomalies. Three 1:500,000-scale maps show geophysical interpretations of buried Early Proterozoic to Archean rocks in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming.

  15. Power in the pasture: Energy and the history of ranching in western South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Jenika

    Transitions in the use of energy transformed the landscape, labor, and domestic life of cattle ranching in western South Dakota from the late-nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth centuries. The introduction of new energy sources to the Black Hills spurred the expansion of European Americans into the region, while helping to displace native peoples like the Lakotas. Changing energy use also intensified ranch labor in the pastures and in the household, drawing individual ranches into new connections with their surroundings. Examining cattle ranching through the lens of energy provides new insights into the momentum of energetic systems in societies, affording historians a way to understand past energy use as they consider present and future environmental concerns.

  16. Drainage areas in the Vermillion River basin in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Rick D.; Freese, M.D.; Amundson, Frank D.

    1988-01-01

    Above-normal precipitation in the northern portion of the Vermillion River basin from 1982 through 1987 caused substantial rises in lake levels in the Lake Thompson chain of lakes, resulting in discharge from Lake Thompson to the East Fork Vermillion River. Prior to 1986, the Lake Thompson chain of lakes was thought to be a noncontributing portion of the Vermillion River basin. To better understand surface drainage, the map delineates all named stream basins, and all unnamed basins larger than approximately 10 sq mi within the Vermillion River basin in South Dakota and lists by stream name the area of each basin. Stream drainage basins were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information of U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2 minute topographic maps. Two tables list areas of drainage basins and reaches, as well as drainage areas above gaging stations. (USGS)

  17. Use of remote sensing technology for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A project was undertaken in Meade County, South Dakota to provide (1) a general county-wide resource survey of land use and soils and (2) a detailed survey of land use for the environmentally sensitive area adjacent to the Black Hills. Imagery from LANDSAT-1 was visually interpreted to provide land use information and a general soils map. A detailed land use map for the Black Hills area was interpreted from RB-57 photographs and interpretations of soil characteristics were input into a computer data base and mapped. The detailed land use data were then used in conjunction with soil maps to provide information for the development of zoning ordinance maps and other land use planning in the Black Hills area. The use of photographs as base maps was also demonstrated. In addition, the use of airborne thermography to locate spoilage areas in sugar beet piles and to determine the apparent temperature of rooftops was evaluated.

  18. Contaminants, water quality, and wildlife mortality on oil production sites in western South Dakota. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.J.; Ruelle, R.

    1993-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate oil pits and other hazards at oil production sites to (1) document the magnitude of wildlife mortality due to exposure to oil and other chemicals, (2) determine the physical and toxic effects of oil pit contents on wildlife, and (3) identify methods to prevent sublethal and lethal impacts to wildlife. Pits at oil production sites in Fall River and Harding Counties of western South Dakota were surveyed for wildlife carcasses by searching the shorelines and raking underwater around the pit edges in April, July, and October 1992. In July, composite water and sediment samples were collected from 26 pits, and analyzed for oil and grease. Bioassays were conducted with two life stages of Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna to determine pit water toxicity. Seed germination tests were conducted using radish seeds exposed to pit water. Oil and poor water quality appeared to be the primary causes of pit liquid toxicity.

  19. Community fisheries in eastern South Dakota: Angler demographics, use, and factors influencing satisfaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, Michael J.; Lucchesi, David O.; Chipps, Steven R.; Gigliotti, Larry M.

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed anglers on five community fishing lakes near Brookings, South Dakota to assess angler use and satisfaction. The community lakes attracted younger anglers when compared to statewide and national averages. Overall, satisfaction was generally high (74%) among anglers fishing community lakes. Logistic regression analysis showed that harvest rate, anglers targeting trout, familiarity with the lake, adults fishing with children, and fishing during open water periods were significantly related to angler satisfaction. Angler parties consisting of adults fishing with children were 1.7 times more likely to respond as “satisfied” compared with adults-only angler groups. Fishing opportunities provided by community lakes can enhance participation by younger anglers while simultaneously providing family-oriented recreation (i.e., adults fishing with children) that enhances trip satisfaction.

  20. Identification of soil associations in western South Dakota on ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.; Myers, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units having characteristic soil depths and textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, pH characteristics, plasticity indices, liquid limits, and the like, from which broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited as a source for top soil, and as a source for sand and gravel, and how corrosive the soil is for steel and concrete, and what crop and grass yields can be expected. Film color composites of bands 4, 5 and 7 viewed over a light table with magnification show the soil associations of western South Dakota that are now recognized, and, in addition, several new soil association areas have been brought to light.

  1. Surface and subsurface microgravity data in the vicinity of Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Koth, Karl R.; Carruth, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Absolute gravity data were collected at 32 stations in the vicinity of the Sanford Underground Research Facility from 2007 through 2014 for the purpose of monitoring groundwater storage change during dewatering of the former Homestake gold mine in the Black Hills of South Dakota, the largest and deepest underground mine in North America. Eight underground stations are at depths from 300 feet below land surface to 4,850 feet below land surface. Surface stations were located using Global Positioning System observations, and subsurface stations were located on the basis of maps constructed from survey measurements made while the mine was in operation. Gravity varies widely at many stations; however, no consistent temporal trends are present across all stations during the 7-year period of data collection.

  2. Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Soil moisture in the 0-cm to 4-cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop in eastern South Dakota. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the soil temperature. Corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. Shallow alluvial aquifers were located with HCMM predawn data. After correcting the data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer. A finite difference code simulating soil moisture and soil temperature shows that soils with different moisture profiles differed in soil temperatures in a well defined functional manner. A significant surface thermal anomaly was found to be associated with shallow water tables.

  3. LANDSAT's role in HUD 701 programs. [New Jersey and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A survey of states concerning the use of LANDSAT in support of the comprehensive planning assistance program (Title IV, section 701) of the Housing and Community Development Act (1974) which is aimed mostly at small communities and rural counties, shows: (1) state governments used or were aware of the application of LANDSAT for inventorying land use and land cover at the state and local level; (2) use of satellite data was associated with the development of automated geographic information systems and the computer capability of handling and analyzing mapped information and other data tied to geographic coordinates and boundaries; and (3) LANDSAT capabilities in states tend to be institutionalized within state government information services where they can be readily assessed by state agencies. A summary of the state program for New Jersey and South Dakota is presented along with the state development guide plans, the rationale for using the satellite, and potential applications.

  4. Summit-Watertown transmission line project, South Dakota. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) needs to rebuild the existing Summit-Watertown 115-kV transmission line, located in northeastern South Dakota, and western Minnesota. Nearly 60 percent of the existing facility was replaced in 1965 after severe ice-loading broke structures and wires. Because of the extensive loss of the line, surplus poles had to be used to replace the damaged H-frame structures. These were of varying sizes, causing improper structure loading. Additionally, the conductors and overhead shield wires have been spliced in numerous places. This provides additional space on these wires for icing and wind resistance, which in turn create problems for reliability. Finally, a progressive fungal condition has weakened the poles and, along with the improper loading, has created an unsafe condition for maintenance personnel and the general public.

  5. Factors affecting road mortality of white-tailed deer in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Galster, Dwight H.; Schauer, Ron J.; Morlock, Wilbert W.; Delger, Joshua A.

    2008-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) mortalities (n = 4,433) caused by collisions with automobiles during 2003 were modeled in 35 counties in eastern South Dakota. Seventeen independent variables and 5 independent variable interactions were evaluated to explain deer mortalities. A negative binomial regression model (Ln Y = 1.25 – 0.12 [percentage tree coverage] + 0.0002 [county area] + 5.39 [county hunter success rate] + 0.0023 [vehicle proxy 96–104 km/hr roads], model deviance = 33.43, χ2 = 27.53, df = 27) was chosen using a combination of a priori model selection and AICc. Management options include use of the model to predict road mortalities and to increase the number of hunting licenses, which could result in fewer DVCs.

  6. Geothermal feasibility-analysis II for Polo School District No. 29-2, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The feasibility of utilizing a low temperature geothermal resource to heat the Polo High School and the community of Polo, consisting of 17 residential homes, 2 public school buildings, 5 commercial establishments, and the St. Liborius Church/School complex is addressed. Depending upon the availability of a water use permit from the South Dakota Department of Natural Resources and the payback period required for this type of project, there is heat energy in the existing geothermal resource to heat the Polo High School or even the entire community of Polo. The chemical analysis of the water indicates that any heat exchangers used should be stainless steel or thick-walled copper and piping should be plastic. An environmental assessment would be required to consider the disposal of geothermal fluid.

  7. Use of remote sensing technology for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive land use planning process model is being developed in Meade County, South Dakota, using remote sensing technology. The proper role of remote sensing in the land use planning process is being determined by interaction of remote sensing specialists with local land use planners. The data that were collected by remote sensing techniques are as follows: (1) level I land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies; (2) detailed land use data interpreted at a scale of 1:24,000 from enlargement color prints of high altitude RB-57 photography; and (3) general soils map interpreted at a scale of 1:250,000 from false color enlargement prints of ERTS-1 color composite transparencies. In addition to use of imagery as an interpretation aid, the utility of using photographs as base maps was demonstrated.

  8. Use of remote sensing techniques for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I.; Frazee, C. J.; Rusche, A. E.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    The basic procedures for interpreting remote sensing imagery to rapidly develop general soils and land use inventories were developed and utilized in Pennington County, South Dakota. These procedures and remote sensing data products were illustrated and explained to many user groups, some of whom are interested in obtaining similar data. The general soils data were integrated with land soils data supplied by the county director of equalization to prepare a land value map. A computer print-out of this map indicating a land value for each quarter section is being used in tax reappraisal of Pennington County. The land use data provided the land use planners with the present use of land in Pennington County. Additional uses of remote sensing applications are also discussed including tornado damage assessment, hail damage evaluation, and presentation of soil and land value information on base maps assembled from ERTS-1 imagery.

  9. Math and science technology access and use in South Dakota public schools grades three through five

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwietert, Debra L.

    The development of K-12 technology standards, soon to be added to state testing of technology proficiency, and the increasing presence of computers in homes and classrooms reflects the growing importance of technology in current society. This study examined math and science teachers' responses on a survey of technology use in grades three through five in South Dakota. A researcher-developed survey instrument was used to collect data from a random sample of 100 public schools throughout the South Dakota. Forced choice and open-ended responses were recorded. Most teachers have access to computers, but they lack resources to purchase software for their content areas, especially in science areas. Three-fourths of teachers in this study reported multiple computers in their classrooms and 67% reported access to labs in other areas of the school building. These numbers are lower than the national average of 84% of teachers with computers in their classrooms and 95% with access to computers elsewhere in the building (USDOE, 2000). Almost eight out of 10 teachers noted time as a barrier to learning more about educational software. Additional barriers included lack of school funds (38%), access to relevant training (32%), personal funds (30%), and poor quality of training (7%). Teachers most often use math and science software as supplemental, with practice tutorials cited as another common use. The most common interest for software was math for both boys and girls. The second most common choice for boys was science and for girls, language arts. Teachers reported that there was no preference for either individual or group work on computers for girls or boys. Most teachers do not systematically evaluate software for gender preferences, but review software over subjectively.

  10. Selected hydrologic data, through water year 1994, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, D.G.; Bradford, W.L.; Neitzert, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents water-level, water-quality, and spring data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1994, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). This report is the second in a series of biennial project data reports produced for the study. Daily water-level data are presented for 39 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells are part of a network of observation wells maintained by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tables of daily water levels. Annual measurements of water levels collected during water years 1993-94 from a network of 20 additional, miscellaneous wells are presented. These wells are part of a Statewide network of wells completed in bedrock aquifers that was operated from 1959 through 1989 in cooperation with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Site descriptions and hydrographs for the entire period of record for each site also are presented. Drawdown and recovery data are presented for five wells that were pumped (or flowed) for collection of water-quality samples. These wells are part of the network of observation wells for which daily water-level records are compiled. Water-quality data are presented for 20 surface-water sites and 22 ground-water sites. Data presented include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics and isotopes, cyanide, phenols, and suspended sediment. Spring data are

  11. Pesticide Concentrations in Wetlands on the Lake Traverse Reservation, South and North Dakota, July 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neitzert, Kathleen M.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2007-01-01

    During July 2006, water samples were collected from selected Lake Traverse wetlands within the historic Reservation boundary in northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota as part of a reconnaissance-level assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate (SWO) Sioux Tribe. Eighteen wetlands were sampled by the SWO and USGS personnel after primary pesticide application occurred on the Lake Traverse Reservation. Samples were analyzed for 61 pesticide compounds. In addition, the samples were analyzed for physical properties that might help further characterize the water quality of the wetlands. During July 2006, water samples were collected from 18 wetlands and were analyzed for 61 widely used pesticide compounds. Pesticides were detected in 17 of the 18 sampled wetlands. In the 17 wetlands in which pesticides weredetected, the number of pesticides detected ranged from two to eight. Of the 61 pesticides for which the samples were analyzed, 51 pesticides were not detected in any of the wetland samples. Ten pesticides were detected in water samples from at least one of the wetlands at small concentrations. Atrazine and de-ethyl atrazine were detected in samples from 17 of the 18 wetlands. The minimum, maximum, and median concentrations of dissolved atrazine detected were 0.007, 0.12, and 0.064 microgram per liter (?g/L), respectively. Two pesticides (picloram and simazine) were detected in only one wetland each. None of the pesticide concentrations exceeded any U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels for drinking water, and concentrations were much less than levels considered toxic for humans or aquatic species.

  12. Generalized Potentiometric Surface of the Arikaree Aquifer, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Bennett County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Heakin, Allen J.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Bennett County are located in southwest South Dakota. The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation includes all of Shannon County and the part of Jackson County south of the White River. Extensive Indian trust lands are in Bennett County. For purposes of this map, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and all of Bennett County are included in the study area (sheet 1). Ground water from wells and springs is the predominant source of public and domestic supply within the study area. The Arikaree aquifer is the largest source of ground water throughout this area. The Oglala Sioux Tribe is developing a ground-water management plan designed to ?preserve, protect and maintain the quality of ground water for living and future members and non-members of the Oglala Sioux Indian Tribe within the internal and external boundaries of the Pine Ridge Reservation? (Michael Catches Enemy, Oglala Sioux Tribe Natural Resources Regulatory Agency, oral commun., 2007). Hydrologic information about the Arikaree aquifer is important to managing this resource. In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began working in cooperation with the Oglala Sioux Tribe to develop a potentiometric map of the Arikaree aquifer in Jackson and Shannon Counties, with a primary component of that effort being a well inventory in those counties. In 2003, the study area was expanded to include Bennett County.

  13. Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Gilmer, D.S.; Coon, N.C.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974?79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks.

  14. Spatial and temporal evaluation of water quality response to climate variability and land use change in South Dakota watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahiablame, L.

    2015-12-01

    Land use dynamics and climate change can have considerable effects on watershed hydrology and water quality. Recent research showed that 1 to 5% of grassland is being annually converted to cropland in the Western Corn Belt region, including South Dakota (SD). At the same time, the effects of climate on water resources have been a concern in the region. This study aims to assess the potential impacts of hitorical climate and land use change on water quality (sediment, nitrate, and total phosphorus losses) in two representative SD watersheds by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with historical climate and land use data. The specific objective of this study is to characterize water quality changes that possibly occurred in South Dakota between the years 1980s and 2000s based on SWAT model simulations. This study will provide an elaborated view of water quality characteristics in South Dakota watersheds to support further research and understanding of water quality impacts of future agricultural activities in the state.

  15. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  16. South Dakota Space Grant Consortium: Balancing Indigenous Earth System and Space Science with Western/Contemporary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J.; Nall, J.

    2005-05-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth system and space science education, outreach and services to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five Tribal Colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight and reinforce the balance of Indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in Western/Contemporary Science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College and Tribal Community partnerships with the Rosebud Sioux Reservation (Sinte Gleska University), Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (Oglala Lakota College), Standing Rock Sioux Reservation (Sitting Bull College) and Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation (Si Tanka) amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include but not limited to: NASA Workforce Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), NSF "Bridges to Success" Summer Research Program, NSF "Fire Ecology" Summer Research Experience, as well as geospatial and space science programs for students and general community members. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi (Black Hills Pow Wow - attendance of 14,000 Natives) to host Native Space

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns of wetland occurrence in the prairie pothole region of eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahara, S.N.; Mockler, R.M.; Higgins, K.F.; Chipps, S.R.; Johnson, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated changes in wetland abundance, size, and classification between average (19791986) and above-average (19951999) precipitation periods for two physiographic regions in eastern South Dakota. Temporal shifts in wetland numbers, area, and class varied by topographic location. In high wetland density areas (> 8 wetlands/100 ha), our data suggests that larger, semipermanent wetlands expanded and absorbed nearby wetland basins into their margins, resulting in a net "loss" or disappearance of temporary and seasonal wetlands in above-average water condition years. "Losses" described here are not deemed permanent as in cases of draining or filling, and wetlands may re-form when water conditions return to normal. Nevertheless, temporary disappearance of smaller more isolated wetlands may have implications for breeding waterfowl and other fauna. Percent change of semipermanent basin numbers was positively correlated with wetland density, whereas the opposite was true for seasonal wetlands. Loss of temporary wetlands was correlated with wetland aggregation within the sample area. However, in low wetland density areas, the number and size of seasonal and temporary wetlands generally increased following above-average precipitation. We suggest that wetlands' spatial arrangement be considered along with traditional wetland quantification techniques to better account for shifts in wetland habitat in dry versus wet years. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  18. Population Growth and Sprawl on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, R. L.

    2006-05-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, especially Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and agricultural areas of the reservation are undergoing a change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. Using satellite imagery and software to render these images is a cost effective way to investigate this growth. Also, using remotely sensed data and a GIS (geographic information system) package can address different issues that concern people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of my project is to observe land use change on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using Geographic Information Systems such as; ARCGis 9, ENVI, and Multispec, along with Landsat 4, 5, and 7 imagery over the past 20 years.

  19. Availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peter, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation made in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of the availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota, concluded that Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development of the three major aquifers investigated (the Inyan Kara, the Minnelusa, and the Madison). Ground-water availability and quality were evaluated on the basis of unit thickness and depth, potentiometric-surface altitudes and gradients, estimated recharge and discharge rates, estimated aquifer transmissivities and storage coefficients, reported yields of existing wells, and concentrations of ions in the water that may affect its use as a community supply. The Inyan Kara aquifer has the least potential for additional development because of reported small well yields , the proximity of the outcrop, and concentration of radium-226 exceeding 5 picocuries per liter. The Minnelusa aquifer is unsuitable for development in the eastern two-thirds of the study area because the concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate commonly exceed the recommended maximum level for community water supplies. The Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development because it has the greatest recharge rate, has areas with significant fracture permeability, yields as much as 500 gallons per minute to wells, and has satisifactory water quality, though it is hard (hardness 120 to 180 milligrams per liter) to very hard (hardness greater than 180 milligrams per liter). (USGS)

  20. Spatial analysis of Northern Goshawk Territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaver, Robert W.; Backlund, Douglas; Bartelt, Paul E.; Erickson, Michael G.; Knowles, Craig J.; Knowles, Pamela R.; Wimberly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is the largest of the three North American species ofAccipiter and is more closely associated with older forests than are the other species. Its reliance on older forests has resulted in concerns about its status, extensive research into its habitat relationships, and litigation. Our objective was to model the spatial patterns of goshawk territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota, to make inferences about the underlying processes. We used a modification of Ripley's K function that accounts for inhomogeneous intensity to determine whether territoriality or habitat determined the spacing of goshawks in the Black Hills, finding that habitat conditions rather than territoriality were the determining factor. A spatial model incorporating basal area of trees in a stand of forest, canopy cover, age of trees >23 cm in diameter, number of trees per hectare, and geographic coordinates provided good fit to the spatial patterns of territories. There was no indication of repulsion at close distances that would imply spacing was determined by territoriality. These findings contrast with those for the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, where territoriality is an important limiting factor. Forest stands where the goshawk nested historically are now younger and have trees of smaller diameter, probably having been modified by logging, fire, and insects. These results have important implications for the goshawk's ecology in the Black Hills with respect to mortality, competition, forest fragmentation, and nest-territory protection.

  1. Mordenite and montmorillonite alteration of glass structures in a rhyolite pipe, northern Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, J.G. )

    1991-10-01

    Green structures, 0.5 to 1.5 in. across, occur in a Tertiary rhyolite pipe in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota. The structures are of two types: angular to ellipsoidal masses and stretched or smeared structures. Thin section analysis revealed that those of the first type are massive, with no internal structure, and those of the second type are cellular and have classic flame structure characteristics. XRD indicated the composition to be a mixture of secondary mordenite (a zeolite) and montmorillonite. The first type is interpreted to be deuterically altered vitrophyre clasts and the second type to be altered vesicular structures produced by degassing of the magma in the pipe. Chemical analysis of the alteration material indicates a loss of alkalies and silica, with an increase in water, CaO, MgO and ferric iron when compared to the composition of fresh vitrophyre from the same pipe. The changes are in agreement with experimental work on the alteration of rhyolitic glass by a number of researchers. This is the first occurrence of mordenite reported for the Black Hills.

  2. Spearfish High School, Sparfish, South Dakota solar energy system performance evaluation, September 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Spearfish High School in South Dakota contains 43,000 square feet of conditioned space. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 57% of the space heating and 50% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 8034 square feet of flat plate collectors, 4017 cubic feet of rock bin sensible heat storage, and auxiliary equipment including 8 heat pumps, 6 of which are solar supplied and instrumented, air conditioning units, and natural-gas-fired boilers. Performance data are given for the system including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor and solar system coefficient of performance. Insolation, solar energy utilization and operation data are also given. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems, the operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also evaluated. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, site history, long-term weather data, sensor technology, and typical monthly data. (LEW)

  3. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Missouri, Kansa, Idaho, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigton, W. H.; Vonsteen, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The Statistical Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is evaluating ERTS-1 imagery as a potential tool for estimating crop acreage. A main data source for the estimates is obtained by enumerating small land parcels that have been randomly selected from the total U.S. land area. These small parcels are being used as ground observations in this investigation. The test sites are located in Missouri, Kansas, Idaho, and South Dakota. The major crops of interest are wheat, cotton, corn, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, oats, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. Some of the crops are unique to a given site while others are common in two or three states. This provides an opportunity to observe crops grown under different conditions. Results for the Missouri test site are presented. Results of temporal overlays, unequal prior probabilities, and sample classifiers are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributes is shown in terms of overall performance. The results show that useful information for making crop acreage estimates can be obtained from ERTS-1 data.

  4. Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges

  5. Greenhouse gas fluxes of a shallow lake in south-central North Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Gleason, Robert A.; Dahl, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of aquatic ecosystems in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. represent a significant data gap. Consequently, a 3-year study was conducted in south-central North Dakota, USA, to provide an initial estimate of GHG fluxes from a large, shallow lake. Mean GHG fluxes were 0.02 g carbon dioxide (CO2) m−2 h−1, 0.0009 g methane (CH4) m−2 h−1, and 0.0005 mg nitrous oxide (N2O) m−2 h−1. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 displayed temporal and spatial variability which is characteristic of aquatic ecosystems, while fluxes of N2O were consistently low throughout the study. Comparisons between results of this study and published values suggest that mean daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O fromLong Lakewere low, particularly when compared to the well-studied prairie pothole wetlands of the region. Similarly, cumulative seasonal CH4 fluxes, which ranged from 2.68–7.58 g CH4 m−2, were relatively low compared to other wetland systems of North America. The observed variability among aquatic ecosystems underscores the need for further research.

  6. Remote sensing of physiographic soil units of Bennett County, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazee, C. J.; Gropper, J. L.; Westin, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted in Bennett County, South Dakota, to establish a rangeland test site for evaluating the usefulness of ERTS data for mapping soil resources in rangeland areas. Photographic imagery obtained in October, 1970, was analyzed to determine which type of imagery is best for mapping drainage and land use patterns. Imagery of scales ranging from 1:1,000,000 to 1.20,000 was used to delineate soil-vegetative physiographic units. The photo characteristics used to define physiographic units were texture, drainage pattern, tone pattern, land use pattern and tone. These units will be used as test data for evaluating ERTS data. The physiographic units were categorized into a land classification system. The various categories which were delineated at the different scales of imagery were designed to be useful for different levels of land use planning. The land systems are adequate only for planning of large areas for general uses. The lowest category separated was the facet. The facets have a definite soil composition and represent different soil landscapes. These units are thought to be useful for providing natural resource information needed for local planning.

  7. Associations between iron concentration and productivity in montane streams of the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayer, Cari Ann; Holcomb, Benjamin M.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an important micronutrient found in aquatic systems that can influence nutrient availability (e.g., phosphorus) and primary productivity. In streams, high iron concentrations often are associated with low pH as a result of acid mine drainage, which is known to affect fish and invertebrate communities. Streams in the Black Hills of South Dakota are generally circumneutral in pH, yet select streams exhibit high iron concentrations associated with natural iron deposits. In this study, we examined relationships among iron concentration, priphyton biomass, macroinvertebrate abundance, and fish assemblages in four Black Hills streams. The stream with the highest iron concentration (~5 mg Fe/L) had reduced periphyton biomass, invertebrate abundance, and fish biomass compared to the three streams with lower iron levels (0.1 to 0.6 mg Fe/L). Reduced stream productivity was attributed to indirect effects of ferric iron Fe+++), owing to iron-hydroxide precipitation that influenced habitat quality (i.e., substrate and turbidity) and food availability (periphyton and invertebrates) for higher trophic levels (e.g., fish). Additionally, reduced primary and secondary production was associated with reduced standing stocks of salmonid fishes. Our findings suggested that naturally occurring iron deposits may constrain macroinvertebrate and fish production.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Evaluating detection probabilities for American marten in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.B.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring techniques designed to determine presence of forest carnivores, such as American marten (Martes americana), is crucial for validation of survey results. Although comparisons between techniques have been made, little attention has been paid to the issue of detection probabilities (p). Thus, the underlying assumption has been that detection probabilities equal 1.0. We used presence-absence data obtained from a track-plate survey in conjunction with results from a saturation-trapping study to derive detection probabilities when marten occurred at high (>2 marten/10.2 km2) and low (???1 marten/10.2 km2) densities within 8 10.2-km2 quadrats. Estimated probability of detecting marten in high-density quadrats was p = 0.952 (SE = 0.047), whereas the detection probability for low-density quadrats was considerably lower (p = 0.333, SE = 0.136). Our results indicated that failure to account for imperfect detection could lead to an underestimation of marten presence in 15-52% of low-density quadrats in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. We recommend that repeated site-survey data be analyzed to assess detection probabilities when documenting carnivore survey results.

  10. Land use effects on pesticides in sediments of prairie pothole wetlands in North and South Dakota.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Scott T; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; Morrison, Shane A; Daniel, Dale W; Euliss, Betty R; Euliss, Ned H; Kensinger, Bart J; Tangen, Brian A

    2016-09-15

    Prairie potholes are the dominant wetland type in the intensively cultivated northern Great Plains of North America, and thus have the potential to receive pesticide runoff and drift. We examined the presence of pesticides in sediments of 151 wetlands split among the three dominant land use types, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), cropland, and native prairie, in North and South Dakota in 2011. Herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and fungicides were detected regularly, with no insecticide detections. Glyphosate was the most detected pesticide, occurring in 61% of all wetlands, with atrazine in only 8% of wetlands. Pyraclostrobin was one of five fungicides detected, but the only one of significance, being detected in 31% of wetlands. Glyphosate was the only pesticide that differed by land use, with concentrations in cropland over four-times that in either native prairie or CRP, which were equal in concentration and frequency of detection. Despite examining several landscape variables, such as wetland proximity to specific crop types, watershed size, and others, land use was the best variable explaining pesticide concentrations in potholes. CRP ameliorated glyphosate in wetlands at concentrations comparable to native prairie and thereby provides another ecosystem service from this expansive program. PMID:27219502

  11. Environmental tracers as indicators of karst conduits in groundwater in South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, A.J.; Sawyer, J.F.; Putnam, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental tracers sampled from the carbonate Madison aquifer on the eastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA indicated the approximate locations of four major karst conduits. Contamination issues are a major concern because these conduits are characterized by direct connections to sinking streams, high groundwater velocities, and proximity to public water supplies. Objectives of the study were to estimate approximate conduit locations and assess possible anthropogenic influences associated with conduits. Anomalies of young groundwater based on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium, and electrical conductivity (EC) indicated fast moving, focused flow and thus the likely presence of conduits. ??18O was useful for determining sources of recharge for each conduit, and nitrate was a useful tracer for assessing flow paths for anthropogenic influences. Two of the four conduits terminate at or near a large spring complex. CFC apparent ages ranged from 15 years near conduits to >50 years in other areas. Nitrate-N concentrations >0.4 mg/L in groundwater were associated with each of the four conduits compared with concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 0.4 mg/L in other areas. These higher nitrate-N concentrations probably do not result from sinking streams but rather from other areas of infiltration. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  12. Climate and streamflow characteristics for selected streamgages in eastern South Dakota, water years 1945–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Stamm, John F.

    2015-11-02

    For the streamgages with significant trends in residual streamflow (such as the streamgage on the Whetstone River and streamgages in the Big Sioux River Basin), land-use changes likely are minor factors, with the main factors probably being changes in the timing and frequency of large precipitation events and persistently wetter antecedent conditions. Changes in the relation between precipitation and streamflow since 1945 were evident when considering the runoff efficiency of the watershed. For example, the streamflow response to annual precipitation of 25 inches for the James River near Scotland increased from approximately 1,000 cubic feet per second for WYs 1945–1990 to about 2,500 cubic feet per second for WYs 1991–2013. The importance of antecedent conditions on annual mean streamflow also was indicated by the significance of the multiple linear regression coefficients of annual mean streamflow and precipitation from preceding water years for all but one streamgage. In addition, rising groundwater levels are present in wells in eastern South Dakota, particularly since the 1980s.

  13. Evaluation of Skylab (EREP) data for forest and rangeland surveys. [Georgia, South Dakota, Colorado, and California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C. (Principal Investigator); Dana, R. W.; Greentree, W. J.; Roberts, E. H.; Norick, N. X.; Waite, T. H.; Francis, R. E.; Driscoll, R. S.; Weber, F. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four widely separated sites (near Augusta, Georgia; Lead, South Dakota; Manitou, Colorado; and Redding, California) were selected as typical sites for forest inventory, forest stress, rangeland inventory, and atmospheric and solar measurements, respectively. Results indicated that Skylab S190B color photography is good for classification of Level 1 forest and nonforest land (90 to 95 percent correct) and could be used as a data base for sampling by small and medium scale photography using regression techniques. The accuracy of Level 2 forest and nonforest classes, however, varied from fair to poor. Results of plant community classification tests indicate that both visual and microdensitometric techniques can separate deciduous, conifirous, and grassland classes to the region level in the Ecoclass hierarchical classification system. There was no consistency in classifying tree categories at the series level by visual photointerpretation. The relationship between ground measurements and large scale photo measurements of foliar cover had a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.75. Some of the relationships, however, were site dependent.

  14. Wood duck brood movements and habitat use on prairie rivers in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granfors, D.A.; Flake, Lester D.

    1999-01-01

    Wood duck (Aix sponsa) populations have been increasing in the Central Flyway, but little is known about wood duck brood rearing in prairie ecosystems. We compared movements and habitat use of radiomarked female wood ducks with broods in South Dakota on 2 rivers with contrasting prairie landscapes. The perennial Big Sioux River had a broad floodplain and riparian forest, whereas the intermittent Maple River had emergent vegetation along the river channel. Movements between nest sites and brood-rearing areas were longer on the Maple River than on the Big Sioux River (P = 0.02) and were among the longest reported for wood duck broods. Movements on the Big Sioux River were longer in 1992 (P = 0.01), when the floodplain was dry, than in 1993 or 1994. Before flooding occurred on the Big Sioux River, broods used semipermanent wetlands and tributaries outside the floodplain; thereafter, females selected forested wetlands along the river. Broods on the Maple River used emergent vegetation along the river channel throughout the study. Because median length of travel to brood-rearing areas was 2-3 km we recommend maintenance of brood-rearing habitat every 3-5 km along prairie rivers. Wildlife managers should encourage landowners to retain riparian vegetation along perennial rivers and emergent vegetation along intermittent streams to provide brood-rearing habitat during wet and dry cycles.

  15. Knowledge and Screening of Head and Neck Cancer Among American Indians in South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. Methods. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Results. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b = 0.90; P = .01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P = .06). Conclusions. There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers. PMID:25320895

  16. Sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and paleoenvironmental study of Paleocene Fort Union Formation in South Cave Hills of Harding County, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Best, W.A.; Rich, F.J.

    1986-08-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation consists of the Ludlow, Cannonball, and Tongue River Members and forms prominent buttes in the Cave Hills, north-central Harding County, South Dakota. Investigations in the North Cave Hills show that cliff-forming Tongue River sandstones are actually the marine Cannonball Member. Field/laboratory studies indicate a similar reinterpretation for the cliff-forming sandstones in the South Cave Hills. These strata include fine to very fine-grained silty/clayey quartz sandstone. Textural analyses indicate the sand grains are subangular to rounded, polished, and of low to moderate sphericity. Sedimentary/biogenic structures indicate a high-energy, mainland beach/nearshore marine depositional environment. The transgressive sequence includes foreshore or littoral, shoreface, and subshoreface or estuarine environments. Foreshore/littoral sediments consist of fine to very fine-grained, moderately well to well-sorted, low-angle wedge planar and wedge trough cross-bedded sandstone. Trace fossils are dominated by Skolithos-like burrows. Marine vertebrate remains include Elasmobrachii sp., Myliobatis sp., and Myledaphus sp. Shoreface deposits are similar to those of the foreshore. Sedimentary structures are dominantly low- and high-angle wedge trough cross-beds. Ophiomorpha burrows occur near the upper contact. Shoreface deposits are separated from the subshoreface deposits by extensively burrowed silty sandstone or an erosional surface. The subshoreface environment produced very fine-grained sandstone interbedded with clay-claystone and clay shale that is very thin to thin bedded with minor amounts of ripple lamination and low-angle cross-stratification. Pseudo-symmetrical and composite ripples; flaser, wavy, and lenticular bedding; and sand-filled trails and burrows are present.

  17. Paleotectonic controls on deposition of Niobrara formation, Eagle sandstone, and equivalent rocks (Upper Cretaceous), Montana and South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shurr, G.W.; Rice, D.D.

    1985-05-01

    The deposition of the Niobrara Formation, Eagle Sandstone, and equivalent Upper Cretaceous rocks was controlled by paleotectonic activity on lineament-bound basement blocks in Montana and South Dakota. Linear features observed on Landsat images provide an interpretation of lineament geometry that is independent of stratigraphic data. Paleotectonism on lineament-bound blocks is documented in three areas that were located in distinctly different depositional environments. In central Montana, coastal and inner-shelf sandstones and nonmarine coastal-plain and wave-dominated delta deposits reflect paleotectonic control by lineaments trending north-south, east-west, northwest, and northeast. In the northern Black Hills, chalks and outer-shelf sandstones reflect control by lineaments trending north-south, northwest, and north-east. In central South Dakota, erosion and deposition of chalk and calcareous shale on a west-sloping carbonate ramp were controlled by lineaments that generally trend northeast and northwest. Paleotectonism on lineament-bound blocks characterized four tectonic zones located in the Late Cretaceous seaway; the western foredeep, the west-median trough, the east-median hinge, and the eastern platform. The regional geometry of all four tectonic zones appears to be related to the geometry of the convergent plate margin on the west. Paleotectonic activity on lineament-bound blocks may have been the result of horizontal forces related to the convergent margin and to vertical forces related to the movement of the North American plate.

  18. Seasonal Daphnia biomass in winterkill and nonwinterkill glacial lakes of South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isermann, D.A.; Chipps, S.R.; Brown, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the seasonal biomass (??g dry weight/L) and body size of Daphnia pulex populations between South Dakota lakes that experienced nearly complete winterkill (n = 2) and those that did not experience fish winterkill the previous winter (n = 2). In spring (March-May), D. pulex biomass was substantially lower in winterkill lakes (0.4-1.9 ??g/L) than in nonwinterkill lakes (13.8-129.4 ??g/L). In summer months (June-July), D. pulex biomass increased in all lakes but was generally higher in winterkill lakes (332.1-469. 3 ??g/L) than in nonwinterkill lakes (88.6-204.2 ??g/L). By September, D. pulex biomass was substantially higher in winterkill lakes (243.8 ??g/L) than in nonwinterkill lakes (1.0 ??g/L). The mean size of D. pulex increased significantly from March to August in winterkill lakes but not in nonwinterkill lakes. The seasonal differences in D. pulex biomass and size may have been related to size-selective predation by planktivorous fishes because the ratio of spine length to body length in D. pulex was significantly lower in winterkill lakes (mean, 0.34) than in nonwinterkill lakes (mean, 0.43). Moreover, seasonal patterns in chlorophyll-a biomass were inversely related to D. pulex biomass. The production and subsequent hatching of resting eggs may be important for recolonization of Daphnia populations after severe winter conditions. The survival and growth of zooplanktivorous fish that are stocked to repopulate winterkill lakes may be increased by delaying stocking until Daphnia populations recover from severe winterkill.

  19. Management of warm-season grass mixtures for biomass production in South Dakota USA.

    PubMed

    Mulkey, V R; Owens, V N; Lee, D K

    2008-02-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), and indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash) are native warm-season grasses commonly used for pasture, hay, and conservation. More recently switchgrass has also been identified as a potential biomass energy crop, but management of mixtures of these species for biomass is not well documented. Therefore, the objectives of our study were to: (1) determine the effects of harvest timing and N rate on yield and biomass characteristics of established warm-season grass stands containing a mixture of switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass, and (2) evaluate the impact of harvest management on species composition. Five N rates (0, 56, 112, and 224 kg ha(-1) applied annually in spring and 224 kg ha(-1) evenly split between spring and fall) and two harvest timings (anthesis and killing frost) were applied to plots at two South Dakota USA locations from 2001 to 2003. Harvesting once a year shortly after a killing frost produced the greatest yields with high concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) along with lower concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and ash. This harvest timing also allowed for the greatest percentage of desirable species while maintaining low grass weed percentages. While N rates of 56 and 112 kg ha(-1) tended to increase total biomass without promoting severe invasion of grass and broadleaf weed species, N application did not always result in significant increases in biomass production. Based on these results, mixtures of switchgrass and big bluestem were well suited for sustainable biomass energy production. Furthermore, N requirements of these mixtures were relatively low thus reducing production input costs.

  20. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, T.J.; Jenks, J.A.; Leslie, David M.; Neiger, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  1. Impacts of Northern Pike on stocked Rainbow Trout in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheibel, Natalie C.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Davis, Jacob L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of nonnative Northern Pike Esox lucius in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota, has prompted concern among biologists about the influence of this species on the lake’s intensively managed salmonid fisheries. Ancedotal information suggests that catch rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have declined while mean size and abundance of Northern Pike has increased, although quantitative information on diet and growth of the Northern Pike population is lacking. To address potential interactions between Northern Pike and Rainbow Trout, we assessed size-dependent predation by Northern Pike on Rainbow Trout and determined the relative energetic contribution of stocked Rainbow Trout to Northern Pike growth using bioenergetics modeling. Stable isotopes combined with traditional diet analyses revealed that smaller Northern Pike (<600 mm TL) consumed primarily centrarchids and Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax, and Rainbow Trout contributed less than 10% to their annual energy consumption. In contrast, larger Northern Pike (≥600 mm TL) consumed primarily Rainbow Trout, which accounted for 56% of their annual energy consumption. Combining estimates of Northern Pike predation with production costs of catchable-size Rainbow Trout revealed that annual economic losses ranged from US$15,259 to $24,801 per year. Over its lifespan, an age-10 Northern Pike was estimated to consume ~117 Rainbow Trout worth approximately $340. Thus, Northern Pike predation substantially influences salmonid management initiatives and is likely a primary factor contributing to reduced Rainbow Trout abundance and return to anglers in Pactola Reservoir. Strategies for reducing Northern Pike predation on Rainbow Trout include increasing the size of stocked fish or altering the timing and spatial distribution of stocking events.

  2. Analyses of flood-flow frequency for selected gaging stations in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.D.; Hoffman, E.B.; Wipf, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of flood flow frequency were made for 111 continuous-record gaging stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of record. The analyses were developed using the log-Pearson Type III procedure recommended by the U.S. Water Resources Council. The procedure characterizes flood occurrence at a single site as a sequence of annual peak flows. The magnitudes of the annual peak flows are assumed to be independent random variables following a log-Pearson Type III probability distribution, which defines the probability that any single annual peak flow will exceed a specified discharge. By considering only annual peak flows, the flood-frequency analysis becomes the estimation of the log-Pearson annual-probability curve using the record of annual peak flows at the site. The recorded data are divided into two classes: systematic and historic. The systematic record includes all annual peak flows determined in the process of conducting a systematic gaging program at a site. In this program, the annual peak flow is determined for each and every year of the program. The systematic record is intended to constitute an unbiased and representative sample of the population of all possible annual peak flows at the site. In contrast to the systematic record, the historic record consists of annual peak flows that would not have been determined except for evidence indicating their unusual magnitude. Flood information acquired from historical sources almost invariably refers to floods of noteworthy, and hence extraordinary, size. Although historic records form a biased and unrepresentative sample, they can be used to supplement the systematic record. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Resource selection by black-footed ferrets in South Dakota and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachowski, D.S.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Matchett, M.R.; Rittenhouse, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), once extinct in the wild, remains one of the most critically endangered mammals in North America despite 18 years of reintroduction attempts. Because black-footed ferrets are specialized predators of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.), a better understanding of how black-footed ferrets select resources might provide insight into how best to identify and manage reintroduction sites. We monitored ferret resource selection at two reintroduction sites with different densities of prairie dog populations-one that contained a high density of prairie dogs (Conata Basin, South Dakota) and one that was lower (UL Bend, Montana). We evaluated support for hypotheses about ferret resource selection as related to the distribution of active burrows used by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), interactions between ferrets, and habitat edge effects. We found support for all three factors within both populations; however, they affected ferret resource selection differently at each site. Ferrets at Conata Basin tended to select areas with high prairie dog burrow density, closer to the colony edge, and that overlapped other ferret ranges. In contrast, ferrets at UL Bend tended not to select areas of high active prairie dog burrow density, avoided areas close to edge habitat, and females avoided areas occupied by other ferrets. The differences observed between the two sites might be best explained by prairie dog densities, which were higher at Conata Basin (119.3 active burrows per ha) than at UL Bend (44.4 active burrows per ha). Given the positive growth of ferret populations at Conata Basin, management that increases the density of prairie dogs might enhance ferret success within natural areas. To achieve long-term recovery of ferrets in the wild, conservationists should increasingly work across and outside natural area boundaries to increase prairie dog populations.

  4. Postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets in the Conata Basin, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, D.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Jachowski, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) on a 452-ha black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony in the Conata Basin of South Dakota during 20072008. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) to evaluate relationships between numbers of ferret locations and numbers of prairie dog burrow openings (total or active), distances to colony edges, and connectivity of patches of burrow openings. In both years ferrets selected areas near edges of the prairie dog colony where active burrow openings were abundant. In the interior of the colony ferrets selected areas with low abundance of active burrow openings. At times, prairie dog productivity (i.e., pup abundance) might be greatest at colony edges often characterized by grasses; ferrets are likely to select areas where refuge and vulnerable prey are abundant. Ferrets could have used interior areas with few active burrow openings as corridors between edge areas with many active burrow openings. Also, in areas with few active burrow openings ferrets spend more time aboveground during movements and, thus, are likely to be more easily detected. These results complement previous studies demonstrating importance of refuge and prey in fine-scale resource selection by ferrets and provide insight into factors that might influence edge effects on ferret space use. Conservation and restoration of colonies with areas with high densities of burrow openings and prairie dogs, and corridors between such areas, are needed for continued recovery of the black-footed ferret. RSFs could complement coarse-scale habitat evaluations by providing finer-scale assessments of habitat for the black-footed ferret. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  5. Survival of white-tailed deer neonates in Minnesota and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Brinkman, T.J.; Burris, B.M.; Deperno, C.S.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, birth mass, and sex) and habitat factors on survival of neonate white-tailed deer improves understanding of population ecology. During 2002-2004, we captured and radiocollared 78 neonates in eastern South Dakota and southwestern Minnesota, of which 16 died before 1 September. Predation accounted for 80% of mortality; the remaining 20% was attributed to starvation. Canids (coyotes [Canis latrans], domestic dogs) accounted for 100% of predation on neonates. We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic and habitat variables on survival. We developed 2 a priori model sets, including intrinsic variables (model set 1) and habitat variables (model set 2; forested cover, wetlands, grasslands, and croplands). For model set 1, model {Sage-interval} had the lowest AICc (Akaike's information criterion for small sample size) value, indicating that age at mortality (3-stage age-interval: 0-2 weeks, 2-8 weeks, and >8 weeks) best explained survival. Model set 2 indicated that habitat variables did not further influence survival in the study area; ??-estimates and 95% confidence intervals for habitat variables in competing models encompassed zero; thus, we excluded these models from consideration. Overall survival rate using model {Sage-interval} was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.83-0.91); 61% of mortalities occurred at 0-2 weeks of age, 26% at 2-8 weeks of age, and 13% at >8 weeks of age. Our results indicate that variables influencing survival may be area specific. Region-specific data are needed to determine influences of intrinsic and habitat variables on neonate survival before wildlife managers can determine which habitat management activities influence neonate populations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  6. Appraisal of the water resources of the Skunk Creek Aquifer in Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohland, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Skunk Creek aquifer, a major glacial outwash deposit in the Skunk Creek drainage basin, consists of a 30-sq-mi shallow stream connected sand and gravel aquifer in southeastern South Dakota. The aquifer thickness ranges from 1 to 74 ft. Average annual fluctuation of the water table is 2.5 ft. The water has an average dissolved-solids content of 620 mg/L and is very hard , averaging 403 mg/L calcium carbonate hardness. A numerical model was developed and calibrated under steady-state and transient conditions. The model contained 484 active nodes each representing 0.0625 sq mi. Hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer used in the model range from 10 to 400 ft/d, and average specific yield is 20%. Recharge from infiltration of precipitation was estimated to be 6 inches/yr or 24% of average annual precipitation. Maximum evapotranspiration rate was 32 inches/yr and the evapotranspiration extinction depth for the model was 5 ft. The steady-state hydrologic budget was about 11 ,000 acre-ft/yr. Recharge by precipitation was about 9,500 acre-ft and recharge from streams was about 1,100 acre-ft. Discharge by evapotranspiration was about 5,000 acre-ft and discharge to streams was about 5,700 acre-ft. A hypothetical simulation to determine maximum withdrawal under steady-state conditions resulted in a groundwater withdrawal of about 15,700 acre-ft/yr from 19 hypothetical wells pumping at a rate of 500 gal/min and 13 existing wells pumping at a combined average rate of 24 gal/min. (USGS)

  7. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P

  8. Linking phenology and biomass productivity in South Dakota mixed-grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigge, Matthew; Smart, Alexander; Wylie, Bruce; Gilmanov, Tagir; Johnson, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the health of rangeland ecosystems based solely on annual biomass production does not fully describe plant community condition; the phenology of production can provide inferences on species composition, successional stage, and grazing impacts. We evaluate the productivity and phenology of western South Dakota mixed-grass prairie using 2000 to 2008 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite imagery at 250 m spatial resolution. Growing season NDVI images were integrated weekly to produce time-integrated NDVI (TIN), a proxy of total annual biomass production, and integrated seasonally to represent annual production by cool (C3) and warm (C4) season species. Additionally, a variety of phenological indicators including cool season percentage of TIN were derived from the seasonal profiles of NDVI. Cool season percentage and TIN were combined to generate vegetation classes, which served as proxies of plant community condition. TIN decreased with precipitation from east to west across the study area. Alternatively, cool season percentage increased from east to west, following patterns related to the reliability (interannual coefficient of variation [CV]) and quantity of mid-summer precipitation. Cool season TIN averaged 76.8% of total. Seasonal accumulation of TIN corresponded closely (R2 > 0.90) to that of gross photosynthesis data from a carbon flux tower. Field-collected biomass and community composition data were strongly related to the TIN and cool season percentage products. The patterns of vegetation classes were responsive to topographic, edaphic, and land management influences on plant communities. Accurate maps of biomass production, cool/warm season composition, and vegetation classes can improve the efficiency of land management by adjusting stocking rates and season of use to maximize rangeland productivity and achieve conservation objectives. Further, our results clarify the spatial and

  9. HCMM energy budget data as a model input for assessing regions of high potential groundwater pollution. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G. (Principal Investigator); Heilman, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day thermal data were analyzed to assess depth to groundwater in the test site. HCMM apparent temperature was corrected for atmospheric effects using lake temperature of the Oahe Reservoir in central South Dakota. Soil surface temperatures were estimated using an equation developed for ground studies. A significant relationship was found between surface soil temperature and depth to groundwater, as well as between the surface soil-maximum air temperature differential and soil water content (% of field capacity) in the 0 cm and 4 cm layer of the profile. Land use for the data points consisted of row crops, small grains, stubble, and pasture.

  10. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Chemical migration by contact metamorphism between pegmatite/country rocks: natural analogs for radionuclides migration. [Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Walker, R.J.; Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.

    1983-10-01

    Comparison of trace element signatures of country rocks as a function of distance from the contact with two pegmatites, Tin Mountain and Etta, in the Black Hills of South Dakota, suggests that some elements such as K, Li, Rb, Cs, As, Sb, Zn and Pb, have migrated to distances of 4 to 40 meters during contact metamorphism. The relative degree of migration varies depending on the element. On the other hand, there is virtually no migration of rare earth elements (REE), Al, Sc, Cr, Hf, U, and Th. Biotite and muscovite are effective trace element traps for Li, Rb and Cs. Biotite has a greater affinity for Rb, Cs and Li than muscovite.

  12. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, James Jennings

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear.

  13. Pesticide concentrations in wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation, South and North Dakota, July 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2016-05-04

    During July 2015, water samples were collected from 18 wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation in northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota and analyzed for physical properties and 54 pesticides. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate was designed to provide an update on pesticide concentrations of the same 18 wetlands that were sampled for a reconnaissance-level assessment during July 2006. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of pesticide concentrations in selected Lake Traverse Indian Reservation wetlands during July 2015 and provide a comparison of pesticide concentrations between 2006 and 2015.Of the 54 pesticides that were analyzed for in the samples collected during July 2015, 47 pesticides were not detected in any samples. Seven pesticides—2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT); 2,4–D; acetachlor; atrazine; glyphosate; metolachlor; and prometon—were detected in the 2015 samples with estimated concentrations or concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level, and most pesticides were detected at low concentrations in only a few samples. Samples from all wetlands contained at least one detected pesticide. The maximum number of pesticides detected in a wetland sample was six, and the median number of pesticides detected was three.The most commonly detected pesticides in the 2015 samples were atrazine and the atrazine degradate CIAT (also known as deethylatrazine), which were detected in 14 and 13 of the wetlands sampled, respectively. Glyphosate was detected in samples from 11 wetlands, and metolachlor was detected in samples from 10 wetlands. The other detected pesticides were 2,4–D (4 wetlands), acetochlor (3 wetlands), and prometon (1 wetland).The same pesticides that were detected in the 2006 samples were detected in the 2015 samples, with the exception of simazine, which was detected only in one sample in 2006

  14. Plan of study of the hydrology of the Madison Limestone and associated rocks in Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1975-01-01

    A major part of the United States ' coal reserves is in the Fort Union coal region of the Northern Great Plains. Large-scale development of these reserves would place a heavy demand on the area 's limited water resources. Surface water is poorly distributed in time and space. Its use for coal development in parts of the area would require storage reservoirs and distribution systems, whereas in the rest of the area surface water is fully appropriated and its use would deprive present users of their supply. Preliminary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota indicate that the Madison Limestone and associated rocks might provide a significant percentage of the total water requirements for coal development. This report briefly summarized the present knowledge of the geohydrology of the Madison and associated rocks, identifies the need for additional data, and outlines a 5-year plan for a comprehensive study of the hydrology of these rocks. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

  16. Ectoparasites in black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) from the largest reintroduced population of the Conata Basin, South Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nyeema C; Livieri, Travis M; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-04-01

    The black-footed ferret, Mustela nigripes, is an endangered carnivore endemic to the grasslands of North America. We present the first investigation of ectoparasites associated with black-footed ferrets since reintroduction. We sampled more than 200 individuals from one of the largest and most successful reintroduced populations located in the Conata Basin of South Dakota, USA. We compared our findings with ectoparasite assemblages of sympatric carnivores and historic ferret records. We collected more than 1,000 ectoparasites consisting mainly of three flea and tick species, two of which were known historically from South Dakota. Despite our extensive sampling efforts, we did not detect any lice. This is notable because a putative host-specific louse, Neotrichodectes sp., was presumed to have gone extinct when black-footed ferrets were extirpated from the wild. The ectoparasite assemblage on black-footed ferrets comprised only generalist parasites, particularly those found on their prey such as prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.). Oropsylla hirsuta was the most abundant ectoparasite, representing 57% of all ectoparasites detected; a flea vector important in the persistence and transmission of plague. Black-footed ferrets like other endangered species undergo repeated parasite removal and vaccination efforts to facilitate population recovery, which may have unintentionally contributed to their depauperate ectoparasite community. PMID:24499333

  17. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 89-278-2035, Twin City Fruit, F. L. Thorpe Co. , Deadwood, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, T.R.; Gunter, B.

    1990-04-01

    In response to a request from the South Dakota Health Department, an evaluation was made of possible exposure to methylene-bisphenyl-diisocyanate (MDI) among employees of Thorpe's, a jewelry facility located in a warehouse owned by Twin City Fruit in Deadwood, South Dakota. At this facility gold was casted, soldered, buffed, finished, packaged, and shipped. The facility employed 85 women and two men in two rooms of the warehouse basement. Insulation was applied by spraying MDI and polyol in a 1:1 mixture onto the warehouse ceiling, walls, and basement rooms adjacent to the jewelry facility. Five days after insulation spraying ceased, seven of 16 area samples had detectable quantities of MDI, but all were below NIOSH's recommended exposure limit of 50 micrograms/cubic meter. It was not possible to estimate the concentration of MDI in the jewelry facility during the spraying application. Thirteen employees had probable MDI induced respiratory diseases. Of these 13, one had respiratory symptoms persisting at least 6 days after the exposure and four had symptoms 2 months later. All blood tests for allergy to MDI were negative. Inadequate isolation procedures during the spraying operation were cited as the cause of these difficulties. The authors conclude that MDI exposure probably occurred during the application of the insulation material.

  18. A two-dimensional, finite-difference model of the high plains aquifer in southern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolm, K.E.; Case, H. L., III

    1983-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer is the principal source of water for irrigation, industry, municipalities, and domestic use in south-central South Dakota. The aquifer, composed of upper sandstone units of the Arikaree Formation, and the overlying Ogallala and Sand Hills Formations, was simulated using a two-dimensional, finite-difference computer model. The maximum difference between simulated and measured potentiometric heads was less than 60 feet (1- to 4-percent error). Two-thirds of the simulated potentiometric heads were within 26 feet of the measured values (3-percent error). The estimated saturated thickness, computed from simulated potentiometric heads, was within 25-percent error of the known saturated thickness for 95 percent of the study area. (USGS)

  19. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary interval in Badlands National Park, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula; Chamberlain, John A.; Terry, Dennis O.

    2001-01-01

    A marine K-T boundary interval has been identified throughout the Badlands National Park region of South Dakota. Data from marine sediments suggest that deposits from two asteroid impacts (one close, one far away) may be preserved in the Badlands. These impact-generated deposits may represent late Maestrichtian events or possibly the terminal K-T event. Interpretation is supported by paleontological correlation, sequence stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and strontium isotope geochronology. This research is founded on nearly a decade of NPS approved field work in Badlands National Park and a foundation of previously published data and interpretations. The K-T boundary occurs within or near the base of a stratigraphic interval referred to as the "Interior Zone." We interpret the stratigraphy of the Interior Zone as a series of distinct, recognizable lithologic members and units from oldest to youngest, an upper weathered interval of the Elk Butte Member of the Pierre Shale (early late Maestrichtian), a complete (albeit condensed) interval of Fox Hill Formation, a pedogenically altered K-T Boundary "Disturbed Zone," and a generally unresolved sequence of marine to marginal marine units ranging in age from possibly latest Maestrichtian to late Paleocene (the "Yellow Mounds"), that underlie a basal red clay unit (the late Eocene overbank channel facies of the Chamberlain Pass Formation at the base of the White River Group). Within this sequence is a series of unconformities that all display some degree of subaerial weathering and erosion. The dating of marine fossils above and below these unconformities are in line with generally accepted global sea-level changes recognized for the late Campanian through early Eocene. Within the greater framework of regional geology, these findings support that the Western Interior Seaway and subsequent Cannonball Seaway were dependently linked to the changing base-level controlled by sea-level of the global ocean through the Gulf of

  20. A comparison of student and teacher perceptions of assessment in science classrooms in South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhader, Virginia

    Assessments have been a central topic of concern in the American educational system for the past several years. With the enactment of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law (P.L.107-110), student assessment has become a high stakes event in all school districts. This study was timely with the onset of testing and state reporting of performance in science this year. The purpose of this dissertation was to study and compare students' and teachers' perceptions of assessment practices in science classrooms. Using survey instruments designed for each group, high school students enrolled in science classes and teachers providing instruction in these classes provided demographic information and their perceptions of the science assessment practices in these classrooms. Students were administered the Students Perception Assessment Questionnaire and teachers were administered a researcher modified version of this instrument. A total of 447 students enrolled in five South Dakota school district high schools completed the student survey with 15 matched teacher surveys. Survey results indicated there was inconsistency between how the classroom teacher and students perceived assessments in the science classrooms. Only Congruence for Planning Learning and Transparency in Assessment responses were positively related between the teachers and students. Some 60% of the categorical assessment variables were not significantly related indicating teachers and students are not perceiving the science classroom assessment practices similarly. Individual science disciplines were also analyzed separately. Students in biology classes perceived assessment practices differently based on the grades they were earning in the class. High achieving students saw these practices as more similar to their teachers' perceptions than the low achieving students. Chemistry students who liked science also perceived the science assessments more similar to teacher perceptions than did students who were

  1. Nature and timing of the latest Wisconsin advance of the James River lobe, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, S. C.; Paces, J. B.; Iles, D.; Cowman, T.

    2009-12-01

    Glaciation of the James River lobe area in eastern South Dakota (SD) produced several prominent geomorphic features of the Laurentide ice sheet record. During late Wisconsin time, the James lobe advanced southward in the James River lowland, overlapping the Prairie Coteau upland on the east and the Missouri Coteau on the west. The known southern limit of late Wisconsin till is the modern Missouri River Valley between Yankton and Richland, SD. North of the Missouri River, radiocarbon dates on wood in or beneath till from 12 sites in 10 counties of the southern James River lowland range from 12,050 to 12,880 14C yr B.P. and average 12,430 yr B.P. (~14,500 ka cal), with a mean reported uncertainty of 260 yrs. At most of these sites, including two within 20 km of Yankton, the dated wood is in till at depths as great as 58 m or in underlying sand and gravel. The dates are consistent with paleoecologic studies (e.g. Yansa, 2006) that indicate spruce parkland was in this region at that time prior to the glacial readvance. Outcrops of calcite-cemented glacial gravel cut by veins of banded travertine are present on a marginal escarpment of the James River valley, where it is incised into the 30-60-m-thick surface till of the James River lowland about 15 km north of the Missouri River. Twelve robust 230Th/U dates on calcite laminae ranging from 10.5 to 13.5 ka (mean 2s uncertainty of 0.4 ka) indicate that ground-water discharge from glacial-bed aquifers was closely related to the latest Wisconsin advance of the James lobe. Four dates on younger vug-filling calcite between 8.1 and 5.8 ka, as well as modern spring discharge, show decreasing initial 234U/238U with age. Stable-isotope data on dated travertine and modern spring water provide other means for evaluating environments of carbonate precipitation, including subglacial and/or subaerial settings and mixing of surface and ground water associated with ice-sheet dynamics. The 14C dates span the Bolling-Allerod time interval

  2. Evaluation of recharge to the Skunk Creek Aquifer from a constructed wetland near Lyons, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.

    2002-01-01

    A wetland was constructed in the Skunk Creek flood plain near Lyons in southeast South Dakota to mitigate for wetland areas that were filled during construction of a municipal golf course for the city of Sioux Falls. A water-rights permit was obtained to allow the city to pump water from Skunk Creek into the wetland during times when the wetland would be dry. The amount of water seeping through the wetland and recharging the underlying Skunk Creek aquifer was not known. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Sioux Falls, conducted a study during 1997-2000 to evaluate recharge to the Skunk Creek aquifer from the constructed wetland. Three methods were used to estimate recharge from the wetland to the aquifer: (1) analysis of the rate of water-level decline during periods of no inflow; (2) flow-net analysis; and (3) analysis of the hydrologic budget. The hydrologic budget also was used to evaluate the efficiency of recharge from the wetland to the aquifer. Recharge rates estimated by analysis of shut-off events ranged from 0.21 to 0.82 foot per day, but these estimates may be influenced by possible errors in volume calculations. Recharge rates determined by flow-net analysis were calculated using selected values of hydraulic conductivity and ranged from 566,000 gallons per day using a hydraulic conductivity of 0.5 foot per day to 1,684,000 gallons per day using a hydraulic conductivity of 1.0 foot per day. Recharge rates from the hydrologic budget varied from 0.74 to 0.85 foot per day, and averaged 0.79 foot per day. The amount of water lost to evapotranspiration at the study wetland is very small compared to the amount of water seeping from the wetland into the aquifer. Based on the hydrologic budget, the average recharge efficiency was estimated as 97.9 percent, which indicates that recharging the Skunk Creek aquifer by pumping water into the study wetland is highly efficient. Because the Skunk Creek aquifer is composed of sand and gravel, the

  3. Assessment of fish abundance and species composition at selected sites in South Dakota: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, Alison

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted surveys of streams throughout the State of South Dakota during 2008-09 as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) Program. During 2008-09, as part of the stream assessment, the USGS completed surveys of fish populations and species composition at 64 sites. Fish were inventoried at 60 of the 64 sites, but not at four of the sites because water was too low to sustain fish or specific conductivity was too high to electroshock effectively. Four of the sites were surveyed in 2000-04 during the USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-West (EMAP-West) project. Two wadeable sites and two boatable sites were revisited for quality-assurance/quality-control requirements. During the study, both wadeable and boatable streams were sampled using electrofishing equipment and methods. Of the 64 sites, 62 were wadeable and 2 were boatable. Procedures for sampling wadeable streams differed slightly from procedures for boatable streams. Backpack electrofishing equipment was used for wadeable streams, whereas boat electrofishing equipment was used for boatable streams. Wadeable streams also were fished in an opposite direction than boatable streams. Several species of fish were collected during the NRSA. Species diversity ranged from 0-11 species in wadeable streams and from 6-26 species in boatable streams. Many common species were sampled during the study. The most frequently sampled fish was the sand shiner (Notropis stramineus), with 609 individuals sampled. In contrast, only one heritage species, the skipjack herring (Alosa chrysochloris), was identified during 2008-09. Common anomalies found in fish caught were parasitic lesions, "black spot disease," and tumors. When comparing the fish sampling results for the four sites visited in both 2000-04 and in 2008-09, more individuals and species were collected during 2008-09 than in 2000-04 at two sites, whereas

  4. South Dakota Special Education Guidelines (Phase One) Recommendations for Local Education Agencies in Implementing Comprehensive Program Planning for their Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsberry, Michael J.; And Others

    Presented are guidelines based on statutes, rules, and regulations of the federal government and the South Dakota state board of education to be used by school districts for planning and implementing comprehensive special education programs for exceptional children. Noted are specifications for special school accreditation. Provided are pertinent…

  5. An Analysis of Potential Additional Measures of Fiscal Capacity of South Dakota School Districts. Papers in Education Finance, No. 13. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Phillip E.; Adams, E. Kathleen

    To help South Dakota develop new measures of school district fiscal capacity (besides assessed value per pupil) to use in its state school aid formula, researchers used multiple regression analysis to examine the effects on district expenditure per pupil of each district's average family income and of the composition of the property tax base. Also…

  6. Divisions of potential fracture permeability, based on distribution of structures and linear features in sedimentary rocks, northern Great Plains-Rocky Mountains region of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, and northern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1986-01-01

    Division of fracture traces in sedimentary rocks of Cenozoic to Precambrian Age - Eastern and central North and South Dakota and northern Nebraska include only Cenozoic to Pennsylvanian rocks at the surface and at relatively shallow depths; the area of shallow thrust faulting in north-central Montana includes many Cretaceous rocks. Fractures in the deeper rocks in these areas vary, depending on the local structure. Large areas of western Montana are underlain by Precambrian sedimentary rocks. 

  7. Streamflow characteristics for the Black Hills of South Dakota, through water year 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.D.; Driscoll, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes streamflow records and describes streamflow characteristics for streams draining the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Monthly and annual streamflow records are tabulated for all available years of record, through water year 1993, for 129 continuous-record gaging stations, including 111 stations for which records of daily flow are available and 18 stations for which only monthly records are available. Various summary statistics and graphics are presented for stations with sufficient periods of record. In addition to streamflow summaries, records of monthend contents are presented for five reservoirs operated by the Bureau of Reclamation in the Black Hills area. Streamflow characteristics are described for four categories of hydrogeologic settings, including interior sedimentary basins, interior crystalline basins, interior basins downstream of loss zones (loss-zone basins), and exterior basins. All of the interior basins are located predominantly within the outermost extent of the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group and the exterior basins are located predominantly beyond this outcrop. Distinct differences in variability of annual and monthly streamflow are described for the four categories of hydrogeologic settings. The interior sedimentary basins, which are dominated by springflow from headwater areas, have the smallest variability in both annual and monthly flow, as a group. The exterior basins, as a group, have the largest variability in both annual and monthly flow. Streamflow variability for the interior crystalline basins, which are composed primarily of Precambrian and Tertiary igneous and metamorphic rocks, generally falls midway between the interior sedimentary and exterior basins. Loss-zone stations, which are located downstream of loss zones that occur where streams cross outcrops of the Madison Limestone and other overlying sedimentary units, exhibit the widest range in streamflow variability of any of the categories. Most of the

  8. Resource management and operations in southwest South Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary January 20-21, 2016, Rapid City, SD

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W; Symstad, Amy; Ray, Andrea; Miller, Brian; Cross, Molly; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the southwest South Dakota grasslands focal area, with an emphasis on Badlands National Park and Buffalo Gap National Grassland. The report explains scenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held January 20-21, 2016 in Rapid City, South Dakota, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  9. Reconnaissance-level assessment of water quality near Flandreau, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents water-quality data that have been compiled and collected for a reconnaissance-level assessment of water quality near Flandreau, South Dakota. The investigation was initiated as a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe. Members of the Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe have expressed concern that Tribal members residing in the city of Flandreau experience more health problems than the general population in the surrounding area. Prior to December 2000, water for the city of Flandreau was supplied by wells completed in the Big Sioux aquifer within the city of Flandreau. After December 2000, water for the city of Flandreau was supplied by the Big Sioux Community Water System from wells completed in the Big Sioux aquifer along the Big Sioux River near Egan, about 8 river miles downstream of Flandreau. There is some concern that the public and private water supplies provided by wells completed in the Big Sioux aquifer near the Big Sioux River may contain chemicals that contribute to the health problems. Data compiled from other investigations provide information about the water quality of the Big Sioux River and the Big Sioux aquifer in the Flandreau area from 1978 through 2001. The median, minimum, and maximum values are presented for fecal bacteria, nitrate, arsenic, and atrazine. Nitrate concentrations of water from Flandreau public-supply wells occasionally exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter for public drinking water. For this study, untreated-water samples were collected from the Big Sioux River in Flandreau and from five wells completed in the Big Sioux aquifer in and near Flandreau. Treated-water samples from the Big Sioux Community Water System were collected at a site about midway between the treatment facility near Egan and the city of Flandreau. The first round of sampling occurred during July 9-12, 2001, and the second round of sampling occurred during August 20

  10. Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2004-01-01

    The Galena Fire burned about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The fire burned primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the burned area. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage area was burned. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was burned particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the area upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both annual-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately burned areas did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely burned areas underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned areas. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely burned headwater areas of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater areas. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control area. Effects on

  11. Gold in the Black Hills, South Dakota, and how new deposits might be found

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, James Jennings

    1974-01-01

    Of the recorded production of 34,694,552 troy ounces of gold mined in South Dakota through 1971, about 90 percent has come from Precambrian ore bodies in the Homestake mine at Lead in the northern Black Hills. Most of the rest has come from ore deposited in the Deadwood Formation (Cambrian) by hydrothermal replacement during early Tertiary igneous activity. About 99 percent of the total production has been within a radius of 5 miles (8 km) of Lead. Elsewhere, prospecting has been intense, both in the Precambrian rocks, which are exposed over an area 61 by 26 miles (98 by 42 km), and in nearby Paleozoic rocks. All the known ore bodies have been found either at the surface or in subsurface workings of operating mines. Efforts to find totally new deposits have been modest and sporadic; no comprehensive and systematic program has ever been attempted. Obviously, any exploration program should be aimed at finding a new deposit resembling the Homestake in the Precambrian, but discovery in the Deadwood of a new group of ore bodies containing several hundred thousand ounces of gold would certainly be worthwhile. Evidence has long been available that the Deadwood deposits and the Homestake deposit are somehow related. Current opinion is that (1) the Homestake ore is mainly Precambrian, (2) a trivial amount of Homestake ore is Tertiary, (3)gold in Deadwood basal conglomerate is largely of placer origin, and (4) the gold of replacement deposits in the Deadwood and in other rock units came originally from sources similar to the Homestake deposit or its parent materials. Homestake ore is virtually entirely contained in a unit of iron-formation locally known as the Homestake Formation, which seemingly had more gold in the original sediments than similar rocks exposed elsewhere in the Black Hills. Gold, sulfur, and other constituents were subsequently concentrated in ore shoots in zones of dilation caused by cross folds that deformed earlier major folds. These ore shoots are in

  12. Episodic sediment-discharge events in Cascade Springs, southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Timothy Scott

    1999-01-01

    Cascade Springs is a group of artesian springs in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, with collective flow of about 19.6 cubic feet per second. Beginning on February 28, 1992, a large discharge of red suspended sediment was observed from two of the six known discharge points. Similar events during 1906-07 and 1969 were documented by local residents and newspaper accounts. Mineralogic and grain-size analyses were performed to identify probable subsurface sources of the sediment. Geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate the geochemical evolution of water discharged from Cascade Springs. Interpretations of results provide a perspective on the role of artesian springs in the regional geohydrologic framework. X-ray diffraction mineralogic analyses of the clay fraction of the suspended sediment were compared to analyses of clay-fraction samples taken from nine geologic units at and stratigraphically below the spring-discharge points. Ongoing development of a subsurface breccia pipe(s) in the upper Minnelusa Formation and/or Opeche Shale was identified as a likely source of the suspended sediment; thus, exposed breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon were examined. Upper Minnelusa Formation breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon occur in clusters similar to the discrete discharge points of Cascade Springs. Grain-size analyses showed that breccia masses lack clay fractions and have coarser distributions than the wall rocks, which indicates that the red, fine-grained fractions have been carried out as suspended sediment. These findings support the hypothesis that many breccia pipes were formed as throats of abandoned artesian springs. Geochemical modeling was used to test whether geochemical evolution of ground water is consistent with this hypothesis. The evolution of water at Cascade Springs could not be suitably simulated using only upgradient water from the Minnelusa aquifer. A suitable model involved dissolution of anhydrite accompanied by dedolomitization in the

  13. Paleomagnetism of Eocene Intrusive Rocks, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.; Fawcett, T. C.; Gregiore, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming are a large Precambrian-cored Laramide uplift. Intruding the Black Hills are a diverse suite of igneous rocks, which include phonolites, trachytes, latites, garnet-bearing rhyolites, and pyroxenites. These intrusive bodies range in size from several meter outcrop-scale bodies, to several 10s of km wide intrusive complexes. New geochronology (40Ar-39Ar) data indicate many of these intrusive rocks are between 58 and 45 Ma in age (Duke at al, 2002). As part of a larger paleomagnetic study aimed at Jurassic strata surrounding the Black Hills, a collection of 20 sites and 145 samples of the Eocene intrusive rocks was made. A combination of alternating field, thermal, and liquid nitrogen step-wise demagnetization revealed that, with a few exceptions, these rocks have two well-defined magnetization components. The first-removed component is interpreted to be a present (dipole) field magnetization, and is removed by 10 to 30 mT a.f., or 200 C thermal demagnetization steps. The second-removed components have either positive or negative inclinations, and are defined by demagnetization steps between 30 and 200 mT a.f., or 300 to 630 C thermal demagnetization steps. These components are interpreted to be ancient, presumably Eocene, magnetizations. A preliminary mean of the normal-polarity sites is D=352, I=59.3, k=26.7, a95=18.2, N=4, and of the reverse-polarity sites is D=154.9, I=-61.3, k=23.1, a95=18.2, N=4. The combined mean direction is D=344.9, I=60.3, k=28.8, a95=10.5, N=8. Two sites of rhyolites at Mt. Theodore Roosevelt have well-defined magnetization components, but either mixed polarity (Site 99Trr1), or reverse-polarity with what might be a transitional-field direction (D=27.7, I=-37.4, k=18.0, a95=18.6, n=5), and are not included in the calculation of means. The magnetizations recorded by these Eocene rocks are essentially identical to the expected direction for the Black Hills calculated from the Diehl et al., 1983

  14. Water-quality characteristics for selected streams in Lawrence County, South Dakota, 1988-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Hayes, Timothy Scott

    2000-01-01

    During the 1980?s, significant economic development and population growth began to occur in Lawrence County in the northern part of the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Rising gold prices and heap-leach extraction methods allowed the economic recovery of marginal gold ore deposits, resulting in development of several large-scale, open-pit gold mines in Lawrence County. There was increasing local concern regarding potential impacts on the hydrologic system, especially relating to the quantity and quality of water in the numerous streams and springs of Lawrence County. In order to characterize the water quality of selected streams within Lawrence County, samples were collected from 1988 through 1992 at different times of the year and under variable hydrologic conditions. During the time of this study, the Black Hills area was experiencing a drought; thus, most samples were collected during low-flow conditions.Streamflow and water-quality characteristics in Lawrence County are affected by both geologic conditions and precipitation patterns. Most streams that cross outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation lose all or large part of their streamflow to aquifer recharge. Streams that are predominantly spring fed have relatively stable streamflow, varying slightly with dry and wet precipitation cycles.Most streams in Lawrence County generally have calcium magnesium bicarbonate type waters. The sites from the mineralized area of central Lawrence County vary slightly from other streams in Lawrence County by having higher concentrations of sodium, less bicarbonate, and more sulfate. False Bottom Creek near Central City has more sulfate than bicarbonate. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and cyanide concentrations were at or near the laboratory reporting limits for most sites and did not exceed any of the water-quality standards. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations at Annie Creek near Lead, Whitetail Creek at Lead, Squaw Creek near Spearfish, and Spearfish Creek

  15. Late Holocene flood probabilities in the Black Hills, South Dakota with emphasis on the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, James E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    A stratigraphic record of 35 large paleofloods and four large historical floods during the last 2000 years for four basins in the Black Hills of South Dakota reveals three long-term flooding episodes, identified using probability distributions, at A.D.: 120–395, 900–1290, and 1410 to present. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~ A.D. 900–1300) the four basins collectively experienced 13 large floods compared to nine large floods in the previous 800 years, including the largest floods of the last 2000 years for two of the four basins. This high concentration of extreme floods is likely caused by one or more of the following: 1) instability of air masses caused by stronger than normal westerlies; 2) larger or more frequent hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean; and/or 3) reduced land covering vegetation or increased forest fires caused by persistent regional drought.

  16. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Lac qui Parle River basin, southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Sanocki, C.A.; Winterstein, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Data describing the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Lac qui Parle River basin, located in southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota, are presented in this report. The physical charac- teristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length. and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  17. Remote sensing for evaluating post-disaster damage conditions: The Pierre, South Dakota tornado, 23 July 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusche, A. E.; Myers, V. I.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing data obtained from aerial reconnaissance of tornado damage to the city of Pierre, South Dakota on July 23, 1973 was evaluated to determine its value as a decision making and management tool in post-disaster restoration activities. The imaging techniques used are briefly discussed, and both aerial and closeup color photographs are provided which were used in the evaluation. The immediate advantages of the data are identified as a 'quick-look' assessment, and a list is given which outlines the additional advantages for which positive rescue and cleanup action may be initiated. Hail and flood damage evaluation, and remote sensing of crop damage due to insect of disease infestation is also briefly described.

  18. IN SITU AND LABORATORY GEOTECHNICAL TESTS OF THE PIERRE SHALE NEAR HAYES, SOUTH DAKOTA - A CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERING BEHAVIOR.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Thomas C.; Collins, Donley S.; Davidson, Richard R.

    1986-01-01

    A geotechnical investigation of the Pierre Shale near Hayes, South Dakota, was conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey as a basis for evaluating problems in deep excavations into that formation. The physical and mechanical properties of the shale were determined through use of core holes drilled to a maximum depth of 184 m. In situ borehole determinations included a gravimeter survey, pressuremeter testing, thermal profile measurements, and borehole velocity measurements. Onsite and offsite laboratory measurements included rebound measurements, sonic velocity measurements of shear and primary waves, X-ray mineralogy and major element determinations, size analyses, fracture analyses, fabric analyses, and determination of thermal properties. The properties of the clay shale indicate problems that may be encountered in excavation and use of deep underground facilities.

  19. Comparison of detection rates of breeding marsh birds in passive and playback surveys at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, T.; Finkbeiner, S.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared detection rates of passive and playback breeding bird survey techniques on elusive marsh birds - Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola), and Sora (Porzana carolina) - during a two-year study at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, in southwestern South Dakota. We conducted 151 passive point counts followed by playback-response surveys at the same points in marsh-bird habitat on the refuge. Playback surveys detected secretive water birds more frequently than our passive surveys, increasing rates for each species by factors of 2.4 to 7.0. The distance a bird was detected from a point varied with the species and the survey technique.

  20. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Hawk Creek-Yellow Medicine River basin, southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Hawk Creek-Yellow Medicine River Basin, located in southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  1. Water quality of streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tornes, Lan H.

    2005-01-01

    Data for the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota were analyzed to determine whether the water quality of streams in the basin is adequate to meet future needs. For the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, site, pH values, water temperatures, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations generally were within the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 245 to 1,100 milligrams per liter. Maximum sulfate and chloride concentrations were near, but did not exceed, the established secondary maximum contaminant level. The trace elements considered potentially harmful generally were at concentrations that were less than the established guidelines, standards, and criteria. The concentrations of lead that were detected may have occurred as a result of sample contamination. For the Red River upstream from Emerson, Manitoba, sites, pH and other field values rarely exceeded the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Many constituent concentrations for the Red River below Fargo, N. site exceeded water-quality guidelines, standards, and criteria. However, the trace-element exceedances could be natural or could be related to pollution or sample contamination. Many of the tributaries in the western part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter. Sulfate concentrations occasionally exceeded the established drinking-water standard. Median arsenic concentrations were 6 micrograms per liter or less, and maximum concentrations rarely exceeded the 10-microgram-per-liter drinking-water standard that is scheduled to take effect in 2006. The small concentrations of lead, mercury, and selenium that occasionally were detected may have been a result of sample contamination or other factors. The tributaries in the eastern part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were less than

  2. Report to the Department of Energy on the DOE/EPSCoR planning activities for the state of South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    An extensive review of the current status of energy-related research and educational activities within the state of South Dakota was carried out. Information exchange meetings were conducted at the major research institutions as well as with many representatives of state government. Visits were also made to professional educators who are deeply involved with the state`s principal minority group, the American Indian. Several activities in the human resource development area that will be carried out in the five-year implementation project were identified. Many of these will be closely coordinated with other efforts currently in progress under the auspices of the NSF SSI (Statewide Systemic Initiatives in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education) office. The authors will also work closely with AWU and other regional consortia to foster a higher level of participation in existing DOE programs and to develop adaptations and {open_quotes}follow-ons{close_quotes} that are tailored to the specific needs of South Dakota. Many of these programs will involve extensive interaction with DOE laboratories. Special programs will be carried out that are designed to keep a larger number of the Native American population in the science and engineering pipeline. An assessment of the research strengths of this state was made. With the assistance of external consultants, the authors identified two principal areas in which they have the potential to develop nationally competitive research programs that fall within DOE objectives. One is a comprehensive biomass systems study, and the other a water quality study as it relates to energy production.

  3. 2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean

  4. Attitudes and gender differences of high school seniors within one-to-one computing environments in South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mathew

    In today's age of exponential change and technological advancement, awareness of any gender gap in technology and computer science-related fields is crucial, but further research must be done in an effort to better understand the complex interacting factors contributing to the gender gap. This study utilized a survey to investigate specific gender differences relating to computing self-efficacy, computer usage, and environmental factors of exposure, personal interests, and parental influence that impact gender differences of high school students within a one-to-one computing environment in South Dakota. The population who completed the One-to-One High School Computing Survey for this study consisted of South Dakota high school seniors who had been involved in a one-to-one computing environment for two or more years. The data from the survey were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for the determined variables. From the review of literature and data analysis several conclusions were drawn from the findings. Among them are that overall, there was very little difference in perceived computing self-efficacy and computing anxiety between male and female students within the one-to-one computing initiative. The study supported the current research that males and females utilized computers similarly, but males spent more time using their computers to play online games. Early exposure to computers, or the age at which the student was first exposed to a computer, and the number of computers present in the home (computer ownership) impacted computing self-efficacy. The results also indicated parental encouragement to work with computers also contributed positively to both male and female students' computing self-efficacy. Finally the study also found that both mothers and fathers encouraged their male children more than their female children to work with computing and pursue careers in computing science fields.

  5. Characterizing the Role of Animal Exposures in Cryptosporidiosis and Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli Infections: South Dakota, 2012.

    PubMed

    Daly, R F; Hill, N T

    2016-09-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains (STEC) are important causes of human illness. Incidence rates of these illnesses are high in South Dakota compared to the USA as a whole. Direct animal contact has been identified as a possible route of exposure for these illnesses. Ruminant animals may carry STEC subclinically, while young ruminants are common sources of zoonotic strains of Cryptosporidium. South Dakota patients with either STEC or cryptosporidiosis during 2012 were interviewed regarding seven categories of animal exposure: (i) petting zoo/fair attendance, (ii) animal event/rodeo attendance, (iii) feed/pet store visits, (iv) farm visits, (v) employment or residence at a farm, (vi) residence with pets and (vii) visiting other households with pets. Of the 50 STEC cases, 78.0% reported animal exposure prior to illness onset, with 23.3% having lived or worked on a farm. Farm visitors in particular had high degrees of animal contact and infrequently practiced personal protective measures. Of the 115 cryptosporidiosis cases, 87.8% reported animal exposures, with 45.6% having lived or worked on a farm and 29.0% having visited a farm prior to illness. Cases with farm exposures reported a high degree of direct animal contact and inconsistent use of personal protective measures. Cryptosporidiosis patients were significantly more likely than STEC patients to have lived or worked on a farm prior to their illness and were older on average. Patients with these illnesses had high rates of animal contact prior to illness. Animal contact on farms emerged as an important exposure route. Educational messages about personal protective measures should be directed at these individuals.

  6. The artesian water supply of the Dakota sandstone in North Dakota, with special reference to the Edgeley quadrangle: Chapter E in Contributions to the hydrology of the United States, 1923-1924

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinzer, Oscar E.; Hard, Herbert A.

    1925-01-01

    The Dakota sandstone and the overlying dense plastic shales form the most remarkable artesian basin in the United States with respect to its great extent, the long distances through which its water has percolated from the outcrops of the sandstone in the western mountains to the areas of artesian flow, and especially the tremendous pressure under which the water in the sandstone was originally by thick and continuous cover of impermeable shales. In 1882 a well was drilled to the Dakota sandstone at Aberdeen, S. Dak., by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co. This well was reported by Nettleton1 to have been "the first bore put down which reached the artesian basin of the Dakotas." In 1896 Darton2 estimated that about 400 artesian wells had been drilled to the Dakota sandstone, presumably in South Dakota and adjacent parts of the artesian basin in North Dakota which he investigated.3 The strongest of these wells had pressures ranging from 100 to more than 200 pounds to the square inch and flows ranging from 1,000 to more than 4,000 gallons a minute. The present brief paper is based chiefly on the data that have been obtained in the successive surveys in regard to about 230 artesian wells in or near the Edgeley quadrangle. A table of these well data is on file in the United States Geological Survey and is to be published in the detailed report on the geology and hydrology of the Edgeley and La Moure quadrangles that has been prepared by Mr. Hard. The well data obtained by Mr. Hard have already been published in a report prepared by him in his capacity as State flood-control engineer.

  7. 76 FR 15936 - Opportunity for Designation in the Aberdeen, SD; Decatur, IL; Hastings, NE; Fulton, IL; the State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Dakota-South Dakota State line east; Bounded on the East by the eastern South Dakota State line (the Big... contiguous ] geographic area, are part of this geographic area assignment: Farmers Coop, and Big Springs Elevator, both in Big Springs, Deuel County (located inside Kansas Grain Inspection Service, Inc.'s...

  8. Scour assessments and sediment-transport simulation for selected bridge sites in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehus, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Scour at bridges is a major concern in the design of new bridges and in the evaluation of structural stability of existing bridges. Equations for estimating pier, contraction, and abutment scour have been developed from numerous laboratory studies using sand-bed flumes, but little verification of these scour equations has been done for actual rivers with various bed conditions. This report describes the results of reconnaissance and detailed scour assessments and a sediment-transport simulation for selected bridge sites in South Dakota. Reconnaissance scour assessments were done during 1991 for 32 bridge sites. The reconnaissance assessments for each bridge site included compilation of general and structural data, field inspection to record and measure pertinent scour variables, and evaluation of scour susceptibility using various scour-index forms. Observed pier scour at the 32 sites ranged from 0 to 7 feet, observed contraction scour ranged from 0 to 4 feet, and observed abutment scour ranged from 0 to 10 feet. Thirteen bridge sites having high potential for scour were selected for detailed assessments, which were accomplished during 1992-95. These detailed assessments included prediction of scour depths for 2-, 100-, and 500-year flows using selected published scour equations; measurement of scour during high flows; comparison of measured and predicted scour; and identification of which scour equations best predict actual scour. The medians of predicted pier-scour depth at each of the 13 bridge sites (using 13 scour equations) ranged from 2.4 to 6.8 feet for the 2-year flows and ranged from 3.4 to 13.3 feet for the 500-year flows. The maximum pier scour measured during high flows ranged from 0 to 8.5 feet. Statistical comparison (Spearman rank correlation) of predicted pier-scour depths (using flow data col- lected during scour measurements) indicate that the Laursen, Shen (method b), Colorado State University, and Blench (method b) equations correlate closer

  9. Rural Sprawl and the Impact of Human Land Use on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, R.; Bennett, T.

    2005-12-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, specifically Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and communities of the reservation are undergoing change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. The capacity of satellite imagery to encompass large land tracts make the use of this technology a cost effective way to visualize and investigate population growth in rural communities. Likewise, integrating remotely sensed data into a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be a powerful tool to identify environmental and other land use issues that impact the people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of this research is to (1) observe and calculate land cover change around three communities on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using remotely sensed data (Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+) and Geographic Information Systems over a 20 year span, and (2) to discuss the potential impacts of rural sprawl on the Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Preliminary results indicate that land cover has changed in relationship to increased population growth within three communities on the reservation. New housing developments, roads and buildings have appeared and these changes were detectable using Landsat imagery. These results will be discussed along with the experiences and education through the NASA Goddard Internship sponsored by the North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges.

  10. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, New Rockford Quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the New Rockford map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1397 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States.

  11. Digital map of water levels in 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours for 1980 water-level elevations for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the 1980 water-level elevation contours from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer Systems-Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  12. Digital map of saturated thickness in 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for saturated thickness contours of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the saturated thickness contours from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  13. Results of core drilling for uranium-bearing lignites in the Bar H area, Slim Buttes, Harding County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeller, Howard D.

    1953-01-01

    Core drilling in the Car H area, Slim Buttes, Harding County, South Dakota, under a contract with the B. H. Mott Drilling Co., Huntington, West Virginia, was resumed June 12, 1952 after a 6-month recess during the winter and was completed July 18, 1952. The drilling was undertaken to obtain information on the distribution and extent of the uranium-bearing lignite beds along the southeast edge of the Bar H area. Eight holes totalling 885 feet were drilled and 52 feet of lignite core submitted for study and analysis. The report includes detailed lithographic descriptions of the lignite cores, Bureau of Mines coal analyses, and the results of 100 chemical analyses for uranium. The drilling showed that the thicker, more persistent lignite beds exposed in the northern part of the Bar H area were removed by erosion prior to the deposition of the overlaying White River formation in the south-eastern part of the area. The beds penetrated by drilling were not of sufficient thickness or uranium content to add to the previously known reserves.

  14. Determination of sediment thickness and volume in Lake Byron, South Dakota, using continuous seismic-reflection methods, May 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, S.K.; Cates, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    A sediment survey to assess the amount and distribution of lake sediment was made as part of a diagnostic/feasibility study investigating the potential for lake restoration of Lake Byron, South Dakota. A high-frequency, continuous seismic- reflection system was used to estimate thickness of sediment, and a global-positioning system was used to monitor horizontal and vertical position while traversing 15 north-south and two diagonal transects of the lake. The volume of water was 10,645 acre- feet, and the average depth was 5.6 feet. The volume of loose, uncompacted sediment in Lake Byron was estimated to be 3.8 million cubic yards, and the average depth of uncompacted sediment was estimated to be 1.2 feet. The volume of total lake sediment in Lake Byron was estimated to be 34 million cubic yards. The average thickness of total lake sediment in the Western part of Lake Byron was estimated to be 11 feet.

  15. Nearshore bathymetric mapping along a 7-mile reach of Lake Sharpe shoreline near Lower Brule, South Dakota, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.

    2014-01-01

    Shoreline erosion rates along Lake Sharpe, a Missouri River reservoir, near the community of Lower Brule, South Dakota, were studied previously during 2011–12 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe, and Oglala Lakota College. The rapid shoreline retreat has caused many detrimental effects along the shoreline of Lake Sharpe, including losses of cultural sites, recreation access points, wildlife habitat, irrigated cropland, and landmass. The Lower Brule Sioux Tribe is considering options to reduce or stop erosion. One such option for consideration is the placement of discontinuous rock breakwater structures in shallow water to reduce wave action at shore. Information on the depth of water and stability characteristics of bottom material in nearshore areas of Lake Sharpe is needed by the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe to develop structural mitigation alternatives. To help address this need, a bathymetric survey of nearshore areas of Lake Sharpe near Lower Brule, South Dakota, was completed in 2013 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe. HYPACK® hydrographic survey software was used to plan data collection transects for a 7-mile reach of Lake Sharpe shoreline near Lower Brule, South Dakota. Regular data collection transects and oblique transects were planned to allow for quality-assurance/quality-control comparisons. Two methods of data collection were used in the bathymetric survey: (1) measurement from a boat using bathymetric instrumentation where water was more than 2 feet deep, and (2) wading using Real-Time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System equipment on shore and where water was shallower than 2 feet deep. A dual frequency, 24- or 200-kilohertz narrow beam, depth transducer was used in conjunction with a Teledyne Odom CV100 dual frequency echosounder for boat-based data collection. In water too shallow for boat navigation, the elevation and nature of the reservoir bottom were mapped using Real

  16. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Watertown NTMS Quadrangle, South Dakota; Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-29

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Watertown Quadrangle are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 711 groundwater and 603 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that high uranium concentrations are derived predominantly from glacial aquifers of variable water composition located on the Coteau des Prairies. Elements associated with high uranium values in these waters include barium, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium, sulfate, and total alkalinity. Low uranium values were observed in waters originating from the Cretaceous Dakota sandstone whose water chemistry is characterized by high concentrations of boron, sodium, and chloride. Stream sediment data indicate that high uranium concentrations are scattered across the glacial deposits of the Coteau des Prairies. A major clustering of high uranium values occurs in the eastern portion of the glaciated quadrangle and is associated with high concentrations of selenium, lithium, iron, arsenic, chromium, and vanadium. The sediment data suggest that the drift covering the Watertown Quadrangle is compositionally homogeneous, although subtle geochemical differences were observed as a result of localized contrasts in drift source-rock mineralogy and modification of elemental distributions by contemporaneous and postglacial hydrologic processes.

  17. Mineral recorders of pegmatite internal evolution: REE contents of tourmaline from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Papike, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    Trace rare earth elements (REE) have been determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis for tourmaline samples from an internally zoned, rare-element, granitic pegmatite, located in the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Total REE concentrations range from 40 ppm-0.2 ppm, and are highest in tourmaline from the exomorphic halo (country rock) and pegmatite border zone. Chondrite-normalized patterns are highly fractionated from light REE to heavy REE; and REE concentrations decrease in tourmaline from the outer wall zone and first intermediate zone, through the inner wall zone and third intermediate zone, to lowest levels in the pegmatite core. The REEs, as recorded by tourmaline, appear to behave compatibly in this pegmatite system due to early crystallization of apatite and other possible REE-sink minerals. The large range of REE concentrations and differences in slopes of chondrite-normalized patterns probably also reflect significant changes in the structural state of the pegmatite melt, caused by changes in pH/sub 2/O and other volatiles (B, F, P) as crystallization progressed. Tourmaline samples that appear to have been fluid-derived are HREE-depleted relative to coexisting silicate-melt-derived tourmaline. Tourmaline does not exhibit any strong preference for specific REEs, rather its REE content appears to reflect the REE content of the medium from which the tourmaline crystallized.

  18. Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Hanson, G.N.; Papike, J.J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1986-12-01

    The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have T/sub DM/ ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have T/sub DM/ ages that range from 2.32 to 2.45 Ga. These model ages, in conjunction with probable stratigraphic ages ranging from 1.9 to 2.2 Ga, indicate that mantle-derived material was added to the continental crust of this region during the early-Proterozoic. Previous studies of the Harney Peak Granite complex have reported U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages of about 1.71 Ga, and most granite samples examined in this study have Sr isotopic compositions consistent with that age. Two granite samples taken from the same sill, however, give two-point Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of 2.08 +/- 0.08 and 2.20 +/- 0.20 Ga, respectively. In addition, whole-rock and apatite samples of the spatially associated Tin Mountain pegmatite give a Sm-Nd isochron age of 2000 +/- 100 Ma.

  19. Relations of zoned pegmatites to other pegmatites, granite, and metamorphic rocks in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, J.J.; Redden, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The pegmatite field and the Harney Peak Granite of the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, form an igneous system that progresses from slightly biotitic muscovite granite through layered pegmatitic granite, with alternating sodic and potassic rocks, to simple plagioclase-quartz-perthite pegmatites, and on to zoned pegmatites. Most of the country rocks are Lower Proterozoic mica schists. At 1700 Ga, intrusion of the Harney Peak Granite created a large dome in these rocks, a thermal aureole with a staurolite, a first sillimanite isograd, and a small area of metamorphism above the second sillimanite isograd. The zoned pegmatites have a strong tendency to occur in clusters, and the types of pegmatites are different in different clusters. A less obvious tendency is a regional zonation in which rare-mineral pegmatites become more abundant and muscovite pegmatites less abundant toward the outskirts of the region. The composition of the granite indicates that its magma originated by partial melting of metasedimentary mica schists similar to those at the present surface. The pegmatitic nature of most of the granite probably reflects exsolution of an aqueous phase. -from Authors

  20. Digital data sets for map products produced as part of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Jarrell, Gregory J.; Clawges, Rick M.; Galloway, Joel M.; Carter, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disk contains digital data produced as part of the 1:100,000-scale map products for the Black Hills Hydrology Study conducted in western South Dakota. The digital data include 28 individual Geographic Information System (GIS) data sets: data sets for the hydrogeologic unit map including all mapped hydrogeologic units within the study area (1 data set) and major geologic structure including anticlines and synclines (1 data set); data sets for potentiometric maps including the potentiometric contours for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers (5 data sets), wells used as control points for each aquifer (5 data sets), and springs used as control points for the potentiometric contours (1 data set); and data sets for the structure-contour maps including the structure contours for the top of each formation that contains major aquifers (5 data sets), wells and tests holes used as control points for each formation (5 data sets), and surficial deposits (alluvium and terrace deposits) that directly overlie each of the major aquifer outcrops (5 data sets). These data sets were used to produce the maps published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  1. Construction of a groundwater-flow model for the Big Sioux Aquifer using airborne electromagnetic methods, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Carter, Janet M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.

    2016-09-28

    The city of Sioux Falls is the fastest growing community in South Dakota. In response to this continued growth and planning for future development, Sioux Falls requires a sustainable supply of municipal water. Planning and managing sustainable groundwater supplies requires a thorough understanding of local groundwater resources. The Big Sioux aquifer consists of glacial outwash sands and gravels and is hydraulically connected to the Big Sioux River, which provided about 90 percent of the city’s source-water production in 2015. Managing sustainable groundwater supplies also requires an understanding of groundwater availability. An effective mechanism to inform water management decisions is the development and utilization of a groundwater-flow model. A groundwater-flow model provides a quantitative framework for synthesizing field information and conceptualizing hydrogeologic processes. These groundwater-flow models can support decision making processes by mapping and characterizing the aquifer. Accordingly, the city of Sioux Falls partnered with the U.S. Geological Survey to construct a groundwater-flow model. Model inputs will include data from advanced geophysical techniques, specifically airborne electromagnetic methods.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA of protohistoric remains of an Arikara population from South Dakota: implications for the macro-Siouan language hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Diana M; Kemp, Brian M; Eshleman, Jason; Jantz, Richard L; Snow, Meradeth; George, Debra; Smith, David Glenn

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was extracted from skeletal remains excavated from three Arikara sites in South Dakota occupied between AD 1600 and 1832. The diagnostic markers of four mtDNA haplogroups to which most Native Americans belong (A, B, C, and D) were successfully identified in the extracts of 55 (87%) of the 63 samples studied. The frequencies of the four haplogroups were 42%, 29%, 22%, and 7%, respectively, and principal coordinates analysis and Fisher's exact tests were conducted to compare these haplogroup frequencies with those from other populations. Both analyses showed closer similarity among the Mohawk, Arikara, and Sioux populations than between any of these three and any other of the comparison populations. Portions of the first hypervariable segment (HVSI) of the mitochondrial genome were successfully amplified and sequenced for 42 of these 55 samples, and haplotype networks were constructed for two of the four haplogroups. The sharing of highly derived lineages suggests that some recent admixture of the Arikara with Algonquian-speaking and Siouan-speaking groups has occurred. The Arikara shared more ancient lineages with both Siouan and Cherokee populations than with any other population, consistent with the Macro-Siouan language hypothesis that Iroquoian, Siouan, and Caddoan languages share a relatively recent common ancestry. PMID:20649398

  3. Larval gizzard shad characteristics in Lake Oahe, South Dakota: A species at the northern edge of its range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fincel, Mark J.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Edwards, Kris R.

    2013-01-01

    Gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum, have generally been restricted to the lower Missouri River impoundments in South Dakota. In recent years, gizzard shad numbers have increased in Lake Oahe, marking the northern-most natural population. These increases could potentially affect recreational fishes. Specifically, questions arise about larval gizzard shad growth dynamics and if age-0 gizzard shad in Lake Oahe will exhibit fast or slow growth, both of which can have profound effects on piscivore populations in this reservoir. In this study, we evaluated larval gizzard shad hatch timing, growth, and density in Lake Oahe. We collected larval gizzard shad from six sites from May to July 2008 and used sagittal otoliths to estimate the growth and back-calculate the hatch date. We found that larval gizzard shad hatched earlier in the upper part of the reservoir compared to the lower portion and that hatch date appeared to correspond to warming water temperatures. The peak larval gizzard shad density ranged from 0.6 to 33.6 (#/100 m3) and varied significantly among reservoir sites. Larval gizzard shad growth ranged from 0.24 to 0.57 (mm/d) and differed spatially within the reservoir. We found no relationship between the larval gizzard shad growth or density and small- or large-bodied zooplankton density (p > 0.05). As this population exhibits slow growth and low densities, gizzard shad should remain a suitable forage option for recreational fishes in Lake Oahe.

  4. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Lemmon NTMS Quadrangle, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-31

    Results are reported of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Lemmon Quadrangle, South Dakota. Field and laboratory data are presented for 565 groundwater and 531 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors are briefly discussed which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization. The groundwater data indicate that the area which appears most promising for uranium mineralization is located in the southwestern portion of the quadrangle. Groundwater in this area is produced primarily from the Cretaceous Fox Hills Formation where high values were determined for uranium, arsenic, potassium, and silicon and low values for boron, sodium, pH, sulfate, specific conductance, and total alkalinity. The presence of Tertiary ash deposits and the abundance of organics downdip in the permeable Fox Hills Formation could provide a suitable geochemical framework for uranium accumulation. The stream sediment data indicate that the Pierre Shale, Fox Hills, and Hell Creek Formations in the southwestern portion of the quadrangle have the highest potential for uranium mineralization. Sediments derived from these units are high in uranium, aluminum, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, lithium, magnesium, niobium, nickel, phosphorous, scandium, vanadium, yttrium, zinc, and zirconium.

  5. Microbial and Mineralogical Characterizations of Soils Collected from the Deep Biosphere of the Former Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Sani, Rajesh K.

    2010-03-13

    A microbial census on the deep biosphere (1.34 km depth) microbial communities was performed in two soil samples collected from the Ross and number 6 Winze sites of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota using high-density 16S microarrays (PhyloChip). Mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques which demonstrated the presence of silicates and iron minerals (phyllosilicates and clays) in both samples. Microarray data revealed extensive bacterial diversity in soils and detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The archael communities in the deep gold mine environments were less diverse and belonged to phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Both the samples showed remarkable amount of similar microbial communities (1360 common OTUs) despite of distinct geochemical characteristics. A total of 57 phylotypes could not be classified even at phylum level representing a hitherto unidentified diversity in deep biosphere. PhyloChip data also suggested considerable metabolic diversity in deep biosphere by capturing several physiological groups of bacteria such as sulfur-oxidizer, ammonia-oxidizers, iron-oxidizers, methane-oxidizers, and sulfate-reducers in both samples. Application of high-density microarrays revealed the vast prokaryotic diversity ever reported from deep subsurface habitat of gold mines.

  6. Construction of a Groundwater-Flow Model for the Big Sioux Aquifer Using Airborne Electromagnetic Methods, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Carter, Janet M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.

    2016-09-28

    The city of Sioux Falls is the fastest growing community in South Dakota. In response to this continued growth and planning for future development, Sioux Falls requires a sustainable supply of municipal water. Planning and managing sustainable groundwater supplies requires a thorough understanding of local groundwater resources. The Big Sioux aquifer consists of glacial outwash sands and gravels and is hydraulically connected to the Big Sioux River, which provided about 90 percent of the city’s source-water production in 2015. Managing sustainable groundwater supplies also requires an understanding of groundwater availability. An effective mechanism to inform water management decisions is the development and utilization of a groundwater-flow model. A groundwater-flow model provides a quantitative framework for synthesizing field information and conceptualizing hydrogeologic processes. These groundwater-flow models can support decision making processes by mapping and characterizing the aquifer. Accordingly, the city of Sioux Falls partnered with the U.S. Geological Survey to construct a groundwater-flow model. Model inputs will include data from advanced geophysical techniques, specifically airborne electromagnetic methods.

  7. Uranium and thorium in the middle Precambrian Estes Conglomerate, Nemo District, Lawrence County, South Dakota: a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hills, F. Allan

    1977-01-01

    The Estes Conglomerate, which is exposed in the Nemo District on the northeastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, is inferred to be of early middle Precambrian age (early Precambrian X or Paleoaphebian) and to be resting on late early Precambrian (late Precambrian W) granitic continental crust. The Estes contains beds of quartzite and quartz-pebble conglomerate (oligomictic conglomerate) with matrices of micaceous quartzite that locally contain 5 to 25 percent dispersed pyrite. Highly oxidized outcrop samples of the oligomictic conglomerate have anomalously high contents of both uranium (10 to 40 ppm) and thorium (20 to 800 ppm). High thorium values in the oligomictic conglomerate favor a placer mechanism for the concentration of radioactive minerals and appear to eliminate the possibility of epigenetic processes, such as reduction of uranium by pyrite. The presence of abundant old prospect pits and of several abandoned mines suggests that these conglomerates may also contain some gold. Early prospectors may have been attracted by the gossan produced by oxidation of pyrite. Uranium in the Estes Conglomerate may be of similar origin to the economically very important uranium deposits in the Matinenda Formation of the Elliot Lake District, Ontario. Because uranium is rapidly dissolved in acidic, oxygenated ground water, such as is present where pyrite is weathering, most of the uranium originally present in the analyzed samples has probably been leached out. Conglomerate located below the zone of weathering and oxidation has good potential for economic uranium deposits.

  8. Contaminant evaluation of interior least tern and piping plover eggs and chicks on the Missouri River, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Ruelle, R.

    1991-05-01

    The Missouri River in South Dakota is bordered by bluffs containing marine shale. Analyses of shale from these bluffs revealed that they contained maximum concentrations of 13.6 mg/kg dry weight selenium and 9.35 mg/kg dry weight cadmium. Wind and water erode the dry shale bluffs, releasing biologically available selenium to the river. Selenium also is present at relatively high concentrations in Missouri River tributary streams. The waterborne selenium is carried downstream and deposited in slack-water areas near islands and shorelines. Least tern (Sterna antillarum), a federally endangered species, and piping plover (Charadrius melodus), a federally threatened species, nest on Missouri River islands. Addled eggs of both species were collected during the 1988, 1989, and 1990 nesting seasons and were analyzed for selenium and other inorganics. The maximum concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) of selenium detected were 13.0 and 11.1 respectively in piping plover and least tern eggs. Selenium concentrations remained elevated and stable in bird eggs during all three years of the study.

  9. Phylogenetic evidence of noteworthy microflora from the subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Evan J.; Elliott, Terran J.; Sani, Rajesh K.; Vahrenkamp, Jefferey M.; Roggenthen, William M.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Bang, Sookie S.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular characterization of subsurface microbial communities in the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, was carried out by 16S rDNA sequence analysis using a water sample and a weathered soil–like sample. Geochemical analyses indicated that both samples were high in sulfur, rich in nitrogen and salt, but with significantly different metal concentrations. Microbial diversity comparisons unexpectedly revealed three distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota typically identified from marine environments, and one OTU to a potentially novel phylum that falls sister to Thaumarchaeota. To our knowledge this is only the second report of Thaumarchaeota in a terrestrial environment. The majority of the clones from Archaea sequence libraries fell into two closely related OTUs and grouped most closely to an ammonia–oxidizing, carbon–fixing and halophilic thaumarchaeote genus, Nitrosopumilus. The two samples showed neither Euryarchaeota nor Crenarchaeota members that were often identified from other subsurface terrestrial ecosystems. Bacteria OTUs containing the highest percentage of sequences were related to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the orders Chromatiales and Thiotrichales. Community members of Bacteria from individual Homestake ecosystems were heterogeneous and distinctive to each community with unique phylotypes identified within each sample. PMID:20662386

  10. Biological characteristics of the blue sucker in the James River and the Big Sioux River, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morey, N.M.; Berry, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the relative abundance and biology of the blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus), a species that may be declining in some parts of its range. We described the age, growth, condition, length distribution, and habitat preference of the blue sucker in two South Dakota rivers. Specimens were collected from the James River (n=74) and Big Sioux River (n=28) during the summer of 2000. Although five macrohabitats were sampled with electrofishing and hoopnets, most individuals were collected from riffle habitats and downstream of rock dams. Total length-weight relationships were log10W=-6.14+3.37(log10L) (r2 = 0.92) for blue suckers from the James River and log10W = -6.52+3.50(log10L) (r2 = 0.97) for fish from the Big Sioux River. Mean condition factors (K = W(105)/L3) of blue suckers were 0.79 (SE = 0.07) for the James River and 0.73 (SE = 0.07) for the Big Sioux River. Blue suckers between 500 and 700 mm dominated length distributions (range = 374-717 mm) of both samples. Ages ranged from two to nine years, but six-year-old fish were captured most frequently. Blue suckers grew rapidly during juvenile stages (< age 5); however, growth slowed afterward.

  11. Thermostable hemicellulases of a bacterium, Geobacillus sp. DC3, isolated from the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Bergdale, Terran E; Hughes, Stephen R; Bang, Sookie S

    2014-04-01

    A thermophilic strain, Geobacillus sp. DC3, capable of producing hemicellulolytic enzymes was isolated from the 1.5-km depth of the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota. The DC3 strain expressed a high level of extracellular endoxylanase at 39.5 U/mg protein with additional hemicellulases including β-xylosidase (0.209 U/mg) and arabinofuranosidase (0.230 U/mg), after the bacterium was grown in xylan for 24 h. Partially purified DC3 endoxylanase exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 43 kDa according to zymography with an optimal pH of 7 and optimal temperature of 70 °C. The kinetic constants, K m and V max, were 13.8 mg/mL and 77.5 μmol xylose/min·mg xylan, respectively. The endoxylanase was highly stable and maintained 70 % of its original activity after 16 h incubation at 70 °C. The thermostable properties and presence of three different hemicellulases of Geobacillus sp. DC3 strain support its potential application for industrial hydrolysis of renewable biomass such as lignocelluloses.

  12. Geomorphic Classification and Assessment of Channel Dynamics in the Missouri National Recreational River, South Dakota and Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    A multiscale geomorphic classification was established for the 39-mile, 59-mile, and adjacent segments of the Missouri National Recreational River administered by the National Park Service in South Dakota and Nebraska. The objective of the classification was to define naturally occurring clusters of geomorphic characteristics that would be indicative of discrete sets of geomorphic processes, with the intent that such a classification would be useful in river-management and rehabilitation decisions. The statistical classification was based on geomorphic characteristics of the river collected from 1999 orthophotography and the persistence of classified units was evaluated by comparison with similar datasets for 2003 and 2004 and by evaluating variation of bank erosion rates by geomorphic class. Changes in channel location and form were also explored using imagery and maps from 1993-2004, 1941 and 1894. The multivariate classification identified a hierarchy of naturally occurring clusters of reach-scale geomorphic characteristics. The simplest level of the hierarchy divides the river from segments into discrete reaches characterized by single and multithread channels and additional hierarchical levels established 4-part and 10-part classifications. The classification system presents a physical framework that can be applied to prioritization and design of bank stabilization projects, design of habitat rehabilitation projects, and stratification of monitoring and assessment sampling programs.

  13. Appraisal of the water resources of the eastern part of the Tulare aquifer, Beadle, Hand, and Spink Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuiper, L.K.

    1984-01-01

    A system of glacial outwash aquifers lie in the central James Valley in east-central South Dakota. Within this system, the eastern part of the Tulare aquifer, which has an area of approximately 681 square miles, was simulated by means of a numerical ground-water flow model. The model estimates the yearly average recharge rate for that part of the aquifer lying west of the James River to be approximately 23,000 acre-feet per year. This rate is considerably more than the estimated 1978 yearly average irrigation pumpage rate of 9,800 acre-feet per year. It is expected that, since pumping will reduce discharge from the aquifer through evapotranspiration and flow to the James River, this part of the aquifer would be able to supply irrigation water at recent pumpage rates for an indefinite period. For that part of the aquifer lying east of the river, estimated recharge is 6,800 acre-feet per year; a rate slightly smaller than the estimated 1978 yearly average irrigation pumpage rate of 7,200 acre-feet per year. It is estimated that this part of the aquifer would be able to supply irrigation water at 7,200 acre-feet per year for approximately 50 years, at which time excessive drawdown would begin to cause reduced well yields at several locations. (USGS)

  14. Walleye consumption and long-term population trends following gizzard shad introduction into a Western South Dakota reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.J.; Willis, D.W.; Miller, B.H.; Chipps, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    The gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) was introduced into 1,955-ha Angostura Reservoir, South Dakota to provide increased prey resources for walleye (Sander vitreus). Linear correlation analysis indicated that following gizzard shad introduction, walleye catch-per-unit-effort and mean length at age have increased over time (r = 0.68 to 0.85, P = 0.02 to 0.001). Walleye stomach contents were collected monthly from April through September, 2004 to determine the extent to which age-0 gizzard shad were being utilized as prey during the growing season. Age-0 gizzard shad were absent from walleye diets from April to mid-July (pre-shad-available period); however, from mid-July through early September (shad-available period), age-0 gizzard shad were an important prey item in all walleye diets. Mean weight decreased for walleyes of ages 2-5 during the spring, before age-0 gizzard shad became available; however, growth rate of walleyes increased appreciably during the shad-available period and was attributable to consumption of age-0 shad prey. In Angostura Reservoir, which lies at the northwestern edge of the gizzard shad range, walleye population characteristics have improved following shad introduction and during 2004, age-0 shad directly affected walleye feeding and growth.

  15. Effects of projected climate (2011–50) on karst hydrology and species vulnerability—Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, and Madison aquifer, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Stamm, John F.; Poteet, Mary F.; Symstad, Amy J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Long, Andrew J.; Norton, Parker A.

    2014-01-01

    Karst aquifers—formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone—are critical groundwater resources in North America, and karst springs, caves, and streams provide habitat for unique flora and fauna. Springflow and groundwater levels in karst terrane can change greatly over short time scales, and therefore are likely to respond rapidly to climate change. How might the biological communities and ecosystems associated with karst respond to climate change and accompanying changes in groundwater levels and springflow? Sites in two central U.S. regions—the Balcones Escarpment of south-central Texas and the Black Hills of western South Dakota (fig. 1)—were selected to study climate change and its potential effects on the local karst hydrology and ecosystem. The ecosystems associated with the Edwards aquifer (Balcones Escarpment region) and Madison aquifer (Black Hills region) support federally listed endangered and threatened species and numerous State-listed species of concern, including amphibians, birds, insects, and plants. Full results are provided in Stamm and others (2014), and are summarized in this fact sheet.

  16. Effects of projected climate (2011–50) on karst hydrology and species vulnerability—Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, and Madison aquifer, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Stamm, John F.; Poteet, Mary F.; Symstad, Amy J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Long, Andrew J.; Norton, Parker A.

    2015-12-22

    Karst aquifers—formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone—are critical groundwater resources in North America, and karst springs, caves, and streams provide habitat for unique flora and fauna. Springflow and groundwater levels in karst terrane can change greatly over short time scales, and therefore are likely to respond rapidly to climate change. How might the biological communities and ecosystems associated with karst respond to climate change and accompanying changes in groundwater levels and springflow? Sites in two central U.S. regions—the Balcones Escarpment of south-central Texas and the Black Hills of western South Dakota (fig. 1)—were selected to study climate change and its potential effects on the local karst hydrology and ecosystem. The ecosystems associated with the Edwards aquifer (Balcones Escarpment region) and Madison aquifer (Black Hills region) support federally listed endangered and threatened species and numerous State-listed species of concern, including amphibians, birds, insects, and plants. Full results are provided in Stamm and others (2014), and are summarized in this fact sheet.

  17. 77 FR 12563 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Centers for South Dakota and Kentucky; Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Centers for South... eligible proposers for funding projects to provide manufacturing extension services to primarily small- and... Diane Henderson, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Manufacturing Extension...

  18. Application of remote sensing technology to land evaluation, planning utilization of land resources, and assessment of wildlife areas in eastern South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A soils map for land evaluation in Potter County (Eastern South Dakota) was developed to demonstrate the use of remote sensing technology in the area of diverse parent materials and topography. General land use and soils maps have also been developed for land planning LANDSAT, RB-57 imagery, and USGS photographs are being evaluated for making soils and land use maps. LANDSAT fulfilled the requirements for general land use and a general soils map. RB-57 imagery supplemented by large scale black and white stereo coverage was required to provide the detail needed for the final soils map for land evaluation. Color infrared prints excelled black and white coverage for this soil mapping effort. An identification and classification key for wetland types in the Lake Dakota Plain was developed for June 1975 using color infrared imagery. Wetland types in the region are now being mapped via remote sensing techniques to provide a current inventory for development of mitigation measures.

  19. Illustration of year-to-year variation in wheat spectral profile crop growth curves. [Kansas, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, P.; Jones, C. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Data previously compiled on the year to year variability of spectral profile crop growth parameters for spring and winter wheat in Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas were used with a profile model to develop graphs illustrating spectral profile crop growth curves for a number of years and a number of spring and winter wheat segments. These curves show the apparent variability in spectral profiles for wheat from one year to another within the same segment and from one segment to another within the same year.

  20. Water-resources appraisal of the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in central South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Lower Brule Indian Reservation covers an area of about 404 square miles. Agriculture, primarily livestock and crop production, is the major industry. In 1992, about 5,900 acres were irrigated by the Tribe and about 3,800 other acres either were being irrigated or had State permits for irrigation. Precipitation averages about 17.4 inches per year. Diversions to the reservation from the Missouri River average about 17,000 acre-feet per year. Evapotranspiration from the land surface of the reservation averages about 17.5 inches per year. Missouri River reservoirs adjacent to the reservation normally store about 5 million acre-feet of water. Inflow of the Missouri River to the reservation is estimated to be about 18.3 million acre-feet per year. The dissolved-solids concen- tration of Missouri River reservoir water adjacent to the reservation averages slightly less than 500 milligrams per liter. All streams on the reservation other than the Missouri River are ephemeral. In 1993, 593 stock ponds and dugouts were located on ephemeral streams. Based on visits to about 10 percent of the stock ponds and dugouts, an estimated 75 percent of the ponds and dugouts were dry, overgrown with vegetation, silted in, or had breached or leaky dams. Ground-water supplies from surficial deposits are small and are present only along major streams and at some places along the Missouri River. Water suitable for livestock and some domestic use can be obtained throughout the reservation from artesian wells that tap the Dakota Sandstone or other deeper bedrock aquifers. The major water use on the reservation is for irrigation. In 1990, slightly more than 17,000 acre- feet was used to irrigate land within the reservation.

  1. 78 FR 48136 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the South Dakota Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS..., pursuant to the provisions of the rules and regulations of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (Commission... Regional Office, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 999 18th Street, Suite 1380 South, Denver, CO...

  2. Dakota Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Peter

    2013-02-14

    This code connects the SANDIA’a C++-based DAKOTA optimization and analyis tool with NASA’s python-based openMDAO systems engineering framework. It allows DAKOTA to be used as an openMDAO “Driver”. DAKOTA contains a wide array of advanced sensitivity, uncertainty quantification, and optimization methods. These are now available in a “pluggable” way to any openMDAO based workflow.

  3. Fluvial baselevel changes in the lower part of the White River Group, Eocene-Oligocene, Badlands of South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.E. . Dept. of Geology); Terry, D.O. Jr. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The Chamberlain Pass Formation (CPF) is a Middle( ) to Late Eocene fluvial unit that represents the lower part of the White River Group in western South Dakota. The CPF consists of multistory channel sandstone and overbank mudstone, both overprinted by a distinctive paleosol unit, the Interior Paleosol Series. The CPF thickens from west to east, to a maximum channel-belt thickness [ge] 11 m. Paleoflow data indicates that deposition of the CPF was restricted to an asymmetric basin controlled by faults trending Se, away from the Black Hills uplift. Sandstones in the CPF contain a suite of resistant minerals derived from a recycled sedimentary rock source area. In contrast, the overlying Chadron Formation contains a suite of minerals and rock fragments consistent with a source area from the igneous and metamorphic core rocks of the Black Hills uplift. The deposition of the CPF brackets four significant changes in relative baselevel that occurred in this region during the Paleogene: (1) Late Cretaceous to Middle( ) Eocene baselevel fall, weathering and erosion of the Cretaceous Pierre Shale to form the Yellow Mounds Paleosol, and fluvial incision; (2) Middle( ) to Late Eocene baselevel rise and deposition of the CPF; (3) Late Eocene baselevel fall, weathering and erosion of the CPF to form the Interior Paleosol, and fluvial incision; and (4) late Eocene to Oligocene baselevel rise and deposition of the Chadron formation. The first event was eustatic, the second was controlled primarily by subsidence in a fault-controlled basin, the third records tectonic uplift and unroofing of the Black Hills, and the fourth was controlled by a combination of eustatic, tectonic, and paleoclimatic factors.

  4. Summary of precipitation data for the Black Hills area of South Dakota, water years 1931-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Kenner, Scott J.

    2000-01-01

    Long-term precipitation records are sum-marized for the Black Hills area of South Dakota. Precipitation data are available for numerous gaging locations; however, few gages have continuous, long-term records, and periods of missing record are common. Thus, a geographic information system (GIS) utilizing an inverse-distance weighting method was developed to generate spatial precipitation distributions from point precipitation data for the Black Hills area, based on available monthly records. The spatial distributions were used to estimate periods of missing record for all 94 gages considered. The resulting monthly records of measured and estimated precipitation are tabulated for water years 1931-98. Average values for water years 1961-90, which is the period used for calculation of climatic normals, were used to develop an isohyetal map of normal annual precipitation for the Black Hills area. Temporal trends in precipitation for the Black Hills area also were examined. Sustained periods of deficit precipitation occurred during 1931-40 and 1948-61. Sustained periods of surplus precipitation occurred during 1941-47, 1962-68, and 1991-98, with the late 1990's identified as the wettest period since 1931. The driest 30-year period was 1931-60, when annual precipitation averaged 17.17 inches for the study area. The wettest 30-year period was 1969-98, when annual precipitation averaged 19.61 inches. Normal annual precipitation (1961-90) for the study area is 19.06 inches, compared with the long-term (1931-98) annual average of 18.61 inches. Annual extremes for the study area have ranged from 10.22 inches in water year 1936 to 27.39 inches in water year 1995.

  5. Quantification of mass loading to Strawberry Creek near the Gilt Edge mine, Lawrence County, South Dakota, June 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2006-01-01

    Although remedial actions have taken place at the Gilt Edge mine in the Black Hills of South Dakota, questions remain about a possible hydrologic connection along shear zones between some of the pit lakes at the mine site and Strawberry Creek. Spatially detailed chemical sampling of stream and inflow sites occurred during low-flow conditions in June 2003 as part of a mass-loading study by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the possible connection of shear zones to the stream. Stream discharge was calculated by tracer dilution; discharge increased by 25.3 liters per second along the study reach, with 9.73 liters per second coming from three tributaries and the remaining increase coming from small springs and dispersed, subsurface inflow. Chemical differences among inflow samples were distinguished by cluster analysis and indicated that inflows ranged from those unaffected by interaction with mine wastes to those that could have been affected by drainage from pit lakes. Mass loading to the stream from several inflows resulted in distinct chemical changes in stream water along the study reach. Mass loading of the mine-related metals, including cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc, principally occurred from the discharge from the Gilt Edge mine, and those metals were substantially attenuated downstream. Secondary loadings of metals occurred in the vicinity of the Oro Fino shaft and from two more inflows about 200 m downstream from there. These are both locations where shear zones intersect the stream and may indicate loading associatedwith these zones. Loading downstream from the Oro Fino shaft had a unique chemical character, high in base-metal concentrations, that could indicate an association with water in the pit lakes. The loading from these downstream sources, however, is small in comparison to that from the initial mine discharge and does not appear to have a substantial impact on Strawberry Creek.

  6. Alteration of sandstone as a guide to uranium deposits and their origin, northern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1956-01-01

    Several uranium deposits are present in the Fall River sandstone of Early Cretaceous age on the northeast flank of the Black Hills, Butte County, South Dakota. The deposits are within a fine-grained, well-sorted, persistent basal sandstone unit that ranges in thickness from 2 to 18 feet and dips about 4° NE. Detailed mapping of about 2 square miles surrounding the deposits have shown that all the uranium occurrences and most of the areas of high radioactivity are where the color changes in the basal sandstone from reddish on the up-dip side of the the occurrences to yellowish-gray or buff down-dip. Radioactivity measurements show that uranium is distributed almost continuously along the sinuous red-buff contact for more than 5 miles. Laboratory work indicates that the red color is caused by the hematite resulting from the alteration of ferrous iron minerals and hydrous ferric oxides. The close association of the red-buff contact and the uranium deposits suggest that the two were formed by the same solutions. The uranium was probably deposited originally from ground water which moved down-dip and gradually changed from an oxidizing solution near the surface to a mildly reducing solution at depth. Concentrations of uranium have resulted from the localization of reducing conditions cause perhaps by structures superimposed on the regional dip, local thinning or decrease in permeability of the sandstone, or concentrations of pyritiferous carbonaceous material. The red alteration is probably the result of pre-Oligocene weathering that has extended downward in the more permeable beds about 200 feet below the ancient erosion surface. Oxidation of the primary uranium during the present weathering cycle has resulted in the formation of carnotite and possibly other secondary uranium minerals.

  7. Effects of CRP field age and cover type on ring-necked pheasants in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggebo, S.L.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.; Quamen, F.R.

    2003-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands to tillage has increased the importance of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands to maintain ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) populations. Despite the importance of CRP to pheasants, little is known about the effects of CRP field age and cover type on pheasant abundance and productivity in the northern Great Plains. Therefore, we assessed effects of these characteristics on pheasant use of CRP fields. We stratified CRP grasslands (n=42) by CRP stand age (old [10-13 yrs] vs. new [1-3 yrs] grasslands) and cover type (CP1 [cool-season grasslands] vs. CP2 [warm-season grasslands]) in eastern South Dakota and used crowing counts and roadside brood counts to index ring-necked pheasant abundance and productivity. Field-age and cover-type effects on pheasant abundance and productivity were largely the result of differences in vegetation structure among fields. More crowing pheasants were recorded in old cool-season CRP fields than any other age or cover type, and more broods were recorded in cool- than warm-season CRP fields. Extending existing CRP contracts another 5-10 years would provide the time necessary for new fields to acquire the vegetative structure used most by pheasants without a gap in habitat availability. Cool-season grass-legume mixtures (CP1) that support higher pheasant productivity should be given equal or higher ratings than warm-season (CP2) grass stands. We also recommend that United States Department of Agriculture administrators and field staff provide broader and more flexible guidelines on what seed mixtures can be used in CRP grassland plantings in the northern Great Plains. This would allow landowners and natural resource professionals who manage pheasant habitat to plant a mosaic of cool- and warm-season CRP grassland habitats.

  8. A digital simulation of the glacial-aquifer system in the northern three-fourths of Brown County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    A digital model was developed to simulate groundwater flow in a complex glacial-aquifer system that includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers in South Dakota. The average thickness of the aquifers ranges from 16 to 32 ft and the average hydraulic conductivity ranges from 240 to 300 ft/day. The maximum steady-state recharge to the aquifer system was estimated to be 7.0 in./yr, and the maximum potential steady- state evapotranspiration was estimated to be 35.4 in/yr. Maximum monthly recharge for 1985 ranged from zero in the winter to 2.5 in in May. The potential monthly evapotranspiration for 1985 ranged from zero in the winter to 7.0 in in July. The average difference between the simulated and observed water levels from steady-state conditions (pre-1983) was 0. 78 ft and the average absolute difference was 4.59 ft for aquifer layer 1 (the Elm aquifer) from 22 observation wells and 3.49 ft and 5.10 ft, respectively, for aquifer layer 2 (the Middle James aquifer) from 13 observation wells. The average difference between the simulated and observed water levels from simulated monthly potentiometric heads for 1985 in aquifer layer 1 ranged from -2.54 ft in July to 0.59 ft in May and in aquifer layer 2 ranged from -1.22 ft in April to 4.98 ft in November. Sensitivity analysis of the steady-state model indicates that it is most sensitive to changes in recharge and least sensitive to changes in hydraulic conductivity. (USGS)

  9. Numerical modeling of a long-term in situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garavito, A.M.; Kooi, H.; Neuzil, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    We have numerically modeled evolving fluid pressures and concentrations from a nine-year in situ osmosis experiment in the Pierre Shale, South Dakota. These data were obtained and recently interpreted by one of us (C.E.N.) as indicating a potentially significant role for chemical osmosis in media like the Pierre Shale. That analysis considered only the final pressure differentials among boreholes that were assumed to represent osmotic equilibrium. For this study, the system evolution was modeled using a recently developed transient model for membrane transport. The model simulates hydraulically and chemically driven fluid and solute transport. The results yield an estimate of the thickness of the water film between the clay platelets b of 40 A??, which corresponds to an osmotic efficiency ?? of 0.21 for the ambient pore water salinity of 3.5 g/l TDS. These values largely confirm the results of the earlier equilibrium analysis. However, the new model analysis provides additional constraints suggesting that intrinsic permeability k = 1.4 ?? 10-19 m2, specific storage Ss = 1.7 ?? 10-5 m-1, and diffusion coefficient D* = 6 ?? 10-11 m2/s. The k value is larger than certain independent estimates which range from 10-21 to 10-20; it may indicate opening of microcracks during the experiments. The fact that the complex transient pressure and concentration behavior for the individual wells could be reproduced quite accurately, and the inferred parameter values appear to be realistic for the Pierre Shale, suggests that the new model is a useful tool for modeling transient coupled flows in groundwater systems. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of flood flows on the Big Sioux River between Akron, Iowa, and North Sioux City, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehus, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents estimated flood flows for specified frequencies at selected locations on the Big Sioux River between the Akron, Iowa, streamflow-gaging station and North Sioux City, South Dakota. The selected locations include: at the Akron gaging station, downstream from the Richland-Westfield Creek Basins, downstream from the Brule Creek Basin, downstream from the Upper West Boundary Big Ditch and Rock Creek Basins, downstream from Broken Kettle Basin, and downstream from North Sioux City. The flood flows for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence intervals will be used to support a Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood Insurance Study. Four methods were used to estimate the flood flows. The first method involved the use of drainage-area ratios raised to specified exponents to transfer the flood-frequency relation from the Akron gage to the selected downstream locations. The second method was a flood-frequency analysis based on a summation of the Akron gaging-station peak flows and concurrent tributary daily flows from within the various study reaches. The third method was an independence/dependence analysis of the Akron gaging-station flows and the tributary flows from the various study reaches. The fourth method was a flood-frequency analysis assuming complete dependence of the Akron peak flows and the tributary peak flows from the various study reaches. Based on the various analyses that were done, the drainage-area-ratio method best estimated the flood flows for the Akron to North Sioux City reach of the Big Sioux River. The best estimates of 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood flows at the location downstream from North Sioux City are 35,300, 70,400, 89,100, and 142,000 cubic feet per second, respectively.

  11. Seasonal movements and Home-range use by female pronghorns in sagebrush-steppe communities of western south dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, C.N.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal movements by pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) within the easternmost extension of sagebrush-steppe communities is limited. Current hypotheses regarding movement patterns suggest that pronghorns initiate seasonal movements in response to severe winter weather, snowfall patterns, spatial and temporal variation in forage abundance, and availability of water. From January 2002 to August 2005, we monitored movements of 76 adult (???1.5 years) female pronghorns on 2 study areas (Harding and Fall River counties) in western South Dakota. We collected 8,750 visual locations, calculated 204 home ranges, and documented 17 seasonal movements. Eighty-four percent (n = 55) of pronghorns were nonmigratory and 10% (n = 6) were conditional migrators. Mean distance between summer and winter range was 23.1 km (SE = 2.8 km, n = 13). Five adult pronghorns (8%) dispersed a mean distance of 37.6 km (SE = 12.4 km); of which 1 female moved a straight-line distance of 75.0 km. Winter and summer home-range size varied (P < 0.0001) between study sites. Mean 95% adaptive kernel winter and summer home-range size of pronghorns was 55.5 and 19.7 km 2, respectively, in Harding County and 127.2 and 65.9 km2, respectively, in Fall River County. Nonmigratory behavior exhibited by pronghorns was likely associated with minimal snow cover and moderate temperatures during winter 2002-2004. Variation in size of adult seasonal home ranges between sites was likely associated with differences in forage distribution and availability between regions. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  12. Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.; Duke, E.F.; Papike, J.J. ); Laul, J.C. )

    1988-07-01

    Mass transfer and fluid-rock interaction have been evaluated along two sample traverses in low-sillimanite grade quartz-mica schist adjacent to a synmetamorphic quartz-graphite vein in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. In an {approximately}17 cm halo between apparently unaltered schist and the vein contact is an outer zone of cryptic alteration and three inner zones of visible alteration. The cryptic zone consists of the original prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of tourmaline. The outermost visible zone contains abundant graphite. The second visible zone is defined by intensive bleaching of the schist. The innermost visible zone, immediately adjacent to the vein, is tourmaline + quartz + plagioclase + limonite + graphite. The vein is composed almost entirely of quartz, but also contains trace amounts of graphite. Mass balance calculations indicate that Al was essentially inert. The predominant chemical changes during wall-rock alteration were addition of B and C from the vein-forming fluid along with loss of K from the wall rocks, corresponding to precipitation of tourmaline and graphite, and the progressive destruction of microcline, biotite, and muscovite toward the vein. In addition, the elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, W, and Au were introduced into the country rock, whereas Si, Rb, Ba, and Cs were removed. Fluid-rock interaction modeling suggests that between one and four equivalent masses of fluid interacted chemically with the most altered mineral assemblages. In addition, greater than one equivalent mass of reactive fluid penetrated to distances of at least 5 cm from the vein contact.

  13. Waterfowl production on the Woodworth Station in south-central North Dakota, 1965-1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Kirsch, L.M.; Klett, A.T.; Miller, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    During 17 years of study at the Woodworth, North Dakota study area, the percent of 548 wetland basin with water during 1-15 May ranged from 8 to 87 and averaged 56; waterfowl pair densities varied from 19 to 56/km2 and averaged 40/km2. Pond occupancy by duck pairs averaged 37% during mid-May counts and 48% for late May and early June counts. A positive linear relation occurred between the estimated number of duck pairs and the percent of basins with water during 1-15 May.There were 3,339 duck nests found in grassland habitats from 1966 through 1981. Approximately 66% (85% Mayfield) of these were depredated or abandoned. Mammals caused 88% of nest failures. Half or more of the eventually successful clutches were unhatched by 10 July in 9 of 16 years. Haying would have disturbed or destroyed an average of 43%, 33%, 22%, 15%, and 9% of the duck nests if initiated on 10 July, 15 July, 20 July, 25 July, and 1 August, respectively.The total average size of completed clutch for all species was 29% smaller at the end of the nesting season than at the beginning, underscoring the importance of protecting early clutches.Production averaged 30 broods per 100 pairs of ducks and ranged from 15 to 61 broods per 100 pairs. Brood densities ranged from 10 to 63/km2 and averaged 12/km2. Mean brood size averaged 6.4 for all species. July broods averaged 7.2 ducklings and August broods 5.7 ducklings. Duckling loss averaged 2.6 per brood and 85% (2.2 ducklings) of this loss was estimated to occur during the first 14 days after hatch.Wetlands of all sizes and classes were important at some time to one species of duck or another. With the exception of some diving ducks, all species used a complex of sizes and classes of wetlands for space, food, and shelter necessary for nesting and brooding. Pair counts during 20 May-7 June were most indicative of the breeding population. A combination of two brood counts resulted in the best estimate of annual production. An average of only 50% of the

  14. Solid-phase data from cores at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery mine, near Edgemont, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Benzel, William M.

    2013-01-01

    This report releases solid-phase data from cores at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery site near Edgemont, South Dakota. These cores were collected by Powertech Uranium Corporation, and material not used for their analyses were given to the U.S. Geological Survey for additional sampling and analyses. These additional analyses included total carbon and sulfur, whole rock acid digestion for major and trace elements, 234U/238U activity ratios, X-ray diffraction, thin sections, scanning electron microscopy analyses, and cathodoluminescence. This report provides the methods and data results from these analyses along with a short summary of observations.

  15. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for aquifer boundaries for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was compiled from a digital coverage that was created for publication of paper maps in McGrath and Dugan (1993, Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer -- predevelopment to 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4088, 53 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  16. Notes from the Field: Increase in Human Cases of Tularemia--Colorado, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, January-September 2015.

    PubMed

    Pedati, Caitlin; House, Jennifer; Hancock-Allen, Jessica; Colton, Leah; Bryan, Katie; Ortbahn, Dustin; Kightlinger, Lon; Kugeler, Kiersten; Petersen, Jeannine; Mead, Paul; Safranek, Tom; Buss, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Tularemia is a rare, often serious disease caused by a gram-negative coccobacillus, Francisella tularensis, which infects humans and animals in the Northern Hemisphere. Approximately 125 cases have been reported annually in the United States during the last two decades. As of September 30, a total of 100 tularemia cases were reported in 2015 among residents of Colorado (n = 43), Nebraska (n = 21), South Dakota (n = 20), and Wyoming (n = 16) (Figure). This represents a substantial increase in the annual mean number of four (975% increase), seven (200%), seven (186%) and two (70%) cases, respectively, reported in each state during 2004-2014.

  17. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Aberdeen Pesticide Dumps Site, Aberdeen, NC, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit Three (OU3) of the Aberdeen Pesticide Dumps Site (the 'Site'), in Aberdeen, North Carolina. The remedy selected addresses groundwater, sediment, and surface water contamination and ecological concerns to eliminate or reduce the risks posed by the Site.

  18. Hydrochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Buffalo-Lignite, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, T.R.; Bard, C.S.; White, R.E.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-08-31

    Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. Generalized geologic maps of the project areas are provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater in the Custer project area with anomalously high uranium concentrations occur along the eastern margins of North Cave Hill. Groundwater in this area is derived primarily from the Paleocene Tongue River Formation where high values were determined for U, 1000.U/specific conductance, 1000.U/B, U/SO/sub 4/, Ba, Ca, Mg, Mol, and Sr. Anomalously high uranium concentrations in stream sediments in the Custer project area are derived from the Paleocene Tongue River and Ludlow Formations and are found in four areas: (1) south of Table Mountain, (2) North Cave Hills, (3) east of South Cave Hills, and (4) surrounding Teppee Butte. Sediments with high uranium concentrations are associated with high values for U-FL/U-NT, As, Mo, and Se. Groundwater in the Slim Buttes project area with anomalously high uranium concentrations occur along the northern and southern regions of the Slim Buttes area. Groundwater in this area is derived almost exclusively from the Tertiary White River Group where high values were determined for U, 1000.U/specific conductance, 1000.U/B, U/SO/sub 4/, As, Se, and Si. Anomalously high uranium concentrations in stream sediments in the Slim Buttes project area are derived primarily from the Tertiary White River Group and the Arikaree-Ogallala Sediments. These high uranium concentrations are found primarily scattered along the Slim Buttes with slightly higher concentrations occurring in the central and southern regions. High concentrations are also found north of Flat Top Butte and in areas southeast of Slim Buttes. Sediments with high U concentrations are associated with high values for As, Co, Se, and V.

  19. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Edgemont, South Dakota; Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, T.R.; Dean, N.E.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-05-31

    Results of the Edgemont detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 109 groundwater and 419 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwaters containing greater than or equal to 7.35 ppB uranium are present in scattered clusters throughout the area sampled. Most of these groundwaters are from wells drilled where the Inyan Kara Group is exposed at the surface. The exceptions are a group of samples in the northwestern part of the area sampled and south of the Dewey Terrace. These groundwaters are also produced from the Inyan Kara Group where it is overlain by the Graneros Group and alluvium. The high uranium groundwaters along and to the south of the terrace are characterized by high molybdenum, uranium/specific conductance, and uranium/sulfate values. Many of the groundwaters sampled along the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group are near uranium mines. Groundwaters have high amounts of uranium and molybdenum. Samples taken downdip are sulfide waters with low values of uranium and high values of arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 5.50 ppM soluble uranium are concentrated in basins draining the Graneros and Inyan Kara Groups. These values are associated with high values for arsenic, selenium, and vanadium in samples from both groups. Anomalous values for these elements in the Graneros Group may be caused by bentonite beds contained in the rock units. As shown on the geochemical distribution plot, high uranium values that are located in the Inyan Kara Group are almost exclusively draining open-pit uranium mines.

  20. AIDS--Tribal Nations Face the Newest Communicable Disease: An Aberdeen Area Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claymore, Betty J.; Taylor, Marian A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the past impact of smallpox, cholera, and tuberculosis on American Indians. Outlines AIDS/HIV cause, symptoms, and transmission. Discusses AIDS incidence and risk factors among Native Americans, providing details from North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa. Points out the urgent need for AIDS education. Contains 25 references.…

  1. Historic and recent nesting records of Turkey Vultures in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Chepulis, Brian J.; McLean, Kyle E.

    2014-01-01

    Present-day vultures are generally classified into two distinct groups: Old World vultures and new World vultures. The two groups share morphological and behavioral characters (e.g. scavenger diet, energy-efficient soaring, mostly featherless head), but historically the two groups were considered phylogenetically distant with long and independent histories (Rich 198., Wink 1995, Zhang et al. 2012). Old World vultures occur in the family Accipitridae and are closely related to hawks and eagles. New World Vultures occur in the family Cathartidae but their taxonomic placement has been controversial. New World vultures were previously allied with storks (Ciconiidae) but were usually placed within the order Falconiformes. Recent phylogenomic analyses using DNA sequencing suggest that new World vultures show no affinity with storks and support placement of New World vultures with other landbirds (in the order Accipitriformes, near Accipitridae) rather than with waterbirds (Hackett et al. 2008). Old World vultures presently are confined to Europe, Asia, and Africa, and New World vultures presently occur in North and South America.

  2. Amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains from the Fox Hills Formation (Maastrichtian): Shoreline and estuarine deposits of the Pierre Sea in south-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoganson, J.W.; Erickson, J.M.; Holland, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Although vertebrate fossils, except for fish, are not common in the Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation, amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains have been recovered at several localities in south-central North Dakota from shoreline facies of the retreating Pierre-Fox Hills seaway. This mixed fauna of aquatic, terrestrial, and marine taxa provides insight into the composition of coastal communities and habitats at the interface between the Hell Creek delta and the Western Interior Seaway. The delta-platform aquatic paleocommunity is represented by the efficient swimming salamanders Opistho- trition kayi and Lisserpeton bairdi, the carnivorous soft-shelled turtle "Aspideretes" sensu lato, the underwater piscivorous predator Champsosaurus laramiensis, and the large, predatory crocodile IBorealosuchus. Terrestrial areas were inhabited by the tortoise-like Basilemys and the predatory dinosaurs Tyrannosaurus and cf. Saurornit- holestes. Birds occupied niches in the warm-temperate to subtropical, forested delta platform and shoreline areas. These nonmarine taxa in the Fox Hills Formation indicate that the geographic range of these animals extended to shoreline areas of the Western Interior Seaway. The toxochelyid turtle Lophochelys and the ambush predators Mosasaurus dekayi and IPlioplatecarpus resided in the shallow marine and estuarine habitats. These taxa and marine fish taxa reported earlier indicate that normal marine conditions in south- central North Dakota persisted into the latest Late Cretaceous in comparison with coeval Hell Creek Formation sites more distal from the Western Interior Seaway. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey applied research studies of the Cheyenne River system, South Dakota; description and collation of data, water years 1985-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, Kimball E.

    1988-01-01

    The Cheyenne River system in Western South Dakota has been impacted by the discharge of about 100 million metric tons of gold-mill tailings to Whitewood Creek near Lead, South Dakota. In April 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an extensive series of research studies to investigate the magnitude of the impact and to define important processes acting on the contaminated sediments present in the system. The report presents all data collected during the 1985 and 1986 water years for these research studies. Some of the data included have been published previously. Hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data are available for sites on Whitewood Creek, the Belle Fourche and Cheyenne Rivers, and for the Cheyenne River arm of Lake Oahe. Data complexity varies from routine discharge and water quality to very complex photon-correlation spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Methods for sample collection, handling and preservation, and laboratory analysis are also presented. No interpretations or complex statistical summaries are included. (USGS)

  4. U.S. Geological Survey applied research studies of the Cheyenne River System, South Dakota; description and collation of data, water years 1987-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, K. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Cheyenne River System in western South Dakota has been impacted by the discharge of about 100 million metric tons of gold-mill tailings to Whitewood Creek near Lead, South Dakota. In April 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an extensive series of research studies to investigate the magnitude of the impact and to define important processes acting on the contaminated sediments present in the system. The report presents all data collected during the 1987 and 1988 water years for these research studies. Some of the data included have been published previously. Data collected in the 1985 and 1986 water years have been published in a companion report (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-484). Hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data are available for sites on Whitewood Creek, and the Belle Fourche and Cheyenne Rivers. Data complexity varies from routine discharge and water-quality to very complex energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Methods for sample collection, handling and preservation, and laboratory analysis are also presented. No interpretations or complex statistical summaries are included. (See also W89-08390) (USGS)

  5. Peak-Flow Frequency Estimates Based on Data through Water Year 2001 for Selected Streamflow-Gaging Stations in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven K.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Parrett, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Numerous users, including the South Dakota Department of Transportation, have continuing needs for peak-flow information for the design of highway infrastructure and many other purposes. This report documents results from a cooperative study between the South Dakota Department of Transportation and the U.S. Geological Survey to provide an update of peak-flow frequency estimates for South Dakota. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals are reported for 272 streamflow-gaging stations, which include most gaging stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of systematic peak-flow records through water year 2001. Recommended procedures described in Bulletin 17B were used as primary guidelines for developing peak-flow frequency estimates. The computer program PEAKFQ developed by the U.S. Geological Survey was used to run the frequency analyses. Flood frequencies for all stations were initially analyzed by using standard Bulletin 17B default procedures for fitting the log-Pearson III distribution. The resulting preliminary frequency curves were then plotted on a log-probability scale, and fits of the curves with systematic data were evaluated. In many cases, results of the default Bulletin 17B analyses were determined to be satisfactory. In other cases, however, the results could be improved by using various alternative procedures for frequency analysis. Alternative procedures for some stations included adjustments to skew coefficients or use of user-defined low-outlier criteria. Peak-flow records for many gaging stations are strongly influenced by low- or zero-flow values. This situation often results in a frequency curve that plots substantially above the systematic record data points at the upper end of the frequency curve. Adjustments to low-outlier criteria reduced the influence of very small peak flows and generally focused the analyses on the upper parts of the frequency curves (10- to 500-year

  6. Stable isotopes and sediments from Pickerel Lake, South Dakota, USA: A 12ky record of environmental changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwalb, A.; Dean, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Sedimentological parameters and stable O- and C-isotopic composition of marl and ostracode calcite selected from a 17.7-m-long core from the 8-m-deep center of Pickerel Lake, northeastern South Dakota, provide one of the longest (ca. 12ky) paleoenvironmental records from the northern Great Plains. The late Glacial to early Holocene climate in the northern Great Plains was characterized by changes from cold and wet to cold and dry, and back to cold and wet conditions. These climatic changes were controlled by fluctuations in the positions of the Laurentide ice sheet and the extent of glacial Lake Agassiz. We speculate that the cold and dry phase may correspond to the Younger Dryas event. A salinity maximum was reached between 10.3 and 9.5 ka, after which Pickerel Lake shifted from a system controlled by atmospheric changes to a system controlled by groundwater seepage that might have been initiated by the final withdrawal of Glacial Lake Agassiz. A prairie lake was established at approximately 8.7 ka, and lasted until about 2.2 ka. During this mid-Holocene prairie period, drier conditions than today prevailed, interrupted by periods of increased moisture at about 8, 4, and 2.2 ka. Prairie conditions were more likely dry and cool rather than dry and warm. The last 2.2 ka are characterized by higher climatic variability with 400-yr aridity cycles including the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. Although the signal of changing atmospheric circulation is overprinted by fluctuations in the positions of the ice sheet and glacial Lake Agassiz during the late Glacial-Holocene transition, a combination of strong zonal circulation and strong monsoons induced by the presence of the ice sheet and high insolation may have provided mechanisms for increased precipitation. Zonal flow introducing dry Pacific air became more important during the prairie period but seems to have been interrupted by short periods of stronger meridional circulation with intrusions of moist air

  7. Speciation and weathering of selenium in upper cretaceous chalk and shale from South Dakota and Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Thomas R.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2004-09-01

    In geologic materials, petroleum, and the environment, selenium occurs in various oxidation states (VI, IV, 0, -II), mineralized forms, and organo-Se complexes. Each of these forms is characterized by specific chemical and biochemical properties that control the element's solubility, toxicity, and environmental behavior. The organic rich chalks and shales of the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Formation and the Pierre Shale in South Dakota and Wyoming are bentoniferous stratigraphic intervals characterized by anomalously high concentrations of naturally occurring Se. Numerous environmental problems have been associated with Se derived from these geological units, including the development of seleniferous soils and vegetation that are toxic to livestock and the contamination of drinking water supplies by Se mobilized in groundwater. This study describes a sequential extraction protocol followed by speciation treatments and quantitative analysis by Hydride Generation-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. This protocol was utilized to investigate the geochemical forms and the oxidation states in which Se occurs in these geologic units. Organic Se and di-selenide minerals are the predominant forms of Se present in the chalks, shales, and bentonites, but distinctive variations in these forms were observed between different sample types. Chalks contain significantly greater proportions of Se in the form of di-selenide minerals (including Se associated with pyrite) than the shales where base-soluble, humic, organo-Se complexes are more prevalent. A comparison between unweathered samples collected from lithologic drill cores and weathered samples collected from outcrop suggest that the humic, organic-Se compounds in shale are formed during oxidative weathering and that Se oxidized by weathering is more likely to be retained by shale than by chalk. Selenium enrichment in bentonites is inferred to result from secondary processes including the adsorption of Se mobilized by groundwater

  8. Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, Southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Hanson, G.N.; Papike, J.J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have Tdm ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have Tdm ages that range from 2.32 to 2.45 Ga. These model ages, in conjunction with probable stratigraphic ages ranging from 1.9 to 2.2 Ga, indicate that mantle-derived material was added to the continental crust of this region during the early-Proterozoic. Previous studies of the Harney Peak Granite complex have reported U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages of about 1.71 Ga and most granite samples examined in this study have Sr isotopic compositions consistent with that age. Two granite samples taken from the same sill, however, give two-point Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of 2.08 ??0.08 and 2.20 ??0.20 Ga (???2200Nd = -15.5), respectively. In addition, whole-rock and apatite samples of the spatially associated Tin Mountain pegmatite give a Sm-Nd isochron age of 2000 ??100 Ma (???2200Nd = -5.8 ??1.8). The Sm-Nd, O and Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of these granitic rocks have been complicated to some degree by both crystallization and post-crystallization processes, and the age of the pegmatite and parts of the Harney Peak Granite complex remain uncertain. Processes that probably complicated the isotopic systematics of these rocks include derivation from heterogeneous source material, assimilation, mixing of REE between granite and country rock during crystallization via a fluid phase and post-crystallization mobility of Sr. The Nd isotopic compositions of the pegmatite and the Harney Peak Granite indicate that they were not derived primarily from the exposed metasedimentary rocks. ?? 1986.

  9. Soot and palynologic analysis of Manson impact-related strata (Upper Cretaceous) of Iowa and South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varricchio, D.J.; Raven, R.F.; Wolbach, W.S.; Elsik, W.C.; Witzke, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Campanian Manson impact structure of Iowa represents the best-preserved, large-diameter complex crater within the continental U.S. To assess the timing and potential mode of crater infilling and the possible presence of an impact event horizon, we analyzed samples from both within and distal to the impact structure for their elemental carbon, soot and palynomorphs. Within the impact structure, identifiable soot occurred in fragmented impact breccia and suevite but not in lower impact-melt breccia. Although most of this soot likely represents reworking of material from older Cretaceous marine shales, one high soot concentration occurs with melt material in a Keweenawan Shale-Phanerozoic clast breccia mix. This represents the first association of soot and impact-generated materials within an impact structure and the best sample candidate for Manson impact-generated soot. No palynomorphs occurred in the impact melt breccia. Overlying suevite (Keweenawan Shale clast breccia) of the central peak yielded sparse and thermally altered palynomorphs, indicating deposition prior to full cooling of the crater debris. Presence of easily degraded soot also argues for rapid backfilling of the crater. Distal samples from South Dakota represent the Sharon Springs and Crow Creek members of the Pierre Shale 230 km northwest of the Manson impact structure. Although containing shocked grains, the Crow Creek preserves no soot. In contrast, the Sharon Springs, generally considered as predating the Manson impact, has significant soot quantities. Palynomorphs differ markedly across the unconformity separating the two members with the Crow Creek containing more terrestrial forms, normapolles, and older reworked palynomorphs, consistent with a terrestrial impact to the east. Origin of the Sharon Springs soot remains unclear. Given soot occurrence within four of the five Cretaceous marine units sampled, the relatively shallow, anoxic bottom conditions of the Western Interior Cretaceous

  10. Petrologic and geochemical links between the post-collisional Proterozoic Harney Peak leucogranite, South Dakota, USA, and its source rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Peter I.; Bartlett, Cindy D.

    1998-12-01

    The Proterozoic terrane of the Black Hills, South Dakota, includes the composite Harney Peak leucogranite and associated pegmatites that were emplaced into metamorphosed pelites and graywackes. Available dates indicate that granite generation post-dated regional metamorphism and deformation that have been attributed to collision of the Wyoming and Superior cratons at ˜1760 Ma. Previous radiogenic and stable isotope work indicates that the exposed metasedimentary rocks are equivalent to sources of the leucogranites. In this study, whole rock and mineral compositions of the metasedimentary rocks were used to calculate the likely average residue mineralogies and melt fractions that would be generated by muscovite dehydration melting of the rocks. These were then used to model observed trace element compositions of the granites using published mineral/melt distribution coefficients. Model trace element melt compositions using pelitic and graywacke protoliths yield similar results. The models reproduce well the observed depletion of transition metals and Ba in the granites relative to metasedimentary protoliths. The depletion is due mainly to high proportion of biotite with variable amounts of K-feldspar in the model residue. Sr is also depleted in the granites compared to source rocks, but to a lesser relative extent than Ba. This is because of the low biotite/melt distribution coefficient for Sr and because high proportion of plagioclase in the residue is compensated by high Sr concentrations in protoliths. Rubidium, Cs and Ta behaved as slightly compatible to incompatible elements, and therefore, were not strongly fractionated during melting. Of the considered elements, only B appears to have been highly incompatible relative to residue during melting. The protoliths had sufficient B to allow tourmaline crystallization in those parts of the Harney Peak Granite in which Ti concentration was sufficiently low not to enhance crystallization of biotite. The

  11. Geochemistry and shock petrography of the Crow Creek Member, South Dakota, USA: Ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katongo, C.; Koeberl, C.; Witzke, B.J.; Hammond, R.H.; Anderson, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    The Crow Creek Member is one of several marl units recognized within the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale Formation of eastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska, but it is the only unit that contains shock-metamorphosed minerals. The shocked minerals represent impact ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure (MIS). This study was aimed at determining the bulk chemical compositions and analysis of planar deformation features (PDFs) of shocked quartz; for the basal and marly units of the Crow Creek Member. We studied samples from the Gregory 84-21 core, Iroquois core and Wakonda lime quarry. Contents of siderophile elements are generally high, but due to uncertainties in the determination of Ir and uncertainties in compositional sources for Cr, Co, and Ni, we could not confirm an extraterrestrial component in the Crow Creek Member. We recovered several shocked quartz grains from basal-unit samples, mainly from the Gregory 84-21 core, and results of PDF measurements indicate shock pressures of at least 15 GPa. All the samples are composed chiefly of SiO2, (29-58 wt%), Al2O3 (6-14 wt%), and CaO (7-30 wt%). When compared to the composition of North American Shale Composite, the samples are significantly enriched in CaO, P2O5, Mn, Sr, Y, U, Cr, and Ni. The contents of rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE), Cr, Co, Sc, and their ratios and chemical weathering trends, reflect both felsic and basic sources for the Crow Creek Member, an inference, which is consistent with the lithological compositions in the environs of the MIS. The high chemical indices of alteration and weathering (CIA' and CIW': 75-99), coupled with the Al2O3-(CaO*,+Na2O -K2O (A-CN'-K) ratios, indicate that the Crow Creek Member and source rocks had undergone high degrees of chemical weathering. The expected ejecta thicknesses at the sampled locations (409 to 219 km from Manson) were calculated to range from about 1.9 to 12.2 cm (for the present-day crater radius of Manson

  12. Influence of drought conditions on brown trout biomass and size structure in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Daniel A.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of drought conditions on the biomass of brown trout Salmo trutta in Spearfish Creek, upper Rapid Creek, and lower Rapid Creek in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Stream discharge, mean summer water temperature, the biomass of juvenile and adult brown trout, and brown trout size structure were compared between two time periods: early (2000–2002) and late drought (2005–2007). Mean summer water temperatures were similar between the early- and late-drought periods in Spearfish Creek (12.4°C versus 11.5°C), lower Rapid Creek (19.2°C versus 19.3°C), and upper Rapid Creek (9.8°C in both periods). In contrast, mean annual discharge differed significantly between the two time periods in Spearfish Creek (1.95 versus 1.50 m3/s), lower Rapid Creek (2.01 versus 0.94 m3/s), and upper Rapid Creek (1.41 versus 0.84 m3/s). The mean biomass of adult brown trout in all three stream sections was significantly higher in the early-drought than in the late-drought period (238 versus 69 kg/ha in Spearfish Creek, 272 versus 91 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and 159 versus 32 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek). The biomass of juvenile brown trout was similar (43 versus 23 kg/ha) in Spearfish Creek in the two periods, declined from 136 to 45 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and increased from 14 to 73 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek. Size structure did not differ between the early- and late-drought periods in lower Rapid and Spearfish creeks, but it did in upper Rapid Creek. In addition to drought conditions, factors such as angler harvest, fish movements, and the nuisance algal species Didymosphenia geminata are discussed as possible contributors to the observed changes in brown trout biomass and size structure in Black Hills streams.

  13. The Behaviour of Garnet and Accessory-Phase Paragenesis in Metapelites From the Black Hills, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Pattison, D.

    2004-05-01

    We have examined petrographic textures, occurrence, chemical zoning of garnet, monazite and apatite, and electron microprobe ages of monazite in pelitic schists from Black Hills, South Dakota. Early Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks, deformed and regionally metamorphosed at 1.76 Ga, were uplifted for several kilometers (Holm et al., Tectonics, 1997) prior to the post-tectonic intrusion of the 1.71 Ga Harney Peak Granite. Contact metamorphism reached the second sillimanite isograd, at a pressure between 3.5 and 4.5 kbar. In staurolite zone garnet porphyroblasts included in staurolite and those in matrix have euhedral crystal outlines and display continuous Mn zoning profiles, suggesting that garnet was not consumed during the growth of staurolite. Some garnet porphyroblasts in the staurolite and sillimanite zones show euhedral Y-annuli which are not correlated with major elements and are thought to reflect growth rather than resorption processes. YAG-xenotime temperature estimates for xenotime-bearing garnet cores ranges from 450 to 490" C. Zoning patterns of monazite from garnet to sillimanite zones are similar. The monazite contains two compositionally distinct zones: Th-rich (up to 13 wt%) cores and Y-rich (up to 1.7 wt%) rims. Monazite-xenotime solvus thermometry yields temperature estimates of 504-530" C for the monazite rims from garnet to sillimanite zone, suggesting that the monazite in all the metamorphic zones grew during early garnet growth and did not continue to grow thereafter. Electron microprobe ages of Y-rich monazite rims are similar to that of the granite intrusion and are interpreted to date the growth of garnet cores equilibrated with xenotime. Apatite is present in all rocks and contains high-Y cores with Y-depleted rims which thicken as metamorphic grade increases. Oscillatory high-Y cores in apatite appear to be detrital but homogeneous euhedral ones are interpreted to be in equilibrium with xenotime. Y and Mn zoning patterns in Y

  14. Inventory of wetland habitat using remote sensing for the proposed Oahe irrigation unit in eastern South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, R. G.; Moore, D. G.; Myers, V. I.

    1977-01-01

    An inventory of wetlands for the area included in the proposed Oahe irrigation project was conducted to provide supplemental data for the wildlife mitigation plan. Interpretation techniques for inventoring small wetlands in the low relief terrain of the Lake Dakota Plain were documented and data summaries included. The data were stored and tabulated in a computerized spatial data analysis system.

  15. A Study of the Economic Impact of Variation in the Nonresident Tuition Rate at Public Institutions of Higher Education in South Dakota. Bulletin Number One Hundred Thirty-Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ralph J.; Johnson, Dennis A.

    The study examined the likely response of nonresident enrollments to a lowering of nonresident tuition rates in South Dakota public institutions of higher education; the cost of educating additional nonresident students; and other economic benefits to the state of increased enrollment of nonresident students at state universities. Nonresident…

  16. Okiciyapo Hechel Lena Oyate Kin Nipi Kte (Help Each Other That These People May Live). Facilitating Academic Attainment in Adolescent Sioux Students in the Public School Systems in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Joyce

    This paper reviews educational problems affecting American Indian students, particularly problems related to school climate, and describes efforts to improve school climate at Bennett County (South Dakota) High School. This public school serves the county and two reservations. It also accepts transfer students from Bureau of Indian Affairs schools…

  17. A Comparative Analysis of the Professional Competencies Needed by Superintendents of Public Schools Perceived to Be Most Desirable for Successful Employment by School Board Members and Superintendents in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Maurice

    This paper, which highlights the findings of a recently completed doctoral dissertation, attempts to: (1) identify the desirable professional competencies of superintendents as perceived by South Dakota school board members and superintendents, themselves; and (2) determine which competencies, when performed unsatisfactorily, are the most common…

  18. Geologic structure and altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation, northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peter, Kathy D.; Kyllonen, David P.; Mills, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Beginning in 1981, a 3-yr project was conducted to determine the availability and quality of groundwater in the sedimentary bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. The project was limited to three bedrock units in order of increasing age: the Cretaceous Inyan kara Group, Permian and Pennsylvanian Minnelusa Formation, and Mississippian Madison (or Pahasapa) Limestone. This map shows the altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation in the northern Black Hills, and shows the configuration of the structural features in the northern part of the Black Hills and the eastern part of the Bear Lodge Mountains. In general, the Minnelusa Formation dips away from the Black Hills uplift, either to the northeast and the Williston Basin or, south of the Bear Lodge Mountains, to the southwest and the Powder River basin, which is outside the map area. In the map area, the upper beds of the Minnelusa Formation are an aquifer and the lower beds are a confining or semi-confining unit. The upper part of the Minnelusa Formation has a greater percentage of coarse-grained sandstone beds than the lower part. Furthermore, solution and removal of anhydrite, brecciation, and solution of cement binding the sandstone grains may have increased the permeability of the upper part of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills. Wells completed in the upper part of the Minnelusa have yields that exceed 100 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min. Flowing wells have been completed in the Minnelusa aquifer in most of the study area in South Dakota and in about the northern one-half of Crook County, Wyoming. (Lantz-PTT)

  19. Water quality of selected springs and public-supply wells, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota, 1992-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heakin, Allen J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of a water-quality study for the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota. The study was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Water Resources Department of the Oglala Sioux Tribe. Discharge and water-quality data were collected during 1992-97 for 14 contact springs located in the northwestern part of the Reservation. Data were collected to evaluate potential alternative sources of water supply for the village of Red Shirt, which currently obtains water of marginal quality from a well completed in the Inyan Kara aquifer. During 1995-97, water-quality data also were collected for 44 public-supply wells that serve about one-half of the Reservation's population. Quality-assurance sampling was used to evaluate the precision and accuracy of environmental samples. Ten of the springs sampled contact the White River Group, and four contact the Pierre Shale. Springs contacting the White River Group range from calcium bicarbonate to sodium bicarbonate water types. Two springs contacting the Pierre Shale have water types similar to this; however, sulfate is the dominant anion for the other two springs. In general, springs contacting the White River Group are shown to have better potential as alternative sources of water supply for the village of Red Shirt than springs contacting the Pierre Shale. Nine of the springs with better water quality were sampled repeatedly; however, only minor variability in water quality was identified. Six of these nine springs, of which five contact the White River Group, probably have the best potential for use as water supplies. Discharge from any of these six springs probably would provide adequate water supply for Red Shirt during most periods, based on a limited number of discharge measurements collected. Concentrations of lead exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level of 15 ?g/L for three of these six springs. Five of these six springs also had arsenic

  20. Groundwater flow, quality (2007-10), and mixing in the Wind Cave National Park area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.; Ohms, Marc J.; McKaskey, Jonathan D.R.G.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater flow, quality, and mixing in relation to Wind Cave National Park in western South Dakota was conducted during 2007-11 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service because of water-quality concerns and to determine possible sources of groundwater contamination in the Wind Cave National Park area. A large area surrounding Wind Cave National Park was included in this study because to understand groundwater in the park, a general understanding of groundwater in the surrounding southern Black Hills is necessary. Three aquifers are of particular importance for this purpose: the Minnelusa, Madison, and Precambrian aquifers. Multivariate methods applied to hydrochemical data, consisting of principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and an end-member mixing model, were applied to characterize groundwater flow and mixing. This provided a way to assess characteristics important for groundwater quality, including the differentiation of hydrogeologic domains within the study area, sources of groundwater to these domains, and groundwater mixing within these domains. Groundwater and surface-water samples collected for this study were analyzed for common ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, silica, and sulfate), arsenic, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, specific conductance, and pH. These 12 variables were used in all multivariate methods. A total of 100 samples were collected from 60 sites from 2007 to 2010 and included stream sinks, cave drip, cave water bodies, springs, and wells. In previous approaches that combined PCA with end-member mixing, extreme-value samples identified by PCA typically were assumed to represent end members. In this study, end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior hydrologic knowledge. Also, the end-member mixing model was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on

  1. Hydrologic budgets for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1987-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming. Quantification and evaluation of various hydrologic budget components are important for managing and understanding these aquifers. Hydrologic budgets are developed for two scenarios, including an overall budget for the entire study area and more detailed budgets for subareas. Budgets generally are combined for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers because most budget components cannot be quantified individually for the aquifers. An average hydrologic budget for the entire study area is computed for water years 1987-96, for which change in storage is approximately equal to zero. Annual estimates of budget components are included in detailed budgets for nine subareas, which consider periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96). Inflow components include recharge, leakage from adjacent aquifers, and ground-water inflows across the study area boundary. Outflows include springflow (headwater and artesian), well withdrawals, leakage to adjacent aquifers, and ground-water outflow across the study area boundary. Leakage, ground-water inflows, and ground-water outflows are difficult to quantify and cannot be distinguished from one another. Thus, net ground-water flow, which includes these components, is calculated as a residual, using estimates for the other budget components. For the overall budget for water years 1987-96, net ground-water outflow from the study area is computed as 100 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Estimates of average combined budget components for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are: 395 ft3/s for recharge, 78 ft3/s for headwater springflow, 189 ft3/s for artesian springflow, and 28 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Hydrologic budgets also are quantified for nine subareas for periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96), with changes in storage assumed equal but opposite. Common

  2. Hydrologic Characterization for Spring Creek and Hydrologic Budget and Model Scenarios for Sheridan Lake, South Dakota, 1962-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Norton, Parker A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks to characterize hydrologic information relevant to management of water resources associated with Sheridan Lake, which is formed by a dam on Spring Creek. This effort consisted primarily of characterization of hydrologic data for a base period of 1962 through 2006, development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake for this timeframe, and development of an associated model for simulation of storage deficits and drawdown in Sheridan Lake for hypothetical release scenarios from the lake. Historically, the dam has been operated primarily as a 'pass-through' system, in which unregulated outflows pass over the spillway; however, the dam recently was retrofitted with an improved control valve system that would allow controlled releases of about 7 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or less from a fixed depth of about 60 feet (ft). Development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake involved compilation, estimation, and characterization of data sets for streamflow, precipitation, and evaporation. The most critical data need was for extrapolation of available short-term streamflow records for Spring Creek to be used as the long-term inflow to Sheridan Lake. Available short-term records for water years (WY) 1991-2004 for a gaging station upstream from Sheridan Lake were extrapolated to WY 1962-2006 on the basis of correlations with streamflow records for a downstream station and for stations located along two adjacent streams. Comparisons of data for the two streamflow-gaging stations along Spring Creek indicated that tributary inflow is approximately proportional to the intervening drainage area, which was used as a means of estimating tributary inflow for the hydrologic budget. Analysis of evaporation data shows that sustained daily rates may exceed maximum monthly rates by a factor of about two. A long-term (1962-2006) hydrologic budget was developed for computation of reservoir outflow from

  3. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater

  4. ERTS-1 MSS imagery: Its use in delineating soil associations and as a base map for publishing soils information. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS 1 imagery is a useful tool in the identification and refinement of soil association areas and an excellent base map upon which soil association information can be published. Prints of bands 5 and 7 were found to be most useful to help delineate major soil and vegetation areas. After delineating major soil areas, over 4800 land sale prices covering a period of 1967-72 were located in the soil areas and averaged. The soil association then were described as soil association value areas and published on a 1:1,000,000 scale ERTS mosaic of South Dakota constructed using negative prints of band 7. The map is intended for use by state and county revenue officers, by individual buyers and sellers of land and lending institutions, and as a reference map by those planning road routes and cable lines and pipelines.

  5. Plan of study for the High Plains regional aquifer-system analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The Ogallala Formation and associated Tertiary and Quarternary deposits from the principal aquifers supporting irrigation in the High Plains of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The volume of water in storage within the aquifers is declining in most of the High Plains because water is being withdrawn in excess of the rate of replenishment. The U.S. Geological Survey has initiated a 5-year study of the High Plains aquifer system to develop the geohydrologic data base and computer models of the ground-water flow system needed to evaluate the response of the aquifer system to ground-water management alternatives. This report describes the objectives, plan, and organization of the study and outlines the work to be accomplished in each State in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) of the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The structure, format, and quality of the LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS photographic and digital products for one scene covering the Black Hills area of South Dakota were assessed and the extent to which major resource categories can be detected and identified on various photographic products generated from a subset of TM spectral bands and from all bands of the MSS was determined. The overall spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data was found to be excellent. Agricultural fields of variable shape, size, and orientation were detected with relative ease. The addition of the short-wave infrared band (TM5) has significantly improved the ability to detect and identify crop types on single date imagery.

  7. Image variance and spatial structure in remotely sensed scenes. [South Dakota, California, Missouri, Kentucky, Louisiana, Tennessee, District of Columbia, and Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, C. E.; Strahler, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    Digital images derived by scanning air photos and through acquiring aircraft and spcecraft scanner data were studied. Results show that spatial structure in scenes can be measured and logically related to texture and image variance. Imagery data were used of a South Dakota forest; a housing development in Canoga Park, California; an agricltural area in Mississppi, Louisiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee; the city of Washington, D.C.; and the Klamath National Forest. Local variance, measured as the average standard deviation of brightness values within a three-by-three moving window, reaches a peak at a resolution cell size about two-thirds to three-fourths the size of the objects within the scene. If objects are smaller than the resolution cell size of the image, this peak does not occur and local variance simply decreases with increasing resolution as spatial averaging occurs. Variograms can also reveal the size, shape, and density of objects in the scene.

  8. Field and laboratory data describing physical and chemical characteristics of metal-contaminated flood-plain deposits downstream from Lead, west-central South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marron, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Samples from metal-contaminated flood-plain sediments at 9 sites downstream from Lead, in west-central South Dakota, were collected during the summers of 1985-87 to characterize aspects of the sedimentology, chemistry, and geometry of a deposit that resulted from the discharge of a large volume of mining wastes into a river system. Field and laboratory data include stratigraphic descriptions, chemical contents and grain-size distributions of samples, and surveyed flood-plain positions of samples. This report describes sampling-site locations, and methods of sample collection and preservation, and subsequent laboratory analysis. Field and laboratory data are presented in 4 figures and 11 tables in the ' Supplemental Data ' section at the back of the report. (USGS)

  9. Evaluation of a total dissolved solids model in comparison to actual field data measurements in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Berdanier, Bruce W; Ziadat, Anf H

    2006-06-01

    During the summers of 2002 and 2004, in-stream integrated flow and concentration measurements for the total dissolved solids in the Cheyenne River, South Dakota, USA was conducted in order to compare the obtained actual field measurements with the predictions values made by the Bureau of Reclamation in the Environmental Impact Statement. In comparison to the actual field measurements conducted in this study, The Bureau of Reclamation extension of a small database used in the analysis for the impact of operations at the Angostura Unit over the past 50 years and into the future to predict the annual total dissolved solid loadings doesn't represent the actual loading values and various conditions in the study area. Additional integrated flow and concentration sampling is required to characterize the impact of the current Angostura Dam operations and Angostura Irrigation District return flows on the Cheyenne River in different seasons of the year. PMID:16917716

  10. 76 FR 58241 - Designation for the Aberdeen, SD; Decatur, IL; Hastings, NE; Fulton, IL; the State of Missouri...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ..., Federal Register (76 FR 15937), GIPSA requested applications for designation to provide official services... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Aberdeen, SD; Decatur, IL; Hastings, NE; Fulton, IL; the State of Missouri, and the State of South Carolina Areas AGENCY:...

  11. The effect of mining on the sediment - trace element geochemistry of cores from the Cheyenne River arm of Lake Oahe, South Dakota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Callender, E.

    1988-01-01

    Six cores, ranging in length from 1 to 2 m, were collected in the Cheyenne River arm of Lake Oahe, South Dakota, to investigate potential impacts from gold-mining operations around Lead, South Dakota. Sedimentation rates in the river arm appear to be event-dominated and rapid, on the order of 6-7 cm yr.-1. All the chemical concentrations in the core samples fall within the wide ranges previously reported for the Pierre Shale of Cretaceous age and with the exception of As, generally are similar to bed sediment levels in the Cheyenne River, Lake Oahe and Foster Bay. Based on the downcore distribution of Mn, it appears that reducing conditions exist in the sediment column of the river arm below 2-3 cm. The reducing conditions do not appear to be severe enough to produce differentiation of Fe and Mn throughout the sediment column in the river arm. Cross-correlations for high-level metal-bearing strata within the sediment column can be made for several strata and for several cores; however, cross-correlations for all the high-level metal-bearing strata are not feasible. As is the only element which appears enriched in the core samples compared to surface sediment levels. Well-crystallized arsenopyrite was found in high-As bearing strata from two cores and probably was transported in that form from reducing sediment-storage sites in the banks or floodplains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. It has not oxidized due to the reducing conditions in the sediment column of the Cheyenne River arm. Some As may also be transported in association with Fe- and Mn-oxides and -hydroxides, remobilized under the reducing conditions in the river arm, and then reprecipitated in authigenic sulfide phases. In either case, the As appears to be relatively immobile in the sediment column. ?? 1988.

  12. Establishing a Patient Navigator Program to Reduce Cancer Disparities in the American Indian Communities of Western South Dakota: Initial Observations and Results

    PubMed Central

    Petereit, Daniel G.; Molloy, Kevin; Reiner, Mary L.; Helbig, Petra; Cina, Kristin; Miner, Raylene; Rost, Catherine; Conroy, Patricia; Roberts, Chester R.

    2008-01-01

    Background American Indians (AIs) in the Northern Plains region suffer disproportionately high cancer mortality rates compared with the general US population and with AIs from other regions in the United States. Methods The National Cancer Institute developed the Cancer Disparity Research Partnership to address these inequities. This initiative in Rapid City, South Dakota, attempts to lower cancer mortality rates for AIs by access to innovative clinical trials, behavioral research, and a genetic study. Patient navigation is a critical part of the program. Two navigation strategies are described: navigators at the cancer center and navigators on each reservation. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine if navigated patients (n = 42) undergoing potentially curative radiotherapy had fewer treatment interruptions compared with nonnavigated patients (n = 74). Results A total of 213 AIs with cancer have undergone patient navigation. For those undergoing cancer treatment, the median number of patient navigation interactions was 15 (range 1 to 95), whereas for those seen in follow-up after their cancer treatment, the median number of contacts was 4 (range 1 to 26). AIs who received navigation services during curative radiation treatment had on average 3 fewer days of treatment interruptions compared to AIs who did not receive navigation services during curative radiation treatment (P = .002, N = 116). Conclusions Early findings suggest that patient navigation is a critical component in addressing cancer disparities in this population. The program has established trust with individual cancer patients, with the tribal councils, and with the general population on each of the three reservations of western South Dakota. PMID:18596678

  13. Geologic framework of the ground-water system in Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Anna, L.O.

    1986-01-01

    Energy development in the Northern Great Plains will place new and increased demands on ground-water development. Water from Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks might supply part of the needed water. Geologic framework of the ground-water flow system in the Northern Great Plains is divided into two parts: structural and stratigraphic. Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks are divided into six chronostratigraphic intervals. Thickness and sedimentological variations of each interval show distinct patterns or lineaments. These lineaments may reflect paleogeographic and paleostructural trends. The tectonic and sedimentation model most appropriate for the lineaments and the orientations of these lineaments can be explained best by a horizontal stress system. This system created the structural configuration of grabens, half-grabens, and horsts, initiated in Precambrian time, that influenced the position of depositional environments, subsequently influenced the lateral and vertical distribution of sediments, and was enhanced by eustatic changes in sea level. Orientation of tensional and compressional structural features and lineaments is predictable under this stress system. Tensional features, oriented east-west and northeast-southwest, enhance secondary porosity or permeability; thus, they become partial conduits for ground-water flow. Compressional features, oriented generally north-south and northwest-southeast, decrease porosity or permeability and become barriers or partial barriers to ground-water flow.

  14. Ligia Grischa: A Successful Swiss Colony on the Dakota Territory Frontier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Todd; Benedict, Karl; Dickey, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    In 1877 a small group of Swiss immigrants from the Graubunden canton formed a cooperative with another Swiss group in Stillwater, Minnesota, to begin a colony in eastern South Dakota. These settlers founded the Badus Swiss colony on the open prairie in Lake County, Dakota Territory (later South Dakota), based on cooperative rules written in…

  15. Perchlorate and selected metals in water and soil within Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota, 2011–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2016-04-14

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial is located in the east-central part of the Black Hills area of South Dakota and is challenged to provide drinking water to about 3 million annual visitors and year-round park personnel. An environmental concern to water resources within Mount Rushmore National Memorial has been the annual aerial fireworks display at the memorial for the Independence Day holiday during 1998–2009. A major concern of park management is the contamination of groundwater and surface water by perchlorate, which is used as an oxidizing agent in firework displays. A study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was completed to characterize the occurrence of perchlorate and selected metals (constituents commonly associated with fireworks) in groundwater and surface water within and adjacent to Mount Rushmore National Memorial during 2011–15. Concentrations of perchlorate and metals in 106 water samples (collected from 6 groundwater sites and 14 surface-water sites) and 11 soil samples (collected from 11 soil sites) are reported.Within the Mount Rushmore National Memorial boundary, perchlorate concentrations were greatest in the Lafferty Gulch drainage basin, ranging from less than 0.20 to 38 micrograms per liter (μg/L) in groundwater samples and from 2.2 to 54 μg/L in surface-water samples. Sites within the Starling Gulch drainage basin also had some evidence of perchlorate contamination, with concentrations ranging from 0.61 to 19 μg/L. All groundwater and surface-water samples within the unnamed tributary to Grizzly Bear Creek drainage basin and reference sites outside the park boundary had concentrations less than 0.20 μg/L. Perchlorate concentrations in samples collected at the 200-foot-deep production well (Well 1) ranged from 17 to 38 μg/L with a median of 23 μg/L, whereas perchlorate concentrations in samples from the 500-foot-deep production well (Well 2) ranged from 2.1 to 17 μg/L, with a median of 6

  16. Perchlorate and selected metals in water and soil within Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota, 2011–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2016-04-14

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial is located in the east-central part of the Black Hills area of South Dakota and is challenged to provide drinking water to about 3 million annual visitors and year-round park personnel. An environmental concern to water resources within Mount Rushmore National Memorial has been the annual aerial fireworks display at the memorial for the Independence Day holiday during 1998–2009. A major concern of park management is the contamination of groundwater and surface water by perchlorate, which is used as an oxidizing agent in firework displays. A study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was completed to characterize the occurrence of perchlorate and selected metals (constituents commonly associated with fireworks) in groundwater and surface water within and adjacent to Mount Rushmore National Memorial during 2011–15. Concentrations of perchlorate and metals in 106 water samples (collected from 6 groundwater sites and 14 surface-water sites) and 11 soil samples (collected from 11 soil sites) are reported.Within the Mount Rushmore National Memorial boundary, perchlorate concentrations were greatest in the Lafferty Gulch drainage basin, ranging from less than 0.20 to 38 micrograms per liter (μg/L) in groundwater samples and from 2.2 to 54 μg/L in surface-water samples. Sites within the Starling Gulch drainage basin also had some evidence of perchlorate contamination, with concentrations ranging from 0.61 to 19 μg/L. All groundwater and surface-water samples within the unnamed tributary to Grizzly Bear Creek drainage basin and reference sites outside the park boundary had concentrations less than 0.20 μg/L. Perchlorate concentrations in samples collected at the 200-foot-deep production well (Well 1) ranged from 17 to 38 μg/L with a median of 23 μg/L, whereas perchlorate concentrations in samples from the 500-foot-deep production well (Well 2) ranged from 2.1 to 17 μg/L, with a median of 6

  17. Digital map of changes in water levels from predevelopment to 1980 for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for contours of predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation changes for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was created by digitizing the contours for predevelopment to 1980 water-level elevation change from a 1:1,000,000-scale base map created by the U.S. Geological Survey High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) project (Gutentag, E.D., Heimes, F.J., Krothe, N.C., Luckey, R.R., and Weeks, J.B., 1984, Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, 63 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  18. Progress report on the geology and ground-water hydrology of part of the Oahe Unit, James River Division, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waring, Gerald A.; Bush, W.H.

    1950-01-01

    The Oahe Unit, in the James River basin in eastern South Dakota, extends for about 100 miles north and south and is 20 to 80 miles wide, having the river as its east border. The Oahe irrigation project is planned to supply water to 750,000 to 1,500,000 acres of the most suitable land within the area. The studies that have been undertaken in the Oahe area by the Ground Water Division of the U. S. Geological Survey form a part of the investigations which are being carried on by several bureaus of the Department of the Interior and other government agencies for the conservation, control and utilization of the water resources of the Missouri River Basin. The field studies on which the present report is based were made during May 1947 through November 1948 and cover about 1,890 square miles in the southern part of the Oahe area. Data were collected on the character of the surficial geological deposits, and on the occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the groundwater supplies. The report describes the several water-bearing formations and presents nine typical logs of deep artesian wells. The records of fluctuation of the water table in 168 wells in or near the Oahe area are listed. Tabulated inventory of 3,257 wells and springs includes information on the observation wells and on all other wells that were noted within the area examined.

  19. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.

  20. Microgravity methods for characterization of groundwater-storage changes and aquifer properties in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota, 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koth, Karl R.; Long, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater storage in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota using microgravity methods was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with West Dakota Water Development District, South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and Lawrence County. Microgravity measurements from 2009 to 2012 were used to investigate groundwater-storage changes and effective porosity in unconfined areas of the Madison aquifer. Time-lapse microgravity surveys that use portable high-sensitivity absolute and relative gravimeters indicated temporal-gravity changes as a result of changing groundwater mass. These extremely precise measurements of gravity required characterization and removal of internal instrumental and external environmental effects on gravity from the raw data. The corrected data allowed groundwater-storage volume to be quantified with an accuracy of about plus or minus 0.5 foot of water per unit area of aquifer. Quantification of groundwater-storage change, coupled with water-level data from observation wells located near the focus areas, also was used to calculate the effective porosity at specific altitudes directly beneath gravity stations. Gravity stations were established on bedrock outcrops in three separate focus areas for this study. The first area, the Spring Canyon focus area, is located to the south of Rapid City with one gravity station on the rim of Spring Canyon near the area where Spring Creek sinks into the Madison aquifer. The second area, the Doty focus area, is located on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation to the northwest of Rapid City, and consists of nine gravity stations. The third area, the Limestone Plateau focus area, consists of a single gravity station in the northwestern Black Hills located on an outcrop of the Madison Limestone. An absolute-gravity station, used to tie relative-gravity survey data together, was established on a relatively impermeable

  1. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained.

  2. Compilation of Data to Support Development of a Pesticide Management Plan by the Yankton Sioux Tribe, Charles Mix County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is working with the Yankton Sioux Tribe to develop a pesticide management plan to reduce potential for contamination of ground water that may result from the use of registered pesticides. The purpose of this study was to compile technical information to support development of a pesticide management plan by the Yankton Sioux Tribe for the area within the Yankton Sioux Reservation, Charles Mix County, South Dakota. Five pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine) were selected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the management plan approach because they had been identified as probable or possible human carcinogens and they often had been associated with ground-water contamination in many areas and at high concentrations. This report provides a compilation of data to support development of a pesticide management plan. Available data sets are summarized in the text of this report, and actual data sets are provided in one Compact Disk?Read-Only Memory that is included with the report. The compact disk contains data sets pertinent to the development of a pesticide management plan. Pesticide use for the study area is described using information from state and national databases. Within South Dakota, pesticides commonly are applied to corn and soybean crops, which are the primary row crops grown in the study area. Water-quality analyses for pesticides are summarized for several surface-water sites. Pesticide concentrations in most samples were found to be below minimum reporting levels. Topographic data are presented in the form of 30-meter digital elevation model grids and delineation of drainage basins. Geohydrologic data are provided for the surficial deposits and the bedrock units. A high-resolution (30-by-30 meters) land-cover and land-use database is provided and summarized in a tabular format. More than 91 percent of the study area is used for row crops, pasture, or hay, and almost 6

  3. A digital simulation of the glacial-aquifer system in Sanborn and parts of Beadle, Miner, Hanson, Davison, and Jerauld counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The drought in South Dakota from 1974-76 and the near drought conditions in 1980-81 have resulted in increased demands on the groundwater resources within many of the irrigated areas of the James River basin in eastern South Dakota. These increases in demand for irrigation water from the glacial aquifer system, and continued requests to the State for additional irrigation well permits, have created a need for a systematic water management program to avoid over-development of this system in the James River basin. An equally spaced grid containing 56 rows and 52 columns used to simulate the glacial aquifer system, was calibrated using water level data collected before significant groundwater development (before 1973). The aquifer was also simulated in 11 annual transient stress periods from 1973 through 1983 and in 12 monthly transient stress periods for 1976. The simulated pre-development potentiometric heads were compared to average water levels from 32 observation wells to check the accuracy of the simulate potentiometric surface. The average arithmetic difference between the simulated and observed water levels was 1.68 ft and the average absolute difference was 4.38 ft. The non-pumping steady-state simulated water budget indicates that recharge from precipitation accounts for 97.1% of the water entering the aquifer and evapotranspiration accounts for 98.2% of the water leaving the aquifer. The sensitivity analysis of the steady-state model indicates that the model is most sensitive to reductions in recharge and least to changes in hydraulic conductivity. The maximum annual recharge varied from 0.10 inch in 1976 to 8.14 inches in 1977. The potential annual evapotranspiration varied from 29.9 inches in 1982 to 48.9 inches in 1976. Withdrawals from the glacial aquifer system increased 2.6 times between 1975 and 1976. The average annual arithmetic difference between the simulated and observed water levels ranged from 3.88 ft in 1974 to 2.23 ft in 1982; the average

  4. 14. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN Reach by foot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN Reach by foot from E end of Vine St. St. Louis and San Francisco RR bridge. Bridge built 1887, replaced, 1969. Credit: Evans Memorial Library, Aberdeen, Ms. No date. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  5. Digital map of aquifer boundary for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This digital data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The extent of the High Plains aquifer covers 174,000 square miles in eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This data set represents a compilation of information from digital and paper sources and personal communication. This boundary is an update to the boundary published in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1400-B, and this report supersedes Open-File Report 99-267. The purpose of this data set is to refine and update the extent of the High Plains aquifer based on currently available information. This data set represents a compilation of arcs from a variety of sources and scales that represent the 174,000 square-mile extent of the High Plains aquifer within the eight states. Where updated information was not available, the original boundary extent defined by OFR 99-267 was retained. The citations for the sources in each State are listed in the 00README.txt file. The boundary also contains internal polygons, or 'islands', that represent the areas within the aquifer boundary where the aquifer is not present due to erosion or non-deposition. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

  6. Investigation of remote sensing techniques as inputs to operational resource management. [Butte County, Black Hills, South Dakota, Blackhawk Quadrangle, and Belle Fouche Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmer, F. A. (Principal Investigator); Isakson, R. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual interpretation of 1:125,000 color LANDSAT prints produced timely level 1 maps of accuracies in excess of 80% for agricultural land identification. Accurate classification of agricultural land via digital analysis of LANDSAT CCT's required precise timing of the date of data collection with mid to late June optimum for western South Dakota. The LANDSAT repetitive nine day cycle over the state allowed the surface areas of stockdams and small reservoir systems to be monitored to provide a timely approximation of surface water conditions on the range. Combined use of DIRS, K-class, and LANDSAT CCT's demonstrated the ability to produce aspen maps of greater detail and timeliness than was available using US Forest Service maps. Visual temporal analyses of LANDSAT imagery improved highway map drainage information and were used to prepare a seven county drainage network. An optimum map of flood-prone areas was developed, utilizing high altitude aerial photography and USGS maps.

  7. Applications of Skylab EREP photographs to mapping of landforms and environmental geology in the Great Plains and Midwest. [Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The utility of Skylab 2 and 3 S-190A multispectral photos for environmental-geologic/geomorphic applications is being tested by using them to prepare 1:250,000-scale maps of geomorphic features, surficial geology, geologic linear features, and soil associations of large, representative parts of the Great Plains and Midwest. Parts of Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and South Dakota were mapped. The maps were prepared primarily by interpretation of the S-190A photos, supplemented by information from topographic, geologic, and soil maps and reports. The color band provides the greatest information on geology, soils, and geomorphology; its resolution also is the best of all the multispectral bands and permits maximum detail of mapping. The color-IR band shows well the differences in soil drainage and moisture, and vegetative types, but has only moderate resolution. The B/W-red band is superior for topographic detail and stream alinements. The B/W-infrared bands best show differences in soil moisture and drainage but have poor resolution, especially those from SL 2. The B/W-green band generally is so low contrast and degraded by haze as to be nearly useless. Where stereoscopic coverage is provided, interpretation and mapping are done most efficiently using a Kern PG-2 stereoplotter.

  8. Use of multi-temporal Landsat images to monitor forest disturbance (1987-2007) in the Black Hills of South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring forest disturbance is important for studying carbon pools and fluxes. The goal of this study is to observe forest disturbance of different burn severity levels using multi-temporal Landsat images. The Jasper Fire occurred in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, during August and September of 2000. The fire disturbance to ecosystem characteristics has a widespread and long-term impact. We used 18 Landsat images acquired from 1987 to 2007 to monitor the land cover changes due to the fire disturbance. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), and Integrated Forest Index (IFI) were calculated from the Landsat at-sensor-reflectance data. Based on IFI in 2000 and Composite Burn Index data collected in May 2002, nine field plots were selected and monitored. The results showed that all four spectral indices were capable of detecting and monitoring the forest disturbance caused by thinning and fire. IFI and NBR are more suitable for long-term monitoring while NDVI and EVI are more sensitive to rapid changes within a one-year period.

  9. Diagrammatic restored section of the Inyan Kara group, Morrison formation, and Unkpapa sandstone of the western side of the Black Hills, Wyoming and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mapel, W.J.; Gott, G.B.

    1959-01-01

    The Inyan Kara group of Early Creaceous age and the underlying Morrison formation and Unkapa sandstone of Late Jurassic age comprise about 300 to 850 feet of gently dipping predominantly nonmarine rocks that crop out along the flanks of the Black Hills in northeastern Wyoming and western South Dakota. Terailed mapping and stratigraphic studies of these rocks were made from 1952 to 1957 by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. One of the results of the studies is a correlation of formational and informational units along the western side of the Black Hills for a distance of about 140 miles. The generalized section above, which has a greatly exaggerated vertical scale, shoes the main lithologic units that have been traced and correlated, and  the stratigraphic position of uranium deposits in various parts of the Black Hills in relation to these units. Geologists who have this sheet and the areas for which each is responsible are shown on the accompanying map. The brief text below summarizes some of the broad stratigraphic relations within the Inyan Kara group and underlying formations.

  10. Comparison of Surface Flow Features from Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models with Historical Elevation and Hydrography Data for Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Stoker, Jason M.; Greenlee, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has taken the lead in the creation of a valuable remote sensing product by incorporating digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) into the National Elevation Dataset (NED), the elevation layer of 'The National Map'. High-resolution lidar-derived DEMs provide the accuracy needed to systematically quantify and fully integrate surface flow including flow direction, flow accumulation, sinks, slope, and a dense drainage network. In 2008, 1-meter resolution lidar data were acquired in Minnehaha County, South Dakota. The acquisition was a collaborative effort between Minnehaha County, the city of Sioux Falls, and the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. With the newly acquired lidar data, USGS scientists generated high-resolution DEMs and surface flow features. This report compares lidar-derived surface flow features in Minnehaha County to 30- and 10-meter elevation data previously incorporated in the NED and ancillary hydrography datasets. Surface flow features generated from lidar-derived DEMs are consistently integrated with elevation and are important in understanding surface-water movement to better detect surface-water runoff, flood inundation, and erosion. Many topographic and hydrologic applications will benefit from the increased availability of accurate, high-quality, and high-resolution surface-water data. The remotely sensed data provide topographic information and data integration capabilities needed for meeting current and future human and environmental needs.

  11. Use of hydrologic budgets and hydrochemistry to determine ground-water and surface-water interactions for Rapid Creek, Western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Mark T.

    1995-01-01

    The study of ground-water and surface-water interactions often employs streamflow-gaging records and hydrologic budgets to determine ground-water seepage. Because ground-water seepage usually is computed as a residual in the hydrologic budget approach, all uncertainty of measurement and estimation of budget components is associated with the ground-water seepage. This uncertainty can exceed the estimate, especially when streamflow and its associated error of measurement, is large relative to other budget components. In a study of Rapid Creek in western South Dakota, the hydrologic budget approach with hydrochemistry was combined to determine ground-water seepage. The City of Rapid City obtains most of its municipal water from three infiltration galleries (Jackson Springs, Meadowbrook, and Girl Scout) constructed in the near-stream alluvium along Rapid Creek. The reach of Rapid Creek between Pactola Reservoir and Rapid City and, in particular the two subreaches containing the galleries, were studied intensively to identify the sources of water to each gallery. Jackson Springs Gallery was found to pump predominantly ground water with a minor component of surface water. Meadowbrook and Girl Scout Galleries induce infiltration of surface water from Rapid Creek but also have a significant component of ground water.

  12. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Belle Fourche Reclamation Project, western South Dakota, 1988-89. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Roddy, W.R.; Greene, E.A.; Sowards, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior initiated nine reconnaissance investigations during 1986-87 in response to nationwide concern about harmful effects of irrigation drainage on human health, fish, and wildlife. The investigation of the Belle Fourche Reclamation Project in western South Dakota is one of ten additional reconnaissance investigations conducted during 1988-89. The U.S. Geological Survey collected a total of thirty surface-water-quality samples during April, June, August, and October 1988. Six to ten sites were sampled during each sampling period. An additional 40 surface-water-quality samples were collected at three of the sites during October 1987 through April 1989, and these results are included in the discussion. Bottom sediment was collected at eight of the ten water-sampling sites. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected fish samples at three sites during the spring and fall; samples of bird livers and bird eggs were collected at five sites during the summer; and samples of benthic invertebrates and aquatic plants were collected at six sites during the summer.

  13. Data Collected to Support Monitoring of Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat on the Missouri River Downstream from Gavins Point Dam, South Dakota and Nebraska, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Andersen, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has constructed emergent sandbar habitat on sections of the Missouri River bordering South Dakota and Nebraska downstream from Gavins Point Dam to create and enhance habitat for threatened and endangered bird species. Two areas near river miles 761.3 and 769.8 were selected for construction of emergent sandbar habitat. Pre- and postconstruction data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, to evaluate the success of the habitat management techniques. Data collected include pre- and postconstruction channel-geometry data (bathymetric and topographic) for areas upstream from, downstream from, and within each construction site. Water-velocity data were collected for selected parts of the site near river mile 769.8. Instruments and methods used in data collection, as well as quality-assurance and quality-control measures, are described. Geospatial channel-geometry data are presented for transects of the river channel as cross sections and as geographical information system shapefiles. Geospatial land-surface elevation data are provided for part of each site in the form of a color-shaded relief map. Geospatial water-velocity data also are provided as color-shaded maps and geographical information system shapefiles.

  14. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

  15. Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic nose'' extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 [Omega]-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

  16. Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

  17. Geophysics: Building E5032 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1991-07-01

    integration of data from surveys using three geophysical technologies has provided information used to define the locations of buried utilities, tanks, vaults, and debris near building E5032 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles indicate the presence of buried pipes, tanks, reinforcement rods (rebar), and remnants of railroad tracks. A magnetic map constructed from a detailed magnetic survey on the north side of the building outlines buried iron-rich objects that are interpreted to be iron pipes, tank, and other debris of uncertain origin at relatively shallow depths. Horizontal electrical resistivity surveys and vertical electrical resistivity soundings essentially corroborated the findings obtained with the magnetometer and GPR. In addition, a highly resistance layer was observed on the east side of the building where a former railroad bed with a thick grave fill is believed to immediately underlie the lawn. The resistivity data show no evidence of a conductive leachate plume. Geophysical measurements from three techniques over a buried concrete slab approximately 130 ft north of Building E5032 give geophysical signatures interpreted to be due to the presence of a large iron tank or vault. An attempt was made to gather meaningful magnetic data on the east, west, and south sides of the building; however, the quality of subsurface interpretations in those areas was poor because of the influence of surficial iron lids, pipes, grates, and the effects of the corrugated iron building itself. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Assessing the Control of Preservational Environment on Taphonomic and Ecological Patterns in an Oligocene Mammal Fauna from Badlands National Park, South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of paleofaunas from different facies are often hampered by the uncertainty in the variation of taphonomic processes biasing the paleoecological parameters of interest. By examining the taphonomic patterns exhibited by different facies in the same stratigraphic interval and area, it is possible to quantify this variation, and assess inter-facies comparability. The fossil assemblages preserved in Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, have long been a rich source for mammalian faunas of the White River Group. To investigate the influence of the variation of taphonomic bias with lithology whilst controlling for the influence of changes in patterns of taphonomic modification with time, taphonomic and paleoecological data were collected from four mammal-dominated fossil assemblages (two siltstone hosted and two sandstone hosted) from a narrow stratigraphic interval within the Oligocene Poleslide Member of the Brule Formation, in the Palmer Creek Unit of BNP. Previous work in the region confirmed that the two major lithologies represent primarily aeolian- and primarily fluvial-dominated depositional environments, respectively. A suite of quantifiable taphonomic and ecological variables was recorded for each of the more than 800 vertebrate specimens studied here (857 specimens were studied in the field, 9 specimens were collected and are reposited at BNP). Distinctly different patterns of taphonomic biasing were observed between the aeolian and fluvial samples, albeit with some variability between all four sites. Fluvial samples were more heavily weathered and abraded, but also contained fewer large taxa and fewer tooth-bearing elements. No quantifiable paleofaunal differences in generic richness or evenness were observed between the respective facies. This suggests that while large vertebrate taxonomic composition in the region did vary with paleodepositional environment, there is no evidence of confounding variation in faunal structure, and therefore

  19. Assessing the Control of Preservational Environment on Taphonomic and Ecological Patterns in an Oligocene Mammal Fauna from Badlands National Park, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Paige K; Moore, Jason R

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of paleofaunas from different facies are often hampered by the uncertainty in the variation of taphonomic processes biasing the paleoecological parameters of interest. By examining the taphonomic patterns exhibited by different facies in the same stratigraphic interval and area, it is possible to quantify this variation, and assess inter-facies comparability. The fossil assemblages preserved in Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, have long been a rich source for mammalian faunas of the White River Group. To investigate the influence of the variation of taphonomic bias with lithology whilst controlling for the influence of changes in patterns of taphonomic modification with time, taphonomic and paleoecological data were collected from four mammal-dominated fossil assemblages (two siltstone hosted and two sandstone hosted) from a narrow stratigraphic interval within the Oligocene Poleslide Member of the Brule Formation, in the Palmer Creek Unit of BNP. Previous work in the region confirmed that the two major lithologies represent primarily aeolian- and primarily fluvial-dominated depositional environments, respectively. A suite of quantifiable taphonomic and ecological variables was recorded for each of the more than 800 vertebrate specimens studied here (857 specimens were studied in the field, 9 specimens were collected and are reposited at BNP). Distinctly different patterns of taphonomic biasing were observed between the aeolian and fluvial samples, albeit with some variability between all four sites. Fluvial samples were more heavily weathered and abraded, but also contained fewer large taxa and fewer tooth-bearing elements. No quantifiable paleofaunal differences in generic richness or evenness were observed between the respective facies. This suggests that while large vertebrate taxonomic composition in the region did vary with paleodepositional environment, there is no evidence of confounding variation in faunal structure, and therefore

  20. Perspectives on the diagnosis, epizootiology, and control of the 1973 duck plague epizootic in wild waterfowl at Lake Andes, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Pearson, G L; Cassidy, D R

    1997-10-01

    An epizootic of duck plague occurred in early 1973 in a population of 163,500 wild waterfowl, primarily mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), wintering on Lake Andes and the nearby Missouri River in southeastern South Dakota (USA). The diagnosis was based on pathologic lesions and confirmed by virus isolation. Control measures included quarantine, attempts to reduce virus contamination of the area, dispersal of waterfowl, and monitoring of wild waterfowl populations for mortality. The epizootic resulted in documented mortality of 18% and estimated mortality of 26% of the waterfowl at risk. Prompt implementation of control measures might have limited mortality to approximately 8%. Losses during the epizootic were equivalent to 0.12% of the annual mortality in the North American 1996 fall population of 80,000,000 wild ducks. The most likely sources of the infection were free-flying wild mallard or American black duck (Anas rubripes) carriers from the upper midwestern or northeastern United States. Duck plague serum neutralization antibodies were demonstrated in 31% of 395 apparently healthy mallards sampled prior to dispersal of the flock at Lake Andes, suggesting that tens of thousands of potential duck plague carriers entered the wild waterfowl populations of all four major flyways. Consequently, the absence of major epizootics of duck plague in wild waterfowl in the subsequent two decades is evidence that substantial numbers of duck plague carriers can occur in wild waterfowl populations without resulting in epizootic mortalities. The failure to isolate duck plague virus from apparently healthy mallards sampled during the epizootic raises questions concerning the validity of conclusions regarding the status of duck plague in wild waterfowl based upon negative results of random surveys conducted in the absence of epizootics. PMID:9391953

  1. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rumble, Mark A; Lehman, Chad P; Kesler, Dylan C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  2. Composition, distribution, and hydrologic effects of contaminated sediments resulting from the discharge of gold milling wastes to Whitewood Creek at Lead and Deadwood, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Whitewood Creek-Belle Fourche-Cheyenne River stream system in western South Dakota has been extensively contaminated by the discharge to Whitewood Creek of about 100 million tons of mill tailings from gold-mining operations. The resulting contaminated sediments contain unusually large concentrations of arsenic, as much as 11,000 micrograms/g, derived from the mineral arsenopyrite, as well as potentially toxic constituents derived from the ore-body minerals or from the milling processes. Because of the anomalous arsenic concentrations associated with the contamination, arsenic was used as an indicator for a geochemically based, random, sediment-sampling program. Arsenic concentrations in shallow, contaminated sediments along the flood plains of the streams were from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than arsenic concentrations in uncontaminated sediments in about 75% of the flood plains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. Appreciable surface-water contamination resulting from the contaminated sediments is confined to Whitewood Creek and a reach of the Belle Fourche River downstream from the mouth of Whitewood Creek. In Whitewood Creek , dissolved-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 80 microgram/L during the year in response to variations in groundwater inflow and dilution, whereas total-recoverable-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 8 ,000 micrograms/L during short periods in response to rapid changes in suspended-sediment concentration. Contamination of the alluvial aquifer along the stream system is limited to areas in direct contact with large deposits of contaminated sediments. Within the aquifer, arsenic concentrations are thought to be controlled by sorption-desorption on metallic hydroxides. (USGS)

  3. Soil- and groundwater-quality data for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, David A.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Ellsworth Air Force Base is an Air Combat Command located approximately 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota. Ellsworth Air Force Base occupies about 6,000 acres within Meade and Pennington Counties, and includes runways, airfield operations, industrial areas, housing, and recreational facilities. Fuels Area C within Ellsworth Air Force Base is a fuels storage area that is used to support the mission of the base. In fall of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Ellsworth Air Force Base, to estimate groundwater-flow direction, select locations for permanent monitoring wells, and install and sample monitoring wells for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C. Nine monitoring wells were installed for the study within Fuels Area C during November 4–7, 2014. Soil core samples were collected during installation of eight of the monitoring wells and analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene,m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected from seven of the nine wells (two of the monitoring wells did not contain enough water to sample or were dry) during November 19–21, 2014, and analyzed for select physical properties, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. This report describes the nine monitoring well locations and presents the soil- and groundwater-quality data collected in 2014 for this study.

  4. Characterization of intra-annual reflectance properties of land cover classes in southeastern South Dakota using Landsat TM and ETM+ data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, James E.; DeFelice, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Landsat-7 and Landsat-5 have orbits that are offset from each other by 8 days. During the time that the sensors on both satellites are operational, there is an opportunity for conducting analyses that incorporate multiple intra-annual high spatial resolution data sets for characterizing the Earth's land surface. In the current study, nine Landsat thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) data sets, covering the same path and row on different dates, were acquired during a 1-year time interval for a region in southeastern South Dakota and analyzed. Scenes were normalized using pseudoinvariant objects, and digital data from a series of test sites were extracted from the imagery and converted to surface reflectance. Sunphotometer data acquired on site were used to atmospherically correct the data. Ground observations that were made throughout the growing season by a large group of volunteers were used to help interpret spectroradiometric patterns and trends. Normalized images were found to be very effective in portraying the seasonal patterns of reflectance change that occurred throughout the region. Many of the radiometric patterns related to plant growth and development, but some also related to different background properties. The different kinds of land cover in the region were spectrally and radiometrically characterized and were found to have different seasonal patterns of reflectance. The degree to which the land cover classes could be separated spectrally and radiometrically, however, depended on the time of year during which the data sets were acquired, and no single data set appeared to be adequate for separating all types of land cover. This has practical implications for classification studies because known patterns of seasonal reflectance properties for the different types of land cover within a region will facilitate selection of the most appropriate data sets for producing land cover classifications.

  5. Evidence for a Widespread Disruption Layer Associated With the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Upper Fox Hills Formation Throughout the Badland National Park Region of South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffer, P. W.

    2002-12-01

    A widespread zone of disrupted bedding (0.5 to 3.0 m thick) is preserved in the upper Fox Hills Formation throughout the Badlands National Park region. This unit, the Disturbed Zone (DZ), is recognizable in park outcrops extending for twelve miles (east to west) along the crest of the Sage Creek Arch. It also extends at least 20 miles north of the park along the Cheyenne River valley. The DZ features an abundance of soft-sediment liquefaction characteristics including rolled-up sandy beds (now mostly concretions) with an east-to-west axis orientation. The current mapped extent of the DZ covers about 3,000 square kilometers in central South Dakota, but may be much greater. In the park, the DZ unit rest on top of richly fossiliferous marine marls bearing marine mollusks (mostly ammonites and belemnites) of Late Maestrichtian age. After many seasons of searching, the sandstone and shale units overlying the DZ have not yielded any Cretaceous fossils. However, the overlying beds do preserve an abundance of small traces fossils, arthropod and fish remains, and plant material. In the park, this uppermost unit above the DZ ranges up to 16 meters thick, and the upper part preserves a series of paleosols known locally as the Yellow Mounds. The Fox Hills Formation in the park preserves the same biozonation sequence as the Type Fox Hills in the Missouri Valley region. In both regions the thickness of the formation varies, but the measurable maximum thickness is about the same (50 meters). In the Badlands National Park area, structural patterns preserved in the underlying Pierre Shale seem to have influenced sedimentation characteristics (including sand content and fossil distribution) in the overlying Fox Hills Formation. In addition, the thickness of the Fox Hills Formation is controlled by the distribution and pattern of ancient stream valleys preserved beneath the overlying Tertiary White River Group.

  6. Assessing the Control of Preservational Environment on Taphonomic and Ecological Patterns in an Oligocene Mammal Fauna from Badlands National Park, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Paige K; Moore, Jason R

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of paleofaunas from different facies are often hampered by the uncertainty in the variation of taphonomic processes biasing the paleoecological parameters of interest. By examining the taphonomic patterns exhibited by different facies in the same stratigraphic interval and area, it is possible to quantify this variation, and assess inter-facies comparability. The fossil assemblages preserved in Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, have long been a rich source for mammalian faunas of the White River Group. To investigate the influence of the variation of taphonomic bias with lithology whilst controlling for the influence of changes in patterns of taphonomic modification with time, taphonomic and paleoecological data were collected from four mammal-dominated fossil assemblages (two siltstone hosted and two sandstone hosted) from a narrow stratigraphic interval within the Oligocene Poleslide Member of the Brule Formation, in the Palmer Creek Unit of BNP. Previous work in the region confirmed that the two major lithologies represent primarily aeolian- and primarily fluvial-dominated depositional environments, respectively. A suite of quantifiable taphonomic and ecological variables was recorded for each of the more than 800 vertebrate specimens studied here (857 specimens were studied in the field, 9 specimens were collected and are reposited at BNP). Distinctly different patterns of taphonomic biasing were observed between the aeolian and fluvial samples, albeit with some variability between all four sites. Fluvial samples were more heavily weathered and abraded, but also contained fewer large taxa and fewer tooth-bearing elements. No quantifiable paleofaunal differences in generic richness or evenness were observed between the respective facies. This suggests that while large vertebrate taxonomic composition in the region did vary with paleodepositional environment, there is no evidence of confounding variation in faunal structure, and therefore

  7. 8. VIEW OF THE ABERDEEN NO. 1 NORTH OPENING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE ABERDEEN NO. 1 NORTH OPENING AND FAN, SHOWING COLLAPSED HOIST HOUSE, CUT-STONE SLOPE ENTRY AND METAL FAN HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  8. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  9. Boothby Hill Road Bridge. Aberdeen, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boothby Hill Road Bridge. Aberdeen, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 66.88. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. Digital map of areas of little or no saturated thickness for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, Joel R.; Becker, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains digital data and accompanying documentation for boundaries of areas of little or no saturated thickness within the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. This digital data set was compiled from a digital coverage that was created for publication of paper maps in McGrath and Dugan (1993, Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer -- predevelopment to 1991: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4088, 53 p.) The data are not intended for use at scales larger than 1:1,000,000.

  11. A consolidated environmental monitoring plan for Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1997-04-01

    The US Army operates facilities in Edgewood and Aberdeen under several licenses from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Compliance with each license is time consuming and could potentially result in duplicated efforts to demonstrate compliance with existing environmental regulations. The goal of the ERM plan is to provide the sampling necessary to ensure that operations at Edgewood and Aberdeen are within applicable regulatory guidelines and to provide a means of ensuring that adverse effects to the environment are minimized. Existing sampling plans and environmental data generated from those plans are briefly reviewed as part of the development of the present ERM plan. The new ERM plan was designed to provide data that can be used for assessing risks to the environment and to humans using Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. Existing sampling is modified and new sampling is proposed based on the results of the long-term DU fate study. In that study, different environmental pathways were identified that would show transport of DU at Aberdeen. Those pathways would also be impacted by other radioactive constituents from Aberdeen and Edgewood areas. The ERM plan presented in this document includes sampling from Edgewood and Aberdeen facilities. The main radioactive constituents of concern at Edgewood are C, P, N, S, H, I, Co, Cs, Ca, Sr and U that are used in radiolabeling different compounds and tracers for different reactions and syntheses. Air and water sampling are the thrust of efforts at the Edgewood area.

  12. The influence of light, stream gradient, and iron on Didymosphenia geminata bloom development in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Daniel A.; Mosel, Kyle; Chipps, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic nuisance species Didymosphenia geminata was first documented in Rapid Creek of South Dakota’s Black Hills during 2002. Since then, blooms have occurred primarily in a 39-km section of Rapid Creek while blooms were rarely observed in other Black Hills streams. In this study, we evaluated factors related to the presence and development of visible colonies of D. geminata in four streams of the Black Hills. At the watershed scale, stream gradient was negatively associated with the occurrence of D. geminata whereas stream width was positively related to D. geminata presence. At the stream scale, D. geminata coverage was inversely related to canopy coverage and iron concentration. At the local scale, shading by bridges virtually eliminated growth of D. geminata colonies under bridges. At all three scales, proxy measures of light such as stream width, canopy coverage, and bridge shading revealed that light availability was an important factor influencing the presence and coverage of D. geminata colonies. In general, streams that had relatively wide stream reaches (mean = 9.9 m), shallow gradients (mean = 0.22%), and little canopy cover (mean = 13%) were associated with D. geminata blooms. In addition, iron concentrations in streams with D. geminata colonies were lower than in streams without blooms.

  13. Holocene environmental and climatic change in the Northern Great Plains as recorded in the geochemistry of sediments in Pickerel Lake, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Schwalb, A.

    2000-01-01

    The sediments in Pickerel Lake, northeastern South Dakota, provide a continuous record of climatic and environmental change for the last 12000 yr. Sediments deposited between 12 and 6 ka (radiocarbon) show extreme variations in composition, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of bulk carbonate, carbon isotopic composition of organic matter, and magnetic susceptibility. These variations reflect changes in sources of moisture, regional vegetation types, precipitation-evaporation balance, ground- and surface-water influx, water residence time, erosion, lake productivity, water level, and water temperature. The total carbonate content of late Pleistocene sediments steadily increased from <20% at the base of the core to as much as 80% in sediments deposited between 11 and 9 ka. By about 8 ka, the total carbonate content of the sediments had declined to about 40% where it remained with little variation for the past 8 kyr, suggesting relatively stable conditions. There are marked increases in values of ??13C and ??18O in bulk carbonate, and ??13C of organic matter, in sediments deposited between 10 and 6 ka as evaporation increased, and the vegetation in the watershed changed from forest to prairie. This shift toward more 18O-enriched carbonate may also reflect a change in source or seasonality of precipitation. During this early Holocene interval the organic carbon (OC) content of the sediments remained relatively low (2-3%), but then increased rapidly to 4.5% between 7 and 6 ka, reflecting the rapid transition to a prairie lake. The OC content fluctuates slightly between 4 and 6% in sediments deposited over the past 6 kyr. Like OC and total carbonate, most variables measured show little variation in the 13 m of sediment deposited over the past 6 kyr, particularly when compared with early Holocene variations. Although the magnetic susceptibility of this upper 13 m of sediment is generally low (<10 SI units), the upper six meters of the section is marked by striking 1

  14. Toxic substances in surface waters and sediments--A study to assess the effects of arsenic-contaminated alluvial sediment in Whitewood Creek, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2003-01-01

    Field measurements and bioassay experiments were done to investigate the effects of arsenic and phosphorus interactions on sorption of these solutes by the benthic flora (periphyton and submerged macrophytes) in Whitewood Creek, a stream in western South Dakota. Short-term (24-hour) sorption experiments were used to determine arsenic transport characteristics for algae (first-order rate constants for solute sorption, biomass, and accumulation factors) collected in the creek along a transect beginning upstream from a mine discharge point and downgradient through a 57-kilometer reach. Temporal changes in biomass differed significantly between and within sampling sites. Arsenic concentrations in plant tissue increased with distance downstream, but temporal changes in concentrations in tissues differed considerably from site to site. Cultures of Achnanthes minutissima (Bacillariophyceae) and Stichococcus sp. (Chlorophyceae) were isolated from four sites along a longitudinal concentration gradient of dissolved arsenic within the study reach and were maintained at ambient solute concentrations. Arsenic accumulation factors and sorption-rate constants for these isolates were determined as a function of dissolved arsenate and orthophosphate. Cell surfaces of algal isolates exhibited preferential orthophosphate sorption over arsenate. Initial sorption of both arsenate and orthophosphate followed first-order mass transfer for each culturing condition. Although sorption-rate constants increased slightly with increased dissolved-arsenate concentration, algae, isolated from a site with elevated dissolved arsenic in the stream channel, had a significantly slower rate of arsenic sorption compared with the same species isolated from an uncontaminated site upstream. In diel studies, amplitudes of the pH cycles increased with measured biomass except at a site immediately downstream from water-treatment-plant discharge. Inorganic pentavalent arsenic dominated arsenic speciation at

  15. Microhabitat selection by bobcats in the badlands and Black Hills of South Dakota, USA: a comparison of Prairie and forested habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosby, Cory E.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Schroeder, Greg M.; Schmitz, Lowell E.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of habitat selection is important for management of wildlife species. Although bobcat (Lynx rufus) resource selection has been addressed in many regions of the United States, little work has been conducted in the Northern Great Plains. From 2006–2008 we captured and radiocollared 20 bobcats in the Badlands (n = 10) and Black Hills (n = 10) regions of South Dakota. During the summers of 2008 and 2009 we collected habitat measurements at 349 (176 Badlands, 176 Black Hills) bobcat locations and 321 (148 Badlands, 173 Black Hills) random sites. Microhabitat characteristics at bobcat use sites varied with region (P < 0.001) and sex of bobcat (P < 0.001). Percent slope, shrub, low cover, medium cover, and total cover were greater (P ≤ 0.017) at bobcat locations in the Black Hills than in the Badlands whereas distance to drainage was greater (P < 0.001) at locations in the Badlands than in the Black Hills. In the Badlands, male bobcat locations were closer (P ≤ 0.002) to prairie dog towns and drainages and had greater (P < 0.05) percent forbs and forb height than random sites, whereas females were closer to badland formations (P < 0.001) than random sites. In the Black Hills, male locations were at greater elevation (P < 0.001) and female locations were characterized by greater (P ≤ 0.02) grass height, shrub height, low cover, and total cover than random sites. Logistic regression indicated that microhabitat selection was similar between study areas; odds ratios indicated that odds of bobcat use increased by 0.998 (95% CI = 0.997–0.999) per 1 m increase in distance to drainage, 0.986 (95% CI = 0.978–0.993) per 1.0% increase in grass cover, by 1.024 (95% CI = 1.011–1.036) per 1 cm increase in grass height, by 1.013 (95% CI = 1.003–1.024) per 1% increase in forb cover, and by 1.028 (95% CI = 1.017–1.039) per 1% increase in medium cover. Our results were similar to other bobcat microhabitat selection studies, where bobcat relocations were

  16. Water and sediment quality of the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek basins, South Dakota, 1983-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven Kent; Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    different units, with medians that range from about 2.4 to 4.0 mg/L. Median whole-water phosphorus concentrations for the different Lake Andes units range from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/L, and decrease downstream through Lake Andes. Median selenium concentrations are substantially lower for Andes Creek (3 ?g/L (micrograms per liter)) than for the other tributary stations (34, 18, and 7 ?g/L). Median selenium concentrations for the lake stations (ranging from less than 1 to 2 ?g/L) are substantially lower than tributary stations. The pesticides 2,4-D and atrazine were the most commonly detected pesticides in Lake Andes. Median concentrations for 2,4-D for Lake Andes range from 0.07 to 0.11 ?g/L; the median concentration for Owens Bay is 0.04 ?g/L. Median concentrations for atrazine for Lake Andes range from 0.2 to 0.4 ?g/L; the median concentration for Owens Bay is less than 0.1 ?g/L. Concentrations of both 2,4-D and atrazine are largest for the most upstream part of Lake Andes that is most influenced by tributary inflow. Median suspended-sediment concentrations for Lake Andes tributaries range from 22 to 56 mg/L. Most of the suspended sediment transported in the Lake Andes tributaries consists of particles less than 63 ?m (micrometers) in diameter. Concentrations of most constituents in bottom sediments generally had similar ranges and medians for the Lake Andes tributaries. However, Andes Creek generally had lower concentrations of several metals. For Lake Andes, medians and ranges for most constituents generally were similar among the different units. However, selenium concentrations tended to be higher in the upstream part of the lake, and generally decreased downstream. Results of vertical sediment cores collected from a single site in the South Unit of Lake Andes in October 2000 indicate that selenium loading to Lake Andes increased during the period 1952 through 2000. Choteau Creek has a drainage area of 619 mi2. In the upstream part of the basin, Chotea

  17. Regression Equations for Estimating Concentrations of Selected Water-Quality Constituents for Selected Gaging Stations in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota Water Resources Act, passed by the U.S. Congress on December 15, 2000, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and quality needs of the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota and possible options to meet those water needs. Previous Red River of the North Basin studies conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation used streamflow and water-quality data bases developed by the U.S. Geological Survey that included data for 1931-84. As a result of the recent congressional authorization and results of previous studies by the Bureau of Reclamation, redevelopment of the streamflow and water-quality data bases with current data through 1999 are needed in order to evaluate and predict the water-quantity and quality effects within the Red River of the North Basin. This report provides updated statistical summaries of selected water-quality constituents and streamflow and the regression relations between them. Available data for 1931-99 were used to develop regression equations between 5 selected water-quality constituents and streamflow for 38 gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin. The water-quality constituents that were regressed against streamflow were hardness (as CaCO3), sodium, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids. Statistical summaries of the selected water-quality constituents and streamflow for the gaging stations used in the regression equations development and the applications and limitations of the regression equations are presented in this report.

  18. Latino College Completion: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  19. Lady beetles of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lady beetles are one of the most familiar groups of beneficial insects. Farmers and gardeners appreciate them for devouring insect pests. Both adult lady beetles and caterpillar-like juveniles eat pests. Lady beetles are recognizable by their red and orange colors that contrast with black spots and...

  20. Irrigation drainage studies of the Angostura Reclamation Unit and the Belle Fourche Reclamation Project, western South Dakota : results of 1994 sampling and comparisons with 1988 data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven K.; Williamson, Joyce E.; Dickerson, Kimberly K.; Wesolowski, Edwin A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior started the National Irrigation Water Quality Program in 1985 to identify the nature and extent of irrigation-induced water-quality problems that might exist in the western U.S. The Angostura Reclamation Unit (ARU) and Belle Fourche Reclamation Project (BFRP) in western South Dakota were included as part of this program. The ARU and BFRP reconnaissance studies were initiated in 1988, during below-normal streamflow conditions in both study areas. Surface water, bottom sediment, and fish were resampled in 1994 at selected sites in both study areas during generally near-normal streamflow conditions to compare with 1988 study results. Concentrations of major ions in water for both the ARU and BFRP study areas are high relative to national baseline levels. Major-ion concentrations for both areas generally are lower for 1994 than for 1988, when low-flow conditions prevailed, but ionic proportions are similar between years. For ARU, dissolved-solids concentrations probably increase slightly downstream from Angostura Reservoir; however, the available data sets are insufficient to confidently discern effects of ARU operations on dissolved-solids loading. For BFRP, dissolved-solids concentrations are slightly higher at sites that are affected by irrigation drainage; again, however, the data are inconclusive to determine whether BFRP operations increase dissolved-solids loading. Most trace-element concentrations in water samples for both study areas are similar between 1988 and 1994, and do not show strong relations with discharge. ARU operations probably are not contributing discernible additional loads of trace elements to the Cheyenne River. For BFRP, concentrations of some trace elements are slightly higher at sites downstream from irrigation operations than at a site upstream from irrigation operations. BFRP operations might contribute to trace-element concentrations in the Belle Fourche River, but available data are insufficient to

  1. Fluid inclusions in the Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA: Implications for solubility and evolution of magmatic volatiles and crystallization of leucogranite magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Peter I.; Ternes, Kim

    1997-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that magmatic fluids have strong influence on phase equilibria of granitic systems. A microthermometric study of fluid inclusions in the Proterozoic Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA, was undertaken to obtain direct evidence for the composition and evolution of magmatic fluids in a leucogranitic system and to evaluate their effect on liquid-lines-of-descent of leucogranite magmas. A previous stable isotopic study has demonstrated that the granite has not interacted with nonmagmatic fluids since its crystallization. Therefore, fluids found in the inclusions are of magmatic origin and present an opportunity to directly sample magmatic fluids trapped during crystallization of a granitic magma and during subsolidus conditions. The Harney Peak Granite was emplaced as multiple sills, dikes, and small intrusions, many of which differentiated into coupled aplite-pegmatite layers. Three types of fluid inclusions are found in the granite. Type 1 consist of variable saline H 2OC0 2 mixtures with minor CH 4 or other gases. Inclusions of this type are found in tourmaline and quartz in aplite layers, are generally isolated, and have negative crystal shapes. They are interpreted to be primary. There is a general increase in salinity and decrease in isochore temperature with decreasing CO 2/H 2O ratio of the inclusions. The trend is ascribed to progressive change in fluid composition with crystallization due to the differential solubility of CO 2 and H 2O in the high-silica magma. Isochores, coupled with independently determined crystallization temperatures, suggest entrapment pressure ˜3.5 kbar, consistent with geobarometry in the wallrocks. Type 2 inclusions are carbonic fluids dominated by CO 2, whereas type 3 inclusions are saline aqueous fluids without a detected carbonic component. Both types are mostly found along healed fractures in quartz. They are interpreted to be secondary inclusions that formed as a

  2. Concentrations of selected metals in Quaternary-age fluvial deposits along the lower Cheyenne and middle Belle Fourche Rivers, western South Dakota, 2009-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamm, John F.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2012-01-01

    The headwaters of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers drain the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, an area that has been affected by mining and ore-milling operations since the discovery of gold in 1875. A tributary to the Belle Fourche River is Whitewood Creek, which drains the area of the Homestake Mine, a gold mine that operated from 1876 to 2001. Tailings discharged into Whitewood Creek contained arsenopyrite, an arsenic-rich variety of pyrite associated with gold ore, and mercury used as an amalgam during the gold-extraction process. Approximately 18 percent of the tailings that were discharged remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along Whitewood Creek, and approximately 25 percent remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along the Belle Fourche River, downstream from Whitewood Creek. In 1983, a 29-kilometer (18-mile) reach of Whitewood Creek and the adjacent flood plain was included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, commonly referred to as a "Superfund site." Listing of this reach of Whitewood Creek was primarily in response to arsenic toxicity of fluvial deposits on the flood plain. Lands along the lower Cheyenne River were transferred to adjoining States and Tribes in response to the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1999. An amendment in 2000 to WRDA required a study of sediment contamination of the Cheyenne River. In response to the WRDA amendment, the U.S. Geological Survey completed field sampling of reference sites (not affected by mine-tailing disposal) along the lower Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers. Reference sites were located on stream terraces that were elevated well above historical stream stages to ensure no contamination from historical mining activity. Sampling of potentially contaminated sites was performed on transects of the active flood plain and adjacent terraces that could

  3. Summary of data pertaining to land use, rainfall, dryfall, stream discharge, and storm runoff collected as part of a study of the effects of urban runoff on Rapid Creek, Rapid City area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, K.E.; Lockner, T.K.; Harms, L.L.; Smith, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of a 3-year study of urban runoff in the Rapid City area of South Dakota were to characterize the effects of urban runoff from rainfall on the water quality of Rapid Creek, and to evaluate the effects of the runoff on the existing cold-water fishery. In order to meet these objectives, it was necessary to obtain detailed data pertaining to land use, rainfall, dryfall, stream discharge, and storm runoff. This report describes the rationale behind the data collection program, describes the methods used to collect and analyze the data, and presents the data collected and summarized during the study. Six watersheds were investigated, ranging in size from 1 ,610 to 20,990 acres. Water quality data from 6 sites for about 30 rainstorms that occurred between June 1980 and July 1982 are presented. (USGS)

  4. Evaluation of techniques for mapping land and crops irrigated by center pivots from computer-enhanced Landsat imagery in part of the James River basin near Huron, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolm, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate remote sensing techniques for mapping irrigated crop types and acreages in part of the James River basin of South Dakota, using Landsat imagery. The results demonstrated that a subtraction (band 7 minus band 4) method was best for identifying the location of cropland irrigated by groundwater. Two separate principal-spectral-components analyses (analysis of the second principal-spectral component and the simultaneous analysis of the first three principal-spectral components) were best for identifying the crop type and estimating crop acreages. However, only 50 percent of the irrigated lands could be identified and only 79 percent of these could be classified accurately by crop type. Therefore, a 39 percent overall accuracy was achieved in irrigated crop-type identification. (USGS)

  5. Conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Ogallala aquifer in Gregory and Tripp Counties, South Dakota, water years 1985--2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Kyle W.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    The Ogallala aquifer is an important water resource for the Rosebud Sioux Tribe in Gregory and Tripp Counties in south-central South Dakota and is used for irrigation, public supply, domestic, and stock water supplies. To better understand groundwater flow in the Ogallala aquifer, conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow were developed for the aquifer. A conceptual model of the Ogallala aquifer was used to analyze groundwater flow and develop a numerical model to simulate groundwater flow in the aquifer. The MODFLOW–NWT model was used to simulate transient groundwater conditions for water years 1985–2009. The model was calibrated using statistical parameter estimation techniques. Potential future scenarios were simulated using the input parameters from the calibrated model for simulations of potential future drought and future increased pumping. Transient simulations were completed with the numerical model. A 200-year transient initialization period was used to establish starting conditions for the subsequent 25-year simulation of water years 1985–2009. The 25-year simulation was discretized into three seasonal stress periods per year and used to simulate transient conditions. A single-layer model was used to simulate flow and mass balance in the Ogallala aquifer with a grid of 133 rows and 282 columns and a uniform spacing of 500 meters (1,640 feet). Regional inflow and outflow were simulated along the western and southern boundaries using specified-head cells. All other boundaries were simulated using no-flow cells. Recharge to the aquifer occurs through precipitation on the outcrop area. Model calibration was accomplished using the Parameter Estimation (PEST) program that adjusted individual model input parameters and assessed the difference between estimated and model-simulated values of hydraulic head and base flow. This program was designed to estimate parameter values that are statistically the most likely set of values to result in the

  6. Characterization of Ground-Water Flow and Water Quality for the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in Northern Lawrence County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are used extensively for water supplies for the city of Spearfish and other users in northern Lawrence County, South Dakota. Ground water in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the study area generally flows north from outcrop areas where recharge from sinking streams and infiltration of precipitation occurs. Ground water that moves northward and eastward around the Black Hills enters the study area from the west and results in hydraulic heads that are several hundred feet higher on the western side of the study area than on the eastern side. The estimated average recharge rate of 38 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation is less than the total estimated average spring discharge rate of 51 ft3/s in the northwestern part of the study area. Sixteen pounds of fluorescein dye were injected into Spearfish Creek on March 25, 2003, when streamflow was 6.6 ft3/s. The dye was detected in water samples from four wells completed in the Madison aquifer ranging from 2.6 to 4.5 miles north of the injection site. First arrival times ranged from 5 to 169 days, and ground-water velocities ranged from about 0.1 to 0.5 mile per day. Sixty-four pounds of Rhodamine WT was injected into Spearfish Creek at the same location on May 9, 2003, when streamflow was 5.6 ft3/s. Rhodamine WT dye concentrations measured in samples from the same four wells were about an order of magnitude less than measured fluorescein concentrations. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Cox Lake and McNenny Pond springs indicated a probable component of spring discharge that originates from outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation on the Limestone Plateau south of the study area. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Mirror Lake spring indicated possible contributions from overlying aquifers and local recharge. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for the combined springflow

  7. Water-Quality Effects and Characterization of Indicators of Onsite Wastewater Disposal Systems in the East-Central Black Hills Area, South Dakota, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Sawyer, J. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) are used extensively in the Black Hills of South Dakota where many of the watersheds and aquifers are characterized by fractured or solution-enhanced bedrock with thin soil cover. A study was conducted during 2006-08 to characterize water-quality effects and indicators of OWDS. Water samples were collected and analyzed for potential indicators of OWDS, including chloride, bromide, boron, nitrite plus nitrate (NO2+NO3), ammonia, major ions, nutrients, selected trace elements, isotopes of nitrate, microbiological indicators, and organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). The microbiological indicators were fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), and coliphages. Sixty ground-water sampling sites were located either downgradient from areas of dense OWDS or in background areas and included 25 monitoring wells, 34 private wells, and 1 spring. Nine surface-water sampling sites were located on selected streams and tributaries either downstream or upstream from residential development within the Precambrian setting. Sampling results were grouped by their hydrogeologic setting: alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian. Mean downgradient dissolved NO2+NO3 concentrations in ground water for the alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian settings were 0.734, 7.90, 8.62, and 2.25 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved chloride concentrations in ground water for these settings were 324, 89.6, 498, and 33.2 mg/L, respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved boron concentrations in ground water for these settings were 736, 53, 64, and 43 micrograms per liter (ug/L), respectively. Mean dissolved surface-water concentrations for NO2+NO3, chloride, and boron for downstream sites were 0.222 mg/L, 32.1 mg/L, and 28 ug/L, respectively. Mean values of delta-15N and delta-18O (isotope ratios of 14N to 15N and 18O to 16O relative to standard ratios) for

  8. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file

    Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28.

    Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history.

    The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs.

    The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on

  9. Does idiopathic parkinsonism in Aberdeen follow intrauterine influenza?

    PubMed Central

    Ebmeier, K P; Mutch, W J; Calder, S A; Crawford, J R; Stewart, L; Besson, J O

    1989-01-01

    A study is presented which fails to replicate a recent report that peak years of birth of patients later developing Parkinson's disease are related to the influenza pandemics of the period 1890-1930. The years of birth of a whole population cohort of 243 patients suffering from Parkinson's disease examined in Aberdeen in 1983 and reexamined in 1986/7 were compared with deaths due to influenza in the City of Aberdeen in the years 1900-1930. Although a significant peak of Parkinson births (compared with the age profile of the Aberdeen population in 1983) occurred in 1902, there appeared to be no systematic relationship between Parkinson births and influenza deaths. In addition, no season of birth effect could be detected in a comparison with 232 matched controls. The presence of peaks of birth years, for whatever aetiological reason, is of significance to epidemiological studies in that prevalence estimates may be influenced by the year of study relative to these mini-cohorts. PMID:2769287

  10. 40Ar/39Ar age of the Manson impact structure, Iowa, and correlative impact ejecta in the Crow Creek member of the Pierre Shale (Upper Cretaceous), South Dakota and Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izett, G.A.; Cobban, W.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Obradovich, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    A set of 34 laser total-fusion 40Ar/39Ar analyses of sanidine from a melt layer in crater-fill deposits of the Manson impact structure in Iowa has a weighted-mean age of 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma. This age is about 9.0 m.y. older than 40Ar/39Ar ages of shocked microcline from the Manson impact structure reported previously by others. The 74.1 Ma age of the sanidine, which is a melt product of Precambrian microcline clasts, indicates that the Manson impact structure played no part in the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) mass extinction at 64.5 Ma. Moreover, incremental-heating 40Ar/39Ar ages of the sanidine show that it is essentially free of excess 40Ar and has not been influenced by postcrystallization heating or alteration. An age spectrum of the matrix of the melt layer shows effects of 39Ar recoil, including older ages in the low-temperature increments and younger ages in the high-temperature increments. At 17 places in eastern South Dakota and Nebraska, shocked quartz and feldspar grains are concentrated in the lower part of the Crow Creek Member of the Pierre Shale (Upper Cretaceous). The grains are largest (3.2 mm) in southeastern South Dakota and decrease in size (0.45 mm) to the northwest, consistent with the idea that the Manson impact structure was their source. The ubiquitous presence of shocked grains concentrated in a thin calcarenite at the base of the Crow Creek Member suggests it is an event bed recording an instant of geologic time. Ammonites below and above the Crow Creek Member limit its age to the zone of Didymoceras nebrascense of earliest late Campanian age. Plagioclase from a bentonite bed in this zone in Colorado has a 40Ar/39Ar age of 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma commensurate with our sanidine age of 74.1 Ma for the Manson impact structure. 40Ar/39Ar ages of bentonite beds below and above the Crow Creek are consistent with our 74.1 ?? 0.1 Ma age for the Manson impact structure and limit its age to the interval ?? 74.5 0.1 to 73.8 ?? 0.1 Ma. Recently, two origins for the

  11. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained.

  12. Reconnaissance-level assessment of water and bottom-sediment quality, including pesticides and mercury, in Yankton Sioux Tribe wetlands, Charles Mix County, South Dakota, June-July 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2006-01-01

    .11 to 29.65 nanograms per liter (ng/L), with a median of 10.56 ng/L. The methylmercury concentrations ranged from 0.45 to 14.03 ng/L, with a median of 2.28 ng/L. For the bottom-sediment samples, the total mercury concentration ranged from 21.3 to 74.6 nanograms per gram (ng/g), with a median of 54.2 ng/g. The methylmercury concentrations ranged from <0.11 to 2.04 ng/g, with a median of 0.78 ng/g. The total mercury concentrations in the water samples were all much less than 2 ?g/L (2,000 ng/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level for mercury in drinking water. However, water samples from four of the wetlands had concentrations larger than 0.012 ?g/L (12 ng/L), the State of South Dakota's chronic standard for surface waters, including wetlands. Maximum methylmercury concentrations for this study are larger than reported concentrations for wetlands in North Dakota and concentrations reported for the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in South Dakota.

  13. Streamflow and sediment data collected at seven stream-gaging stations in the James River basin downstream from Forestburg, South Dakota, from October 1, 1982 to September 30, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    A compilation of streamflow and suspended-sediment data collected from October 1, 1982, to September 30, 1983, at seven gaging stations in the James River basin downstream from Forestburg, South Dakota, is presented in tabular and graphic form. Three of the gaging stations are on the main stem and four are on tributary streams. These are the results from the second year of a two-year study in cooperation with the Lower James Conservancy Sub-District. The data listed in the tables and figures include location, a summary of the streamflow for the period of record, tables listing the daily streamflow, mean suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment discharge; and figures showing the daily streamflow, mean suspended-sediment concentration and suspended-sediment discharge for each gaging station. Sandbars are developing in the river and this data is to be used in studies analyzing sources of the sediment and tributary sediment loads relative to those carried by the main stem. (USGS)

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Denver Basin Province, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming - USGS Province 39

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Denver Basin Province (USGS Province 39), Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Petroleum is produced in the province from sandstone, shale, and limestone reservoirs that range from Pennsylvanian to Upper Cretaceous in age. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define seven total petroleum systems and twelve assessment units. Nine of these assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources. Gas was not assessed for two coal bed methane assessment units due to lack of information and limited potential; oil resources were not assessed for the Fractured Pierre Shale Assessment Unit due to its mature development status.

  15. Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims, and classification of mineral deposits in the Silver City 7 1/2-minute Quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Ed; Buscher, David; Wilson, A.B.; Johnson, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    This map is one in a set of 26 maps (see index map) at 1:24,000 scale of the Black Hills region of South Dakota and Wyoming om which are shown a geologic classification of mines, a bibliography of mineral deposits, and locations of active and inactive mines, prospects, and patented mining claims. Some of these maps are published as U. S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps (MF series) and some as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports (QF series); see index map. An earlier unpublished version of this set of maps was the data base from which plate 4 (scale 1:250,000) of DeWitt and others (1986) was compiled. Subsequent to that publication, the set has been revised and updated, and prospects and patented claims have been added. These revised and more detailed 1:24,000-scale maps should be used for the equivalent areas of plate 4 of DeWitt and others (1986).

  16. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska: Chapter B in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, William H.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Mars, John L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven A.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents ten storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. The Powder River Basin contains a thick succession of sedimentary rocks that accumulated steadily throughout much of the Phanerozoic, and at least three stratigraphic packages contain strata that are suitable for CO2 storage. Pennsylvanian through Triassic siliciclastic strata contain two potential storage units: the Pennsylvanian and Permian Tensleep Sandstone and Minnelusa Formation, and the Triassic Crow Mountain Sandstone. Jurassic siliciclastic strata contain one potential storage unit: the lower part of the Sundance Formation. Cretaceous siliciclastic strata contain seven potential storage units: (1) the Fall River and Lakota Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Frontier Sandstone and Turner Sandy Member of the Carlile Shale, (4) the Sussex and Shannon Sandstone Members of Cody Shale, and (5) the Parkman, (6) Teapot, and (7) Teckla Sandstone Members of the Mesaverde Formation. For each SAU, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed to calculate the potential storage space in the various SAUs.

  17. Environmental geophysics: Building E3640 Decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Borden, H.M.; Benson, M.A.; Thompson, M.D.; Padar, C.A.; Daudt, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Building E3640 is a potentially contaminated site in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical survey techniques, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were used as part of a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the building. Complex and large-amplitude anomalies caused by aboveground metal in this area obscure many smaller features produced by subsurface sources. No underground storage tanks were found in the areas surveyed. Major anomalies produced by subsurface sources include the following: EM-61 and EM-31 lineaments caused by a water line extending north from the south fence; a broad positive magnetic anomaly caused by magnetic fill north of the material and drum storage area and northeast of E3640; a 30-ft-wide band of EM-31 anomalies extending from the front gate to the southeast comer of E3640 and a coincident EM-61 anomaly produced by buried utilities; ground-penetrating radar images along three lines extending from a sump at the northeast comer of E3640 to the eastern fence; and EM-61, EM-31, and magnetic anomalies caused by overhead and underground pipes extending south from the north fence. Smaller, unidentified, localized anomalies observed throughout the survey area are also described in this report.

  18. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  19. Thunderstorms and Flooding of August 17, 2007, with a Context Provided by a History of Other Large Storm and Flood Events in the Black Hills Area of South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bunkers, Matthew J.; Carter, Janet M.; Stamm, John F.; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2010-01-01

    The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 9-10, 1972, which caused severe flooding in several major drainages near Rapid City and resulted in 238 deaths. More recently, severe thunderstorms caused flash flooding near Piedmont and Hermosa on August 17, 2007. Obtaining a thorough understanding of peak-flow characteristics for low-probability floods will require a comprehensive long-term approach involving (1) documentation of scientific information for extreme events such as these; (2) long-term collection of systematic peak-flow records; and (3) regional assessments of a wide variety of peak-flow information. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and National Weather Service to produce this report, which provides documentation regarding the August 17, 2007, storm and associated flooding and provides a context through examination of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area. The area affected by the August 17, 2007, storms and associated flooding generally was within the area affected by the larger storm of June 9-10, 1972. The maximum observed 2007 precipitation totals of between 10.00 and 10.50 inches occurred within about 2-3 hours in a small area about 5 miles west of Hermosa. The maximum documented precipitation amount in 1972 was 15.0 inches, and precipitation totals of 10.0 inches or more were documented for 34 locations within an area of about 76 square miles. A peak flow of less than 1 cubic foot per second occurred upstream from the 2007 storm extent for streamflow-gaging station 06404000 (Battle Creek near Keystone); whereas, the 1972 peak flow of 26,200 cubic feet per second was large, relative to the drainage area of only 58.6 square miles. Farther downstream along Battle Creek, a 2007

  20. Workforce: North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2012, the rate of job growth in North Dakota will be modest: under 1 percent annually. However, a large number of positions-close to a quarter of all jobs in the state-will open up for hiring due to retirements and separations. In addition, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In…

  1. A status report on weather modification research in the Dakotas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul L.; Orville, Harold D.; Boe, Bruce A.; Stith, Jeffrey L.

    An overview of the status of weather modification research in North and South Dakota (USA) is presented. The operational North Dakota Cloud Modification Projects has, since 1976, been seeding summer convective clouds for the dual objectives of hail suppression and rainfall enhancement. Research being carried out as part of a Federal/State cooperative program, in coordination with the operational activities, has included physical and statistical evaluation studies as well as numerical cloud modeling investigations. The statistical analyses provide some indications that the intended seeding effects are being obtained. The physical studies involve aircraft and radar observations and emphasize tracer experiments to study the transport and dispersion of seeding agents and the activation of ice nuclei. The modeling studies simulate the experiments and aid in investigation of the process involved and the effects of seeding. The 1989 North Dakota Thunderstorm Project, a major field study emphasizing physical and numerical modeling studies, is described briefly.

  2. Contamination source review for Building E3162, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3162 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3162 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories Building E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War 2. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment involving chemical warfare agents. Building E3162 was used as a holding and study area for animals involved in non-agent burns. The building was constructed in 1952, placed on inactive status in 1983, and remains unoccupied. Analytical results from these air samples revealed no distinguishable difference in hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent levels between the two background samples and the sample taken inside Building E3162.

  3. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  4. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

  5. Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

  6. Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic ``nose`` extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 {Omega}-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

  7. 40Ar/39Ar evidence for Middle Proterozoic (1300-1500 Ma) slow cooling of the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, midcontinent, North America: Implications for Early Proterozoic P-T evolution and posttectonic magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Daniel K.; Dahl, Peter S.; Lux, Daniel R.

    1997-08-01

    40Ar/39Ar total gas and plateau dates from moscovite and biotite in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, provide evidence for a period of Middle Proterozoic slow cooling. Early Proterozoic (1600-1650 Ma) mica dates were obtained from metasedimentary rocks located in a synformal structure between the Harney Peak and Bear Mountain domes and also south of Bear Mountain. Metamorphic rocks from the dome areas and undeformed samples of the ˜1710 Ma Harney Peak Granite (HPG) yield Middle Proterozoic mica dates (˜1270-1500 Ma). Two samples collected between the synform and Bear Mountain dome yield intermediate total gas mica dates of ˜1550 Ma. We suggest two end-member interpretations to explain the map pattern of cooling ages: (1) subhorizontal slow cooling of an area which exhibits variation in mica Ar retention intervals or (2) mild folding of a Middle Proterozoic (˜1500 Ma) ˜300°C isotherm. According to the second interpretation, the preservation of older dates between the domes may reflect reactivation of a preexisting synformal structure (and downwarping of relatively cold rocks) during a period of approximately east-west contraction and slow uplift during the Middle Proterozoic. The mica data, together with hornblende data from the Black Hills published elsewhere, indicate that the ambient country-rock temperature at the 3-4 kbar depth of emplacement of the HPG was between 350°C and 500°C, suggesting that the average upper crustal geothermal gradient was 25°-40°C/km prior to intrusion. The thermochronologic data suggest HPG emplacement was followed by a ˜200 m.y. period of stability and tectonic quiescence with little uplift. We propose that crust thickened during the Early Proterozoic was uplifted and erosionally(?) thinned prior to ˜1710 Ma and that the HPG magma was emplaced into isostatically stable crust of relatively normal thickness. We speculate that uplift and crustal thinning prior to HPG intrusion was the result of differential thinning of

  8. Ascertainment of familial ovarian cancer in the Aberdeen Genetic Clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, H; Schofield, A; de Silva, D; Semper, J; Milner, B; Allan, L; Haites, N

    1996-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in women in the UK. Patients with a family history including ovarian cancer make up nearly 15% of family cancer referrals to the Genetic Clinic in Aberdeen. To date, only one pedigree has been suitable for linkage studies, which has enabled us to target screening more accurately at those people at highest risk. Following discovery of a strong candidate for the BRCA1 gene, direct mutation testing may soon be possible. People who seek testing will require further counselling. Therefore we anticipate an increased demand on both clinical and laboratory resources, but more accurate ascertainment of high risk subjects should lead to more appropriate targeting of screening services. PMID:8728689

  9. Geophysical study of the Building 103 Dump, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-12-01

    The Building 103 Dump is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, resistivity, ground-penetrating radar, and seismic refraction, were conducted. These surveys indicate that much of the area is free of debris. However, prominent magnetic and resistivity anomalies occur along well-defined lineaments, suggestive of a dendritic stream pattern. Prior to the onset of dumping, the site was described as a ``sand pit,`` which suggests that headward erosion of Canal Creek tributaries cut into the surficial aquifer. Contaminants dumped into the landfill would have direct access to the surficial aquifer and thus to Canal Creek. Seismic refraction profiling indicates 6--12 ft of fill material now rests on the former land surface. Only the northern third of the former landfill was geophysically surveyed.

  10. A probable extralimital postbreeding assembly of bufflehead Bucephala albeola in southcentral North Dakota, USA, 1994-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    The Bufflehead Bucephala albeola predominantly in Canada and Alaska (USA). Evidence suggests that the species may have recently expanded its breeding range southward into central and south-central North Dakota. This paper presents data on observations of Buffleheads during the breeding season in Kidder County, North Dakota, 1994-2002, and discusses the possibility that the species has not expanded its breeding range but rather has established an extralimital post-breeding staging area south of its typical breeding range.

  11. Arsenopyrite in the bank deposits of the Whitewood Creek-Belle Fourche-Cheyenne River-Lake Oahe system, South Dakota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Cook, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Mining, milling, and processing wastes containing quantities of arsenopyrite were produced around Lead, South Dokata, from 1875 to 1977. Much of this material was discharged into Whitewood Creek, and from there portions of the waste were transported to the Belle Fourche River, thence to the Cheyenne River, and finally to the Missouri River. In 1958, the Missouri River was dammed at Pierre, forming Lake Oahe. Analyses of cores collected from the lake bottom showed the presence of arsenic-rich layers in the bed sediments; substantial portions of the arsenic are due to arsenopyrite in the 8-16 and 16-32 ??m size fractions of the sediments. In addition, suspended-sediment samples collected from the Cheyenne River above Lake Oahe contain detectable quantities of arsenopyrite in the 8-16 and 16-32 ??m fractions. Solid material collected from the banks and floodplains of the Belle Fourche River and Whitewood Creek contains reduced and oxidized phases. The reduced phases have arsenic maxima in the 16-32 and 32-63 ??m size ranges. These fractions also contribute the most arsenic to the samples; the major source being arsenopyrite. The oxidized segments have arsenic maxima in the 63 ??m size ranges. The 63 ??m fractions contribute the most arsenic to the oxidized samples. This arsenic, despite the oxidized nature of the samples, is associated with arsenopyrite coated with thin iron oxide rinds. It has been calculated that 80% of the arsenic in these deposits is associated with sulfides (in the form of arsenopyrite), while 20% is associated with iron oxides. The arsenopyrite found in the banks and floodplains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River are the likely source of the arsenopyrite found in the suspended sediments of the Cheyenne River and in the bed sediment of Lake Oahe.

  12. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  13. Environmental geophysics, offshore Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Kuecher, G.J.; Davies, B.E.

    1995-11-01

    Geophysical studies in shallow waters adjacent to the Bush River Peninsula, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have delineated the extent of waste disposal sites and established a hydrogeologic framework, which may control contaminant transport offshore. These studies indicate that during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits around the Bush River Peninsula. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal paleochannels greater than 50 ft deep. Some of the paleochannels are also imaged with marine seismic reflection. Conductivity highs measured with the EM-31 are also indicative of paleochannels. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the peninsula. Magnetic, conductivity, and side-scan sonar anomalies outline anthropogenic anomalies in the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, underwater anthropogenic materials do exist in some isolated areas, but large-scale offshore dumping has not occurred in the area studied.

  14. Ecological effects of soil contamination at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, R.G.; Dunn, C.P. )

    1994-06-01

    Assessment of the ecological condition of contaminated soil was conducted in portions of the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland as part of an ecological risk assessment. This area is covered by open fields, woods and nontidal marshes. Chemicals disposed of in open burning pits included methylphosphonothioic acid, dichlorodiethyl sulfide, and titanium tetrachloride and sulfur trioxide/chlorosulfonic acid. Previous soil analysis showed extensive surface soil contamination with metals, nitrate, PCBs and pesticides. This assessment included characterizing soil biota, biologically-mediated processes in soil and aboveground biomass. Field surveys of the soil invertebrate communities showed significant reductions in the total abundance of animals, reductions in the abundance of several taxonomic and functional groups of soil invertebrates, and changes in the activity of epigeic arthropods in contaminated areas when compared with the local [open quotes]background[close quotes] area. Laboratory toxicity tests also demonstrated that microbial activity and success of egg hatching of ground beetle Harpalus pensylvanicus were reduced in contaminated soils. These results suggest that impacts to soil ecosystems should be explicitly considered in ecological risk assessment.

  15. Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F.; Mandell, W.A.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-07-01

    Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

  16. Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H. ); Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H. . Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing.

  17. Bioeconomic model and selection indices in Aberdeen Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Campos, G S; Braccini Neto, J; Oaigen, R P; Cardoso, F F; Cobuci, J A; Kern, E L; Campos, L T; Bertoli, C D; McManus, C M

    2014-08-01

    A bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values for biological traits in full-cycle production systems and propose selection indices based on selection criteria used in the Brazilian Aberdeen Angus genetic breeding programme (PROMEBO). To assess the impact of changes in the performance of the traits on the profit of the production system, the initial values ​​of the traits were increased by 1%. The economic values for number of calves weaned (NCW) and slaughter weight (SW) were, respectively, R$ 6.65 and R$ 1.43/cow/year. The selection index at weaning showed a 44.77% emphasis on body weight, 14.24% for conformation, 30.36% for early maturing and 10.63% for muscle development. The eighteen-month index showed emphasis of 77.61% for body weight, 4.99% for conformation, 11.09% for early maturing, 6.10% for muscle development and 0.22% for scrotal circumference. NCW showed highest economic impact, and SW had important positive effect on the economics of the production system. The selection index proposed can be used by breeders and should contribute to greater profitability.

  18. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

  19. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  20. Contamination source review for Building E5032, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, M.N.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Smits, M.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) documents results of a contamination source review of Building E5032 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E5032. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E5032 (APG designation), originally known as Building 99, is located at the northwest comer of the intersection of Hoadley Road and Magnolia Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. It was constructed during World War I as an incendiary bomb filling plant and in 1920s and 1930s maintained as a filling facility. During World War II the building was a pilot plant for the development of a dry white phosphorus filling process. Since then the building has been used for white phosphorus filling pilot studies. Most of the dry filling methods were developed in Building E5032 between 1965 and 1970. Other filling operations in Building E5032 have included mustard during the period shortly after World War II and triethyl aluminum (TEA) during the late 1960s and early 1970s. During the World War II period, the building was connected to the sanitary sewer system with one large and at least one small interior sump. There are also seven sumps adjacent to the exterior of the building: two on the west elevation, four near the four bays on the south elevation, and one at the northeast corner of the building. All of these sumps are connected with the chemical sewer system and received most, if not all, of the production operation wastewater. The discharge from this system was released into the east branch of Canal Creek; the discharge pipe was located southeast of Building E5032. There are no records indicating the use of Building E5032 after 1974, and it is assumed that the building has been out of service since that time.