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Sample records for aberrant cd45 expression

  1. Reduced expression of CD45 Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase Pr

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-08

    H S /D T R A on A ugust 19, 2009 w w w .jbc.org D ow nloaded from PTP1B , CD45, TCPTP, LMPTP-A, LMPTP-B, MEG1, MEG2, HePTP, PTP), three belong to...the dual specificity phosphatase VHR or the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B . Given these FIGURE 5. Mice expressing intermediate CD45 levels survive

  2. Altered expression of CD45 isoforms in differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Miyachi, H; Tanaka, Y; Gondo, K; Kawada, T; Kato, S; Sasao, T; Hotta, T; Oshima, S; Ando, Y

    1999-11-01

    Specific expression of different CD45 isoforms can be seen in various stages of differentiation of normal nucleated hematopoietic cells. Association of membrane expression of CD45 isoforms and differential levels of leukemia cells was studied in 91 cases with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Membrane expression of CD45RA and CD45RO was analyzed by flow cytometry and their expression patterns were compared with AML subtypes classified according to the French-American-British (FAB) classification. CD45RA was essentially expressed in all of the FAB myelocytic subtypes (M0-M3). Its expression in percentage was lower in the most differentiated subtype of AML (M3) when compared with other myelocytic subtypes. CD45RO expression was rarely observed in cases with myelocytic subtypes (1/56 cases of M0, M1, M2, and M3) except for the minimally differentiated myelocytic subtype (M0) or those with potential for differentiation to T-cell lineage where three of 12 cases showed CD45RO expression. When leukemia cells of an M3 case were differentiated to mature granulocytes by treatment of all-trans-retinoic acid, they showed increasing expression of CD45RO. In subtypes with a monocytic component (M4 and M5), both of CD45RA and CD45RO expression were observed and mutually exclusive. When 10 cases of M5 were subdivided by the differential level into undifferentiated (M5a) and differentiated monocytic leukemia (M5b), expression of CD45RA and CD45RO was strictly restricted to cases with M5a and M5b, respectively. These results suggest that CD45 isoform expression in AML characterizes differential levels both in myelocytic and monocytic lineages and specifically disturbed in each subtype. The assessment of CD45 isoform expression appears to provide an insight on biological characteristics and a useful supplementary test for differential diagnosis of AML subtypes. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. [Cloning of human CD45 gene and its expression in Hela cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Xu, Tianyu; Wu, Lulin; Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Xiao; Zuo, Daming; Chen, Zhengliang

    2015-11-01

    To clone human CD45 gene PTPRC and establish Hela cells overexpressing recombinant human CD45 protein. The intact cDNA encoding human CD45 amplified using RT-PCR from the total RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a healthy donor was cloned into pMD-18T vector. The CD45 cDNA fragment amplified from the pMD-18T-CD45 by PCR was inserted to the coding region of the PcDNA3.1-3xflag vector, and the resultant recombinant expression vector PcDNA3.1-3xflag-CD45 was transfected into Hela cells. The expression of CD45 in Hela cells was detected by flow cytometry and Western blotting, and the phosphastase activity of CD45 was quantified using an alkaline phosphatase assay kit. The cDNA fragment of about 3 900 bp was amplified from human PBMCs and cloned into pMD-18T vector. The recombinant expression vector PcDNA3.1-3xflag-CD45 was constructed, whose restriction maps and sequence were consistent with those expected. The expression of CD45 in transfected Hela cells was detected by flow cytometry and Western blotting, and the expressed recombinant CD45 protein in Hela cells showed a phosphastase activity. The cDNA of human CD45 was successfully cloned and effectively expressed in Hela cells, which provides a basis for further exploration of the functions of CD45.

  4. Reduced Expression of CD45 Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase Provides Protection against Anthrax Pathogenesis*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Rekha G.; Ulrich, Ricky L.; Bradfute, Steven B.; Lane, Douglas; Ruthel, Gordon; Kenny, Tara A.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Anderson, Arthur O.; Gussio, Rick; Raschke, William C.; Bavari, Sina

    2009-01-01

    The modulation of cellular processes by small molecule inhibitors, gene inactivation, or targeted knockdown strategies combined with phenotypic screens are powerful approaches to delineate complex cellular pathways and to identify key players involved in disease pathogenesis. Using chemical genetic screening, we tested a library of known phosphatase inhibitors and identified several compounds that protected Bacillus anthracis infected macrophages from cell death. The most potent compound was assayed against a panel of sixteen different phosphatases of which CD45 was found to be most sensitive to inhibition. Testing of a known CD45 inhibitor and antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers targeting CD45 also protected B. anthracis-infected macrophages from cell death. However, reduced CD45 expression did not protect anthrax lethal toxin (LT) treated macrophages, suggesting that the pathogen and independently added LT may signal through distinct pathways. Subsequent, in vivo studies with both gene-targeted knockdown of CD45 and genetically engineered mice expressing reduced levels of CD45 resulted in protection of mice after infection with the virulent Ames B. anthracis. Intermediate levels of CD45 expression were critical for the protection, as mice expressing normal levels of CD45 or disrupted CD45 phosphatase activity or no CD45 all succumbed to this pathogen. Mechanism-based studies suggest that the protection provided by reduced CD45 levels results from regulated immune cell homeostasis that may diminish the impact of apoptosis during the infection. To date, this is the first report demonstrating that reduced levels of host phosphatase CD45 modulate anthrax pathogenesis. PMID:19269962

  5. [Expression and clinical significance of CD45RO in laryngeal carcinoma tissue].

    PubMed

    Li, Manyi; Liu, Jishengi; Zhou, Hui; Wu, Wenying; Xiao, Gensheng; Yu, Yafeng; Guo, Lingchuan

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the role and significance of CD45RO in occurance and development in laryngeal squamous carcinoma, and to provide some valuable clues for searching new approaches to assess prognosis and theoretical basis for tumor biotherapy. The expression of CD45RO protein in 50 cases of laryngeal squamous carcinoma and 10 cases normal mucos was detected by immunohistochemical S-P method. The positive rate of CD45RO was 30% and 86% respectively in normal tissue and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The expresion of CD45RO was significantly and negatively associated with local metastatic of lymph nodes 0.713, P < 0.05) and tumor sites (r = -0.750, P < 0.05), but it have no notable difference with pathology differentiation, age, infiltrating depth and clinical stages in 50 cases of laryngeal squamous cell cancer. (1) The expresion of CD45RO in laryngeal squamous cell cancer is more than that in normal tissue. (2) It is possible that overexpresion of CD45RO in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cut local metastatic lymph nodes. (3) It is probable that overexpresion of CD45RO in laryngeal squamous cell cancer made for prognosis of patients. (4) Other than UICC-TNM stage, pathology differentiation, it provide valuable clues for searching new approaches to assess prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Successful construction and stable expression of an anti-CD45RA scFv-EGFP fusion protein in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhujun; Chen, Yuanyuan; Li, Sisi; Cheng, Yuping; Zhao, Haizhao; Jia, Ming; Luo, Zebin; Tang, Yongmin

    2014-02-01

    CD45RA has been found highly expressed on leukemia cells and may be a potential target of the disease. In this study, an anti-CD45RA single-chain antibody fragment (scFv3A4) was genetically linked to the N terminus of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to generate a scFv3A4-EGFP fusion protein. The scFv3A4-EGFP with a molecular weight of 57kDa was stably expressed and secreted from the transfected CHO cells through the ER/Golgi-dependent pathway. The fusion protein was soluble in the culture supernatant and the yield was 1350μg/L. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the scFv3A4-EGFP had the same binding site and a very similar reactivity pattern with its parental murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3A4. Furthermore, comparing to conventional labeled 3A4-FITC antibody, the scFv3A4-EGFP was more resistant to illumination and more suitable for immunofluorescence histology (IFH) detection. Therefore, the scFv3A4-EGFP fusion protein can be a powerful tool to investigate the targeting of CD45RA on leukemia cells, biological activity of the target and possibly for the genetic manipulation of the antibody. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating

  8. High CD45 surface expression determines relapse risk in children with precursor B-cell and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to the ALL-BFM 2000 protocol

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Gunnar; Rhein, Peter; Mitlöhner, Rita; Zimmermann, Martin; Bandapalli, Obul R.; Romey, Renja; Moericke, Anja; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Ratei, Richard; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Kulozik, Andreas E.; Schrappe, Martin; Stanulla, Martin; Karawajew, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Further improvement of outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia could be achieved by identifying additional high-risk patients who may benefit from intensified treatment. We earlier identified PTPRC (CD45) gene expression as a potential new stratification marker and now analyzed the prognostic relevance of CD45 protein expression. CD45 was measured by flow cytometry in 1065 patients treated according to the ALL-BFM-2000 protocol. The 75th percentile was used as cut-off to distinguish a CD45-high from a CD45-low group. As mean CD45 expression was significantly higher in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia than in B-cell-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (P<0.0001), the analysis was performed separately in both groups. In B-cell-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia we observed a significant association of a high CD45 expression with older age, high initial white blood cell count, ETV6/RUNX1 negativity, absence of high hyperdiploidy (P<0.0001), MLL/AF4 positivity (P=0.002), BCR/ABL1 positivity (P=0.007), prednisone poor response (P=0.002) and minimal residual disease (P<0.0001). In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia we observed a significant association with initial white blood cell count (P=0.0003), prednisone poor response (P=0.01), and minimal residual disease (P=0.02). Compared to CD45-low patients, CD45-high patients had a lower event-free survival rate (B-cell-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 72±3% versus 86±1%, P<0.0001; T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 60±8% versus 78±4%, P=0.02), which was mainly attributable to a higher cumulative relapse incidence (B-cell-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 22±3% versus 11±1%, P<0.0001; T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 31±8% versus 11±3%, P=0.003) and kept its significance in multivariate analysis considering sex, age, initial white blood cell count, and minimal residual disease in B-cell-precursor- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and additionally presence of ETV6/RUNX1

  9. High CD45 surface expression determines relapse risk in children with precursor B-cell and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to the ALL-BFM 2000 protocol.

    PubMed

    Cario, Gunnar; Rhein, Peter; Mitlöhner, Rita; Zimmermann, Martin; Bandapalli, Obul R; Romey, Renja; Moericke, Anja; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Ratei, Richard; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Kulozik, Andreas E; Schrappe, Martin; Stanulla, Martin; Karawajew, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Further improvement of outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia could be achieved by identifying additional high-risk patients who may benefit from intensified treatment. We earlier identified PTPRC (CD45) gene expression as a potential new stratification marker and now analyzed the prognostic relevance of CD45 protein expression. CD45 was measured by flow cytometry in 1065 patients treated according to the ALL-BFM-2000 protocol. The 75(th) percentile was used as cut-off to distinguish a CD45-high from a CD45-low group. As mean CD45 expression was significantly higher in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia than in B-cell-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (P<0.0001), the analysis was performed separately in both groups. In B-cell-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia we observed a significant association of a high CD45 expression with older age, high initial white blood cell count, ETV6/RUNX1 negativity, absence of high hyperdiploidy (P<0.0001), MLL/AF4 positivity (P=0.002), BCR/ABL1 positivity (P=0.007), prednisone poor response (P=0.002) and minimal residual disease (P<0.0001). In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia we observed a significant association with initial white blood cell count (P=0.0003), prednisone poor response (P=0.01), and minimal residual disease (P=0.02). Compared to CD45-low patients, CD45-high patients had a lower event-free survival rate (B-cell-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 72 ± 3% versus 86 ± 1%, P<0.0001; T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 60 ± 8% versus 78 ± 4%, P=0.02), which was mainly attributable to a higher cumulative relapse incidence (B-cell-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 22 ± 3% versus 11 ± 1%, P<0.0001; T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 31 ± 8% versus 11 ± 3%, P=0.003) and kept its significance in multivariate analysis considering sex, age, initial white blood cell count, and minimal residual disease in B-cell-precursor- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and additionally

  10. Low expression of CD39+/CD45RA+ on regulatory T cells (Treg) cells in type 1 diabetic children in contrast to high expression of CD101+/CD129+ on Treg cells in children with coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, K; Tompa, A; Rydén, A; Faresjö, M

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and coeliac disease are both characterized by an autoimmune feature. As T1D and coeliac disease share the same risk genes, patients risk subsequently developing the other disease. This study aimed to investigate the expression of T helper (Th), T cytotoxic (Tc) and regulatory T cells (Treg) in T1D and/or coeliac disease children in comparison to healthy children. Subgroups of T cells (Th : CD4+ or Tc : CD8+); naive (CD27+CD28+CD45RA+CCR7+), central memory (CD27+CD28+CD45RA−CCR7+), effector memory (early differentiated; CD27+CD28+CD45RA−CCR7− and late differentiated; CD27−CD28−CD45RA−CCR7−), terminally differentiated effector cells (TEMRA; CD27−CD28−CD45RA+CCR7−) and Treg (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD127−) cells, and their expression of CD39, CD45RA, CD101 and CD129, were studied by flow cytometry in T1D and/or coeliac disease children or without any of these diseases (reference group). Children diagnosed with both T1D and coeliac disease showed a higher percentage of TEMRA CD4+ cells (P < 0·05), but lower percentages of both early and late effector memory CD8+ cells (P < 0·05) compared to references. Children with exclusively T1D had lower median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) (P < 0·05) and also a lower percentage of CD39+ and CD45RA+ within the Treg population (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+CD127−) (P < 0·05). Children with exclusively coeliac disease had a higher MFI of CD101 (P < 0·01), as well as a higher percentage of CD129+ (P < 0·05), in the CD4+CD25hi lymphocyte population, compared to references. In conclusion, children with combined T1D and coeliac disease have a higher percentage of differentiated CD4+ cells compared to CD8+ cells. T1D children show signs of low CD39+/CD45RA+ Treg cells that may indicate loss of suppressive function. Conversely, children with coeliac disease show signs of CD101+/CD129+ Treg cells that may indicate suppressor activity. PMID:25421756

  11. Catalytic domains of the LAR and CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatases from Escherichia coli expression systems: Purification and characterization for specificity and mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Hyeongjin; Ramer, S.E.; Itoh, Michiyasu

    1992-01-14

    The cytoplasmic domains of two human transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), LAR and CD45, have been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to near-homogeneity, and compared for catalytic efficiency toward several phosphotyrosine-containing peptide substrates. A 615-residue LAR fragment (LAR-D1D2) containing both tandemly repeated PTPase domains shows almost identical specific activity and high catalytic efficiency as the 40-kDa single-domain LAR-D1 fragment, consistent with a single functional active site in the 70-kDa LAR-D1D2 enzyme. A 90-kDa fragment of the human leukocyte CD45 PTPase, containing two similar tandemly repeated PTPase domains, shows parallel specificity to LAR-D1 and LAR-D1D2 with a high k{sub cat}/K{sub M}more » value for a phosphotyrosyl undecapeptide. Sufficient purified LAR-D1 and LAR-D1D2 PTPases were available to demonstrate enzymatic exchange of {sup 18}O from {sup 18}O{sub 4} inorganic phosphate into H{sub 2} {sup 16}O at rates of {approximately}1 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The oxygen-18 exchange probably proceeds via a phosphoenzyme intermediate. Brief incubation of all three PTPase fragments with a ({sup 32}P)phosphotyrosyl peptide substrate prior to quench with SDS sample buffer and gel electrophoresis led to autoradiographic detection of {sup 32}P-labeled enzymes. Pulse/chase studies on the LAR {sup 32}P-enzyme showed turnover of the labeled phosphoryl group.« less

  12. CD45RA, a specific marker for leukaemia stem cell sub-populations in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Bas; Valkering, Matthijs; Wouters, Rolf; van Amerongen, Rosa; Hanekamp, Diana; Kwidama, Zinia; Valk, Peter; Ossenkoppele, Gert; Zeijlemaker, Wendelien; Kaspers, Gertjan; Cloos, Jacqueline; Schuurhuis, Gerrit J

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy resistant leukaemic stem cells (LSC) are thought to be responsible for relapses after therapy in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Flow cytometry can discriminate CD34(+) CD38(-) LSC and normal haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) by using aberrant expression of markers and scatter properties. However, not all LSC can be identified using currently available markers, so new markers are needed. CD45RA is expressed on leukaemic cells in the majority of AML patients. We investigated the potency of CD45RA to specifically identify LSC and HSC and improve LSC quantification. Compared to our best other markers (CLL-1, also termed CLEC12A, CD33 and CD123), CD45RA was the most reliable marker. Patients with high percentages (>90%) of CD45RA on CD34(+) CD38(-) LSC have 1·69-fold higher scatter values compared to HSC (P < 0·001), indicating a more mature CD34(+) CD38(-) phenotype. Patients with low (<10%) or intermediate (10-90%) CD45RA expression on LSC showed no significant differences to HSC (1·12- and 1·15-fold higher, P = 0·31 and P = 0·44, respectively). CD45RA-positive LSC tended to represent more favourable cytogenetic/molecular markers. In conclusion, CD45RA contributes to more accurate LSC detection and is recommended for inclusion in stem cell tracking panels. CD45RA may contribute to define new LSC-specific therapies and to monitor effects of anti-LSC treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The continuum of stem cell transdifferentiation: possibility of hematopoietic stem cell plasticity with concurrent CD45 expression.

    PubMed

    Udani, V M

    2006-02-01

    Recent years have seen a surge of scientific research examining adult stem cell plasticity. For example, the hematopoietic stem cell has been shown to give rise to skin, respiratory epithelium, intestinal epithelium, renal epithelium, liver parenchyma, pancreas, skeletal muscle, vascular endothelium, myocardium, and central nervous system (CNS) neurons. The potential for such stem cell plasticity seems to be enhanced by stressors such as injury and neoplasia. Interestingly, recent studies have demonstrated that hematopoietic stem cells may be able to adopt certain nonhematopoietic phenotypes, such as endothelial, neural, or skeletal muscle phenotypes, without entirely losing their initial hematopoietic identity. We propose that transdifferentiation can, in certain conditions, be a partial rather than a complete event, and we encourage further investigation into the phenomenon of a stem cell simultaneously expressing phenotypic features of two distinct cell fates.

  14. Expression of interleukin-2 receptor alpha and CD45RO antigen on T lymphocytes cultured with rubella virus antigen, compared with humoral immunity in rubella vaccinees.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, M; Ihara, T; Nakano, T; Ito, M; Kamiya, H

    1999-04-09

    We studied the expression of interleukin-2 receptor alpha (CD25)+ CD45RO+ CD4+ T lymphocytes (T-cell activation) in response to the rubella virus (RV) antigen (Matsuura strain, Biken, Osaka, Japan) using three-color-staining flow cytometry. The subjects were 48 healthy children (3-14 years old, 31 boys and 17 girls), who had received either monovalent vaccine (n = 5; mean age, 13.2 years) or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (n = 21; mean age, 10.5 years), had been naturally infected (n = 5; mean age, 11.4 years), or had been neither vaccinated nor naturally infected (n = 17; mean age, 10.0 years) and 62 healthy adolescents and adults (15-37 years old; 19 males and 43 females), who had received monovalent vaccine (n = 26, mean age, 27.4 years), had been naturally infected (n = 8; mean age, 24.0 years), or had been neither vaccinated nor naturally infected (n = 8; mean age, 16.5 years). Ninety-four of 110 subjects had HI titers > or = 1:16. T-cell activation in these subjects was significantly higher than that in 6 seronegative (HI titers < 1:8) subjects (p < 0.05). T-cell activation did not differ significantly with the history of exposure to RV. HI antibody titers > or = 1:16 and T-cell activation persisted in vaccinated subjects for > or = 20 years and was similar to those in naturally infected subjects. Our results suggest that cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity persist for at least 20 years after vaccination.

  15. CD45RA and CD45RO isoforms in infected malnourished and infected well-nourished children

    PubMed Central

    Nájera, O; González, C; Toledo, G; López, L; Cortés, E; Betancourt, M; Ortiz, R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the distribution in vivo of CD4+CD45RA+/CD45RO− (naive), CD4+CD45RA+/CD45RO+ (Ddull) and CD4+CD45RO+ (memory) lymphocytes differs in malnourished infected and well-nourished infected children. The expression of CD45RA (naive) and CD45RO (memory) antigens on CD4+ lymphocytes was analysed by flow cytometry in a prospectively followed cohort of 15 malnourished infected, 12 well-nourished infected and 10 well-nourished uninfected children. Malnourished infected children showed higher fractions of Ddull cells (11·4 ± 0·7%) and lower fractions of memory cells (20·3 ± 1·7%) than the well-nourished infected group (8·8 ± 0·8 and 28·1 ± 1·8%, respectively). Well-nourished infected children showed increased percentages of memory cells, an expected response to infection. Impairment of the transition switch to the CD45 isoforms in malnourished children may explain these findings, and may be one of the mechanisms involved in immunodeficiency in these children. PMID:11737063

  16. Expression of CD 68, CD 45 and human leukocyte antigen-DR in central and peripheral giant cell granuloma, giant cell tumor of long bones, and tuberculous granuloma: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop; Sherlin, Herald J; Ramani, Pratibha; Natesan, Anuja; Premkumar, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Multinucleated giant cells (MNCs) form an integral part of numerous bone and soft tissue tumors, tumor-like lesions and are often associated with granulomas of immunological and nonimmunological origin. The presence of various types of giant cells depends on the lesions in which they are present which are difficult to be diagnosed under routine histological techniques. Immunohistochemistry can be used for a better diagnosis and understanding of the origin of various giant cells using various markers of immune response like human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) and those expressed on monocytes and macrophages like CD 68 and leukocyte common antigen (LCA). The study group consisted of 10 cases of giant cell tumor (GCT) of long bones, tuberculous granuloma, and giant cell granuloma to evaluate and analyze the expression pattern of LCA, CD 68, and HLA-DR in various giant cell lesions. Strong expression of CD 68 was observed in 80% of the lesions, strong and moderate expression of CD 45 observed in 70% of the lesions among and within the groups. In contrast, HLA-DR demonstrated negative expression in 80% of cases except for tuberculous granuloma where all the 10 cases showed moderate to strong immunoreactivity. CD 68 and CD 45 expression was found in central giant cell granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma and GCT, suggesting the origin from mononuclear phagocyte system and considering their clinical behavior of osteoclast type. High expressivity of HLA-DR in tuberculous granulomas which is an essential factor for presentation of the microbial antigen to CD 4 helper cells thus reassuring the fact that they are up-regulated in response to infection.

  17. Expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor alpha and CD45RO antigen on T-lymphocytes cultured with measles virus antigens, compared with humoral immunity in measles vaccinees.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, M; Ihara, T; Nakano, T; Ito, M; Kamiya, H

    1999-03-17

    In response to two types of measles virus (MV) antigens, a vaccine strain CAM and a wild strain isolated in 1994, the expression of IL-2 receptor alpha (CD25)(+)CD45RO(+)CD4(+) T-lymphocytes (T-cell activation) was analyzed by flow cytometry. In 75 healthy subjects with measles hemagglutination inhibition tests > or =1:16, the percentage of T-cell activation was significantly increased compared with that in seronegative individuals (p) < 0.05). Moreover, the T-cell expression was not significantly different among the vaccinated (n = 38), the naturally infected (n = 28) and the subclinically infected (exposed with wild type without history of measles infection and HI titers > or =1:16) (n = 10) groups. T-cell activation stimulated with MV antigens and HI antibody titers persisted for almost 30 years in the vaccinated group. These results suggest that cell-mediated immunity persists for long periods after vaccination and does not be influenced by antigenic drift.

  18. An extracatalytic function of CD45 in B cells is mediated by CD22

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Sarah; Noviski, Mark; Mueller, James L.; Chuwonpad, Ammarina; Raschke, William C.; Weiss, Arthur; Zikherman, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The receptor-like tyrosine phosphatase CD45 regulates antigen receptor signaling by dephosphorylating the C-terminal inhibitory tyrosine of the src family kinases. However, despite its abundance, the function of the large, alternatively spliced extracellular domain of CD45 has remained elusive. We used normally spliced CD45 transgenes either incorporating a phosphatase-inactivating point mutation or lacking the cytoplasmic domain to uncouple the enzymatic and noncatalytic functions of CD45 in lymphocytes. Although these transgenes did not alter T-cell signaling or development irrespective of endogenous CD45 expression, both partially rescued the phenotype of CD45-deficient B cells. We identify a noncatalytic role for CD45 in regulating tonic, but not antigen-mediated, B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling through modulation of the function of the inhibitory coreceptor CD22. This finding has important implications for understanding how naïve B cells maintain tonic BCR signaling while restraining inappropriate antigen-dependent activation to preserve clonal “ignorance.” PMID:26561584

  19. Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs in autistic brain.

    PubMed

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2013-03-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a significant hereditary component, but the implicated genetic loci are heterogeneous and complex. Consequently, there is a gap in understanding how diverse genomic aberrations all result in one clinical ASD phenotype. Gene expression studies from autism brain tissue have demonstrated that aberrantly expressed protein-coding genes may converge onto common molecular pathways, potentially reconciling the strong heritability and shared clinical phenotypes with the genomic heterogeneity of the disorder. However, the regulation of gene expression is extremely complex and governed by many mechanisms, including noncoding RNAs. Yet no study in ASD brain tissue has assessed for changes in regulatory long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which represent a large proportion of the human transcriptome, and actively modulate mRNA expression. To assess if aberrant expression of lncRNAs may play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of ASD, we profiled over 33,000 annotated lncRNAs and 30,000 mRNA transcripts from postmortem brain tissue of autistic and control prefrontal cortex and cerebellum by microarray. We detected over 200 differentially expressed lncRNAs in ASD, which were enriched for genomic regions containing genes related to neurodevelopment and psychiatric disease. Additionally, comparison of differences in expression of mRNAs between prefrontal cortex and cerebellum within individual donors showed ASD brains had more transcriptional homogeneity. Moreover, this was also true of the lncRNA transcriptome. Our results suggest that further investigation of lncRNA expression in autistic brain may further elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of this disorder.

  20. Aberrant expression of NKL homeobox gene HLX in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Stefan; Pommerenke, Claudia; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Drexler, Hans G

    2018-03-06

    NKL homeobox genes are basic regulators of cell and tissue differentiation, many acting as oncogenes in T-cell leukemia. Recently, we described an hematopoietic NKL-code comprising six particular NKL homeobox genes expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid progenitors, unmasking their physiological roles in the development of these cell types. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a B-cell malignancy showing aberrant activity of several developmental genes resulting in disturbed B-cell differentiation. To examine potential concordances in abnormal lymphoid differentiation of T- and B-cell malignancies we analyzed the expression of the hematopoietic NKL-code associated genes in HL, comprising HHEX, HLX, MSX1, NKX2-3, NKX3-1 and NKX6-3. Our approach revealed aberrant HLX activity in 8 % of classical HL patients and additionally in HL cell line L-540. Accordingly, to identify upstream regulators and downstream target genes of HLX we used L-540 cells as a model and performed chromosome and genome analyses, comparative expression profiling and functional assays via knockdown and overexpression experiments therein. These investigations excluded chromosomal rearrangements of the HLX locus at 1q41 and demonstrated that STAT3 operated directly as transcriptional activator of the HLX gene. Moreover, subcellular analyses showed highly enriched STAT3 protein in the nucleus of L-540 cells which underwent cytoplasmic translocation by repressing deacetylation. Finally, HLX inhibited transcription of B-cell differentiation factors MSX1, BCL11A and SPIB and of pro-apoptotic factor BCL2L11/BIM, thereby suppressing Etoposide-induced cell death. Collectively, we propose that aberrantly expressed NKL homeobox gene HLX is part of a pathological gene network in HL, driving deregulated B-cell differentiation and survival.

  1. CXCR4(+)CD45(-) BMMNC subpopulation is superior to unfractionated BMMNCs for protection after ischemic stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianping; Liu, Xi; Lu, Hong; Jiang, Chao; Cui, Xiaobing; Yu, Lie; Fu, Xiaojie; Li, Qian; Wang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Cell-based therapy is considered to be a promising therapeutic strategy for stroke treatment. Although unfractionated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) have been tried in both preclinical and clinical trials, the effective subpopulations need to be identified. In this study, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to harvest the CXCR4(+)CD45(+) and CXCR4(+)CD45(-) BMMNC subpopulations from transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein. We then allogeneically grafted unfractionated BMMNCs or a subpopulation into mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and compared the effects on stroke outcomes. We found that CXCR4(+)CD45(-) BMMNCs, but not CXCR4(+)CD45(+) BMMNCs, more effectively reduced infarction volume and neurologic deficits than did unfractionated BMMNCs. Brain tissue from the ischemic hemisphere of mice treated with CXCR4(+)CD45(-) BMMNCs had higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and lower levels of TNF-α than did tissue from mice treated with unfractionated BMMNCs. In contrast, CXCR4(+)CD45(+) BMMNCs showed an increase in TNF-α. Additionally, CXCR4(+)CD45(+) and CXCR4(+)CD45(-) populations exhibited more robust migration into the lesion areas and were better able to express cell-specific markers of different linages than were the unfractionated BMMNCs. Endothelial and astrocyte cell markers did not colocalize with eGFP(+) cells in the brains of tMCAO mice that received CXCR4(+)CD45(+) BMMNCs. In vitro, the CXCR4(+)CD45(-) BMMNCs expressed significantly more Oct-4 and Nanog mRNA than did the unfractionated BMMNCs. However, we did not detect gene expression of these two pluripotent markers in CXCR4(+)CD45(+) BMMNCs. Taken together, our study shows for the first time that the CXCR4(+)CD45(-) BMMNC subpopulation is superior to unfractionated BMMNCs in ameliorating cerebral damage in a mouse model of tMCAO and could represent a new therapeutic approach for stroke treatment. Copyright © 2014

  2. Prognostic value of CD8CD45RO tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Richard; Coppola, Domenico; Wang, Emilie; Chang, Young Doo; Kim, Yuhree; Anaya, Daniel; Kim, Dae Won

    2018-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy arising from the biliary tract epithelial cells with poor prognosis. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s and programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have a prognostic impact in various solid tumors. We aimed to investigate TILs and PD-L1 expression and their clinical relevance in cholangiocarcinoma. Tumor samples from 44 patients with resected and histologically verified extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were evaluated for CD8, CD45RO and PD-L1 expression, and their correlations with clinicopathological data and survival data were analyzed. Total 44 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues were evaluated. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s were observed in 30 (68%) tumors. Among them, 14 had CD8+CD45RO+ TILs. PD-L1 was expressed on cancer cells in 10 (22.7%) tumors in 34 evaluable extrahepatic cholangiocarciniomas. The presence of CD8+ TILs or CD8+CD45RO+ TILs was not associated with clinical staging or tumor differentiation. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with CD8+CD45RO+ TILs had longer overall survival (OS) on univariate (P = 0.013) and multivariate (P = 0.012) analysis. Neither CD8+TIL nor PD-L1 expression on cancer cells correlated significantly with OS. These results add to the understanding of the clinical features associated with CD8 TILs and PD-L1 expression in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and they support the potential rationale of using PD-1 blockade immunotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma.

  3. CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells have hematopoietic properties in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    SciTech Connect

    Nobuhisa, Ikuo, E-mail: nobuhisa.scr@mri.tmd.ac.jp; Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811; Yamasaki, Shoutarou

    Long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells first arise from the aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in a mouse embryo. We have previously reported that in cultures of the dispersed AGM region, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup +} cells possess the ability to reconstitute multilineage hematopoietic cells, but investigations are needed to show that this is not a cultured artifact and to clarify when and how this population is present. Based on the expression profile of CD45 and c-Kit in freshly dissociated AGM cells from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E12.5 and aorta cells in the AGM from E13.5 to E15.5, we defined sixmore » cell populations (CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup -}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup low}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup high}, and CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup very} {sup low}). Among these six populations, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells were most able to form hematopoietic cell colonies, but their ability decreased after E11.5 and was undetectable at E13.5 and later. The CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells showed multipotency in vitro. We demonstrated further enrichment of hematopoietic activity in the Hoechst dye-effluxing side population among the CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells. Here, we determined that CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells arise from the lateral plate mesoderm using embryonic stem cell-derived differentiation system. In conclusion, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells are the major hematopoietic cells of mouse AGM.« less

  4. HnRNP L and L-like cooperate in multiple-exon regulation of CD45 alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Preußner, Marco; Schreiner, Silke; Hung, Lee-Hsueh; Porstner, Martina; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Benes, Vladimir; Rätsch, Gunnar; Bindereif, Albrecht

    2012-01-01

    CD45 encodes a trans-membrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase expressed in diverse cells of the immune system. By combinatorial use of three variable exons 4–6, isoforms are generated that differ in their extracellular domain, thereby modulating phosphatase activity and immune response. Alternative splicing of these CD45 exons involves two heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins, hnRNP L and its cell-type specific paralog hnRNP L-like (LL). To address the complex combinatorial splicing of exons 4–6, we investigated hnRNP L/LL protein expression in human B-cells in relation to CD45 splicing patterns, applying RNA-Seq. In addition, mutational and RNA-binding analyses were carried out in HeLa cells. We conclude that hnRNP LL functions as the major CD45 splicing repressor, with two CA elements in exon 6 as its primary target. In exon 4, one element is targeted by both hnRNP L and LL. In contrast, exon 5 was never repressed on its own and only co-regulated with exons 4 and 6. Stable L/LL interaction requires CD45 RNA, specifically exons 4 and 6. We propose a novel model of combinatorial alternative splicing: HnRNP L and LL cooperate on the CD45 pre-mRNA, bridging exons 4 and 6 and looping out exon 5, thereby achieving full repression of the three variable exons. PMID:22402488

  5. CD45-mediated signaling pathway is involved in Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL)-induced proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in human PBMC

    SciTech Connect

    Pujari, Radha; Eligar, Sachin M.; Kumar, Natesh

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL, a potent mitogenic and complex N-glycan specific lectin binds to CD45 on PBMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL triggers CD45-mediated signaling involved in activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of CD45 PTPase signaling blocks RBL-induced ZAP70 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL-CD45 mediated signaling is crucial for RBL-induced immunodulatory activities. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the mitogenic and immunostimulatory activities of Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), purified from phytopathogenic fungus R. bataticola in human PBMC. The lectin demonstrates specificity towards glycoproteins containing complex N-glycans. Since CD45-protein tyrosine phosphatase that abundantly expresses N-glycans is important in T-cell signaling, the study aimed to investigate themore » involvement of CD45 in the immunomodulatory activities of RBL. Flowcytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RBL exhibited binding to PBMC and colocalized with CD45. The binding was comparable in cells expressing different CD45 isoforms-RA, -RB and -RO. CD45 blocking antibody reduced the binding and proliferation of PBMC induced by RBL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin inhibited RBL-induced proliferation, expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. RBL-induced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly inhibited in presence of dephostatin. Also, dephostatin blocked phosphorylation of p38MAPK and STAT-5 that was crucial for the biological functions of RBL. The study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in RBL-induced PBMC proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5.« less

  6. Side scatter versus CD45 flow cytometric plot can distinguish acute leukaemia subtypes.

    PubMed

    Saksena, Annapurna; Gautam, Parul; Desai, Parth; Gupta, Naresh; Dubey, A P; Singh, Tejinder

    2016-05-01

    Flow cytometry is an important tool to diagnose acute leukaemia. Attempts are being made to find the minimal number of antibodies for correctly diagnosing acute leukaemia subtypes. The present study was designed to evaluate the analysis of side scatter (SSC) versus CD45 flow dot plot to distinguish acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), with minimal immunological markers. One hundred consecutive cases of acute leukaemia were evaluated for blast cluster on SSC versus CD45 plots. The parameters studied included visual shape, CD45 and side scatter expression, continuity with residual granulocytes/lymphocytes/monocytes and ratio of maximum width to maximum height (w/h). The final diagnosis of ALL and AML and their subtypes was made by morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping. Two sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann Whitney) test and Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank tests were applied to elucidate the significance of the above ratios of blast cluster for diagnosis of ALL, AML and their subtypes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and the optimal cut-offs of the w/h ratio to distinguish between ALL and AML determined. Of the 100 cases, 57 of ALL and 43 cases of AML were diagnosed. The median w/h ratio of blast population was 3.8 for ALL and 1 for AML (P<0.001). ROC had area under curve of 0.9772.The optimal cut-off of the w/h ratio for distinction of ALL from AML was found to be 1.6. Our findings suggest that if w/h ratio on SSC versus CD45 plot is less than 1.6, AML may be considered, and if it is more than 1.6, ALL may be diagnosed. Using morphometric analysis of the blast cluster on SSC versus CD45, it was possible to distinguish between ALL and AML, and their subtypes.

  7. Aberrant expression of HMB-45 in traumatized melanocytic nevi.

    PubMed

    Leleux, Todd M; Prieto, Victor G; Diwan, A Hafeez

    2012-09-01

    Assessment of histologic and immunohistochemical maturation (with HMB-45 and anti-Ki-67) may be helpful in differentiating benign melanocytic nevi (BMN) from malignant melanoma. Recently, we reported loss of maturation and aberrant immunohistochemical findings in melanocytic nevi after liquid nitrogen cryotherapy (Adeniran et al, J Am Acad Dermatol 2009;61:341-5). Herein we report a similar phenomenon identified in traumatized melanocytic nevi (TMN). We sought to evaluate the histologic and immunohistochemical findings in early and late stages of traumatized nevi. Twenty-four cases of TMN were retrieved from the pathology archives. These were then assessed by two pathologists (T.L. and A.H.D.) using HMB-45 and MIB-1 (for Ki-67) antibodies. TMN showed some of the following findings: epidermal changes (parakeratosis, ulceration, serum crust, flattening of the epidermis) and dermal changes including fibrosis and the presence of melanophages. In some cases, there was architectural disorder of the overlying melanocytes, with crowding in the basal layer, but without significant pagetoid spread. Occasionally, the dermal scar contained larger, more epithelioid-appearing melanocytes than those beneath the scar. Fifty-four percent of TMN lacked obvious immunohistochemical maturation with HMB-45, since nevus cells within the scar or directly beneath it were strongly labeled. None of the TMN showed appreciable labeling for Ki-67. The exact clinical duration between trauma and biopsy could not be determined. Loss of maturation with HMB-45 in TMN can be a diagnostic pitfall in challenging cases. Concurrent evaluation of MIB-1 expression, along with the characteristic histologic features of trauma, should allow the correct diagnosis to be reached. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expressing freedom and taking liberties: the paradoxes of aberrant science.

    PubMed

    Little, M

    2006-06-01

    Complete freedom does not exist, despite people's preparedness to die for it. Scientific freedom is much defended and yet much misunderstood. Scientists have limits imposed on their freedom by the disciplines and discourse communities in which they place themselves. Freedom within these socially constructed constraints needs to be distinguished from taking liberties with the rules and practices that make up these constraints, and validate the activities of special groups within society. Scientists (and the public) perceive taking liberties with science's rules and practices as aberrant science, and they often react punitively. Aberrant science can be broadly examined under four headings: wicked science, naughty science, dysfunctional science, and ideologically unacceptable science. When we examine examples of perceived aberrant science, we find that these categories of "misconduct" are connected and often confused. Scientific freedom needs to be redefined with due regard to current understandings of scientists as human beings facing powerful social pressures to deliver results of a particular kind.

  9. Recognition of Naegleriae ameba surface protein epitopes by anti-human CD45 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ravine, Terrence J; Polski, Jacek M; Jenkins, James

    2010-04-01

    Phagocytosis is a highly conserved mechanism exhibited by both free-living amebas and mammalian blood cells. Similarities demonstrated by either cell type during engulfment of the same bacterial species may imply analogous surface proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. The increased availability of anti-human leukocyte antibodies or clusters of differentiation (CD) markers used in conjunction with flow cytometric (FCM) and/or immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis provides investigators with a relatively easy method to screen different cell populations for comparable plasma membrane proteins. In this study, we incubated Naegleria and Acanthamoeba amebas with several directly conjugated anti-human leukocyte monoclonal antibodies (mAb) for similarly recognized amebic epitopes. CD marker selection was based upon a recognized role of each mAb in phagocyte activation and/or uptake of bacteria. These included CD14, CD45, and CD206. In FCM, only one CD45 antibody demonstrated strong reactivity with both Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria gruberi that was not expressed in similarly tested Acanthamoeba species. Additional testing of N. gruberi by IHC demonstrated reactivity to a different CD45 antibody. Our results suggest a possible utility of using anti-human leukocyte antibodies to screen amebic cells for similarly expressed protein epitopes. In doing so, several important items must be considered when selecting potential mAbs for testing to increase the probability of a positive result.

  10. CD45RO enriches for activated, highly mutated human germinal center B cells

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Stephen M.; Harp, Natessa; Patel, Darshna; Zhang, Jeffrey; Willson, Savannah; Kim, Yoon J.; Clanton, Christian

    2007-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus regarding the influence of different CD45 isoforms during peripheral B-cell development. Examining correlations between surface CD45RO expression and various physiologic processes ongoing during the germinal center (GC) reaction, we hypothesized that GC B cells, like T cells, that up-regulate surface RO should progressively acquire phenotypes commonly associated with activated, differentiating lymphocytes. GC B cells (IgD−CD38+) were subdivided into 3 surface CD45RO fractions: RO−, RO+/−, and RO+. We show here that the average number of mutations per IgVH transcript increased in direct correlation with surface RO levels. Conjunctional use of RO and CD69 further delineated low/moderately and highly mutated fractions. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mRNA was slightly reduced among RO+ GC B cells, suggesting that higher mutation averages are unlikely due to elevated somatic mutation activity. Instead, RO+ GC B cells were negative for Annexin V, comprised mostly (93%) of CD77− centrocytes, and were enriched for CD69+ cells. Collectively, RO+ GC B cells occupy what seems to be a specialized niche comprised mostly of centrocytes that may be in transition between activation states. These findings are among the first to sort GC B cells into populations enriched for live mutated cells solely using a single extracellular marker. PMID:17644737

  11. Aberrant membranous expression of β-catenin predicts poor prognosis in patients with craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongping; Xu, Jianguo; Huang, Siqing; You, Chao

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate β-catenin expression in craniopharyngioma patients and determine its significance in predicting the prognosis of this disease. Fifty craniopharyngioma patients were enrolled in this study. Expression of β-catenin in tumor specimens collected from these patients was examined through immunostaining. In addition, mutation of exon 3 in the β-catenin gene, CTNNB1, was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction, denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography, and DNA sequencing. Based on these results, we explored the association between membranous β-catenin expression, clinical and pathologic characteristics, and prognoses in these patients. Of all craniopharyngioma specimens, 31 (62.0%) had preserved membranous β-catenin expression, whereas the remaining 19 specimens (38.0%) displayed aberrant expression. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between aberrant membranous β-catenin expression and CTNNB1 exon 3 mutation, as well as between aberrant membranous β-catenin expression and the histopathologic type of craniopharyngioma and type of resection in our patient population. Furthermore, aberrant membranous β-catenin expression was found to be associated with poor patient survival. Results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis further confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that aberrant membranous β-catenin expression was significantly correlated with poor survival in patients with craniopharyngioma. This raises the possibility for use of aberrant membranous β-catenin expression as an independent risk factor in predicting the prognosis of this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aberrant ATRX protein expression is associated with poor overall survival in NF1-MPNST

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsiang-Chih; Eulo, Vanessa; Apicelli, Anthony J.; Pekmezci, Melike; Tao, Yu; Luo, Jingqin; Hirbe, Angela C.; Dahiya, Sonika

    2018-01-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive soft tissue sarcomas that can occur sporadically or in the setting of the Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome. These tumors carry a dismal overall survival. Previous work in our lab had identified ATRX chromatin remodeler (ATRX), previously termed, Alpha Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome X Linked as a gene mutated in a subset of MPNSTs. Given the great need for novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for MPNSTs, we sought to determine the expression of ATRX in a larger subset of sporadic and NF1 associated MPNSTs (NF1-MPNSTs). We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) on 74 MPNSTs (43 NF1-associated and 31 sporadic), 21 plexiform neurofibromas, and 9 atypical neurofibromas. Using this approach, we have demonstrated that 58% (43/74) of MPNSTs have aberrant ATRX expression (<80% nuclear expression) compared to only 7% (2/30) of benign (plexiform and atypical) neurofibromas. Second, we demonstrated that 65% (28/43) of NF1-MPNSTs displayed aberrant ATRX expression as did 48% (15/31) of sporadic MPNSTs. Finally, we show that aberrant ATRX expression was associated with a significantly decreased overall survival for patients with NF1-MPNST (median OS of 17.9 months for aberrant expression and median OS not met (>120 months) for intact expression, p = 0.0276). In summary, we demonstrate that ATRX is aberrantly expressed in the majority of NF1-MPNSTs, but not plexiform or atypical neurofibromas. Additionally, aberrant ATRX expression is associated with decreased overall survival in NF1-MPNST, but not sporadic MPNST and may serve as a prognostic marker for patients with NF1-MPNST. PMID:29796169

  13. Developing in vitro expanded CD45RA+ regulatory T cells as an adoptive cell therapy for Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Canavan, James B; Scottà, Cristiano; Vossenkämper, Anna; Goldberg, Rimma; Elder, Matthew J; Shoval, Irit; Marks, Ellen; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Lo, Jonathan W; Powell, Nick; Fazekasova, Henrieta; Irving, Peter M; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Howard, Jane K; Yagel, Simcha; Afzali, Behdad; MacDonald, Thomas T; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria P; Shpigel, Nahum Y; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lord, Graham M

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediate dominant peripheral tolerance and treat experimental colitis. Tregs can be expanded from patient blood and were safely used in recent phase 1 studies in graft versus host disease and type 1 diabetes. Treg cell therapy is also conceptually attractive for Crohn's disease (CD). However, barriers exist to this approach. The stability of Tregs expanded from Crohn's blood is unknown. The potential for adoptively transferred Tregs to express interleukin-17 and exacerbate Crohn's lesions is of concern. Mucosal T cells are resistant to Treg-mediated suppression in active CD. The capacity for expanded Tregs to home to gut and lymphoid tissue is unknown. Methods To define the optimum population for Treg cell therapy in CD, CD4+CD25+CD127loCD45RA+ and CD4+CD25+CD127loCD45RA− Treg subsets were isolated from patients’ blood and expanded in vitro using a workflow that can be readily transferred to a good manufacturing practice background. Results Tregs can be expanded from the blood of patients with CD to potential target dose within 22–24 days. Expanded CD45RA+ Tregs have an epigenetically stable FOXP3 locus and do not convert to a Th17 phenotype in vitro, in contrast to CD45RA− Tregs. CD45RA+ Tregs highly express α4β7 integrin, CD62L and CC motif receptor 7 (CCR7). CD45RA+ Tregs also home to human small bowel in a C.B-17 severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) xenotransplant model. Importantly, in vitro expansion enhances the suppressive ability of CD45RA+ Tregs. These cells also suppress activation of lamina propria and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes isolated from inflamed Crohn's mucosa. Conclusions CD4+CD25+CD127loCD45RA+ Tregs may be the most appropriate population from which to expand Tregs for autologous Treg therapy for CD, paving the way for future clinical trials. PMID:25715355

  14. Developing in vitro expanded CD45RA+ regulatory T cells as an adoptive cell therapy for Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Canavan, James B; Scottà, Cristiano; Vossenkämper, Anna; Goldberg, Rimma; Elder, Matthew J; Shoval, Irit; Marks, Ellen; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Lo, Jonathan W; Powell, Nick; Fazekasova, Henrieta; Irving, Peter M; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Howard, Jane K; Yagel, Simcha; Afzali, Behdad; MacDonald, Thomas T; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria P; Shpigel, Nahum Y; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lord, Graham M

    2016-04-01

    Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediate dominant peripheral tolerance and treat experimental colitis. Tregs can be expanded from patient blood and were safely used in recent phase 1 studies in graft versus host disease and type 1 diabetes. Treg cell therapy is also conceptually attractive for Crohn's disease (CD). However, barriers exist to this approach. The stability of Tregs expanded from Crohn's blood is unknown. The potential for adoptively transferred Tregs to express interleukin-17 and exacerbate Crohn's lesions is of concern. Mucosal T cells are resistant to Treg-mediated suppression in active CD. The capacity for expanded Tregs to home to gut and lymphoid tissue is unknown. To define the optimum population for Treg cell therapy in CD, CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(-) Treg subsets were isolated from patients' blood and expanded in vitro using a workflow that can be readily transferred to a good manufacturing practice background. Tregs can be expanded from the blood of patients with CD to potential target dose within 22-24 days. Expanded CD45RA(+) Tregs have an epigenetically stable FOXP3 locus and do not convert to a Th17 phenotype in vitro, in contrast to CD45RA(-) Tregs. CD45RA(+) Tregs highly express α4β7 integrin, CD62L and CC motif receptor 7 (CCR7). CD45RA(+) Tregs also home to human small bowel in a C.B-17 severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) xenotransplant model. Importantly, in vitro expansion enhances the suppressive ability of CD45RA(+) Tregs. These cells also suppress activation of lamina propria and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes isolated from inflamed Crohn's mucosa. CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo)CD45RA(+) Tregs may be the most appropriate population from which to expand Tregs for autologous Treg therapy for CD, paving the way for future clinical trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Enhanced neuronal expression of major histocompatibility complex class I leads to aberrations in neurodevelopment and neurorepair

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongqi-Phyllis; Washburn, Lorraine; Bilousova, Tina V.; Boudzinskaia, Maia; Escande-Beillard, Nathalie; Querubin, Jyes; Dang, Hoa; Xie, Cui-Wei; Tian, Jide; Kaufman, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Mice deficient in classical major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) have aberrations in neurodevelopment. The consequences of up-regulated neuronal MHCI expression have not been examined. We found that transgenic C57Bl/6 mice that are engineered to express higher levels of self-Db on their CNS neurons have alterations in their hippocampal morphology and retinogeniculate projections, as well as impaired neurorepair responses. Thus, enhanced neuronal classical MHCI expression can lead to aberrations in neural circuitry and neurorepair. These findings complement a growing body of knowledge concerning the neurobiological activities of MHCI and may have potential clinical relevance. PMID:20950866

  16. NCAM (CD56) expression in keratin-producing odontogenic cysts: aberrant expression in KCOT.

    PubMed

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo; Vera-Sempere, Francisco

    2015-02-12

    To investigate immunohistochemically the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which has been identified as a signaling receptor with frequent reactivity in ameloblastomas (AB), in a series of keratin-producing odontogenic cysts (KPOCs). Immunohistochemical expression of NCAM, using a monoclonal antibody, was determined in a series of 58 KPOCs comprising 12 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOCs) and 46 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), corresponding to 40 non-syndromic KCOT (NS-KCOTs) and 6 syndromic KCOT (S-KCOTs), associated with nevic basocellular syndrome (NBCS). NCAM expression was negative in all OOCs, but 36.45% of KCOTs exhibited focal and heterogeneous expression at the basal cell level, as well as in basal budding areas and the basal cells of daughter cysts. The latter two locations were especially applicable to S-KCOTs, with focal NCAM reactivity occurring in 66.66% of cases. Aberrant NCAM expression, in KCOTs but especially in S-KCOTs, together with its immunomorphological location, suggests that this adhesion molecule and signaling receptor plays a role in the pathogenesis of KCOTs, with a probable impact on lesional recurrence.

  17. Characterization of kidney CD45intCD11bintF4/80+MHCII+CX3CR1+Ly6C- "intermediate mononuclear phagocytic cells".

    PubMed

    Lee, Sul A; Noel, Sanjeev; Sadasivam, Mohanraj; Allaf, Mohamad E; Pierorazio, Phillip M; Hamad, Abdel R A; Rabb, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Kidney immune cells play important roles in pathogenesis of many diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and transplant rejection. While studying murine kidney T cells, we serendipitously identified a kidney mononuclear phagocytic cell (MPC) subset characterized by intermediate surface expression of CD45 and CD11b. These CD45intCD11bint MPCs were further identified as F4/80+MHCII+CX3CR1+Ly6C- cells, comprising ~17% of total CD45+ cells in normal mouse kidney (P < 0.01) and virtually absent from all other organs examined except the heart. Systemic clodronate treatment had more significant depletive effect on the CD45intCD11bint population (77.3%±5.9%, P = 0.03) than on CD45highCD11b+ population (14.8%±16.6%, P = 0.49). In addition, CD45intCD11bint MPCs had higher phagocytic function in the normal kidney (35.6%±3.3% vs. 24.1%±2.2%, P = 0.04), but lower phagocytic capacity in post-ischemic kidney (54.9%±1.0% vs. 67.8%±1.9%, P < 0.01) compared to the CD45highCD11b+ population. Moreover, the CD45intCD11bint population had higher intracellular production of the pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (58.4%±5.2% vs. 27.3%±0.9%, P < 0.001) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and lower production of the anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 (7.2%±1.3% vs. 14.9%±2.2%, P = 0.02) following kidney IRI, suggesting a functional role under inflammatory conditions. The CD45intCD11bint cells increased early after IRI, and then abruptly decreased 48h later, whereas CD45highCD11b+ cells steadily increased after IRI before declining at 72h (P = 0.03). We also identified the CD45intCD11bint MPC subtype in human kidney. We conclude that CD45intCD11bint F4/80+MHCII+CX3CR1+Ly6C-population represent a unique subset of MPCs found in both mouse and human kidneys. Future studies will further characterize their role in kidney health and disease.

  18. Aberrant Gene Expression in Dogs with Portosystemic Shunts

    PubMed Central

    Grinwis, Guy C. M.; Kummeling, Anne; van Gils, Ingrid H. M.; Koerkamp, Marian J. A. Groot.; van Leenen, Dik; Holstege, Frank C. P.; Penning, Louis C.; Rothuizen, Jan; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Spee, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Congenital portosystemic shunts are developmental anomalies of the splanchnic vascular system that cause portal blood to bypass the liver. Large-breed dogs are predisposed for intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IHPSS) and small-breed dogs for extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS). While the phenotype resulting from portal bypass of the liver of the two types of shunt is identical, the genotype and molecular pathways involved are probably different. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the pathways involved in the different types of portosystemic shunting. Microarray analysis of mRNA expression in liver tissue from dogs with EHPSS and IHPSS revealed that the expression of 26 genes was altered in either IHPSS or EHPSS samples compared with that in liver samples from control dogs. Quantitative real-time PCR of these genes in 14 IHPSS, 17 EHPSS, and 8 control liver samples revealed a significant differential expression of ACBP, CCBL1, GPC3, HAMP, PALLD, VCAM1, and WEE1. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting confirmed an increased expression of VCAM1 in IHPSS but its absence in EHPSS, an increased WEE1 expression in IHPSS but not in EHPSS, and a decreased expression of CCBL1 in both shunt types. Regarding their physiologic functions, these findings may indicate a causative role for VCAM1 in IHPSS and WEE1 for IHPSS. CCBL1 could be an interesting candidate to study not yet elucidated aspects in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23451256

  19. Aberrant Cx43 Expression and Mislocalization in Metastatic Human Melanomas.

    PubMed

    Alaga, Katanya C; Crawford, Melissa; Dagnino, Lina; Laird, Dale W

    2017-01-01

    At present, it is unclear if melanocytes contain Cx43 gap junctions and whether Cx43 expression is regulated in melanoma onset and progression. To this end, we cultured pure populations of mouse melanocytes and found that they had no detectable Cx43 and exhibited an inability for dye transfer indicating they were devoid of functional gap junctions. Given the evidence that melanomas acquire the expression of other connexin isoforms during tumor progression, we assessed if Cx43 was also expressed and assembled into gap junctions at any stage of human melanoma onset and progression to distant metastases. Nearly all primary melanomas within the epidermis lacked Cx43. In contrast, nodal metastases expressed low levels of Cx43 which was markedly higher in distant metastases that had invaded vital organs. Importantly, in all stages of melanoma progression, Cx43 could be detected in intracellular compartments but was rarely assembled into gap junctions indicative of functional gap junction channels. Overall, these studies suggest that melanocytes do not form Cx43 homocellular gap junctions and even though Cx43 levels increase during melanoma progression, this connexin rarely assembles into gap junction structures.

  20. Aberrant Cx43 Expression and Mislocalization in Metastatic Human Melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Alaga, Katanya C.; Crawford, Melissa; Dagnino, Lina; Laird, Dale W.

    2017-01-01

    At present, it is unclear if melanocytes contain Cx43 gap junctions and whether Cx43 expression is regulated in melanoma onset and progression. To this end, we cultured pure populations of mouse melanocytes and found that they had no detectable Cx43 and exhibited an inability for dye transfer indicating they were devoid of functional gap junctions. Given the evidence that melanomas acquire the expression of other connexin isoforms during tumor progression, we assessed if Cx43 was also expressed and assembled into gap junctions at any stage of human melanoma onset and progression to distant metastases. Nearly all primary melanomas within the epidermis lacked Cx43. In contrast, nodal metastases expressed low levels of Cx43 which was markedly higher in distant metastases that had invaded vital organs. Importantly, in all stages of melanoma progression, Cx43 could be detected in intracellular compartments but was rarely assembled into gap junctions indicative of functional gap junction channels. Overall, these studies suggest that melanocytes do not form Cx43 homocellular gap junctions and even though Cx43 levels increase during melanoma progression, this connexin rarely assembles into gap junction structures. PMID:28607585

  1. From DNA Copy Number to Gene Expression: Local aberrations, Trisomies and Monosomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, Tal

    The goal of my PhD research was to study the effect of DNA copy number changes on gene expression. DNA copy number aberrations may be local, encompassing several genes, or on the level of an entire chromosome, such as trisomy and monosomy. The main dataset I studied was of Glioblastoma, obtained in the framework of a collaboration, but I worked also with public datasets of cancer and Down's Syndrome. The molecular basis of expression changes in Glioblastoma. Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumors in adults. In collaboration with Prof. Hegi (CHUV, Switzerland), we analyzed a rich Glioblastoma dataset including clinical information, DNA copy number (array CGH) and expression profiles. We explored the correlation between DNA copy number and gene expression at the level of chromosomal arms and local genomic aberrations. We detected known amplification and over expression of oncogenes, as well as deletion and down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes. We exploited that information to map alterations of pathways that are known to be disrupted in Glioblastoma, and tried to characterize samples that have no known alteration in any of the studied pathways. Identifying local DNA aberrations of biological significance. Many types of tumors exhibit chromosomal losses or gains and local amplifications and deletions. A region that is aberrant in many tumors, or whose copy number change is stronger, is more likely to be clinically relevant, and not just a by-product of genetic instability. We developed a novel method that defines and prioritizes aberrations by formalizing these intuitions. The method scores each aberration by the fraction of patients harboring it, its length and its amplitude, and assesses the significance of the score by comparing it to a null distribution obtained by permutations. This approach detects genetic locations that are significantly aberrant, generating a 'genomic aberration profile' for each sample. The 'genomic

  2. Mannose receptor induces T-cell tolerance via inhibition of CD45 and up-regulation of CTLA-4

    PubMed Central

    Schuette, Verena; Embgenbroich, Maria; Ulas, Thomas; Welz, Meike; Schulte-Schrepping, Jonas; Draffehn, Astrid M.; Quast, Thomas; Koch, Katharina; Nehring, Melanie; König, Jessica; Zweynert, Annegret; Harms, Frederike L.; Steiner, Nancy; Limmer, Andreas; Förster, Irmgard; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike; Knolle, Percy A.; Wohlleber, Dirk; Kolanus, Waldemar; Beyer, Marc; Schultze, Joachim L.; Burgdorf, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The mannose receptor (MR) is an endocytic receptor involved in serum homeostasis and antigen presentation. Here, we identify the MR as a direct regulator of CD8+ T-cell activity. We demonstrate that MR expression on dendritic cells (DCs) impaired T-cell cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. This regulatory effect of the MR was mediated by a direct interaction with CD45 on the T cell, inhibiting its phosphatase activity, which resulted in up-regulation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4) and the induction of T-cell tolerance. Inhibition of CD45 prevented expression of B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6), a transcriptional inhibitor that directly bound the CTLA-4 promoter and regulated its activity. These data demonstrate that endocytic receptors expressed on DCs contribute to the regulation of T-cell functionality. PMID:27601670

  3. Mannose receptor induces T-cell tolerance via inhibition of CD45 and up-regulation of CTLA-4.

    PubMed

    Schuette, Verena; Embgenbroich, Maria; Ulas, Thomas; Welz, Meike; Schulte-Schrepping, Jonas; Draffehn, Astrid M; Quast, Thomas; Koch, Katharina; Nehring, Melanie; König, Jessica; Zweynert, Annegret; Harms, Frederike L; Steiner, Nancy; Limmer, Andreas; Förster, Irmgard; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike; Knolle, Percy A; Wohlleber, Dirk; Kolanus, Waldemar; Beyer, Marc; Schultze, Joachim L; Burgdorf, Sven

    2016-09-20

    The mannose receptor (MR) is an endocytic receptor involved in serum homeostasis and antigen presentation. Here, we identify the MR as a direct regulator of CD8(+) T-cell activity. We demonstrate that MR expression on dendritic cells (DCs) impaired T-cell cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. This regulatory effect of the MR was mediated by a direct interaction with CD45 on the T cell, inhibiting its phosphatase activity, which resulted in up-regulation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4) and the induction of T-cell tolerance. Inhibition of CD45 prevented expression of B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6), a transcriptional inhibitor that directly bound the CTLA-4 promoter and regulated its activity. These data demonstrate that endocytic receptors expressed on DCs contribute to the regulation of T-cell functionality.

  4. Aberrant expression of the PHF14 gene in biliary tract cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    AKAZAWA, TAKAKO; YASUI, KOHICHIROH; GEN, YASUYUKI; YAMADA, NOBUHISA; TOMIE, AKIRA; DOHI, OSAMU; MITSUYOSHI, HIRONORI; YAGI, NOBUAKI; ITOH, YOSHITO; NAITO, YUJI; YOSHIKAWA, TOSHIKAZU

    2013-01-01

    DNA copy number aberrations in human biliary tract cancer (BTC) cell lines were investigated using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. A novel homozygous deletion was detected at chromosomal region 7p21.3 in the OZ cell line. Further validation experiments using genomic PCR revealed a homozygous deletion of a single gene, plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein 14 (PHF14). No PHF14 mRNA or protein expression was detected, thus demonstrating the absence of PHF14 expression in the OZ cell line. Although the PHD finger protein is considered to be involved in chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation, little is known about the function of PHF14 in cancer. The present study observed that the knock down of PHF14 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced the growth of the BTC cells. These observations suggest that aberrant PHF14 expression may have a role in the tumorigenesis of BTC. PMID:23833654

  5. Multiparameter flow cytometry reveals myelodysplasia-related aberrant antigen expression in myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kern, Wolfgang; Bacher, Ulrike; Schnittger, Susanne; Alpermann, Tamara; Haferlach, Claudia; Haferlach, Torsten

    2013-05-01

    Within the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) category of the WHO (2008), only chronic myelomonocytic leukemia was so far evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC). To investigate the potential of MFC for MDS/MPNs, unclassifiable (MDS/MPNu), and refractory anemia associated with ring sideroblasts and marked thrombocytosis (RARS-T), we studied 91 patients with these entities (60 males/31 females; 35.3-87.4 years) for MDS-related aberrant immunophenotypes (≥ 2 different cell lineages with ≥ 3 aberrantly expressed antigens). Data were correlated with cytomorphology and cytogenetics. MFC identified MDS-related immunophenotypes in 54/91 (59.3%) of patients. Patients with or without MDS-related immunophenotype did not differ significantly by demographic characteristics, blood values, or median overall survival. MDS-related immunophenotype cases showed a higher number of aberrantly expressed antigens (mean ± SD, 4.9 ± 2.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.4; P < 0.001). Aberrant karyotypes showed a similar frequency in patients with and without MDS-related immunophenotype (11/54; 20.4% vs. 7/37; 18.9%; P = n.s.). MDS-related immunophenotype are present in more than half of patients with MDS/MPNu and RARS-T. MFC therefore may be helpful to separate cases into more "MDS-like" or "MPN-like" subgroups. Copyright © 2012 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  6. Aberrant lymphoid antigen expression in acute myeloid leukemia in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Sissy, Azza H; El-Mashari, May A; Bassuni, Wafaa Y; El-Swaayed, Aziza F

    2006-09-01

    Immunophenotyping improves both accuracy and reproducibility of acute leukemia classification and is considered particularly useful for identifying aberrant lineage association of acute leukemia, biphenotypic and bilineal acute leukemia, as well as monitoring minimal residual disease. Some immunophenotypes correlate with cytogenetic abnormalities and prognosis. Is to determine aberrant lymphoid antigen expression in Saudi acute myeloid leukemia (AML), correlate them with FAB subtypes, evaluate early surface markers CD7 and CD56, and to investigate the role of cytoplasmic CD79a (a B cell marker that is assigned a high score of 2.0 in the WHO classification). Thirty four newly diagnosed AML cases were included in this study, 47% showed aberrant lymphoid antigen expression. CD9 was the most frequently expressed lymphoid antigen (29.4%) followed by CD7 & CD19 (11.8%), CD4 (8.8%) and CD22 (2.9%). CD9 was expressed in 3/6 (50%) of M3 cases, CD7 was expressed in 11.8% and was mostly confined to FAB M1 and M2 and associated with immature antigens CD34, HLA-DR and TdT. CD56 was expressed in 7/34 (20.6%) cases, three of these cases (42.9%) belonged to the monocytic group. CD56 was also detected in 2 cases with 11q23 rearrangement. CD56 was expressed in 2/7 (28.6%) M2 cases, and was associated with t (8;21) (q22;q22) together with CD19. Co-expression of CD56 and CD7 was detected in 2.9% of the cases. CD79a was expressed in one case together with CD19, diagnosed as acute biphenotypic leukemia, and was associated with t(8;21) (q22;q22). Minimal residual disease in AML is very difficult to trace, detection of aberrant expression of lymphoid antigens will make it easier. The high score given to CD79a by EGIL is questionable based on cytogenetic classification.

  7. Dysregulation of miRNAs in bladder cancer: altered expression with aberrant biogenesis procedure

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fan; Xu, Tianyuan; Shen, Yifan; Zhong, Shan; Chen, Shanwen; Ding, Qiang; Shen, Zhoujun

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant expression profiles of miRNAs are widely observed in the clinical tissue specimens and urine samples as well as the blood samples of bladder cancer patients. These profiles are closely related to the pathological features of bladder cancer, such as the tumour stage/grade, metastasis, recurrence and chemo-sensitivity. MiRNA biogenesis forms the basis of miRNA expression and function, and its dysregulation has been shown to be essential for variations in miRNA expression profiles as well as tumourigenesis and cancer progression. In this review, we summarize the up-to-date and widely reported miRNAs in bladder cancer that display significantly altered expression. We then compare the miRNA expression profiles among three different sample types (tissue, urine and blood) from patients with bladder cancer. Moreover, for the first time, we outline the dysregulated miRNA biogenesis network in bladder cancer from different levels and analyse its possible relationship with aberrant miRNA expression and the pathological characteristics of the disease. PMID:28187437

  8. Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanisms for Aberrant Expression of Breast Cancer Specific Gene 1 in Invasive and Metastatic Breast Carcinomas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    cells in mitosis. Mutations in any of these genes result in failure to arrest Keywords: BCSG I: BubRl; mitotic checkpoint; yeast the cell cycle at G2...AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0534 TITLE: Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanisms for Aberrant Expression of Breast Cancer Specific Gene 1 in Invasive...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanisms for Aberrant DAMD17-02-1-0534 Expression of Breast Cancer Specific Gene 1 in Invasive

  9. Phosphatase CD45 Both Positively and Negatively Regulates T Cell Receptor Phosphorylation in Reconstituted Membrane Protein Clusters*♦

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Gabriela; Minowa, Takashi; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Kataoka-Hamai, Chiho; Kaizuka, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) phosphorylation requires the kinase Lck and phosphatase CD45. CD45 activates Lck by dephosphorylating an inhibitory tyrosine of Lck to relieve autoinhibition. However, CD45 also dephosphorylates the TCR, and the spatial exclusion of CD45 from TCR clustering in the plasma membrane appears to attenuate this negative effect of CD45. To further investigate the role of CD45 in signal initiation, we reconstituted membrane TCR clusters in vitro on supported lipid bilayers. Fluorescence microscopy of single clusters showed that incorporation of CD45 enhanced phosphorylation of TCR clusters, but only when Lck co-clustered with TCR. We found that clustered Lck autophosphorylated the inhibitory tyrosine and thus could be activated by CD45, whereas diffusive Lck molecules did not. In the TCR-Lck clusters and at low CD45 density, we speculate that the effect of Lck activation may overcome dephosphorylation of TCR, resulting in a net positive regulation. The CD45 density in physiological TCR clusters is also low because of the exclusion of CD45. Thus, we propose that the spatial organization of TCR/Lck/CD45 in T cell membranes is important not only for modulating the negative role of CD45 but also for creating conditions in which CD45 has a positive role in signal initiation. PMID:25128530

  10. Aberrant Expression of COT Is Related to Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jandee; Jeong, Seonhyang; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Cho Rok; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Shin, Dong Yeob; Lee, Eun Jig; Chung, Woong Youn; Jo, Young Suk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aberrant expression of Cancer Osaka Thyroid Oncogene mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (COT) (MAP3K8) is a driver of resistance to B-RAF inhibition. However, the de novo expression and clinical implications of COT in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of A-, B-, C-RAF, and COT in PTC (n = 167) and analyze the clinical implications of aberrant expression of these genes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were performed on primary thyroid cancers. Expression of COT was compared with clinicopathological characteristics including recurrence-free survival. Datasets from public repository (NCBI) were subjected to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). qPCR data showed that the relative mRNA expression of A-, B-, C-RAF and COT of PTC were higher than normal tissues (all P < 0.01). In addition, the expression of COT mRNA in PTC showed positive correlation with A- (r = 0.4083, P < 0.001), B- (r = 0.2773, P = 0.0003), and C-RAF (r = 0.5954, P < 0.001). The mRNA expressions of A-, B,- and C-RAF were also correlated with each other (all P < 0.001). In IHC, the staining intensities of B-RAF and COT were higher in PTC than in normal tissue (P < 0.001). Interestingly, moderate-to-strong staining intensities of B-RAF and COT were more frequent in B-RAFV600E-positive PTC (P < 0.001, P = 0.013, respectively). In addition, aberrant expression of COT was related to old age at initial diagnosis (P = 0.045) and higher recurrence rate (P = 0.025). In multivariate analysis, tumor recurrence was persistently associated with moderate-to-strong staining of COT after adjusting for age, sex, extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, T-stage, N-stage, TNM stage, and B-RAFV600E mutation (odds ratio, 4.662; 95% confidence interval 1.066 − 21.609; P = 0.045). Moreover, moderate

  11. Aberrant expression of COT is related to recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jandee; Jeong, Seonhyang; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Cho Rok; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Shin, Dong Yeob; Lee, Eun Jig; Chung, Woong Youn; Jo, Young Suk

    2015-02-01

    Aberrant expression of Cancer Osaka Thyroid Oncogene mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (COT) (MAP3K8) is a driver of resistance to B-RAF inhibition. However, the de novo expression and clinical implications of COT in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) have not been investigated.The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of A-, B-, C-RAF, and COT in PTC (n = 167) and analyze the clinical implications of aberrant expression of these genes.Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were performed on primary thyroid cancers. Expression of COT was compared with clinicopathological characteristics including recurrence-free survival. Datasets from public repository (NCBI) were subjected to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA).qPCR data showed that the relative mRNA expression of A-, B-, C-RAF and COT of PTC were higher than normal tissues (all P < 0.01). In addition, the expression of COT mRNA in PTC showed positive correlation with A- (r = 0.4083, P < 0.001), B- (r = 0.2773, P = 0.0003), and C-RAF (r = 0.5954, P < 0.001). The mRNA expressions of A-, B,- and C-RAF were also correlated with each other (all P < 0.001). In IHC, the staining intensities of B-RAF and COT were higher in PTC than in normal tissue (P < 0.001). Interestingly, moderate-to-strong staining intensities of B-RAF and COT were more frequent in B-RAF-positive PTC (P < 0.001, P = 0.013, respectively). In addition, aberrant expression of COT was related to old age at initial diagnosis (P = 0.045) and higher recurrence rate (P = 0.025). In multivariate analysis, tumor recurrence was persistently associated with moderate-to-strong staining of COT after adjusting for age, sex, extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, T-stage, N-stage, TNM stage, and B-RAF mutation (odds ratio, 4.662; 95% confidence interval 1.066 - 21.609; P = 0.045). Moreover, moderate-to-strong COT expression in PTC

  12. Heritable Transmission of Diabetic Metabolic Memory in Zebrafish Correlates With DNA Hypomethylation and Aberrant Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ansgar S.; Sarras, Michael P.; Leontovich, Alexey; Intine, Robert V.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic memory (MM) is the phenomenon whereby diabetes complications persist and progress after glycemic recovery is achieved. Here, we present data showing that MM is heritable and that the transmission correlates with hyperglycemia-induced DNA hypomethylation and aberrant gene expression. Streptozocin was used to induce hyperglycemia in adult zebrafish, and then, following streptozocin withdrawal, a recovery phase was allowed to reestablish a euglycemic state. Blood glucose and serum insulin returned to physiological levels during the first 2 weeks of the recovery phase as a result of pancreatic β-cell regeneration. In contrast, caudal fin regeneration and skin wound healing remained impaired to the same extent as in diabetic fish, and this impairment was transmissible to daughter cell tissue. Daughter tissue that was never exposed to hyperglycemia, but was derived from tissue that was, did not accumulate AGEs or exhibit increased levels of oxidative stress. However, CpG island methylation and genome-wide microarray expression analyses revealed the persistence of hyperglycemia-induced global DNA hypomethylation that correlated with aberrant gene expression for a subset of loci in this daughter tissue. Collectively, the data presented here implicate the epigenetic mechanism of DNA methylation as a potential contributor to the MM phenomenon. PMID:22228713

  13. Aberrant rhythmic expression of cryptochrome2 regulates the radiosensitivity of rat gliomas.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wang; Caiyan, Li; Ling, Zhu; Jiayun, Zhao

    2017-09-29

    In this study, we investigated the role of the clock regulatory protein cryptochrome 2 (Cry2) in determining the radiosensitivity of C6 glioma cells in a rat model. We observed that Cry2 mRNA and protein levels showed aberrant rhythmic periodicity of 8 h in glioma tissues, compared to 24 h in normal brain tissue. Cry2 mRNA and protein levels did not respond to irradiation in normal tissues, but both were increased at the ZT4 (low Cry2) and ZT8 (high Cry2) time points in gliomas. Immunohistochemical staining of PCNA and TUNEL assays demonstrated that high Cry2 expression in glioma tissues was associated with increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that glioma cell fate was independent of p53, but was probably dependent on p73, which was more highly expressed at ZT4 (low Cry2) than at ZT8 (high Cry2). Levels of both p53 and p73 were unaffected by irradiation in normal brain tissues. These findings suggest aberrant rhythmic expression of Cry2 influence on radiosensitivity in rat gliomas.

  14. Pervasive transcription read-through promotes aberrant expression of oncogenes and RNA chimeras in renal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Ana R; Leite, Ana P; Carvalho, Sílvia; Matos, Mafalda R; Martins, Filipa B; Vítor, Alexandra C; Desterro, Joana MP; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria; de Almeida, Sérgio F

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of cancer genes and non-canonical RNA species is a hallmark of cancer. However, the mechanisms driving such atypical gene expression programs are incompletely understood. Here, our transcriptional profiling of a cohort of 50 primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveals that transcription read-through beyond the termination site is a source of transcriptome diversity in cancer cells. Amongst the genes most frequently mutated in ccRCC, we identified SETD2 inactivation as a potent enhancer of transcription read-through. We further show that invasion of neighbouring genes and generation of RNA chimeras are functional outcomes of transcription read-through. We identified the BCL2 oncogene as one of such invaded genes and detected a novel chimera, the CTSC-RAB38, in 20% of ccRCC samples. Collectively, our data highlight a novel link between transcription read-through and aberrant expression of oncogenes and chimeric transcripts that is prevalent in cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09214.001 PMID:26575290

  15. Aberrantly Expressed OTX Homeobox Genes Deregulate B-Cell Differentiation in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G; MacLeod, Roderick A F

    2015-01-01

    In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) we recently reported that deregulated homeobox gene MSX1 mediates repression of the B-cell specific transcription factor ZHX2. In this study we investigated regulation of MSX1 in this B-cell malignancy. Accordingly, we analyzed expression and function of OTX homeobox genes which activate MSX1 transcription during embryonal development in the neural plate border region. Our data demonstrate that OTX1 and OTX2 are aberrantly expressed in both HL patients and cell lines. Moreover, both OTX loci are targeted by genomic gains in overexpressing cell lines. Comparative expression profiling and subsequent pathway modulations in HL cell lines indicated that aberrantly enhanced FGF2-signalling activates the expression of OTX2. Downstream analyses of OTX2 demonstrated transcriptional activation of genes encoding transcription factors MSX1, FOXC1 and ZHX1. Interestingly, examination of the physiological expression profile of ZHX1 in normal hematopoietic cells revealed elevated levels in T-cells and reduced expression in B-cells, indicating a discriminatory role in lymphopoiesis. Furthermore, two OTX-negative HL cell lines overexpressed ZHX1 in correlation with genomic amplification of its locus at chromosomal band 8q24, supporting the oncogenic potential of this gene in HL. Taken together, our data demonstrate that deregulated homeobox genes MSX1 and OTX2 respectively impact transcriptional inhibition of (B-cell specific) ZHX2 and activation of (T-cell specific) ZHX1. Thus, we show how reactivation of a specific embryonal gene regulatory network promotes disturbed B-cell differentiation in HL.

  16. In vitro reconstitution of T cell receptor-mediated segregation of the CD45 phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Catherine B.; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Hui, Enfu; Su, Xiaolei; Garcia, K. Christopher; Vale, Ronald D.

    2017-01-01

    T cell signaling initiates upon the binding of peptide-loaded MHC (pMHC) on an antigen-presenting cell to the T cell receptor (TCR) on a T cell. TCR phosphorylation in response to pMHC binding is accompanied by segregation of the transmembrane phosphatase CD45 away from TCR–pMHC complexes. The kinetic segregation hypothesis proposes that CD45 exclusion shifts the local kinase–phosphatase balance to favor TCR phosphorylation. Spatial partitioning may arise from the size difference between the large CD45 extracellular domain and the smaller TCR–pMHC complex, although parsing potential contributions of extracellular protein size, actin activity, and lipid domains is difficult in living cells. Here, we reconstitute segregation of CD45 from bound receptor–ligand pairs using purified proteins on model membranes. Using a model receptor–ligand pair (FRB–FKBP), we first test physical and computational predictions for protein organization at membrane interfaces. We then show that the TCR–pMHC interaction causes partial exclusion of CD45. Comparing two developmentally regulated isoforms of CD45, the larger RABC variant is excluded more rapidly and efficiently (∼50%) than the smaller R0 isoform (∼20%), suggesting that CD45 isotypes could regulate signaling thresholds in different T cell subtypes. Similar to the sensitivity of T cell signaling, TCR–pMHC interactions with Kds of ≤15 µM were needed to exclude CD45. We further show that the coreceptor PD-1 with its ligand PD-L1, immunotherapy targets that inhibit T cell signaling, also exclude CD45. These results demonstrate that the binding energies of physiological receptor–ligand pairs on the T cell are sufficient to create spatial organization at membrane–membrane interfaces. PMID:29042512

  17. Immunohistochemical panel to characterize canine prostate carcinomas according to aberrant p63 expression.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Kobayashi, Priscila Emiko; Rivera Calderón, Luis Gabriel; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis; Rinaldi, Jaqueline de Carvalho; Drigo, Sandra Aparecida; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Laufer-Amorim, Renée

    2018-01-01

    An unusual variant of prostate adenocarcinoma (PC) expressing nuclear p63 in secretory cells instead of the typical basal expression has been reported in men. Nevertheless, the biological behavior and clinical significance of this phenomenon is unknown. In dogs, this unusual PC subtype has not been described. In this study, p63 immunoexpression was investigated in 90 canine PCs and 20 normal prostate tissues (NT). The p63 expression pattern in luminal or basal cells was confirmed in a selected group of 26 PCs and 20 NT by immunohistochemistry and/or Western blotting assays. Eleven canine PC samples aberrantly expressing p63 (p63+) in secretory cells were compared with 15 p63 negative (p63-) cases in the context of several molecular markers (high molecular weight cytokeratin-HMWC, CK8/18, CK5, AR, PSA, chromogranin, NKX3.1, PTEN, AKT and C-MYC). P63+ samples were positive for CK5, HMWC and CK8/18 and negative for PSA, NKX3.1, PTEN and chromogranin. Five p63+ PCs were negative for AR, and the remaining six samples had low AR expression. In contrast, p63- PC showed AR and PSA positive expression in all 15 samples. Only five p63- PCs were positive for CK5. Both p63+ and p63- PC samples showed higher cytoplasmic AKT expression and nuclear C-MYC staining in comparison with normal tissues. Metastatic (N = 12) and non-metastatic (N = 14) PCs showed similar immunoexpression for all markers tested. In contrast to human PC, canine PC aberrantly expressing p63 showed higher expression levels of HMWC and CK5 and lower levels of NKX3.1. Canine p63+ PC is a very rare PC group showing a distinct phenotype compared to typical canine PC, including AR and PSA negative expression. Although in a limited number of cases, p63 expression was not associated with metastasis in canine PC, and cytoplasmic p63 expression was observed in animals with shorter survival time, similar to human PC cases.

  18. Aberrant expression and hormonal regulation of Galectin-3 in endometriosis women with infertility.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Yin, J; Ficarrotta, K; Hsu, S H; Zhang, W; Cheng, C

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the role and potential molecular mechanism of Galectin-3 (Gal-3) in the etiology of endometriosis-associated infertility. We detected Gal-3 expression in eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis-associated infertility and healthy women without endometriosis or infertility. We then evaluated Gal-3 expression in endometrial glandular epithelial cells (EECs) and endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and investigated its response to hormone stimulation in EECs and ESCs from both groups of women. Results of real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed Gal-3 expression in both proliferative and secretory stages of the menstrual cycle decreased significantly in women with endometriosis-associated infertility compared to healthy women. The changes in expression of Gal-3 were more dramatic in EECs than ESCs. Moreover, estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) induced Gal-3 expression in EECs of healthy groups, and P4 was more significant than E2 and combined E2 and P4 (E2P4). However, in the endometriosis group, P4 failed to induce a similar increase in Gal-3 expression. Our results suggest that aberrant expression of Gal-3 might contribute to infertility in patients with endometriosis due to progesterone resistance.

  19. Aberrant DNA methylation associated with silencing BNIP3 gene expression in haematopoietic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Murai, M; Toyota, M; Satoh, A; Suzuki, H; Akino, K; Mita, H; Sasaki, Y; Ishida, T; Shen, L; Garcia-Manero, G; Issa, J-P J; Hinoda, Y; Tokino, T; Imai, K

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia is a key factor contributing to the progression of human neoplasias and to the development of resistance to chemotherapy. BNIP3 is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family involved in hypoxia-induced cell death. We evaluated the expression and methylation status of BNIP3 gene to better understand the role of epigenetic alteration of its expression in haematopoietic tumours. Methylation of the region around the BNIP3 transcription start site was detected in four acute lymphocytic leukaemia, one multiple myeloma and one Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, and was closely associated with silencing the gene. That expression of BNIP3 was restored by treatment with 5-aza2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), a methyltransferase inhibitor, which confirmed the gene to be epigenetically inactivated by methylation. Notably, re-expression of BNIP3 using 5-aza2-dC also restored hypoxia-mediated cell death in methylated cell lines. Acetylation of histone H3 in the 5′ region of the gene, which was assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, correlated directly with gene expression and inversely with DNA methylation. Among primary tumours, methylation of BNIP3 was detected in five of 34 (15%) acute lymphocytic leukaemias, six of 35 (17%) acute myelogenous leukaemias and three of 14 (21%) multiple myelomas. These results suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of the 5′ CpG island and histone deacetylation play key roles in silencing BNIP3 expression in haematopoietic tumours. PMID:15756280

  20. Aberrant Expression of Retinoic Acid Signaling Molecules Influences Patient Survival in Astrocytic Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Benito; Centner, Franz-Simon; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Ali, Ramadan; Dorsch, Katharina; Wan, Feng; Felsberg, Jörg; Ahmadi, Rezvan; Grabe, Niels; Reifenberger, Guido; Unterberg, Andreas; Burhenne, Jürgen; Herold-Mende, Christel

    2011-01-01

    Undifferentiated cell populations may influence tumor growth in malignant glioma. We investigated potential disruptions in the retinoic acid (RA) differentiation pathway that could lead to a loss of differentiation capacity, influencing patient prognosis. Expression of key molecules belonging to the RA differentiation pathway was analyzed in 283 astrocytic gliomas and was correlated with tumor proliferation, tumor differentiation, and patient survival. In addition, in situ concentrations of retinoids were measured in tumors, and RA signaling events were studied in vitro. Unlike other tumors, in gliomas expression of most RA signaling molecules increased with malignancy and was associated with augmented intratumoral retinoid levels in high-grade gliomas. Aberrantly expressed RA signaling molecules included i) the retinol-binding protein CRBP1, which facilitates cellular retinoid uptake; ii) ALDH1A1, capable of activating RA precursors; iii) the RA-degrading enzyme CYP26B1; and iv) the RA-binding protein FABP5, which can inhibit RA-induced differentiation. In contrast, expression of the RA-binding protein CRABP2, which fosters differentiation, was decreased in high-grade tumors. Moreover, expression of CRBP1 correlated with tumor proliferation, and FABP5 expression correlated with an undifferentiated tumor phenotype. CRBP1 and ALDH1A1 were independent prognostic markers for adverse patient survival. Our data indicate a complex and clinically relevant deregulation of RA signaling, which seems to be a central event in glioma pathogenesis. PMID:21514413

  1. An unusual form of lipid linkage to the CD45 peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Akiko; Maizel, A.L.

    1990-11-02

    Some protein kinases and phosphatases are myristoylated on their amino terminus, which perhaps contributes to subcellular localization or regulation. Glycoprotein CD45, a hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase, was examined for fatty acid content. The CD45 protein incorporated ({sup 3}H)myristate, but little ({sup 3}H)palmitate. The label was not metabolized and reincorporated into amino acids or saccharides, as revealed by peptide maps of CD45 labeled with ({sup 3}H)myristate, {sup 14}C-labeled amino acids, ({sup 35}S)methionine, or {sup 125}I, and glycosidase treatments, respectively. The myristate label was resistant to mild alkaline methanolysis and was found in fatty acid and sphingosine, indicating an unusual form of lipidmore » attachment to CD45.« less

  2. Identification of aberrantly expressed long non-coding RNAs in stomach adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jianbin; Li, Yong; Fan, Liqiao; Zhao, Qun; Tan, Bibo; Hua, Kelei; Wu, Guobin

    2017-07-25

    Stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) is a common malignancy worldwide. This study aimed to identify the aberrantly expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in STAD. Total of 74 DElncRNAs and 449 DEmRNAs were identified in STAD compared with paired non-tumor tissues. The DElncRNA/DEmRNA co-expression network was constructed, which covered 519 nodes and 2993 edges. The qRT-PCR validation results of DElncRNAs were consistent with our bioinformatics analysis based on RNA-sequencing. The DEmRNAs co-expressed with DElncRNAs were significantly enriched in gastric acid secretion, complement and coagulation cascades, pancreatic secretion, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and Jak-STAT signaling pathway. The expression levels of the nine candidate DElncRNAs in TCGA database were compatible with our RNA-sequencing. FEZF1-AS1, HOTAIR and LINC01234 had the potential diagnosis value for STAD. The lncRNA and mRNA expression profile of 3 STAD tissues and 3 matched adjacent non-tumor tissues was obtained through high-throughput RNA-sequencing. Differentially expressed lncRNAs/mRNAs (DElncRNAs/DEmRNAs) were identified in STAD. DElncRNA/DEmRNA co-expression network construction, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses were conducted to predict the biological functions of DElncRNAs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was subjected to validate the expression levels of DEmRNAs and DElncRNAs. Moreover, the expression of DElncRNAs was validated through The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The diagnosis value of candidate DElncRNAs was accessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Our work might provide useful information for exploring the tumorigenesis mechanism of STAD and pave the road for identification of diagnostic biomarkers in STAD.

  3. Aberrant Expression of Xist in Aborted Porcine Fetuses Derived from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lin; Wang, Anfeng; Yao, Chaogang; Huang, Yongye; Duan, Feifei; Lv, Qinyan; Wang, Dongxu; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-01-01

    Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP). q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. PMID:25429426

  4. Cooperative STAT/NF-κB signaling regulates lymphoma metabolic reprogramming and aberrant GOT2 expression.

    PubMed

    Feist, Maren; Schwarzfischer, Philipp; Heinrich, Paul; Sun, Xueni; Kemper, Judith; von Bonin, Frederike; Perez-Rubio, Paula; Taruttis, Franziska; Rehberg, Thorsten; Dettmer, Katja; Gronwald, Wolfram; Reinders, Jörg; Engelmann, Julia C; Dudek, Jan; Klapper, Wolfram; Trümper, Lorenz; Spang, Rainer; Oefner, Peter J; Kube, Dieter

    2018-04-17

    Knowledge of stromal factors that have a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways aside from c-Myc is fundamental to improvements in lymphoma therapy. Using a MYC-inducible human B-cell line, we observed the cooperative activation of STAT3 and NF-κB by IL10 and CpG stimulation. We show that IL10 + CpG-mediated cell proliferation of MYC low cells depends on glutaminolysis. By 13 C- and 15 N-tracing of glutamine metabolism and metabolite rescue experiments, we demonstrate that GOT2 provides aspartate and nucleotides to cells with activated or aberrant Jak/STAT and NF-κB signaling. A model of GOT2 transcriptional regulation is proposed, in which the cooperative phosphorylation of STAT3 and direct joint binding of STAT3 and p65/NF-κB to the proximal GOT2 promoter are important. Furthermore, high aberrant GOT2 expression is prognostic in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma underscoring the current findings and importance of stromal factors in lymphoma biology.

  5. Breaking chemoresistance and radioresistance with [213Bi]anti-CD45 antibodies in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Claudia; Glatting, Gerhard; Koop, Bernd; Schwarz, Klaus; Morgenstern, Alfred; Apostolidis, Christos; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Reske, Sven N

    2007-03-01

    Chemoresistance and radioresistance are considered one of the primary reasons for therapeutic failure in leukemias and solid tumors. Targeted radiotherapy using monoclonal antibodies radiolabeled with alpha-particles is a promising treatment approach for high-risk leukemia. We found that targeted radiotherapy using monoclonal CD45 antibodies radiolabeled with the alpha-emitter (213)Bi ([(213)Bi]anti-CD45) induces apoptosis, activates apoptosis pathways, and breaks beta-irradiation-, gamma-irradiation-, doxorubicin-, and apoptosis-resistance in leukemia cells. In contrast to beta-irradiation-, gamma-irradiation-, and doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis and DNA damage, [(213)Bi]anti-CD45-induced DNA damage was not repaired, and apoptosis was not inhibited by the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair mechanism. Depending on the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, [(213)Bi]anti-CD45 activated apoptosis pathways in leukemia cells through the mitochondrial pathway but independent of CD95 receptor/CD95 ligand interaction. Furthermore, [(213)Bi]anti-CD45 reversed deficient activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, deficient cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and deficient activation of mitochondria in chemoresistant and in radioresistant and apoptosis-resistant leukemia cells. These findings show that [(213)Bi]anti-CD45 is a promising therapeutic agent to break chemoresistance and radioresistance by overcoming DNA repair mechanisms in leukemia cells and provide the foundation for discovery of novel anticancer compounds.

  6. Identification of aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation in primordial germ cells between E13 and E16 rat F3 generation vinclozolin lineage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Transgenerational epigenetics (TGE) are currently considered important in disease, but the mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. TGE abnormalities expected to cause disease are likely to be initiated during development and to be mediated by aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation that is heritable between generations. However, because methylation is removed and then re-established during development, it is not easy to identify promoter methylation abnormalities by comparing normal lineages with those expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities. Methods This study applied the recently proposed principal component analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction to previously reported and publically available gene expression/promoter methylation profiles of rat primordial germ cells, between E13 and E16 of the F3 generation vinclozolin lineage that are expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities, to identify multiple genes that exhibited aberrant gene expression/promoter methylation during development. Results The biological feasibility of the identified genes were tested via enrichment analyses of various biological concepts including pathway analysis, gene ontology terms and protein-protein interactions. All validations suggested superiority of the proposed method over three conventional and popular supervised methods that employed t test, limma and significance analysis of microarrays, respectively. The identified genes were globally related to tumors, the prostate, kidney, testis and the immune system and were previously reported to be related to various diseases caused by TGE. Conclusions Among the genes reported by PCA-based unsupervised feature extraction, we propose that chemokine signaling pathways and leucine rich repeat proteins are key factors that initiate transgenerational epigenetic-mediated diseases, because multiple genes included in these two categories were identified in this study. PMID:26677731

  7. Identification of aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation in primordial germ cells between E13 and E16 rat F3 generation vinclozolin lineage.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Y-h

    2015-01-01

    Transgenerational epigenetics (TGE) are currently considered important in disease, but the mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. TGE abnormalities expected to cause disease are likely to be initiated during development and to be mediated by aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation that is heritable between generations. However, because methylation is removed and then re-established during development, it is not easy to identify promoter methylation abnormalities by comparing normal lineages with those expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities. This study applied the recently proposed principal component analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction to previously reported and publically available gene expression/promoter methylation profiles of rat primordial germ cells, between E13 and E16 of the F3 generation vinclozolin lineage that are expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities, to identify multiple genes that exhibited aberrant gene expression/promoter methylation during development. The biological feasibility of the identified genes were tested via enrichment analyses of various biological concepts including pathway analysis, gene ontology terms and protein-protein interactions. All validations suggested superiority of the proposed method over three conventional and popular supervised methods that employed t test, limma and significance analysis of microarrays, respectively. The identified genes were globally related to tumors, the prostate, kidney, testis and the immune system and were previously reported to be related to various diseases caused by TGE. Among the genes reported by PCA-based unsupervised feature extraction, we propose that chemokine signaling pathways and leucine rich repeat proteins are key factors that initiate transgenerational epigenetic-mediated diseases, because multiple genes included in these two categories were identified in this study.

  8. Aberrant expression of genes and proteins in pterygium and their implications in the pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qing-Yang; Hu, Zi-Xuan; Song, Xi-Ling; Pan, Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease induced by a variety of factors. The exact pathogenesis of pterygium remains unclear. Numbers of genes and proteins are discovered in pterygium and they function differently in the occurrence and development of this disease. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed throughout history for literatures about the subject. The keywords we used contain pterygium, gene, protein, angiogenesis, fibrosis, proliferation, inflammation, pathogenesis and therapy. In this review, we summarize the aberrant expression of a range of genes and proteins in pterygium compared with normal conjunctiva or cornea, including growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, interleukins, tumor suppressor genes, proliferation related proteins, apoptosis related proteins, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, heat shock proteins and tight junction proteins. We illustrate their possible mechanisms in the pathogenesis of pterygium as well as the related intervention based on them for pterygium therapy. PMID:28730091

  9. Aberrant Gene Expression Profiles in Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced from Fibroblasts of a Klinefelter Syndrome Patient*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yu; Li, Chunliang; Gu, Junjie; Tang, Fan; Li, Chun; Li, Peng; Ping, Ping; Yang, Shi; Li, Zheng; Jin, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common male chromosome aneuploidy. Its pathophysiology is largely unexplained due to the lack of adequate models. Here, we report the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) lines from a KS patient with a karyotype of 47, XXY. Derived KS-iPSCs meet all criteria of normal iPSCs with the potential for germ cell differentiation. Although X chromosome inactivation occurs in all KS-iPSCs, genome-wide transcriptome analysis identifies aberrantly expressed genes associated with the clinical features of KS. Our KS-iPSCs can serve as a cellular model for KS research. Identified genes may become biomarkers for early diagnosis or potential therapeutic targets for KS and significantly accelerate the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of Klinefelter syndrome. PMID:23019320

  10. Biodistribution of Yttrium-90-Labeled Anti-CD45 Antibody in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, Eneida; Hamlin, Donald K.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2005-01-15

    Radioimmunotherapy may improve the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies by delivering targeted radiation to hematopoietic organs while relatively sparing nontarget organs. We evaluated the organ localization of yttrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 (90Y-anti-CD45) antibody in macaques, a model that had previously predicted iodine-131-labeled anti-CD-45 (131I-anti-CD45) antibody biodistribution in humans. Experimental Design: Twelve Macaca nemestrina primates received anti-CD45 antibody labeled with 1 to 2 mCi of 90Y followed by serial blood sampling and marrow and lymph node biopsies, and necropsy. The content of 90Y per gram of tissue was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Time-activity curves were constructed using average isotopemore » concentrations in each tissue at measured time points to yield the fractional residence time and estimate radiation absorbed doses for each organ per unit of administered activity. The biodistribution of 90Y-anti-CD45 antibody was then compared with that previously obtained with 131I-anti-CD45 antibody in macaques. Results: The spleen received 2,120, marrow 1,060, and lymph nodes 315 cGy/mCi of 90Y injected. The liver and lungs were the nontarget organs receiving the highest radiation absorbed doses (440 and 285 cGy/mCi, respectively). Ytrrium-90-labeled anti-CD45 antibody delivered 2.5- and 3.7-fold more radiation to marrow than to liver and lungs, respectively. The ratios previously observed with 131I-antiCD45 antibody were 2.5-and 2.2-fold more radiation to marrow than to liver and lungs, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that 90Y-anti-CD45 antibody can deliver relatively selective radiation to hematopoietic tissues, with similar ratios of radiation delivered to target versus nontarget organs, as compared with the 131I immunoconjugate in the same animal model.« less

  11. Analysis of genomic aberrations and gene expression profiling identifies novel lesions and pathways in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K L; Lin, X; Wolniak, K; Ebert, B L; Berkofsky-Fessler, W; Buzzai, M; Sun, Y; Xi, C; Elkin, P; Levine, R; Golub, T; Gilliland, D G; Crispino, J D; Licht, J D; Zhang, W

    2011-01-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, are myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) with distinct clinical features and are associated with the JAK2V617F mutation. To identify genomic anomalies involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders, we profiled 87 MPN patients using Affymetrix 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Aberrations affecting chr9 were the most frequently observed and included 9pLOH (n=16), trisomy 9 (n=6) and amplifications of 9p13.3–23.3 (n=1), 9q33.1–34.13 (n=1) and 9q34.13 (n=6). Patients with trisomy 9 were associated with elevated JAK2V617F mutant allele burden, suggesting that gain of chr9 represents an alternative mechanism for increasing JAK2V617F dosage. Gene expression profiling of patients with and without chr9 abnormalities (+9, 9pLOH), identified genes potentially involved in disease pathogenesis including JAK2, STAT5B and MAPK14. We also observed recurrent gains of 1p36.31–36.33 (n=6), 17q21.2–q21.31 (n=5) and 17q25.1–25.3 (n=5) and deletions affecting 18p11.31–11.32 (n=8). Combined SNP and gene expression analysis identified aberrations affecting components of a non-canonical PRC2 complex (EZH1, SUZ12 and JARID2) and genes comprising a ‘HSC signature' (MLLT3, SMARCA2 and PBX1). We show that NFIB, which is amplified in 7/87 MPN patients and upregulated in PV CD34+ cells, protects cells from apoptosis induced by cytokine withdrawal. PMID:22829077

  12. Aberrant neuronal activity-induced signaling and gene expression in a mouse model of RASopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nakhaei-Rad, Saeideh; Montenegro-Venegas, Carolina; Pina-Fernández, Eneko; Marini, Claudia; Santos, Monica; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.; Stork, Oliver; Zenker, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by reduced growth, craniofacial abnormalities, congenital heart defects, and variable cognitive deficits. NS belongs to the RASopathies, genetic conditions linked to mutations in components and regulators of the Ras signaling pathway. Approximately 50% of NS cases are caused by mutations in PTPN11. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments in NS patients are still poorly understood. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a new conditional mouse strain that expresses the overactive Ptpn11D61Y allele only in the forebrain. Unlike mice with a global expression of this mutation, this strain is viable and without severe systemic phenotype, but shows lower exploratory activity and reduced memory specificity, which is in line with a causal role of disturbed neuronal Ptpn11 signaling in the development of NS-linked cognitive deficits. To explore the underlying mechanisms we investigated the neuronal activity-regulated Ras signaling in brains and neuronal cultures derived from this model. We observed an altered surface expression and trafficking of synaptic glutamate receptors, which are crucial for hippocampal neuronal plasticity. Furthermore, we show that the neuronal activity-induced ERK signaling, as well as the consecutive regulation of gene expression are strongly perturbed. Microarray-based hippocampal gene expression profiling revealed profound differences in the basal state and upon stimulation of neuronal activity. The neuronal activity-dependent gene regulation was strongly attenuated in Ptpn11D61Y neurons. In silico analysis of functional networks revealed changes in the cellular signaling beyond the dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signaling that is nearly exclusively discussed in the context of NS at present. Importantly, changes in PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK/STAT signaling were experimentally confirmed. In summary, this study uncovers aberrant neuronal activity-induced signaling and regulation

  13. Aberrant Expression of PIWIL1 and PIWIL2 and Their Clinical Significance in Ductal Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Monika; Szczepańska-Buda, Anna; Michałowska, Dagmara; Grzegrzółka, Jędrzej; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Gomułkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wojnar, Andrzej; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2018-04-01

    P-Element-induced wimpy testis (PIWI) proteins in complex with PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression in germline cells. Aberrant expression of piRNA and PIWI proteins have been identified in various types of tumour cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression profiles of PIWI-like protein-1, -2 (PIWIL1 and PIWIL2), their immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics in ductal breast cancer, and determine their correlation with clinicopathological parameters of this type of cancer. Material for IHC studies comprised of 101 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases and 31 mastopathy tissues. Frozen fragments of paired tissue specimens (tumour and adjacent non-malignant breast tissue) taken from 55 patients with IDC and 18 samples of mastopathy were used for molecular studies using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A statistically significantly higher level of PIWIL1 and PIWIL2 was found in IDC compared to mastopathy samples (p≤0.0001). Increased expression of PIWIL1 was correlated with increased PIWIL2 expression in breast cancer tissue. Surprisingly, PIWIL1 mRNA was detected only in cancer and mastopathy, but was not found in most normal breast tissues, although it is noteworthy that the PIWIL2 mRNA level was statistically significantly lower in mastopathy and IDC samples compared to normal breast tissues. Our results affirm the hypothesis that reactivation of PIWI expression in various caner types is crucial for cancer development. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Aberrant calreticulin expression is involved in the dedifferentiation of dedifferentiated liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Hisaoka, Masanori; Matsuyama, Atsuji; Nakamoto, Mitsuhiro

    2012-05-01

    Liposarcomas are a representative group of soft tissue sarcomas with variably hampered adipogenesis, which is most exemplified by its dedifferentiated subtype. However, the factor(s) responsible for inhibiting adipocyte differentiation remains unknown. A recent gene expression profiling study identified several unique genes that were highly expressed in dedifferentiated liposarcoma, and the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR), a major Ca(2+)-buffering protein that can inhibit adipocyte differentiation, was found to be overexpressed. Thus, we investigated the expression of calreticulin in 45 cases of liposarcomas, including 15 dedifferentiated tumors, at both the protein and mRNA levels. Immunohistochemically, calreticulin was consistently expressed in the dedifferentiated areas of dedifferentiated liposarcomas and commonly observed in atypical stromal cells and/or lipoblasts in the well-differentiated areas (87%), whereas large vacuolated adipocytic cells in either the tumors or normal fat were essentially negative. These results were further supported by the findings of Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Although abnormalities in 19p13.1-13.2 where CALR is localized were uncommon in the dedifferentiated liposarcomas examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, expression of miR-1257, a putative microRNA that targets calreticulin, was suppressed in the dedifferentiated subtype. The down-regulation of calreticulin by small-interfering RNA could induce adipogenesis in dedifferentiated liposarcoma cells and reduce cell proliferation. Our results therefore suggest that aberrantly expressed calreticulin in dedifferentiated liposarcoma is involved in its dedifferenitation and/or tumor progression. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aberrant RNA splicing in cancer; expression changes and driver mutations of splicing factor genes.

    PubMed

    Sveen, A; Kilpinen, S; Ruusulehto, A; Lothe, R A; Skotheim, R I

    2016-05-12

    Alternative splicing is a widespread process contributing to structural transcript variation and proteome diversity. In cancer, the splicing process is commonly disrupted, resulting in both functional and non-functional end-products. Cancer-specific splicing events are known to contribute to disease progression; however, the dysregulated splicing patterns found on a genome-wide scale have until recently been less well-studied. In this review, we provide an overview of aberrant RNA splicing and its regulation in cancer. We then focus on the executors of the splicing process. Based on a comprehensive catalog of splicing factor encoding genes and analyses of available gene expression and somatic mutation data, we identify cancer-associated patterns of dysregulation. Splicing factor genes are shown to be significantly differentially expressed between cancer and corresponding normal samples, and to have reduced inter-individual expression variation in cancer. Furthermore, we identify enrichment of predicted cancer-critical genes among the splicing factors. In addition to previously described oncogenic splicing factor genes, we propose 24 novel cancer-critical splicing factors predicted from somatic mutations.

  16. Aberrant expression of decoy receptor 3 in human breast cancer: relevance to lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiuwan; Zheng, Yahong; Chen, Donghan; Li, Xiaohong; Lu, Chuanhui; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-05-15

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a decoy receptor against Fas ligand belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is overexpressed in some forms of cancer. It was recently reported that DcR3 could protect endothelial cells from apoptosis, implying a potential role in the development of vessels, whereas its role in the lymphangiogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we studied the DcR3 expression and its relationship with the lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) to investigate if it played a role in the lymph metastasis of human breast cancer. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed to measure the messenger RNA and protein expression of DcR3 in the breast cancer tissues, noncancerous counterparts, and axillary lymph node from 63 patients. LMVD in these specimens was assessed by counting the D2-40 labeled-microvessels. Furthermore, the correlations between DcR3 expression and LMVD and other clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed. DcR3 was overexpressed in the breast cancer tissue of 58 patients (92.1%) and was also expressed in vascular endothelial cells and tumor cells in the lymph nodes. LMVD in cancer tissue and lymph nodes were both positively correlated to the aberrant expression of DcR3. The relevance between DcR3 overexpression and LMVD revealed the existence of possible links between DcR3 and lymphangiogenesis. Based on these findings, it is important to further explore the regulation of lymphangiogenesis operated by the reverse tumor necrosis factor signaling of DcR3. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pretargeting CD45 enhances the selective delivery of radiation to hematolymphoid tissues in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Damian J.; Pagel, John M.; Nemecek, Eneida R.

    2009-08-06

    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is designed to enhance the directed delivery of radionuclides to malignant cells. Through a series of studies in nineteen nonhuman primates (M. fascicularis) the potential therapeutic advantage of anti-CD45 PRIT was evaluated. Anti-CD45 PRIT demonstrated a significant improvement in target-to-normal organ ratios of absorbed radiation when compared to directly radiolabeled bivalent antibody (conventional radioimmunotherapy [RIT]). Radio-DOTA-biotin administered 48 hours after anti-CD45 streptavidin fusion protein (FP) [BC8 (scFv)4SA] produced markedly lower concentrations of radiation in non-target tissues when compared to conventional RIT. PRIT generated superior target:normal organ ratios in the blood, lung and liver (10.3:1, 18.9:1 and 9.9:1more » respectively) when compared to the conventional RIT controls (2.6:1, 6.4:1 and 2.9:1 respectively). The FP demonstrated superior retention in target tissues relative to comparable directly radiolabeled bivalent anti-CD45 RIT. The time-point of administration of the second step radiolabeled ligand (radio-DOTA-biotin) significantly impacted the biodistribution of radioactivity in target tissues. Rapid clearance of the FP from the circulation rendered unnecessary the addition of a synthetic clearing agent in this model. These results support proceeding to anti-CD45 PRIT clinical trials for patients with both leukemia and lymphoma.« less

  18. Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs in cumulus cells isolated from PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Hao, Cuifang; Bao, Hongchu; Wang, Meimei; Dai, Huangguan

    2016-01-01

    To describe the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) profiles in cumulus cells isolated from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients by employing a microarray and in-depth bioinformatics analysis. This information will help us understand the occurrence and development of PCOS. In this study, we used a microarray to describe lncRNA profiles in cumulus cells isolated from ten patients (five PCOS and five normal women). Several differentially expressed lncRNAs were chosen to validate the microarray results by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Then, the differentially expressed lncRNAs were classified into three subgroups (HOX loci lncRNA, enhancer-like lncRNA, and lincRNA) to deduce their potential features. Furthermore, a lncRNA/mRNA co-expression network was constructed by using the Cytoscape software (V2.8.3, http://www.cytoscape.org/ ). We observed that 623 lncRNAs and 260 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were significantly up- or down-regulated (≥2-fold change), and these differences could be used to discriminate cumulus cells of PCOS from those of normal patients. Five differentially expressed lncRNAs (XLOC_011402, ENST00000454271, ENST00000433673, ENST00000450294, and ENST00000432431) were selected to validate the microarray results using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were consistent with the microarray data. Further analysis indicated that many differentially expressed lncRNAs were transcribed from chromosome 2 and may act as enhancers to regulate their neighboring protein-coding genes. Forty-three lncRNAs and 29 mRNAs were used to construct the coding-non-coding gene co-expression network. Most pairs positively correlated, and one mRNA correlated with one or more lncRNAs. Our study is the first to determine genome-wide lncRNA expression patterns in cumulus cells isolated from PCOS patients by microarray. The results show that clusters of lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in cumulus cells of PCOS patients compared with those of normal women, which revealed

  19. The expression of APRIL in Sjogren's syndrome: aberrant expression of APRIL in the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Vosters, Jelle L; Roescher, Nienke; Polling, Eline J; Illei, Gabor G; Tak, Paul P

    2012-09-01

    A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF) are B-cell-related mediators and may play a role in the pathogenesis in SS. In this descriptive study we assessed the expression of APRIL and BAFF in the minor salivary gland and serum from SS patients. Paraffin-embedded minor salivary gland sections from SS patients, non-SS controls and healthy volunteers were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Digital image quantification was performed to evaluate the expression of BAFF, APRIL and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor. Furthermore, serum was analysed for soluble BAFF and APRIL levels by ELISA. All the data were also analysed for subjects with decreased and normal stimulated salivary flow independent of the classification. APRIL expression was lower in minor salivary gland biopsies from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers and to a lesser extent non-SS controls, whereas BAFF expression was similar in all groups. Soluble APRIL levels in serum were increased in SS patients and in subjects with decreased salivary flow independent of the classification. APRIL salivary gland tissue levels are decreased, suggesting that targeting this cytokine locally in the salivary glands would not benefit SS patients. Moreover, the discrepancy between local and systemic levels is striking and future research should assess this in more detail.

  20. Clinical omics analysis of colorectal cancer incorporating copy number aberrations and gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Takumi; Itoda, Masaya; Muto, Taika; Miyaguchi, Ken; Mogushi, Kaoru; Shoji, Satoshi; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Iida, Satoru; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi; Mizushima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2010-07-29

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers in Japan, and thus a wide range of methods have been deployed to study the molecular mechanisms of CRC. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of CRC, incorporating copy number aberration (CRC) and gene expression data. For the last four years, we have been collecting data from CRC cases and organizing the information as an "omics" study by integrating many kinds of analysis into a single comprehensive investigation. In our previous studies, we had experienced difficulty in finding genes related to CRC, as we observed higher noise levels in the expression data than in the data for other cancers. Because chromosomal aberrations are often observed in CRC, here, we have performed a combination of CNA analysis and expression analysis in order to identify some new genes responsible for CRC. This study was performed as part of the Clinical Omics Database Project at Tokyo Medical and Dental University. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of genetic instability in CRC by this combination of expression analysis and CNA, and to establish a new method for the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. Comprehensive gene expression analysis was performed on 79 CRC cases using an Affymetrix Gene Chip, and comprehensive CNA analysis was performed using an Affymetrix DNA Sty array. To avoid the contamination of cancer tissue with normal cells, laser micro-dissection was performed before DNA/RNA extraction. Data analysis was performed using original software written in the R language. We observed a high percentage of CNA in colorectal cancer, including copy number gains at 7, 8q, 13 and 20q, and copy number losses at 8p, 17p and 18. Gene expression analysis provided many candidates for CRC-related genes, but their association with CRC did not reach the level of statistical significance. The combination of CNA and gene expression analysis, together with the clinical information

  1. Aberrant epithelial GREM1 expression initiates colonic tumorigenesis from cells outside the stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Davis, Hayley; Irshad, Shazia; Bansal, Mukesh; Rafferty, Hannah; Boitsova, Tatjana; Bardella, Chiara; Jaeger, Emma; Lewis, Annabelle; Freeman-Mills, Luke; Giner, Francesc Castro; Rodenas-Cuadrado, Pedro; Mallappa, Sreelakshmi; Clark, Susan; Thomas, Huw; Jeffery, Rosemary; Poulsom, Richard; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Novelli, Marco; Chetty, Runjan; Silver, Andrew; Sansom, Owen James; Greten, Florian R; Wang, Lai Mun; East, James Edward; Tomlinson, Ian; Leedham, Simon John

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome (HMPS) is characterized by the development of mixed-morphology colorectal tumors and is caused by a 40-kb genetic duplication that results in aberrant epithelial expression of the gene encoding mesenchymal bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, GREM1. Here we use HMPS tissue and a mouse model of the disease to show that epithelial GREM1 disrupts homeostatic intestinal morphogen gradients, altering cell fate that is normally determined by position along the vertical epithelial axis. This promotes the persistence and/or reacquisition of stem cell properties in Lgr5-negative progenitor cells that have exited the stem cell niche. These cells form ectopic crypts, proliferate, accumulate somatic mutations and can initiate intestinal neoplasia, indicating that the crypt base stem cell is not the sole cell of origin of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, we show that epithelial expression of GREM1 also occurs in traditional serrated adenomas, sporadic premalignant lesions with a hitherto unknown pathogenesis, and these lesions can be considered the sporadic equivalents of HMPS polyps.

  2. Differential cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibody OPD4 (anti-CD45RO) in macaques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolei; Pahar, Bapi; Rasmussen, Terri; Alvarez, Xavier; Dufour, Jason; Rasmussen, Kelsi; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2008-01-01

    Immunologic research in nonhuman primates is occasionally limited by the availability of reagents that cross-react in nonhuman primates. One major limitation has been the lack of a monoclonal antibody to CD45RO. Although the monoclonal antibody UCHL-1 is used to detect CD45RO isoforms in humans, it does not react with nonhuman primates, mandating the use of alternative strategies to define "memory" T cell responses in nonhuman primates. The current study examined the reactivity and specificity of another antibody against CD45RO, clone OPD4, in macaques. Here we demonstrate that OPD4 specifically labels memory CD4+ T cells in approximately 44% of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of Indian but not Chinese origin. In contrast, tissues from pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) react with this clone, indicating that OPD4 may be useful for examining memory CD4+ T cells in certain macaques, but its utility may be limited in other species or even among individual macaques.

  3. Expression of aberrant CD markers in acute leukemia: a study of 100 cases with immunophenotyping by multiparameter flowcytometry.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Anupam; Hazarika, Munlima; Das, Debabrata; Kumar Rai, Avdhesh; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Bhuyan, Chidananda; Kataki, Amal Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Acute leukemia is a heterogenous disease having diverse phenotypes. Immunophenotyping by flowcytometry is essential for diagnosis of myeloid and lymphoid subtypes. Aberrant phenotype incidence is controversial and dissimilar results have been reported by different groups. Purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of aberrant phenotypes in North East Indian patients with acute leukemia. We analysed a total of 100 cases (AML = 36, ALL = 61, MPAL = 3) by multiparametric flow cytometry using an acute panel of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). The MoAbs were selected to identify differentiation-associated antigens of both myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Aberrant phenotypes were found in 21 (58.3%) cases of AML, 36 (59.2%) cases of B-ALL and 6 (66.7%) cases of T-ALL. CD7 was the most frequent lymphoid associated antigen found in 33% of AML cases while CD117 was the myeloid antigen most frequently detected in ALL (54%) cases. Aberrant expression of CD 117 is highly significant by Fischer's exact test (P< 0.0001). We conclude that aberrant phenotypes are present in a great majority of acute leukemia patients of North East India. Future studies will be directed to correlate of these markers with prognosis and therapeutic response.

  4. Aberrant PD-L1 expression through 3'-UTR disruption in multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Keisuke; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Takeda, Yohei; Sakata, Seiji; Matsumoto, Misako; Nagano, Seiji; Maeda, Takuya; Nagata, Yasunobu; Kitanaka, Akira; Mizuno, Seiya; Tanaka, Hiroko; Chiba, Kenichi; Ito, Satoshi; Watatani, Yosaku; Kakiuchi, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yoshizato, Tetsuichi; Yoshida, Kenichi; Sanada, Masashi; Itonaga, Hidehiro; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Totoki, Yasushi; Munakata, Wataru; Nakamura, Hiromi; Hama, Natsuko; Shide, Kotaro; Kubuki, Yoko; Hidaka, Tomonori; Kameda, Takuro; Masuda, Kyoko; Minato, Nagahiro; Kashiwase, Koichi; Izutsu, Koji; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Takahashi, Satoru; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Akatsuka, Yoshiki; Shimoda, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Kengo; Seya, Tsukasa; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi

    2016-06-16

    Successful treatment of many patients with advanced cancer using antibodies against programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1) and its ligand (PD-L1; also known as CD274) has highlighted the critical importance of PD-1/PD-L1-mediated immune escape in cancer development. However, the genetic basis for the immune escape has not been fully elucidated, with the exception of elevated PD-L1 expression by gene amplification and utilization of an ectopic promoter by translocation, as reported in Hodgkin and other B-cell lymphomas, as well as stomach adenocarcinoma. Here we show a unique genetic mechanism of immune escape caused by structural variations (SVs) commonly disrupting the 3' region of the PD-L1 gene. Widely affecting multiple common human cancer types, including adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (27%), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (8%), and stomach adenocarcinoma (2%), these SVs invariably lead to a marked elevation of aberrant PD-L1 transcripts that are stabilized by truncation of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Disruption of the Pd-l1 3'-UTR in mice enables immune evasion of EG7-OVA tumour cells with elevated Pd-l1 expression in vivo, which is effectively inhibited by Pd-1/Pd-l1 blockade, supporting the role of relevant SVs in clonal selection through immune evasion. Our findings not only unmask a novel regulatory mechanism of PD-L1 expression, but also suggest that PD-L1 3'-UTR disruption could serve as a genetic marker to identify cancers that actively evade anti-tumour immunity through PD-L1 overexpression.

  5. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals aberrant MAPK and Wnt signaling pathways associated with early parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Enkemann, Steven A; Liang, Ping; Hersmus, Remko; Zanazzi, Claudia; Huang, Junjiu; Wu, Chao; Chen, Zhisheng; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2010-12-01

    Mammalian parthenogenesis could not survive but aborted during mid-gestation, presumably because of lack of paternal gene expression. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the failure of parthenogenesis at early stages of development, we performed global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of parthenogenetic blastocysts in comparison with those of blastocysts from normally fertilized embryos. Parthenogenetic blastocysts exhibited changes in the expression of 749 genes, of which 214 had lower expression and 535 showed higher expressions than fertilized embryos using a minimal 1.8-fold change as a cutoff. Genes important for placenta development were decreased in their expression in parthenote blastocysts. Some maternally expressed genes were up-regulated and paternal-related genes were down-regulated. Moreover, aberrantly increased Wnt signaling and reduced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling were associated with early parthenogenesis. The protein level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) was low in parthenogenetic blastocysts compared with that of fertilized blastocysts 120 h after fertilization. 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, a specific glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor, significantly decreased embryo hatching. The expression of several imprinted genes was altered in parthenote blastocysts. Gene expression also linked reduced expression of Xist to activation of X chromosome. Our findings suggest that failed X inactivation, aberrant imprinting, decreased ERK/MAPK signaling and possibly elevated Wnt signaling, and reduced expression of genes for placental development collectively may contribute to abnormal placenta formation and failed fetal development in parthenogenetic embryos.

  6. Aberrant Cortical Activity in Multiple GCaMP6-Expressing Transgenic Mouse Lines

    PubMed Central

    Buetfering, Christina; Groblewski, Peter A.; Manavi, Sahar; Miles, Jesse; White, Casey; Griffin, Fiona; Roll, Kate; Cross, Sissy; Nguyen, Thuyanh V.; Larsen, Rachael; Daigle, Tanya; Thompson, Carol L.; Olsen, Shawn; Hausser, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Transgenic mouse lines are invaluable tools for neuroscience but, as with any technique, care must be taken to ensure that the tool itself does not unduly affect the system under study. Here we report aberrant electrical activity, similar to interictal spikes, and accompanying fluorescence events in some genotypes of transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6 genetically encoded calcium sensors. These epileptiform events have been observed particularly, but not exclusively, in mice with Emx1-Cre and Ai93 transgenes, of either sex, across multiple laboratories. The events occur at >0.1 Hz, are very large in amplitude (>1.0 mV local field potentials, >10% df/f widefield imaging signals), and typically cover large regions of cortex. Many properties of neuronal responses and behavior seem normal despite these events, although rare subjects exhibit overt generalized seizures. The underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear, but we speculate about possible causes on the basis of diverse observations. We encourage researchers to be aware of these activity patterns while interpreting neuronal recordings from affected mouse lines and when considering which lines to study. PMID:28932809

  7. Immune cell inhibition by SLAMF7 is mediated by a mechanism requiring src kinases, CD45, and SHIP-1 that is defective in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huaijian; Cruz-Munoz, Mario-Ernesto; Wu, Ning; Robbins, Michael; Veillette, André

    2015-01-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (SLAMF7) is a receptor present on immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. It is also expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This led to development of an anti-SLAMF7 antibody, elotuzumab, showing efficacy against MM. SLAMF7 mediates activating or inhibitory effects in NK cells, depending on whether cells express or do not express the adaptor EAT-2. Since MM cells lack EAT-2, we elucidated the inhibitory effectors of SLAMF7 in EAT-2-negative NK cells and tested whether these effectors were triggered in MM cells. SLAMF7-mediated inhibition in NK cells lacking EAT-2 was mediated by SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase 1 (SHIP-1), which was recruited via tyrosine 261 of SLAMF7. Coupling of SLAMF7 to SHIP-1 required Src kinases, which phosphorylated SLAMF7. Although MM cells lack EAT-2, elotuzumab did not induce inhibitory signals in these cells. This was at least partly due to a lack of CD45, a phosphatase required for Src kinase activation. A defect in SLAMF7 function was also observed in CD45-deficient NK cells. Hence, SLAMF7-triggered inhibition is mediated by a mechanism involving Src kinases, CD45, and SHIP-1 that is defective in MM cells. This defect might explain why elotuzumab eliminates MM cells by an indirect mechanism involving the activation of NK cells. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-lymphoma expressing cytokeratin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Menestrina, F; Lestani, M; Scarpa, A; Viale, G; Bonetti, F; Pizzolo, G; Chilosi, M

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a case of common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-lymphoma expressing low molecular weight cytokeratin but no leukocyte common antigen (CD45) in a 57-year-old man. The unusual morphology and clinical course together with the aberrant immunohistochemical results suggested a diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma. A detailed immunohistochemistry study on frozen and paraffin sections and molecular analysis prevented a diagnostic mistake.

  9. Regulation by CD45 of the tyrosine phosphorylation of high affinity IgE receptor beta- and gamma-chains.

    PubMed

    Adamczewski, M; Numerof, R P; Koretzky, G A; Kinet, J P

    1995-04-01

    Previous studies using tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors have implicated tyrosine phosphatases in the signal transduction pathway initiated by aggregation of Fc epsilon RI, the high affinity receptor for IgE. To define more precisely a role for the tyrosine phosphatase CD45 in Fc epsilon RI-mediated signaling, we have transfected the three subunits of Fc epsilon RI into wild-type Jurkat and a CD45-deficient Jurkat derivative. Here we demonstrate that CD45 is necessary for the initiation of calcium flux through the transfected Fc epsilon RI. In contrast to the effect of phosphatase inhibitors, the tyrosine phosphorylation levels of beta and gamma after aggregation of Fc epsilon RI are surprisingly reduced, relative to wild-type Jurkat, in the CD45-deficient cells. After reconstitution of the CD45-deficient cells with a chimeric molecule containing the cytoplasmic phosphatase domains of CD45, both the base line and activation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation levels are increased. By examining Lck autophosphorylation, we find that Fc epsilon RI aggregation induces an increase in Lck enzymatic activity only in wild-type Jurkat and the CD45-deficient Jurkat reconstituted with chimeric CD45. This regulation of src-family tyrosine kinase activity may be the means by which CD45 controls aggregation-induced receptor phosphorylation.

  10. Helminth antigens selectively differentiate unsensitized CD45RA+ CD4+ human T cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Steel, C; Nutman, T B

    1998-01-01

    Human filarial helminth infections are characterized by type 2 immune responses to parasite Ag that can persist for the life of the individual; one possible cause for this may be prenatal exposure to the blood-borne microfilarial (Mf) stage of the parasite. To examine the relationship between early exposure to filarial Ag and subsequent immune responsiveness, CD45RA+ CD4+ cells frp, normal unsensitized donors were stimulated in vitro with soluble microfilarial Ag (MfAg) from the filarial parasite Brugia malayi in the presence of APCs. MfAg alone induced proliferation and IFN-gamma and IL-5 production in unsensitized CD45RA+ CD4+ cells, demonstrating the ability of filarial Ags to prime naive T cells in the absence of exogenous cytokines and dendritic cells. Adding exogenous cytokine(s) (particularly IL-12 and IL-4) during priming was able to alter the MfAg-specific responses of CD45RA+ CD4+ cells as well as subsequent responses to Ag. Interestingly, priming solely with MfAg led to enhanced IL-5 production following Ag restimulation, suggesting that MfAg preferentially primes for type 2 responses. These data demonstrate that filarial Ags by themselves can specifically prime CD45RA+ CD4+ cells in vitro and do so in such a way as to deviate the immune response.

  11. Method for Expressing Clinical and Statistical Significance of Ocular and Corneal Wavefront Error Aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Smolek, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The significance of ocular or corneal aberrations may be subject to misinterpretation whenever eyes with different pupil sizes or the application of different Zernike expansion orders are compared. A method is shown that uses simple mathematical interpolation techniques based on normal data to rapidly determine the clinical significance of aberrations, without concern for pupil and expansion order. Methods Corneal topography (Tomey, Inc.; Nagoya, Japan) from 30 normal corneas was collected and the corneal wavefront error analyzed by Zernike polynomial decomposition into specific aberration types for pupil diameters of 3, 5, 7, and 10 mm and Zernike expansion orders of 6, 8, 10 and 12. Using this 4×4 matrix of pupil sizes and fitting orders, best-fitting 3-dimensional functions were determined for the mean and standard deviation of the RMS error for specific aberrations. The functions were encoded into software to determine the significance of data acquired from non-normal cases. Results The best-fitting functions for 6 types of aberrations were determined: defocus, astigmatism, prism, coma, spherical aberration, and all higher-order aberrations. A clinical screening method of color-coding the significance of aberrations in normal, postoperative LASIK, and keratoconus cases having different pupil sizes and different expansion orders is demonstrated. Conclusions A method to calibrate wavefront aberrometry devices by using a standard sample of normal cases was devised. This method could be potentially useful in clinical studies involving patients with uncontrolled pupil sizes or in studies that compare data from aberrometers that use different Zernike fitting-order algorithms. PMID:22157570

  12. CD147 (Basigin/Emmprin) identifies FoxP3+CD45RO+CTLA4+-activated human regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Solstad, Therese; Bains, Simer Jit; Landskron, Johannes; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Thiede, Bernd; Taskén, Kjetil; Torgersen, Knut Martin

    2011-11-10

    Human CD4(+)FoxP3(+) T cells are functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous providing plasticity to immune activation and regulation. To better understand the functional dynamics within this subset, we first used a combined strategy of subcellular fractionation and proteomics to describe differences at the protein level between highly purified human CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cell populations. This identified a set of membrane proteins highly expressed on the cell surface of human regulatory T cells (Tregs), including CD71, CD95, CD147, and CD148. CD147 (Basigin or Emmprin) divided CD4(+)CD25(+) cells into distinct subsets. Furthermore, CD147, CD25, FoxP3, and in particular CTLA-4 expression correlated. Phenotypical and functional analyses suggested that CD147 marks the switch between resting (CD45RA(+)) and activated (CD45RO(+)) subsets within the FoxP3(+) T-cell population. Sorting of regulatory T cells into CD147(-) and CD147(+) populations demonstrated that CD147 identifies an activated and highly suppressive CD45RO(+) Treg subset. When analyzing CD4(+) T cells for their cytokine producing potential, CD147 levels grouped the FoxP3(+) subset into 3 categories with different ability to produce IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17. Together, this suggests that CD147 is a direct marker for activated Tregs within the CD4(+)FoxP3(+) subset and may provide means to manipulate cells important for immune homeostasis.

  13. Differentially expressed microRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma invert effects of copy number aberrations of prognostic genes

    PubMed Central

    Tokar, Tomas; Pastrello, Chiara; Ramnarine, Varune R.; Zhu, Chang-Qi; Craddock, Kenneth J.; Pikor, Larrisa A.; Vucic, Emily A.; Vary, Simon; Shepherd, Frances A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Lam, Wan L.; Jurisica, Igor

    2018-01-01

    In many cancers, significantly down- or upregulated genes are found within chromosomal regions with DNA copy number alteration opposite to the expression changes. Generally, this paradox has been overlooked as noise, but can potentially be a consequence of interference of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, including microRNA-mediated control of mRNA levels. To explore potential associations between microRNAs and paradoxes in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) we curated and analyzed lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) data, comprising gene expressions, copy number aberrations (CNAs) and microRNA expressions. We integrated data from 1,062 tumor samples and 241 normal lung samples, including newly-generated array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data from 63 LUAD samples. We identified 85 “paradoxical” genes whose differential expression consistently contrasted with aberrations of their copy numbers. Paradoxical status of 70 out of 85 genes was validated on sample-wise basis using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) LUAD data. Of these, 41 genes are prognostic and form a clinically relevant signature, which we validated on three independent datasets. By meta-analysis of results from 9 LUAD microRNA expression studies we identified 24 consistently-deregulated microRNAs. Using TCGA-LUAD data we showed that deregulation of 19 of these microRNAs explains differential expression of the paradoxical genes. Our results show that deregulation of paradoxical genes is crucial in LUAD and their expression pattern is maintained epigenetically, defying gene copy number status. PMID:29507679

  14. Aberrant expression of IFN-γ in Th2 cells from Th2 LCR-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soo Seok; Kim, Kiwan; Lee, Wonyong; Lee, Gap Ryol

    2012-08-03

    The Th2 locus control region (LCR) has been shown to be a crucial cis-acting element for Th2 cytokine expression and Th2 cell differentiation. To study the role of Th2 LCR in ifng locus regulation, we examined the expression of IFN-γ in Th2 cells from Th2 LCR-deficient mice. We found IFN-γ to be aberrantly up-regulated. In addition, histone 3(H3)-acetylation and histone 3 lysine 4 (H3-K4)-methylation greatly increased at the ifng locus of the Th2 cells. GATA-3 and STAT6 bound to the ifng promoter in Th2 cells from the wild type but not from the Th2 LCR-deficient mice, and they directly repressed ifng expression in transient reporter assay. Moreover, ectopic expression of GATA-3 and STAT6-VT repressed the aberrant expression of the ifng gene and restored repressive chromatin state at the ifng locus in Th2 cells from Th2 LCR-deficient mice. These results suggest that expression of the ifng gene and chromatin remodeling of the ifng locus are under the control of a Th2 LCR-mediated Th2 differentiation program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered lipid raft–associated signaling and ganglioside expression in T lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Jury, Elizabeth C.; Kabouridis, Panagiotis S.; Flores-Borja, Fabian; Mageed, Rizgar A.; Isenberg, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by abnormalities in T lymphocyte receptor–mediated signal transduction pathways. Our previous studies have established that lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) is reduced in T lymphocytes from patients with SLE and that this reduction is associated with disease activity and parallels an increase in LCK ubiquitination independent of T cell activation. This study investigated the expression of molecules that regulate LCK homeostasis, such as CD45, C-terminal Src kinase (CSK), and c-Cbl, in lipid raft domains from SLE T cells and investigated the localization of these proteins during T cell receptor (TCR) triggering. Our results indicate that the expression of raft-associated ganglioside, GM1, is increased in T cells from SLE patients and LCK may be differentially regulated due to an alteration in the association of CD45 with lipid raft domains. CD45 tyrosine phosphatase, which regulates LCK activity, was differentially expressed and its localization into lipid rafts was increased in T cells from patients with SLE. Furthermore, T cells allowed to “rest” in vitro showed a reversal of the changes in LCK, CD45, and GM1 expression. The results also revealed that alterations in the level of GM1 expression and lipid raft occupancy cannot be induced by serum factors from patients with SLE but indicated that cell-cell contact, activating aberrant proximal signaling pathways, may be important in influencing abnormalities in T cell signaling and, therefore, function in patients with SLE. PMID:15085197

  16. The study of the relationship between aberrant expression of hot shock protein 70 (HSP70) and spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y-B; Liu, H; Huang, S-H; Lai, H; Zhou, Q; Luo, Y; Zhang, Z-Y; Xi, B-R; Ouyang, X

    2017-02-01

    The present study is aimed to explore the relationship between aberrant expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP) and spontaneous abortion. 50 patients with spontaneous abortion and 50 patients with induced abortion were continuously selected based on the nearest matching principle, and the proportion of age and gestational age was 1:1. The decidual tissues were obtained, and the cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Further, the expression of HSP70 was assayed by immune-histochemical staining, and the expression of HSP70 mRNA was detected by the RT-PCR approach. Apoptosis rate, HSP70 expression and HSP70 mRNA expression in the observation group were significantly higher than the control group. HSP70 might induce apoptosis so as to cause spontaneous abortion.

  17. Differential cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibody OPD4 (anti-CD45RO) in macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolei; Pahar, Bapi; Rasmussen, Terri; Alvarez, Xavier; Dufour, Jason; Rasmussen, Kelsi; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    Immunologic research in nonhuman primates is occasionally limited by the availability of reagents that cross react in nonhuman primates. One major limitation has been the lack of a monoclonal antibody to CD45RO. Although the monoclonal antibody UCHL-1 is used to detect CD45RO isoforms in humans, it does not react with nonhuman primates, mandating the use of alternative strategies to define “memory” T cell responses in nonhuman primates. The current study examined the reactivity and specificity of another antibody against CD45RO, clone OPD4, in macaques. Here we demonstrate that OPD4 specifically labels memory CD4+ T cells in ~44% of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of Indian, but not Chinese origin. In contrast, tissues from pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) react with this clone, indicating that OPD4 may be useful for examining memory CD4+ T cells in certain macaques, but its utility may be limited in other species or even among individual macaques. PMID:18304631

  18. The leukocyte common antigen (CD45): a putative receptor-linked protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, H; Tonks, N K; Walsh, K A; Fischer, E H

    1988-01-01

    A major protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase 1B) has been isolated in essentially homogeneous form from the soluble and particulate fractions of human placenta. Unexpectedly, partial amino acid sequences displayed no homology with the primary structures of the protein Ser/Thr phosphatases deduced from cDNA clones. However, the sequence is strikingly similar to the tandem C-terminal homologous domains of the leukocyte common antigen (CD45). A 157-residue segment of PTPase 1B displayed 40% and 33% sequence identity with corresponding regions from cytoplasmic domains I and II of human CD45. Similar degrees of identity have been observed among the catalytic domains of families of regulatory proteins such as protein kinases and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. On this basis, it is proposed that the CD45 family has protein tyrosine phosphatase activity and may represent a set of cell-surface receptors involved in signal transduction. This suggests that the repertoire of signal transduction mechanisms may include the direct control of an intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase, offering the possibility of a regulatory balance with those protein tyrosine kinases that act at the internal surface of the membrane. Images PMID:2845400

  19. Novel Partitivirus Enhances Virulence of and Causes Aberrant Gene Expression in Talaromyces marneffei.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Lo, George C S; Chow, Franklin W N; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Cai, James J; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2018-06-12

    Talaromyces marneffei is the most important thermal dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. We report the discovery of a novel partitivirus, Talaromyces marneffei partitivirus -1 (TmPV1). TmPV1 was detected in 7 (12.7%) of 55 clinical T. marneffei isolates. Complete genome sequencing of the seven TmPV1 isolates revealed two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and capsid protein, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that TmPV1 occupied a distinct clade among the members of the genus Gammapartitivirus Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of isometric, nonenveloped viral particles of 30 to 45 nm in diameter, compatible with partitiviruses, in TmPV1-infected T. marneffei Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated higher viral load of TmPV1 in the yeast phase than in the mycelial phase of T. marneffei Two virus-free isolates, PM1 and PM41, were successfully infected by purified TmPV1 using protoplast transfection. Mice challenged with TmPV1-infected T. marneffei isolates showed significantly shortened survival time ( P < 0.0001) and higher fungal burden in organs than mice challenged with isogenic TmPV1-free isolates. Transcriptomic analysis showed that TmPV1 causes aberrant expression of various genes in T. marneffei , with upregulation of potential virulence factors and suppression of RNA interference (RNAi)-related genes. This is the first report of a mycovirus in a thermally dimorphic fungus. Further studies are required to ascertain the mechanism whereby TmPV1 enhances the virulence of T. marneffei in mice and the potential role of RNAi-related genes in antiviral defense in T. marneffei IMPORTANCE Talaromyces marneffei (formerly Penicillium marneffei ) is the most important thermal dimorphic fungus in Southeast Asia, causing highly fatal systemic penicilliosis in HIV-infected and immunocompromised patients. We discovered a novel mycovirus, TmPV1

  20. Aberrant light directly impairs mood and learning through melanopsin-expressing neurons.

    PubMed

    LeGates, Tara A; Altimus, Cara M; Wang, Hui; Lee, Hey-Kyoung; Yang, Sunggu; Zhao, Haiqing; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Weber, E Todd; Hattar, Samer

    2012-11-22

    The daily solar cycle allows organisms to synchronize their circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycles to the correct temporal niche. Changes in day-length, shift-work, and transmeridian travel lead to mood alterations and cognitive function deficits. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption underlie mood and cognitive disorders associated with irregular light schedules. Whether irregular light schedules directly affect mood and cognitive functions in the context of normal sleep and circadian rhythms remains unclear. Here we show, using an aberrant light cycle that neither changes the amount and architecture of sleep nor causes changes in the circadian timing system, that light directly regulates mood-related behaviours and cognitive functions in mice. Animals exposed to the aberrant light cycle maintain daily corticosterone rhythms, but the overall levels of corticosterone are increased. Despite normal circadian and sleep structures, these animals show increased depression-like behaviours and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning. Administration of the antidepressant drugs fluoxetine or desipramine restores learning in mice exposed to the aberrant light cycle, suggesting that the mood deficit precedes the learning impairments. To determine the retinal circuits underlying this impairment of mood and learning, we examined the behavioural consequences of this light cycle in animals that lack intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. In these animals, the aberrant light cycle does not impair mood and learning, despite the presence of the conventional retinal ganglion cells and the ability of these animals to detect light for image formation. These findings demonstrate the ability of light to influence cognitive and mood functions directly through intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

  1. Oligoamine analogues in combination with 2-difluoromethylornithine synergistically induce re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumour-suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu; Steinbergs, Nora; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Marton, Laurence J.; Casero, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic gene silencing is an important mechanism in the initiation and progression of cancer. Abnormal DNA CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications are involved in aberrant silencing of tumour-suppressor genes. LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) was the first enzyme identified to specifically demethylate H3K4 (Lys4 of histone H3). Methylated H3K4 is an important mark associated with transcriptional activation. The flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding amine oxidase domain of LSD1 is homologous with two polyamine oxidases, SMO (spermine oxidase) and APAO (N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase). We have demonstrated previously that long-chain polyamine analogues, the oligoamines, are inhibitors of LSD1. In the present paper we report the synergistic effects of specific oligoamines in combination with DFMO (2-difluoromethylornithine), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, in human colorectal cancer cells. DFMO treatment depletes natural polyamines and increases the uptake of exogenous polyamines. The combination of oligoamines and DFMO results in a synergistic re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumour-suppressor genes, including SFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2), which encodes a Wnt signalling pathway antagonist and plays an anti-tumorigenic role in colorectal cancer. The treatment-induced re-expression of SFRP2 is associated with increased H3K4me2 (di-methyl H3K4) in the gene promoter. The combination of LSD1-inhibiting oligoamines and DFMO represents a novel approach to epigenetic therapy of cancer. PMID:22132744

  2. Bismuth 213-labeled anti-CD45 radioimmunoconjugate to condition dogs for nonmyeloablative allogeneic marrow grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Sandmaier, B M.; Bethge, W A.; Wilbur, D. Scott

    To lower treatment-related mortality and toxicity of conventional marrow transplantation, a nonmyeloablative regimen using 200 cGy total-body irradiation (TBI) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) combined with cyclosporine (CSP) for postgrafting immunosuppression was developed. To circumvent possible toxic effects of external- beam gamma irradiation, strategies for targeted radiation therapy were investigated. We tested whether the short-lived (46 minutes) alpha-emitter Bi-213 conjugated to an anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (mAb) could replace 200 cGy TBI and selectively target hematopoietic tissues in a canine model of nonmyeloablative DLA-identical marrow transplantation. Biodistribution studies using iodine 123-labeled anti-CD45 mAb showed uptake in blood, marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, andmore » liver. In a dose-escalation study, 7 dogs treated with the Bi-213-anti-CD45 conjugate (Bi-213 dose, 0.1-5.9 mCi/kg[3.7-218 MBq/kg]) without marrow grafts had no toxic effects other than a mild, reversible suppression of blood counts. On the basis of these studies, 3 dogs were treated with 0.5 mg/kg Bi-213-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (Bi-213 doses, 3.6, 4.6, and 8.8 mCi/kg[133, 170, and 326 MBq/kg]) given in 6 injections 3 and 2 days before grafting of marrow from DLA-identical littermates. The dogs also received MMF (10 mg/kg subcutaneously twice daily the day of transplantation until day 27 afterward) and CSP (15 mg/kg orally twice daily the day before transplantation until 35 days afterward). Therapy was well tolerated except for transient elevations in levels of transaminases in 3 dogs, followed by, in one dog, ascites. All dogs achieved prompt engraftment and stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism, with donor contributions ranging from 30% to 70% after more than 27 weeks of follow-up. These results form the basis for additional studies in animals and the design of clinical trials using Bi-213 as a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen with minimal toxicity.« less

  3. Ex vivo identification and characterization of a population of CD13(high) CD105(+) CD45(-) mesenchymal stem cells in human bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Muñiz, Carmen; Teodosio, Cristina; Mayado, Andrea; Amaral, Ana Teresa; Matarraz, Sergio; Bárcena, Paloma; Sanchez, Maria Luz; Alvarez-Twose, Iván; Diez-Campelo, María; García-Montero, Andrés C; Blanco, Juan F; Del Cañizo, Maria Consuelo; del Pino Montes, Javier; Orfao, Alberto

    2015-09-07

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. Their multipotential capacity and immunomodulatory properties have led to an increasing interest in their biological properties and therapeutic applications. Currently, the definition of MSCs relies on a combination of phenotypic, morphological and functional characteristics which are typically evaluated upon in vitro expansion, a process that may ultimately lead to modulation of the immunophenotypic, functional and/or genetic features of these cells. Therefore, at present there is great interest in providing markers and phenotypes for direct in vivo and ex vivo identification and isolation of MSCs. Multiparameter flow cytometry immunophenotypic studies were performed on 65 bone marrow (BM) samples for characterization of CD13(high) CD105(+) CD45(-) cells. Isolation and expansion of these cells was performed in a subset of samples in parallel to the expansion of MSCs from mononuclear cells following currently established procedures. The protein expression profile of these cells was further assessed on (paired) primary and in vitro expanded BM MSCs, and their adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential was also determined. Our results show that the CD13(high) CD105(+) CD45(-) immunophenotype defines a minor subset of cells that are systematically present ex vivo in normal/reactive BM (n = 65) and that display immunophenotypic features, plastic adherence ability, and osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation capacities fully compatible with those of MSCs. In addition, we also show that in vitro expansion of these cells modulates their immunophenotypic characteristics, including changes in the expression of markers currently used for the definition of MSCs, such as CD105, CD146 and HLA-DR. BM MSCs can be identified ex vivo in normal/reactive BM, based on a robust CD13(high) CD105(+) and CD45(-) immunophenotypic profile

  4. Recovery of CD45(-)/Lin(-)/SSEA-4(+) very small embryonic-like stem cells by cord blood bank standard operating procedures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Jen; Tien, Kuei-Erh; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Hsieh, Tzu-Bou; Hwang, Shiaw-Min

    2014-04-01

    Very small embryonic-like (VSEL) stem cells are a rare cell population present in bone marrow, cord blood and other tissues that displays a distinct small cell size and the ability to give rise to cells of the three germ layers. VSEL stem cells were reported to be discarded in the red blood cell fraction by Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation during the processing of bone marrow and cord blood specimens. However, most cord blood banks do not include density gradient centrifugation in their procedures while red blood cells are removed by Hespan sedimentation following the Cord Blood Transplantation Study cord blood bank standard operating procedures (COBLT SOP). To clarify the retention of VSEL stem cells, we investigated the recovery of VSEL stem cells following COBLT SOP guidelines. The recovery of CD45(-)/Lin(-)/SSEA-4(+) VSEL stem cells of umbilical cord blood was examined by flow cytometry before and after COBLT SOP processing, and relative expression of pluripotent genes was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. CD45(-)/Lin(-)/SSEA-4(+) VSEL stem cells were mostly recovered in the final products following COBLT SOP guidelines. The expression of pluripotent genes could be maintained at >80% in products after hetastarch (Hespan; B. Braun Medical Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) processing. The rare sub-population of CD45(-)/Lin(-)/SSEA-4(+) VSEL stem cells survived after Hespan sedimentation. This finding suggests that umbilical cord blood units cryopreserved by COBLT SOP in cord blood banks should retain most VSEL stem cells present in the un-processed specimens. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fetal Onset of Aberrant Gene Expression Relevant to Pulmonary Carcinogenesis in Lung Adenocarcinoma Development Induced by In Utero Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun; Liu, Jie; Xie, Yaxiong; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is a human pulmonary carcinogen. Our work indicates that in utero arsenic exposure in mice can induce or initiate lung cancer in female offspring. To define early molecular changes, pregnant C3H mice were given 85 ppm arsenic in drinking water from days 8 to 18 of gestation and expression of selected genes in the fetal lung or in lung tumors developing in adults was examined. Transplacental arsenic exposure increased estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) transcript and protein levels in the female fetal lung. An overexpression of various estrogen-regulated genes also occurred, including trefoil factor-3, anterior gradient-2, and the steroid metabolism genes 17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 and aromatase. The insulin growth factor system, which can be influenced by ER and has been implicated in the pulmonary oncogenic process, was activated in fetal lung after gestational arsenic exposure. in utero arsenic exposure also induced overexpression of α-fetoprotein, epidermal growth factor receptor, L-myc, and metallothionein-1 in fetal lung, all of which are associated with lung cancer. Lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma from adult female mice exposed to arsenic in utero showed widespread, intense nuclear ER-α expression. In contrast, normal adult lung and diethylnitrosamine-induced lung adenocarcinoma showed little evidence of ER-α expression. Thus, transplacental arsenic exposure at a carcinogenic dose produced aberrant estrogen-linked pulmonary gene expression. ER-α activation was specifically associated with arsenic-induced lung adenocarcinoma and adenoma but not with nitrosamine-induced lung tumors. These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced aberrant ER signaling could disrupt early life stage genetic programing in the lung leading eventually to lung tumor formation much later in adulthood. PMID:17077188

  6. Fetal onset of aberrant gene expression relevant to pulmonary carcinogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma development induced by in utero arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Liu, Jie; Xie, Yaxiong; Diwan, Bhalchandra A; Waalkes, Michael P

    2007-02-01

    Arsenic is a human pulmonary carcinogen. Our work indicates that in utero arsenic exposure in mice can induce or initiate lung cancer in female offspring. To define early molecular changes, pregnant C3H mice were given 85 ppm arsenic in drinking water from days 8 to 18 of gestation and expression of selected genes in the fetal lung or in lung tumors developing in adults was examined. Transplacental arsenic exposure increased estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) transcript and protein levels in the female fetal lung. An overexpression of various estrogen-regulated genes also occurred, including trefoil factor-3, anterior gradient-2, and the steroid metabolism genes 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 and aromatase. The insulin growth factor system, which can be influenced by ER and has been implicated in the pulmonary oncogenic process, was activated in fetal lung after gestational arsenic exposure. In utero arsenic exposure also induced overexpression of alpha-fetoprotein, epidermal growth factor receptor, L-myc, and metallothionein-1 in fetal lung, all of which are associated with lung cancer. Lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma from adult female mice exposed to arsenic in utero showed widespread, intense nuclear ER-alpha expression. In contrast, normal adult lung and diethylnitrosamine-induced lung adenocarcinoma showed little evidence of ER-alpha expression. Thus, transplacental arsenic exposure at a carcinogenic dose produced aberrant estrogen-linked pulmonary gene expression. ER-alpha activation was specifically associated with arsenic-induced lung adenocarcinoma and adenoma but not with nitrosamine-induced lung tumors. These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced aberrant ER signaling could disrupt early life stage genetic programing in the lung leading eventually to lung tumor formation much later in adulthood.

  7. Aberrant p53 protein expression is associated with an increased risk of neoplastic progression in patients with Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Florine; Biermann, Katharina; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Verheij, Joanne; Kalisvaart, Marit; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Stoop, Hans A; Walter, Laurens; Kuipers, Ernst J; Spaander, Manon C W; Bruno, Marco J

    2013-12-01

    The value of surveillance for patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is under discussion given the overall low incidence of neoplastic progression and lack of discriminative tests for risk stratification. Histological diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) is the only accepted predictor for progression to date, but has a low predictive value. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the value of p53 immunohistochemistry for predicting neoplastic progression in patients with BO. We conducted a case-control study within a prospective cohort of 720 patients with BO. Patients who developed high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) were classified as cases and patients without neoplastic progression were classified as controls. P53 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in more than 12 000 biopsies from 635 patients and was scored independently by two expert pathologists who were blinded to long-term outcome. During follow-up, 49 (8%) patients developed HGD or OAC. P53 overexpression was associated with an increased risk of neoplastic progression in patients with BO after adjusting for age, gender, Barrett length and oesophagitis (adjusted relative risks (RR(a)) 5.6; 95% CI 3.1 to 10.3), but the risk was even higher with loss of p53 expression (RR(a) 14.0; 95% CI 5.3 to 37.2). The positive predictive value for neoplastic progression increased from 15% with histological diagnosis of LGD to 33% with LGD and concurrent aberrant p53 expression. Aberrant p53 protein expression is associated with an increased risk of neoplastic progression in patients with BO and appears to be a more powerful predictor of neoplastic progression than histological diagnosis of LGD.

  8. Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy Using Anti-CD45 Monoclonal Antibodies to Deliver Radiation to Murine Hematolymphoid Tissues and Human Myeloid Leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M.; Matthews, Dana C.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for treatment of patients with hematological malignancies frequently fails because of disease recurrence. We therefore conducted pretargeted RIT studies to augment the efficacy in mice of therapy using a pretargeted anti-human (h)CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate followed by delivery of a biotinylated clearing agent and radiolabeled-DOTA-biotin. Tumor-to-blood ratios at 24 hours were 20:1 using pretargeted anti-hCD45 RIT and <1:1 with conventional RIT. In vivo imaging studies confirmed that the pretargeted RIT approach provided high-contrast tumor images with minimal blood-pool activity, whereas directly-labeled anti-hCD45 Ab produced distinct tumor images but the blood pool retained a largemore » amount of labeled antibody for a prolonged time. Therapy experiments demonstrated that 90Y-DOTA-biotin significantly prolonged survival of mice treated pretargeted with anti-hCD45 Ab-SA compared to mice treated with conventional RIT using 90Y-labeled anti-hCD45 Ab at the maximally tolerated dose (400 µCi). Since human CD45 antigens are confined to xenograft tumor cells in this model, and all murine tissues are devoid of hCD45 and will not bind anti-hCD45 Ab, we also compared one-step and pretargeted RIT using an anti-murine (m)CD45 Ab (A20 ) in a model where the target antigen is present on normal hematopoietic tissues. After 24 hours, 27.3 ± 2.8% of the injected dose of radionuclide was delivered per gram (% ID/g) of lymph node using 131I-A20-Ab compared with 40.0 ± 5.4% ID/g for pretargeted 111In-DOTA-biotin (p value). These data suggest that multi-step pretargeted methods for delivering RIT are superior to conventional RIT when targeting CD45 for the treatment of leukemia and may allow for the intensification of therapy, while minimizing toxicities.« less

  9. Trichostatin A specifically improves the aberrant expression of transcription factor genes in embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kimiko; Oikawa, Mami; Kamimura, Satoshi; Ogonuki, Narumi; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Nakano, Toru; Abe, Kuniya; Ogura, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Although mammalian cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been established in various species, the low developmental efficiency has hampered its practical applications. Treatment of SCNT-derived embryos with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can improve their development, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. To address this question, we analysed gene expression profiles of SCNT-derived 2-cell mouse embryos treated with trichostatin A (TSA), a potent HDAC inhibitor that is best used for mouse cloning. Unexpectedly, TSA had no effect on the numbers of aberrantly expressed genes or the overall gene expression pattern in the embryos. However, in-depth investigation by gene ontology and functional analyses revealed that TSA treatment specifically improved the expression of a small subset of genes encoding transcription factors and their regulatory factors, suggesting their positive involvement in de novo RNA synthesis. Indeed, introduction of one of such transcription factors, Spi-C, into the embryos at least partially mimicked the TSA-induced improvement in embryonic development by activating gene networks associated with transcriptional regulation. Thus, the effects of TSA treatment on embryonic gene expression did not seem to be stochastic, but more specific than expected, targeting genes that direct development and trigger zygotic genome activation at the 2-cell stage. PMID:25974394

  10. The homeobox gene CDX2 is aberrantly expressed in most cases of acute myeloid leukemia and promotes leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, Claudia; Bansal, Dimple; Döhner, Konstanze; Eiwen, Karina; Huntly, Brian J.P.; Lee, Benjamin H.; Rücker, Frank G.; Schlenk, Richard F.; Bullinger, Lars; Döhner, Hartmut; Gilliland, D. Gary; Fröhling, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The homeobox transcription factor CDX2 plays an important role in embryonic development and regulates the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells in the adult. We have found that CDX2 is expressed in leukemic cells of 90% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but not in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells derived from normal individuals. Stable knockdown of CDX2 expression by RNA interference inhibited the proliferation of various human AML cell lines and strongly reduced their clonogenic potential in vitro. Primary murine hematopoietic progenitor cells transduced with Cdx2 acquired serial replating activity, were able to be continuously propagated in liquid culture, generated fully penetrant and transplantable AML in BM transplant recipients, and displayed dysregulated expression of Hox family members in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that aberrant expression of the developmental regulatory gene CDX2 in the adult hematopoietic compartment is a frequent event in the pathogenesis of AML; suggest a role for CDX2 as part of a common effector pathway that promotes the proliferative capacity and self-renewal potential of myeloid progenitor cells; and support the hypothesis that CDX2 is responsible, in part, for the altered HOX gene expression that is observed in most cases of AML. PMID:17347684

  11. Aberrant expressions of c-KIT and DOG-1 in mucinous and nonmucinous colorectal carcinomas and relation to clinicopathologic features and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; Mohamed, Mie Ali

    2015-10-01

    c-KIT and DOG-1 are 2 highly expressed proteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Few studies had investigated c-KIT, but not DOG-1, expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). This study aims to investigate expressions of c-KIT and DOG-1 in colorectal mucinous carcinoma and nonmucinous carcinoma using manual tissue microarray technique. In this work, we studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal mucinous (MA) and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA). High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and immunohistochemistry for c-KIT and DOG-1 was done. We found that aberrant c-KIT expression was detected in 12 cases (8%); 6 cases (4%) showed strong expression. Aberrant DOG-1 expression was detected in 15 cases (10%); among them, only 4 cases (2.7%) showed strong expression. Nonmucinous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly high expression of c-KIT, but not DOG-1, than MA. Aberrant c-KIT and DOG-1 expressions were significantly unrelated but were associated with excessive microscopic abscess formation. Neither c-KIT nor DOG-1 expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival or overall survival. In conclusion, aberrant c-KIT and DOG-1 expressions in CRC are rare events, either in NMA or MA. Nonmucinous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly higher expression of c-KIT, but not DOG-1, than MA. The expressions of both in CRC are significantly unrelated but are associated with microscopic abscess formation. Neither c-KIT nor DOG-1 expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival or overall survival. So, c-KIT and DOG-1 immunostaining is not a cost-effective method of identifying patients with CRC who may benefit from treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis. PMID:27031510

  13. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  14. Aberrant expression of interleukin-22 and its targeting microRNAs in oral lichen planus: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhengyu; Du, Guanhuan; Zhou, Zengtong; Liu, Wei; Shi, Linjun; Xu, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease involving oral mucosa. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) as the signature cytokine of T helper 22 cells is increasingly recognized as a key regulator in various autoimmune diseases. Our previous study reported that IL-22 immunoexpression in OLP was significantly increased compared with the normal controls. The objective of this preliminary study was to compare the IL-22 expression levels in oral biopsies from patients with OLP (n = 50) against normal oral mucosa (n = 19) using RT-qPCR and Western blot, identify the potential targeting miRNAs of IL-22, and examine the miRNA expression levels in OLP. Interleukin-22 expression level in OLP was significantly increased compared with the normal controls. The Dual-Luciferase reporter assay system in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells demonstrated that miR-562 and miR-203 were the target miRNAs of IL-22, which was consistent with predictions from bioinformatics software analyses. Interestingly, miR-562 expression in OLP was significantly decreased, but miR-203 expression in OLP was significantly increased compared with the normal controls. This preliminary study for the first time reported that aberrant expression levels of miR-562 and miR-203 were associated with high expression of IL-22 and demonstrated the target relationship between miRNAs and IL-22 in HEK293 cells. Our data indicated that IL-22 and its targeting miRNAs contribute to the pathogenesis of OLP. Further studies are required to investigate the regulatory pathways of IL-22 and miR-562 and miR-203 in OLP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Microarray-based genomic profiling reveals novel genomic aberrations in follicular lymphoma which associate with patient survival and gene expression status.

    PubMed

    Schwaenen, Carsten; Viardot, Andreas; Berger, Hilmar; Barth, Thomas F E; Bentink, Stefan; Döhner, Hartmut; Enz, Martina; Feller, Alfred C; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Hummel, Michael; Kestler, Hans A; Klapper, Wolfram; Kreuz, Markus; Lenze, Dido; Loeffler, Markus; Möller, Peter; Müller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Ott, German; Rosolowski, Maciej; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ruf, Sandra; Siebert, Reiner; Spang, Rainer; Stein, Harald; Truemper, Lorenz; Lichter, Peter; Bentz, Martin; Wessendorf, Swen

    2009-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is characterized by a large number of chromosomal aberrations. However, their exact genomic extension and involved target genes remain to be determined. For this purpose, we used array-based intermediate-high resolution genomic profiling in combination with Affymetrix gene expression analysis. Tumor specimens from 128 FL patients were analyzed for the presence of genomic aberrations and the results were correlated to clinical data sets and mRNA expression levels. In 114 (89%) of the 128 analyzed cases, a total of 688 genomic aberrations (384 gains/amplifications and 304 losses) were detected. Frequent genomic aberrations were: -1p36 (18%), +2p15 (24%), -3q (14%), -6q (25%), +7p (19%), +7q (23%), +8q (14%), -9p (16%), -11q (15%), +12q (20%), -13q (11%), -17p (16%), +18p (18%), and +18q (28%). Critical segments of these imbalances were delineated to genomic fragments with a minimum size down to 0.2 Mb. By comparison of these with mRNA gene expression data, putative candidate genes were identified. Moreover, we found that deletions affecting the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A/B on 9p21 were detected in nontransformed FL grade I-II. For this aberration as well as for -6q25 and -6q26, an association with inferior survival was observed.

  16. Intimate association of Thy-1 and the T-cell antigen receptor with the CD45 tyrosine phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Volarevic, S.; Burns, C.M.; Sussman, J.J.

    1990-09-01

    Immunoprecipitation of Thy-1 from Triton X-100 detergent lysates of surface-iodinated and chemically cross-linked T cells precipitated at least first major and discrete bands. Four of these bands were identified as Thy-1, CD45 (a trasmembrane tyrosine phosphatase), a major histocompatibility complex-encoded class I molecule, and {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin. Similar analyses revealed that CD45 was coprecipitated from lysates of cross-linker-treated cells by antibodies to the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR). The same pattern of coprecipitated bands was observed when digitonin was used to lyse untreated cells. Immunoprecipitation of Thy-1 or the TCR from lysates of cross-linked T cells precipitated CD45 tyrosine phosphatase activity. Calculationsmore » based upon the amounts of coprecipitated enzymatic activity or TCR {zeta} chain indicate that a substantial fraction of Thy-1 and TCR complexes can be cross-linked to CD45. These data support a model in which the dependence of Thy-1 signaling on TCR coexpression is due to their common interaction with a tyrosine phosphatase and provide a possible structural basis for the influence of CD45 on TCR-mediated signaling.« less

  17. Aberrant Calreticulin Expression in Articular Cartilage of Dio2 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bomer, Nils; Cornelis, Frederique M. F.; Ramos, Yolande F. M.; den Hollander, Wouter; Lakenberg, Nico; van der Breggen, Ruud; Storms, Lies; Slagboom, P. Eline; Lories, Rik J. U.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify intrinsic differences in cartilage gene expression profiles between wild-type- and Dio2-/--mice, as a mechanism to investigate factors that contribute to prolonged healthy tissue homeostasis. Methods Previously generated microarray-data (Illumina MouseWG-6 v2) of knee cartilage of wild-type and Dio2 -/- -mice were re-analyzed to identify differential expressed genes independent of mechanical loading conditions by forced treadmill-running. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses of overexpression and knockdown of Calr in mouse chondro-progenitor cells (ATDC5) were applied to assess the direct effect of differential Calr expression on cartilage deposition. Results Differential expression analyses of articular cartilage of Dio2-/- (N = 9) and wild-type-mice (N = 11) while applying a cutoff threshold (P < 0.05 (FDR) and FC > |1,5|) resulted in 1 probe located in Calreticulin (Calr) that was found significantly downregulated in Dio2-/- mice (FC = -1.731; P = 0.044). Furthermore, overexpression of Calr during early chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells leads to decreased proteoglycan deposition and corresponding lower Aggrecan expression, whereas knocking down Calr expression does not lead to histological differences of matrix composition. Conclusion We here demonstrate that the beneficial homeostatic state of articular cartilage in Dio2-/- mice is accompanied with significant lower expression of Calr. Functional analyses further showed that upregulation of Calr expression could act as an initiator of cartilage destruction. The consistent association between Calr and Dio2 expression suggests that enhanced expression of these genes facilitate detrimental effects on cartilage integrity. PMID:27163789

  18. Aberrant expression of miR-141 and nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner in clinical samples of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Maryam; Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Farivar, Taghi Naserpour; Asgari, Mojgan; Abolhasani, Maryam; Shahrokh, Hossein; Afgar, Ali; Kalantari, Elham; Peymani, Amir; Mahdian, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Currently, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal exam are the main screening tests used for PCa diagnosis. However, due to the low specificity of these tests, new alternative biomarkers such as deregulated RNAs and microRNAs have been implemented. Aberrant expressions of small heterodimer partner gene (SHP, NR0B2) and mir-141 are reported in various cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the SHP and miR-141 expression level in tissue samples of prostate cancer. The expression level of SHP gene and miR-141 was assessed by real time PCR and their relative amounts were calculated by the Δ⁢ΔCT method. Also, IHC technique was used to determine the expression level of SHP protein. The miR-141 was significantly up-regulated in the samples of metastatic tumors compared to localized tumor samples (P< 0.001, 31.17-fold change). Tumor samples showed lower SHP mRNA expression levels than BPH samples (p= 0.014, 4.7-fold change). The results of paired t-test analysis showed there was no significant difference between the SHP gene expression in PCa samples and their matched tumor-adjacent normal tissue (p= 0.5). The data obtained in our study confirm the involvement of miR-141 in PCa progression and metastasis. These effects could be mediated by AR via down-regulation of its co-repressor protein, i.e., SHP.

  19. Mechanisms underlying aberrant expression of miR-29c in uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Tsai-Der; Khorram, Omid

    2016-01-01

    To determine the expression of miR-29c and its target genes in leiomyoma and the role of NF-κB, specific protein 1 (SP1), and DNA methylation in its regulation. Experimental study. Academic research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for leiomyoma. Over- and underexpression of miR-29c; blockade of transcription factors. MiR-29c and its target gene levels in leiomyoma and the effects of blockade of transcription factors on miR-29c expression. Leiomyoma as compared with myometrium expressed significantly lower levels of miR-29c, with an inverse relationship with expression of its targets, COL3A1 and DNMT3A. Gain of function of miR-29c inhibited the expression of COL3A1 and DNMT3A at protein and mRNA levels, secreted COL3A1, and rate of cell proliferation. Loss of function of miR-29c had the opposite effect. E2, P, and their combination inhibited miR-29c in leiomyoma smooth muscle cells (LSMC). Phosphorylated NF-κB (p65) and SP1 protein expression were significantly increased in leiomyoma. SiRNA knockdown of SP1 and DNMT3A or their specific inhibitors significantly increased the expression of miR-29c, accompanied by the inhibition of cellular and secreted COL3A1 in siRNA-treated cells. Knockdown of p65 also induced miR-29c expression but had no effect on COL3A1 expression. MiR-29c expression is suppressed in leiomyoma, resulting in an increase in expression of its targets COL3A1 and DNMT3A. The suppression of miR-29c in LSMC is primarily mediated by SP1, NF-κB signaling, and epigenetic modification. Collectively, these results indicate a significant role for miR-29c in leiomyoma pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aberrant expression and DNA methylation of lipid metabolism genes in PCOS: a new insight into its pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie-Xue; Tan, Ya-Jing; Wang, Fang-Fang; Hou, Ning-Ning; Xiang, Yu-Qian; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Liu, Ye; Qu, Fan; Meng, Qing; Xu, Jian; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), whose etiology remains uncertain, is a highly heterogenous and genetically complex endocrine disorder. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in granulosa cells (GCs) from PCOS patients and make epigenetic insights into the pathogenesis of PCOS. Included in this study were 110 women with PCOS and 119 women with normal ovulatory cycles undergoing in vitro fertilization acting as the control group. RNA-seq identified 92 DEGs unique to PCOS GCs in comparison with the control group. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that synthesis of lipids and steroids was activated in PCOS GCs. 5-Methylcytosine analysis demonstrated that there was an approximate 25% reduction in global DNA methylation of GCs in PCOS women (4.44 ± 0.65%) compared with the controls (6.07 ± 0.72%; P  < 0.05). Using MassArray EpiTYPER quantitative DNA methylation analysis, we also found hypomethylation of several gene promoters related to lipid and steroid synthesis, which might result in the aberrant expression of these genes. Our results suggest that hypomethylated genes related to the synthesis of lipid and steroid may dysregulate expression of these genes and promote synthesis of steroid hormones including androgen, which could partially explain mechanisms of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  1. Aberrant epithelial GREM1 expression initiates colonic tumorigenesis from cells outside of the crypt base stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Mukesh; Rafferty, Hannah; Boitsova, Tatjana; Bardella, Chiara; Jaeger, Emma; Lewis, Annabelle; Freeman-Mills, Luke; Giner, Francesc Castro; Rodenas-Cuadrado, Pedro; Mallappa, Sreelakshmi; Clark, Susan; Thomas, Huw; Jeffery, Rosemary; Poulsom, Richard; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Novelli, Marco; Chetty, Runjan; Silver, Andrew; Sansom, Owen James; Greten, Florian R; Wang, Lai Mun; East, James Edward; Tomlinson, Ian; Leedham, Simon John

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome (HMPS) is characterised by the development of mixed morphology colorectal tumours and is caused by a 40 kb duplication that results in aberrant epithelial expression of the mesenchymal Bone Morphogenetic Protein antagonist, GREM1. Here we use HMPS tissue and a mouse model of the disease to show that epithelial GREM1 disrupts homeostatic intestinal morphogen gradients, altering cell-fate, that is normally determined by position along the vertical epithelial axis. This promotes the persistence and/or reacquisition of stem-cell properties in Lgr5 negative (non-expressing) progenitor cells that have exited the stem-cell niche. These cells form ectopic crypts, proliferate, accumulate somatic mutations and can initiate intestinal neoplasia, indicating that the crypt base stem-cell is not the sole cell-of-origin of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, we show that epithelial expression of GREM1 also occurs in traditional serrated adenomas, sporadic pre-malignant lesions with a hitherto unknown pathogenesis and these lesions can be considered the sporadic equivalents of HMPS polyps. PMID:25419707

  2. Aberrant expression of erythropoietin in uterine leiomyoma: implications in tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryoko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Miyagi, Yohei; Mizushima, Taichi; Koyama-Sato, Makiko; Nagashima, Yoji; Taguri, Masataka; Sakakibara, Hideya; Hirahara, Fumiki; Miyagi, Etsuko

    2015-08-01

    Myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome is a rare complication of uterine leiomyoma caused by erythropoietin (EPO) that is produced by tumor cells. We assessed the EPO expression in leiomyomas and investigated the effects of EPO on the tumor growth. Tissue samples were collected from 114 patients with uterine leiomyomas who underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy in Yokohama City University Hospital. From 17 patients, the corresponding normal myometrium was also collected. All samples were analyzed for EPO messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. EPO protein expression was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationships between EPO expression and clinicopathological features were retrospectively analyzed using the patients' charts. Blood vessel density and maturity were assessed using hematoxylin-eosin staining and CD34 immunohistochemistry. EPO mRNA expression was detected in 108 of 114, or 95%, of the leiomyomas. The mean EPO mRNA expression in the leiomyoma was higher than the corresponding normal myometrium (3836 ± 4122 vs 1455 ± 2141; P = .025 by Wilcoxon rank test). The EPO mRNA expression in the leiomyomas varied extensively among samples, ranging from undetectable levels to 18-fold above the mean EPO mRNA of normal myometrium. EPO protein production was observed concomitant with mRNA expression. A positive correlation of leiomyoma size and EPO mRNA expression was shown by Spearman rank correlation coefficient (ρ = 0.294; P = .001), suggesting the involvement of EPO in leiomyoma growth. The blood vessel maturity was also significantly increased in EPO-producing leiomyomas (high vessel maturity in high vs low EPO group: 67% vs 20%; P = .013 by Fisher exact test). This report demonstrates that EPO is produced in most of conventional leiomyomas and supports a model in which EPO accelerates tumor growth, possibly by inducing vessel maturity. Our study suggests one possible mechanism by which

  3. Aberrant expression of stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 in colorectal cancer and its clinicopathologic significance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhimei; Ren, Hui; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Xinhua; Liang, Wei; Wu, Hui; Huang, Leilei; Kang, Jihui; Xu, Jianbo; Zhai, Ertao; Cai, Shirong; He, Yulong

    2018-06-04

    Stress-Inducible Phosphoprotein1 (STIP1) is an adaptor protein that bridges HSP70 and HSP90 folding and a secretory protein that regulates malignant tumor progression. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the clinicopathological significance and prognostic role of STIP1 in colorectal cancer (CRC). We used data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to analyze STIP1 expression in CRC and utilized 8 pairs of fresh-frozen tissue samples to investigate STIP1 expression in CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot assays. We also used immunohistochemical staining to detect STIP1 expression in 144 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CRC tissue samples and determine the clinical significance of STIP1 expression in CRC. The results of bioinformatics analysis, qRT-PCR, and western blot showed that STIP1 expression was higher in CRC tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. High STIP1 expression was significantly correlated with advanced T stage (P=.01), N stage (P=.001), M stage (P﹤0.001), and TNM stage (P﹤0.001). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analyses indicated that higher STIP1 expression predicted a worse prognosis in patients with CRC, and Cox regression analysis revealed that STIP1 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with CRC. In conclusion, our results suggest that STIP1 acts as an oncogene in CRC and can therefore serve as a biomarker for the prognosis of patients with CRC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The effect of aberrant expression and genetic polymorphisms of Rad21 on cervical cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li; Wang, Minjie; Li, Hongying; Tang, Xiangjing; Chen, Fei; Cui, Jinquan

    2018-05-24

    The therapeutic challenge of advanced, recurrent, and refractory cervical cancer (CC) needs to develop new molecularly targeted drugs. Rad21 is an important regulatory gene that maintains the correct dissociation of sister chromatids during cell mitosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Rad21 on CC. Rad21 expression in CC and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III was significantly increased. Women with the rs2289937 C genotype (CC+CT) of rs4570 and rs4579555 genotypes and haplotype 1 (TTTCAGGCGC) were significantly associated with CC risk, while women with low frequencies of haplotype 6 (TTTTAGGCGC) also increased the risk of CC.Rad21-specific shRNA decreased cancerous cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and increased the proportion of cells in G2/M phase as well as sensitivity to radiation. The Rad21 influenced the expression of XPO1, CyclinB1, CDK1, P21, P27, and P53 through up-and downregulating the Rad21 expression. The TCGA database of CC also showed that Rad21 expression was associated with poor disease survival and XPO1 expression. Moreover, the KEGG pathway indicated that Rad21 is broadly involved in the cell cycle and RNA transportation via XPO1. This suggests that Rad21 involves the development of cervical cancer possibly by participating in the regulation of cell cycle and the nuclear output of the tumor suppressor gene via XPO1. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Vasculogenic mimicry in bladder cancer and its association with the aberrant expression of ZEB1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baimou; Mao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Hua; Su, Guanyu; Mo, Chengqiang; Cao, Kaiyuan; Qiu, Shaopeng

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between vasculogenic mimicry (VM) and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) in bladder cancer. VM structure and ZEB1 expression were analyzed by cluster of differentiation 34/periodic acid Schiff (PAS) double staining and immunohistochemical staining in 135 specimens from patients with bladder cancer, and a further 12 specimens from normal bladder tissues. Three-dimensional (3-D) culture was used to detect VM formation in the bladder transitional cancer cell lines UM-UC-3 and J82, and the immortalized human bladder epithelium cell line SV-HUC-1 in vitro. ZEB1 expression in these cell lines was compared by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays. In addition, small interfering RNA was used to inhibit ZEB1 in UM-UC-3 and J82 cells, followed by 3-D culturing of treated cell lines. As a result, VM was observed in 31.1% of specimens from bladder cancer tissues, and cases with high ZEB1 expression accounted for 60.0% of patients with bladder cancer. In addition, ZEB1 expression was closely associated with VM (r=0.189; P<0.05), and also increased as the grade and stage of the tumor developed. In an in vitro assay, UM-UC-3 and J82 cells exhibited VM formation, however, SV-HUC-1 did not. Furthermore, VM-forming cancer cell lines UM-UC-3 and J82 exhibited higher ZEB1 expression. Notably, VM formation was inhibited following knockdown of ZEB1. In conclusion, ZEB1 may be associated with VM in bladder cancer and serve an important role in the process of VM formation. However, its detailed mechanism requires further study. PMID:29552157

  6. Benzene-Induced Aberrant miRNA Expression Profile in Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haiyan; Zhang, Juan; Tan, Kehong; Sun, Rongli; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2015-11-12

    Benzene is a common environmental pollutant that causes hematological alterations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may play a role in benzene-induced hematotoxicity. In this study, C57BL/6 mice showed significant hematotoxicity after exposure to 150 mg/kg benzene for 4 weeks. Benzene exposure decreased not only the number of cells in peripheral blood but also hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Meanwhile, RNA from Lin(-) cells sorted from the bone marrow was applied to aberrant miRNA expression profile using Illumina sequencing. We found that 5 miRNAs were overexpressed and 45 miRNAs were downregulated in the benzene exposure group. Sequencing results were confirmed through qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we also identified five miRNAs which significantly altered in Lin(-)c-Kit⁺ cells obtained from benzene-exposed mice, including mmu-miR-34a-5p; mmu-miR-342-3p; mmu-miR-100-5p; mmu-miR-181a-5p; and mmu-miR-196b-5p. In summary, we successfully established a classical animal model to induce significant hematotoxicity by benzene injection. Benzene exposure may cause severe hematotoxicity not only to blood cells in peripheral circulation but also to hematopoietic cells in bone marrow. Benzene exposure also alters miRNA expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells. This study suggests that benzene induces alteration in hematopoiesis and hematopoiesis-associated miRNAs.

  7. Benzene-Induced Aberrant miRNA Expression Profile in Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Haiyan; Zhang, Juan; Tan, Kehong; Sun, Rongli; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2015-01-01

    Benzene is a common environmental pollutant that causes hematological alterations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may play a role in benzene-induced hematotoxicity. In this study, C57BL/6 mice showed significant hematotoxicity after exposure to 150 mg/kg benzene for 4 weeks. Benzene exposure decreased not only the number of cells in peripheral blood but also hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Meanwhile, RNA from Lin− cells sorted from the bone marrow was applied to aberrant miRNA expression profile using Illumina sequencing. We found that 5 miRNAs were overexpressed and 45 miRNAs were downregulated in the benzene exposure group. Sequencing results were confirmed through qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we also identified five miRNAs which significantly altered in Lin−c-Kit+ cells obtained from benzene-exposed mice, including mmu-miR-34a-5p; mmu-miR-342-3p; mmu-miR-100-5p; mmu-miR-181a-5p; and mmu-miR-196b-5p. In summary, we successfully established a classical animal model to induce significant hematotoxicity by benzene injection. Benzene exposure may cause severe hematotoxicity not only to blood cells in peripheral circulation but also to hematopoietic cells in bone marrow. Benzene exposure also alters miRNA expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells. This study suggests that benzene induces alteration in hematopoiesis and hematopoiesis-associated miRNAs. PMID:26569237

  8. Aberrant protein expression and frequent allelic loss of MSH3 in colorectal cancer with low-level microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Plaschke, Jens; Preußler, Mark; Ziegler, Andreas; Schackert, Hans K

    2012-07-01

    High level of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is caused by the inactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes; however, it is unknown for tumors with low level MSI (MSI-L). The protein complex involving MSH3 preferentially recognizes insertion/deletion loops (IDLs) of two to eight bases and di- and tetranucleotide repeats are affected in the majority of MSI-L CRC. We selected 10 and eight MSI-L CRCs from 228 and 204 patients with sporadic and hereditary disease, respectively. The tumors were analyzed for protein expression of MSH3, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2, and for mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in MSH3. Four tumors showed a markedly reduced MSH3 expression, whereas all 18 tumors had normal expression of the remaining MMR proteins. Twenty-five different sequence variants were identified. None of these results in a truncated protein, though L902W represents the first constitutional missense mutation in MSH3 predicted to be functional based on conservation among mutS homologues. All variants have also been found in normal DNA of the patients and in controls. LOH intragenic to MSH3 was evident for 12 of 16 (75%) informative tumors. Occurrence of sequence variants in normal DNA of the patients and in controls excludes somatic mutations and mutations specific to the CRC patient population, respectively. In contrast, the high frequency of LOH as well as the aberrant protein expression in some tumors indicates an involvement of MSH3 impairment in MSI-L CRC.

  9. Aberrant Promoter Methylation and Expression of UTF1 during Cervical Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deplus, Rachel; Lampe, Xavier; Krusy, Nathalie; Calonne, Emilie; Delbecque, Katty; Kridelka, Frederic; Fuks, François; Ennaji, My Mustapha; Delvenne, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Promoter methylation profiles are proposed as potential prognosis and/or diagnosis biomarkers in cervical cancer. Up to now, little is known about the promoter methylation profile and expression pattern of stem cell (SC) markers during tumor development. In this study, we were interested to identify SC genes methylation profiles during cervical carcinogenesis. A genome-wide promoter methylation screening revealed a strong hypermethylation of Undifferentiated cell Transcription Factor 1 (UTF1) promoter in cervical cancer in comparison with normal ectocervix. By direct bisulfite pyrosequencing of DNA isolated from liquid-based cytological samples, we showed that UTF1 promoter methylation increases with lesion severity, the highest level of methylation being found in carcinoma. This hypermethylation was associated with increased UTF1 mRNA and protein expression. By using quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blot, we showed that both UTF1 mRNA and protein are present in epithelial cancer cell lines, even in the absence of its two main described regulators Oct4A and Sox2. Moreover, by immunofluorescence, we confirmed the nuclear localisation of UTF1 in cell lines. Surprisingly, direct bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed that the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine was associated with decreased UTF1 gene methylation and expression in two cervical cancer cell lines of the four tested. These findings strongly suggest that UTF1 promoter methylation profile might be a useful biomarker for cervical cancer diagnosis and raise the questions of its role during epithelial carcinogenesis and of the mechanisms regulating its expression. PMID:22880087

  10. Loss of keratin K2 expression causes aberrant aggregation of K10, hyperkeratosis, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Heinz; Langbein, Lutz; Reichelt, Julia; Praetzel-Wunder, Silke; Buchberger, Maria; Ghannadan, Minoo; Tschachler, Erwin; Eckhart, Leopold

    2014-10-01

    Keratin K2 is one of the most abundant structural proteins of the epidermis; however, its biological significance has remained elusive. Here we show that suprabasal type II keratins, K1 and K2, are expressed in a mutually exclusive manner at different body sites of the mouse, with K2 being confined to the ear, sole, and tail skin. Deletion of K2 caused acanthosis and hyperkeratosis of the ear and the tail epidermis, corneocyte fragility, increased transepidermal water loss, and local inflammation in the ear skin. The loss of K2 was partially compensated by upregulation of K1 expression. However, a significant portion of K2-deficient suprabasal keratinocytes lacked a regular cytoskeleton and developed massive aggregates of the type I keratin, K10. Aggregate formation, but not hyperkeratosis, was suppressed by the deletion of both K2 and K10, whereas deletion of K10 alone caused clumping of K2 in ear skin. Taken together, this study demonstrates that K2 is a necessary and sufficient binding partner of K10 at distinct body sites of the mouse and that unbalanced expression of these keratins results in aggregate formation.

  11. Passenger mutations and aberrant gene expression in congenic tissue plasminogen activator-deficient mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Szabo, R; Samson, A L; Lawrence, D A; Medcalf, R L; Bugge, T H

    2016-08-01

    Essentials C57BL/6J-tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice are widely used to study tPA function. Congenic C57BL/6J-tPA-deficient mice harbor large 129-derived chromosomal segments. The 129-derived chromosomal segments contain gene mutations that may confound data interpretation. Passenger mutation-free isogenic tPA-deficient mice were generated for study of tPA function. Background The ability to generate defined null mutations in mice revolutionized the analysis of gene function in mammals. However, gene-deficient mice generated by using 129-derived embryonic stem cells may carry large segments of 129 DNA, even when extensively backcrossed to reference strains, such as C57BL/6J, and this may confound interpretation of experiments performed in these mice. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), encoded by the PLAT gene, is a fibrinolytic serine protease that is widely expressed in the brain. A number of neurological abnormalities have been reported in tPA-deficient mice. Objectives To study genetic contamination of tPA-deficient mice. Materials and methods Whole genome expression array analysis, RNAseq expression profiling, low- and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, bioinformatics and genome editing were used to analyze gene expression in tPA-deficient mouse brains. Results and conclusions Genes differentially expressed in the brain of Plat(-/-) mice from two independent colonies highly backcrossed onto the C57BL/6J strain clustered near Plat on chromosome 8. SNP analysis attributed this anomaly to about 20 Mbp of DNA flanking Plat being of 129 origin in both strains. Bioinformatic analysis of these 129-derived chromosomal segments identified a significant number of mutations in genes co-segregating with the targeted Plat allele, including several potential null mutations. Using zinc finger nuclease technology, we generated novel 'passenger mutation'-free isogenic C57BL/6J-Plat(-/-) and FVB/NJ-Plat(-/-) mouse strains by introducing

  12. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eun Jee; Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology inmore » pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful

  13. Reduced cortical BDNF expression and aberrant memory in Carf knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Kelli A.; Hutchinson, Ashley N.; Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J.E.; Presby, Matthew M.; Su, Dan; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Law, Krystal C.; Williams, Christina L.; Wetsel, William C.; West, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factors are a key point of convergence between the cell-intrinsic and extracellular signals that guide synaptic development and brain plasticity. Calcium-Response Factor (CaRF) is a unique transcription factor first identified as a binding protein for a calcium-response element in the gene encoding Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf). We have now generated Carf knockout (KO) mice to characterize the function of this factor in vivo. Intriguingly, Carf KO mice have selectively reduced expression of Bdnf exon IV-containing mRNA transcripts and BDNF protein in the cerebral cortex while BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum remain unchanged, implicating CaRF as a brain region-selective regulator of BDNF expression. At the cellular level, Carf KO mice show altered expression of GABAergic proteins at striatal synapses, raising the possibility that CaRF may contribute to aspects of inhibitory synapse development. Carf KO mice show normal spatial learning in the Morris water maze and normal context-dependent fear conditioning. However they have an enhanced ability to find a new platform location on the first day of reversal training in the water maze and they extinguish conditioned fear more slowly than their wildtype (WT) littermates. Finally, Carf KO mice show normal short-term and long-term memory in a novel object recognition task, but exhibit impairments during the remote memory phase of testing. Taken together these data reveal novel roles for CaRF in the organization and/or function of neural circuits that underlie essential aspects of learning and memory. PMID:20519520

  14. An amelogenin mutation leads to disruption of the odontogenic apparatus and aberrant expression of Notch I

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu; Li, Yong; Alawi, Faizan; Bouchard, Jessica R.; Kulkarni, Ashok B.; Gibson, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Amelogenins are highly conserved proteins secreted by ameloblasts in the dental organ of developing teeth. These proteins regulate dental enamel thickness and structure in humans and mice. Mice that express an amelogenin transgene with a P70T mutation (TgP70T) develop abnormal epithelial proliferation in an amelogenin null (KO) background. Some of these cellular masses have the appearance of proliferating stratum intermedium, which is the layer adjacent to the ameloblasts in unerupted teeth. As Notch proteins are thought to constitute the developmental switch that separates ameloblasts from stratum intermedium, these signaling proteins were evaluated in normal and proliferating tissues. METHODS Mandibles were dissected for histology and immunohistochemistry using Notch I antibodies. Molar teeth were dissected for western blotting and RT-PCR for evaluation of Notch levels through imaging and statistical analyses. RESULTS Notch I was immunolocalized to ameloblasts of TgP70TKO mice, KO ameloblasts stained, but less strongly, and wild-type teeth had minimal staining. Cells within the proliferating epithelial cell masses were positive for Notch I and had an appearance reminiscent of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor with amyloid-like deposits. Notch I protein and mRNA were elevated in molar teeth from TgP70TKO mice. CONCLUSION Expression of TgP70T leads to abnormal structures in mandibles and maxillae of mice with the KO genetic background and these mice have elevated levels of Notch I in developing molars. As cells within the masses also express transgenic amelogenins, development of the abnormal proliferations suggests communication between amelogenin producing cells and the proliferating cells, dependent on the presence of the mutated amelogenin protein. PMID:20923441

  15. Mouse neutrophils lacking lamin B receptor expression exhibit aberrant development and lack critical functional responses

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Peter; Tien, Chiung W.; Olins, Ada L.; Olins, Donald E.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Carney, Lisa; Berliner, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Objective The capacity of neutrophils to eradicate bacterial infections is dependent on normal development and the activation of functional responses, which include chemotaxis and the generation of oxygen radicals during the respiratory burst. A unique feature of the neutrophil is its highly lobulated nucleus, which is thought to facilitate chemotaxis but may also play a role in other critical neutrophil functions. Nuclear lobulation is dependent on the expression of the inner nuclear envelope protein, the lamin B receptor (LBR), mutations of which cause hypolobulated neutrophil nuclei in human Pelger-Huët anomaly (PHA) and the "ichthyosis" (ic) phenotype in mice. In this study we have investigated roles for LBR in mediating neutrophil development and the activation of multiple neutrophil functions, including chemotaxis and the respiratory burst. Materials and Methods A progenitor EML cell line was generated from an ic/ic mouse, and derived cells that lacked LBR expression were induced to mature neutrophils and then examined for abnormal morphology and functional responses. Results Neutrophils derived from EML-ic/ic cells exhibited nuclear hypolobulation identical to that observed in ichthyosis mice. The ic/ic neutrophils also displayed abnormal chemotaxis, supporting the notion that nuclear segmentation augments neutrophil extravasation. Furthermore, promyelocytic forms of ic/ic cells displayed decreased proliferative responses and produced a deficient respiratory burst upon terminal maturation. Conclusions Our studies of promyelocytes that lack LBR expression have identified roles for LBR in regulating not only the morphologic maturation of the neutrophil nucleus but also proliferative and functional responses that are critical to innate immunity. PMID:18550262

  16. Sall4 is essential for stabilization, but not for pluripotency, of embryonic stem cells by repressing aberrant trophectoderm gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yuri, Shunsuke; Fujimura, Sayoko; Nimura, Keisuke; Takeda, Naoki; Toyooka, Yayoi; Fujimura, Yu-Ichi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Ura, Kiyoe; Koseki, Haruhiko; Niwa, Hitoshi; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2009-04-01

    Sall4 is a mouse homolog of a causative gene of the autosomal dominant disorder Okihiro syndrome. We previously showed that the absence of Sall4 leads to lethality during peri-implantation and that Sall4-null embryonic stem (ES) cells proliferate poorly with intact pluripotency when cultured on feeder cells. Here, we report that, in the absence of feeder cells, Sall4-null ES cells express the trophectoderm marker Cdx2, but are maintained for a long period in an undifferentiated state with minimally affected Oct3/4 expression. Feeder-free Sall4-null ES cells contribute solely to the inner cell mass and epiblast in vivo, indicating that these cells still retain pluripotency and do not fully commit to the trophectoderm. These phenotypes could arise from derepression of the Cdx2 promoter, which is normally suppressed by Sall4 and the Mi2/NuRD HDAC complex. However, proliferation was impaired and G1 phase prolonged in the absence of Sall4, suggesting another role for Sall4 in cell cycle control. Although Sall1, also a Sall family gene, is known to genetically interact with Sall4 in vivo, Sall1-null ES cells have no apparent defects and no exacerbation is observed in ES cells lacking both Sall1 and Sall4, compared with Sall4-null cells. This suggests a unique role for Sall4 in ES cells. Thus, though Sall4 does not contribute to the central machinery of the pluripotency, it stabilizes ES cells by repressing aberrant trophectoderm gene expression.

  17. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using 211At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco, Johnnie J.; Back, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee L.

    2013-05-15

    Anti-CD45 Radioimmunotherapy using an Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide 211At Combined with Bone Marrow Transplantation Prolongs Survival in a Disseminated Murine Leukemia Model ABSTRACT Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies (Ab) labeled primarily with beta-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse.

  18. Aberrant expression and function of death receptor-3 and death decoy receptor-3 in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhicheng; Sanders, Andrew J; Ye, Lin; Jiang, Wen G

    2011-03-01

    Death receptor-3 (DR3) and death decoy receptor-3 (DcR3) are both members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. The TNFR superfamily contains eight death domain-containing receptors, including TNFR1 (also called DR1), Fas (also called DR2), DR3, DR4, DR5, DR6, NGFR and EDAR. Upon the binding of these receptors with their corresponding ligands, the death domain recruits various proteins that mediate both the death and proliferation of cells. Receptor function is negatively regulated by decoy receptors (DcR1, DcR2, DcR3 and OPG). DR3/DcR3 are a pair of positive and negative players with which vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) interacts. VEGI has been suggested to be a potential tumour suppressor. The inhibitory effects of VEGI on cancer are manifested in three main areas: a direct effect on cancer cells, an anti-angiogenic effect on endothelial cells, and the stimulation of dendritic cell maturation. A recent study indicated that DR3 may be a new receptor for E-selectin, which has been reported to be associated with cancer metastasis. DcR3 is a soluble receptor, highly expressed in various tumours, which lacks an apparent transmembrane segment, prevents cytokine response through ligand binding and neutralization, and is an inhibitor of apoptosis. DcR3 serves as a decoy receptor for FasL, LIGHT and VEGI. The cytokine LIGHT activates various anti-tumour functions and is expected to be a promising candidate for cancer therapy. Certain tumours may escape FasL-dependent immune-cytotoxic attack by expressing DcR3, which blocks FasL function. DR3/DcR3 play profound roles in regulating cell death and proliferation in cancer. The present review briefly discusses DR3/DcR3 and attempts to elucidate the role of these negative and positive players in cancer.

  19. The expression of APRIL in Sjögren’s syndrome: aberrant expression of APRIL in the salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Roescher, Nienke; Polling, Eline J.; Illei, Gabor G.; Tak, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B-cell activating factor (BAFF) are B-cell-related mediators and may play a role in the pathogenesis in SS. In this descriptive study we assessed the expression of APRIL and BAFF in the minor salivary gland and serum from SS patients. Methods. Paraffin-embedded minor salivary gland sections from SS patients, non-SS controls and healthy volunteers were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Digital image quantification was performed to evaluate the expression of BAFF, APRIL and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor. Furthermore, serum was analysed for soluble BAFF and APRIL levels by ELISA. All the data were also analysed for subjects with decreased and normal stimulated salivary flow independent of the classification. Results. APRIL expression was lower in minor salivary gland biopsies from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers and to a lesser extent non-SS controls, whereas BAFF expression was similar in all groups. Soluble APRIL levels in serum were increased in SS patients and in subjects with decreased salivary flow independent of the classification. Conclusion. APRIL salivary gland tissue levels are decreased, suggesting that targeting this cytokine locally in the salivary glands would not benefit SS patients. Moreover, the discrepancy between local and systemic levels is striking and future research should assess this in more detail. PMID:22562936

  20. A CD45-based barcoding approach to multiplex mass-cytometry (CyTOF).

    PubMed

    Lai, Liyun; Ong, Raymond; Li, Juntao; Albani, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    CyTOF enables the study of the immune system with a complexity, depth, and multidimensionality never achieved before. However, the full potential of using CyTOF can be limited by scarce cell samples. Barcoding strategies developed based on direct labeling of cells using maleimido-monoamide-DOTA (m-DOTA) provide a very useful tool. However, using m-DOTA has some inherent problems, mainly associated with signal intensity. This may be a source of uncertainty when samples are multiplexed. As an alternative or complementary approach to m-DOTA, conjugating an antibody, specific for a membrane protein present on most immune cells, with different isotopes could address the issues of stability and signal intensity needed for effective barcoding. We chose for this purpose CD45, and designed experiments to address different types of cultures and the ability to detect extra- and intra-cellular targets. We show here that our approach provides an useful alternative to m-DOTA in terms of sensitivity, specificity, flexibility, and user-friendliness. Our manuscript provides details to effectively barcode immune cells, overcoming limitations in current technology and enabling the use of CyTOF with scarce samples (for instance precious clinical samples). © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Phosphosite within the SH2 Domain of Lck Regulates Its Activation by CD45.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Adam H; Amacher, Jeanine F; Kadlecek, Theresa A; Mollenauer, Marianne N; Au-Yeung, Byron B; Kuriyan, John; Weiss, Arthur

    2017-08-03

    The Src Family kinase Lck sets a critical threshold for T cell activation because it phosphorylates the TCR complex and the Zap70 kinase. How a T cell controls the abundance of active Lck molecules remains poorly understood. We have identified an unappreciated role for a phosphosite, Y192, within the Lck SH2 domain that profoundly affects the amount of active Lck in cells. Notably, mutation of Y192 blocks critical TCR-proximal signaling events and impairs thymocyte development in retrogenic mice. We determined that these defects are caused by hyperphosphorylation of the inhibitory C-terminal tail of Lck. Our findings reveal that modification of Y192 inhibits the ability of CD45 to associate with Lck in cells and dephosphorylate the C-terminal tail of Lck, which prevents its adoption of an active open conformation. These results suggest a negative feedback loop that responds to signaling events that tune active Lck amounts and TCR sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CD45 tyrosine phosphatase inhibits erythroid differentiation of umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells associated with selective inactivation of Lyn.

    PubMed

    Harashima, Akira; Suzuki, Motoyuki; Okochi, Ayumi; Yamamoto, Mayuko; Matsuo, Yoshinobu; Motoda, Ryuichi; Yoshioka, Tamotsu; Orita, Kunzo

    2002-12-15

    CD45 is a membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatase that dephosphorylates Src family kinases and Janus kinases (JAKs). To clarify the role of CD45 in hematopoietic differentiation, we examined the effects of anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody NU-L(PAN) on the proliferation and differentiation of umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells. NU-L(PAN) showed a prominent inhibition of the proliferation of CD34(+) cells induced by the mouse bone marrow stromal cell line MS-5 or erythropoietin (EPO). However, NU-L(PAN) did not affect the proliferation induced by interleukin 3. NU-L(PAN) also inhibited MS-5-induced or EPO-induced erythroid differentiation of CD34(+) cells. The cells stimulated with EPO in the presence of NU-L(PAN) morphologically showed differentiation arrest at the stage of basophilic erythroblasts after 11 days of culture, whereas the cells treated with EPO without NU-L(PAN) differentiated into mature red blood cells. The Src family kinase Lyn and JAK2 were phosphorylated when erythroblasts obtained after 4 days of culture of CD34(+) cells in the presence of EPO were restimulated with EPO. Overnight NU-L(PAN) treatment before addition of EPO reduced the phosphorylation of Lyn but not that of JAK2. Simultaneously, the enhancement of Lyn kinase activity after restimulation with EPO was reduced by NU-L(PAN) treatment. These results indicate selective inactivation of Lyn by CD45 activated with NU-L(PAN) and could partly explain the inhibitory mechanism on erythropoiesis exhibited by EPO. These findings suggest that CD45 may play a pivotal role in erythropoiesis.

  3. Aberrant expression of copper associated genes after copper accumulation in COMMD1-deficient dogs.

    PubMed

    Favier, Robert P; Spee, Bart; Fieten, Hille; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Schotanus, Baukje A; Brinkhof, Bas; Rothuizen, Jan; Penning, Louis C

    2015-01-01

    COMMD1-deficient dogs progressively develop copper-induced chronic hepatitis. Since high copper leads to oxidative damage, we measured copper metabolism and oxidative stress related gene products during development of the disease. Five COMMD1-deficient dogs were studied from 6 months of age over a period of five years. Every 6 months blood was analysed and liver biopsies were taken for routine histological evaluation (grading of hepatitis), rubeanic acid copper staining and quantitative copper analysis. Expression of genes involved in copper metabolism (COX17, CCS, ATOX1, MT1A, CP, ATP7A, ATP7B, ) and oxidative stress (SOD1, catalase, GPX1 ) was measured by qPCR. Due to a sudden death of two animals, the remaining three dogs were treated with d-penicillamine from 43 months of age till the end of the study. Presented data for time points 48, 54, and 60 months was descriptive only. A progressive trend from slight to marked hepatitis was observed at histology, which was clearly preceded by an increase in semi-quantitative copper levels starting at 12 months until 42 months of age. During the progression of hepatitis most gene products measured were transiently increased. Most prominent was the rapid increase in the copper binding gene product MT1A mRNA levels. This was followed by a transient increase in ATP7A and ATP7B mRNA levels. In the sequence of events, copper accumulation induced progressive hepatitis followed by a transient increase in gene products associated with intracellular copper trafficking and temporal activation of anti-oxidative stress mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Peripheral neuropathy in the twitcher mouse: accumulation of extracellular matrix in the endoneurium and aberrant expression of ion channels.

    PubMed

    Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Mohri, Ikuko; Yagi, Takashi; Taniike, Masako; Suzuki, Kinuko

    2008-05-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD; Krabbe's disease), caused by a genetic galactosylceramidase deficiency, affects both the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS). Allogenic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) has been beneficial for clinical improvement of this disease. However, recent reports by Siddiqi et al. suggested that none of their transplanted patients achieved complete normalization of their peripheral nerve function, despite the well-documented remyelination of the CNS and PNS in the treated patients. We hypothesized that the PNS dysfunction in GLD is due to altered Schwann cell-axon interactions, resulting in structural abnormalities of the node of Ranvier and aberrant expression of ion channels caused by demyelination and that the persistence of this altered interaction is responsible for the dysfunction of the PNS after HSCT. Since there has not been any investigation of the Schwann cell-axonal relationship in twitcher mice, an authentic model of GLD, we first investigated structural abnormalities, focusing on the node of Ranvier in untreated twitcher mice, and compared the results with those obtained after receiving bone marrow transplantation (BMT). As expected, we found numerous supernumerary Schwann cells that formed structurally abnormal nodes of Ranvier. Similar findings, though at somewhat variable extent, were detected in mice treated with BMT. Activated supernumerary Schwann cells expressed GFAP immunoreactivity and generated Alcian blue-positive extracellular matrix (ECM) in the endoneurial space. The processes of these supernumerary Schwann cells often covered and obliterated the nodal regions. Furthermore, the distribution of Na(+) channel immunoreactivity was diffuse without the concentration at the nodes of Ranvier as seen in wild-type mice. Neither K(+) channels nor Neurexin IV/ Caspr/ Paranoidin (NCP-1) were detected in the twi/twi sciatic nerve. The results of our study suggest the importance of normalization

  5. Single Targeted Exon Mutation Creates a True Congenic Mouse for Competitive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: The C57BL/6-CD45.1(STEM) Mouse.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Francois E; Sykes, David B; Scadden, David T

    2016-06-14

    Defining the molecular regulators of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) requires in vivo functional analyses. Competitive bone marrow transplants (BMTs) compare control and test HSPCs to demonstrate the functional role of a genetic change or chemical perturbation. Competitive BMT is enabled by antibodies that specifically recognize hematopoietic cells from congenic mouse strains due to variants of the cell surface protein CD45, designated CD45.1 and CD45.2. The current congenic competitor strain, B6.SJL-Ptprc(a) Pepc(b)/BoyJ (CD45.1), has a substantial inherent disadvantage in competition against the C57BL/6 (CD45.2) strain, confounding experimental interpretation. Despite backcrossing, the congenic interval over which the B6.SJL-Ptprc(a) Pepc(b)/BoyJ strain differs is almost 40 Mb encoding ∼300 genes. Here, we demonstrate that a single amino acid change determines the CD45.1 epitope. Further, we report on the single targeted exon mutant (STEM) mouse strain, CD45.1(STEM), which is functionally equivalent to CD45.2 cells in competitive BMT. This strain will permit the precise definition of functional roles for candidate genes using in vivo HSPC assays. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced Skeletal Muscle Expression of EcSOD Mitigates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Aberrant Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Call, Jarrod A.; Chain, Kristopher H.; Martin, Kyle S.; Lira, Vitor A.; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Zhang, Mei; Yan, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise training enhances extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) expression in skeletal muscle and elicits positive health outcomes in individuals with diabetes. The goal of this study was to determine if enhanced skeletal muscle expression of EcSOD is sufficient to mitigate streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods and Results Exercise training promotes EcSOD expression in skeletal muscle and provides protection against DCM; however, it is not known if enhanced EcSOD expression in skeletal muscle plays a functional role in this protection. Here, we show that skeletal muscle-specific EcSOD transgenic mice (TG) are protected from cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction under the condition of type-1 diabetes induced by STZ injection. We also show that both exercise training and muscle-specific transgenic expression of EcSOD result in elevated EcSOD protein in the blood and heart without increased transcription in the heart, suggesting enhanced expression of EcSOD from skeletal muscle redistributes to the heart. Importantly, cardiac tissue in TG mice displayed significantly reduced oxidative stress, aberrant cell signaling and inflammatory cytokine expression compared with wild type mice under the same diabetic condition. Conclusions Enhanced expression of EcSOD in skeletal muscle is sufficient to mitigate STZ-induced DCM through attenuation of oxidative stress, aberrant cell signaling and inflammation, suggesting a cross-organ mechanism by which exercise training improves cardiac function in diabetes. PMID:25504759

  7. Periodontitis contributes to aberrant metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats by stimulating the expression of adipokines.

    PubMed

    Luo, S; Yang, X; Wang, D; Ni, J; Wu, J; Xu, Z; Xuan, D; Zhang, J

    2016-08-01

    Periodontitis has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of local aberrant secretion of adipokines in diabetic rats on systemic metabolism. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were used as a diabetic model and associated control, respectively. Periodontitis was induced using a silk ligature for 36 wk. Rats were grouped into OLETF with (OP+) or without (OP-) periodontitis and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka with (LP+) or without (LP-) periodontitis. Alveolar bone resorption and destruction were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin staining. After 20 wk of periodontitis induction, lipids, insulin, interleukin-1, leptin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were analyzed, and mRNA expressions of NF-κB, Mark8, TLR2 and -4, IKBKB and Nampt were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in adipose tissue. After ligation, OLETF rats exhibited typical periodontitis lesions with the clinical features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. When compared with the OP(-) group, the area under curve of the oral glucose tolerance test and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values were significantly higher in the OP(+) group. Micro-computed tomography showed that the OP(+) group had more bone resorption than the OP(-) group. When compared with the OP(-) group, the OP(+) group also exhibited higher total cholesterol (p < 0.05), leptin (p < 0.05), insulin (p > 0.05) and higher expression of Nampt (p < 0.05) and IKBKB (p < 0.05). The LP(+) group had a trend towards higher bone resorption when compared with the LP(-) group. Additionally, no difference in white adipose tissues or adipokines was found between LP(+) and LP(-) rats. Chronic periodontitis can alter lipid profiles in affected rats, elevate adipose tissue expression of Nampt and affect the metabolism of adipose tissue through the NF-κB pathway to inflame diabetes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A

  8. Isolation of a circulating CD45−, CD34dim cell population and validation of their endothelial phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Tropea, Margaret M.; Harper, Bonnie J. A.; Graninger, Grace M.; Phillips, Terry M.; Ferreyra, Gabriela; Mostowski, Howard S.; Danner, Robert L.; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Solomon, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Accurately detecting circulating endothelial cells (CECs) is important since their enumeration has been proposed as a biomarker to measure injury to the vascular endothelium. However, there is no single methodology for determining CECs in blood, making comparison across studies difficult. Many methods for detecting CECs rely on characteristic cell surface markers and cell viability indicators, but lack secondary validation. Here, a CEC population in healthy adult human subjects was identified by flow cytometry as CD45−, CD34dim that is comparable to a previously described CD45−, CD31bright population. In addition, nuclear staining with 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) was employed as a standard technique to exclude dead cells. Unexpectedly, the CD45−, CD34dim, 7-AAD− CECs lacked surface detectable CD146, a commonly used marker of CECs. Furthermore, light microscopy revealed this cell population to be composed primarily of large cells without a clearly defined nucleus. Nevertheless, immunostains still demonstrated the presence of the lectin Ulex europaeus and van Willebrand factor. Ultramicro analytical immunochemistry assays for the endothelial cell proteins CD31, CD34, CD62E, CD105, CD141, CD144 and vWF indicated these cells possess an endothelial phenotype. However, only a small amount of RNA, which was mostly degraded, could be isolated from these cells. Thus the majority of CECs in healthy individuals as defined by CD45−, CD34dim, and 7-AAD− have shed their CD146 surface marker and are senescent cells without an identifiable nucleus and lacking RNA of sufficient quantity and quality for transcriptomal analysis. This study highlights the importance of secondary validation of CEC identification. PMID:25057108

  9. Aberrant Expression of Calretinin, D2-40 and Mesothelin in Mucinous and Non-Mucinous Colorectal Carcinomas and Relation to Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd AlRahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Hamed, Hazem

    2016-10-01

    CRC is a heterogeneous disease in terms of morphology, invasive behavior, metastatic capacity, and clinical outcome. Recently, many so-called mesothelial markers, including calretinin, D2-40, WT1, thrombomodulin, mesothelin, and others, have been certified. The aim of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of calretinin and other mesothelial markers (D2-40 and mesothelin) in colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) and non mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) specimens and relation to clinicopathological features and prognosis using manual tissue microarray technique. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and NMA who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using a modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and paraffin sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry using Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin expressions. We found that NMA showed significantly more calretinin and D2-40 expression than MA In contrast, no statistically significant difference between NMA and MA was detected in mesothelin expression. There were no statistically significant relations between any of the clinicopathological or histological parameters and any of the three markers. In a univariate analysis, neither calretinin nor D2-40 expressions showed any significant relations to DFS or OS. However, mesothelin luminal expression was significantly associated with worse DFS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis proved that luminal mesothelin expression was an independent negative prognostic factor in NMA. In conclusion, Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin are aberrantly expressed in a proportion of CRC cases with more expression in NMA than MA. Aberrant expression of these mesothelial markers was not associated with clinicopathological or histological features of CRCs. Only mesothelin expression appears to be a strong predictor of adverse prognosis.

  10. Aberrant p63 and WT-1 expression in myoepithelial cells of pregnancy-associated breast cancer: implications for tumor aggressiveness and invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zheli; Wang, Wan; Deng, Chu-Xia; Man, Yan-gao

    2009-01-01

    Our recent studies revealed that focal alterations in breast myoepithelial cell layers significantly impact the biological presentation of associated epithelial cells. As pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) has a significantly more aggressive clinical course and mortality rate than other forms of breast malignancies, our current study compared tumor suppressor expression in myoepithelial cells of PABC and non-PABC, to determine whether myoepithelial cells of PABC may have aberrant expression of tumor suppressors. Tissue sections from 20 cases of PABC and 20 cases of stage, grade, and age matched non-PABC were subjected to immunohistochemistry, and the expression of tumor suppressor maspin, p63, and Wilms' tumor 1 (WT-1) in calponin positive myoepithelial cells were statistically compared. The expression profiles of maspin, p63, and WT-1 in myoepithelial cells of all ducts encountered were similar between PABC and non-PABC. PABC, however, displayed several unique alterations in terminal duct and lobular units (TDLU), acini, and associated tumor tissues that were not seen in those of non-PABC, which included the absence of p63 and WT-1 expression in a vast majority of the myoepithelial cells, cytoplasmic localization of p63 in the entire epithelial cell population of some lobules, and substantially increasing WT-1 expression in vascular structures of the invasive cancer component. All or nearly all epithelial cells with aberrant p63 and WT-1 expression lacked the expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, whereas they had a substantially higher proliferation index than their counterparts with p63 and WT-1 expression. Hyperplastic cells with cytoplasmic p63 expression often adjacent to, and share a similar immunohistochemical and cytological profile with, invasive cancer cells. To our best knowledge, our main finings have not been previously reported. Our findings suggest that the functional status of myoepithelial cells may be significantly

  11. Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma with Aberrant Expression of CD19, CD20, and CD79a: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Matnani, Rahul G.; Stewart, Rachel L.; Pulliam, Joseph; Jennings, Chester D.; Kesler, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    A case of lymphoma of T-cell derivation with aberrant expression of three B-cell lineage markers (CD19, CD20, and CD79a), which was diagnosed on a left axillary excision, is described. Immunohistochemical studies and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated neoplastic cells expressing CD3, CD19, CD20, and CD79a with absence of CD4, CD8, CD10, CD30, CD34, CD56, CD68, TDT, MPO, PAX-5, and surface immunoglobulin. Gene rearrangement studies performed on paraffin blocks demonstrated monoclonal T-cell receptor gamma chain rearrangement with no evidence of clonal heavy chain rearrangement. The neoplastic cells were negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8). At the time of diagnosis, the PET scan demonstrated hypermetabolic neoplastic cells involving the left axilla, bilateral internal jugular areas, mediastinum, right hilum, bilateral lungs, and spleen. However, bone marrow biopsy performed for hemolytic anemia revealed normocellular bone marrow with trilineage maturation. The patient had no evidence of immunodeficiency or infection with EBV or HHV-8. This is the first reported case of a mature T-cell lymphoma with aberrant expression of three B-cell lineage markers. The current report also highlights the need for molecular gene rearrangement studies to determine the precise lineage of ambiguous neoplastic clones. PMID:24066244

  12. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress proliferation of PHA-activated lymphocytes in vitro by inducing CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(+) regulatory T cell production and modulating cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongna; Sun, Jinhua; Li, Yan; Duan, Wei-Ming; Bi, Jianzhong; Qu, Tingyu

    2016-04-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidate cells for therapeutic application in autoimmune diseases due to their immunomodulatory properties. Unused human umbilical cords (UC) offer an abundant and noninvasive source of MSCs without ethical issues and are emerging as a valuable alternative to bone marrow tissue for producing MSCs. We thus investigated the immunomodulation effect of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), T cells in particular, in a co-culture system. We found that UC-MSCs efficiently suppressed the proliferation of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMCs (p<0.01). Kinetic analysis revealed that UC-MSCs primarily inhibited the division of generation 3 (G3) and 4 (G4) of PBMCs. In addition, UC-MSCs augmented the expression of CD127(+) and CD45RA(+) but reduced the expression of CD25(+) in PBMCs stimulated by PHA (p<0.05). Furthermore, UC-MSCs inhibited PHA-resulted increase in the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) Tregs significantly (p<0.01) but augmented PHA-resulted increase in the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(+) Tregs to about three times in PBMCs. The levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, PEG2, TGF-β, and IL-10 were greatly up-regulated, accompanied by a significant down-regulation of pro-inflammatory IFN-γ in the co-culture (p<0.01). Our results showed that UC-MSCs are able to suppress mitogen-induced PBMC activation and proliferation in vitro by altering T lymphocyte phenotypes, increasing the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(+) Tregs, and modulating the associated cytokine production. Further studies are warranted to investigate the therapeutic potential of UC-MSCs in immunologically-diseased conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aberrant c-erbB2 expression in cell clusters overlying focally disrupted breast myoepithelial cell layers: a trigger or sign for emergence of more aggressive cell clones?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xichen; Hashemi, Shahreyar Shar; Yousefi, Morvarid; Ni, Jinsong; Wang, Qiuyue; Gao, Ling; Gong, Pengtao; Gao, Chunling; Sheng, Joy; Mason, Jeffrey; Man, Yan-gao

    2008-01-01

    Our recent studies revealed that cell clusters overlying focal myoepithelial cell layer disruption (FMCLD) had a significantly higher frequency of genetic instabilities and expression of invasion-related genes than their adjacent counterparts within the same duct. Our current study attempted to assess whether these cell clusters would also have elevated c-erbB2 expression. Human breast tumors (n=50) with a high frequency of FMCLD were analyzed with double immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR, and chromogenic in situ hybridization for c-erbB2 protein and gene expression. Of 448 FMCLD detected, 404 (90.2%) were associated with cell clusters that had intense c-erbB2 immunoreactivities primarily in their cytoplasm, in contrast to their adjacent counterparts within the same duct, which had no or barely detectable c-erbB2 expression. These c-erbB2 positive cells were arranged as tongue-like projections, “puncturing” into the stroma, and about 20% of them were in direct continuity with tube-like structures that resembled blood vessels. Aberrant c-erbB2 expression was also seen in clusters of architecturally normal-appearing ducts that had distinct cytological abnormalities in both ME and epithelial cells, whereas not in their clear-cut normal counterparts. Molecular assays detected markedly higher c-erbB2 mRNA and gene amplification in cell clusters associated with FMCLD than in those associated with non-disrupted ME cell layers. Our findings suggest that cell clusters overlying FMCLD may represent the precursors of pending invasive lesions, and that aberrant cerbB2 expression may trigger or signify the emergence of biologically more aggressive cell clones. PMID:18726004

  14. Human CD45 is an F-component-specific receptor for the staphylococcal toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Angelino T; Van Gent, Michiel; Abrial, Pauline; Martin, Amandine; Jansen, Joris P; De Haas, Carla J C; Van Kessel, Kok P M; Bardoel, Bart W; Kruse, Elisabeth; Bourdonnay, Emilie; Boettcher, Michael; McManus, Michael T; Day, Christopher J; Jennings, Michael P; Lina, Gérard; Vandenesch, François; Van Strijp, Jos A G; Jan Lebbink, Robert; Haas, Pieter-Jan A; Henry, Thomas; Spaan, András N

    2018-05-07

    The staphylococcal bi-component leukocidins Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and γ-haemolysin CB (HlgCB) target human phagocytes. Binding of the toxins' S-components to human complement C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) contributes to cellular tropism and human specificity of PVL and HlgCB. To investigate the role of both leukocidins during infection, we developed a human C5aR1 knock-in (hC5aR1 KI ) mouse model. HlgCB, but unexpectedly not PVL, contributed to increased bacterial loads in tissues of hC5aR1 KI mice. Compared to humans, murine hC5aR1 KI neutrophils showed a reduced sensitivity to PVL, which was mediated by the toxin's F-component LukF-PV. By performing a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen, we identified CD45 as a receptor for LukF-PV. The human-specific interaction between LukF-PV and CD45 provides a molecular explanation for resistance of hC5aR1 KI mouse neutrophils to PVL and probably contributes to the lack of a PVL-mediated phenotype during infection in these mice. This study demonstrates an unsuspected role of the F-component in driving the sensitivity of human phagocytes to PVL.

  15. Detecting cell-in-cell structures in human tumor samples by E-cadherin/CD68/CD45 triple staining

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manna; Ning, Xiangkai; He, Meifang; Hu, Yazhuo; Yuan, Long; Li, Shichong; Wang, Qiwei; Liu, Hong; Chen, Zhaolie; Ren, Jun; Sun, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Although Cell-in-cell structures (CICs) had been documented in human tumors for decades, it is unclear what types of CICs were formed largely due to low resolution of traditional way such as H&E staining. In this work, we employed immunofluorescent method to stain a panel of human tumor samples simultaneously with antibodies against E-cadherin for Epithelium, CD68 for Macrophage and CD45 for Leukocytes, which we termed as “EML method” based on the cells detected. Detail analysis revealed four types of CICs, with tumor cells or macrophage engulfing tumor cells or leukocytes respectively. Interestingly, tumor cells seem to be dominant over macrophage (93% vs 7%) as the engulfer cells in all CICs detected, whereas the overall amount of internalized tumor cells is comparable to that of internalized CD45+ leukocytes (57% vs 43%). The CICs profiles vary from tumor to tumor, which may indicate different malignant stages and/or inflammatory conditions. Given the potential impacts different types of CICs might have on tumor growth, we therefore recommend EML analysis of tumor samples to clarify the correlation of CICs subtypes with clinical prognosis in future researches. PMID:26109430

  16. Detecting cell-in-cell structures in human tumor samples by E-cadherin/CD68/CD45 triple staining.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongyan; Chen, Ang; Wang, Ting; Wang, Manna; Ning, Xiangkai; He, Meifang; Hu, Yazhuo; Yuan, Long; Li, Shichong; Wang, Qiwei; Liu, Hong; Chen, Zhaolie; Ren, Jun; Sun, Qiang

    2015-08-21

    Although Cell-in-cell structures (CICs) had been documented in human tumors for decades, it is unclear what types of CICs were formed largely due to low resolution of traditional way such as H&E staining. In this work, we employed immunofluorescent method to stain a panel of human tumor samples simultaneously with antibodies against E-cadherin for Epithelium, CD68 for Macrophage and CD45 for Leukocytes, which we termed as "EML method" based on the cells detected. Detail analysis revealed four types of CICs, with tumor cells or macrophage engulfing tumor cells or leukocytes respectively. Interestingly, tumor cells seem to be dominant over macrophage (93% vs 7%) as the engulfer cells in all CICs detected, whereas the overall amount of internalized tumor cells is comparable to that of internalized CD45+ leukocytes (57% vs 43%). The CICs profiles vary from tumor to tumor, which may indicate different malignant stages and/or inflammatory conditions. Given the potential impacts different types of CICs might have on tumor growth, we therefore recommend EML analysis of tumor samples to clarify the correlation of CICs subtypes with clinical prognosis in future researches.

  17. Ectopic expression of homeobox gene NKX2-1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is mediated by aberrant chromatin modifications.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Tomasch, Jürgen; Quentmeier, Hilmar; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G; MacLeod, Roderick A F

    2013-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode transcription factors ubiquitously involved in basic developmental processes, deregulation of which promotes cell transformation in multiple cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. In particular, NKL-family homeobox genes TLX1, TLX3 and NKX2-5 are ectopically activated by chromosomal rearrangements in T-cell neoplasias. Here, using transcriptional microarray profiling and RQ-PCR we identified ectopic expression of NKL-family member NKX2-1, in a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell line SU-DHL-5. Moreover, in silico analysis demonstrated NKX2-1 overexpression in 5% of examined DLBCL patient samples. NKX2-1 is physiologically expressed in lung and thyroid tissues where it regulates differentiation. Chromosomal and genomic analyses excluded rearrangements at the NKX2-1 locus in SU-DHL-5, implying alternative activation. Comparative expression profiling implicated several candidate genes in NKX2-1 regulation, variously encoding transcription factors, chromatin modifiers and signaling components. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression studies confirmed involvement of transcription factor HEY1, histone methyltransferase MLL and ubiquitinated histone H2B in NKX2-1 deregulation. Chromosomal aberrations targeting MLL at 11q23 and the histone gene cluster HIST1 at 6p22 which we observed in SU-DHL-5 may, therefore, represent fundamental mutations mediating an aberrant chromatin structure at NKX2-1. Taken together, we identified ectopic expression of NKX2-1 in DLBCL cells, representing the central player in an oncogenic regulative network compromising B-cell differentiation. Thus, our data extend the paradigm of NKL homeobox gene deregulation in lymphoid malignancies.

  18. Ectopic Expression of Homeobox Gene NKX2-1 in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Is Mediated by Aberrant Chromatin Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Tomasch, Jürgen; Quentmeier, Hilmar; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode transcription factors ubiquitously involved in basic developmental processes, deregulation of which promotes cell transformation in multiple cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. In particular, NKL-family homeobox genes TLX1, TLX3 and NKX2-5 are ectopically activated by chromosomal rearrangements in T-cell neoplasias. Here, using transcriptional microarray profiling and RQ-PCR we identified ectopic expression of NKL-family member NKX2-1, in a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell line SU-DHL-5. Moreover, in silico analysis demonstrated NKX2-1 overexpression in 5% of examined DLBCL patient samples. NKX2-1 is physiologically expressed in lung and thyroid tissues where it regulates differentiation. Chromosomal and genomic analyses excluded rearrangements at the NKX2-1 locus in SU-DHL-5, implying alternative activation. Comparative expression profiling implicated several candidate genes in NKX2-1 regulation, variously encoding transcription factors, chromatin modifiers and signaling components. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression studies confirmed involvement of transcription factor HEY1, histone methyltransferase MLL and ubiquitinated histone H2B in NKX2-1 deregulation. Chromosomal aberrations targeting MLL at 11q23 and the histone gene cluster HIST1 at 6p22 which we observed in SU-DHL-5 may, therefore, represent fundamental mutations mediating an aberrant chromatin structure at NKX2-1. Taken together, we identified ectopic expression of NKX2-1 in DLBCL cells, representing the central player in an oncogenic regulative network compromising B-cell differentiation. Thus, our data extend the paradigm of NKL homeobox gene deregulation in lymphoid malignancies. PMID:23637834

  19. Reishi Protein LZ-8 Induces FOXP3+ Treg Expansion via a CD45-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Alleviates Acute Intestinal Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Kuan, Yen-Chou; Lin, Tung-Yi; Tsao, Shu-Ming; Hsu, Jason; Ma, Li-Juan; Sheu, Fuu

    2013-01-01

    LZ-8, an immunomodulatory protein isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (also known as Ling-Zhi or Reishi), has been shown to promote cell proliferation and IL-2 production in T cells. In this study, we show that LZ-8 induces the expansion of both murine and human CD4+ T cells into FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. LZ-8 treatment was found to stimulate a 4-fold and a 10-fold expansion in the Treg populations of murine and human primary CD4+ T cells, respectively. In addition, the expression of CTLA-4 and IL-10 was induced in LZ-8-treated CD4+ T cells. Using neutralizing antibodies and gene-deficient T-cell lines, we also found that LZ-8 promotes Treg expansion through a CD45-mediated signaling pathway and that the CD18-dependent induction of IL-2 was involved in Treg formation and IL-10 production. The suppressive activity of LZ-8 was confirmed using a murine model of DSS-induced colitis; the disease was alleviated by the adoptive transfer of LZ-8-treated CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, a new regulatory function for LZ-8 was identified, and the molecular mechanisms underlying this function were elucidated. PMID:23864893

  20. Immunostimulatory oligonucleotide-induced metaphase cytogenetics detect chromosomal aberrations in 80% of CLL patients: A study of 132 CLL cases with correlation to FISH, IgVH status, and CD38 expression.

    PubMed

    Dicker, Frank; Schnittger, Susanne; Haferlach, Torsten; Kern, Wolfgang; Schoch, Claudia

    2006-11-01

    Compared with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), conventional metaphase cytogenetics play only a minor prognostic role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) so far, due to technical problems resulting from limited proliferation of CLL cells in vitro. Here, we present a simple method for in vitro stimulation of CLL cells that overcomes this limitation. In our unselected patient population, 125 of 132 cases could be successfully stimulated for metaphase generation by culture with the immunostimulatory CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 plus interleukin 2. Of 125 cases, 101 showed chromosomal aberrations. The aberration rate is comparable to the rate detected by parallel interphase FISH. In 47 patients, conventional cytogenetics detected additional aberrations not detected by FISH analysis. A complex aberrant karyotype, defined as one having at least 3 aberrations, was detected in 30 of 125 patients, compared with only one such case as defined by FISH. Conventional cytogenetics frequently detected balanced and unbalanced translocations. A significant correlation of the poor-prognosis unmutated IgV(H) status with unbalanced translocations and of the likewise poor-prognosis CD38 expression to balanced translocations and complex aberrant karyotype was found. We demonstrate that FISH analysis underestimates the complexity of chromosomal aberrations in CLL. Therefore, conventional cytogenetics may define subgroups of patients with high risk of progression.

  1. Transplacental exposure to inorganic arsenic at a hepatocarcinogenic dose induces fetal gene expression changes in mice indicative of aberrant estrogen signaling and disrupted steroid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jie; Xie Yaxiong; Cooper, Ryan

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic in utero in C3H mice produces hepatocellular carcinoma in male offspring when they reach adulthood. To help define the molecular events associated with the fetal onset of arsenic hepatocarcinogenesis, pregnant C3H mice were given drinking water containing 0 (control) or 85 ppm arsenic from day 8 to 18 of gestation. At the end of the arsenic exposure period, male fetal livers were removed and RNA isolated for microarray analysis using 22K oligo chips. Arsenic exposure in utero produced significant (p < 0.001) alterations in expression of 187 genes, with approximately 25% of aberrantly expressed genes relatedmore » to either estrogen signaling or steroid metabolism. Real-time RT-PCR on selected genes confirmed these changes. Various genes controlled by estrogen, including X-inactive-specific transcript, anterior gradient-2, trefoil factor-1, CRP-ductin, ghrelin, and small proline-rich protein-2A, were dramatically over-expressed. Estrogen-regulated genes including cytokeratin 1-19 and Cyp2a4 were over-expressed, although Cyp3a25 was suppressed. Several genes involved with steroid metabolism also showed remarkable expression changes, including increased expression of 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-7 (HSD17{beta}7; involved in estradiol production) and decreased expression of HSD17{beta}5 (involved in testosterone production). The expression of key genes important in methionine metabolism, such as methionine adenosyltransferase-1a, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and thioether S-methyltransferase, were suppressed. Thus, exposure of mouse fetus to inorganic arsenic during a critical period in development significantly alters the expression of various genes encoding estrogen signaling and steroid or methionine metabolism. These alterations could disrupt genetic programming at the very early life stage, which could impact tumor formation much later in adulthood.« less

  2. Comparative study of CD4 and CD45RO T cells and CD20 B cells in cerebrospinal fluid of syphilitic meningitis and tuberculous meningitis patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nian; Zhang, Qiao-Quan; Zhang, Kang; Xie, Yuan; Zhu, Hai-Qing; Lin, Xing-Jian; Di, Qing

    2016-09-01

    This study was to investigate the differences of lymphocyte in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with syphilis meningitis (SM) and tuberculous meningitis (TBM) for new diagnostic insights. Totally, 79 cases of SM and 45 cases of TBM were enrolled. In the CSF, the CD4, CD45RO or CD20 positive lymphocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry. The proportion of CD4 T cells in the CSF lymphocytes in patients with SM was significantly higher than that in patients with TBM (p < 0.05). After medical therapy, there was a significantly decline trend of the CD4 T-cell proportion in both groups (p < 0.05). The proportion of CD45RO T cells in CSF lymphocytes of patients with SM was less than that of patients with TBM (p < 0.05). After medical therapy, the positive ratio of CD45RO T cells was increased in the CSF of both group patients (p < 0.05). The proportion of CD20B cells in the CSF lymphocytes was not obviously different between the two groups during every stage. In conclusion, there are strong differences of CD4 and CD45RO T-cell ratio, but not the CD20 B cells in the meningitis. CD4 and CD45RO T cells in CSF are a useful complement in differentially diagnosing SM and TBM; it contributes to further understand the pathogenesis and prognosis of SM and TBM. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. EG-05COMBINATION OF GENE COPY GAIN AND EPIGENETIC DEREGULATION ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE ABERRANT EXPRESSION OF A STEM CELL RELATED HOX-SIGNATURE IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    PubMed Central

    Kurscheid, Sebastian; Bady, Pierre; Sciuscio, Davide; Samarzija, Ivana; Shay, Tal; Vassallo, Irene; Van Criekinge, Wim; Domany, Eytan; Stupp, Roger; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hegi, Monika

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported a stem cell related HOX gene signature associated with resistance to chemo-radiotherapy (TMZ/RT- > TMZ) in glioblastoma. However, underlying mechanisms triggering overexpression remain mostly elusive. Interestingly, HOX genes are neither involved in the developing brain, nor expressed in normal brain, suggestive of an acquired gene expression signature during gliomagenesis. HOXA genes are located on CHR 7 that displays trisomy in most glioblastoma which strongly impacts gene expression on this chromosome, modulated by local regulatory elements. Furthermore we observed more pronounced DNA methylation across the HOXA locus as compared to non-tumoral brain (Human methylation 450K BeadChip Illumina; 59 glioblastoma, 5 non-tumoral brain sampes). CpG probes annotated for HOX-signature genes, contributing most to the variability, served as input into the analysis of DNA methylation and expression to identify key regulatory regions. The structural similarity of the observed correlation matrices between DNA methylation and gene expression in our cohort and an independent data-set from TCGA (106 glioblastoma) was remarkable (RV-coefficient, 0.84; p-value < 0.0001). We identified a CpG located in the promoter region of the HOXA10 locus exerting the strongest mean negative correlation between methylation and expression of the whole HOX-signature. Applying this analysis the same CpG emerged in the external set. We then determined the contribution of both, gene copy aberration (CNA) and methylation at the selected probe to explain expression of the HOX-signature using a linear model. Statistically significant results suggested an additive effect between gene dosage and methylation at the key CpG identified. Similarly, such an additive effect was also observed in the external data-set. Taken together, we hypothesize that overexpression of the stem-cell related HOX signature is triggered by gain of trisomy 7 and escape from compensatory DNA methylation at

  4. Transition from two to one integument in Prunus species: expression pattern of INNER NO OUTER (INO), ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) and ETTIN (ETT).

    PubMed

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I; Herrero, Maria

    2015-10-01

    While gymnosperm ovules have one integument, in most angiosperms two integuments surround the ovules. Unitegmic ovules have arisen independently several times during the evolution of angiosperms, but the ultimate genetic cause of the presence of a single integument remains elusive. We compared species of the genus Prunus that have different numbers of integuments: bitegmic species, such as Prunus armeniaca (apricot) and Prunus persica (peach), and unitegmic species, such as Prunus incisa, analyzing the expression pattern of genes that are involved in integument development in Arabidopsis thaliana: INNER NO OUTER (INO), ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) and ETTIN (ETT). Bitegmic and unitegmic species showed similar INO expression patterns, indicative of the conservation of an outer integument. However, expression of ETT, which occurs in the boundary of the outer and inner integuments, was altered in unitegmic ovules, which showed lack of ETT expression. These results strongly suggest that the presence of a single integument could be attributable to the amalgamation of two integuments and support the role of ETT in the fusion of the outer and inner integuments in unitegmic ovules, a situation that could be widespread in other unitegmic species of angiosperms. © 2015 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. FBXW7-mutated colorectal cancer cells exhibit aberrant expression of phosphorylated-p53 at Serine-15

    PubMed Central

    Normatova, Makhliyo; Babaei-Jadidi, Roya; Tomlinson, Ian; Nateri, Abdolrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    FBXW7 mutations occur in a variety of human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Elucidating its mechanism of action has become crucial for cancer therapy; however, it is also complicated by the fact that FBXW7 can influence many pathways due to its role as an E3-ubiquitin ligase in proteasome degradation. FBXW7 and TP53 are tumour suppressors intensively implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Deletion mutations in these two genes in animal models mark the progression from adenoma to carcinoma. Although still largely unknown, the last defense mechanism against CRC at the molecular level could be through a synergistic effect of the two genes. The underlying mechanism requires further investigation. In our laboratory, we have used a phospho-kinase profiler array to illustrate a potential molecular link between FBXW7 and p53 in CRC cells. In vitro and in vivo assessments demonstrated aberrant induction of phosphorylated p53 at Serine 15 [phospho-p53(Ser15)] in human FBXW7-deficient CRC cells as compared to their FBXW7-wild-type counterparts. FBXW7 loss in HCT116 cells promoted resistance to oxaliplatin. Immunoblotting data further confirmed that reduction of phospho-p53(Ser15) may contribute to the decreased efficacy of therapy in FBXW7-mutated CRC cells. The findings may suggest the applicability of phospho-p53(Ser15) as an indicative marker of FBXW7-mutations. Phospho-p53(Ser15) regulation by FBXW7 E3-ligase activity could provide important clues for understanding FBXW7 behavior in tumour progression and grounds for its clinical applicability thereafter. PMID:25860929

  6. Aberrant upregulation of MUC4 mucin expression in cutaneous condyloma acuminatum and squamous cell carcinoma suggests a potential role in the diagnosis and therapy of skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhankar; Swanson, Benjamin J; Bonthu, Neelima; Batra, Surinder K

    2010-07-01

    Mucins comprise a family of high-molecular-weight glycoproteins. MUC4, a large transmembrane mucin, has recently emerged as a novel marker for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in several malignancies. However, its role in skin pathologies remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression of MUC4 in cutaneous pathologies by immunohistochemistry for potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications. A total of 330 tissue spots representing the normal skin, and benign and malignant cutaneous diseases, were analysed after staining with the monoclonal antibody to human MUC4 (clone 8G7). While the normal epidermis showed a negative to weak-positive expression of MUC4, its expression was significantly upregulated in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) where the intensity of staining correlated negatively with tumour grade and positively with age. A moderately strong MUC4 expression was also noted in 2/20 cancer adjacent normal skin and 2/21 chronically inflamed skin tissues, while 10/19 cases of vulval condyloma acuminate, 3/12 of vulval hyperplasia and 2 cases of verruca vulgaris also showed strong MUC4 positivity. Malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous cysts were negative. The results indicate that MUC4 expression is aberrantly upregulated in cutaneous SCCs, vulval condylomas and verruca vulgaris. Further, it appears that MUC4 expression in the skin may be modulated by chronic inflammation and the presence of an adjacent cutaneous malignancy in certain cases. These observations suggest a novel role for MUC4 mucin in the pathogenesis of cutaneous SCC and a possible application as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in cutaneous pathologies.

  7. Frequent Attenuation of the WWOX Tumor Suppressor in Osteosarcoma is Associated with Increased Tumorigenicity and Aberrant RUNX2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kurek, Kyle; Del Mare, Sara; Salah, Zaidoun; Abdeen, Suhaib; Sadiq, Hussain; Lee, Sukhee; Gaudio, Eugenio; Zanesi, Nicola; Jones, Kevin B.; DeYoung, Barry; Amir, Gail; Gebhardt, Mark; Warman, Matthew; Stein, Gary S.; Stein, Janet L.; Lian, Jane B.; Aqeilan, Rami I.

    2011-01-01

    The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a tumor suppressor that is deleted or attenuated in most human tumors. Wwox-deficient mice develop osteosarcoma (OS), an aggressive bone tumor with poor prognosis that often metastasizes to lung. On the basis of these observations, we examined the status of WWOX in human OS specimens and cell lines. In human OS clinical samples, WWOX expression was absent or reduced in 58% of tumors examined (P< 0.0001). Compared to the primary tumors, WWOX levels frequently increased in tumors resected following chemotherapy. In contrast, tumor metastases to lung often exhibited reduced WWOX levels, relative to the primary tumor. In human OS cell lines having reduced WWOX expression, ectopic expression of WWOX inhibited proliferation and attenuated invasion in vitro, and suppressed tumorgenicity in nude mice. Expression of WWOX was associated with reduced RUNX2 expression in OS cell lines, whereas Runx2 levels were elevated in femurs of Wwox-deficient mice. Furthermore, WWOX reconstitution in HOS cells was associated with downregulation of RUNX2 levels and RUNX2 target genes, consistent with the ability of WWOX to suppress RUNX2 transactivation activity. In clinical samples, RUNX2 was expressed in the majority of primary tumors and undetectable in most tumors resected following chemotherapy, whereas most metastases were RUNX2 positive. Our results deepen the evidence of a tumor suppressor role for WWOX in OS, furthering its prognostic and therapeutic significance in this disease. PMID:20530675

  8. Aberrant expression of microRNAs and the miR-1/MET pathway in canine hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lai, Y-C; Ushio, N; Rahman, M M; Katanoda, Y; Ogihara, K; Naya, Y; Moriyama, A; Iwanaga, T; Saitoh, Y; Sogawa, T; Sunaga, T; Momoi, Y; Izumi, H; Miyoshi, N; Endo, Y; Fujiki, M; Kawaguchi, H; Miura, N

    2018-06-01

    Canine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic tumour in dogs. MicroRNA (miRNA) dysregulation has been reported in human HCC and shown to have diagnostic and prognostic value; however, there are no data on miRNA expression in canine HCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs in canine HCC. Analysis of miRNA expression in canine HCC tissues and cell lines by quantitative reverse transcription PCR showed that miR-1, miR-122, let-7a, and let-7g were downregulated, whereas miR-10b and miR-21 were upregulated in canine HCC. MET is one of the target genes of miR-1. MET was upregulated in canine HCC at the gene and protein levels, and a significant correlation between the concomitant downregulation of miR-1 and upregulation of MET was observed. Fast/intermediate-proliferating canine HCC cell lines had higher MET gene and protein expression levels than the slow-proliferating cell line. These findings suggest that miRNAs are differentially expressed in canine HCC, and that the miR-1/MET pathway may be associated with canine HCC cell proliferation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Aberrant expression of CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane member 5 (CMTM5) by promoter methylation in myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jihong; Li, Henan; Zhang, Yao; Li, Jinlan; Xie, Min; Li, Lingdi; Qin, Xiaoying; Qin, Yazhen; Guo, Xiaohuan; Jiang, Qian; Liu, Yanrong; Chen, Shanshan; Huang, Xiaojun; Han, Wenling; Ruan, Guorui

    2011-06-01

    CMTM5 has been shown to exhibit tumor suppressor activities, however, its role in leukemia is unclear. Herein we firstly reported the expression and function of CMTM5 in myeloid leukemia. CMTM5 was down-regulated, or undetectable, in leukemia cell lines and bone marrow cells from leukemia patients with promoter methylation. Ectopic expression of CMTM5-v1 strongly inhibited the proliferation of K562 and MEG-01 cells. In addition, significant negative correlations were observed between CMTM5 and three leukemia-specific fusion genes (AML1-ETO, PML-RARα and BCR/ABL1). CMTM5 expression was up-regulated in patients who had undergone treatment. Therefore, CMTM5 may be involved in the pathomechanism of myeloid leukemias. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Expression of aberrant HLA-B27 molecules is dependent on B27 dosage and peptide supply.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Kirsty; Rysnik, Oliwia; Kollnberger, Simon; Shaw, Jacqueline; Utriainen, Lotta; Al-Mossawi, Mohammad Hussein; Payeli, Sravan; Belaunzaran, Osiris Marroquin; Milling, Simon; Renner, Christoph; Bowness, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Cellular expression of non-classical forms of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 (NC-B27) may be involved in spondyloarthritis (SpA) pathogenesis. We used a novel B27-specific monoclonal antibody, HD6, to ask if B27 transgenic (TG) rat splenocytes express these NC-B27 molecules. We also investigated whether B27-binding peptides could affect the expression and functional immune recognition of HD6-reactive B27 molecules. Splenocytes from B27-TG, B7-TG and non-transgenic rats, and HLA-B27+ cell lines were stained with monoclonal antibodies recognising classical (ME-1, HLA-ABC-m1) and non-classical (HD6, HC10) B27. Cells were further cultured in the presence of HLA-B27-binding peptides, or subjected to brief low pH treatment prior to mAb staining and/or immunoprecipitation or co-culture with KIR3DL2-CD3ε-expressing Jurkat reporter cells. HD6-reactive molecules were detected in the majority of adult B27-TG rat splenocyte cell subsets, increasing with age and concomitant increased B27 expression. HD6 staining was inhibited by incubation with B27-binding peptides and induced by low pH treatment. HD6 staining correlated with KIR3DL2-CD3ε-expressing Jurkat reporter cell activity. Thus, IL-2 production was decreased when B27-expressing antigen-presenting cells were preincubated with B27-binding peptides, but increased following pretreatment with low pH buffer. Surface expression of HD6-reactive B27 molecules on B27-TG rat splenocytes is consistent with a pathogenic role for NC-B27 in SpA. Interaction of NC-B27 with innate immune receptors could be critical in SpA pathogenesis, and we show that this may be influenced by the availability and composition of the B27-binding peptide pool.

  11. Aberrant intermediate filament and synaptophysin expression is a frequent event in malignant melanoma: an immunohistochemical study of 73 cases.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ryan C; Carter, Jodi M; Folpe, Andrew L

    2015-08-01

    Malignant melanomas are known to express vimentin, among other intermediate filaments. Though anomalous keratin expression by malignant melanoma has been reported, its frequency is not well-established and this phenomenon is not well-known. We have seen in consultation a number of malignant melanomas with anomalous expression of keratin, other intermediate filaments, or synaptophysin, and therefore studied a large group of primary and metastatic melanomas to determine the frequency of these events. About 73 cases of malignant melanoma (22 primaries and 51 metastases) from 71 patients (51 male, 20 female; mean 59 years, range 17-87 years) were retrieved from our archives. Prior diagnoses were confirmed by re-review of hematoxylin and eosin sections and relevant (e.g., S100 protein, HMB45, Melan-A, and tyrosinase) immunohistochemical studies. Available sections were immunostained for keratin (OSCAR and AE1/AE3 antibodies), desmin, neurofilament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. Not all cases could be tested for all markers. Cases were predominantly epithelioid (48/73, 66%) or spindle cell/desmoplastic (25/73, 34%). S100 protein, Melan-A, HMB45, and tyrosinase were positive in 60/65 (92%), 34/64 (53%), 30/60 (50%), 25/48 (52%) of cases, respectively. All five S100-protein-negative cases expressed at least one of the other melanocytic markers: Melan-A (two of four, 50%), HMB45 (two of three, 67%), and tyrosinase (one of two, 50%). All cases expressed at least one melanocytic marker. Cases were positive for keratin (OSCAR, 17/61, 28%; AE1/AE3, 16/40, 40%), desmin (11/47, 24%), neurofilament protein (5/31, 16%), glial fibrillary acidic protein (3/32, 9%), and synaptophysin (10/34, 29%), typically only in a minority of cells. Chromogranin was negative (0/32, 0%). Altogether 9/73 cases (12%) showed expression of >1 intermediate filament. All S100-protein-negative melanomas showed anomalous intermediate filament expression (keratin

  12. Increased CD4+CD45RA-FoxP3low cells alter the balance between Treg and Th17 cells in colitis mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xue; Xie, You-Fu; Pang, Yan-Hua; Liu, Xin-Juan

    2016-11-14

    To investigate the role of regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets in the balance between Treg and T helper 17 (Th17) cells in various tissues from mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Treg cells, Treg cell subsets, Th17 cells, and CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + IL-17 + cells from the lamina propria of colon (LPC) and other ulcerative colitis (UC) mouse tissues were evaluated by flow cytometry. Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), interleukin 17A (IL-17A), and RORC mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR, while interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-17A levels were detected with a Cytometric Beads Array. In peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC), mesenteric lymph node (MLN), lamina propria of jejunum (LPJ) and LPC from UC mice, Treg cell numbers were increased ( P < 0.05), and FoxP3 and IL-10 mRNA levels were decreased. Th17 cell numbers were also increased in PBMC and LPC, as were IL-17A levels in PBMC, LPJ, and serum. The number of FrI subset cells (CD4 + CD45RA + FoxP3 low ) was increased in the spleen, MLN, LPJ, and LPC. FrII subset cells (CD4 + CD45RA - FoxP3 high ) were decreased among PBMC, MLN, LPJ, and LPC, but the number of FrIII cells (CD4 + CD45RA - FoxP3 low ) and CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + IL-17A + cells was increased. FoxP3 mRNA levels in CD4 + CD45RA - FoxP3 low cells decreased in PBMC, MLN, LPJ, and LPC in UC mice, while IL-17A and RORC mRNA increased. In UC mice the distribution of Treg, Th17 cells, CD4 + CD45RA - FoxP3 high , and CD4 + CD45RA - FoxP3 low cells was higher in LPC relative to other tissues. Increased numbers of CD4 + CD45RA - FoxP3 low cells may cause an imbalance between Treg and Th17 cells that is mainly localized to the LPC rather than secondary lymphoid tissues.

  13. Levels of circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells correlate with outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Farace, F; Gross-Goupil, M; Tournay, E; Taylor, M; Vimond, N; Jacques, N; Billiot, F; Mauguen, A; Hill, C; Escudier, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Predicting the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy would be of clinical value in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the hypothesis that circulating endothelial cell (CEC), bone marrow-derived CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cell or plasma angiogenic factor levels are associated with clinical outcome in mRCC pts undergoing treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Methods: Fifty-five mRCC pts were prospectively monitored at baseline (day 1) and day 14 during treatment (46 pts received sunitinib and 9 pts received sorafenib). Circulating endothelial cells (CD45−CD31+CD146+7-amino-actinomycin (7AAD)− cells) were measured in 1 ml whole blood using four-color flow cytometry (FCM). Circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells were measured in progenitor-enriched fractions by four-color FCM. Plasma VEGF, sVEGFR2, SDF-1α and sVCAM-1 levels were determined by ELISA. Correlations between baseline CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells, plasma factors, as well as day 1–day 14 changes in CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor, plasma factor levels, and response to TKI, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: No significant correlation between markers and response to TKI was observed. No association between baseline CEC, plasma VEGF, sVEGFR-2, SDF-1α, sVCAM-1 levels with PFS and OS was observed. However, baseline CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cell levels were associated with PFS (P=0.01) and OS (P=0.006). Changes in this population and in SDF-1α levels between day 1 and day 14 were associated with PFS (P=0.03, P=0.002). Changes in VEGF and SDF-1α levels were associated with OS (P=0.02, P=0.007). Conclusion: Monitoring CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells, plasma VEGF and SDF-1α levels could be of clinical interest in TKI-treated mRCC pts to predict outcome. PMID:21386843

  14. Increased CD4+CD45RA-FoxP3low cells alter the balance between Treg and Th17 cells in colitis mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xue; Xie, You-Fu; Pang, Yan-Hua; Liu, Xin-Juan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets in the balance between Treg and T helper 17 (Th17) cells in various tissues from mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. METHODS Treg cells, Treg cell subsets, Th17 cells, and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+IL-17+ cells from the lamina propria of colon (LPC) and other ulcerative colitis (UC) mouse tissues were evaluated by flow cytometry. Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), interleukin 17A (IL-17A), and RORC mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR, while interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-17A levels were detected with a Cytometric Beads Array. RESULTS In peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC), mesenteric lymph node (MLN), lamina propria of jejunum (LPJ) and LPC from UC mice, Treg cell numbers were increased (P < 0.05), and FoxP3 and IL-10 mRNA levels were decreased. Th17 cell numbers were also increased in PBMC and LPC, as were IL-17A levels in PBMC, LPJ, and serum. The number of FrI subset cells (CD4+CD45RA+FoxP3low) was increased in the spleen, MLN, LPJ, and LPC. FrII subset cells (CD4+CD45RA-FoxP3high) were decreased among PBMC, MLN, LPJ, and LPC, but the number of FrIII cells (CD4+CD45RA-FoxP3low) and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+IL-17A+ cells was increased. FoxP3 mRNA levels in CD4+CD45RA-FoxP3low cells decreased in PBMC, MLN, LPJ, and LPC in UC mice, while IL-17A and RORC mRNA increased. In UC mice the distribution of Treg, Th17 cells, CD4+CD45RA-FoxP3high, and CD4+CD45RA-FoxP3low cells was higher in LPC relative to other tissues. CONCLUSION Increased numbers of CD4+CD45RA-FoxP3low cells may cause an imbalance between Treg and Th17 cells that is mainly localized to the LPC rather than secondary lymphoid tissues. PMID:27895423

  15. Reduced PU.1 expression underlies aberrant neutrophil maturation and function in β-thalassemia mice and patients.

    PubMed

    Siwaponanan, Panjaree; Siegers, Jurre Ynze; Ghazali, Razi; Ng, Thian; McColl, Bradley; Ng, Garrett Zhen-Wei; Sutton, Philip; Wang, Nancy; Ooi, Isabelle; Thiengtavor, Chayada; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chaichompoo, Pornthip; Svasti, Saovaros; Wijburg, Odilia; Vadolas, Jim

    2017-06-08

    β-Thalassemia is associated with several abnormalities of the innate immune system. Neutrophils in particular are defective, predisposing patients to life-threatening bacterial infections. The molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in impaired neutrophil function remain incompletely defined. We used the Hbb th3/+ β-thalassemia mouse and hemoglobin E (HbE)/β-thalassemia patients to investigate dysregulated neutrophil activity. Mature neutrophils from Hbb th3/+ mice displayed a significant reduction in chemotaxis, opsonophagocytosis, and production of reactive oxygen species, closely mimicking the defective immune functions observed in β-thalassemia patients. In Hbb th3/+ mice, the expression of neutrophil CXCR2, CD11b, and reduced NAD phosphate oxidase components (p22phox, p67phox, and gp91phox) were significantly reduced. Morphological analysis of Hbb th3/+ neutrophils showed that a large percentage of mature phenotype neutrophils (Ly6G hi Ly6C low ) appeared as band form cells, and a striking expansion of immature (Ly6G low Ly6C low ) hyposegmented neutrophils, consisting mainly of myelocytes and metamyelocytes, was noted. Intriguingly, expression of an essential mediator of neutrophil terminal differentiation, the ets transcription factor PU.1, was significantly decreased in Hbb th3/+ neutrophils. In addition, in vivo infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae failed to induce PU.1 expression or upregulate neutrophil effector functions in Hbb th3/+ mice. Similar changes to neutrophil morphology and PU.1 expression were observed in splenectomized and nonsplenectomized HbE/β-thalassemia patients. This study provides a mechanistic insight into defective neutrophil maturation in β-thalassemia patients, which contributes to deficiencies in neutrophil effector functions. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Aberrant IL-4 production by SOCS3-over-expressing T cells during infection with Leishmania major exacerbates disease manifestations.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Mako; Hamano, Shinjiro; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Yoshida, Hiroki; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 3 is a major negative feedback regulator of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-activating cytokines. Studies using T-cell-specific SOCS3-deficient mice indicate that the absence of SOCS3 in T cells results in exacerbation of disease progression after infection by Leishmania major due to skewing of the T(h)3 cell phenotype accompanied by hyper-production of IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Here we show that transgenic mice over-expressing the SOCS3 gene in T cells (Lck-SOCS3 Tg mice) are also susceptible to infection by L. major. Forced expression of SOCS3 in T cells did not affect the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β or that of the protective T(h)1 type cytokine IFN-γ, which is required for parasite clearance. CD4(+) T cells isolated from infected-Lck-SOCS3 Tg mice produced much higher levels of IL-4 when they were re-stimulated with L. major antigen in vitro. Exacerbation of disease progression in Lck-SOCS3 Tg mice was completely reversed by administration of a neutralizing antibody against IL-4. These data suggest that tight regulation of SOCS3 expression in T(h) cells is crucial for disease control during infection by L. major.

  17. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  18. Two different roles of purified CD45+c-Kit+Sca-1+Lin- cells after transplantation in muscles.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Momoko; Chang, Hsi; Shiota, Mitsutaka; Kobayashi, Hirohiko; Umeda, Katsutsugu; Kawakami, Atsushi; Heike, Toshio; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi

    2005-05-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow cells can regenerate damaged muscles and that they can adopt phenotypes of other cells by cell fusion. Our direct visualization system gave evidence of massive muscle regeneration by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled CD45+c-Kit+Sca-1+Lin- cells (KSL cells), and we investigated the role of KSL cells in muscle regeneration after transplantation with or without lethal irradiation. In the early phase, GFP signals were clearly observed in all the muscles of only irradiated mice. Transverse cryostat sections showed GFP+myosin+ muscle fibers, along with numerous GFP+ hematopoietic cells in damaged muscle. These phenomena were temporary, and GFP signals had dramatically reduced 30 days after transplantation. After 6 months, GFP+ fibers could hardly be detected, but GFP+c-Met+ mononuclear cells were located beneath the basal lamina where satellite cells usually exist in both conditioned mice. Immunostaining of isolated single fibers revealed GFP+PAX7+, GFP+MyoD+, and GFP+Myf5+ satellite-like cells on the fibers. Single-fiber cultures from these mice showed proliferation of GFP+ fibers. These results indicate two different roles of KSL cells: one leading to regeneration of damaged muscles in the early phase and the other to conversion into satellite cells in the late phase.

  19. Quantitative image cytometry measurements of lipids, DNA, CD45 and cytokeratin for circulating tumor cell identification in a model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futia, Gregory L.; Qamar, Lubna; Behbakht, Kian; Gibson, Emily A.

    2016-04-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) identification has applications in both early detection and monitoring of solid cancers. The rarity of CTCs, expected at ~1-50 CTCs per million nucleated blood cells (WBCs), requires identifying methods based on biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for accurate identification. Discovery of biomarkers with ever higher sensitivity and specificity to CTCs is always desirable to potentially find more CTCs in cancer patients thus increasing their clinical utility. Here, we investigate quantitative image cytometry measurements of lipids with the biomarker panel of DNA, Cytokeratin (CK), and CD45 commonly used to identify CTCs. We engineered a device for labeling suspended cell samples with fluorescent antibodies and dyes. We used it to prepare samples for 4 channel confocal laser scanning microscopy. The total data acquired at high resolution from one sample is ~ 1.3 GB. We developed software to perform the automated segmentation of these images into regions of interest (ROIs) containing individual cells. We quantified image features of total signal, spatial second moment, spatial frequency second moment, and their product for each ROI. We performed measurements on pure WBCs, cancer cell line MCF7 and mixed samples. Multivariable regressions and feature selection were used to determine combination features that are more sensitive and specific than any individual feature separately. We also demonstrate that computation of spatial characteristics provides higher sensitivity and specificity than intensity alone. Statistical models allowed quantification of the required sensitivity and specificity for detecting small levels of CTCs in a human blood sample.

  20. Marrow Ablative and Immunosuppressive Effects of I-131-anti-CD45 Antibody in Congenic and H2-Mismatched Murine Transplant Models

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, D. C.; Martin, P J.; Nourigat, C.

    1998-12-01

    Targeted hematopoietic irradiation delivered by I-131-anti-CD45 antibody has been combined with conventional marrow transplant preparative regimens in an effort to decrease relapse. Before increasing the proportion of therapy delivered by radiolabeled antibody, the myeloablative and immunosuppressive effects of such low dose rate irradiation must be quantitated. We have examined the ability of I-131-anti-CD45 antibody to facilitate engraftment in Ly5-congenic and H2-mismatched murine marrow transplant models. Recipient B6-Ly5-a mice were treated with 30F11 antibody labeled with 0.1 to 1.5 mCi I-131 and/or total body irradiation (TBI), followed by T-cell-depleted marrow from Ly5-b-congenic (C57BL/6) or H2-mismatched (BALB/c) donors. Engraftment was achieved readilymore » in the Ly5-congenic setting, with greater than 80% donor granulocytes and T cells after 0.5 mCi I-131 (estimated 17 Gy to marrow) or 8 Gy TBI. A higher TBI dose (14 Gy) was required to achieve engraftment of H2-mismatched mar row, and engraftment occurred in only 3 of 11 mice receiving 1.5 mCi I-131 delivered by anti-CD45 antibody. Engraftment of H2-mismatched marrow was achieved in 22 of 23 animals receiving 0.75 mCi I-131 delivered by anti-CD45 antibody combined with 8 Gy TBI. Thus, targeted radiation delivered via I-131-anti-CD45 antibody can enable engraftment of congenic marrow and can partially replace TBI when transplanting T-cell-depleted H2-mismatched marrow.« less

  1. Physiological Srsf2 P95H expression causes impaired hematopoietic stem cell functions and aberrant RNA splicing in mice.

    PubMed

    Kon, Ayana; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Nannya, Yasuhito; Kataoka, Keisuke; Ota, Yasunori; Nakagawa, Masahiro Marshall; Yoshida, Kenichi; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Morita, Maiko; Yoshizato, Tetsuichi; Sanada, Masashi; Nakayama, Manabu; Koseki, Haruhiko; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Ogawa, Seishi

    2018-02-08

    Splicing factor mutations are characteristic of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and related myeloid neoplasms and implicated in their pathogenesis, but their roles in the development of MDS have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the consequence of mutant Srsf2 expression using newly generated Vav1-Cre -mediated conditional knockin mice. Mice carrying a heterozygous Srsf2 P95H mutation showed significantly reduced numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and differentiation defects both in the steady-state condition and transplantation settings. Srsf2 -mutated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) showed impaired long-term reconstitution compared with control mice in competitive repopulation assays. Although the Srsf2 mutant mice did not develop MDS under the steady-state condition, when their stem cells were transplanted into lethally irradiated mice, the recipients developed anemia, leukopenia, and erythroid dysplasia, which suggests the role of replicative stress in the development of an MDS-like phenotype in Srsf2 -mutated mice. RNA sequencing of the Srsf2 -mutated HSPCs revealed a number of abnormal splicing events and differentially expressed genes, including several potential targets implicated in the pathogenesis of hematopoietic malignancies, such as Csf3r , Fyn , Gnas , Nsd1 , Hnrnpa2b1 , and Trp53bp1 Among the mutant Srsf2 -associated splicing events, most commonly observed were the enhanced inclusion and/or exclusion of cassette exons, which were caused by the altered consensus motifs for the recognition of exonic splicing enhancers. Our findings suggest that the mutant Srsf2 leads to a compromised HSC function by causing abnormal RNA splicing and expression, contributing to the deregulated hematopoiesis that recapitulates the MDS phenotypes, possibly as a result of additional genetic and/or environmental insults. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Dominant negative DISC1 mutant mice display specific social behaviour deficits and aberration in BDNF and cannabinoid receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Barzilay, Ran; Segal, Hadar; Taler, Michal; Offen, Daniel; Gil-Ad, Irit; Mechoulam, Raphael; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is considered the most prominent candidate gene for schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to characterize behavioural and brain biochemical traits in a mouse expressing a dominant negative DISC1mutant (DN-DISC1). DN-DISC1 mice underwent behavioural tests to evaluate object recognition, social preference and social novelty seeking. ELISA was conducted on brain tissue to evaluate BDNF levels. Western blot was employed to measure BDNF receptor (TrkB) and cannabinoid receptor CB1. The mutant DISC1 mice displayed deficits in preference to social novelty while both social preference and object recognition were intact. Biochemical analysis of prefrontal cortex and hippocampus revealed a modest reduction in cortical TrkB protein levels of male mice while no differences in BDNF levels were observed. We found sex dependent differences in the expression of cannabinoid-1 receptors. We describe novel behavioural and biochemical abnormalities in the DN-DISC1 mouse model of schizophrenia. The data shows for the first time a possible link between DISC1 mutation and the cannabinoid system.

  3. Aberrant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) expression and its regulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production in adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hattangady, Namita G; Ye, Ping; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Morimoto, Ryo; Ito-Saito, Takako; Sugawara, Akira; Ohba, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Rainey, William E; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-03-25

    Aberrant expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) has been reported in human adrenal tissues including aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). However, the details of its expression and functional role in adrenals are still not clear. In this study, quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the mean level of GnRHR mRNA was significantly higher in APAs than in human normal adrenal (NA) (P=0.004). GnRHR protein expression was detected in human NA and neoplastic adrenal tissues. In H295R cells transfected with GnRHR, treatment with GnRH resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in CYP11B2 reporter activity. Chronic activation of GnRHR with GnRH (100nM), in a cell line with doxycycline-inducible GnRHR (H295R-TR/GnRHR), increased CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production. These agonistic effects were inhibited by blockers for the calcium signaling pathway, KN93 and calmidazolium. These results suggest GnRH, through heterotopic expression of its receptor, may be a potential regulator of CYP11B2 expression levels in some cases of APA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aberrant expression of CXCR4 significantly contributes to metastasis and predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, P; Liang, S-X; Huang, W-H; Zhang, H-W; Li, X-L; Xie, L-H; Du, C-W; Zhang, G-J

    2014-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer is known for its visceral metastasis. We have found that CXCR4 is overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer and is associated with visceral metastasis. We further investigated whether CXCR4 is a prognostic factor affecting survival following visceral metastasis in breast cancer patients. Our results indicate that increased CXCR4 expression among breast cancer patients with visceral metastasis was positively correlated with poor overall survival (P<0.001). Silencing of CXCR4 was associated with a decrease in the tumorigenic properties of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, caused reversion of EMT and suppression of MMP-9, increased apoptosis, and caused a reduced incidence of tumor lung metastasis in mice. These results are indicative of CXCR4 having a predictive role in patients with visceral metastasis and indicate that shRNA knock down of CXCR4 might be a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent breast cancer metastasis when CXCR4 is overexpressed.

  5. Primary Central Nervous System T-Cell Lymphoma With Aberrant Expression of CD20 and CD79a: A Diagnostic Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Nasim, Mansoor; Spitzer, Silvia G; Zhang, Xinmin

    2017-10-01

    Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma (PCNSTCL) is rare, accounting for 2% of CNS lymphomas. We report the first case of PCNSTCL with aberrant expression of CD20 and CD79a in an 81-year-old man with a left periventricular brain mass. A biopsy revealed dense lymphoid infiltrate consisting of medium-sized cells in a background of gliosis and many histiocytes. The lymphoid cells were positive for CD2, CD3, CD7, CD8, T-cell intracellular antigen-1, granzyme B, CD20, and CD79a and negative for CD4, CD5, PAX-5, OCT-2, BOB-1, human herpes virus-8, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs. Molecular studies revealed clonal TCR-β and TCR-γ gene rearrangements and negative immunoglobulin gene rearrangements. The patient was treated with chemotherapy (vincristine and methotrexate) and rituximab, but he died 1 month after the diagnosis. This is a unique case that emphasizes the use of a multimodal approach, including a broad immunohistochemical panel and molecular studies in lineage determination for lymphomas with ambiguous phenotype.

  6. Co-expression of HSV2 and Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-positive cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions is associated with aberrations in key intracellular pathways.

    PubMed

    Paba, Pierpaolo; Bonifacio, Daniela; Di Bonito, Luigi; Ombres, Domenico; Favalli, Cartesio; Syrjänen, Kari; Ciotti, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents of cervical cancer. Different cofactors might be needed for malignant transformation, but they still remain elusive. To delineate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) in HPV-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions and cervical carcinoma a series of 149 cervical cancer and CIN biopsies were analyzed for CT and HSV2 DNA by PCR, and HPV genotyped by InnoLipa. Monitoring of aberrations in key intracellular pathways due to CT/HSV2 and HPV co-expression were analyzed with 13 biomarkers. Of the 149 samples tested, 136 were HPV DNA positive; 32/136 contained also CT DNA and 29 HSV2 DNA. Detection of CT was significantly (p = 0.0001) related to multiple-type HPV infections, while HSV2 was of borderline significance (p = 0.053). Of the 13 biomarkers tested, cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kappaB and VEGF-C were significantly increased in CT+/HPV+ lesions; p = 0.023, p = 0.045, and p = 0.020 as well as survivin, p = 0.026. Survivin was the only marker that was overexpressed also in HSV2+/HPV+ lesions, p = 0.027. CT infection favors the entry and persistence of multiple HR-HPV types, which leads to viral integration, inhibition of apoptosis, overexpression of E6/E7 oncogenes and cell transformation. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Mice with Inactivation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Interacting Protein (Aip) Display Complete Penetrance of Pituitary Adenomas with Aberrant ARNT Expression

    PubMed Central

    Raitila, Anniina; Lehtonen, Heli J.; Arola, Johanna; Heliövaara, Elina; Ahlsten, Manuel; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Jalanko, Anu; Paetau, Anders; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Karhu, Auli

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene have been shown to predispose to pituitary adenoma predisposition, a condition characterized by growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumors. To study AIP-mediated tumorigenesis, we generated an Aip mouse model. Heterozygous mice developed normally but were prone to pituitary adenomas, in particular to those secreting GH. A complete loss of AIP was detected in these lesions, and full penetrance was reached at the age of 15 months. No excess of any other tumor type was found. Ki-67 analysis indicated that Aip-deficient tumors have higher proliferation rates compared with Aip-proficient tumors, suggesting a more aggressive disease. Similar to human AIP-deficient pituitary adenomas, immunohistochemical studies showed that expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 1 or 2 (ARNT or ARNT2) protein was lost in the mouse tumors, suggesting that mechanisms of AIP-related tumorigenesis involve aberrant ARNT function. The Aip+/− mouse appears to be an excellent model for the respective human disease phenotype. This model constitutes a tool to further study AIP-associated pituitary tumorigenesis and may be potentially valuable in efforts to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pituitary adenomas. PMID:20709796

  8. Statistical performance of image cytometry for DNA, lipids, cytokeratin, & CD45 in a model system for circulation tumor cell detection.

    PubMed

    Futia, Gregory L; Schlaepfer, Isabel R; Qamar, Lubna; Behbakht, Kian; Gibson, Emily A

    2017-07-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a blood sample is limited by the sensitivity and specificity of the biomarker panel used to identify CTCs over other blood cells. In this work, we present Bayesian theory that shows how test sensitivity and specificity set the rarity of cell that a test can detect. We perform our calculation of sensitivity and specificity on our image cytometry biomarker panel by testing on pure disease positive (D + ) populations (MCF7 cells) and pure disease negative populations (D - ) (leukocytes). In this system, we performed multi-channel confocal fluorescence microscopy to image biomarkers of DNA, lipids, CD45, and Cytokeratin. Using custom software, we segmented our confocal images into regions of interest consisting of individual cells and computed the image metrics of total signal, second spatial moment, spatial frequency second moment, and the product of the spatial-spatial frequency moments. We present our analysis of these 16 features. The best performing of the 16 features produced an average separation of three standard deviations between D + and D - and an average detectable rarity of ∼1 in 200. We performed multivariable regression and feature selection to combine multiple features for increased performance and showed an average separation of seven standard deviations between the D + and D - populations making our average detectable rarity of ∼1 in 480. Histograms and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for these features and regressions are presented. We conclude that simple regression analysis holds promise to further improve the separation of rare cells in cytometry applications. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of aberrantly expressed lncRNAs and construction of ceRNA network in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Duraisamy; Chandramohan, Servarayan Murugesan; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains fifth most common cancer often diagnosed at an advanced stage and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) involved in various cellular pathways are essential for tumor occurrence and progression and they have high potential to promote or suppress the expression of many genes. In this study, we profiled 19 selected cancer-associated lncRNAs in thirty gastric adenocarcinomas and matching normal tissues by qRT-PCR. Our results showed that most of the lncRNAs were significantly upregulated (12/19). Further, we performed bioinformatic screening of miRNAs that share common miRNA response elements (MREs) with lncRNAs and their downstream mRNA targets. The prediction identified three microRNAs (miR-21, miR-145 and miR-148a) and five gastric cancer-specific target genes (EGFR, KLF4, DNMT1 and AGO4) which also showed strong correlation with lncRNAs in regression analysis. Finally, we constructed an integrated lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA interaction network of the candidate genes to understand the post-transcriptional gene regulation. The ceRNA network analysis revealed that the differentially regulated miR-21 and miR-148a were playing as central candidates coordinating sponging activity of the lncRNAs analyzed (H19, TUG1 and MALAT1) in this study and the overexpression of H19 and miR-21 could be a signature event of gastric tumorigenesis that could serve as prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets. PMID:29719612

  10. Distinct alterations in the distribution of CD45RO+ T-cell subsets in HIV-2 compared with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Jaleco, A C; Covas, M J; Pinto, L A; Victorino, R M

    1994-12-01

    Some clinical studies indicate that disease progression in HIV-2-infected subjects may be slower than in HIV-1. We investigated whether there were differences in the distribution of CD45RO+ (memory) and CD45RA+ (naive) T-cell subsets between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. Analysis of lymphocyte subsets was performed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy controls, HIV-1-(n = 49) and HIV-2-infected (n = 47) individuals divided into two groups: asymptomatic (ASY)/persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) and AIDS-related complex (ARC)/AIDS. Both HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected patients had significant reductions in the absolute number and percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes compared with seronegative individuals. No significant differences were found between HIV-2- and HIV-1-infected subjects in the same clinical stage. CD4+CD45RA+ cells were significantly reduced in HIV-1 and HIV-2 ARC/AIDS patients and mildly reduced in ASY/PGL HIV-1 and HIV-2 patients. There were no differences in the degree of reduction of CD4+CD45RO+ cells in ASY/PGL HIV-1 versus HIV-2 patients. However, in HIV-1-infected ARC/AIDS individuals the reduction in the percentage of this subset was more pronounced than in HIV-2 infection and this difference reached statistical significance. The increase in CD8+ lymphocytes (percentage and absolute number) was more pronounced in HIV-1 and the differences between HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected patients were statistically significant. CD8+CD45RO+ cells were significantly increased both in ASY/PGL and ARC/AIDS HIV-1-infected patients, whereas HIV-2-infected ASY/PGL patients had normal levels of these cells and HIV-2-infected ARC/AIDS patients had increases that were much less pronounced than that observed in HIV-1-infected ARC/AIDS patients. Significant differences in the absolute number and percentage of this subset between HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected individuals in similar clinical stages were found. HIV-2-infected individuals exhibit a

  11. On the Definition of Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minghui; Wang, Guangli

    2014-12-01

    There was a groundbreaking step in the history of astronomy in 1728 when the effect of aberration was discovered by James Bradley (1693-1762). Recently, the solar acceleration, due to the variations in the aberrational effect of extragalactic sources caused by it, has been determined from VLBI observations with an uncertainty of about 0.5 mm{\\cdot}{s^{-1}}{\\cdot}{yr^{-1}} level. As a basic concept in astrometry with a nearly 300-year history, the definition of aberration, however, is still equivocal and discordant in the literature. It has been under continuing debate whether it depends on the relative motion between the observer and the observed source or only on the motion of the observer with respect to the frame of reference. In this paper, we will review the debate and the inconsistency in the definition of the aberration since the last century, and then discuss its definition in detail, which involves the discussions on the planetary aberration, the stellar aberration, the proper motion of an object during the travel time of light from the object to the observer, and the way of selecting the reference frame to express and distinguish the motions of the source and the observer. The aberration is essentially caused by the transformation between coordinate systems, and consequently quantified by the velocity of the observer with respect to the selected reference frame, independent of the motion of the source. Obviously, this nature is totally different from that of the definition given by the IAU WG NFA (Capitaine, 2007) in 2006, which is stated as, ``the apparent angular displacement of the observed position of a celestial object from its geometric position, caused by the finite velocity of light in combination with the motions of the observer and of the observed object.''

  12. Aberrant cognitive phenotypes and altered hippocampal BDNF expression related to epigenetic modifications in mice lacking the post-synaptic scaffolding protein SHANK1: Implications for autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Sungur, A Özge; Jochner, Magdalena C E; Harb, Hani; Kılıç, Ayşe; Garn, Holger; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Wöhr, Markus

    2017-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a class of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by persistent deficits in social communication/interaction, together with restricted/repetitive patterns of behavior. ASD is among the most heritable neuropsychiatric conditions, and while available evidence points to a complex set of genetic factors, the SHANK gene family has emerged as one of the most promising candidates. Here, we assessed ASD-related phenotypes with particular emphasis on social behavior and cognition in Shank1 mouse mutants in comparison to heterozygous and wildtype littermate controls across development in both sexes. While social approach behavior was evident in all experimental conditions and social recognition was only mildly affected by genotype, Shank1 -/- null mutant mice were severely impaired in object recognition memory. This effect was particularly prominent in juveniles, not due to impairments in object discrimination, and replicated in independent mouse cohorts. At the neurobiological level, object recognition deficits were paralleled by increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein expression in the hippocampus of Shank1 -/- mice; yet BDNF levels did not differ under baseline conditions. We therefore investigated changes in the epigenetic regulation of hippocampal BDNF expression and detected an enrichment of histone H3 acetylation at the Bdnf promoter1 in Shank1 -/- mice, consistent with increased learning-associated BDNF. Together, our findings indicate that Shank1 deletions lead to an aberrant cognitive phenotype characterized by severe impairments in object recognition memory and increased hippocampal BDNF levels, possibly due to epigenetic modifications. This result supports the link between ASD and intellectual disability, and suggests epigenetic regulation as a potential therapeutic target. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. MeCP2 deficiency in Rett syndrome causes epigenetic aberrations at the PWS/AS imprinting center that affects UBE3A expression.

    PubMed

    Makedonski, Kirill; Abuhatzira, Liron; Kaufman, Yotam; Razin, Aharon; Shemer, Ruth

    2005-04-15

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a severe and progressive neurodevelopmental disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the X-linked methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene. MeCP2 is a nuclear protein that binds specifically to methylated DNA and functions as a general transcription repressor in the context of chromatin remodeling complexes. RS shares clinical features with those of Angelman syndrome (AS), an imprinting neurodevelopmental disorder. In AS patients, the maternally expressed copy of UBE3A that codes for the ubiquitin protein ligase 3A (E6-AP) is repressed. The similar phenotype of these two syndromes led us to hypothesize that part of the RS phenotype is due to MeCP2-associated silencing of UBE3A. Indeed, UBE3A mRNA and protein are shown here to be significantly reduced in human and mouse MECP2 deficient brains. This reduced UBE3A level was associated with biallelic production of the UBE3A antisense RNA. In addition, MeCP2 deficiency resulted in elevated histone H3 acetylation and H3(K4) methylation and reduced H3(K9) methylation at the PWS/AS imprinting center, with no effect on DNA methylation or SNRPN expression. We conclude, therefore, that MeCP2 deficiency causes epigenetic aberrations at the PWS imprinting center. These changes in histone modifications result in loss of imprinting of the UBE3A antisense gene in the brain, increase in UBE3A antisense RNA level and, consequently reduction in UBE3A production.

  14. Aberrant expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA4 and the transcription factor twist in Sézary syndrome identified by gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Remco; Dijkman, Remco; Vermeer, Maarten H; Out-Luiting, Jacoba J; van der Raaij-Helmer, Elisabeth M H; Willemze, Rein; Tensen, Cornelis P

    2004-08-15

    Sézary syndrome (Sz) is a malignancy of CD4+ memory skin-homing T cells and presents with erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, and peripheral blood involvement. To gain more insight into the molecular features of Sz, oligonucleotide array analysis was performed comparing gene expression patterns of CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood of patients with Sz with those of patients with erythroderma secondary to dermatitis and healthy controls. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering gene, expression patterns of T cells from patients with Sz were classified separately from those of benign T cells. One hundred twenty-three genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed and had an average fold change exceeding 2. T cells from patients with Sz demonstrated decreased expression of the following hematopoietic malignancy-linked tumor suppressor genes: TGF-beta receptor II, Mxi1, Riz1, CREB-binding protein, BCL11a, STAT4, and Forkhead Box O1A. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA4 and the potentially oncogenic transcription factor Twist were highly and selectively expressed in T cells of patients with Sz. High expression of EphA4 and Twist was also observed in lesional skin biopsy specimens of a subset of patients with cutaneous T cell lymphomas related to Sz, whereas their expression was nearly undetectable in benign T cells or in skin lesions of patients with inflammatory dermatoses. Detection of EphA4 and Twist may be used in the molecular diagnosis of Sz and related cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Furthermore, the membrane-bound EphA4 receptor may serve as a target for directed therapeutic intervention.

  15. Anti-CD45 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy using Bismuth-213: High Rates of Complete Remission and Long-Term Survival in a Mouse Myeloid Leukemia Xenograft Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Back, Tom

    2011-07-21

    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using an anti-CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate and DOTA-biotin labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored as a strategy to decrease relapse and toxicity. α-emitting radionuclides exhibit high cytotoxicity coupled with a short path-length, potentially increasing the therapeutic index and making them an attractive alternative to β-emitting radionuclides for patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Accordingly, we have used 213Bi in mice with human leukemia xenografts. Results demonstrated excellent localization of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin to tumors with minimal uptake into normal organs. After 10 minutes, 4.5 ± 1.1% of the injected dose of 213Bi was delivered per gram ofmore » tumor. α imaging demonstrated uniform radionuclide distribution within tumor tissue 45 minutes after 213Bi-DOTA-biotin injection. Radiation absorbed doses were similar to those observed using a β-emitting radionuclide (90Y) in the same model. We conducted therapy experiments in a xenograft model using a single-dose of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin given 24 hours after anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate. Among mice treated with anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate followed by 800 μCi of 213Bi- or 90Y-DOTA-biotin, 80% and 20%, respectively, survived leukemia-free for >100 days with minimal toxicity. These data suggest that anti-CD45 PRIT using an α-emitting radionuclide may be highly effective and minimally toxic for treatment of AML.« less

  16. Durable donor engraftment after radioimmunotherapy using α-emitter astatine-211–labeled anti-CD45 antibody for conditioning in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Kornblit, Brian; Hamlin, Donald K.; Sale, George E.; Santos, Erlinda B.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Storer, Barry E.; Storb, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    To reduce toxicity associated with external γ-beam radiation, we investigated radioimmunotherapy with an anti-CD45 mAb labeled with the α-emitter, astatine-211 (211At), as a conditioning regimen in dog leukocyte antigen-identical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Dose-finding studies in 6 dogs treated with 100 to 618 μCi/kg 211At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) without HCT rescue demonstrated dose-dependent myelosuppression with subsequent autologous recovery, and transient liver toxicity in dogs treated with 211At doses less than or equal to 405 μCi/kg. Higher doses of 211At induced clinical liver failure. Subsequently, 8 dogs were conditioned with 155 to 625 μCi/kg 211At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) before HCT with dog leukocyte antigen-identical bone marrow followed by a short course of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppression. Neutropenia (1-146 cells/μL), lymphopenia (0-270 cells/μL), and thrombocytopenia (1500-6560 platelets/μL) with prompt recovery was observed. Seven dogs had long-term donor mononuclear cell chimerism (19%-58%), whereas 1 dog treated with the lowest 211At dose (155 μCi/kg) had low donor mononuclear cell chimerism (5%). At the end of follow-up (18-53 weeks), only transient liver toxicity and no renal toxicity had been observed. In conclusion, conditioning with 211At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb is safe and efficacious and provides a platform for future clinical trials of nonmyeloablative transplantation with radioimmunotherapy-based conditioning. PMID:22134165

  17. Selective T-cell depletion targeting CD45RA reduces viremia and enhances early T-cell recovery compared with CD3-targeted T-cell depletion.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Brandon M; Muller, Brad; Kang, Guolian; Li, Ying; Cross, Shane J; Moen, Joseph; Cunningham, Lea; Janssen, William; Mamcarz, Ewelina; Shook, David R; Srinivasan, Ashok; Choi, John; Hayden, Randall T; Leung, Wing

    2018-02-01

    T-cell depletion (TCD) effectively reduces severe graft-versus-host disease in recipients of HLA-mismatched allografts. However, TCD is associated with delayed immune recovery and increased infections. We hypothesized that specific depletion of CD45RA+ naive T cells, rather than broad depletion of CD3+ T cells, can preserve memory-immunity in the allografts and confer protection against important viral infections in the early post-transplant period. Sixty-seven patients who received TCD haploidentical donor transplantation for hematologic malignancy on 3 consecutive trials were analyzed. Patients receiving CD45RA-depleted donor grafts had 2000-fold more donor T cells infused, significantly higher T-cell counts at Day +30 post transplant (550/μL vs 10/μL; P < .001), and higher T-cell diversity by Vbeta spectratyping at Day +100 (P < .001). Importantly, these recipients experienced a significant reduction in both the incidence (P = .002) and duration (P = .02) of any viremia (cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or adenovirus) in the first 6 months post transplant. Specifically, recipients of CD3-depleted grafts were more likely to experience adenovirus viremia (27% vs 4%, P = .02). CD45RA-depletion provided a large number of donor memory T cells to the recipients and was associated with enhanced early T-cell recovery and protection against viremia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Apical Plasma Membrane Mispolarization of NaK-ATPase in Polycystic Kidney Disease Epithelia Is Associated with Aberrant Expression of the β2 Isoform

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Patricia D.; Devuyst, Olivier; Li, Xiaohong; Gatti, Laura; Falkenstein, Doris; Robinson, Shawn; Fambrough, Douglas; Burrow, Christopher R.

    2000-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease of the kidney, characterized by cystic enlargement of renal tubules, aberrant epithelial proliferation, and ion and fluid secretion into the lumen. Previous studies have shown abnormalities in polarization of membrane proteins, including mislocalization of the NaK-ATPase to the apical plasma membranes of cystic epithelia. Apically located NaK-ATPase has previously been shown to be fully functional in vivo and in membrane-grown ADPKD epithelial cells in vitro, where basal-to-apical 22Na transport was inhibited by application of ouabain to the apical membrane compartment. Studies were conducted with polymerase chain reaction-generated specific riboprobes and polyclonal peptide antibodies against human sequences of α1, α3, β1, and β2 subunits of NaK-ATPase. High levels of expression of α1 and β1 messenger RNA were detected in ADPKD and age-matched normal adult kidneys in vivo, whereas β2 messenger RNA was detected only in ADPKD kidneys. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical studies showed that, in normal adult kidneys, peptide subunit-specific antibodies against α1 and β1 localized to the basolateral membranes of normal renal tubules, predominantly thick ascending limbs of Henle’s loop. In ADPKD kidneys, α1 and β2 subunits were localized to the apical epithelial cell membranes, whereas β1 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm and predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum, but was not seen associated with cystic epithelial cell membranes or in cell membrane fractions. Polarizing, renal-derived epithelial Madin Darby canine kidney cells, stably expressing normal or N-terminally truncated chicken β1 subunits, showed selective accumulation in the basolateral Madin Darby canine kidney cell surface, whereas c-myc epitope-tagged chicken β2 or human β2 subunits accumulated selectively in the apical cell surface. Similarly, human ADPKD epithelial cell lines, which

  19. Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived CD45-/CD34+/CD133+/VEGF+ Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Adults with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Boltin, Doron; Kamenetsky, Zvi; Perets, Tsachi Tsadok; Snir, Yifat; Sapoznikov, Boris; Schmilovitz-Weiss, Hemda; Ablin, Jacob Nadav; Dickman, Ram; Niv, Yaron

    2017-03-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow-derived stem cells able to migrate to sites of damaged endothelium and differentiate into endothelial cells. Altered EPC level and function have been described in various inflammatory diseases and have been shown to augment vasculogenesis in murine models. Previous studies of EPC in the context of Crohn's disease (CD) have yielded conflicting results. To determine whether the circulating levels of EPCs are changed in the context of CD. CD patients and healthy controls were recruited. Disease activity was assessed by CDAI. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and EPC numbers evaluated by FACS analysis using anti-CD34, anti-VEGF receptor-2, anti-CD133, and anti-CD45 markers. Eighty-three subjects, including 32 CD patients and 51 controls were recruited, including 19 (59.4 %) and 23 (45 %) males (p = 0.26), aged 34.8 ± 14.9 and 43.3 ± 18.5 years (p = 0.64), in cases and controls, respectively. Mean CDAI was 147 ± 97, disease duration was 12.7 ± 11.1 years, and 28 (87.5 %) were receiving biologics for a mean duration of 21.7 ± 16.8 months. The mean level of peripheral EPCs in CD patients was 0.050 ± 0.086 percent and 0.007 ± 0.013 % in controls (p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between EPC levels and age (r = -0.13, p = 0.47), CDAI (r = -0.26, p = 0.15), disease duration (r = -0.04, p = 0.84), or duration of treatment with biologics (r = 0.004, p = 0.99). EPCs are elevated in patients with CD. Further studies are needed to examine the function of EPCs and their possible role as a marker of disease severity or therapeutic response.

  20. Expression of ALS/FTD-linked mutant CCNF in zebrafish leads to increased cell death in the spinal cord and an aberrant motor phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Alison L; Don, Emily K; Rayner, Stephanie L; Lee, Albert; Laird, Angela S; Watchon, Maxinne; Winnick, Claire; Tarr, Ingrid S; Morsch, Marco; Fifita, Jennifer A; Gwee, Serene S L; Formella, Isabel; Hortle, Elinor; Yuan, Kristy C; Molloy, Mark P; Williams, Kelly L; Nicholson, Garth A; Chung, Roger S; Blair, Ian P; Cole, Nicholas J

    2017-07-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Approximately 10% of cases have a known family history of ALS and disease-linked mutations in multiple genes have been identified. ALS-linked mutations in CCNF were recently reported, however the pathogenic mechanisms associated with these mutations are yet to be established. To investigate possible disease mechanisms, we developed in vitro and in vivo models based on an ALS-linked missense mutation in CCNF. Proteomic analysis of the in vitro models identified the disruption of several cellular pathways in the mutant model, including caspase-3 mediated cell death. Transient overexpression of human CCNF in zebrafish embryos supported this finding, with fish expressing the mutant protein found to have increased levels of cleaved (activated) caspase-3 and increased cell death in the spinal cord. The mutant CCNF fish also developed a motor neuron axonopathy consisting of shortened primary motor axons and increased frequency of aberrant axonal branching. Importantly, we demonstrated a significant correlation between the severity of the CCNF-induced axonopathy and a reduced motor response to a light stimulus (photomotor response). This is the first report of an ALS-linked CCNF mutation in vivo and taken together with the in vitro model identifies the disruption of cell death pathways as a significant consequence of this mutation. Additionally, this study presents a valuable new tool for use in ongoing studies investigating the pathobiology of ALS-linked CCNF mutations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Novel treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency utilizing ex-vivo T-cell depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and CD45RA+ depleted donor lymphocyte infusions.

    PubMed

    Brodszki, Nicholas; Turkiewicz, Dominik; Toporski, Jacek; Truedsson, Lennart; Dykes, Josefina

    2016-01-15

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment available for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID); although, there is a high incidence of severe infections and an increased risk of graft-versus host-disease (GvHD) with HSCT. Early intervention is a crucial prognostic factor and a HLA-haploidentical parental donor is often available. Haploidentical HSCT protocols utilizing extensively ex vivo T-cell depleted grafts (CliniMACs system) have proven efficient in preventing GvHD, but cause a delay in early T-cell recovery that increases the risk of viral infections. Here, we present a novel approach for treating SCID that combines selective depletion of GvHD-inducing alpha/beta (α/β) T-cells from the haploidentical HSCT graft with a subsequent donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) enriched for CD45RO+ memory T-cells. Our patient was diagnosed with SCID (T-B + NK+ phenotype). At 9 months of age, he received a T cell receptor(TCR)α/β-cell depleted graft from his haploidentical mother, following a reduced intensity conditioning regimen with no additional GvHD prophylaxis. Engraftment was rapid with complete donor chimerism and no signs of GvHD. However, at 12 weeks post HSCT, the patient was still T-cell lymphopenic with clinical symptoms of multiple severe viral infections. Consequently, therapeutic DLIs were initiated for enhanced anti-viral immunity. The patient was treated with CD45RA+ depleted haploidentical maternal donor lymphocytes enriched from unmobilized whole blood, and a total T-cell dose of no more than 25 x10(3) CD3+ cells/kg with >99.9% purity of CD3 + CD45RO+ memory T-cells was transferred. Following the DLI, a prompt increase in CD3 + CD4+ and CD3 + CD8+ counts was observed with a subsequent clearance of viral infections. No acute or chronic GvHD was observed. Automated depletion of CD45RA+ naïve T-cells from unmobilized whole blood is a simple and rapid strategy to provide unmanipulated DLIs

  2. Genome-wide analysis of aberrantly expressed lncRNAs and miRNAs with associated co-expression and ceRNA networks in β-thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ketong; Jia, Siyuan; Yu, Shanjuan; Luo, Jianming; He, Yunyan

    2017-07-25

    The implications of lncRNAs regarding fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction in hemoglobin disorders remain poorly understood. In this study, microarray analysis was performed to profile lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs in individuals with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH), β-thalassemia carriers with high HbF levels and healthy controls. The results show aberrant expression of 862 lncRNAs, 568 mRNAs and 63 miRNAs in the high-HbF group compared with the control group. Altered NR_001589, NR_120526, T315543, miR-486-3p, miR-19b-1-5p and miR-20a-3p expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Spearman correlation coefficients revealed significant positive correlations with HbF. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses showed the hematopoietic cell lineage and apoptosis to be most significantly dysregulated in HbF induction. We analyzed coding genes near the lncRNAs and constructed a coding-noncoding co-expression network. Based on the results, lncRNAs likely contribute to increased HbF levels by activating expression of HBE1 and hematopoietic cell lineage-inducible molecules and by inhibiting that of apoptosis-inducible molecules. Finally, through construction of a competing endogenous RNA network, we found that 6 lncRNAs could bind competitively with miR-486-3p, resulting in increased HbF levels. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of HbF induction and potentially provide new targets for the treatment of β-thalassemia major.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of aberrantly expressed lncRNAs and miRNAs with associated co-expression and ceRNA networks in β-thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shanjuan; Luo, Jianming; He, Yunyan

    2017-01-01

    The implications of lncRNAs regarding fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction in hemoglobin disorders remain poorly understood. In this study, microarray analysis was performed to profile lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs in individuals with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH), β-thalassemia carriers with high HbF levels and healthy controls. The results show aberrant expression of 862 lncRNAs, 568 mRNAs and 63 miRNAs in the high-HbF group compared with the control group. Altered NR_001589, NR_120526, T315543, miR-486-3p, miR-19b-1-5p and miR-20a-3p expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Spearman correlation coefficients revealed significant positive correlations with HbF. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses showed the hematopoietic cell lineage and apoptosis to be most significantly dysregulated in HbF induction. We analyzed coding genes near the lncRNAs and constructed a coding-noncoding co-expression network. Based on the results, lncRNAs likely contribute to increased HbF levels by activating expression of HBE1 and hematopoietic cell lineage-inducible molecules and by inhibiting that of apoptosis-inducible molecules. Finally, through construction of a competing endogenous RNA network, we found that 6 lncRNAs could bind competitively with miR-486-3p, resulting in increased HbF levels. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of HbF induction and potentially provide new targets for the treatment of β-thalassemia major. PMID:28624809

  4. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  5. Biodistributions, Myelosuppression, and Toxicities in Mice Treated with an Anti-CD45 Antibody Labeled with the alpha-Emitting Radionuclides Bismuth-213 or Astatine-211

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamae, Hirohisa; Wilbur, D. Scott; Hamlin, Donald K.

    2009-03-15

    We previously investigated 213Bi-labeled anti-CD45 antibody to replace total body irradiation as conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation in a canine model. While this allowed sustained engraftment of marrow, limited availability and high cost of 213Bi led to a preliminary investigation in mice of 211At-labeled antibody for the same application. To gain an understanding of the differences between the two radionuclides, biodistribution and myelosuppression/toxicity studies were conducted with 213Bi- and 211At-labeled rat anti-murine CD45 antibody, 30F11, conjugates. After injecting mice with 2-50 μCi on 10 μg 30F11 conjugate or 20 μCi on 2 or 40 μg conjugate, biodistributions, myelosuppression and non-hematologicalmore » toxicities were evaluated. Biodistribution studies showed that the spleen had the highest concentration of radioactivity, ranging from167-417 % injected dose/gram (%ID/g) at 24 h after injection in the 211At studies and 45-166 %ID/g at 3 h after injection in the 213Bi studies. The higher concentrations observed for 211At-labeled 30F11 was likely due to its longer half-life which, permitted more localization of antibody to the spleen before decay. 211At was more effective at myelosuppression for the same (mCi) quantity of injected radioactivity. Injection of only 20 or 50 μCi 211At resulted in lethal myeloablation. There was severe reversible acute hepatic toxicity with 50 μCi 213Bi, but not with lower doses or any dose of 211At. No significant renal toxicity occurred with either radionuclide. The data suggested that considerably lower quantities of 211At-labeled anti-CD45 antibody than 213Bi-labeled antibody might be effective for myelosuppression.« less

  6. [Radioimmunoimaging of lymphoma in mice with a two-step pretargeting strategy using biotinyled CD45 monoclonal antibody and (188)Re-avidin].

    PubMed

    Li, Guiping; Zheng, Wenli; Huang, Baodan; DU, Li; Qi, Yongshuai; Huang, Kai; Zhang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    To establish a two-step pretargeting approach to lymphoma radioimmunoimaging in mice using biotinynaled CD45 monoclonal antibody (McAb) and (188)Re-avidin in a tumor-bearing mouse model. Six Nod-Scid mice bearing lymphoma cell xenograft were randomized to receive either an intravenous injection of 50 µg/200 µL biotinyled CD45 McAb followed 24 h later by an intraperitoneal injection of 3.7 MBq (50 µg/100 µL) (188)Re-avidin (two-step pretargeting group), or a single intravenous injection of 3.7 MBq (100 µg/100 µL) (188)Re-CD45 McAb (control group). SPECT was performed at 0.5, 1, 6 and 23 h post-injection to characterize (188)Re isotope biodistribution. At 24 h pos-injection, the mice were sacrificed for measurement of radioactivity uptake in the tumor and normal tissues and calculation of the tumor-to-non-tumor (T/NT) ratios. SPECT showed that the two-step pretargeting method resulted in a low radioactivity in the blood pool during the imaging and a concentrated radioactivity in the liver and spleen. The transplanted tumor began to be displayed at 1 h post-injection and was clearly displayed at 1-6 h; the images were clear even at 23 h. With the two-step pretargeting method, the radioactive uptake at 24 h post-injection were (1.34∓0.52)%, (6.77∓2.32)%, and (2.81∓1.25)% in the tumor, kidney and liver, respectively, with low radioactivity levels in other organs and high tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios (4.28∓0.82 and 8.00∓0.88, respectively). In the control group, SPECT revealed intense radioactivity in the liver, spleen, and kidneys with obscure display of the tumor; at 20 h, the radioactivity in the blood pool remained high but that in the tumor was low, and the tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios at 24 h were only 0.58∓0.06 and 3.21∓0.24, respectively. Compared with (188)Re-CD45 McAb, the two-step pretargeting approach exhibits a good specificity in targeting lymphoma with an increased T/NT ratio in mice and allows early tumor display at 1 h

  7. Alpha imaging confirmed efficient targeting of CD45-positive cells after astatine-211 (211At)-radioimmunotherapy for hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Sofia H.L.; Miller, Brian W.; Bäck, Tom A.; Santos, Erlinda B.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Knoblaugh, Sue E.; Frayo, Shani L.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Storb, Rainer; Press, Oliver W.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-radioimmunotherapy targeting CD45 may substitute for total body irradiation in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) preparative regimens for lymphoma. Our goal was to optimize the anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (MAb; CA12.10C12) protein dose for astatine-211 (211At)-radioimmunotherapy, extending the analysis to include intra-organ 211At activity distribution and α-imaging-based small-scale dosimetry, along with immunohistochemical staining. Methods Eight normal dogs were injected with either 0.75 (n=5) or 1.00 mg/kg (n=3) of 211At-B10-CA12.10C12 (11.5–27.6 MBq/kg). Two were euthanized and necropsied 19–22 hours post injection (p.i.), and six received autologous HCT three days after 211At-radioimmunotherapy, following lymph node and bone marrow biopsies at 2–4 and/or 19 hours p.i. Blood was sampled to study toxicity and clearance; CD45 targeting was evaluated by flow cytometry. 211At localization and small-scale dosimetry were assessed using two α-imaging systems: α-camera and iQID. Results Uptake of 211At was highest in spleen (0.31–0.61 %IA/g), lymph nodes (0.02–0.16 %IA/g), liver (0.11–0.12 %IA/g), and marrow (0.06–0.08 %IA/g). Lymphocytes in blood and marrow were efficiently targeted using either MAb dose. Lymph nodes remained unsaturated, but displayed targeted 211At localization in T lymphocyte-rich areas. Absorbed doses to blood, marrow, and lymph nodes were estimated at 3.1, 2.4, and 3.4 Gy/166 MBq, respectively. All transplanted dogs experienced transient hepatic toxicity. Liver enzyme levels were temporarily elevated in 5 of 6 dogs; 1 treated with 1.00 mg MAb/kg developed ascites and was euthanized 136 days after HCT. Conclusion 211At-anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy with 0.75 mg MAb/kg efficiently targeted blood and marrow without severe toxicity. Dosimetry calculations and observed radiation-induced effects indicated that sufficient 211At-B10-CA12.10C12 localization was achieved for efficient conditioning for HCT. PMID:26338894

  8. Human cytomegalovirus UL76 induces chromosome aberrations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is known to induce chromosome aberrations in infected cells, which can lead to congenital abnormalities in infected fetuses. HCMV UL76 belongs to a conserved protein family from herpesviruses. Some reported roles among UL76 family members include involvement in virulence determination, lytic replication, reactivation of latent virus, modulation of gene expression, induction of apoptosis, and perturbation of cell cycle progression, as well as potential nuclease activity. Previously, we have shown that stable expression of UL76 inhibits HCMV replication in glioblastoma cells. Methods To examine chromosomal integrity and the DNA damage signal γ-H2AX in cells constitutively expressing UL76, immunofluorescent cell staining and Western blotting were performed. The comet assay was employed to assess DNA breaks in cells transiently expressing UL76. Results We report that stably transfected cells expressing UL76 developed chromosome aberrations including micronuclei and misaligned chromosomes, lagging and bridging. In mitotic cells expressing UL76, aberrant spindles were increased compared to control cells. However, cells with supernumerary centrosomes were marginally increased in UL76-expressing cells relative to control cells. We further demonstrated that UL76-expressing cells activated the DNA damage signal γ-H2AX and caused foci formation in nuclei. In addition, the number of cells with DNA breaks increased in proportion to UL76 protein levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the virus-associated protein UL76 induces DNA damage and the accumulation of chromosome aberrations. PMID:19930723

  9. Sixth-order wave aberration theory of ultrawide-angle optical systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lijun; Cao, Yiqing

    2017-10-20

    In this paper, we develop sixth-order wave aberration theory of ultrawide-angle optical systems like fisheye lenses. Based on the concept and approach to develop wave aberration theory of plane-symmetric optical systems, we first derive the sixth-order intrinsic wave aberrations and the fifth-order ray aberrations; second, we present a method to calculate the pupil aberration of such kind of optical systems to develop the extrinsic aberrations; third, the relation of aperture-ray coordinates between adjacent optical surfaces is fitted with the second-order polynomial to improve the calculation accuracy of the wave aberrations of a fisheye lens with a large acceptance aperture. Finally, the resultant aberration expressions are applied to calculate the aberrations of two design examples of fisheye lenses; the calculation results are compared with the ray-tracing ones with Zemax software to validate the aberration expressions.

  10. Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.

  11. 131I-Anti-CD45 Antibody Plus Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide before Allogeneic Hematophoietic Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Remission

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Eary, Janet F.

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to improve outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we conducted a Phase I/II study in which targeted irradiation delivered by 131I-anti-CD45 antibody was combined with targeted busulfan (BU; area-under-curve, 600-900 ng/ml) and cyclophosphamide (CY; 120 mg/kg). Fifty-two of 59 patients (88%) receiving a trace 131I-labeled dose of 0.5 mg/kg anti-CD45 murine antibody had higher estimated absorbed radiation in bone marrow and spleen than in any other organ. Forty-six patients were treated with 102-298 mCi 131I delivering an estimated 5.3-19 (mean 11.3) Gy to marrow, 17-72 (mean 29.7) Gy tomore » spleen, and 3.5 Gy (n=4) to 5.25 Gy (n=42) to the liver. The estimated 3-year non-relapse mortality and disease-free survival (DFS) were 21% and 61%, respectively. These results were compared to those from 509 similar International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry patients transplanted using BU/CY alone. After adjusting for differences in age and cytogenetics-risk, the hazard of mortality among all antibody-treated patients was 0.65 times that of the Registry patients (95% CI 0.39-1.08; p=.09). The addition of targeted hematopoietic irradiation to conventional BU/CY is feasible and well tolerated, and Phase II results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further study.« less

  12. Blast Exposure Causes Early and Persistent Aberrant Phospho- and Cleaved-Tau Expression in a Murine Model of Mild Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Bertrand R.; Meabon, James S.; Martin, Tobin J.; Mourad, Pierre D.; Bennett, Raymond; Kraemer, Brian C.; Cernak, Ibolja; Petrie, Eric C.; Emery, Michael J.; Swenson, Erik R.; Mayer, Cynthia; Mehic, Edin; Peskind, Elaine R.; Cook, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered the ‘signature injury’ of combat veterans that have served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prevalence of mTBI is due in part to the common exposure to high explosive blasts in combat zones. In addition to the threats of blunt impact trauma caused by flying objects and the head itself being propelled against objects, the primary blast overpressure (BOP) generated by high explosives is capable of injuring the brain. Compared to other means of causing TBI, the pathophysiology of mild-to-moderate BOP is less well understood. To study the consequences of BOP exposure in mice, we employed a well-established approach using a compressed gas-driven shock tube that recapitulates battlefield-relevant open-field BOP. We found that 24 hours post-blast a single mild BOP provoked elevation of multiple phosphor- and cleaved-tau species in neurons, as well as elevating manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) levels, a cellular response to oxidative stress. In hippocampus, aberrant tau species persisted for at least 30 days post-exposure, while SOD2 levels returned to sham control levels. These findings suggest that elevated phospho- and cleaved-tau species may be among the initiating pathologic processes induced by mild blast exposure. These findings may have important implications for efforts to prevent blast-induced insults to the brain from progressing into long-term neurodegenerative disease processes. PMID:23948882

  13. Lack of Correlation between Aberrant p16, RAR-β2, TIMP3, ERCC1, and BRCA1 Protein Expression and Promoter Methylation in Squamous Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Candida albicans-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperplastic candidiasis is characterized by thickening of the mucosal epithelia with Candida albicans infection with occasional progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). C. albicans is a critical factor in tumor development; however, the oncogenic mechanism is unclear. We have previously produced an animal model for hyperplastic candidiasis in the rat forestomach. In the present study, we investigate whether impaired DNA methylation and associated protein expression of tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes are involved in the SCC carcinogenesis process using this hyperplastic candidiasis model. Promoter methylation and protein expression were analyzed by methylation specific PCR and immunohistochemical staining, respectively, of 5 areas in the forestomachs of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with hyperplastic candidiasis: normal squamous epithelia, squamous hyperplasia, squamous hyperplasia adjacent to SCC, squamous hyperplasia transitioning to SCC, and SCC. We observed nuclear p16 overexpression despite increases in p16 gene promoter methylation during the carcinogenic process. TIMP3 and RAR-β2 promoter methylation progressed until the precancerous stage but disappeared upon malignant transformation. In comparison, TIMP3 protein expression was suppressed during carcinogenesis and RAR-β2 expression was attenuated in the cytoplasm but enhanced in nuclei. ERCC1 and BRCA1 promoters were not methylated at any stage; however, their protein expression disappeared beginning at hyperplasia and nuclear protein re-expression in SCC was observed only for ERCC1. These results suggest that aberrant p16, RAR-β2, TIMP3, ERCC1, and BRCA1 expression might occur that is inconsistent with the respective gene promoter methylation status, and that this overexpression might serve to promote the inflammatory carcinogenesis caused by C. albicans infection. PMID:27410681

  14. CD142+/CD61+, CD146+ and CD45+ microparticles predict cardiovascular events in high risk patients following a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts.

    PubMed

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Crespo, Javier; Suades, Rosa; Arderiu, Gemma; Padro, Teresa; Vilahur, Gemma; Cubedo, Judith; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Arós, Fernando; Martínez-González, Miguel-Angel; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Badimon, Lina

    2016-07-04

    Circulating microparticles (cMPs) are small phospholipid-rich microvesicles shed by activated cells that play a pivotal role in cell signalling related to the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of cMPs released from different vascular cells for cardiovascular event (CVE) presentation in asymptomatic patients at high cardiovascular risk factors under nutritional and pharmacologic treatment. This is a nested case-control study of 50 patients from the five-year follow-up prospective PREDIMED trial enrolled in the nuts arm of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet-nuts). We randomly selected 25 patients who had suffered a CVE during follow-up and pair-matched them for sex, age, and classical CV risk factors to 25 patients who remained asymptomatic (no-CVE). Total Annexin V-(AV)+ cMPs and cMPs from cells of the vascular compartment were quantified by flow cytometry at baseline and after one year follow-up. MedDiet-nuts and pharmacological treatment neither modified levels nor source of MP shedding in CVE patients. However, no-CVE patients showed 40-86 % decreased total AV+, PAC-1+/AV+, CD61+/AV+, CD142+/CD61+/AV+, CD62P+/AV+, CD146+/AV+, CD63+/AV+ and CD11a+/AV+ cMPs at one year follow-up (p≤0.046, all). CD142+/CD61+/AV+, CD146+/AV+ and CD45+/AV+ cMPs were decreased in no-CVE patients compared to CVE patients. A ROC-curve clustered model for CD142+/CD61+/AV+, CD45+/AV+ and CD146+/AV+ cMPs predicted a future CVE [p<0.0001, AUC=0.805 (0.672 to 0.938)]. In patients at high CV risk profile treated with a controlled MedDiet supplemented with nuts and receiving up-to-date CV drug treatment, reduced cMPs derived from activated platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells are predictive of protection against CVE within the next four years.

  15. PLGA-PEG Nanoparticles Coated with Anti-CD45RO and Loaded with HDAC Plus Protease Inhibitors Activate Latent HIV and Inhibit Viral Spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yong; Liu, Xinkuang; Zhou, Shuping; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Fujina; Xie, Chunmei; Cai, Shuyu; Wei, Jia; Zhu, Yongqiang; Hou, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Activating HIV-1 proviruses in latent reservoirs combined with inhibiting viral spread might be an effective anti-HIV therapeutic strategy. Active specific delivery of therapeutic drugs into cells harboring latent HIV, without the use of viral vectors, is a critical challenge to this objective. In this study, nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol diblock copolymers conjugated with anti-CD45RO antibody and loaded with the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and/or protease inhibitor nelfinavir (Nel) were tested for activity against latent virus in vitro. Nanoparticles loaded with SAHA, Nel, and SAHA + Nel were characterized in terms of size, surface morphology, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug release, and toxicity to ACH-2 cells. We show that SAHA- and SAHA + Nel-loaded nanoparticles can target latently infected CD4+ T-cells and stimulate virus production. Moreover, nanoparticles loaded with SAHA + NEL were capable of both activating latent virus and inhibiting viral spread. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of this novel reagent for targeting and eliminating latent HIV reservoirs.

  16. Aberrant expression of the tight junction molecules claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 mediates cell growth and invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Babkair, Hamzah; Yamazaki, Manabu; Uddin, Md Shihab; Maruyama, Satoshi; Abé, Tatsuya; Essa, Ahmed; Sumita, Yoshimasa; Ahsan, Md Shahidul; Swelam, Wael; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    We reported that altered cell contact mediated by E-cadherin is an initial event in the pathogenesis of oral epithelial malignancies. To assess other effects of cell adhesion, we examined the expression levels of tight junction (TJ) molecules in oral carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To identify changes in the expression of TJ molecules, we conducted an analysis of the immunohistochemical profiles of claudin-1 (CLDN-1) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in surgical specimens acquired from patients with oral SCC containing foci of epithelial dysplasia or from patients with CIS. We used immunofluorescence, Western blotting, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and RNA interference to evaluate the functions of CLDN-1 and ZO-1 in cultured oral SCC cells. TJ molecules were not detected in normal oral epithelial tissues but were expressed in SCC/CIS cells. ZO-1 was localized within the nucleus of proliferating cells. When CLDN-1 expression was inhibited by transfecting cells with specific small interference RNAs, SCC cells dissociated, and their ability to proliferate and invade Matrigel was inhibited. In contrast, although RNA interference-mediated inhibition of ZO-1 expression did not affect cell morphology, it inhibited cell proliferation and invasiveness. Our findings indicated that the detection of TJ molecules in the oral epithelia may serve as a marker for the malignant phenotype of cells in which CLDN-1 regulates proliferation and invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to PM2.5 induces aberrant activation of NF-κB in human airway epithelial cells by downregulating miR-331 expression.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Li, Dan; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Lianjun; Bai, Xiaoxue; Wen, Zhongmei; Zhang, Xiufang; Chen, Dong; Peng, Liping

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter≤2.5μm (PM2.5) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leading to airway epithelial injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of PM2.5 have not been clarified. Here, we show that exposure to PM2.5 induces sustained activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling in human airway epithelial Beas-2B (B2B) cells. In addition, PM2.5 exposure significantly decreased miR-331 expression in B2B cells, which was abrogated by inhibition of ROS or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Induction of miR-331 overexpression attenuated the PM2.5 exposure-induced NF-kBp65 nuclear translocation, IL-6 and IL-8 expression in B2B cells. Furthermore, miR-331 targeted the inhibitor of NF-κB kinase beta (IKK-β) by down-regulating the IKK-β-regulated luciferase activity in HEK293 cells. Moreover, induction of miR-331 over-expression inhibited IKK-β expression while induction of IKK-β over-expression prevented the inhibition of miR-331 on the PM2.5 exposure-induced NF-kBp65 nuclear translocation, IL-6 and IL-8 expression in B2B cells. Therefore, PM2.5 exposure decreased miR-331 expression via the ROS/PI3K/Akt pathway, resulting in an increase in the IKK-β expression and sustained NF-κB activation in human airway epithelial cells. Our findings may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of PM2.5 exposure and aid in design of new therapeutic strategies to prevent PM2.5-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Evaluation of Optical Aberrations in Underwater Hologrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, J. M.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. An iterative ray-trace procedure is developed in conjunction with semi-analytic expressions for spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism in the reconstructed holographic images of underwater objects. An exact expression for the astigmatic difference is obtained, based on the geometry of the caustic for refraction. The geometrical characteristics of the aberrated images associated with axial and non-axial field positions are represented by ray intersection diagrams. A third order expression for the wavefront aberration introduced at a planar air/water boundary is given. The associated third order aberration coefficients are used to obtain analytic expressions for the aberrations observed in underwater hologrammetry. The results of the third order treatment are shown to give good agreement with the results obtained by geometrical ray tracing and by direct measurement on the reconstructed real image. The third order aberration coefficients are employed to estimate the limit of resolution in the presence of the aberrations associated with reconstruction in air. In concurrence with practical observations it is found that the estimated resolution is primarily limited by astigmatism. The limitations of the planar window in underwater imaging applications are outlined and various schemes are considered to effect a reduction in the extent of aberration. The analogous problems encountered in underwater photography are examined in order to establish the grounds for a common solution based on a conventional optical corrector. The performance of one such system, the Ivanoff Corrector, is investigated. The spherical aberration associated with axial image formation is evaluated. The equivalence of the third order wavefront aberration introduced at a planar air/water boundary to that introduced upon reconstruction by an appropriate wavelength change is shown to provide a basis for the compensation of aberrations in

  19. Aberrant, ectopic expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors 1 and 2 in malignant colonic epithelial cells. Implications for these cells growth via an autocrine mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K.; Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Malignant colonic epithelial cells express VEGF and its receptors. •Cultured colon cancer cells secrete VEGF into the medium. •Inhibition of VEGF receptor significantly decreases colon cancer cell proliferation. •VEGF is critical for colon cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (referred to as VEGF) is implicated in colon cancer growth. Currently, the main accepted mechanism by which VEGF promotes colon cancer growth is via the stimulation of angiogenesis, which was originally postulated by late Judah Folkman. However, the cellular source of VEGF in colon cancer tissue; and, the expression of VEGF and its receptors VEGF-R1 andmore » VEGF-R2 in colon cancer cells are not fully known and are subjects of controversy. Material and methods: We examined and quantified expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in three different human colonic tissue arrays containing sections of adenocarcinoma (n = 43) and normal mucosa (n = 41). In human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and normal colon cell lines NCM356 and NCM460, we examined expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 mRNA and protein, VEGF production and secretion into the culture medium; and, the effect of a potent, selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors, AL-993, on cell proliferation. Results: Human colorectal cancer specimens had strong expression of VEGF in cancer cells and also expressed VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2.In vitro studies showed that human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, but not normal colonic cell lines, express VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 and secrete VEGF into the medium up to a concentration 2000 pg/ml within 48 h. Furthermore, we showed that inhibition of VEGF receptors using a specific VEGF-R inhibitor significantly reduced proliferation (by >50%) of cultured colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: Our findings support the contention that VEGF generated by colon cancer cells stimulates their growth directly through an autocrine mechanism that is

  20. Aberrant expression of cancer stem cell markers (CD44, CD90, and CD133) contributes to disease progression and reduced survival in hepatoblastoma patients: 4-year survival data.

    PubMed

    Bahnassy, Abeer A; Fawzy, Mohamed; El-Wakil, Mohamed; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman N; Abdel-Sayed, Ahmed; Sheta, Marwa

    2015-03-01

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is an embryonal tumor of the liver in children. Prognosis and response to treatment in HB are highly variable. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a population of cells, which contribute to the development and progression of many tumors. However, their role in HB is not well defined yet. We assessed the prognostic and predictive values of some CSC markers in HB patients. Protein and messenger RNA expressions of the CSC markers CD133, CD90, and CD44 were assessed in 43 HB patients and 20 normal hepatic tissues using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these markers were correlated to standard prognostic factors, patients' response to treatment, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS). CD44, CD90, and CD133 proteins were detected in 48.8%, 32.6%, and 48.8% compared with 46.5%, 41.7%, and 58.1% RNA, respectively (concordance, 77.8%-96%). None of the normal tissue samples was positive for any of the markers. Significant correlations were reported between α-fetoprotein and both CD44 and CD133 (P = 0.02) as well as between tumor types CD90 and CD133 (P = 0.009). Reduced OS correlated with CD44, CD90, and CD133 expressions (P < 0.001), advanced stage (P < 0.001), response to treatment (P < 0.001), and total excision of the tumor. Reduced DFS correlated with CD44 and CD133 expressions (P < 0.001) only. In conclusion, CD133, CD44, and CD90 could be used as prognostic and predictive markers in HB. High expression of these markers is significantly associated with poor response to treatment and reduced survival. Moreover, complete surgical resection and systemic chemotherapy are essential to achieve good response and prolonged survival, especially in early stage patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aberrant Expression of miR-142-3p and its Target Gene HMGA1 and FZD7 in Breast Cancer and its Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiu-Peng; Meng, Ling-Li; Fang, Jian-Chen; Wang, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Jue; Wang, Chun-Nian; Jiang, Wei-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miR-142-3p in breast cancer cells and the related mechanism. Sixty paired breast cancer tissues were collected and 60 breast tissues from patients with mammary hyperplasia served as the control group. The expression of miR-142-3p was examined using RT-qPCR methods; moreover, we also performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine whether miR142-3p can distinguish breast cancer patients from the controls. Next, HMGA1 and FZD7 have been predicted as target genes of miR-142-3p, and the expressions of HMGA1 and FZD7 in breast cancer tissue and the control group were examined using RT-qPCR and western blot methods. miR-142-3p was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer tissue compared with the controls, and the levels of miR-142-3p was negatively correlated with the tumor size, degree of differentiation, and metastasis (p < 0.01). Moreover, results of ROC curve analysis indicated that the expression of miR-142-3p can distinguish between patients with breast cancer and the control group (AUC = 0.819, 95% CI, 0.756 - 0.881). Furthermore, the expressions of HMGA1 and FZD7 were significantly up-regulated in patients with breast cancer compared with the controls. The level of miR-142-3p was negatively correlated with expressions of HMGA1 (r = -0.3507, p = 0.006) and FZD7 (r = -0.3410, p = 0.0077) in patients with breast cancer. Our results proved that miR-142-3p may serve as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer by suppressing the expression of oncogene HMGA1 and FZD7, suggesting that miR-142-3p has the potential to become a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for the early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.

  2. RNA‑sequencing analysis of aberrantly expressed long non‑coding RNAs and mRNAs in a mouse model of ventilator‑induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Yizhou; Li, Xiujuan; Mao, Yanfei; Deng, Xiaoming

    2018-05-17

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are closely associated with the regulation of various biological processes and are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the role of lncRNAs in ventilator‑induced lung injury (VILI) has yet to be evaluated. In the present study, high‑throughput sequencing was applied to investigate differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs (fold change >2; false discovery rate <0.05). Bioinformatics analysis was employed to predict the functions of differentially expressed lncRNAs. A total of 104 lncRNAs (74 upregulated and 30 downregulated) and 809 mRNAs (521 upregulated and 288 downregulated) were differentially expressed in lung tissues from the VILI group. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were mainly associated with biological functions, including apoptosis, angiogenesis, neutrophil chemotaxis and skeletal muscle cell differentiation. The top four enriched pathways were the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, P53 signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand‑receptor interaction and the forkhead box O signaling pathway. Several lncRNAs were predicted to serve a vital role in VILI. Subsequently, three lncRNAs [mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase 3, opposite strand (Map2k3os), dynamin 3, opposite strand and abhydrolase domain containing 11, opposite strand] and three mRNAs (growth arrest and DNA damage‑inducible α, claudin 4 and thromboxane A2 receptor) were measured by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in order to confirm the veracity of RNA‑sequencing analysis. In addition, Map2k3os small interfering RNA transfection inhibited the expression of stretch‑induced cytokines [TNF‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6] in MLE12 cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study provided a profile of differentially expressed lncRNAs in VILI. Several important lncRNAs may be involved

  3. Aberrant Expression and Distribution of Enzymes of the Urea Cycle and Other Ammonia Metabolizing Pathways in Dogs with Congenital Portosystemic Shunts

    PubMed Central

    van Straten, Giora; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Grinwis, Guy C. M.; Favier, Robert P.; Kummeling, Anne; van Gils, Ingrid H.; Fieten, Hille; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J. A.; Holstege, Frank C. P.; Rothuizen, Jan; Spee, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The detoxification of ammonia occurs mainly through conversion of ammonia to urea in the liver via the urea cycle and glutamine synthesis. Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) in dogs cause hyperammonemia eventually leading to hepatic encephalopathy. In this study, the gene expression of urea cycle enzymes (carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS1), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and arginase (ARG1)), N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1), and glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) was evaluated in dogs with CPSS before and after surgical closure of the shunt. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed on urea cycle enzymes and GLUL on liver samples of healthy dogs and dogs with CPSS to investigate a possible zonal distribution of these enzymes within the liver lobule and to investigate possible differences in distribution in dogs with CPSS compared to healthy dogs. Furthermore, the effect of increasing ammonia concentrations on the expression of the urea cycle enzymes was investigated in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Gene-expression of CPS1, OTC, ASL, GLUD1 and NAGS was down regulated in dogs with CPSS and did not normalize after surgical closure of the shunt. In all dogs GLUL distribution was localized pericentrally. CPS1, OTC and ASS1 were localized periportally in healthy dogs, whereas in CPSS dogs, these enzymes lacked a clear zonal distribution. In primary hepatocytes higher ammonia concentrations induced mRNA levels of CPS1. We hypothesize that the reduction in expression of urea cycle enzymes, NAGS and GLUD1 as well as the alterations in zonal distribution in dogs with CPSS may be caused by a developmental arrest of these enzymes during the embryonic or early postnatal phase. PMID:24945279

  4. Gene expression in mdx mouse muscle in relation to age and exercise: aberrant mechanical-metabolic coupling and implications for pre-clinical studies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; Cannone, Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Massari, Ada Maria; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-11-01

    Weakness and fatigability are typical features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and are aggravated in dystrophic mdx mice by chronic treadmill exercise. Mechanical activity modulates gene expression and muscle plasticity. Here, we investigated the outcome of 4 (T4, 8 weeks of age) and 12 (T12, 16 weeks of age) weeks of either exercise or cage-based activity on a large set of genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of mdx and wild-type (WT) mice using quantitative real-time PCR. Basal expression of the exercise-sensitive genes peroxisome-proliferator receptor γ coactivator 1α (Pgc-1α) and Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) was higher in mdx versus WT mice at both ages. Exercise increased Pgc-1α expression in WT mice; Pgc-1α was downregulated by T12 exercise in mdx muscles, along with Sirt1, Pparγ and the autophagy marker Bnip3. Sixteen weeks old mdx mice showed a basal overexpression of the slow Mhc1 isoform and Serca2; T12 exercise fully contrasted this basal adaptation as well as the high expression of follistatin and myogenin. Conversely, T12 exercise was ineffective in WT mice. Damage-related genes such as gp91-phox (NADPH-oxidase2), Tgfβ, Tnfα and c-Src tyrosine kinase were overexpressed in mdx muscles and not affected by exercise. Likewise, the anti-inflammatory adiponectin was lower in T12-exercised mdx muscles. Chronic exercise with minor adaptive effects in WT muscles leads to maladaptation in mdx muscles with a disequilibrium between protective and damaging signals. Increased understanding of the pathways involved in the altered mechanical-metabolic coupling may help guide appropriate physical therapies while better addressing pharmacological interventions in translational research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Aberrant expression of miR-218 and miR-204 in human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis-convergence on axonal guidance.

    PubMed

    Kaalund, Sanne S; Venø, Morten T; Bak, Mads; Møller, Rikke S; Laursen, Henning; Madsen, Flemming; Broholm, Helle; Quistorff, Bjørn; Uldall, Peter; Tommerup, Niels; Kauppinen, Sakari; Sabers, Anne; Fluiter, Kees; Møller, Lisbeth B; Nossent, Anne Y; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Kjems, Jørgen; Aronica, Eleonora; Tümer, Zeynep

    2014-12-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common types of the intractable epilepsies and is most often associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), which is characterized by pronounced loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be dysregulated in epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases, and we hypothesized that miRNAs could be involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE and HS. miRNA expression was quantified in hippocampal specimens from human patients using miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR, and by RNA-seq on fetal brain specimens from domestic pigs. In situ hybridization was used to show the spatial distribution of miRNAs in the human hippocampus. The potential effect of miRNAs on targets genes was investigated using the dual luciferase reporter gene assay. miRNA expression profiling showed that 25 miRNAs were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in hippocampus biopsies of MTLE/HS patients compared to controls. We showed that miR-204 and miR-218 were significantly down-regulated in MTLE and HS, and both were expressed in neurons in all subfields of normal hippocampus. Moreover, miR-204 and miR-218 showed strong changes in expression during fetal development of the hippocampus in pigs, and we identified four target genes, involved in axonal guidance and synaptic plasticity, ROBO1, GRM1, SLC1A2, and GNAI2, as bona fide targets of miR-218. GRM1 was also shown to be a direct target of miR-204. miR-204 and miR-218 are developmentally regulated in the hippocampus and may contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of MTLE and HS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Glycyrrhizic acid prevents high calorie diet-induced metabolic aberrations despite the suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong Sheng; Yaw, Hui Ping; Ton, So Ha; Choy, Siew Mei; Kong, Joana Magdelene Xiao Fang; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of glycyrrhizic acid supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in rodents consuming a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Twenty-four male, 8-week old Sprague Dawley rats with an initial weight of 160 to 200 g were randomised into three groups (n = 6 for each group): groups A (standard rat chow), B (high-fat, high-sucrose diet), and C (high-fat, high-sucrose diet + 100 mg/kg/d of glycyrrhizic acid via oral administration). The rats were treated accordingly for 4 wk. Glycaemic parameters, lipid profile, stress hormones, and adiponectin levels were measured after the treatment. Relative gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ, lipoprotein lipase as well as gluconeogenic enzymatic activities in different tissues were also determined. Consumption of high-fat, high-sucrose diet triggered hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, which were effectively attenuated by supplementation with glycyrrhizic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid supplementation also effectively reduced circulating adrenaline, alleviated gluconeogenic enzymes overactivity, and promoted the upregulation of lipoprotein lipase expression in the cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscles. A high calorie diet also triggered hypoadiponectinaemia and suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression, which did not improve with glycyrrhizic acid treatment. Supplementation with glycyrrhizic acid could alleviate high calorie diet-induced glucose and lipid metabolic dysregulations by reducing circulatory stress hormones, normalizing gluconeogenic enzyme activities, and elevating muscular lipid uptake. The beneficial effects of these bioactivities outweighed the adverse effects caused by diet-induced repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression, resulting in the maintenance of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aberrant expression and distribution of enzymes of the urea cycle and other ammonia metabolizing pathways in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts.

    PubMed

    van Straten, Giora; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Grinwis, Guy C M; Favier, Robert P; Kummeling, Anne; van Gils, Ingrid H; Fieten, Hille; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Holstege, Frank C P; Rothuizen, Jan; Spee, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The detoxification of ammonia occurs mainly through conversion of ammonia to urea in the liver via the urea cycle and glutamine synthesis. Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) in dogs cause hyperammonemia eventually leading to hepatic encephalopathy. In this study, the gene expression of urea cycle enzymes (carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS1), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and arginase (ARG1)), N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1), and glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) was evaluated in dogs with CPSS before and after surgical closure of the shunt. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed on urea cycle enzymes and GLUL on liver samples of healthy dogs and dogs with CPSS to investigate a possible zonal distribution of these enzymes within the liver lobule and to investigate possible differences in distribution in dogs with CPSS compared to healthy dogs. Furthermore, the effect of increasing ammonia concentrations on the expression of the urea cycle enzymes was investigated in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Gene-expression of CPS1, OTC, ASL, GLUD1 and NAGS was down regulated in dogs with CPSS and did not normalize after surgical closure of the shunt. In all dogs GLUL distribution was localized pericentrally. CPS1, OTC and ASS1 were localized periportally in healthy dogs, whereas in CPSS dogs, these enzymes lacked a clear zonal distribution. In primary hepatocytes higher ammonia concentrations induced mRNA levels of CPS1. We hypothesize that the reduction in expression of urea cycle enzymes, NAGS and GLUD1 as well as the alterations in zonal distribution in dogs with CPSS may be caused by a developmental arrest of these enzymes during the embryonic or early postnatal phase.

  8. CDC25AQ110del: A Novel Cell Division Cycle 25A Isoform Aberrantly Expressed in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Rania H.; Cao, Wei; Lin, Ruxian; Xia, Ronghui; Liu, Zhenqiu; Edelman, Martin J.; Mei, Yuping; Mao, Li; Ren, Hening

    2012-01-01

    Objective Lung cancer remains number one cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Cell cycle deregulation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). CDC25A represents a critical cell cycle regulator that enhances cell cycle progression. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of a novel CDC25A transcriptional variant, CDC25AQ110del, on the regulation of the CDC25A protein, and its impact on prognosis of NSCLC patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a novel CDC25A transcript variant with codon 110 (Glutamine) deletion, that we termed CDC25AQ110del in NSCLC cells. In 9 (75%) of the 12 NSCLC cell lines, CDC25AQ110del expression accounted for more than 20% of the CDC25A transcripts. Biological effects of CDC25AQ110del were investigated in H1299 and HEK-293F cells using UV radiation, flowcytometry, cyclohexamide treatment, and confocal microscopy. Compared to CDC25Awt, CDC25AQ110del protein had longer half-life; cells expressing CDC25AQ110del were more resistant to UV irradiation and showed more mitotic activity. Taqman-PCR was used to quantify CDC25AQ110del expression levels in 88 primary NSCLC tumor/normal tissue pairs. In patients with NSCLC, Kaplan Meier curves showed tumors expressing higher levels of CDC25AQ110del relative to the adjacent lung tissues to have significantly inferior overall survival (P = .0018). Significance Here we identified CDC25AQ110del as a novel transcriptional variant of CDC25A in NSCLC. The sequence-specific nature of the abnormality could be a prognostic indicator in NSCLC patients as well as a candidate target for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:23071577

  9. The influence of temperature treatment before cryopreservation on the viability and potency of cryopreserved and thawed CD34+ and CD45+ cord blood cells.

    PubMed

    Schwandt, Svenja; Liedtke, Stefanie; Kogler, Gesine

    2017-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) viability and potency is crucial for qualified cord blood (CB) transplants. This study analyzes time and temperature condition before cryopreservation for the viability of CD34 + /CD45 + cells after cryopreservation. Cell viabilities were determined by antibody co-staining with 7-aminoactinomycin D detecting necrotic cells, and subsequent flow cytometric analysis. Additionally, Annexin V staining for determination of apoptotic cells and colony-forming unit (CFU) assays for testing functional potency of HSCs were performed. For all cell types assessed (CD45 + /CD34 + cells, lymphocytes and granulocytes), the highest viabilities were obtained for CB maintained at 4°C or room temperature (RT; 22 ± 4°C) and cryopreserved directly after collection. Starting material were CB units with an age of 24.7 ± 3.5 h after birth. Post-thaw CD34 + cell results were > 90% after temperature treatment of t = 24 h (48 h total age) and > 70% after t = 48 h (72 h total age) at 4°C (48 h, 91.4 ± 5.5%; 72 h, 75.0 ± 12.0%) and RT (48 h, 84.2 ± 9.7%; 72 h, 72.6 ± 0.6%). Viabilities for 30°C samples were < 80% after t = 24 h (48 h total age, 79.8 ± 3.1%) and < 50% after t = 48 h of treatment (72 h total age, 46.8 ± 14.3%). Regarding CFU recovery of pre-freeze (without volume reduction) and thawed CB, a trend toward the highest recoveries was observed at 4°C/RT. The difference between 4°C (77.5 ± 12.0%) and 30°C samples (53.9 ± 4.8%) was shown to be significant in post-thaw samples after t = 24 h treatment (48 h total age; P = 0.0341). Delays between collection and cryopreservation should be minimized because increasing time reduces numbers of viable cells and CFUs before/after cryopreservation. CB units should be maintained at 4°C/RT to retain the highest possible potency of the cells after thawing. Copyright © 2017 International Society for

  10. Increased loss of CCR5+ CD45RA- CD4+ T cells in CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Acierno, Paula M; McEvers, Kimberly J; Baumeister, Susanne H C; Foster, Gabriel J; Rett, Melisa D; Newberg, Michael H; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Williams, Kenneth; Kim, Eun-Young; Wolinsky, Steven M; Rieber, E Peter; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Montefiori, David C; Brown, Charles R; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Schmitz, Jörn E

    2008-06-01

    Previously we have shown that CD8(+) T cells are critical for containment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) viremia and that rapid and profound depletion of CD4(+) T cells occurs in the intestinal tract of acutely infected macaques. To determine the impact of SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses on the magnitude of the CD4(+) T-cell depletion, we investigated the effect of CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion during primary SIV infection on CD4(+) T-cell subsets and function in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and intestinal tissues. In peripheral blood, CD8(+) lymphocyte-depletion changed the dynamics of CD4(+) T-cell loss, resulting in a more pronounced loss 2 weeks after infection, followed by a temporal rebound approximately 2 months after infection, when absolute numbers of CD4(+) T cells were restored to baseline levels. These CD4(+) T cells showed a markedly skewed phenotype, however, as there were decreased levels of memory cells in CD8(+) lymphocyte-depleted macaques compared to controls. In intestinal tissues and lymph nodes, we observed a significantly higher loss of CCR5(+) CD45RA(-) CD4(+) T cells in CD8(+) lymphocyte-depleted macaques than in controls, suggesting that these SIV-targeted CD4(+) T cells were eliminated more efficiently in CD8(+) lymphocyte-depleted animals. Also, CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion significantly affected the ability to generate SIV Gag-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses and neutralizing antibodies. These results reemphasize that SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses are absolutely critical to initiate at least partial control of SIV infection.

  11. Structural centrosome aberrations promote non-cell-autonomous invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Ganier, Olivier; Schnerch, Dominik; Oertle, Philipp; Lim, Roderick Yh; Plodinec, Marija; Nigg, Erich A

    2018-05-02

    Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells. Although centrosome aberrations are common in tumors, their consequences remain subject to debate. Here, we studied the impact of structural centrosome aberrations, induced by deregulated expression of ninein-like protein (NLP), on epithelial spheres grown in Matrigel matrices. We demonstrate that NLP-induced structural centrosome aberrations trigger the escape ("budding") of living cells from epithelia. Remarkably, all cells disseminating into the matrix were undergoing mitosis. This invasive behavior reflects a novel mechanism that depends on the acquisition of two distinct properties. First, NLP-induced centrosome aberrations trigger a re-organization of the cytoskeleton, which stabilizes microtubules and weakens E-cadherin junctions during mitosis. Second, atomic force microscopy reveals that cells harboring these centrosome aberrations display increased stiffness. As a consequence, mitotic cells are pushed out of mosaic epithelia, particularly if they lack centrosome aberrations. We conclude that centrosome aberrations can trigger cell dissemination through a novel, non-cell-autonomous mechanism, raising the prospect that centrosome aberrations contribute to the dissemination of metastatic cells harboring normal centrosomes. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  12. Transcriptional regulators TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are aberrantly expressed in porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization in comparison to in vivo- and somatic-cell nuclear transfer-derived embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jennifer; Tessanne, Kim; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2014-01-01

    In vitro embryo production is important for research in animal reproduction, embryo transfer, transgenics, and cloning. Yet, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos are generally developmentally delayed and are inferior to in vivo-derived (IVV) embryos; this discrepancy is likely a result of aberrant gene expression. Transcription of three genes implicated to be important in normal preimplantation embryo development, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53, was determined by quanitative PCR in IVF, somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), parthenogenetic, and IVV porcine oocytes and embryos. There was no difference in TRIM28 or SETDB1 abundance between oocytes matured in vitro versus in vivo (P > 0.05), whereas TP53 levels were higher in in vitro-matured oocytes. TRIM28 increased from metaphase-II oocytes to the 4-cell and blastocyst stages in IVF embryos, whereas IVV embryos showed a reduction in TRIM28 abundance from maturation throughout development. The relative abundance of TP53 increased by the blastocyst stage in all treatment groups, but was higher in IVF embryos compared to IVV and SCNT embryos. In contrast, SETDB1 transcript levels decreased from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage in all treatments. For each gene analyzed, SCNT embryos of both hard-to-clone and easy-to-clone cell lines were more comparable to IVV than IVF embryos. Knockdown of TRIM28 also had no effect on blastocyst development or expression of SETDB1 or TP53. Thus, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are dynamically expressed in porcine oocytes and embryos. Furthermore, TRIM28 and TP53 abundances in IVV and SCNT embryos are similar, but different from quantities in IVF embryos. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 81: 552–556, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24659575

  13. Aberrant expression of epithelial leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive cells in the eutopic endometrium in endometriosis and implications in deep-infiltrating endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Vallvé-Juanico, Júlia; Suárez-Salvador, Elena; Castellví, Josep; Ballesteros, Agustín; Taylor, Hugh S; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Santamaria, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    To characterize leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive (LGR5 + ) cells from the endometrium of women with endometriosis. Prospective experimental study. University hospital/fertility clinic. Twenty-seven women with endometriosis who underwent surgery and 12 healthy egg donors, together comprising 39 endometrial samples. Obtaining of uterine aspirates by using a Cornier Pipelle. Immunofluorescence in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from mice and healthy and pathologic human endometrium using antibodies against LGR5, E-cadherin, and cytokeratin, and epithelial and stromal LGR5 + cells isolated from healthy and pathologic human eutopic endometrium by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and transcriptomic characterization by RNA high sequencing. Immunofluorescence showed that LGR5 + cells colocalized with epithelial markers in the stroma of the endometrium only in endometriotic patients. The results from RNA high sequencing of LGR5 + cells from epithelium and stroma did not show any statistically significant differences between them. The LGR5 + versus LGR5 - cells in pathologic endometrium showed 394 differentially expressed genes. The LGR5 + cells in deep-infiltrating endometriosis expressed inflammatory markers not present in the other types of the disease. Our results revealed the presence of aberrantly located LGR5 + cells coexpressing epithelial markers in the stromal compartment of women with endometriosis. These cells have a statistically significantly different expression profile in deep-infiltrating endometriosis in comparison with other types of endometriosis, independent of the menstrual cycle phase. Further studies are needed to elucidate their role and influence in reproductive outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Aberrant Expression of the Cell Polarity Regulator aPKCλ/ι is Associated With Disease Progression in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN): A Possible Marker for Predicting CIN Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Taichi; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Akimoto, Kazunori; Nagashima, Yoji; Taguri, Masataka; Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakaya, Masa-aki; Asano, Ryoko; Tokinaga, Aya; Kiyono, Tohru; Hirahara, Fumiki; Ohno, Shigeo; Miyagi, Etsuko

    2016-03-01

    Atypical protein kinase C λ/ι (aPKCλ/ι) is a regulator of epithelial cellular polarity. It is also overexpressed in several cancers and functions in cell proliferation and invasion. Therefore, we hypothesized that aPKCλ/ι may be involved in development and progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), the precancerous disease of cervical cancer induced by human papillomavirus. To do this, we investigated the relationship between aPKCλ/ι expression and CIN. aPKCλ/ι expression level and subcellular localization were assessed in 192 CIN biopsy samples and 13 normal epithelial samples using immunohistochemistry. aPKCλ/ι overexpression (normal epithelium, 7.7%; CIN1, 41.7%; CIN2/3, 76.4%) and aPKCλ/ι nuclear localization (normal epithelium, 0.0%; CIN1, 36.9%; CIN2/3, 78.7%) were higher in CIN samples than normal samples (P<0.05), suggesting that CIN grade is related to aPKCλ/ι overexpression and nuclear localization. Then, 140 CIN cases were retrospectively analyzed for 4-yr cumulative disease progression and regression rates using the Cox proportional hazards model. CIN1 cases with aPKCλ/ι overexpression or aPKCλ/ι nuclear localization had a higher progression rate than CIN1 cases with normal aPKCλ/ι expression levels or cytoplasmic localization (62.5% vs. 9.7% and 63.1% vs. 9.4%, respectively; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that human papillomavirus types 16 and 18, aPKCλ/ι overexpression (hazard ratio=4.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-12.1; P=0.007), and aPKCλ/ι nuclear localization (hazard ratio=3.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-10.4; P=0.019) were independent risk factors for CIN1 progression. In conclusion, aPKCλ/ι could be useful for the therapeutic management of patients with CIN, particularly those with non-human papillomavirus 16/18 types.

  15. OF TRYPANOSOMATIDS. ENDOTRANSFORMATIONS AND ABERRATIONS].

    PubMed

    Frolov, A O; Malysheva, M N; Kostygov, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Endotransformations and aberrations of the life cycle in the evolutionary history of trypanosomatids (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) are analyzed. We treat the term "endotransformations" as evolutionarily fixed changes of phases and/or developmental stages of parasites. By contrast, we treat aberrations as evolutionary unstable, periodically arising deformations of developmental phases of trypanosomatids, never leading to life cycle changes. Various examples of life cycle endotransformations and aberrations in representatives of the family Trypanosomatidae are discussed.

  16. Delayed Cutaneous Wound Healing and Aberrant Expression of Hair Follicle Stem Cell Markers in Mice Selectively Lacking Ctip2 in Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Gaurav; Guha, Gunjan; Wang, Zhixing; Jang, Hyo-Sang; Leid, Mark; Indra, Arup Kumar; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali

    2012-01-01

    Background COUP-TF interacting protein 2 [(Ctip2), also known as Bcl11b] is an important regulator of skin homeostasis, and is overexpressed in head and neck cancer. Ctip2ep−/− mice, selectively ablated for Ctip2 in epidermal keratinocytes, exhibited impaired terminal differentiation and delayed epidermal permeability barrier (EPB) establishment during development, similar to what was observed in Ctip2 null (Ctip2−/−) mice. Considering that as an important role of Ctip2, and the fact that molecular networks which underlie cancer progression partially overlap with those responsible for tissue remodeling, we sought to determine the role of Ctip2 during cutaneous wound healing. Methodology/Principal Findings Full thickness excisional wound healing experiments were performed on Ctip2L2/L2 and Ctip2ep−/− animals per time point and used for harvesting samples for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunoblotting. Results demonstrated inherent defects in proliferation and migration of Ctip2 lacking keratinocytes during re-epithelialization. Mutant mice exhibited reduced epidermal proliferation, delayed keratinocyte activation, altered cell-cell adhesion and impaired ECM development. Post wounding, Ctip2ep−/− mice wounds displayed lack of E-Cadherin suppression in the migratory tongue, insufficient expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA) in the dermis, and robust induction of K8. Importantly, dysregulated expression of several hair follicle (HF) stem cell markers such as K15, NFATc1, CD133, CD34 and Lrig1 was observed in mutant skin during wound repair. Conclusions/Significance Results confirm a cell autonomous role of keratinocytic Ctip2 to modulate cell migration, proliferation and/or differentiation, and to maintain HF stem cells during cutaneous wounding. Furthermore, Ctip2 in a non-cell autonomous manner regulated granulation tissue formation and tissue contraction during wound closure. PMID:22383956

  17. Aberrant expression of microRNA induced by high-fructose diet: implications in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia and hepatic insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sud, Neetu; Zhang, Hanyuan; Pan, Kaichao; Cheng, Xiao; Cui, Juan; Su, Qiaozhu

    2017-05-01

    Fructose is a highly lipogenic sugar that can alter energy metabolism and trigger metabolic disorders. In the current study, microRNAs (miRNAs) altered by a high-fructose diet were comprehensively explored to elucidate their significance in the pathogenesis of chronic metabolic disorders. miRNA expression profiling using small noncoding RNA sequencing revealed that 19 miRNAs were significantly upregulated and 26 were downregulated in the livers of high-fructose-fed mice compared to chow-fed mice. Computational prediction and functional analysis identified 10 miRNAs, miR-19b-3p, miR-101a-3p, miR-30a-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-378a-3p, miR-33-5p, miR-145a-3p, miR-128-3p, miR-125b-5p and miR-582-3p, assembled as a regulatory network to potentially target key genes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and insulin signaling at multiple levels. qRT-PCR analysis of their potential target genes [IRS-1, FOXO1, SREBP-1c/2, ChREBP, insulin-induced gene-2 (Insig-2), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) and apolipoprotein B (apoB)] demonstrated that fructose-induced alterations of miRNAs were also reflected in mRNA expression profiles of their target genes. Moreover, the miRNA profile induced by high-fructose diet differed from that induced by high-fat diet, indicating that miRNAs mediate distinct pathogenic mechanisms in dietary-induced metabolic disorders. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of a new set of hepatic miRNAs, which were altered by high-fructose diet and provides novel insights into the interaction between miRNAs and their target genes in the development of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling and elevated expression of stem cell proteins are associated with osteosarcoma side population cells of high tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xi-Jun; Zhao, Yu-Hua; Qiao, Li-Xiang; Jin, Chun-Lei; Tian, Jing; Li, Qiu-Shi

    2015-10-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, the presence of a small sub‑population of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), have a significant implication on cancer treatment and are responsible for tumor recurrence. Previous studies have reported that alterations in the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling are crucial in the maintenance of CSCs. In the present study, the characteristic features and activation of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling in CSCs from osteosarcoma, an aggressive human bone tumor, were investigated. In total, ~2.1% of the cancer stem‑like side population (SP) cells were identified in the osteosarcoma samples. The results of subsequent western blot and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the protein levels of β‑catenin and cyclin D1 were markedly upregulated in the fluorescence‑activated cell sorted osteosarcoma SP cells. In addition, the elevated expression levels of stem cell proteins, including CD133, nestin Oct‑4, Sox‑2 and Nanog were significantly higher in the SP cells, which contributed to self‑renewal and enhanced the proliferation rate of the SP cells. Furthermore, the SP cells were found to be highly invasive and able to form tumors in vivo. Taken together, these data suggested that the identification of novel anticancer drugs, which suppress the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling and its downstream pathway may assist in eradicating osteosarcoma stem cells.

  19. Aberrant alternative splicing is another hallmark of cancer.

    PubMed

    Ladomery, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of human genes are alternatively spliced. Not surprisingly, aberrant alternative splicing is increasingly linked to cancer. Splice isoforms often encode proteins that have distinct and even antagonistic properties. The abnormal expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in cancer changes the alternative splicing of critically important pre-mRNAs. Aberrant alternative splicing should be added to the growing list of cancer hallmarks.

  20. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  1. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  2. The suppression of aberrant crypt multiplicity in colonic tissue of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated C57BL/6J mice by dietary flavone is associated with an increased expression of Krebs cycle enzymes.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Isabel; Diehl, Daniela; Oesterle, Doris; Daniel, Hannelore; Wenzel, Uwe

    2007-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide with diet playing a prominent role in disease initiation and progression. Flavonoids are secondary plant compounds that are suggested as protective ingredients of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. We here tested whether flavone, a flavonoid that proved to be an effective apoptosis inducer in colon cancer cells in culture, can affect the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACFs) in C57BL/6J mice in vivo when preneoplastic lesions were induced by the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Flavone applied at either a low dose (15 mg/kg body wt per day) or a high dose (400 mg/kg body wt per day) reduced the numbers of ACFs significantly, independent of whether it was supplied simultaneously with the carcinogen (blocking group) or subsequent to the tumor induction phase (suppressing group). Proteome analysis performed in colonic tissue samples revealed that flavone treatment increased the expression of a number of Krebs cycle enzymes in the suppressing group and this was associated with reduced crypt multiplicity. It suggests that mitochondrial substrate oxidation is increased by flavone in colonic cells in vivo as already observed in HT-29 cells in vitro as the prime mechanism underlying tumor cell apoptosis induction by flavone. In conclusion, flavone reduces the number of ACFs in DMH-treated mice at doses that can be achieved for flavonoids by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Moreover, reduction in crypt multiplicity by flavone is most probably due to the preservation of a normal oxidative metabolism.

  3. Aberrant phenotypes in peripheral T cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Hastrup, N; Ralfkiaer, E; Pallesen, G

    1989-01-01

    Seventy six peripheral T cell lymphomas were examined immunohistologically to test their reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies against 11 T cell associated antigens (CD1-8, CD27, UCHL1, and the T cell antigen receptor). Sixty two (82%) lymphomas showed aberrant phenotypes, and four main categories were distinguished as follows: (i) lack of one or several pan-T cell antigens (49, 64% of the cases); (ii) loss of both the CD4 and CD8 antigens (11, 15% of the cases); (iii) coexpression of the CD4 and CD8 antigens (13, 17% of the cases); and (iv) expression of the CD1 antigen (eight, 11% of the cases). No correlation was seen between the occurrence of aberrant phenotypes and the histological subtype. It is concluded that the demonstration of an aberrant phenotype is a valuable supplement to histological assessment in the diagnosis of peripheral T cell lymphomas. It is recommended that the panel of monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens should be fairly large, as apparently any antigen may be lost in the process of malignant transformation. Images Figure PMID:2469701

  4. CD19+CD21low B cells and CD4+CD45RA+CD31+ T cells correlate with first diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Greinix, Hildegard T; Kuzmina, Zoya; Weigl, Roman; Körmoczi, Ulrike; Rottal, Arno; Wolff, Daniel; Kralj, Mateja; Kalhs, Peter; Mitterbauer, Margit; Rabitsch, Werner; Edinger, Matthias; Holler, Ernst; Pickl, Winfried F

    2015-02-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a serious and frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Currently, no biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of cGVHD are available. We performed a large prospective study focusing on noninvasive biomarkers for National Institutes of Health-defined cGVHD patients (n = 163) in comparison to time-matched HCT recipients who never experienced cGVHD (n = 64), analyzed from day 100 after HCT. In logistic regression analysis, CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells (P = .002; hazard ratio [HR], 3.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 to 7.17) and CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD31(+) T cells (P < .001; HR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.88 to 7.99) assessed on day 100 after HCT were significantly associated with subsequent development of cGVHD, independent of clinical parameters. A significant association with diagnosis of cGVHD was only observed for CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells (P = .008; HR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.33 to 6.75) and CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD31(+) T cells (P = .017; HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.19 to 6.55). CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells were found to have the highest discriminatory value with an area under the receiver operating curve of .77 (95% CI, .64 to .90). Our results demonstrate that CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells and CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD31(+) T cells are significantly elevated in patients with newly diagnosed cGVHD. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Krüppel-Like factor 9 loss-of-expression in human endometrial carcinoma links altered expression of growth-regulatory genes with aberrant proliferative response to estrogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed female genital tract malignancy. Krüppel-like Factor 9 (KLF9), a member of the evolutionarily conserved Sp-family of transcription factors, is expressed in uterine stroma and glandular epithelium where it affects cellular proliferation, differenti...

  6. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with I-131-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M.; Gooley, T. A.; Rajendran, Joseph G.

    2009-12-24

    We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of I-131-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with (131)I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3(+) and CD33(+) cells in the bloodmore » by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of I-131-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177.« less

  7. Comparative quantitative analysis of cluster of differentiation 45 antigen expression on lymphocyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Im, Mijeong; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Taehoon; Park, Hun-Hee; Lim, Jihyang; Oh, Eun-Jee; Kim, Yonggoo; Park, Yeon-Joon; Han, Kyungja

    2011-07-01

    Since the recent introduction of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 for the treatment of lymphoma, the clinical significance of the CD45 antigen has been increasing steadily. Here, we analyzed CD45 expression on lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry in order to predict the susceptibility of normal lymphocytes to RIT. Peripheral blood specimens were collected from 14 healthy individuals aged 25-54 yr. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cell surface antigens was measured using a FACSCanto II system (Becton Dickinson Bioscience, USA). MFI values were converted into antibody binding capacity values using a Quantum Simply Cellular microbead kit (Bangs Laboratories, Inc., USA). Among the lymphocyte subsets, the expression of CD45 was the highest (725,368±42,763) on natural killer T (NKT) cells, 674,030±48,187 on cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, 588,750±48,090 on natural killer (NK) cells, 580,211±29,168 on helper T (Th) cells, and 499,436±21,737 on B cells. The Th cells and NK cells expressed a similar level of CD45 (P=0.502). Forward scatter was the highest in NKT cells (P<0.05), whereas side scatter differed significantly between each of the lymphocyte subsets (P<0.05). CD3 expression was highest in the Th and NKT cells. NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. Therefore, this lymphocyte subset would be most profoundly affected by RIT or pretargeted RIT. The monitoring of this lymphocyte subset during and after RIT should prove helpful.

  8. The Art of Optical Aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylde, Clarissa Eileen Kenney

    Art and optics are inseparable. Though seemingly opposite disciplines, the combination of art and optics has significantly impacted both culture and science as they are now known. As history has run its course, in the sciences, arts, and their fruitful combinations, optical aberrations have proved to be a problematic hindrance to progress. In an effort to eradicate aberrations the simple beauty of these aberrational forms has been labeled as undesirable and discarded. Here, rather than approach aberrations as erroneous, these beautiful forms are elevated to be the photographic subject in a new body of work, On the Bright Side. Though many recording methods could be utilized, this work was composed on classic, medium-format, photographic film using white-light, Michelson interferometry. The resulting images are both a representation of the true light rays that interacted on the distorted mirror surfaces (data) and the artist's compositional eye for what parts of the interferogram are chosen and displayed. A detailed description of the captivating interdisciplinary procedure is documented and presented alongside the final artwork, CCD digital reference images, and deformable mirror contour maps. This alluring marriage between the arts and sciences opens up a heretofore minimally explored aspect of the inextricable art-optics connection. It additionally provides a fascinating new conversation on the importance of light and optics in photographic composition.

  9. Distortion of ultrashort pulses caused by aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Z. L.; Kovács, A. P.; Bor, Zs.

    The effect of the primary wave aberrations (spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma) on ultrashort pulses is studied by the Nijboer-Zernike theory. The results of the geometrical and the wave optical treatments are compared.

  10. Splenic CD11clowCD45RBhigh dendritic cells derived from endotoxin-tolerant mice attenuate experimental acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sai-Nan; Yang, Nai-Bin; Ni, Shun-Lan; Dong, Jin-Zhong; Shi, Chun-Wei; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Sheng-Guo; Tang, Xin-Yue; Lu, Ming-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is suggested to attenuate the severity of acute liver failure (ALF) in mice, possibly through both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the involvement of regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs) in ET has not been fully elucidated. In this study, their effect on ALF in mice was investigated. Splenic DCregs from ET-exposed mice (ET-DCregs) showed lower expression levels of CD40, CD80, and MHC-II markers and stronger inhibition of allogenic T cells and regulation of IL-10 and IL-12 secretion than splenic DCregs from normal mice (nDCregs). Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and P65 in splenic ET-DCregs were significantly lower than those in the splenic nDCregs. The survival rate was significantly increased and liver injury was mitigated in mice with ALF treated with splenic ET-DCregs. In addition, A20 expression was decreased in the liver of ALF mice, but elevated after infusion of splenic nDCregs and ET-DCregs, and a much higher elevation was observed after infusing the latter cells. The functionality of splenic DCregs was altered after ET exposure, contributing to protection of the livers against D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF. PMID:27625297

  11. Mask-induced aberration in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Sato, Takashi; Inanami, Ryoichi; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

    2009-04-01

    We estimated aberrations using Zernike sensitivity analysis. We found the difference of the tolerated aberration with line direction for illumination. The tolerated aberration of perpendicular line for illumination is much smaller than that of parallel line. We consider this difference to be attributable to the mask 3D effect. We call it mask-induced aberration. In the case of the perpendicular line for illumination, there was a difference in CD between right line and left line without aberration. In this report, we discuss the possibility of pattern formation in NA 0.25 generation EUV lithography tool. In perpendicular pattern for EUV light, the dominant part of aberration is mask-induced aberration. In EUV lithography, pattern correction based on the mask topography effect will be more important.

  12. Identification and isolation from either adult human bone marrow or G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood of CD34(+)/CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/ Lin(-)CD45(-) cells, featuring morphological, molecular, and phenotypic characteristics of very small embryonic-like (VSEL) stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sovalat, Hanna; Scrofani, Maurice; Eidenschenk, Antoinette; Pasquet, Stéphanie; Rimelen, Valérie; Hénon, Philippe

    2011-04-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that normal human bone marrow (hBM)-derived CD34(+) cells, released into the peripheral blood after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization, contain cell subpopulations committed along endothelial and cardiac differentiation pathways. These subpopulations could play a key role in the regeneration of post-ischemic myocardial lesion after their direct intracardiac delivery. We hypothesized that these relevant cells might be issued from very small embryonic-like stem cells deposited in the BM during ontogenesis and reside lifelong in the adult BM, and that they could be mobilized into peripheral blood by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Samples of normal hBM and leukapheresis products harvested from cancer patients after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization were analyzed and sorted by multiparameter flow cytometry strategy. Immunofluorescence and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to analyze the expression of typical pluripotent stem cells markers. A population of CD34(+)/CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/Lin(-) CD45(-) immature cells was first isolated from the hBM or from leukapheresis products. Among this population, very small (2-5 μm) cells expressing Oct-4, Nanog, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 at protein and messenger RNA levels were identified. Our study supports the hypothesis that very small embryonic-like stem cells constitute a "mobile" pool of primitive/pluripotent stem cells that could be released from the BM into the peripheral blood under the influence of various physiological or pathological stimuli. In order to fully support that hBM- and leukapheresis product-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells are actually pluripotent, we are currently testing their ability to differentiate in vitro into cells from all three germ layers. Copyright © 2011 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A CD133-expressing murine liver oval cell population with bilineage potential.

    PubMed

    Rountree, C Bart; Barsky, Lora; Ge, Shundi; Zhu, Judy; Senadheera, Shantha; Crooks, Gay M

    2007-10-01

    Although oval cells are postulated to be adult liver stem cells, a well-defined phenotype of a bipotent liver stem cell remains elusive. The heterogeneity of cells within the oval cell fraction has hindered lineage potential studies. Our goal was to identify an enriched population of bipotent oval cells using a combination of flow cytometry and single cell gene expression in conjunction with lineage-specific liver injury models. Expression of cell surface markers on nonparenchymal, nonhematopoietic (CD45-) cells were characterized. Cell populations were isolated by flow cytometry for gene expression studies. 3,5-Diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine toxic injury induced cell cycling and expansion specifically in the subpopulation of oval cells in the periportal zone that express CD133. CD133+CD45- cells expressed hepatoblast and stem cell-associated genes, and single cells coexpressed both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte-associated genes, indicating bilineage potential. CD133+CD45- cells proliferated in response to liver injury. Following toxic hepatocyte damage, CD133+CD45- cells demonstrated upregulated expression of the hepatocyte gene Albumin. In contrast, toxic cholangiocyte injury resulted in upregulation of the cholangiocyte gene Ck19. After 21-28 days in culture, CD133+CD45- cells continued to generate cells of both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte lineages. Thus, CD133 expression identifies a population of oval cells in adult murine liver with the gene expression profile and function of primitive, bipotent liver stem cells. In response to lineage-specific injury, these cells demonstrate a lineage-appropriate genetic response. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  14. Aging induced loss of stemness with concomitant gain of myogenic properties of a pure population of CD34(+)/CD45(-) muscle derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bose, Bipasha; Shenoy, P Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by the functional decline of cells, tissues, and organs, as well as, a striking increase in susceptibility to a wide range of diseases. Within a tissue, both differentiated cells and adult stem cells are susceptible to intrinsic and extrinsic changes while aging. Muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) are tissue specific stem cells which have been studied well for their multipotential nature. Although there are reports relating to diminished function and regenerative capacity of aged MDSCs as compared to their young counterparts, not much has been reported relating to the concomitant gain in unipotent nature of aged MDSCs. In this study, we report an inverse correlation between aging and expression of adult/mesenchymal stem cell markers and a direct correlation between aging and myogenecity in MDSCs. Aged MDSCs were able to generate a greater number of dystrophin positive myofibres, as compared to, the young MDSCs when transplanted in muscle of dystrophic mice. Our data, therefore, suggests that aging stress adds to the decline in stem cell characteristics with a concomitant increase in unipotency, in terms of, myogenecity of MDSCs. This study, hence, also opens the possibilities of using unipotent aged MDSCs as potential candidates for transplantation in patients with muscular dystrophies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2013-12-01

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  17. Ocular wavefront aberrations in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus: effects of age and refractive error

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, Nancy J.; Marcos, Susana; Troilo, David

    2012-01-01

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is a primate model for emmetropization studies. The refractive development of the marmoset eye depends on visual experience, so knowledge of the optical quality of the eye is valuable. We report on the wavefront aberrations of the marmoset eye, measured with a clinical Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences). Aberrations were measured on both eyes of 23 marmosets whose ages ranged from 18 to 452 days. Twenty-one of the subjects were members of studies of emmetropization and accommodation, and two were untreated normal subjects. Eleven of the 21 experimental subjects had worn monocular diffusers or occluders and ten had worn binocular spectacle lenses of equal power. Monocular deprivation or lens rearing began at about 45 days of age and ended at about 108 days of age. All refractions and aberration measures were performed while the eyes were cyclopleged; most aberration measures were made while subjects were awake, but some control measurements were performed under anesthesia. Wavefront error was expressed as a seventh-order Zernike polynomial expansion, using the Optical Society of America’s naming convention. Aberrations in young marmosets decreased up to about 100 days of age, after which the higher-order RMS aberration leveled off to about 0.10 micron over a 3 mm diameter pupil. Higher-order aberrations were 1.8 times greater when the subjects were under general anesthesia than when they were awake. Young marmoset eyes were characterized by negative spherical aberration. Visually deprived eyes of the monocular deprivation animals had greater wavefront aberrations than their fellow untreated eyes, particularly for asymmetric aberrations in the odd-numbered Zernike orders. Both lens-treated and deprived eyes showed similar significant increases in Z3-3 trefoil aberration, suggesting the increase in trefoil may be related to factors that do not involve visual feedback. PMID:20800078

  18. Low-Order Aberrations in Band-limited Lyot Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Allic V.; Lloyd, James P.; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Makidon, Russell B.

    2005-12-01

    We study the way Lyot coronagraphs with unapodized entrance pupils respond to small, low-order phase aberrations. This study is applicable to ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphs operating at 90% and higher Strehl ratios, as well as to some space-based coronagraphs with intrinsically higher Strehl ratio imaging. We utilize a second-order expansion of the monochromatic point-spread function (written as a power spectrum of a power series in the phase aberration over clear aperture) to derive analytical expressions for the response of a ``band-limited'' Lyot coronagraph (BLC) to small, low-order, phase aberrations. The BLC possesses a focal plane mask with an occulting spot whose opacity profile is a spatially band-limited function rather than a hard-edged, opaque disk. The BLC is, to first order, insensitive to tilt and astigmatism. Undersizing the stop in the reimaged pupil plane (the Lyot plane) following the focal plane mask can alleviate second-order effects of astigmatism, at the expense of system throughput and angular resolution. The optimal degree of such undersizing depends on individual instrument designs and goals. Our analytical work engenders physical insight and complements existing numerical work on this subject. Our methods can be extended to treat the passage of higher order aberrations through band-limited Lyot coronagraphs by using our polynomial decomposition or an analogous Fourier approach.

  19. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  20. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  1. Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    High-order monochromatic aberrations could potentially influence vision-dependent refractive development in a variety of ways. As a first step in understanding the effects of wave aberration on refractive development, we characterized the maturational changes that take place in the high-order aberrations of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations of infant and adolescent animals and measured the longitudinal changes in the high-order aberrations of infant monkeys during the early period when emmetropization takes place. Our main findings were that (1) adolescent monkey eyes have excellent optical quality, exhibiting total RMS errors that were slightly better than those for adult human eyes that have the same numerical aperture and (2) shortly after birth, infant rhesus monkeys exhibited relatively larger magnitudes of high-order aberrations predominately spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil, which decreased rapidly to assume adolescent values by about 200 days of age. The results demonstrate that rhesus monkey eyes are a good model for studying the contribution of individual ocular components to the eye’s overall aberration structure, the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in optical quality that occur during early ocular development, and the effects of high-order aberrations on ocular growth and emmetropization. PMID:16750549

  2. Artificial neural network for the determination of Hubble Space Telescope aberration from stellar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Todd K.; Sandler, David G.

    1993-01-01

    An artificial-neural-network method, first developed for the measurement and control of atmospheric phase distortion, using stellar images, was used to estimate the optical aberration of the Hubble Space Telescope. A total of 26 estimates of distortion was obtained from 23 stellar images acquired at several secondary-mirror axial positions. The results were expressed as coefficients of eight orthogonal Zernike polynomials: focus through third-order spherical. For all modes other than spherical the measured aberration was small. The average spherical aberration of the estimates was -0.299 micron rms, which is in good agreement with predictions obtained when iterative phase-retrieval algorithms were used.

  3. Harmonic oscillator states in aberration optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    The states of the three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator classify optical aberrations of axis-symmetric systems due to the isomorphism between the two mathematical structures. Cartesian quanta and angular momentum classifications have their corresponding aberration classifications. The operation of concatenation of optical elements introduces a new operation between harmonic oscillator states.

  4. Rooting Out Aberrant Behavior in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokalis, Jerry, Jr.; Paquin, Dave

    1989-01-01

    Discusses aberrant, or disruptive, behavior in an industrial/business, classroom-based, instructor-led training setting. Three examples of aberrant behavior are described, typical case studies are provided for each, and preventive (long-term) and corrective (on-the-spot) strategies for dealing with the problems are discussed. (LRW)

  5. Effect of monochromatic aberrations on photorefractive patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Melanie C. W.; Bobier, W. R.; Roorda, A.

    1995-08-01

    Photorefractive methods have become popular in the measurement of refractive and accommodative states of infants and children owing to their photographic nature and rapid speed of measurement. As in the case of any method that measures the refractive state of the human eye, monochromatic aberrations will reduce the accuracy of the measurement. Monochromatic aberrations cannot be as easily predicted or controlled as chromatic aberrations during the measurement, and accordingly they will introduce measurement errors. This study defines this error or uncertainty by extending the existing paraxial optical analyses of coaxial and eccentric photorefraction. This new optical analysis predicts that, for the amounts of spherical aberration (SA) reported for the human eye, there will be a significant degree of measurement uncertainty introduced for all photorefractive methods. The dioptric amount of this uncertainty may exceed the maximum amount of SA present in the eye. The calculated effects on photorefractive measurement of a real eye with a mixture of spherical aberration and coma are shown to be significant. The ability, developed here, to predict photorefractive patterns corresponding to different amounts and types of monochromatic aberration may in the future lead to an extension of photorefractive methods to the dual measurement of refractive states and aberrations of individual eyes. aberration, retinal image quality,

  6. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  7. Phenotypic characterization of aberrant stem and progenitor cell populations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ostendorf, Benjamin N; Flenner, Eva; Flörcken, Anne; Westermann, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Recent reports have revealed myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to arise from cancer stem cells phenotypically similar to physiological hematopoietic stem cells. Myelodysplastic hematopoiesis maintains a hierarchical organization, but the proportion of several hematopoietic compartments is skewed and multiple surface markers are aberrantly expressed. These aberrant antigen expression patterns hold diagnostic and therapeutic promise. However, eradication of MDS requires targeting of early myelodysplasia propagating stem cells. This warrants an exact assessment of the differentiation stage at which aberrant expression occurs in transformed hematopoiesis. Here, we report results on the prospective and extensive dissection of the hematopoietic hierarchy in 20 patients with either low-risk MDS or MDS with excess blasts and compare it to hematopoiesis in patients with non-malignancy-associated cytopenia or B cell lymphoma without bone marrow infiltration. We found patients with MDS with excess blasts to exhibit characteristic expansions of specific immature progenitor compartments. We also identified the aberrant expression of several markers including ALDH, CLL-1, CD44, and CD47 to be specific features of hematopoiesis in MDS with excess blasts. We show that amongst these, aberrant CLL-1 expression manifested at the early uncommitted hematopoietic stem cell level, suggesting a potential role as a therapeutic target.

  8. CD200-expressing human basal cell carcinoma cells initiate tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Colmont, Chantal S; Benketah, Antisar; Reed, Simon H; Hawk, Nga V; Telford, William G; Ohyama, Manabu; Udey, Mark C; Yee, Carole L; Vogel, Jonathan C; Patel, Girish K

    2013-01-22

    Smoothened antagonists directly target the genetic basis of human basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common of all cancers. These drugs inhibit BCC growth, but they are not curative. Although BCC cells are monomorphic, immunofluorescence microscopy reveals a complex hierarchical pattern of growth with inward differentiation along hair follicle lineages. Most BCC cells express the transcription factor KLF4 and are committed to terminal differentiation. A small CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation that represents 1.63 ± 1.11% of all BCC cells resides in small clusters at the tumor periphery. By using reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assays, we determined that tumor initiating cell frequencies approximate one per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200(+) CD45(-) cells, representing ~1,500-fold enrichment. CD200(-) CD45(-) BCC cells were unable to form tumors. These findings establish a platform to study the effects of Smoothened antagonists on BCC tumor initiating cell and also suggest that currently available anti-CD200 therapy be considered, either as monotherapy or an adjunct to Smoothened antagonists, in the treatment of inoperable BCC.

  9. Analysis of nodal aberration properties in off-axis freeform system design.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haodong; Jiang, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Freeform surfaces have the advantage of balancing off-axis aberration. In this paper, based on the framework of nodal aberration theory (NAT) applied to the coaxial system, the third-order astigmatism and coma wave aberration expressions of an off-axis system with Zernike polynomial surfaces are derived. The relationship between the off-axis and surface shape acting on the nodal distributions is revealed. The nodal aberration properties of the off-axis freeform system are analyzed and validated by using full-field displays (FFDs). It has been demonstrated that adding Zernike terms, up to nine, to the off-axis system modifies the nodal locations, but the field dependence of the third-order aberration does not change. On this basis, an off-axis two-mirror freeform system with 500 mm effective focal length (EFL) and 300 mm entrance pupil diameter (EPD) working in long-wave infrared is designed. The field constant aberrations induced by surface tilting are corrected by selecting specific Zernike terms. The design results show that the nodes of third-order astigmatism and coma move back into the field of view (FOV). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves are above 0.4 at 20 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) which meets the infrared reconnaissance requirement. This work provides essential insight and guidance for aberration correction in off-axis freeform system design.

  10. [Monochromatic aberration in accommodation. Dynamic wavefront analysis].

    PubMed

    Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J

    2011-06-01

    Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement

  11. Iteration of ultrasound aberration correction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maasoey, Svein-Erik; Angelsen, Bjoern; Varslot, Trond

    2004-05-01

    Aberration in ultrasound medical imaging is usually modeled by time-delay and amplitude variations concentrated on the transmitting/receiving array. This filter process is here denoted a TDA filter. The TDA filter is an approximation to the physical aberration process, which occurs over an extended part of the human body wall. Estimation of the TDA filter, and performing correction on transmit and receive, has proven difficult. It has yet to be shown that this method works adequately for severe aberration. Estimation of the TDA filter can be iterated by retransmitting a corrected signal and re-estimate until a convergence criterion is fulfilled (adaptive imaging). Two methods for estimating time-delay and amplitude variations in receive signals from random scatterers have been developed. One method correlates each element signal with a reference signal. The other method use eigenvalue decomposition of the receive cross-spectrum matrix, based upon a receive energy-maximizing criterion. Simulations of iterating aberration correction with a TDA filter have been investigated to study its convergence properties. A weak and strong human-body wall model generated aberration. Both emulated the human abdominal wall. Results after iteration improve aberration correction substantially, and both estimation methods converge, even for the case of strong aberration.

  12. Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, U D; Adhikari, S

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve is most commonly due to its damage by trauma. A ten-month old child presented with the history of a fall from a four-storey building. She developed traumatic third nerve palsy and eventually the clinical features of aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. The adduction of the eye improved over time. She was advised for patching for the strabismic amblyopia as well. Traumatic third nerve palsy may result in aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. In younger patients, motility of the eye in different gazes may improve over time. © NEPjOPH.

  13. LS-CAP: an algorithm for identifying cytogenetic aberrations in hepatocellular carcinoma using microarray data.

    PubMed

    He, Xianmin; Wei, Qing; Sun, Meiqian; Fu, Xuping; Fan, Sichang; Li, Yao

    2006-05-01

    Biological techniques such as Array-Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and affymetrix single nucleotide pleomorphism (SNP) array have been used to detect cytogenetic aberrations. However, on genomic scale, these techniques are labor intensive and time consuming. Comparative genomic microarray analysis (CGMA) has been used to identify cytogenetic changes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using gene expression microarray data. However, CGMA algorithm can not give precise localization of aberrations, fails to identify small cytogenetic changes, and exhibits false negatives and positives. Locally un-weighted smoothing cytogenetic aberrations prediction (LS-CAP) based on local smoothing and binomial distribution can be expected to address these problems. LS-CAP algorithm was built and used on HCC microarray profiles. Eighteen cytogenetic abnormalities were identified, among them 5 were reported previously, and 12 were proven by CGH studies. LS-CAP effectively reduced the false negatives and positives, and precisely located small fragments with cytogenetic aberrations.

  14. Acquired alterations of hypothalamic gene expression of insulin and leptin receptors and glucose transporters in prenatally high-glucose exposed three-week old chickens do not coincide with aberrant promoter DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Rancourt, Rebecca C; Schellong, Karen; Ott, Raffael; Bogatyrev, Semen; Tzschentke, Barbara; Plagemann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposures may have a distinct impact for long-term health, one example being exposure to maternal 'diabesity' during pregnancy increasing offspring 'diabesity' risk. Malprogramming of the central nervous regulation of body weight, food intake and metabolism has been identified as a critical mechanism. While concrete disrupting factors still remain unclear, growing focus on acquired epigenomic alterations have been proposed. Due to the independent development from the mother, the chicken embryo provides a valuable model to distinctively establish causal factors and mechanisms. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prenatal hyperglycemia on postnatal hypothalamic gene expression and promoter DNA methylation in the chicken. To temporarily induce high-glucose exposure in chicken embryos, 0.5 ml glucose solution (30 mmol/l) were administered daily via catheter into a vessel of the chorioallantoic egg membrane from days 14 to 17 of incubation. At three weeks of postnatal age, body weight, total body fat, blood glucose, mRNA expression (INSR, LEPR, GLUT1, GLUT3) as well as corresponding promoter DNA methylation were determined in mediobasal hypothalamic brain slices (Nucleus infundibuli hypothalami). Although no significant changes in morphometric and metabolic parameters were detected, strongly decreased mRNA expression occurred in all candidate genes. Surprisingly, however, no relevant alterations were observed in respective promoter methylation. Prenatal hyperglycemia induces strong changes in later hypothalamic expression of INSR, LEPR, GLUT1, and GLUT3 mRNA. While the chicken provides an interesting approach for developmental malprogramming, the classical expression regulation via promoter methylation was not observed here. This may be due to alternative/interacting brain mechanisms or the thus far under-explored bird epigenome.

  15. Reconstructive correction of aberrations in nuclear particle spectrographs

    SciTech Connect

    Berz, M.; Joh, K.; Nolen, J.A.

    A method is presented that allows the reconstruction of trajectories in particle spectrographs and the reconstructive correction of residual aberrations that otherwise limit the resolution. Using a computed or fitted high order transfer map that describes the uncorrected aberrations of the spectrograph, it is possible to calculate a map via an analytic recursion relation that allows the computation of the corrected data of interest such as reaction energy and scattering angle as well as the reconstructed trajectories in terms of position measurements in two planes near the focal plane. The technique is only limited by the accuracy of the positionmore » measurements, the incoherent spot sizes, and the accuracy of the transfer map. In practice the method can be expressed as an inversion of a nonlinear map and implemented in the differential algebraic framework. The method is applied to correct residual aberrations in the S800 spectrograph which is under construction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University and to two other high resolution spectrographs.« less

  16. Aberrations in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, Jacopo; Burke, Daniel; Booth, Martin J.

    2017-12-01

    Like all methods of super-resolution microscopy, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy can suffer from the effects of aberrations. The most important aspect of a STED microscope is that the depletion focus maintains a minimum, ideally zero, intensity point that is surrounded by a region of higher intensity. It follows that aberrations that cause a non-zero value of this minimum intensity are the most detrimental, as they inhibit fluorescence emission even at the centre of the depletion focus. We present analysis that elucidates the nature of these effects in terms of the different polarisation components at the focus for two-dimensional and three-dimensional STED resolution enhancement. It is found that only certain low-order aberration modes can affect the minimum intensity at the Gaussian focus. This has important consequences for the design of adaptive optics aberration correction systems.

  17. Quality factor analysis for aberrated laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafary, B.; Alavynejad, M.; Kashani, F. D.

    2006-12-01

    The quality factor of laser beams has attracted considerable attention and some different approaches have been reported to treat the problem. In this paper we analyze quality factor of laser beam and compare the effect of different aberrations on beam quality by expanding pure phase term of wavefront in terms of Zernike polynomials. Also we analyze experimentally the change of beam quality for different Astigmatism aberrations, and compare theoretical results with experimentally results. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement.

  18. Corneal spherical aberration in Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayyari, Tarfah M.; Fawzy, Samah M.; Al-Saleh, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To find out the mean corneal spherical aberration and its changes with age in Saudi population. Setting AlHokama Eye Specialist Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods Three hundred (300) eyes of 185 Saudi subjects (97 men and 88 women), whose age ranged from 15 to 85 years old, with matched refractive errors, were divided into three groups according to their age, 100 for each. All the subjects were included in measuring the spherical aberration (SA) using pentacam HR (OCULUS, Germany) at the 6-mm optical zone. Results The mean corneal spherical aberration (CSA) of the fourth order (Z40) of the whole groups was 0.252 ± 0.1154 μm. Patients from 15 to 35 years old have root mean square (RMS) of CSA of 0.2068 ± 0.07151 μm, 0.2370 ± 0.08023 μm was the RMS of CSA of the patients from 35 to 50 years old, while those from 50 to 85 years old have a CSA-RMS of 0.31511 ± 0.1503 μm (P < 0.0001). A positive correlation was found between the spherical aberration (Z40) and the progress of age (r = 0.3429, P < 0.0001). The high order aberration (HOA) presented 28.1% of the total corneal aberrations. While the fourth order corneal spherical aberration constituted 57% of the HOA and 16% of the total aberration. The pupil diameter shows a negative correlation with the increase in age (P = 0.0012). Conclusion Our results showed a CSA (Z40) that is varied among the population, comparable to other studies, and significantly correlates to the progress of age. PMID:25278799

  19. Analysis of Proteins That Rapidly Change Upon Mechanistic/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Repression Identifies Parkinson Protein 7 (PARK7) as a Novel Protein Aberrantly Expressed in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC).

    PubMed

    Niere, Farr; Namjoshi, Sanjeev; Song, Ehwang; Dilly, Geoffrey A; Schoenhard, Grant; Zemelman, Boris V; Mechref, Yehia; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F

    2016-02-01

    Many biological processes involve the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the challenge of deciphering mTORC1-mediated functions during normal and pathological states in the central nervous system is challenging. Because mTORC1 is at the core of translation, we have investigated mTORC1 function in global and regional protein expression. Activation of mTORC1 has been generally regarded to promote translation. Few but recent works have shown that suppression of mTORC1 can also promote local protein synthesis. Moreover, excessive mTORC1 activation during diseased states represses basal and activity-induced protein synthesis. To determine the role of mTORC1 activation in protein expression, we have used an unbiased, large-scale proteomic approach. We provide evidence that a brief repression of mTORC1 activity in vivo by rapamycin has little effect globally, yet leads to a significant remodeling of synaptic proteins, in particular those proteins that reside in the postsynaptic density. We have also found that curtailing the activity of mTORC1 bidirectionally alters the expression of proteins associated with epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder-neurological disorders that exhibit elevated mTORC1 activity. Through a protein-protein interaction network analysis, we have identified common proteins shared among these mTORC1-related diseases. One such protein is Parkinson protein 7, which has been implicated in Parkinson's disease, yet not associated with epilepsy, Alzheimers disease, or autism spectrum disorder. To verify our finding, we provide evidence that the protein expression of Parkinson protein 7, including new protein synthesis, is sensitive to mTORC1 inhibition. Using a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex, a disease that displays both epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder phenotypes and has overactive mTORC1 signaling, we show that Parkinson protein 7 protein is elevated in the dendrites and colocalizes

  20. Analysis of Proteins That Rapidly Change Upon Mechanistic/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Repression Identifies Parkinson Protein 7 (PARK7) as a Novel Protein Aberrantly Expressed in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)*

    PubMed Central

    Niere, Farr; Namjoshi, Sanjeev; Song, Ehwang; Dilly, Geoffrey A.; Schoenhard, Grant; Zemelman, Boris V.; Mechref, Yehia; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    Many biological processes involve the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the challenge of deciphering mTORC1-mediated functions during normal and pathological states in the central nervous system is challenging. Because mTORC1 is at the core of translation, we have investigated mTORC1 function in global and regional protein expression. Activation of mTORC1 has been generally regarded to promote translation. Few but recent works have shown that suppression of mTORC1 can also promote local protein synthesis. Moreover, excessive mTORC1 activation during diseased states represses basal and activity-induced protein synthesis. To determine the role of mTORC1 activation in protein expression, we have used an unbiased, large-scale proteomic approach. We provide evidence that a brief repression of mTORC1 activity in vivo by rapamycin has little effect globally, yet leads to a significant remodeling of synaptic proteins, in particular those proteins that reside in the postsynaptic density. We have also found that curtailing the activity of mTORC1 bidirectionally alters the expression of proteins associated with epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder—neurological disorders that exhibit elevated mTORC1 activity. Through a protein–protein interaction network analysis, we have identified common proteins shared among these mTORC1-related diseases. One such protein is Parkinson protein 7, which has been implicated in Parkinson's disease, yet not associated with epilepsy, Alzheimers disease, or autism spectrum disorder. To verify our finding, we provide evidence that the protein expression of Parkinson protein 7, including new protein synthesis, is sensitive to mTORC1 inhibition. Using a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex, a disease that displays both epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder phenotypes and has overactive mTORC1 signaling, we show that Parkinson protein 7 protein is elevated in the dendrites and

  1. Frequent deletion of 3p21.1 region carrying semaphorin 3G and aberrant expression of the genes participating in semaphorin signaling in the epithelioid type of malignant mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yoshie; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Morinaga, Tomonori; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Yamada, Shusai; Murakami, Aki; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Seiji; Okumura, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Hasegawa, Seiki; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko; Nakano, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis was performed on 21 malignant mesothelioma (MM) samples (16 primary cell cultures and 5 cell lines) and two reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (RM) primary cell cultures. The RM samples did not have any genomic losses or gains. In MM samples, deletions in 1p, 3p21, 4q, 9p21, 16p13 and 22q were detected frequently. We focused on 3p21 because this deletion was specific to the epithelioid type. Especially, a deletion in 3p21.1 region carrying seven genes including SEMA3G was found in 52% of MM samples (11 of 14 epithelioid samples). The allele loss of 3p21.1 might be a good marker for the epithelioid MM. A homozygous deletion in this region was detected in two MM primary cell cultures. A heterozygous deletion detected in nine samples contained the 3p21.1 region and 3p21.31 one carrying the candidate tumor suppressor genes such as semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F), SEMA3B and Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1 (RASSF1A). SEMA3B, 3F and 3G are class 3 semaphorins and inhibit growth by competing with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through binding to neuropilin. All MM samples downregulated the expression of more than one gene for SEMA3B, 3F and 3G when compared with Met5a, a normal pleura-derived cell line. Moreover, in 12 of 14 epithelioid MM samples the expression level of SEMA3A was lower than that in Met5a and the two RM samples. An augmented expression of VEGFA was detected in half of the MM samples. The expression ratio of VEGFA/SEMA3A was significantly higher in the epithelioid MMs than in Met5a, RMs and the non-epithelioid MMs. Our data suggest that the downregulated expression of SEMA3A and several SEMA3s results in a loss of inhibitory activities in tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth of VEGFA; therefore, it may play an important role on the pathogenesis of the epithelioid type of MM.

  2. Accommodation to wavefront vergence and chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B; Li, James S; Lin, Peter L; Stark, Lawrence R

    2011-05-01

    Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In this study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less.

  3. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  4. Chronic Nicotine Mitigates Aberrant Inhibitory Motor Learning Induced by Motor Experience under Dopamine Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Krok, Anne C.; Xu, Jian; Contractor, Anis; McGehee, Daniel S.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2016-01-01

    function and/or receptor expression of β2-containing nicotinic receptors alters presynaptic and postsynaptic striatal signaling to protect against aberrant motor learning. Moreover, these results suggest that cNIC treatment may alleviate motor symptoms and/or delay the deterioration of motor function in movement disorders by blocking aberrant motor learning. PMID:27170121

  5. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separatormore » to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were

  6. Linear phase conjugation for atmospheric aberration compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Stappaerts, Eddy A.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric induced aberrations can seriously degrade laser performance, greatly affecting the beam that finally reaches the target. Lasers propagated over any distance in the atmosphere suffer from a significant decrease in fluence at the target due to these aberrations. This is especially so for propagation over long distances. It is due primarily to fluctuations in the atmosphere over the propagation path, and from platform motion relative to the intended aimpoint. Also, delivery of high fluence to the target typically requires low beam divergence, thus, atmospheric turbulence, platform motion, or both results in a lack of fine aimpoint control to keep the beam directed at the target. To improve both the beam quality and amount of laser energy delivered to the target, Northrop Grumman has developed the Active Tracking System (ATS); a novel linear phase conjugation aberration compensation technique. Utilizing a silicon spatial light modulator (SLM) as a dynamic wavefront reversing element, ATS undoes aberrations induced by the atmosphere, platform motion or both. ATS continually tracks the target as well as compensates for atmospheric and platform motion induced aberrations. This results in a high fidelity, near-diffraction limited beam delivered to the target.

  7. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  8. Recurrent branchial sinus tract with aberrant extension.

    PubMed

    Barret, J P

    2004-01-01

    Second branchial cysts are the commonest lesions among congenital lateral neck anomalies. Good knowledge of anatomy and embryology are necessary for proper treatment. Surgical treatment involves resection of all branchial remnants, which extend laterally in the neck, medial to the sternocleidomastoid muscle with cranial extension to the pharynx and ipsilateral tonsillar fosa. However, infections and previous surgery can distort anatomy, making the approach to branchial anomalies more difficult. We present a case of a 17-year-old patient who presented with a second branchial tract anomaly with an aberrant extension to the midline and part of the contralateral neck. Previous surgical interventions and chronic infections may have been the primary cause for this aberrant tract. All head and neck surgeons should bear in mind that aberrant presentations may exist when reoperating on chronic branchial cysts fistulas.

  9. Widespread alternative and aberrant splicing revealed by lariat sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Stepankiw, Nicholas; Raghavan, Madhura; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.; Grimson, Andrew; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important and ancient feature of eukaryotic gene structure, the existence of which has likely facilitated eukaryotic proteome expansions. Here, we have used intron lariat sequencing to generate a comprehensive profile of splicing events in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, amongst the simplest organisms that possess mammalian-like splice site degeneracy. We reveal an unprecedented level of alternative splicing, including alternative splice site selection for over half of all annotated introns, hundreds of novel exon-skipping events, and thousands of novel introns. Moreover, the frequency of these events is far higher than previous estimates, with alternative splice sites on average activated at ∼3% the rate of canonical sites. Although a subset of alternative sites are conserved in related species, implying functional potential, the majority are not detectably conserved. Interestingly, the rate of aberrant splicing is inversely related to expression level, with lowly expressed genes more prone to erroneous splicing. Although we validate many events with RNAseq, the proportion of alternative splicing discovered with lariat sequencing is far greater, a difference we attribute to preferential decay of aberrantly spliced transcripts. Together, these data suggest the spliceosome possesses far lower fidelity than previously appreciated, highlighting the potential contributions of alternative splicing in generating novel gene structures. PMID:26261211

  10. Aberration correction for charged particle lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Eric; Zhu, Xieqing; Rouse, John A.; Liu, Haoning

    2001-12-01

    At present, the throughput of projection-type charge particle lithography systems, such as PREVAIL and SCALPEL, is limited primarily by the combined effects of field curvature in the projection lenses and Coulomb interaction in the particle beam. These are fundamental physical limitations, inherent in charged particle optics, so there seems little scope for significantly improving the design of such systems, using conventional rotationally symmetric electron lenses. This paper explores the possibility of overcoming the field aberrations of round electron lense, by using a novel aberration corrector, proposed by Professor H. Rose of University of Darmstadt, called a hexapole planator. In this scheme, a set of round lenses is first used to simultaneously correct distortion and coma. The hexapole planator is then used to correct the field curvature and astigmatism, and to create a negative spherical aberration. The size of the transfer lenses around the planator can then be adjusted to zero the residual spherical aberration. In a way, an electron optical projection system is obtained that is free of all primary geometrical aberrations. In this paper, the feasibility of this concept has been studied with a computer simulation. The simulations verify that this scheme can indeed work, for both electrostatic and magnetic projection systems. Two design studies have been carried out. The first is for an electrostatic system that could be used for ion beam lithography, and the second is for a magnetic projection system for electron beam lithography. In both cases, designs have been achieved in which all primary third-order geometrical aberrations are totally eliminated.

  11. Spherical aberrations of human astigmatic corneas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huawei; Dai, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li; Weeber, Henk A; Piers, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the average spherical aberration of human astigmatic corneas is statistically equivalent to human nonastigmatic corneas. Spherical aberrations of 445 astigmatic corneas prior to laser vision correction were retrospectively investigated to determine Zernike coefficients for central corneal areas 6 mm in diameter using CTView (Sarver and Associates). Data were divided into groups according to cylinder power (0.01 to 0.25 diopters [D], 0.26 to 0.75 D, 0.76 to 1.06 D, 1.07 to 1.53 D, 1.54 to 2.00 D, and >2.00 D) and according to age by decade. Spherical aberrations were correlated with age and astigmatic power among groups and the entire population. Statistical analyses were conducted, and P<.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean patient age was 42.6±11 years. Astigmatic corneas had an average astigmatic power of 0.78±0.58 D and mean spherical aberration was 0.25±0.13 μm for the entire population and approximately the same (0.27 μm) for individual groups, ranging from 0.23 to 0.29 μm (P>.05 for all tested groups). Mean spherical aberration of astigmatic corneas was not correlated significantly with cylinder power or age (P>.05). Spherical aberrations are similar to those of nonastigmatic corneas, permitting the use of these additional data in the design of aspheric toric intra-ocular lenses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns.

    PubMed

    Zee, Barry M; Dibona, Amy B; Alekseyenko, Artyom A; French, Christopher A; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2016-01-01

    Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC), which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N) covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state.

  13. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zee, Barry M.; Dibona, Amy B.; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; French, Christopher A.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC), which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N) covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state. PMID:27698495

  14. Effect of aberrations in human eye on contrast sensitivity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Wang, Feng-lin; Wang, Zhao-qi

    2011-06-01

    The quantitative analysis of the effect of aberrations in human eye on vision has important clinical value in the correction of aberrations. The wave-front aberrations of human eyes were measured with the Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor and modulation transfer function (MTF) was computed from the wave-front aberrations. Contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was obtained from MTF and the retinal aerial image modulation (AIM). It is shown that the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th Zernike aberrations deteriorate contrast sensitivity function. When the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th Zernike aberrations are corrected high contrast sensitivity function can be obtained.

  15. Spectral estimation for characterization of acoustic aberration.

    PubMed

    Varslot, Trond; Angelsen, Bjørn; Waag, Robert C

    2004-07-01

    Spectral estimation based on acoustic backscatter from a motionless stochastic medium is described for characterization of aberration in ultrasonic imaging. The underlying assumptions for the estimation are: The correlation length of the medium is short compared to the length of the transmitted acoustic pulse, an isoplanatic region of sufficient size exists around the focal point, and the backscatter can be modeled as an ergodic stochastic process. The motivation for this work is ultrasonic imaging with aberration correction. Measurements were performed using a two-dimensional array system with 80 x 80 transducer elements and an element pitch of 0.6 mm. The f number for the measurements was 1.2 and the center frequency was 3.0 MHz with a 53% bandwidth. Relative phase of aberration was extracted from estimated cross spectra using a robust least-mean-square-error method based on an orthogonal expansion of the phase differences of neighboring wave forms as a function of frequency. Estimates of cross-spectrum phase from measurements of random scattering through a tissue-mimicking aberrator have confidence bands approximately +/- 5 degrees wide. Both phase and magnitude are in good agreement with a reference characterization obtained from a point scatterer.

  16. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  17. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  18. Non-axisymmetric Aberration Patterns from Wide-field Telescopes Using Spin-weighted Zernike Polynomials

    DOE PAGES

    Kent, Stephen M.

    2018-02-15

    If the optical system of a telescope is perturbed from rotational symmetry, the Zernike wavefront aberration coefficients describing that system can be expressed as a function of position in the focal plane using spin-weighted Zernike polynomials. Methodologies are presented to derive these polynomials to arbitrary order. This methodology is applied to aberration patterns produced by a misaligned Ritchey Chretian telescope and to distortion patterns at the focal plane of the DESI optical corrector, where it is shown to provide a more efficient description of distortion than conventional expansions.

  19. Non-axisymmetric Aberration Patterns from Wide-field Telescopes Using Spin-weighted Zernike Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Stephen M.

    2018-04-01

    If the optical system of a telescope is perturbed from rotational symmetry, the Zernike wavefront aberration coefficients describing that system can be expressed as a function of position in the focal plane using spin-weighted Zernike polynomials. Methodologies are presented to derive these polynomials to arbitrary order. This methodology is applied to aberration patterns produced by a misaligned Ritchey–Chrétien telescope and to distortion patterns at the focal plane of the DESI optical corrector, where it is shown to provide a more efficient description of distortion than conventional expansions.

  20. Micro-Scale Genomic DNA Copy Number Aberrations as Another Means of Mutagenesis in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hann-Hsiang; He, Xiaping; Parker, Joel S.; Zhao, Wei; Perou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In breast cancer, the basal-like subtype has high levels of genomic instability relative to other breast cancer subtypes with many basal-like-specific regions of aberration. There is evidence that this genomic instability extends to smaller scale genomic aberrations, as shown by a previously described micro-deletion event in the PTEN gene in the Basal-like SUM149 breast cancer cell line. Methods We sought to identify if small regions of genomic DNA copy number changes exist by using a high density, gene-centric Comparative Genomic Hybridizations (CGH) array on cell lines and primary tumors. A custom tiling array for CGH (244,000 probes, 200 bp tiling resolution) was created to identify small regions of genomic change, which was focused on previously identified basal-like-specific, and general cancer genes. Tumor genomic DNA from 94 patients and 2 breast cancer cell lines was labeled and hybridized to these arrays. Aberrations were called using SWITCHdna and the smallest 25% of SWITCHdna-defined genomic segments were called micro-aberrations (<64 contiguous probes, ∼ 15 kb). Results Our data showed that primary tumor breast cancer genomes frequently contained many small-scale copy number gains and losses, termed micro-aberrations, most of which are undetectable using typical-density genome-wide aCGH arrays. The basal-like subtype exhibited the highest incidence of these events. These micro-aberrations sometimes altered expression of the involved gene. We confirmed the presence of the PTEN micro-amplification in SUM149 and by mRNA-seq showed that this resulted in loss of expression of all exons downstream of this event. Micro-aberrations disproportionately affected the 5′ regions of the affected genes, including the promoter region, and high frequency of micro-aberrations was associated with poor survival. Conclusion Using a high-probe-density, gene-centric aCGH microarray, we present evidence of small-scale genomic aberrations that can contribute to

  1. Aberrant DNA Methylation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Cell Fate Control, Prognosis, and Therapeutic Response.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Masumeh Maleki; Shahrabi, Saeid; Jaseb, Kaveh; Bertacchini, Jessika; Ketabchi, Neda; Saki, Najmaldin

    2018-01-31

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell malignancy characterized by the expression of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene with different chimeric transcripts. Despite the crucial impact of constitutively active tyrosine kinase in CML pathogenesis, aberrant DNA methylation of certain genes plays an important role in disease progression and the development of drug resistance. This article reviews recent findings relevant to the effect of DNA methylation pattern of regulatory genes on various cellular activities such as cell proliferation and survival, as well as cell-signaling molecules in CML. These data might contribute to defining the role of aberrant DNA methylation in disease initiation and progression. However, further studies are needed on the validation of specific aberrant methylation markers regarding the prognosis and prediction of response among the CML patients.

  2. The correction of aberrations computed in the aperture plane of multifrequency microwave radiometer antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical/numerical approach to identifying and correcting the aberrations introduced by a general displacement of the feed from the focal point of a single offset paraboloid antenna used in deployable radiometer systems is developed. A 15 meter reflector with 18 meter focal length is assumed for the analysis, which considers far field radiation pattern quality, focal region fields, and aberrations appearing in the aperture plane. The latter are obtained by ray tracing in the transmit mode and are expressed in terms of optical notation. Attention is given to the physical restraints imposed on corrective elements by real microwave systems and to the intermediate near field aspects of the problem in three dimensions. The subject of wave fronts and caustics in the receive mode is introduced for comparative purposes. Several specific examples are given for aberration reduction at eight beamwidths of scan at a frequency of 1.414 GHz.

  3. Formula for the rms blur circle radius of Wolter telescope based on aberration theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.; Saha, Timo T.

    1990-01-01

    A formula for the rms blur circle for Wolter telescopes has been derived using the transverse ray aberration expressions of Saha (1985), Saha (1984), and Saha (1986). The resulting formula for the rms blur circle radius over an image plane and a formula for the surface of best focus based on third-, fifth-, and seventh-order aberration theory predict results in good agreement with exact ray tracing. It has also been shown that one of the two terms in the empirical formula of VanSpeybroeck and Chase (1972), for the rms blur circle radius of a Wolter I telescope can be justified by the aberration theory results. Numerical results are given comparing the rms blur radius and the surface of best focus vs the half-field angle computed by skew ray tracing and from analytical formulas for grazing incidence Wolter I-II telescopes and a normal incidence Cassegrain telescope.

  4. Regulatory T Cells in the Control of Autoimmunity: the Essential Role of  Transforming Growth Factor β and Interleukin 4 in the Prevention of Autoimmune Thyroiditis in Rats by Peripheral CD4+CD45RC− Cells and CD4+CD8− Thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Benedict; Mason, Don

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of autoimmune diabetes by adult thymectomy and split dose irradiation of PVG.RT1u rats can be prevented by their reconstitution with peripheral CD4+CD45RC−TCR-α/β+RT6+ cells and CD4+CD8− thymocytes from normal syngeneic donors. These data provide evidence for the role of regulatory T cells in the prevention of a tissue-specific autoimmune disease but the mode of action of these cells has not been reported previously. In this study, autoimmune thyroiditis was induced in PVG.RT1c rats using a similar protocol of thymectomy and irradiation. Although a cell-mediated mechanism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes in PVG.RT1u rats, development of thyroiditis is independent of CD8+ T cells and is characterized by high titers of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 antithyroglobulin antibodies, indicating a major humoral component in the pathogenesis of disease. As with autoimmune diabetes in PVG.RT1u rats, development of thyroiditis was prevented by the transfer of CD4+CD45RC− and CD4+CD8− thymocytes from normal donors but not by CD4+CD45RC+ peripheral T cells. We now show that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and interleukin (IL)-4 both play essential roles in the mechanism of this protection since administration of monoclonal antibodies that block the biological activity of either of these cytokines abrogates the protective effect of the donor cells in the recipient rats. The prevention of both diabetes and thyroiditis by CD4+CD45RC− peripheral cells and CD4+CD8− thymocytes therefore does not support the view that the mechanism of regulation involves a switch from a T helper cell type 1 (Th1) to a Th2-like response, but rather relies upon a specific suppression of the autoimmune responses involving TGF-β and IL-4. The observation that the same two cytokines were implicated in the protective mechanism, whether thymocytes or peripheral cells were used to prevent autoimmunity, strongly suggests that the

  5. Granulysin-Expressing CD4+ T Cells as Candidate Immune Marker for Tuberculosis during Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Henrik; Faé, Kellen C.; Magdorf, Klaus; Ganoza, Christian A.; Wahn, Ulrich; Guhlich, Ute; Feiterna-Sperling, Cornelia; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Granulysin produced by cytolytic T cells directly contributes to immune defense against tuberculosis (TB). We investigated granulysin as a candidate immune marker for childhood and adolescent TB. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from children and adolescents (1–17 years) with active TB, latent TB infection (LTBI), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection and from uninfected controls were isolated and restimulated in a 7-day restimulation assay. Intracellular staining was then performed to analyze antigen-specific induction of activation markers and cytotoxic proteins, notably, granulysin in CD4+ CD45RO+ memory T cells. Results CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells co-expressing granulysin with specificity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) were present in high frequency in TB-experienced children and adolescents. Proliferating memory T cells (CFSElowCD4+CD45RO+) were identified as main source of granulysin and these cells expressed both central and effector memory phenotype. PBMC from study participants after TB drug therapy revealed that granulysin-expressing CD4+ T cells are long-lived, and express several activation and cytotoxicity markers with a proportion of cells being interferon-gamma-positive. In addition, granulysin-expressing T cell lines showed cytolytic activity against Mtb-infected target cells. Conclusions Our data suggest granulysin expression by CD4+ memory T cells as candidate immune marker for TB infection, notably, in childhood and adolescence. PMID:22216262

  6. Theoretical investigation of aberrations upon ametropic human eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.; Baker, Kevin

    2003-11-01

    The human eye aberrations are important for visual acuity and ophthalmic diagnostics and surgical procedures. Reported monochromatic aberration data of the normal 20/20 human eyes are scarce. There exist even fewer reports of the relation between ametropic conditions and aberrations. We theoretically investigate the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of human eyes for refractive errors of -10 to +10 diopters. Schematic human eye models are employed using optical design software for axial, index, and refractive types of ametropia.

  7. Primary aberrations in focused radially polarized vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, David P.; Brown, T. G.

    2004-02-01

    We study the effect of primary aberrations on the 3-D polarization of the electric field in a focused lowest order radially polarized beam. A full vector diffraction treatment of the focused beams is used. Attention is given to the effects of primary spherical, astigmatic, and comatic aberrations on the local polarization, Strehl ratio, and aberration induced degradation of the longitudinal field at focus

  8. Aberration Compensation in Aplanatic Solid Immersion Lens Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-08

    model and ray tracing software ( Zemax ) to understand how much aberrations are in the system and how much can be compensated by the DM. Subsequently...aberration. Table 2 shows the Zemax simulation on this particular case. With aberration compensation, the finest resolvable group is at 252 nm

  9. RADIATION-INDUCED CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS IN MAN

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, M.; Ottoman, R.E.; Norman, A.

    1963-10-01

    A study was made of the production and elimination of radioinduced chromosomal aberrations in leukocytes from the peripheral blood of persons exposed to chronic or acute doses of high-energy radiation. Included in the group were radiologists and laboratory scientists, for whom there were available complete records of the radiation dose received during their working life, and a number of distinguished radiologists who have practiced more than 25 yrs and who may have received substantial doses One of seven leukocytes from a distinguished radiologist contained a pair of chromosomes that could be classified as pseudo- diploid. In laboratory personnel for whommore » the doses received were significantly within the prescribed limits, the incidence of pseudo-diploid cells, of dicentrics, and of other chroNonemosomal aberrations was significantly higher than in a more or less comparable control group. (tr-auth)« less

  10. Aberrations associated with rigid contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Atchison, D A

    1995-10-01

    A rigid contact lens on an eye can produce levels of spherical aberration very different from those produced by a spectacle lens in front of the eye. These levels are considerably affected by contact lens surface asphericity. Change in longitudinal spherical aberration associated with aspherizing a contact lens surface is well predicted by a simple equation for change in sagittal power of the surface. Displacing an aspheric contact lens on the eye can produce considerable defocus, which is well predicted by simple equations for change in sagittal and tangential surface powers. The best refractive correction with contact lenses can be determined only by overrefraction with a patient wearing a contact lens of power and characteristics similar to that which will be prescribed. An aspheric contact lens that moves to a considerable extent on the eye will cause more unstable vision than will a spherical lens that moves to the same extent.

  11. Anterior Corneal, Posterior Corneal, and Lenticular Contributions to Ocular Aberrations.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Suheimat, Marwan; Mathur, Ankit; Lister, Lucas J; Rozema, Jos

    2016-10-01

    To determine the corneal surfaces and lens contributions to ocular aberrations. There were 61 healthy participants with ages ranging from 20 to 55 years and refractions -8.25 diopters (D) to +3.25 D. Anterior and posterior corneal topographies were obtained with an Oculus Pentacam, and ocular aberrations were obtained with an iTrace aberrometer. Raytracing through models of corneas provided total corneal and surface component aberrations for 5-mm-diameter pupils. Lenticular contributions were given as differences between ocular and corneal aberrations. Theoretical raytracing investigated influence of object distance on aberrations. Apart from defocus, the highest aberration coefficients were horizontal astigmatism, horizontal coma, and spherical aberration. Most correlations between lenticular and ocular parameters were positive and significant, with compensation of total corneal aberrations by lenticular aberrations for 5/12 coefficients. Anterior corneal aberrations were approximately three times higher than posterior corneal aberrations and usually had opposite signs. Corneal topographic centers were displaced from aberrometer pupil centers by 0.32 ± 0.19 mm nasally and 0.02 ± 0.16 mm inferiorly; disregarding corneal decentration relative to pupil center was significant for oblique astigmatism, horizontal coma, and horizontal trefoil. An object at infinity, rather than at the image in the anterior cornea, gave incorrect aberration estimates of the posterior cornea. Corneal and lenticular aberration magnitudes are similar, and aberrations of the anterior corneal surface are approximately three times those of the posterior surface. Corneal decentration relative to pupil center has significant effects on oblique astigmatism, horizontal coma, and horizontal trefoil. When estimating component aberrations, it is important to use correct object/image conjugates and heights at surfaces.

  12. Contemporary management of aberrant right subclavian arteries.

    PubMed

    Stone, William M; Ricotta, Joseph J; Fowl, Richard J; Garg, Nitin; Bower, Thomas C; Money, Samuel R

    2011-05-01

    Aberrant origin of right subclavian arteries represents the most common of the aortic arch anomalies. This variant has few published series to guide management. Our goal was to review treatment options and results for these potentially complex reconstructions. A retrospective review was performed on all patients with a diagnosis of aberrant right subclavian artery at our institution between January 2003 and July 2009. A total of 24 patients, which comprises one of the largest series reported, including 10 males and 14 females (mean age: 46.6 years, range: 7-77), were diagnosed with an aberrant right subclavian artery. Sixteen (66%) were diagnosed incidentally, but eight (33%) had symptoms of either dysphagia, upper extremity ischemia, or both. Computed tomography was most commonly used to establish the diagnosis (19 patients, 79%). Magnetic resonance imaging established the diagnosis in three patients (12%), upper gastrointestinal barium study in one (4%), and standard angiography in one (4%). A Kommerell's diverticulum (KD) was the most common associated anomaly (seven patients, 29%). All seven patients (100%) with a KD required intervention for either symptoms or aneurysmal degeneration. Intervention was performed in 10 patients (42%), including carotid subclavian bypass in five (50%), carotid subclavian transposition in three (30%), and ascending aorta to subclavian bypass in two (20%). Four patients (40%) had additional intervention for management of aneurysmal disease of the aorta or KD, with open aortic replacement in two (20%) and aortic endografting in two (20%). There was one perioperative death (10%) in a patient undergoing aortic arch debranching with placement of an aortic endograft. In all, 18 patients survived without symptoms after a mean follow-up of 38 months. Aberrant right subclavian arteries are most commonly found incidentally with computed tomography. The presence of a KD seemed to correlate with the need for intervention. Patients with no

  13. TET1 Depletion Induces Aberrant CpG Methylation in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Harada, Taku; Aoki, Hironori; Maruyama, Reo; Toyota, Mutsumi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Sugai, Tamotsu; Tokino, Takashi; Nakase, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is commonly observed in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels and TET1 expression are both reduced in CRC, while epigenetic silencing of TET1 is reportedly associated with the CpG island methylator phenotype. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the relationship between loss of TET1 and aberrant DNA methylation in CRC. Stable TET1 knockdown clones were established using Colo320DM cells, which express high levels of TET1, and HCT116 cells, which express TET1 at a level similar to that in normal colonic tissue. Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays revealed increased levels of 5-methylcytosine at more than 10,000 CpG sites in TET1-depleted Colo320DM cells. Changes in DNA methylation were observed at various positions within the genome, including promoters, gene bodies and intergenic regions, and the altered methylation affected expression of a subset of genes. By contrast, TET1 knockdown did not significantly affect DNA methylation in HCT116 cells. However, TET1 depletion was associated with attenuated effects of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine on gene expression profiles in both cell lines. These results suggest that loss of TET1 may induce aberrant DNA methylation and may attenuate the effect of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine in CRC cells. PMID:27977763

  14. TNFRSF14 aberrations in follicular lymphoma increase clinically significant allogeneic T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Kotsiou, Eleni; Okosun, Jessica; Besley, Caroline; Iqbal, Sameena; Matthews, Janet; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Gribben, John G; Davies, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-07

    Donor T-cell immune responses can eradicate lymphomas after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), but can also damage healthy tissues resulting in harmful graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Next-generation sequencing has recently identified many new genetic lesions in follicular lymphoma (FL). One such gene, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14 (TNFRSF14), abnormal in 40% of FL patients, encodes the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which limits T-cell activation via ligation of the B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator. As lymphoma B cells can act as antigen-presenting cells, we hypothesized that TNFRSF14 aberrations that reduce HVEM expression could alter the capacity of FL B cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell responses and impact the outcome of AHSCT. In an in vitro model of alloreactivity, human lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had reduced HVEM expression and greater alloantigen-presenting capacity than wild-type lymphoma B cells. The increased immune-stimulatory capacity of lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had clinical relevance, associating with higher incidence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing AHSCT. FL patients with TNFRSF14 aberrations may benefit from more aggressive immunosuppression to reduce harmful GVHD after transplantation. Importantly, this study is the first to demonstrate the impact of an acquired genetic lesion on the capacity of tumor cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell immune responses which may have wider consequences for adoptive immunotherapy strategies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Aberration hubs in protein interaction networks highlight actionable targets in cancer.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Mehran; Jandaghi, Pouria; Papadakis, Andreas I; Trainor, Sebastian; Rung, Johan; Gonzàlez-Porta, Mar; Scelo, Ghislaine; Vasudev, Naveen S; Brazma, Alvis; Huang, Sidong; Banks, Rosamonde E; Lathrop, Mark; Najafabadi, Hamed S; Riazalhosseini, Yasser

    2018-05-18

    Despite efforts for extensive molecular characterization of cancer patients, such as the international cancer genome consortium (ICGC) and the cancer genome atlas (TCGA), the heterogeneous nature of cancer and our limited knowledge of the contextual function of proteins have complicated the identification of targetable genes. Here, we present Aberration Hub Analysis for Cancer (AbHAC) as a novel integrative approach to pinpoint aberration hubs, i.e. individual proteins that interact extensively with genes that show aberrant mutation or expression. Our analysis of the breast cancer data of the TCGA and the renal cancer data from the ICGC shows that aberration hubs are involved in relevant cancer pathways, including factors promoting cell cycle and DNA replication in basal-like breast tumors, and Src kinase and VEGF signaling in renal carcinoma. Moreover, our analysis uncovers novel functionally relevant and actionable targets, among which we have experimentally validated abnormal splicing of spleen tyrosine kinase as a key factor for cell proliferation in renal cancer. Thus, AbHAC provides an effective strategy to uncover novel disease factors that are only identifiable by examining mutational and expression data in the context of biological networks.

  16. Comparative Expression Profiling of Distinct T Cell Subsets Undergoing Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenfels, Rudolf; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Johansson, C. Christian; Dressler, Sven P.; Recktenwald, Christian V.; Kiessling, Rolf; Seliger, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The clinical outcome of adoptive T cell transfer-based immunotherapies is often limited due to different escape mechanisms established by tumors in order to evade the hosts' immune system. The establishment of an immunosuppressive micromilieu by tumor cells along with distinct subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is often associated with oxidative stress that can affect antigen-specific memory/effector cytotoxic T cells thereby substantially reducing their frequency and functional activation. Therefore, protection of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from oxidative stress may enhance the anti-tumor-directed immune response. In order to better define the key pathways/proteins involved in the response to oxidative stress a comparative 2-DE-based proteome analysis of naïve CD45RA+ and their memory/effector CD45RO+ T cell counterparts in the presence and absence of low dose hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was performed in this pilot study. Based on the profiling data of these T cell subpopulations under the various conditions, a series of differentially expressed spots were defined, members thereof identified by mass spectrometry and subsequently classified according to their cellular function and localization. Representative targets responding to oxidative stress including proteins involved in signaling pathways, in regulating the cellular redox status as well as in shaping/maintaining the structural cell integrity were independently verified at the transcript and protein level under the same conditions in both T cell subsets. In conclusion the resulting profiling data describe complex, oxidative stress-induced, but not strictly concordant changes within the respective expression profiles of CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ T cells. Some of the differentially expressed genes/proteins might be further exploited as potential targets toward modulating the redox capacity of the distinct lymphocyte subsets thereby providing the basis for further studies aiming at rendering them

  17. 3D resolved mapping of optical aberrations in thick tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun; Mahou, Pierre; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Débarre, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple method for mapping optical aberrations with 3D resolution within thick samples. The method relies on the local measurement of the variation in image quality with externally applied aberrations. We discuss the accuracy of the method as a function of the signal strength and of the aberration amplitude and we derive the achievable resolution for the resulting measurements. We then report on measured 3D aberration maps in human skin biopsies and mouse brain slices. From these data, we analyse the consequences of tissue structure and refractive index distribution on aberrations and imaging depth in normal and cleared tissue samples. The aberration maps allow the estimation of the typical aplanetism region size over which aberrations can be uniformly corrected. This method and data pave the way towards efficient correction strategies for tissue imaging applications. PMID:22876353

  18. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  19. Human eyes do not need monochromatic aberrations for dynamic accommodation.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Molina, Paula; Marín-Franch, Iván; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Esteve-Taboada, Jose J; López-Gil, Norberto; Kruger, Philip B; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-09-01

    To determine if human accommodation uses the eye's own monochromatic aberrations to track dynamic accommodative stimuli. Wavefront aberrations were measured while subjects monocularly viewed a monochromatic Maltese cross moving sinusoidally around 2D of accommodative demand with 1D amplitude at 0.2 Hz. The amplitude and phase (delay) of the accommodation response were compared to the actual vergence of the stimulus to obtain gain and temporal phase, calculated from wavefront aberrations recorded over time during experimental trials. The tested conditions were as follows: Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus (C); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and habitual second-order astigmatism (AS); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and odd higher-order aberrations (HOAs); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and even HOAs (E); Natural aberrations of the subject's eye, i.e., the adaptive-optics system only corrected the optical system's aberrations (N); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and fourth-order spherical aberration (SA). The correction was performed at 20 Hz and each condition was repeated six times in randomised order. Average gain (±2 standard errors of the mean) varied little across conditions; between 0.55 ± 0.06 (SA), and 0.62 ± 0.06 (AS). Average phase (±2 standard errors of the mean) also varied little; between 0.41 ± 0.02 s (E), and 0.47 ± 0.02 s (O). After Bonferroni correction, no statistically significant differences in gain or phase were found in the presence of specific monochromatic aberrations or in their absence. These results show that the eye's monochromatic aberrations are not necessary for accommodation to track dynamic accommodative stimuli. © 2017 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.

  20. Differential effects of phosphotyrosine phosphatase expression on hormone-dependent and independent pp60c-src activity.

    PubMed

    Way, B A; Mooney, R A

    1994-10-26

    pp60c-src kinase activity can be increased by phosphotyrosine dephosphorylation or growth factor-dependent phosphorylation reactions. Expression of the transmembrane phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) CD45 has been shown to inhibit growth factor receptor signal transduction (Mooney, RA, Freund, GG, Way, BA and Bordwell, KL (1992) J Biol Chem 267, 23443-23446). Here it is shown that PTPase expression decreased platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-dependent activation of pp60c-src but failed to increase hormone independent (basal) pp60c-src activity. PDGF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of its receptor was reduced by approximately 60% in cells expressing the PTPase. In contrast, a change in phosphotyrosine content of pp60c-src was not detected in response to PDGF or in PTPase+ cells. PDGF increased the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of pp60c-src in both control and PTPase+ cells, but the effect was smaller in PTPase+ cells. In an in vitro assay, hormone-stimulated pp60c-src autophosphorylation from PTPase+ cells was decreased 64 +/- 22%, and substrate phosphorylation by pp60c-src was reduced 54 +/- 16% compared to controls. Hormone-independent pp60c-src kinase activity was unchanged by expression of the PTPase. pp60c-src was, however, an in vitro substrate for CD45, being dephosphorylated at both the regulatory (Tyr527) and kinase domain (Tyr416) residues. In addition, in vitro dephosphorylation by CD45 increased pp60c-src activity. These findings suggest that the PDGF receptor was an in vivo substrate of CD45 but pp60c-src was not. The lack of activation of pp60c-src in the presence of expressed PTPase may demonstrate the importance of compartmentalization and/or accessory proteins to PTPase-substrate interactions.

  1. Normal T lymphocytes can express two different T cell receptor beta chains: implications for the mechanism of allelic exclusion

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the extent of allelic exclusion at the T cell receptor (TCR) beta locus using monoclonal antibodies specific for V beta products. A small proportion (approximately 1%) of human peripheral blood T cells express two V beta as determined by flow cytometric analysis, isolation of representative clones, and sequencing of the corresponding V beta chains. Dual beta T cells are present in both the CD45R0+ and CD45R0- subset. These results indicate that dual beta expression is compatible with both central and peripheral selection. They also suggest that the substantial degree of TCR beta allelic exclusion is dependent only on asynchronous rearrangements at the beta locus, whereas the role of the pre-TCR is limited to signaling the presence of at least one functional beta protein. PMID:7699339

  2. Aberrant patterns of visual facial information usage in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cameron M; Gosselin, Frédéric; Goghari, Vina M

    2013-05-01

    Deficits in facial emotion perception have been linked to poorer functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between abnormal emotion perception and functional outcome remains poorly understood. To better understand the nature of facial emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia, we used the Bubbles Facial Emotion Perception Task to identify differences in usage of visual facial information in schizophrenia patients (n = 20) and controls (n = 20), when differentiating between angry and neutral facial expressions. As hypothesized, schizophrenia patients required more facial information than controls to accurately differentiate between angry and neutral facial expressions, and they relied on different facial features and spatial frequencies to differentiate these facial expressions. Specifically, schizophrenia patients underutilized the eye regions, overutilized the nose and mouth regions, and virtually ignored information presented at the lowest levels of spatial frequency. In addition, a post hoc one-tailed t test revealed a positive relationship of moderate strength between the degree of divergence from "normal" visual facial information usage in the eye region and lower overall social functioning. These findings provide direct support for aberrant patterns of visual facial information usage in schizophrenia in differentiating between socially salient emotional states. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  3. Wavefront aberrations of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams.

    PubMed

    Liao, Keliang; Hong, Youli; Sheng, Weifan

    2014-10-01

    The effects of dynamical diffraction in x-ray diffractive optics with large numerical aperture render the wavefront aberrations difficult to describe using the aberration polynomials, yet knowledge of them plays an important role in a vast variety of scientific problems ranging from optical testing to adaptive optics. Although the diffraction theory of optical aberrations was established decades ago, its application in the area of x-ray dynamical diffraction theory (DDT) is still lacking. Here, we conduct a theoretical study on the aberration properties of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams. By treating the modulus of the complex envelope as the amplitude weight function in the orthogonalization procedure, we generalize the nonrecursive matrix method for the determination of orthonormal aberration polynomials, wherein Zernike DDT and Legendre DDT polynomials are proposed. As an example, we investigate the aberration evolution inside a tilted multilayer Laue lens. The corresponding Legendre DDT polynomials are obtained numerically, which represent balanced aberrations yielding minimum variance of the classical aberrations of an anamorphic optical system. The balancing of classical aberrations and their standard deviations are discussed. We also present the Strehl ratio of the primary and secondary balanced aberrations.

  4. Detecting independent and recurrent copy number aberrations using interval graphs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Ta; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2014-06-15

    Somatic copy number aberrations SCNAS: are frequent in cancer genomes, but many of these are random, passenger events. A common strategy to distinguish functional aberrations from passengers is to identify those aberrations that are recurrent across multiple samples. However, the extensive variability in the length and position of SCNA: s makes the problem of identifying recurrent aberrations notoriously difficult. We introduce a combinatorial approach to the problem of identifying independent and recurrent SCNA: s, focusing on the key challenging of separating the overlaps in aberrations across individuals into independent events. We derive independent and recurrent SCNA: s as maximal cliques in an interval graph constructed from overlaps between aberrations. We efficiently enumerate all such cliques, and derive a dynamic programming algorithm to find an optimal selection of non-overlapping cliques, resulting in a very fast algorithm, which we call RAIG (Recurrent Aberrations from Interval Graphs). We show that RAIG outperforms other methods on simulated data and also performs well on data from three cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). In contrast to existing approaches that employ various heuristics to select independent aberrations, RAIG optimizes a well-defined objective function. We show that this allows RAIG to identify rare aberrations that are likely functional, but are obscured by overlaps with larger passenger aberrations. http://compbio.cs.brown.edu/software. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Genomic aberrations in borderline ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background According to the scientific literature, less than 30 borderline ovarian tumors have been karyotyped and less than 100 analyzed for genomic imbalances by CGH. Methods We report a series of borderline ovarian tumors (n = 23) analyzed by G-banding and karyotyping as well as high resolution CGH; in addition, the tumors were analyzed for microsatellite stability status and by FISH for possible 6q deletion. Results All informative tumors were microsatellite stable and none had a deletion in 6q27. All cases with an abnormal karyotype had simple chromosomal aberrations with +7 and +12 as the most common. In three tumors with single structural rearrangements, a common breakpoint in 3q13 was detected. The major copy number changes detected in the borderline tumors were gains from chromosome arms 2q, 6q, 8q, 9p, and 13q and losses from 1p, 12q, 14q, 15q, 16p, 17p, 17q, 19p, 19q, and 22q. The series included five pairs of bilateral tumors and, in two of these pairs, informative data were obtained as to their clonal relationship. In both pairs, similarities were found between the tumors from the right and left side, strongly indicating that bilaterality had occurred via a metastatic process. The bilateral tumors as a group showed more aberrations than did the unilateral ones, consistent with the view that bilaterality is a sign of more advanced disease. Conclusion Because some of the imbalances found in borderline ovarian tumors seem to be similar to imbalances already known from the more extensively studied overt ovarian carcinomas, we speculate that the subset of borderline tumors with detectable imbalances or karyotypic aberrations may contain a smaller subset of tumors with a tendency to develop a more malignant phenotype. The group of borderline tumors with no imbalances would, in this line of thinking, have less or no propensity for clonal evolution and development to full-blown carcinomas. PMID:20184781

  6. Correction of large amplitude wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, S. A.; Bierden, P. A.; Bifano, T. G.; Webb, R. H.; Burns, S.; Pappas, S.

    2005-12-01

    Recently, a number of research groups around the world have developed ophthalmic instruments capable of in vivo diffraction limited imaging of the human retina. Adaptive optics was used in these systems to compensate for the optical aberrations of the eye and provide high contrast, high resolution images. Such compensation uses a wavefront sensor and a wavefront corrector (usually a deformable mirror) coordinated in a closed- loop control system that continuously works to counteract aberrations. While those experiments produced promising results, the deformable mirrors have had insufficient range of motion to permit full correction of the large amplitude aberrations of the eye expected in a normal population of human subjects. Other retinal imaging systems developed to date with MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) DMs suffer similar limitations. This paper describes the design, manufacture and testing of a 6um stroke polysilicon surface micromachined deformable mirror that, coupled with an new optical method to double the effective stroke of the MEMS-DM, will permit diffraction-limited retinal imaging through dilated pupils in at least 90% of the human population. A novel optical design using spherical mirrors provides a double pass of the wavefront over the deformable mirror such that a 6um mirror displacement results in 12um of wavefront compensation which could correct for 24um of wavefront error. Details of this design are discussed. Testing of the effective wavefront modification was performed using a commercial wavefront sensor. Results are presented demonstrating improvement in the amplitude of wavefront control using an existing high degree of freedom MEMS deformable mirror.

  7. Predicting aberrant CpG island methylation

    PubMed Central

    Feltus, F. A.; Lee, E. K.; Costello, J. F.; Plass, C.; Vertino, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one mechanism leading to loss of tumor suppressor function in human cancer. Profiling of CpG island methylation indicates that some genes are more frequently methylated than others, and that each tumor type is associated with a unique set of methylated genes. However, little is known about why certain genes succumb to this aberrant event. To address this question, we used Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning to analyze the susceptibility of 1,749 unselected CpG islands to de novo methylation driven by overexpression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We found that although the overall incidence of CpG island methylation was increased in cells overexpressing DNMT1, not all loci were equally affected. The majority of CpG islands (69.9%) were resistant to de novo methylation, regardless of DNMT1 overexpression. In contrast, we identified a subset of methylation-prone CpG islands (3.8%) that were consistently hypermethylated in multiple DNMT1 overexpressing clones. Methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG islands were not significantly different with respect to size, C+G content, CpG frequency, chromosomal location, or promoter association. We used DNA pattern recognition and supervised learning techniques to derive a classification function based on the frequency of seven novel sequence patterns that was capable of discriminating methylation-prone from methylation-resistant CpG islands with 82% accuracy. The data indicate that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to de novo methylation, and suggest that the propensity for a CpG island to become aberrantly methylated can be predicted based on its sequence context. PMID:14519846

  8. Predicting aberrant CpG island methylation.

    PubMed

    Feltus, F A; Lee, E K; Costello, J F; Plass, C; Vertino, P M

    2003-10-14

    Epigenetic silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one mechanism leading to loss of tumor suppressor function in human cancer. Profiling of CpG island methylation indicates that some genes are more frequently methylated than others, and that each tumor type is associated with a unique set of methylated genes. However, little is known about why certain genes succumb to this aberrant event. To address this question, we used Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning to analyze the susceptibility of 1,749 unselected CpG islands to de novo methylation driven by overexpression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We found that although the overall incidence of CpG island methylation was increased in cells overexpressing DNMT1, not all loci were equally affected. The majority of CpG islands (69.9%) were resistant to de novo methylation, regardless of DNMT1 overexpression. In contrast, we identified a subset of methylation-prone CpG islands (3.8%) that were consistently hypermethylated in multiple DNMT1 overexpressing clones. Methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG islands were not significantly different with respect to size, C+G content, CpG frequency, chromosomal location, or promoter association. We used DNA pattern recognition and supervised learning techniques to derive a classification function based on the frequency of seven novel sequence patterns that was capable of discriminating methylation-prone from methylation-resistant CpG islands with 82% accuracy. The data indicate that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to de novo methylation, and suggest that the propensity for a CpG island to become aberrantly methylated can be predicted based on its sequence context.

  9. Fitting relationship between the beam quality β factor of high-energy laser and the wavefront aberration of laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhong-Ye; Zhang, Xiao-Fang

    2018-01-01

    The mathematical relation between the beam quality β factor of high-energy laser and the wavefront aberration of laser beam is important in beam quality control theory of the high-energy laser weapon system. In order to obtain this mathematical relation, numerical simulation is used in the research. Firstly, the Zernike representations of typically distorted atmospheric wavefront aberrations caused by the Kolmogoroff turbulence are generated. And then, the corresponding beam quality β factors of the different distorted wavefronts are calculated numerically through fast Fourier transform. Thus, the statistical distribution rule between the beam quality β factors of high-energy laser and the wavefront aberrations of the beam can be established by the calculated results. Finally, curve fitting method is chosen to establish the mathematical fitting relationship of these two parameters. And the result of the curve fitting shows that there is a quadratic curve relation between the beam quality β factor of high-energy laser and the wavefront aberration of laser beam. And in this paper, 3 fitting curves, in which the wavefront aberrations are consisted of Zernike Polynomials of 20, 36, 60 orders individually, are established to express the relationship between the beam quality β factor and atmospheric wavefront aberrations with different spatial frequency.

  10. Aberrant activity in retinal degeneration impairs central visual processing and relies on Cx36-containing gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena; Yee, Christopher W; Baldoni, Robert; Sagdullaev, Botir T

    2016-09-01

    In retinal degenerative disease (RD), the diminished light signal from dying photoreceptors has been considered the sole cause of visual impairment. Recent studies show a 10-fold increase in spontaneous activity in the RD network, challenging this paradigm. This aberrant activity forms a new barrier for the light signal, and not only exacerbates the loss of vision, but also may stand in the way of visual restoration. This activity originates in AII amacrine cells and relies on excessive activation of gap junctions. However, it remains unclear whether aberrant activity affects central visual processing and what mechanisms lead to this excessive activation of gap junctions. By combining genetic manipulation with electrophysiological recordings of light-induced activity in both living mice and isolated wholemount retina, we demonstrate that aberrant activity extends along retinotectal projections to alter activity in higher brain centers. Next, to selectively eliminate Cx36-containing gap junctions, which are the primary type expressed by AII amacrine cells, we crossed rd10 mice, a slow-degenerating model of RD, with Cx36 knockout mice. We found that retinal aberrant activity was reduced in the rd10/Cx36KO mice compared to rd10 controls, a direct evidence for involvement of Cx36-containing gap junctions in generating aberrant activity in RD. These data provide an essential support for future experiments to determine if selectively targeting these gap junctions could be a valid strategy for reducing aberrant activity and restoring light responses in RD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher-order aberrations of lenticular opacities.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Nisha; Ormonde, Susan E; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2004-08-01

    To measure and quantify higher-order aberrations induced by different types of lenticular opacities. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Auckland, and Department of Ophthalmology, Auckland Public Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Patients with lenticular opacities were recruited from outpatient clinics of a major tertiary referral center for ophthalmology. Patients were included if they had clinically evident, mild to moderate lenticular opacity with no coexisting ocular pathology. Patients were examined using standard preoperative techniques with additional assessment by wavefront aberrometry (Zywave, Bausch & Lomb) and Scheimpflug photography (EAS-1000, Nidek). For comparison, 20 eyes of 10 subjects with no lenticular opacity (control group) were recruited and assessed in an identical manner. Thirty persons were recruited and 40 eyes assessed, 20 with lenticular opacities. Ten eyes had predominantly cortical opacification, and 10 had mainly nuclear opacification. In eyes with predominantly cortical opacification, the mean logMAR uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 0.5 +/- 0.2 (SD) (6/18 Snellen equivalent) and the mean logMAR best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), 0.2 +/- 0.2 (6/9). Analysis of aberrometry data for a 6.0 mm pupil in this group revealed an increase in coma of cosine phase (Z(3), P =.06) and tetrafoil of cosine phase (Z(4), P =.07) compared to eyes in the control group. Eyes with predominantly nuclear opacification had a mean logMAR UCVA of 0.7 +/- 0.2 (6/30) and a logMAR BSCVA of 0.4 +/- 0.2 (6/15). Aberrometry data for this cohort for a 6.0 mm pupil showed a statistically greater amount of spherical aberration (Z(4)(0), P =.001) and tetrafoil of cosine phase (Z(4), P =.005; Z(4)(-4), P =.004). This pilot study suggests that different types of early lenticular opacities induce different wavefront aberration profiles. Predominantly cortical opacification produced an increase in coma and nuclear opacification induced an increase in

  12. CD4+ memory T cells retain surface expression of CD31 independently of thymic function in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders following autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Batorov, Egor V; Tikhonova, Marina A; Kryuchkova, Irina V; Sergeevicheva, Vera V; Sizikova, Svetlana A; Ushakova, Galina Y; Batorova, Dariya S; Gilevich, Andrey V; Ostanin, Alexander A; Shevela, Ekaterina Y; Chernykh, Elena R

    2017-07-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) causes severe and long-lasting immunodeficiency in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. The thymus begins to restore the T-cell repertoire approximately from the sixth month post-transplant. We assessed the dynamics of post-transplant recovery of CD4 + CD45RA + CD31 + T cells, "recent thymic emigrants" (RTEs), and a poorly described subtype of CD4 + CD45RA - CD31 + T cells in 90 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders following high-dose chemotherapy with AHSCT. Relative and absolute counts of CD4 + CD31 + naïve and memory T cells were evaluated before AHSCT, at the day of engraftment, and 6- and 12-month post-transplant. The pre-transplant count of CD4 + CD45RA + CD31 + T cells was lower than in healthy controls, and did not reach donors' values during the 12-month period. The pre-transplant number of CD4 + CD45RA - CD31 + T cells was higher than in healthy controls and was restored rapidly following AHSCT. Post-transplant mediastinal radiotherapy reduced counts of RTEs and elongated recovery period. Non-thymic tissue irradiation did not reduce this subset. The obtained data indicate that homeostatic proliferation may decrease the significance of CD31 expression on CD4 + CD45RA + T cells as a marker of RTEs, and suggest that evaluation of RTEs recovery by flow cytometry requires an accurate gating strategy to exclude CD31 + memory T cells.

  13. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  14. Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1998-06-01

    New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.

  15. Third-rank chromatic aberrations of electron lenses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients of round electron lenses are analytically derived and numerically calculated by Mathematica. Furthermore, the numerical results are cross-checked by the differential algebraic (DA) method, which verifies that all the formulas for the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients are completely correct. It is hoped that this work would be helpful for further chromatic aberration correction in electron microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Aberrations After Standard and Customized Refractive Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; He, X.; Wang, Y.

    2013-09-01

    To detect possible differences in residual wavefront aberrations between standard and customized laser refractive surgery based onmathematical modeling, the residual optical aberrations after conventional and customized laser refractive surgery were compared accordingto the ablation profile with transition zone. The results indicated that ablation profile has a significant impact on the residual aberrations.The amount of residual aberrations for conventional correction is higher than that for customized correction. Additionally, the residualaberrations for high myopia eyes are markedly larger than those for moderate myopia eyes. For a 5 mm pupil, the main residual aberrationterm is coma and yet it is spherical aberration for a 7 mm pupil. When the pupil diameter is the same as optical zone or greater, themagnitudes of residual aberrations is obviously larger than that for a smaller pupil. In addition, the magnitudes of the residual fifth orsixth order aberrations are relatively large, especially secondary coma in a 6 mm pupil and secondary spherical aberration in a 7 mm pupil.Therefore, the customized ablation profile may be superior to the conventional correction even though the transition zone and treatmentdecentration are taken into account. However, the customized ablation profile will still induce significant amount of residual aberrations.

  17. Whole eye wavefront aberrations in Mexican male subjects.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Roberto; Rosales, Marco A; Tepichín, Eduardo; Curioca, Andrée; Montes, Victor; Bonilla, Julio

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics, incidence, and appearance of wavefront aberrations in undilated, normal, unoperated eyes. Eighty-eight eyes of 44 healthy male Mexican subjects (mean age 25.32 years, range 18 to 36 yr) were divided into three groups based on uncorrected visual acuity of greater than or equal to 20/20, 20/30, or 20/40. UCVA measurements were obtained using an Acuity Max computer screen chart. Wavefront aberrations were measured with the Nidek OPD-Scan ARK 10000, Ver. 1.11b. All measurements were carried out at the same center by the same technician during a single session, following manufacturer instructions. Background illumination was 3 Lux. Wavefront aberration measurements for each group were statistically analyzed using StatView; an average eye was characterized and the resulting aberrations were simulated using MATLAB. We obtained wavefront aberration maps for the 20/20 undilated normal unoperated eyes for total, low, and high order aberration coefficients. Wavefront maps for right eyes were practically the same as those for left eyes. Higher aberrations did not contribute substantially to total wavefront analysis. Average aberrations of this "normal eye" will be used as criteria to decide the necessity of wavefront-guided ablation in our facilities. We will focus on the nearly zero average of high order aberrations in this normal whole eye as a reference to be matched.

  18. Dynamic accommodation with simulated targets blurred with high order aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Gambra, Enrique; Wang, Yinan; Yuan, Jing; Kruger, Philip B.; Marcos, Susana

    2010-01-01

    High order aberrations have been suggested to play a role in determining the direction of accommodation. We have explored the effect of retinal blur induced by high order aberrations on dynamic accommodation by measuring the accommodative response to sinusoidal variations in accommodative demand (1–3 D). The targets were blurred with 0.3 and 1 μm (for a 3-mm pupil) of defocus, coma, trefoil and spherical aberration. Accommodative gain decreased significantly when 1-μm of aberration was induced. We found a strong correlation between the relative accommodative gain (and phase lag) and the contrast degradation imposed on the target at relevant spatial frequencies. PMID:20600230

  19. Imaging characteristics of Zernike and annular polynomial aberrations.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Virendra N; Díaz, José Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The general equations for the point-spread function (PSF) and optical transfer function (OTF) are given for any pupil shape, and they are applied to optical imaging systems with circular and annular pupils. The symmetry properties of the PSF, the real and imaginary parts of the OTF, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a system with a circular pupil aberrated by a Zernike circle polynomial aberration are derived. The interferograms and PSFs are illustrated for some typical polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of one wave, and 3D PSFs and MTFs are shown for 0.1 wave. The Strehl ratio is also calculated for polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of 0.1 wave, and shown to be well estimated from the sigma value. The numerical results are compared with the corresponding results in the literature. Because of the same angular dependence of the corresponding annular and circle polynomial aberrations, the symmetry properties of systems with annular pupils aberrated by an annular polynomial aberration are the same as those for a circular pupil aberrated by a corresponding circle polynomial aberration. They are also illustrated with numerical examples.

  20. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  1. Aberrant activity of NKL homeobox gene NKX3-2 in a T-ALL subset.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Zaborski, Margarete; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Drexler, Hans G

    2018-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a hematopoietic malignancy originating from T-cell progenitors in which differentiation is blocked at early stages. Physiological expression of specific NKL homeobox genes obeys a hematopoietic NKL-code implicated in the process of lymphopoiesis while in differentiated T-cells these genes are silenced. We propose that this developmental expression pattern underlies the observation that NKL homeobox genes are the most ubiquitous group of transcription factors deregulated in T-ALL, including TLX1, TLX3, NKX2-5 and NKX3-1. Here, we describe a novel member of the NKL homeobox gene subclass, NKX3-2 (BAPX1), which is aberrantly activated in 18% of pediatric T-ALL patients analyzed while being normally expressed in developing spleen. Identification of NKX3-2 expression in T-ALL cell line CCRF-CEM qualified these cells to model its deregulation and function in a leukemic context. Genomic and chromosomal analyses demonstrated normal configuration of the NKX3-2 locus at chromosome 4p15, thus excluding cytogenetic dysregulation. Comparative expression profiling analysis of NKX3-2 patient data revealed deregulated activity of BMP- and MAPK-signalling. These candidate pathways were experimentally confirmed to mediate aberrant NKX3-2 expression. We also show that homeobox gene SIX6, plus MIR17HG and GATA3 are downstream targets of NKX3-2 and plausibly contribute to the pathogenesis of this malignancy by suppressing T-cell differentiation. Finally, NKL homeobox gene NKX2-5 was activated by NKX3-2 in CCRF-CEM and by FOXG1 in PEER, representing mutually inhibitory activators of this translocated oncogene. Together, our findings reveal a novel oncogenic NKL homeobox gene subclass member which is aberrantly expressed in a large subset of T-ALL patients and participates in a deregulated gene network likely to arise in developing spleen.

  2. Aberrant activity of NKL homeobox gene NKX3-2 in a T-ALL subset

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Zaborski, Margarete; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Drexler, Hans G.

    2018-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a hematopoietic malignancy originating from T-cell progenitors in which differentiation is blocked at early stages. Physiological expression of specific NKL homeobox genes obeys a hematopoietic NKL-code implicated in the process of lymphopoiesis while in differentiated T-cells these genes are silenced. We propose that this developmental expression pattern underlies the observation that NKL homeobox genes are the most ubiquitous group of transcription factors deregulated in T-ALL, including TLX1, TLX3, NKX2-5 and NKX3-1. Here, we describe a novel member of the NKL homeobox gene subclass, NKX3-2 (BAPX1), which is aberrantly activated in 18% of pediatric T-ALL patients analyzed while being normally expressed in developing spleen. Identification of NKX3-2 expression in T-ALL cell line CCRF-CEM qualified these cells to model its deregulation and function in a leukemic context. Genomic and chromosomal analyses demonstrated normal configuration of the NKX3-2 locus at chromosome 4p15, thus excluding cytogenetic dysregulation. Comparative expression profiling analysis of NKX3-2 patient data revealed deregulated activity of BMP- and MAPK-signalling. These candidate pathways were experimentally confirmed to mediate aberrant NKX3-2 expression. We also show that homeobox gene SIX6, plus MIR17HG and GATA3 are downstream targets of NKX3-2 and plausibly contribute to the pathogenesis of this malignancy by suppressing T-cell differentiation. Finally, NKL homeobox gene NKX2-5 was activated by NKX3-2 in CCRF-CEM and by FOXG1 in PEER, representing mutually inhibitory activators of this translocated oncogene. Together, our findings reveal a novel oncogenic NKL homeobox gene subclass member which is aberrantly expressed in a large subset of T-ALL patients and participates in a deregulated gene network likely to arise in developing spleen. PMID:29746601

  3. Aberrant and alternative splicing in skeletal system disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xin; Tang, Liling

    2013-10-01

    The main function of skeletal system is to support the body and help movement. A variety of factors can lead to skeletal system disease, including age, exercise, and of course genetic makeup and expression. Pre-mRNA splicing plays a crucial role in gene expression, by creating multiple protein variants with different biological functions. The recent studies show that several skeletal system diseases are related to pre-mRNA splicing. This review focuses on the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease. On the one hand, splice site mutation that leads to aberrant splicing often causes genetic skeletal system disease, like COL1A1, SEDL and LRP5. On the other hand, alternative splicing without genomic mutation may generate some marker protein isoforms, for example, FN, VEGF and CD44. Therefore, understanding the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease will aid in uncovering the mechanism of disease and contribute to the future development of gene therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Cytokine-mediated regulation of expression of Gfi1 and U2afll4 genes activated by T-cells with different differentiation status in vitro].

    PubMed

    Yurova, K A; Sokhonevich, N A; Khaziakhmatova, O G; Litvinova, L S

    2016-01-01

    The dose-dependent effects of cytokines (IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15), which have a common g-chain, on mRNA expression of U2afll4 and GFi1 genes involved in regulation of alternative splicing of the Ptprc gene, have been investigated in vitro using T-lymphocyte cultures with different degrees of differentiation. IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 caused a similar unidirectional inhibitory effect of various severity on restimulated CD45RO+ T-cells exposed to an antigen-independent activation; they caused a dose-dependent decrease of the U2af1l4 gene expression, and an increase of Gfi1 gene expression. This may suggest formation of active forms of the CD45 receptor, and also limitation of the formation of low-molecular short splice variants of the CD45RO receptor. Under conditions of antigen-independent stimulation of naive CD45RA+-cells rIL-7 and IL-15 exhibited opposite effects on U2af1l4 and Gfi1 gene expression. The increase of IL-7 concentrations in the incubation medium of naive cells was accompanied by a decrease in expression of both genes. IL-15 IL-7 exhibited opposite effects. Cytokines possessing a common g-chain (IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15) prevented antigen-independent differentiation of naive T-cells, by preventing the formation of polyclonal "surrogate" cells. In general, the study of the molecular mechanisms of genetic control determining homeostatic processes of T-cells in response to exposure to antigenic or non-antigenic treatments may be important for construction of a general model of self-maintenance and differentiation of immune cells.

  5. Overlapped Fourier coding for optical aberration removal

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We present an imaging procedure that simultaneously optimizes a camera’s resolution and retrieves a sample’s phase over a sequence of snapshots. The technique, termed overlapped Fourier coding (OFC), first digitally pans a small aperture across a camera’s pupil plane with a spatial light modulator. At each aperture location, a unique image is acquired. The OFC algorithm then fuses these low-resolution images into a full-resolution estimate of the complex optical field incident upon the detector. Simultaneously, the algorithm utilizes redundancies within the acquired dataset to computationally estimate and remove unknown optical aberrations and system misalignments via simulated annealing. The result is an imaging system that can computationally overcome its optical imperfections to offer enhanced resolution, at the expense of taking multiple snapshots over time. PMID:25321982

  6. Age and CD161 Expression Contribute to Inter-Individual Variation in Interleukin-23 Response in CD8+ Memory Human T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Clara; Cho, Judy H.

    2013-01-01

    The interleukin-23 (IL-23) pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic inflammatory disorders, however, inter-individual variability in IL-23-induced signal transduction in circulating human lymphocytes has not been well-defined. In this study, we observed marked, reproducible inter-individual differences in IL-23 responsiveness (measured by STAT3 phosphorylation) in peripheral blood CD8+CD45RO+ memory T and CD3+CD56+ NKT cells. Age, but not gender, was a significant (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r = −0.37, p = 0.001) source of variability observed in CD8+CD45RO+ memory T cells, with IL-23 responsiveness gradually decreasing with increasing age. Relative to cells from individuals demonstrating low responsiveness to IL-23 stimulation, CD8+CD45RO+ memory T cells from individuals demonstrating high responsiveness to IL-23 stimulation showed increased gene expression for IL-23 receptor (IL-23R), RORC (RORγt) and CD161 (KLRB1), whereas RORA (RORα) and STAT3 expression were equivalent. Similar to CD4+ memory T cells, IL-23 responsiveness is confined to the CD161+ subset in CD8+CD45RO+ memory T cells, suggesting a similar CD161+ precursor as has been reported for CD4+ Th17 cells. We observed a very strong positive correlation between IL-23 responsiveness and the fraction of CD161+, CD8+CD45RO+ memory T cells (r = 0.80, p<0.001). Moreover, the fraction of CD161+, CD8+CD45RO+ memory T cells gradually decreases with aging (r = −0.34, p = 0.05). Our data define the inter-individual differences in IL-23 responsiveness in peripheral blood lymphocytes from the general population. Variable expression of CD161, IL-23R and RORC affects IL-23 responsiveness and contributes to the inter-individual susceptibility to IL-23-mediated defenses and inflammatory processes. PMID:23469228

  7. RSRC1 mutation affects intellect and behaviour through aberrant splicing and transcription, downregulating IGFBP3.

    PubMed

    Perez, Yonatan; Menascu, Shay; Cohen, Idan; Kadir, Rotem; Basha, Omer; Shorer, Zamir; Romi, Hila; Meiri, Gal; Rabinski, Tatiana; Ofir, Rivka; Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Birk, Ohad S

    2018-04-01

    RSRC1, whose polymorphism is associated with altered brain function in schizophrenia, is a member of the serine and arginine rich-related protein family. Through homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing we show that RSRC1 mutation causes an autosomal recessive syndrome of intellectual disability, aberrant behaviour, hypotonia and mild facial dysmorphism with normal brain MRI. Further, we show that RSRC1 is ubiquitously expressed, and that the RSRC1 mutation triggers nonsense-mediated mRNA decay of the RSRC1 transcript in patients' fibroblasts. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated lentiviral silencing and overexpression of RSRC1 in SH-SY5Y cells demonstrated that RSRC1 has a role in alternative splicing and transcription regulation. Transcriptome profiling of RSRC1-silenced cells unravelled specific differentially expressed genes previously associated with intellectual disability, hypotonia and schizophrenia, relevant to the disease phenotype. Protein-protein interaction network modelling suggested possible intermediate interactions by which RSRC1 affects gene-specific differential expression. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, differentiated into neural progenitor cells, showed expression dynamics similar to the RSRC1-silenced SH-SY5Y model. Notably, patient neural progenitor cells had 9.6-fold downregulated expression of IGFBP3, whose brain expression is affected by MECP2, aberrant in Rett syndrome. Interestingly, Igfbp3-null mice have behavioural impairment, abnormal synaptic function and monoaminergic neurotransmission, likely correlating with the disease phenotype.

  8. Modified Matching Ronchi Test to Visualize Lens Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Kh; Ziafi, H. Hooshmand

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work…

  9. Aberrated laser beams in terms of Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alda, Javier; Alonso, Jose; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    1996-11-01

    The characterization of light beams has devoted a lot of attention in the past decade. Several formalisms have been presented to treat the problem of parameter invariance and characterization in the propagation of light beam along ideal, ABCD, optical systems. The hard and soft apertured optical systems have been treated too. Also some aberrations have been analyzed, but it has not appeared a formalism able to treat the problem as a whole. In this contribution we use a classical approach to describe the problem of aberrated, and therefore apertured, light beams. The wavefront aberration is included in a pure phase term expanded in terms of the Zernike polynomials. Then, we can use the relation between the lower order Zernike polynomia and the Seidel or third order aberrations. We analyze the astigmatism, the spherical aberration and the coma, and we show how higher order aberrations can be taken into account. We have calculated the divergence, and the radius of curvature of such aberrated beams and the influence of these aberrations in the quality of the light beam. Some numerical simulations have been done to illustrate the method.

  10. Aberrant Breast in a Rare Site: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yeniay, Levent; Mulailwa, Kilongo; Asgerov, Elmir; Hoşcoşkun, Cüneyt; Zekioğlu, Osman

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant breast tissue is an anomaly in the embryogenesis of the breast that is found along the mammary ridge or out of that line. We report a case of a 71-year-old female patient with an abdominal aberrant breast tissue found incidentally in a piece of mesenteric biopsy. The histological features were consistent with breast tissue. PMID:22792115

  11. Sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, A.V.; Kopf, D.A.

    In an electron beam device in which an electron beam is developed and then focused by a lens to a particular spot, there is provided a means for eliminating spherical aberration. A sextupole electromagnetic lens is positioned between two focusing lenses. The interaction of the sextupole with the beam compensates for spherical aberration. (GHT)

  12. Statistical estimation of ultrasonic propagation path parameters for aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Waag, Robert C; Astheimer, Jeffrey P

    2005-05-01

    Parameters in a linear filter model for ultrasonic propagation are found using statistical estimation. The model uses an inhomogeneous-medium Green's function that is decomposed into a homogeneous-transmission term and a path-dependent aberration term. Power and cross-power spectra of random-medium scattering are estimated over the frequency band of the transmit-receive system by using closely situated scattering volumes. The frequency-domain magnitude of the aberration is obtained from a normalization of the power spectrum. The corresponding phase is reconstructed from cross-power spectra of subaperture signals at adjacent receive positions by a recursion. The subapertures constrain the receive sensitivity pattern to eliminate measurement system phase contributions. The recursion uses a Laplacian-based algorithm to obtain phase from phase differences. Pulse-echo waveforms were acquired from a point reflector and a tissue-like scattering phantom through a tissue-mimicking aberration path from neighboring volumes having essentially the same aberration path. Propagation path aberration parameters calculated from the measurements of random scattering through the aberration phantom agree with corresponding parameters calculated for the same aberrator and array position by using echoes from the point reflector. The results indicate the approach describes, in addition to time shifts, waveform amplitude and shape changes produced by propagation through distributed aberration under realistic conditions.

  13. Accuracy of modal wavefront estimation from eye transverse aberration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of random errors in measurement of eye transverse aberrations on the accuracy of reconstructing wave aberration as well as ametropia and astigmatism parameters is investigated. The dependence of mentioned errors on a ratio between the number of measurement points and the number of polynomial coefficients is found for different pupil location of measurement points. Recommendations are proposed for setting these ratios.

  14. Optical aberrations measurement with a low cost optometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Walter D.; Muñoz-Escrivá, L.; Pons, A.; Martínez-Corral, M.

    2002-08-01

    A simple experimental method for measuring optical aberrations of a single lens is proposed. The technique is based on the use of an optometric instrument employed for the assessment of the refractive state of the eye: the retinoscope. Experimental results for spherical aberration and astigmatism are obtained.

  15. Statistical virtual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-Mei; Liu, Chun-Ling; Luo, Yi-Ning; Liu, Yi-Guang; Hu, Bing-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Wavefront aberration affects the quality of retinal image directly. This paper reviews the representation and reconstruction of wavefront aberration, as well as the construction of virtual eye model based on Zernike polynomial coefficients. In addition, the promising prospect of virtual eye model is emphasized. PMID:23173112

  16. Brain endothelial adhesion molecule expression in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Sans, M; Kawachi, S; Soriano, A; Palacín, A; Morise, Z; Granger, D N; Piqué, J M; Grisham, M B; Panés, J

    2001-04-01

    1) To determine if endothelial expression of adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment is increased in the brain and other organs in four different models of experimental colitis, and 2) to investigate whether leukocyte infiltration occurs in the brain of colitic animals. Endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was quantified, using the dual radiolabeled antibody technique in rats with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, in SCID mice reconstituted with CD45RBhigh T-cells, and in IL-10-/- mice. Leukocyte infiltration in the brain of TNBS-induced colitic rats was assessed by myeloperoxidase activity and immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody. Marked upregulation of brain endothelial VCAM-1 (2- to 5.5-fold) was consistently found in colitic animals in the four models studied. Brain VCAM-1 strongly correlated with colon VCAM-1 and colon weight. By contrast, upregulation of brain ICAM-1 in colitic animals was only observed in the CD45RBhigh transfer (3-fold) and the TNBS-induced (1.5-fold models). Heart and muscle VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were not upregulated in colitic animals in the majority of models studied. There was no leukocyte infiltration into the brain of TNBS-induced colitic rats. Our study demonstrates a marked and specific upregulation of endothelial VCAM-1 in the brain of colitic animals. This activation of cerebral endothelial cells was not associated with an infiltration of leukocytes into brain tissue.

  17. Image based method for aberration measurement of lithographic tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Bo; Guo, Yongxing; Li, Gongfa

    2018-01-01

    Information of lens aberration of lithographic tools is important as it directly affects the intensity distribution in the image plane. Zernike polynomials are commonly used for a mathematical description of lens aberrations. Due to the advantage of lower cost and easier implementation of tools, image based measurement techniques have been widely used. Lithographic tools are typically partially coherent systems that can be described by a bilinear model, which entails time consuming calculations and does not lend a simple and intuitive relationship between lens aberrations and the resulted images. Previous methods for retrieving lens aberrations in such partially coherent systems involve through-focus image measurements and time-consuming iterative algorithms. In this work, we propose a method for aberration measurement in lithographic tools, which only requires measuring two images of intensity distribution. Two linear formulations are derived in matrix forms that directly relate the measured images to the unknown Zernike coefficients. Consequently, an efficient non-iterative solution is obtained.

  18. Surgical and healing changes to ocular aberrations following refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jochen; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To measure ocular aberrations before and at several time periods after LASIK surgery to determine the change to the aberration structure of the eye. Methods: A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure 88 LASIK patients pre-operatively and at 1 week and 12 months following surgery. Reconstructed wavefront errors are compared to look at induced differences. Manifest refraction was measured at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months following surgery. Sphere, cylinder, spherical aberration, and pupil diameter are analyzed. Results: A dramatic elevation in spherical aberration is seen following surgery. This elevation appears almost immediately and remains for the duration of the study. A temporary increase in pupil size is seen following surgery. Conclusions: LASIK surgery dramatically reduces defocus and astigmatism in the eye, but simultaneously increases spherical aberration levels. This increase occurs at the time of surgery and is not an effect of the healing response.

  19. Hydronephrosis by an Aberrant Renal Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung Seok; Jeong, Taek Kyun; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan; Kim, Nam Ho; Choi, Ki Chul; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2003-01-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction is usually intrinsic and is most common in children. Aberrant renal arteries are present in about 30% of individuals. Aberrant renal arteries to the inferior pole cross anteriorly to the ureter and may cause hydronephrosis. To the best of our knowledge, although there are some papers about aberrant renal arteries producing ureteropelvic junction obstruction, there is no report of a case which is diagnosed by the new modalities, such as computed tomography angiogram (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA). We describe a 36-year-old woman with right hydronephrosis. Kidney ultrasonogram and excretory urogram revealed right hydronephrosis. CTA and MRA clearly displayed an aberrant renal artery and hydronephrosis. The patient underwent surgical exploration. For the evaluation of hydronephrosis by an aberrant renal artery, use of CTA and MRA is advocated. PMID:12760271

  20. Aberration-free intraocular lenses - What does this really mean?

    PubMed

    Langenbucher, Achim; Schröder, Simon; Cayless, Alan; Eppig, Timo

    2017-09-01

    So-called aberration-free intraocular lenses (IOLs) are well established in modern cataract surgery. Usually, they are designed to perfectly refract a collimated light beam onto the focal point. We show how much aberration can be expected with such an IOL in a convergent light beam such as that found anterior to the human cornea. Additionally, the aberration in a collimated beam is estimated for an IOL that has no aberrations in the convergent beam. The convergent beam is modelled as the pencil of rays corresponding to the spherical wavefront resulting from a typical corneal power of 43m -1 . The IOLs are modelled as infinitely thin phase plates with 20m -1 optical power placed 5mm behind the cornea. Their aberrations are reported in terms of optical path length difference and longitudinal spherical aberration (LSA) of the marginal rays, as well as nominal spherical aberration (SA) calculated based on a Zernike representation of the wavefront-error at the corneal plane within a 6mm aperture. The IOL designed to have no aberrations in a collimated light beam has an optical path length difference of -1.8μm, and LSA of 0.15m -1 in the convergent beam of a typical eye. The corresponding nominal SA is 0.065μm. The IOL designed to have no aberrations in a convergent light beam has an optical path length difference of 1.8μm, and LSA of -0.15m -1 in the collimated beam. An IOL designed to have no aberrations in a collimated light beam will increase the SA of a patient's eye after implantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Huang, Juan; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and treated monkeys reared with optically induced defocus or form deprivation showed a decrease in the magnitude of high-order aberrations with age. However, the decrease in aberrations was typically smaller in the treated animals. Thus, at the end of the lens-rearing period, higher than normal amounts of aberrations were observed in treated eyes, both hyperopic and myopic eyes and treated eyes that developed astigmatism, but not spherical ametropias. The total RMS wavefront error increased with the degree of spherical refractive error, but was not correlated with the degree of astigmatism. Both myopic and hyperopic treated eyes showed elevated amounts of coma and trefoil and the degree of trefoil increased with the degree of spherical ametropia. Myopic eyes also exhibited a much higher prevalence of positive spherical aberration than normal or treated hyperopic eyes. Following the onset of unrestricted vision, the amount of high-order aberrations decreased in the treated monkeys that also recovered from the experimentally induced refractive errors. Our results demonstrate that high-order aberrations are influenced by visual experience in young primates and that the increase in high-order aberrations in our treated monkeys appears to be an optical byproduct of the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth that underlie changes in refractive error. The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development. PMID:17825347

  2. Performance analysis of grazing incidence imaging systems. [X ray telescope aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, C. E.; Korsch, D.

    1977-01-01

    An exact expression relating the coordinates of a point on the incident ray, a point of reflection from an arbitrary surface, and a point on the reflected ray is derived. The exact relation is then specialized for the case of grazing incidence, and first order and third order systematic analyses are carried out for a single reflective surface and then for a combination of two surfaces. The third order treatment yields a complete set of primary aberrations for single element and two element systems. The importance of a judicious choice for a coordinate system in showing field curvature to clearly be the predominant aberration for a two element system is discussed. The validity of the theory is verified through comparisons with the exact ray trace results for the case of the telescope.

  3. Simple method based on intensity measurements for characterization of aberrations from micro-optical components.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Stephane; Baranski, Maciej; Froehly, Luc; Albero, Jorge; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    We report a simple method, based on intensity measurements, for the characterization of the wavefront and aberrations produced by micro-optical focusing elements. This method employs the setup presented earlier in [Opt. Express 22, 13202 (2014)] for measurements of the 3D point spread function, on which a basic phase-retrieval algorithm is applied. This combination allows for retrieval of the wavefront generated by the micro-optical element and, in addition, quantification of the optical aberrations through the wavefront decomposition with Zernike polynomials. The optical setup requires only an in-motion imaging system. The technique, adapted for the optimization of micro-optical component fabrication, is demonstrated by characterizing a planoconvex microlens.

  4. DNA methylation aberrancies as a guide for surveillance and treatment of human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Gangning; Weisenberger, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA methylation aberrancies are hallmarks of human cancers and are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation of repetitive elements and non-CpG rich regions concomitant with locus-specific DNA hypermethylation. DNA methylation changes may result in altered gene expression profiles, most notably the silencing of tumor suppressors, microRNAs, endogenous retorviruses and tumor antigens due to promoter DNA hypermethylation, as well as oncogene upregulation due to gene-body DNA hypermethylation. Here, we review DNA methylation aberrancies in human cancers, their use in cancer surveillance and the interplay between DNA methylation and histone modifications in gene regulation. We also summarize DNA methylation inhibitors and their therapeutic effects in cancer treatment. In this context, we describe the integration of DNA methylation inhibitors with conventional chemotherapies, DNA repair inhibitors and immune-based therapies, to bring the epigenome closer to its normal state and increase sensitivity to other therapeutic agents to improve patient outcome and survival. PMID:28358281

  5. Aberrant AKT activation drives well-differentiated liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Alejandro; Snyder, Eric L.; Marino-Enriquez, Adrian; Zhang, Yi-Xiang; Sioletic, Stefano; Kozakewich, Elena; Grebliunaite, Ruta; Ou, Wen-bin; Sicinska, Ewa; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Demetri, George D.; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R.; Wagner, Andrew J.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Fletcher, Christopher D. M.; Look, A. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS), one of the most common human sarcomas, is poorly responsive to radiation and chemotherapy, and the lack of animal models suitable for experimental analysis has seriously impeded functional investigation of its pathobiology and development of effective targeted therapies. Here, we show that zebrafish expressing constitutively active Akt2 in mesenchymal progenitors develop WDLPS that closely resembles the human disease. Tumor incidence rates were 8% in p53 wild-type zebrafish, 6% in p53 heterozygotes, and 29% in p53-homozygous mutant zebrafish (P = 0.013), indicating that aberrant Akt activation collaborates with p53 mutation in WDLPS pathogenesis. Analysis of primary clinical specimens of WDLPS, and of the closely related dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) subtype, revealed immunohistochemical evidence of AKT activation in 27% of cases. Western blot analysis of a panel of cell lines derived from patients with WDLPS or DDLPS revealed robust AKT phosphorylation in all cell lines examined, even when these cells were cultured in serum-free media. Moreover, BEZ235, a small molecule inhibitor of PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin that effectively inhibits AKT activation in these cells, impaired viability at nanomolar concentrations. Our findings are unique in providing an animal model to decipher the molecular pathogenesis of WDLPS, and implicate AKT as a previously unexplored therapeutic target in this chemoresistant sarcoma. PMID:21930930

  6. Aberration corrected STEM by means of diffraction gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Linck, Martin; Ercius, Peter A.; Pierce, Jordan S.

    In the past 15 years, the advent of aberration correction technology in electron microscopy has enabled materials analysis on the atomic scale. This is made possible by precise arrangements of multipole electrodes and magnetic solenoids to compensate the aberrations inherent to any focusing element of an electron microscope. In this paper, we describe an alternative method to correct for the spherical aberration of the objective lens in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a passive, nanofabricated diffractive optical element. This holographic device is installed in the probe forming aperture of a conventional electron microscope and can be designed to removemore » arbitrarily complex aberrations from the electron's wave front. In this work, we show a proof-of-principle experiment that demonstrates successful correction of the spherical aberration in STEM by means of such a grating corrector (GCOR). Our GCOR enables us to record aberration-corrected high-resolution high-angle annular dark field (HAADF-) STEM images, although yet without advancement in probe current and resolution. Finally, improvements in this technology could provide an economical solution for aberration-corrected high-resolution STEM in certain use scenarios.« less

  7. Population dynamics of aberrant chromosome 1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Sabantsev, I; Spitsin, O; Agulnik, S; Ruvinsky, A

    1993-05-01

    Natural populations of two semispecies of house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m. musculus, were found to be polymorphic for an aberrant chromosome 1 bearing a large inserted block of homogeneously staining heterochromatin. Strong meiotic drive for the aberrant chromosome from M.m. musculus was previously observed in heterozygous female mice. There are at least three meiotic drive levels determined by different allelic variants of distorter. Homozygotes had low viability and females showed low fertility. Both homo- and heterozygous males had normal fertility and their segregation patterns did not deviate from normal. Computer simulations were performed of the dynamics of aberrant chromosome 1 in demes and populations. The data demonstrate that a spontaneous mutation (inversion) of an aberrant chromosome 1, once arisen, has a high probability of spreading in a population at high coefficients of meiotic drive and migration. In the long-term, the population attains a stationary state which is determined by the drive level and migration intensity. The state of stable genotypic equilibrium is independent of deme and population size, as well as of the initial concentration of the aberrant chromosome. As populations initially polymorphic for the distorters approach the stationary state, the stronger distorter is eliminated. The frequencies of the aberrant chromosome determined by computer analysis agree well with those obtained for the studied Asian M.m. musculus populations. The evolutionary pathways for the origin and fixation of the aberrant chromosome in natural populations are considered.

  8. Aberration corrected STEM by means of diffraction gratings

    DOE PAGES

    Linck, Martin; Ercius, Peter A.; Pierce, Jordan S.; ...

    2017-06-12

    In the past 15 years, the advent of aberration correction technology in electron microscopy has enabled materials analysis on the atomic scale. This is made possible by precise arrangements of multipole electrodes and magnetic solenoids to compensate the aberrations inherent to any focusing element of an electron microscope. In this paper, we describe an alternative method to correct for the spherical aberration of the objective lens in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a passive, nanofabricated diffractive optical element. This holographic device is installed in the probe forming aperture of a conventional electron microscope and can be designed to removemore » arbitrarily complex aberrations from the electron's wave front. In this work, we show a proof-of-principle experiment that demonstrates successful correction of the spherical aberration in STEM by means of such a grating corrector (GCOR). Our GCOR enables us to record aberration-corrected high-resolution high-angle annular dark field (HAADF-) STEM images, although yet without advancement in probe current and resolution. Finally, improvements in this technology could provide an economical solution for aberration-corrected high-resolution STEM in certain use scenarios.« less

  9. The Mechanisms of Aberrant Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Samuel; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chris; Knowles, Tuomas

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a kinetic theory for understanding the aberrant loss of solubility of proteins. The failure to maintain protein solubility results often in the assembly of organized linear structures, commonly known as amyloid fibrils, the formation of which is associated with over 50 clinical disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A true microscopic understanding of the mechanisms that drive these aggregation processes has proved difficult to achieve. To address this challenge, we apply the methodologies of chemical kinetics to the biomolecular self-assembly pathways related to protein aggregation. We discuss the relevant master equation and analytical approaches to studying it. In particular, we derive the underlying rate laws in closed-form using a self-consistent solution scheme; the solutions that we obtain reveal scaling behaviors that are very generally present in systems of growing linear aggregates, and, moreover, provide a general route through which to relate experimental measurements to mechanistic information. We conclude by outlining a study of the aggregation of the Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide. The study identifies the dominant microscopic mechanism of aggregation and reveals previously unidentified therapeutic strategies.

  10. Ocular higher-order aberrations in a school children population.

    PubMed

    Papamastorakis, George; Panagopoulou, Sophia; Tsilimbaris, Militadis K; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Plainis, Sotiris

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to explore the statistics of ocular higher-order aberrations in a population of primary and secondary school children. A sample of 557 children aged 10-15 years were selected from two primary and two secondary schools in Heraklion, Greece. Children were classified by age in three subgroups: group I (10.7±0.5 years), group II (12.4±0.5 years) and group III (14.5±0.5 years). Ocular aberrations were measured using a wavefront aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences, USA) at mesopic light levels (illuminance at cornea was 4lux). Wavefront analysis was achieved for a 5mm pupil. Statistical analysis was carried out for the right eye only. The average coefficient of most high-order aberrations did not differ from zero with the exception of vertical (0.076μm) and horizontal (0.018μm) coma, oblique trefoil (-0.055μm) and spherical aberration (0.018μm). The most prominent change between the three groups was observed for the spherical aberration, which increased from 0.007μm (SE 0.005) in group I to 0.011μm (SE 0.004) in group II and 0.030μm (SE 0.004) in group III. Significant differences were also found for the oblique astigmatism and the third-order coma aberrations. Differences in the low levels of ocular spherical aberration in young children possibly reflect differences in lenticular spherical aberration and relate to the gradient refractive index of the lens. The evaluation of spherical aberration at certain stages of eye growth may help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of myopia development. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Ocular higher-order aberrations in a school children population

    PubMed Central

    Papamastorakis, George; Panagopoulou, Sophia; Tsilimbaris, Militadis K.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Plainis, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of the study was to explore the statistics of ocular higher-order aberrations in a population of primary and secondary school children. Methods A sample of 557 children aged 10–15 years were selected from two primary and two secondary schools in Heraklion, Greece. Children were classified by age in three subgroups: group I (10.7 ± 0.5 years), group II (12.4 ± 0.5 years) and group III (14.5 ± 0.5 years). Ocular aberrations were measured using a wavefront aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences, USA) at mesopic light levels (illuminance at cornea was 4 lux). Wavefront analysis was achieved for a 5 mm pupil. Statistical analysis was carried out for the right eye only. Results The average coefficient of most high-order aberrations did not differ from zero with the exception of vertical (0.076 μm) and horizontal (0.018 μm) coma, oblique trefoil (−0.055 μm) and spherical aberration (0.018 μm). The most prominent change between the three groups was observed for the spherical aberration, which increased from 0.007 μm (SE 0.005) in group I to 0.011 μm (SE 0.004) in group II and 0.030 μm (SE 0.004) in group III. Significant differences were also found for the oblique astigmatism and the third-order coma aberrations. Conclusions Differences in the low levels of ocular spherical aberration in young children possibly reflect differences in lenticular spherical aberration and relate to the gradient refractive index of the lens. The evaluation of spherical aberration at certain stages of eye growth may help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of myopia development. PMID:25288226

  12. I. The theory of aberrations of quadrupole focusing arrays. II. Ion optical design of high quality extracted synchrotron beams with application to the bevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Meads, Jr, Philip Francis

    In Part One they formulate in a general way the problem of analyzing and evaluating the aberrations of quadrupole magnet beam systems, and of characterizing the shapes and other properties of the beam envelopes in the neighborhood of foci. They consider all aberrations, including those due to misalignments and faulty construction, through third order in small parameters, for quadrupole beam systems. One result of this study is the development of analytic and numerical techniques for treating these aberrations, yielding useful expressions for the comparison of the aberrations of different beam systems. A second result of this study is a comprehensivemore » digital computer program that determines the magnitude and nature of the aberrations of such beam systems. The code, using linear programming techniques, will adjust the parameters of a beam system to obtain specified optical properties and to reduce the magnitude of aberrations that limit the performance of that system. They examine numerically, in detail, the aberrations of two typical beam systems. In Part Two, they examine the problem of extracting the proton beam from a synchrotron of 'H' type magnet construction. They describe the optical studies that resulted in the design of an external beam from the Bevatron that is optimized with respect to linear, dispersive, and aberration properties and that uses beam elements of conservative design. The design of the beam is the result of the collaboration of many people representing several disciplines. They describe the digital computer programs developed to carry out detailed orbit studies which were required because of the existence of large second order aberrations in the beam.« less

  13. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Florian T A; Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd U

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting, monofocal intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS Twenty-one patients (34 eyes) aged 50 to 83y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity (CS) under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations (HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight (C-Quant). RESULTS Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27 (primary coma components) and -0.04±0.16 (spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed (P≥0.28). CONCLUSION The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataract surgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration (HOA) and normal straylight. PMID:26309872

  14. The Landscape of Somatic Chromosomal Copy Number Aberrations in GEM Models of Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi-Frias, Daniella; Hernandez, Susana A.; Coleman, Roger; Wu, Hong; Nelson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Human prostate cancer (PCa) is known to harbor recurrent genomic aberrations consisting of chromosomal losses, gains, rearrangements and mutations that involve oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models have been constructed to assess the causal role of these putative oncogenic events and provide molecular insight into disease pathogenesis. While GEM models generally initiate neoplasia by manipulating a single gene, expression profiles of GEM tumors typically comprise hundreds of transcript alterations. It is unclear whether these transcriptional changes represent the pleiotropic effects of single oncogenes, and/or cooperating genomic or epigenomic events. Therefore, it was determined if structural chromosomal alterations occur in GEM models of PCa and whether the changes are concordant with human carcinomas. Whole genome array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to identify somatic chromosomal copy number aberrations (SCNAs) in the widely used TRAMP, Hi-Myc, Pten-null and LADY GEM models. Interestingly, very few SCNAs were identified and the genomic architecture of Hi-Myc, Pten-null and LADY tumors were essentially identical to the germline. TRAMP neuroendocrine carcinomas contained SCNAs, which comprised three recurrent aberrations including a single copy loss of chromosome 19 (encoding Pten). In contrast, cell lines derived from the TRAMP, Hi-Myc, and Pten-null tumors were notable for numerous SCNAs that included copy gains of chromosome 15 (encoding Myc) and losses of chromosome 11 (encoding p53). PMID:25298407

  15. c-Met–mediated endothelial plasticity drives aberrant vascularization and chemoresistance in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Menggui; Liu, Tianrun; Ma, Peihong; Mitteer, R. Alan; Zhang, Zhenting; Kim, Hyun Jun; Yeo, Eujin; Zhang, Duo; Cai, Peiqiang; Li, Chunsheng; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Botao; Roccograndi, Laura; O’Rourke, Donald M.; Dahmane, Nadia; Gong, Yanqing; Koumenis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant vascularization is a hallmark of cancer progression and treatment resistance. Here, we have shown that endothelial cell (EC) plasticity drives aberrant vascularization and chemoresistance in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). By utilizing human patient specimens, as well as allograft and genetic murine GBM models, we revealed that a robust endothelial plasticity in GBM allows acquisition of fibroblast transformation (also known as endothelial mesenchymal transition [Endo-MT]), which is characterized by EC expression of fibroblast markers, and determined that a prominent population of GBM-associated fibroblast-like cells have EC origin. Tumor ECs acquired the mesenchymal gene signature without the loss of EC functions, leading to enhanced cell proliferation and migration, as well as vessel permeability. Furthermore, we identified a c-Met/ETS-1/matrix metalloproteinase–14 (MMP-14) axis that controls VE-cadherin degradation, Endo-MT, and vascular abnormality. Pharmacological c-Met inhibition induced vessel normalization in patient tumor–derived ECs. Finally, EC-specific KO of Met inhibited vascular transformation, normalized blood vessels, and reduced intratumoral hypoxia, culminating in suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival in GBM-bearing mice after temozolomide treatment. Together, these findings illustrate a mechanism that controls aberrant tumor vascularization and suggest that targeting Endo-MT may offer selective and efficient strategies for antivascular and vessel normalization therapies in GBM, and possibly other malignant tumors. PMID:27043280

  16. Aberrant EPHB4 gene methylation and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuhua; Wang, Huihui; Chen, Xiaowen; Mai, Huirong; Li, Changgang; Wen, Feiqiu

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between aberrant DNA methylation of the promoter region of the ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EPHB4) gene and the development of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) was performed to determine the methylation density of cytosine-guanine pair islands in the promoter region of EPHB4, in bone marrow samples from 40 children with ALL. The mRNA and protein expression levels of EPHB4 were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. A total of 10 children with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) were recruited as controls. The results revealed that the average methylation density of the bone marrow samples from the patients with ALL was significantly higher, compared with the patients with ITP (P=0.046). The relative mRNA expression levels of EPHB4 in the patients with ITP (25.08±4.03) and the patients with ALL without methylation (12.33±2.16) were significantly higher, compared with that observed in the patients with ALL with methylation (6.48±2.73; P<0.01). Pearson analysis revealed a significant negative linear correlation between EPHB4 gene methylation and its expression levels (r=−0.957; P<0.01). Western blot analysis indicated that EPHB4 protein expression levels were low in the methylated ALL samples. An evaluation of the two-year disease-free survival (DFS) of the patients with ALL was performed, which revealed that the patients with unmethylated ALL exhibited a significantly higher two-year DFS rate, as compared with patients with methylated ALL (P=0.036). These results suggest that the methylation of the EPHB4 gene is prevalent in childhood ALL and may result in expressional inactivation, which consequently promotes ALL pathogenesis and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Therefore, the EPHB4 gene may function as a potential tumor suppressor in childhood ALL. PMID:29085439

  17. Electron Optics for Biologists: Physical Origins of Spherical Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geissler, Peter; Zadunaisky, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Reports on the physical origins of spherical aberrations in axially symmetric electrostatic lenses to convey the essentials of electon optics to those who must think critically about the resolution of the electron microscope. (GS)

  18. Brillouin micro-spectroscopy through aberrations via sensorless adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edrei, Eitan; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2018-04-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is a powerful optical technique for non-contact viscoelastic characterizations which has recently found applications in three-dimensional mapping of biological samples. Brillouin spectroscopy performances are rapidly degraded by optical aberrations and have therefore been limited to homogenous transparent samples. In this work, we developed an adaptive optics (AO) configuration designed for Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to engineer the incident wavefront and correct for aberrations. Our configuration does not require direct wavefront sensing and the injection of a "guide-star"; hence, it can be implemented without the need for sample pre-treatment. We used our AO-Brillouin spectrometer in aberrated phantoms and biological samples and obtained improved precision and resolution of Brillouin spectral analysis; we demonstrated 2.5-fold enhancement in Brillouin signal strength and 1.4-fold improvement in axial resolution because of the correction of optical aberrations.

  19. Using aberrant behaviors as reinforcers for autistic children.

    PubMed Central

    Charlop, M H; Kurtz, P F; Casey, F G

    1990-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we assessed the efficacy of using autistic children's aberrant behaviors as reinforcers to increase their correct task responding. In Experiment 1, reinforcer conditions of stereotypy, food, and varied (food or stereotypy) were compared. In Experiment 2, the conditions were delayed echolalia, food, and varied (food or delayed echolalia), and in Experiment 3, perseverative behavior was compared with stereotypy and food as potential reinforcers. A multielement design was used for all comparisons, and side-effect measures were recorded during and after teaching sessions as well as at home. Results indicated that, in general, task performance was highest when brief opportunities to engage in aberrant behaviors were provided as reinforcers. Edibles were associated with the lowest performance. Furthermore, no negative side effects (e.g., an increase in aberrant behaviors) occurred. The results are discussed in terms of suggesting a more pragmatic treatment approach by addressing the contingent use of autistic children's aberrant behaviors as reinforcers. PMID:2373653

  20. Aberration correction results in the IBM STEM instrument.

    PubMed

    Batson, P E

    2003-09-01

    Results from the installation of aberration correction in the IBM 120 kV STEM argue that a sub-angstrom probe size has been achieved. Results and the experimental methods used to obtain them are described here. Some post-experiment processing is necessary to demonstrate the probe size of about 0.078 nm. While the promise of aberration correction is demonstrated, we remain at the very threshold of practicality, given the very stringent stability requirements.

  1. Stability of corneal topography and wavefront aberrations in young Singaporeans.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingxia; Collins, Michael J; Yeo, Anna C H

    2013-09-01

    The aim was to investigate the differences between and variations across time in corneal topography and ocular wavefront aberrations in young Singaporean myopes and emmetropes. We used a videokeratoscope and wavefront sensor to measure the ocular surface topography and wavefront aberrations of the total-eye optics in the morning, midday and late afternoon on two separate days. Topographic data were used to derive the corneal surface wavefront aberrations. Both the corneal and total wavefronts were analysed up to the fourth radial order of the Zernike polynomial expansion and were centred on the entrance pupil (5.0 mm). The participants included 12 young progressing myopes, 13 young stable myopes and 15 young age-matched emmetropes. For all subjects considered together, there were significant changes in some of the aberrations across the day, such as spherical aberration ( Z(4 0)) and vertical coma ( Z (3 - 1)) (repeated measures analysis of variance, p < 0.05). The magnitude of positive spherical aberration ( Z(4 0)) was significantly lower in the progressing myopic group than in the stable myopic (p = 0.04) and emmetropic (p = 0.02) groups. There were also significant interactions between refractive group and time of day for with and against-the-rule astigmatism ( Z(2 2)). Significantly lower fourth-order root mean square of ocular wavefront aberrations were found in the progressing myopic group compared with the stable myopes and emmetropes (p < 0.01). These differences and variations in the corneal and total aberrations may have significance for our understanding of refractive error development and for clinical applications requiring accurate wavefront measurements. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  2. Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E.; Sun, Wenzhi; Tan, Zhongchao; Kerlin, Aaron; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas S.; Ji, Na

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multiplexed aberration measurement method that modulates the intensity or phase of light rays at multiple pupil segments in parallel to determine their phase gradients. Applicable to fluorescent-protein-labeled structures of arbitrary complexity, it allows us to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in various samples in vivo. For the strongly scattering mouse brain, a single aberration correction improves structural and functional imaging of fine neuronal processes over a large imaging volume. PMID:25128976

  3. Induction of chromosome aberrations and mitotic arrest by cytomegalovirus in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    AbuBakar, S.; Au, W.W.; Legator, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is potentially an effective but often overlooked genotoxic agent in humans. We report here evidence that indicates that infection by CMV can induce chromosome alterations and mitotic inhibition. The frequency of chromosome aberrations induced was dependent on the input multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) for human lung fibroblasts (LU), but not for human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) when both cell types were infected at the GO phase of the cell cycle. The aberrations induced by CMV were mostly chromatid breaks and chromosome pulverizations that resembled prematurely condensed S-phase chromatin. Pulverized chromosomes were not observed in LU cells infectedmore » with virus stocks that had been rendered nonlytic by UV-irradiation at 24,000 ergs/mm2 or from infection of human lymphocytes. In LU cells infected with UV-irradiated CMV, the frequency of aberrations induced was inversely dependent on the extent of the exposure of the CMV stock to the UV-light. In permissive CMV infection of proliferating LU cells at 24 hr after subculture, a high percentage (greater than 40%) of the metaphase cells were arrested at their first metaphase and displayed severely condensed chromosomes when harvested 48 hr later. A significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the chromosome aberration frequency was also observed. Our study shows that CMV infection is genotoxic to host cells. The types and extent of damage are dependent on the viral genome expression and on the cell cycle stage of the cells at the time of infection. The possible mechanisms for induction of chromosome damage by CMV are discussed.« less

  4. The significance of PTEN and AKT aberrations in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zuurbier, Linda; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Vuerhard, Maartje J.; Calvert, Valerie; Kooi, Clarissa; Buijs-Gladdines, Jessica G.C.A.M.; Smits, Willem K.; Sonneveld, Edwin; Veerman, Anjo J.P.; Kamps, Willem A.; Horstmann, Martin; Pieters, Rob; Meijerink, Jules P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background PI3K/AKT pathway mutations are found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but their overall impact and associations with other genetic aberrations is unknown. PTEN mutations have been proposed as secondary mutations that follow NOTCH1-activating mutations and cause cellular resistance to γ-secretase inhibitors. Design and Methods The impact of PTEN, PI3K and AKT aberrations was studied in a genetically well-characterized pediatric T-cell leukemia patient cohort (n=146) treated on DCOG or COALL protocols. Results PTEN and AKT E17K aberrations were detected in 13% and 2% of patients, respectively. Defective PTEN-splicing was identified in incidental cases. Patients without PTEN protein but lacking exon-, splice-, promoter mutations or promoter hypermethylation were present. PTEN/AKT mutations were especially abundant in TAL- or LMO-rearranged leukemia but nearly absent in TLX3-rearranged patients (P=0.03), the opposite to that observed for NOTCH1-activating mutations. Most PTEN/AKT mutant patients either lacked NOTCH1-activating mutations (P=0.006) or had weak NOTCH1-activating mutations (P=0.011), and consequently expressed low intracellular NOTCH1, cMYC and MUSASHI levels. T-cell leukemia patients without PTEN/AKT and NOTCH1-activating mutations fared well, with a cumulative incidence of relapse of only 8% versus 35% for PTEN/AKT and/or NOTCH1-activated patients (P=0.005). Conclusions PI3K/AKT pathway aberrations are present in 18% of pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Absence of strong NOTCH1-activating mutations in these cases may explain cellular insensitivity to γ-secretase inhibitors. PMID:22491738

  5. Aberrant adhesion impacts early development in a Dictyostelium model for juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Robert J.; Myre, Michael A.; Cotman, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also known as Batten disease, refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect children. The most common subtype of the disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in CLN3, which is conserved across model species from yeast to human. The precise function of the CLN3 protein is not known, which has made targeted therapy development challenging. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of Cln3 causes aberrant mid-to-late stage multicellular development. In this study, we show that Cln3-deficiency causes aberrant adhesion and aggregation during the early stages of Dictyostelium development. cln3− cells form ∼30% more multicellular aggregates that are comparatively smaller than those formed by wild-type cells. Loss of Cln3 delays aggregation, but has no significant effect on cell speed or cAMP-mediated chemotaxis. The aberrant aggregation of cln3− cells cannot be corrected by manually pulsing cells with cAMP. Moreover, there are no significant differences between wild-type and cln3− cells in the expression of genes linked to cAMP chemotaxis (e.g., adenylyl cyclase, acaA; the cAMP receptor, carA; cAMP phosphodiesterase, pdsA; g-protein α 9 subunit, gpaI). However, during this time in development, cln3− cells show reduced cell-substrate and cell-cell adhesion, which correlate with changes in the levels of the cell adhesion proteins CadA and CsaA. Specifically, loss of Cln3 decreases the intracellular level of CsaA and increases the amount of soluble CadA in conditioned media. Together, these results suggest that the aberrant aggregation of cln3− cells is due to reduced adhesion during the early stages of development. Revealing the molecular basis underlying this phenotype may provide fresh new insight into CLN3 function. PMID:27669405

  6. Generalized Alvarez lens for correction of laser aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    LaFortune, K N

    2004-12-02

    The Alvarez lens (US Patent No. 3,305,294 [1]) is a compact aberration corrector. The original design emphasized in the patent consists of a pair of adjacent optical elements that provide a variable focus. A lens system with a variable effective focal length is nothing new. Such systems are widely used in cameras, for example. It is the compactness and simplicity of operation that is the key advantage of the Alvarez lens. All of the complexity is folded into the design and fabrication of the optical elements. As mentioned in the Alvarez patent [1] and elaborated upon in Palusinski et al.more » [2], if one is willing to fold even more complexity into the optical elements, it is possible to correct higher-order aberrations as well. There is no theoretical limit to the number or degree of wavefront distortions that can be corrected. The only limitation is that there must be a fixed relative magnitude of the aberrations. Independent correction of each component of the higher-order aberrations can not be performed without additional elements and degrees of freedom [3]. Under some circumstances, coupling may be observed between different aberrations. This can be mitigated with the appropriate choice of design parameters. New methods are available today that increase the practicality of making higher-order aberration correctors [4,5,6].« less

  7. Lesion Generation Through Ribs Using Histotripsy Therapy Without Aberration Correction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction. PMID:22083767

  8. Lesion generation through ribs using histotripsy therapy without aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction.

  9. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Induction of chromosome aberrations in human cells by charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations induced by high-energy charged particles in normal human lymphocytes and human fibroblasts have been investigated. The charged particles included 250 MeV/nucleon protons, 290 MeV/nucleon carbon ions and 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. The energies of the charged particles were higher than in most of the studies reported in the literature. Lymphocytes were stimulated to grow immediately after irradiation, while fibroblasts were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h for repair. Chromosomes were collected at the first mitosis after irradiation and chromosome aberrations were scored using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with a whole-chromosome 4 probe. Chromosome aberrations were classified as reciprocal exchanges, incomplete exchanges, deletions and complex exchanges. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for each type of aberration was calculated by dividing a dose of 4 Gy by the dose of the charged particles producing the same effect as 4 Gy of gamma rays. Results of this study showed that complex aberrations have the highest RBE for radiation of high linear energy transfer (LET) for human lymphocytes, but for fibroblasts, the greatest effect was for incomplete exchanges. For both lymphocytes and fibroblasts, iron ions induced a similar fraction of aberrant cells.

  11. Structural centrosome aberrations sensitize polarized epithelia to basal cell extrusion.

    PubMed

    Ganier, Olivier; Schnerch, Dominik; Nigg, Erich A

    2018-06-01

    Centrosome aberrations disrupt tissue architecture and may confer invasive properties to cancer cells. Here we show that structural centrosome aberrations, induced by overexpression of either Ninein-like protein (NLP) or CEP131/AZI1, sensitize polarized mammalian epithelia to basal cell extrusion. While unperturbed epithelia typically dispose of damaged cells through apical dissemination into luminal cavities, certain oncogenic mutations cause a switch in directionality towards basal cell extrusion, raising the potential for metastatic cell dissemination. Here we report that NLP-induced centrosome aberrations trigger the preferential extrusion of damaged cells towards the basal surface of epithelial monolayers. This switch in directionality from apical to basal dissemination coincides with a profound reorganization of the microtubule cytoskeleton, which in turn prevents the contractile ring repositioning that is required to support extrusion towards the apical surface. While the basal extrusion of cells harbouring NLP-induced centrosome aberrations requires exogenously induced cell damage, structural centrosome aberrations induced by excess CEP131 trigger the spontaneous dissemination of dying cells towards the basal surface from MDCK cysts. Thus, similar to oncogenic mutations, structural centrosome aberrations can favour basal extrusion of damaged cells from polarized epithelia. Assuming that additional mutations may promote cell survival, this process could sensitize epithelia to disseminate potentially metastatic cells. © 2018 The Authors.

  12. Automated aberration compensation in high numerical aperture systems for arbitrary laser modes (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hering, Julian; Waller, Erik H.; von Freymann, Georg

    2017-02-01

    Since a large number of optical systems and devices are based on differently shaped focal intensity distributions (point-spread-functions, PSF), the PSF's quality is crucial for the application's performance. E.g., optical tweezers, optical potentials for trapping of ultracold atoms as well as stimulated-emission-depletion (STED) based microscopy and lithography rely on precisely controlled intensity distributions. However, especially in high numerical aperture (NA) systems, such complex laser modes are easily distorted by aberrations leading to performance losses. Although different approaches addressing phase retrieval algorithms have been recently presented[1-3], fast and automated aberration compensation for a broad variety of complex shaped PSFs in high NA systems is still missing. Here, we report on a Gerchberg-Saxton[4] based algorithm (GSA) for automated aberration correction of arbitrary PSFs, especially for high NA systems. Deviations between the desired target intensity distribution and the three-dimensionally (3D) scanned experimental focal intensity distribution are used to calculate a correction phase pattern. The target phase distribution plus the correction pattern are displayed on a phase-only spatial-light-modulator (SLM). Focused by a high NA objective, experimental 3D scans of several intensity distributions allow for characterization of the algorithms performance: aberrations are reliably identified and compensated within less than 10 iterations. References 1. B. M. Hanser, M. G. L. Gustafsson, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, "Phase-retrieved pupil functions in wide-field fluorescence microscopy," J. of Microscopy 216(1), 32-48 (2004). 2. A. Jesacher, A. Schwaighofer, S. Frhapter, C. Maurer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "Wavefront correction of spatial light modulators using an optical vortex image," Opt. Express 15(9), 5801-5808 (2007). 3. A. Jesacher and M. J. Booth, "Parallel direct laser writing in three dimensions with spatially dependent

  13. Aberrant dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Stephanie M; Lodge, Daniel J

    2012-11-01

    Based on the observation that antipsychotic medications display antagonist properties at dopamine D2-like receptors, aberrant dopamine signaling has been proposed to underlie psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, it is not surprising that considerable research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms involved in the antipsychotic action of these compounds. It is important to note that the majority of these studies have been performed in "normal" experimental animals. Given that these animals do not possess the aberrant neuronal information processing typically associated with schizophrenia, the aim of the current study was to examine the dopamine D2 receptor system in a rodent model of schizophrenia. Here, we demonstrate that methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-treated rats display an enhanced effect of quinpirole on dopamine neuron activity and an aberrant locomotor response to D2-like receptor activation, suggesting changes in postsynaptic D2-like receptor function. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the enhanced response to D2-like ligands in MAM-treated rats, we examined the expression of D2, D3, and dopamine transporter mRNA in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. MAM-treated rats displayed a significant increase in dopamine D3 receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens with no significant changes in the expression of the D2 receptor. Taken together, these data demonstrate robust alterations in dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia and provide evidence that preclinical studies examining the mechanisms of antipsychotic drug action should be performed in animal models that mirror aspects of the abnormal neuronal transmission thought to underlie symptoms of schizophrenia.

  14. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Urvi, E-mail: urvi.vyas@gmail.com; Kaye, Elena; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focusedmore » ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus.« less

  15. Cell type specific gene expression analysis of prostate needle biopsies resolves tumor tissue heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Krönig, Malte; Walter, Max; Drendel, Vanessa; Werner, Martin; Jilg, Cordula A.; Richter, Andreas S.; Backofen, Rolf; McGarry, David; Follo, Marie; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Schüle, Roland

    2015-01-01

    A lack of cell surface markers for the specific identification, isolation and subsequent analysis of living prostate tumor cells hampers progress in the field. Specific characterization of tumor cells and their microenvironment in a multi-parameter molecular assay could significantly improve prognostic accuracy for the heterogeneous prostate tumor tissue. Novel functionalized gold-nano particles allow fluorescence-based detection of absolute mRNA expression levels in living cells by fluorescent activated flow cytometry (FACS). We use of this technique to separate prostate tumor and benign cells in human prostate needle biopsies based on the expression levels of the tumor marker alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR). We combined RNA and protein detection of living cells by FACS to gate for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) positive tumor and benign cells, EPCAM/CD45 double negative mesenchymal cells and CD45 positive infiltrating lymphocytes. EPCAM positive epithelial cells were further sub-gated into AMACR high and low expressing cells. Two hundred cells from each population and several biopsies from the same patient were analyzed using a multiplexed gene expression profile to generate a cell type resolved profile of the specimen. This technique provides the basis for the clinical evaluation of cell type resolved gene expression profiles as pre-therapeutic prognostic markers for prostate cancer. PMID:25514598

  16. Aberrant fetal macrophage/microglial reactions to cytomegalovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Sakao-Suzuki, Makiko; Kawasaki, Hideya; Akamatsu, Taisuke; Meguro, Shiori; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Iwashita, Toshihide; Tsutsui, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Naoki; Kosugi, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Objective Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading viral cause of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, with the most severe and permanent sequelae being those affecting the cerebrum. As the fetal immune reactions to congenital CMV infection in the brain and their effects on cerebral development remain elusive, our aim was to investigate primitive innate immunity to CMV infection and its effects on cerebral corticogenesis in a mouse model for congenital CMV infection using a precise intraplacental inoculation method. Methods At 13.5 embryonic days (E13.5), pregnant C57BL/6 mice were intraplacentally infected with murine CMV (MCMV). Placentas and fetal organs were collected at 1, 3, and 5 days postinfection and analyzed. Results MCMV antigens were found frequently in perivascular macrophages, and subsequently in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). With increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines, activated macrophages infiltrated into the infectious foci. In addition to the infected area, the numbers of both meningeal macrophages and parenchymal microglia increased even in the uninfected areas of MCMV-infected brain due to recruitment of their precursors from other sites. A bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation experiment demonstrated that MCMV infection globally disrupted the self-renewal of NSPCs. Furthermore, BrdU-labeled neurons, particularly Brn2+ neurons of upper layers II/III in the cortical plate, decreased in number significantly in the MCMV-infected E18.5 cerebrum. Interpretation Brain macrophages are crucial for innate immunity during MCMV infection in the fetal brain, while their aberrant recruitment and activation may adversely impact on the stemness of NSPCs, resulting in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25356429

  17. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  18. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of train engine drivers.

    PubMed

    Nordenson, I; Mild, K H; Järventaus, H; Hirvonen, A; Sandström, M; Wilén, J; Blix, N; Norppa, H

    2001-07-01

    Studies of Swedish railway employees have indicated that railroad engine drivers have an increased cancer morbidity and incidence of chronic lymphatic leukemia. The drivers are exposed to relatively high magnetic fields (MF), ranging from a few to over a hundred microT. Although the possible genotoxic potential of MF is unclear, some earlier studies have indicated that occupational exposure to MF may increase chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Since an increased level of chromosomal aberrations has been suggested to predict elevated cancer risk, we performed a cytogenetic analysis on cultured (48 h) peripheral lymphocytes of Swedish train engine drivers. A pilot study of 18 engine drivers indicated a significant difference in the frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations (gaps included or excluded) in comparison with seven concurrent referents (train dispatchers) and a control group of 16 office workers. The engine drivers had about four times higher frequency of cells with chromosome-type aberrations (excluding gaps) than the office workers (P < 0.01) and the dispatchers (P < 0.05). Seventy-eight percent of the engine drivers showed at least one cell per 100 with chromosome-type aberrations compared with 29% among the dispatchers and 31% among the office workers. In a follow-up study, another 30 engine drivers showed an increase (P < 0.05) in the frequency of cells with chromosome-type aberrations (gaps excluded) as compared with 30 referent policemen. Sixty percent of the engine drivers had one or more cells (per 100 cells) with chromosome-type aberrations compared with 30% among the policemen. In conclusion, the results of the two studies support the hypothesis that exposure to MF at mean intensities of 2-15 microT can induce chromosomal damage. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Correcting highly aberrated eyes using large-stroke adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, Ramkumar; Ahmad, Kamran; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the optical performance of a large-stroke deformable mirror in correcting large aberrations in highly aberrated eyes. A large-stroke deformable mirror (Mirao 52D; Imagine Eyes) and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor were used in an adaptive optics system. Closed-loop correction of the static aberrations of a phase plate designed for an advanced keratoconic eye was performed for a 6-mm pupil. The same adaptive optics system was also used to correct the aberrations in one eye each of two moderate keratoconic and three normal human eyes for a 6-mm pupil. With closed-loop correction of the phase plate, the total root-mean-square (RMS) over a 6-mm pupil was reduced from 3.54 to 0.04 microm in 30 to 40 iterations, corresponding to 3 to 4 seconds. Adaptive optics closed-loop correction reduced an average total RMS of 1.73+/-0.998 to 0.10+/-0.017 microm (higher order RMS of 0.39+/-0.124 to 0.06+/-0.004 microm) in the three normal eyes and 2.73+/-1.754 to 0.10+/-0.001 microm (higher order RMS of 1.82+/-1.058 to 0.05+/-0.017 microm) in the two keratoconic eyes. Aberrations in both normal and highly aberrated eyes were successfully corrected using the large-stroke deformable mirror to provide almost perfect optical quality. This mirror can be a powerful tool to assess the limit of visual performance achievable after correcting the aberrations, especially in eyes with abnormal corneal profiles.

  20. Adult cardiac stem cells are multipotent and robustly myogenic: c-kit expression is necessary but not sufficient for their identification.

    PubMed

    Vicinanza, Carla; Aquila, Iolanda; Scalise, Mariangela; Cristiano, Francesca; Marino, Fabiola; Cianflone, Eleonora; Mancuso, Teresa; Marotta, Pina; Sacco, Walter; Lewis, Fiona C; Couch, Liam; Shone, Victoria; Gritti, Giulia; Torella, Annalaura; Smith, Andrew J; Terracciano, Cesare Mn; Britti, Domenico; Veltri, Pierangelo; Indolfi, Ciro; Nadal-Ginard, Bernardo; Ellison-Hughes, Georgina M; Torella, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    Multipotent adult resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) were first identified by the expression of c-kit, the stem cell factor receptor. However, in the adult myocardium c-kit alone cannot distinguish CSCs from other c-kit-expressing (c-kit pos ) cells. The adult heart indeed contains a heterogeneous mixture of c-kit pos cells, mainly composed of mast and endothelial/progenitor cells. This heterogeneity of cardiac c-kit pos cells has generated confusion and controversy about the existence and role of CSCs in the adult heart. Here, to unravel CSC identity within the heterogeneous c-kit-expressing cardiac cell population, c-kit pos cardiac cells were separated through CD45-positive or -negative sorting followed by c-kit pos sorting. The blood/endothelial lineage-committed (Lineage pos ) CD45 pos c-kit pos cardiac cells were compared to CD45 neg (Lineage neg /Lin neg ) c-kit pos cardiac cells for stemness and myogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. The majority (~90%) of the resident c-kit pos cardiac cells are blood/endothelial lineage-committed CD45 pos CD31 pos c-kit pos cells. In contrast, the Lin neg CD45 neg c-kit pos cardiac cell cohort, which represents ⩽10% of the total c-kit pos cells, contain all the cardiac cells with the properties of adult multipotent CSCs. These characteristics are absent from the c-kit neg and the blood/endothelial lineage-committed c-kit pos cardiac cells. Single Lin neg c-kit pos cell-derived clones, which represent only 1-2% of total c-kit pos myocardial cells, when stimulated with TGF-β/Wnt molecules, acquire full transcriptome and protein expression, sarcomere organisation, spontaneous contraction and electrophysiological properties of differentiated cardiomyocytes (CMs). Genetically tagged cloned progeny of one Lin neg c-kit pos cell when injected into the infarcted myocardium, results in significant regeneration of new CMs, arterioles and capillaries, derived from the injected cells. The CSC's myogenic regenerative capacity is

  1. ERAP1 reduces accumulation of aberrant and disulfide-linked forms of HLA-B27 on the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tri M; Hong, Sohee; Edwan, Jehad H; Colbert, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) variants contribute to the risk of ankylosing spondylitis in HLA-B27 positive individuals, implying a disease-related interaction between these gene products. The aim of this study was to determine whether reduced ERAP1 expression would alter the cell surface expression of HLA-B27 and the formation of aberrant disulfide-linked forms that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis. ERAP1 expression was knocked down in monocytic U937 cells expressing HLA-B27 and endogenous HLA class I. The effect of ERAP1 knockdown on the accumulation HLA-B alleles (B18, B51, and B27) was assessed using immunoprecipitation, isoelectric focusing, and immunoblotting, as well as flow cytometry with antibodies specific for different forms of HLA-B27. Cell surface expression of aberrant disulfide-linked HLA-B27 dimers was assessed by immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis on non-reducing polyacrylamide gels. ERAP1 knockdown increased the accumulation of HLA-B27 on the cell surface including disulfide-linked dimers, but had no effect on levels of HLA-B18 or -B51. Antibodies with unique specificity for HLA-B27 confirmed increased cell surface expression of complexes shown previously to contain long peptides. IFN-γ treatment resulted in striking increases in the expression of disulfide-linked HLA-B27 heavy chains, even in cells with normal ERAP1 expression. Our results suggest that normal levels of ERAP1 reduce the accumulation of aberrant and disulfide-linked forms of HLA-B27 in monocytes, and thus help to maintain the integrity of cell surface HLA-B27 complexes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. ERAP1 Reduces Accumulation of Aberrant and Disulfide-Linked Forms of HLA-B27 on the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tri; Hong, Sohee; Edwan, Jehad; Colbert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) variants contribute to the risk of ankylosing spondylitis in HLA-B27 positive individuals, implying a disease-related interaction between these gene products. The aim of this study was to determine whether reduced ERAP1 expression would alter the cell surface expression of HLA-B27 and the formation of aberrant disulfide-linked forms that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis. Methods ERAP1 expression was knocked down in monocytic U937 cells expressing HLA-B27 and endogenous HLA class I. The effect of ERAP1 knockdown on the accumulation HLA-B alleles (B18, B51, and B27) was assessed using immunoprecipitation, isoelectric focusing, and immunoblotting, as well as flow cytometry with antibodies specific for different forms of HLA-B27. Cell surface expression of aberrant disulfide-linked HLA-B27 dimers was assessed by immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis on non-reducing polyacrylamide gels. Results ERAP1 knockdown increased the accumulation of HLA-B27 on the cell surface including disulfide-linked dimers, but had no effect on levels of HLA-B18 or -B51. Antibodies with unique specificity for HLA-B27 confirmed increased cell surface expression of complexes shown previously to contain long peptides. IFN-γ treatment resulted in striking increases in the expression of disulfide-linked HLA-B27 heavy chains, even in cells with normal ERAP1 expression. Conclusions Our results suggest that normal levels of ERAP1 reduce the accumulation of aberrant and disulfide-linked forms of HLA-B27 in monocytes, and thus help to maintain the integrity of cell surface HLA-B27 complexes. PMID:27107845

  3. Reciprocal patterns of allergen-induced GATA-3 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopics vs. non-atopics.

    PubMed

    Macaubas, C; Lee, P T; Smallacombe, T B; Holt, B J; Wee, C; Sly, P D; Holt, P G

    2002-01-01

    T helper (Th)2 cytokines are considered to play a central role in the induction and expression of allergic disease. However, the relative importance of individual cytokines is unclear, and overall disease pathogenesis appears to involve the coordinate activities of a range of Th2 cytokines acting in sequence or in parallel. The present study examines an alternative approach to the study of cytokine gene function in atopy, focusing instead upon T cell transcription factors (TFs) which play a role in the regulation of multiple cytokine genes. To investigate the allergen-induced expression of the TF GATA-3 and c-Maf in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in cytokine-driven Th polarization. PBMC from house dust mite (HDM)-atopic and non-atopics were stimulated in vitro with allergen or anti-CD3/IL-2. TF expression was analysed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and major findings were validated by real-time PCR. Cell separations were performed to analyse the contribution of CD45RO+ cells. CD4+ cord blood cells were Th1 or Th2 polarized in vitro by exogenous cytokines and TF expression analysed by Northern blot and real-time PCR. Results We demonstrate for the first time that during differentiation of CD4+ CD45RA+ naïve human T cells towards Th2 commitment, and during allergen-specific reactivation of peripheral CD4+ CD45RO+ Th2 memory cells in established atopics, expression of the Th2-associated TF GATA-3 is rapidly up-regulated, whereas T cells from non-atopics display equally rapid GATA-3 down-regulation under identical conditions of allergen stimulation. These findings identify Th2-associated TFs as key determinants of the atopic phenotype, suggesting their unique potential as therapeutic targets for disease control.

  4. A model of chromosome aberration induction: applications to space research.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    2005-10-01

    A mechanistic model and Monte Carlo code simulating chromosome aberration induction in human lymphocytes is presented. The model is based on the assumption that aberrations arise from clustered DNA lesions and that only the free ends of clustered lesions created in neighboring chromosome territories or in the same territory can join and produce exchanges. The lesions are distributed in the cell nucleus according to the radiation track structure. Interphase chromosome territories are modeled as compact intranuclear regions with volumes proportional to the chromosome DNA contents. Both Giemsa staining and FISH painting can be simulated, and background aberrations can be taken into account. The good agreement with in vitro data provides validation of the model in terms of both the assumptions adopted and the simulation techniques. As an application in the field of space research, the model predictions were compared with aberration yields measured among crew members of long-term missions on board Mir and ISS, assuming an average radiation quality factor of 2.4. The agreement obtained also validated the model for in vivo exposure scenarios and suggested possible applications to the prediction of other relevant aberrations, typically translocations.

  5. Aberration Theory and Design Techniques for Refracting Prism Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bizri, N.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The general case of image formation by optical systems consisting of combinations of ordinary lens components and refracting prisms is studied in detail. Formulae for the sagittal and tangential magnifications, the pupil scale ratios, the image tilt, the positions of (newly defined) principal planes and the equivalent focal lengths have been derived. Formulae for the axial astigmatism, axial transverse chromatic aberration and the focal shift measure of the aberration due to the tilt of the image plane have also been obtained. All of these formulae are equally valid for any optical system which has a single plane of symmetry. The calculation of the wavefront aberration coefficients and of the variance of the aberration for such systems has been treated using the pre-inverted matrix method. In addition formulae for the numerical evaluation of the optical transfer function, the point spread function, the line spread function and the edge response function, have been obtained and programmed. First-order formulae, and a refinement technique, for the design of cemented refracting doublet prisms have been obtained, which ensure that the desired prismatic deviation of the axis is obtained, and that the axial astigmatism and the axial transverse chromatic aberration have stipulated target values. All of the above formulae have been carefully tested by numerical examples, and the design technique has been used to design endoscope objectives which provide small deviations (<10^circ ) of the optical axis.

  6. Primary chromatic aberration elimination via optimization work with genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Hsien-Lin; Chang, En-Hao

    2008-09-01

    Chromatic Aberration plays a part in modern optical systems, especially in digitalized and smart optical systems. Much effort has been devoted to eliminating specific chromatic aberration in order to match the demand for advanced digitalized optical products. Basically, the elimination of axial chromatic and lateral color aberration of an optical lens and system depends on the selection of optical glass. According to reports from glass companies all over the world, the number of various newly developed optical glasses in the market exceeds three hundred. However, due to the complexity of a practical optical system, optical designers have so far had difficulty in finding the right solution to eliminate small axial and lateral chromatic aberration except by the Damped Least Squares (DLS) method, which is limited in so far as the DLS method has not yet managed to find a better optical system configuration. In the present research, genetic algorithms are used to replace traditional DLS so as to eliminate axial and lateral chromatic, by combining the theories of geometric optics in Tessar type lenses and a technique involving Binary/Real Encoding, Multiple Dynamic Crossover and Random Gene Mutation to find a much better configuration for optical glasses. By implementing the algorithms outlined in this paper, satisfactory results can be achieved in eliminating axial and lateral color aberration.

  7. Ocular wavefront aberrations in patients with macular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bessho, Kenichiro; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe G.; Gomez, Laura; Cheng, Lingyun; Koh, Hyoung Jun; Freeman, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Background There have been reports that by compensating for the ocular aberrations using adaptive optical systems it may be possible to improve the resolution of clinical retinal imaging systems beyond what is now possible. In order to develop such system to observe eyes with retinal disease, understanding of the ocular wavefront aberrations in individuals with retinal disease is required. Methods 82 eyes of 66 patients with macular disease (epiretinal membrane, macular edema, macular hole etc.) and 85 eyes of 51 patients without retinal disease were studied. Using a ray-tracing wavefront device, each eye was scanned at both small and large pupil apertures and Zernike coefficients up to 6th order were acquired. Results In phakic eyes, 3rd order root mean square errors (RMS) in macular disease group were statistically greater than control, an average of 12% for 5mm and 31% for 3mm scan diameters (p<0.021). In pseudophakic eyes, there also was an elevation of 3rd order RMS, on average 57% for 5mm and 51% for 3mm scan diameters (p<0.031). Conclusion Higher order wavefront aberrations in eyes with macular disease were greater than in control eyes without disease. Our study suggests that such aberrations may result from irregular or multiple reflecting retinal surfaces. Modifications in wavefront sensor technology will be needed to accurately determine wavefront aberration and allow correction using adaptive optics in eyes with macular irregularities. PMID:19574950

  8. Minimum change in spherical aberration that can be perceived

    PubMed Central

    Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    It is important to know the visual sensitivity to optical blur from both a basic science perspective and a practical point of view. Of particular interest is the sensitivity to blur induced by spherical aberration because it is being used to increase depth of focus as a component of a presbyopic solution. Using a flicker detection-based procedure implemented on an adaptive optics visual simulator, we measured the spherical aberration thresholds that produce just-noticeable differences in perceived image quality. The thresholds were measured for positive and negative values of spherical aberration, for best focus and + 0.5 D and + 1.0 D of defocus. At best focus, the SA thresholds were 0.20 ± 0.01 µm and −0.17 ± 0.03 µm for positive and negative spherical aberration respectively (referred to a 6-mm pupil). These experimental values may be useful in setting spherical aberration permissible levels in different ophthalmic techniques. PMID:27699113

  9. Optical aberrations induced by subclinical decentrations of the ablation pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Kaemmerer, Maik; Riedel, Peter; Mierdel, Peter; Krinke, Hans-Eberhard; Seiler, Theo

    2000-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to study the effect of currently used ablation profiles along with eccentric ablations on the increase of higher order aberrations observed after PRK. Material and Methods: The optical aberrations of 10 eyes were tested before and after PRK. Refractive surgery was performed using a ArF-excimer laser system. In all cases, the ablation zone was 6 mm or larger. The spherical equivalent of the correction was ranging from -2.5 D to -6.0 D. The measured wavefront error was compared to numerical simulations done with the reduced eye model and currently used ablation profiles as well as compared with experimental results obtained from ablation on PMMA balls. Results: The aberration measurements result in a considerable change of the spherical- and coma-like wavefront errors. This result was in good correlation with the numerical simulations and the experimental results. Furthermore, it has been derived that the major contribution on the induced higher order aberrations are a result of the small decentration (less than 1.0 mm) of the ablation zone. Conclusions: Higher order spherical- and coma-like aberrations after PRK are mainly determined by the decentration of the ablation zone during laser refractive surgery. However, future laser systems should use efficient eye-tracking systems and aspherical ablation profiles to overcome this problem.

  10. Rapamycin prevents, but does not reverse, aberrant migration in Pten knockout neurons.

    PubMed

    Getz, Stephanie A; DeSpenza, Tyrone; Li, Meijie; Luikart, Bryan W

    2016-09-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a major negative regulator of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway. Mutations in PTEN have been found in a subset of individuals with autism and macrocephaly. Further, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) has been observed in patients with PTEN mutations prompting us to examine the role of Pten in neuronal migration. The dentate gyrus of Pten(Flox/Flox) mice was injected with Cre- and non-Cre-expressing retroviral particles, which integrate into the dividing genome to birthdate cells. Control and Pten knockout (KO) cell position in the granule cell layer was quantified over time to reveal that Pten KO neurons exhibit an aberrant migratory phenotype beginning at 7.5days-post retroviral injection (DPI). We then assessed whether rapamycin, a mTor inhibitor, could prevent or reverse aberrant migration of granule cells. The preventative group received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of rapamycin from 3 to 14 DPI, before discrepancies in cell position have been established, while the reversal group received rapamycin afterward, from 14 to 24 DPI. We found that rapamycin prevented and reversed somal hypertrophy. However, rapamycin prevented, but did not reverse aberrant migration in Pten KO cells. We also find that altered migration occurs through mTorC1 and not mTorC2 activity. Together, these findings suggest a temporal window by which rapamycin can treat aberrant migration, and may have implications for the use of rapamycin to treat PTEN-mutation associated disorders. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) have been linked to a subset of individuals with autism and macrocephaly, as well as Cowden Syndrome and focal cortical dysplasia. Pten loss leads to neuronal hypertrophy, but the role of Pten in neuronal migration is unclear. Here we have shown that loss of Pten leads to aberrant migration, which can be prevented but not reversed by treatment with rapamycin, a mTor inhibitor. These results are

  11. RNA-Seq analysis identifies aberrant RNA splicing of TRIP12 in acute myeloid leukemia patients at remission.

    PubMed

    Gao, Panke; Jin, Zhen; Cheng, Yingying; Cao, Xiangshan

    2014-10-01

    Aberrant splicing events play important roles in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To investigate the aberrant splicing events in AML during treatment, we carried out RNA sequencing in peripheral mononuclear cell samples from a patient with complete remission. In addition to the sequencing samples, selected splicing events were confirmed and validated with real-time quantitative RT-PCR in another seven pairs of samples. A total of 4.05 and 3.39 GB clean data of the AML and remission sample were generated, respectively, and 2,223 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Integrated with gene expression profiling on T cells from AML patients compared with healthy donors, 82 DEGs were also differentially expressed in AML CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells. Twenty-three alternative splicing events were considered to be confidential, and they were involved in many biological processes, such as RNA processing, cellular macromolecule catabolic process, and DNA binding process. An exon3-skipping event in TRIP12 was detected in patients at remission and further validated in another three independent samples. TRIP12 is an ubiquitin ligase of ARF, which suppresses aberrant cell growth by activating p53 responses. The exon3-skipping isoform of TRIP12 increased significantly after treatment. Our results may provide new understanding of AML, and the confirmed alternative splicing event of TRIP12 may be used as potential target for future investigations.

  12. [Frequency of chromosome aberrations in residents of the Semipalatinsk Oblast].

    PubMed

    Gubitskaia, E G; Akhmatullina, N B; Vsevolodov, E B; Bishnevskaia, S S; Sharipov, I K; Cherednichenko, O G

    1999-06-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of the population of the Beskaragai district of the Semipalatinsk oblast adjacent to the territory of the nuclear test site was conducted by means of an ecological genetic questionnaire and cytogenetic examination of metaphase chromosomes. An increase in the total mutation level in the region was observed. The frequency of chromosome aberrations among the population of the Beskaragai district (3.2%) was statistically significantly (about 1.5 times) higher than the background levels in the clear regions (from 1 to 2%). Furthermore, the frequency of aberrations in adolescents was comparable with that in the adults. The spectrum of chromosome aberrations pointed to a significant contribution of radiation component to the mutagenesis.

  13. An electron microscope for the aberration-corrected era.

    PubMed

    Krivanek, O L; Corbin, G J; Dellby, N; Elston, B F; Keyse, R J; Murfitt, M F; Own, C S; Szilagyi, Z S; Woodruff, J W

    2008-02-01

    Improved resolution made possible by aberration correction has greatly increased the demands on the performance of all parts of high-end electron microscopes. In order to meet these demands, we have designed and built an entirely new scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The microscope includes a flexible illumination system that allows the properties of its probe to be changed on-the-fly, a third-generation aberration corrector which corrects all geometric aberrations up to fifth order, an ultra-responsive yet stable five-axis sample stage, and a flexible configuration of optimized detectors. The microscope features many innovations, such as a modular column assembled from building blocks that can be stacked in almost any order, in situ storage and cleaning facilities for up to five samples, computer-controlled loading of samples into the column, and self-diagnosing electronics. The microscope construction is described, and examples of its capabilities are shown.

  14. Interocular high-order corneal wavefront aberration symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Marco; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Serrao, Sebastiano

    2006-04-01

    The interocular symmetry of the high-order corneal wavefront aberration (WA) in a population of myopic eyes was analyzed before and after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The preoperative and one-year postoperative corneal aberration data (from third to seventh Zernike orders) for 4- and 7-mm pupils from right and left eyes were averaged after correcting for the effects of enantiomorphism to test for mirror symmetry. Also, the mean corneal point-spread function (PSF) for right and left eyes was calculated. Preoperatively, a moderate and high degree of correlation in the high-order corneal WA between eyes was found for 4- and 7-mm pupils, respectively. Myopic PRK did not significantly change the interocular symmetry of corneal high-order aberrations. No discernible differences in the orientation PSF between eyes were observed one year after surgery in comparison with the preoperative state over the two analyzed pupils.

  15. Aberrant Cx26 hemichannels and keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome: insights into syndromic hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Helmuth A.; Verselis, Vytas K.

    2014-01-01

    Mutation of the GJB2 gene, which encodes the connexin 26 (Cx26) gap junction (GJ) protein, is the most common cause of hereditary, sensorineural hearing loss. Cx26 is not expressed in hair cells, but is widely expressed throughout the non-sensory epithelial cells of the cochlea. Most GJB2 mutations produce non-syndromic deafness, but a subset produces syndromic deafness in which profound hearing loss is accompanied by a diverse array of infectious and neoplastic cutaneous disorders that can be fatal. Although GJ channels, which are assembled by the docking of two, so-called hemichannels (HCs), have been the main focus of deafness-associated disease models, it is now evident that the HCs themselves can function in the absence of docking and contribute to signaling across the cell membrane as a novel class of ion channel. A notable feature of syndromic deafness mutants is that the HCs exhibit aberrant behaviors providing a plausible basis for disease that is associated with excessive or altered contributions of Cx26 HCs that, in turn, lead to compromised cell integrity. Here we discuss some of the aberrant Cx26 HC properties that have been described for mutants associated with keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome, a particularly severe Cx26-associated syndrome, which shed light on genotype-phenotype relationships and causes underlying cochlear dysfunction. PMID:25386120

  16. In vivo longitudinal chromatic aberration of pseudophakic eyes.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Damian; Jóźwik, Agnieszka; Zając, Marek; Hill-Bator, Aneta; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna

    2014-02-01

    To present the results of longitudinal chromatic aberration measurements on two groups of pseudophakic eyes in comparison to healthy eyes. The longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye, defined as chromatic difference of refraction with disabled accommodation, was measured with the use of a visual refractometer with a custom-designed target illuminator consisting of a narrow-band RGB diode (blue λb = 470 ± 15 nm; green λg = 525 ± 18 nm; red λr = 660 ± 10 nm). The measurements were performed on nine eyes implanted with AcrySof IQ SN60WF, 14 eyes implanted with AcrySof SA60AT, and 10 phakic eyes under cycloplegia. The mean values of the longitudinal chromatic aberration between 470 and 660 nm for the control group was 1.12 ± 0.14 D. For SA60AT group, it was 1.45 ± 0.42 D whereas for SN60WF it was 1.17 ± 0.52 D. The statistical test showed significant difference between SA60AT and the control group (p < 0.05) and no significant difference between SN60WF and the control groups (p = 0.64). The study showed that the longitudinal chromatic aberration in vivo can be easily and reliably estimated with an adapted visual refractometer. The two groups of pseudophakic eyes measured in this study showed different values of chromatic aberration. Its magnitude for SA60AT group was significantly larger than for the control group whereas for SN60WF the difference was not significant. The optical material used for intraocular lens design may have significant influence on the magnitude of the chromatic aberration of the pseudophakic eye, and therefore on its optical and visual performance in polychromatic light.

  17. In vivo chromatic aberration in eyes implanted with intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Llorente, Lourdes; Durán, Sonia; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana

    2013-04-12

    To measure in vivo and objectively the monochromatic aberrations at different wavelengths, and the chromatic difference of focus between green and infrared wavelengths in eyes implanted with two models of intraocular lenses (IOL). EIGHTEEN EYES PARTICIPATED IN THIS STUDY: nine implanted with Tecnis ZB99 1-Piece acrylic IOL and nine implanted with AcrySof SN60WF IOL. A custom-developed laser ray tracing (LRT) aberrometer was used to measure the optical aberrations, at 532 nm and 785 nm wavelengths. The monochromatic wave aberrations were described using a fifth-order Zernike polynomial expansion. The chromatic difference of focus was estimated as the difference between the equivalent spherical errors corresponding to each wavelength. Wave aberration measurements were highly reproducible. Except for the defocus term, no significant differences in high order aberrations (HOA) were found between wavelengths. The average chromatic difference of focus was 0.46 ± 0.15 diopters (D) in the Tecnis group, and 0.75 ± 0.12 D in the AcrySof group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Chromatic difference of focus in the AcrySof group was not statistically significantly different from the Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) previously reported in a phakic population (0.78 ± 0.16 D). The impact of LCA on retinal image quality (measured in terms of Strehl ratio) was drastically reduced when considering HOA and astigmatism in comparison with a diffraction-limited eye, yielding the differences in retinal image quality between Tecnis and AcrySof IOLs not significant. LRT aberrometry at different wavelengths is a reproducible technique to evaluate the chromatic difference of focus objectively in eyes implanted with IOLs. Replacement of the crystalline lens by the IOL did not increase chromatic difference of focus above that of phakic eyes in any of the groups. The AcrySof group showed chromatic difference of focus values very similar to physiological

  18. The BHVI-EyeMapper: peripheral refraction and aberration profiles.

    PubMed

    Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Holden, Brien A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article was to present the optical design of a new instrument (BHVI-EyeMapper, EM), which is dedicated to rapid peripheral wavefront measurements across the visual field for distance and near, and to compare the peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles obtained in myopic eyes with and without accommodation. Central and peripheral refractive errors (M, J180, and J45) and higher-order aberrations (C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0]) were measured in 26 myopic participants (mean [±SD] age, 20.9 [±2.0] years; mean [±SD] spherical equivalent, -3.00 [±0.90] diopters [D]) corrected for distance. Measurements were performed along the horizontal visual field with (-2.00 to -5.00 D) and without (+1.00 D fogging) accommodation. Changes as a function of accommodation were compared using tilt and curvature coefficients of peripheral refraction and aberration profiles. As accommodation increased, the relative peripheral refraction profiles of M and J180 became significantly (p < 0.05) more negative and the profile of M became significantly (p < 0.05) more asymmetric. No significant differences were found for the J45 profiles (p > 0.05). The peripheral aberration profiles of C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0] became significantly (p < 0.05) less asymmetric as accommodation increased, but no differences were found in the curvature. The current study showed that significant changes in peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles occurred during accommodation in myopic eyes. With its extended measurement capabilities, that is, permitting rapid peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration measurements up to visual field angles of ±50 degrees for distance and near (up to -5.00 D), the EM is a new advanced instrument that may provide additional insights in the ongoing quest to understand and monitor myopia development.

  19. Increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in railroad car painters.

    PubMed

    Piña-Calva, A; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Fuentes, M V; Neria, P; Pérez-Lucio, C; Vélez-Zamora, N M

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to paints and solvents contributes to chromosomal alterations in occupationally exposed individuals. A total of 25 male railroad and underground railroad car painters were studied. This group had a mean age of 32.7 y and a mean exposure time of 5.2 y. The results were compared with those obtained for 25 healthy (unexposed) males. The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations clearly revealed an increase in the number of all types of aberrations considered in the population of painters. This suggests that exposure to a combination of chemicals may increase genotoxicity in industrial workers.

  20. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    SciTech Connect

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G

    2001-12-31

    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  1. [Prenatal diagnostics of chromosomal aberrations Czech Republic: 1994-2007].

    PubMed

    Gregor, V; Sípek, A; Sípek, A; Horácek, J '; Langhammer, P; Petrzílková, L; Calda, P

    2009-02-01

    An analysis of prenatal diagnostics efficiency of selected types of chromosomal aberrations in the Czech Republic in 2007. Update of 1994-2007 data according to particular selected diagnoses. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of pre- and postnatal chromosomal aberrations diagnostics and its efficiency. Data on pre- and postnatally diagnosed birth defects in the Czech Republic during 1994-2007 were used. Data on prenatally diagnosed birth defects (and for terminated pregnancies) were collected from particular departments of prenatal diagnostics, medical genetics and ultrasound diagnostics in the Czech Republic, data on birth defects in births from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics). Total numbers over the period under the study, mean incidences of selected types of chromosomal aberrations and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiencies were analyzed. Following chromosomal aberrations were studied: Down, Edwards, Patau, Turner and Klinefelter syndromes and syndromes 47,XXX and 47,XYY. A relative proportion of Down, Edwards and Patau syndromes as well as other autosomal and gonosomal aberration is presented in figures. Recently, trisomies 13, 18 and 21 present around 70% of all chromosomal aberrations in selectively aborted fetuses, in other pregnancies, "other chromosomal aberrations" category (mostly balanced reciprocal translocations and inversions) present more than 2/3 of all diagnoses. During the period under the study, following total numbers, mean relative incidences (per 10,000 live births, in brackets) and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiency (in %) were found in following chromosomal syndromes: Down syndrome 2,244 (16.58) and 63.37%, Edwards syndrome 521 (3.85) and 79.93%, Patau syndrome 201 (1.49) and 68.87%, Turner syndrome 380 (2.81) and 79.89%, 47,XXX syndrome 61 (0.45) and 59.74%, Klinefelter syndrome 163 (1.20) and 73.65% and 47,XYY syndrome 22 (0.16) and 54.76%. The study gives updated results of

  2. Genotoxicity of mercury used in chromosome aberration tests.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M; Oshima, H; Nakamura, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effects of Hg released from dental amalgams. The chromosome aberration test was conducted using original extracts and their diluted solutions of conventional type amalgam and high copper amalgam. The concentrations of Hg, Cu and Ag in the original extract of high copper amalgam were 17.64, 7.97 and 43.90 microM, respectively. Those in the original extract of conventional type amalgam were 20.63, 7.87 and 14.79 microM, respectively. 10 and 30 microM Hg(2+) were also used for comparison. The frequency of chromosome aberrations was below 5% with 0 microM Hg(2+) and with a triple dilution of high copper amalgam extract, containing 5.88 microM Hg, 14.63 microM Cu and 2.65 microM Ag. However, 9.5% of the cells showed chromosome aberrations with a quadruple dilution of conventional type amalgam, containing 5.15 microM Hg, 3.69 microM Cu and 1.96 microM Ag. The amount of Hg in the quadruple dilution of conventional type amalgam was less than that in the triple dilution of high copper amalgam extract and 10 microM Hg(2+). A concentration of 30 microM Hg(2+) caused 34.5% of the cells to show chromosome aberrations while with a two-thirds dilution of high copper amalgam extract, containing 11.76 microM Hg, 29.26 microM Cu and 5.31 microM Ag, 58.5% of the cells showed chromosome aberrations. A two-thirds dilution of high copper amalgam extract induced more chromosome aberrations than 30 microM Hg(2+), although the amount of Hg was less than 30 microM Hg(2+). A triple dilution of conventional type amalgam extract, original extracts of conventional type amalgam and high copper amalgam and 100 microM Hg(2+) were induced few metaphases. It was revealed that the conventional type amalgam induced chromosome aberrations with quadruple dilution where cell viability was about 80% and that the high copper amalgam induced a high level of chromosome aberrations with the two-thirds dilution. The effects of low level Hg on humans

  3. High resolution imaging and wavefront aberration correction in plenoptic systems.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Sevilla, J M; Rodríguez-Ramos, L F; Montilla, I; Rodríguez-Ramos, J M

    2014-09-01

    Plenoptic imaging systems are becoming more common since they provide capabilities unattainable in conventional imaging systems, but one of their main limitations is the poor bidimensional resolution. Combining the wavefront phase measurement and the plenoptic image deconvolution, we propose a system capable of improving the resolution when a wavefront aberration is present and the image is blurred. In this work, a plenoptic system is simulated using Fourier optics, and the results show that an improved resolution is achieved, even in the presence of strong wavefront aberrations.

  4. Static telescope aberration measurement using lucky imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Marrero, Marcos; Rodríguez-Ramos, Luis Fernando; Marichal-Hernández, José Gil; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    A procedure has been developed to compute static aberrations once the telescope PSF has been measured with the lucky imaging technique, using a nearby star close to the object of interest as the point source to probe the optical system. This PSF is iteratively turned into a phase map at the pupil using the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm and then converted to the appropriate actuation information for a deformable mirror having low actuator number but large stroke capability. The main advantage of this procedure is related with the capability of correcting static aberration at the specific pointing direction and without the need of a wavefront sensor.

  5. Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039