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Sample records for aberrant cholesterol levels

  1. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... A cholesterol test is done to diagnose a lipid disorder. Different experts recommend different starting ages. Recommended ...

  2. Cholesterol Level: Can It Be Too Low?

    MedlinePlus

    ... total cholesterol level has been associated with some health problems. Doctors are still trying to find out more about the connection between low cholesterol and health risks. There is no consensus on how to ...

  3. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  4. Nonlinear Associations between Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Neuropsychological Function

    PubMed Central

    Wendell, Carrington R.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Rosenberger, William F.; Plamadeala, Victoria V.; Hosey, Megan M.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Method Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54–83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed/dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as <70 vs. 70+) as an effect modifier. Results A significant quadratic effect of total cholesterol2 × age was identified for Logical Memory II (b=−.0013, p=.039), such that the 70+ group performed best at high and low levels of total cholesterol than at mid-range total cholesterol (U-shaped), and the <70 group performed worse at high and low levels of total cholesterol than at mid-range total cholesterol (inverted U-shape). Similarly, significant U- and J-shaped effects of LDL cholesterol2 × age were identified for Visual Reproduction II (b=−.0020, p=.026) and log of Trails B (b=.0001, p=.044). Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Conclusions Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. PMID:27280580

  5. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    PubMed

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as <70 vs. 70+) as an effect modifier. A significant quadratic effect of Total Cholesterol² × Age was identified for Logical Memory II ( b = -.0013, p = .039), such that the 70+ group performed best at high and low levels of total cholesterol than at midrange total cholesterol (U-shaped) and the <70 group performed worse at high and low levels of total cholesterol than at midrange total cholesterol (inverted U shape). Similarly, significant U- and J-shaped effects of LDL Cholesterol² × Age were identified for Visual Reproduction II ( b = -.0020, p = .026) and log of the Trail Making Test, Part B (b = .0001, p = .044). Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... fried and processed foods. Eating these fats can raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol. Lack of physical activity, ... lowers HDL cholesterol, especially in women. It also raises your LDL cholesterol. Genetics may also cause people ...

  7. Association between cholesterol plasma levels and craving among heroin users.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hsieh, Pei Chun; Chen, Po See; Lu, Ru-Band; Chen, Kao Chin

    2012-12-01

    Lipids may play some roles in the central nervous system functions that are associated with drug addiction. To date, cholesterol is known to influence relapse of cocaine use. However, the relationship between cholesterol and heroin craving is unclear. This study examined the concurrent association between cholesterol and craving. The serum lipid levels of 70 heroin users who were undergoing or had undergone a methadone maintenance therapy were measured. Their craving and demographic data were assessed. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are negatively associated with craving before (r = -0.33, P < 0.01, and r = -0.36, P < 0.01, respectively) and after controlling for the effects of potential confounders (β = -0.38, P < 0.01, and β = -0.42, P < 0.01, respectively). Cholesterol could be associated with the cognitive aspect of craving and may be a potential marker to predict risk of drug relapse.

  8. Serum cholesterol levels of Seventh-day Adventists.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C B; Allen, E S; Mikkelson, B; Kang-Jey, H

    1976-10-01

    Serum cholesterol levels and dietary habits were surveyed in 27 male and 34 female Seventh-day Adventist. All subjects studied were lacto-ovo-vegetarians and a few consumed some meat products. Their serum cholesterol levels, significantly lower than those of the United States general population, showed no sex difference but increased with age and were higher in overweight males. Their levels, however, were much higher than those of true vegetarians which was most likely attributable to their consumption, even though to a limited acount, of dairy foods.

  9. Treating elevated cholesterol levels: the great Satan in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gibaldi, M; Kradjan, W

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide perspective on the developments leading to the recognition of high cholesterol levels as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Another objective is to consider the unfolding controversies regarding the relative value of cholesterol-lowering drug therapy in primary and secondary prevention. Should physicians use lipid-lowering drugs to treat patients with elevated cholesterol levels but no clinical evidence of coronary disease, or limit intervention to patients with a previous history of angina, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, or myocardial infarction? This review finds inadequate data to support a recommendation for screening large populations for the presence of elevated cholesterol levels or for primary prevention in those known to have high cholesterol. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence to support vigorous intervention in those with known coronary disease. Further study is needed to determine whether a subset of patients with one or more well-defined risk factors would benefit from primary prevention.

  10. Modulation of PICALM Levels Perturbs Cellular Cholesterol Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Jacob L.; Argus, Joseph P.; Crabtree, Donna M.; Keenan, Melissa M.; Wilks, Moses Q.; Chi, Jen-Tsan Ashley; Bensinger, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    PICALM (Phosphatidyl Inositol Clathrin Assembly Lymphoid Myeloid protein) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PICALM also affects the internalization and trafficking of SNAREs and modulates macroautophagy. Chromosomal translocations that result in the fusion of PICALM to heterologous proteins cause leukemias, and genome-wide association studies have linked PICALM Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to Alzheimer’s disease. To obtain insight into the biological role of PICALM, we performed gene expression studies of PICALM-deficient and PICALM-expressing cells. Pathway analysis demonstrated that PICALM expression influences the expression of genes that encode proteins involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and lipoprotein uptake. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) studies indicated that loss of PICALM increases cellular cholesterol pool size. Isotopic labeling studies revealed that loss of PICALM alters increased net scavenging of cholesterol. Flow cytometry analyses confirmed that internalization of the LDL receptor is enhanced in PICALM-deficient cells as a result of higher levels of LDLR expression. These findings suggest that PICALM is required for cellular cholesterol homeostasis and point to a novel mechanism by which PICALM alterations may contribute to disease. PMID:26075887

  11. Threshold level or not for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Barter, P J; Sacks, F M

    2001-05-01

    As drugs, such as the statins, and other therapies demonstrate the ability to significantly lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), one issue is whether there is a lower threshold below which no further decline in coronary heart disease occurs. Those who evaluate the data from multiple trials and conclude that no significant decrease in coronary event rates occurs at or below 125 mg/dL suggest using this level as a guideline for clinical application of cholesterol-lowering therapy. On the other hand, analysis of the results of the same population and primary prevention studies concludes that no such threshold exists. The issues affected by the decision of whether to use a threshold include costs to the healthcare system for additional physician time, tests, and medication; unknown clinical events and safety related to very low LDL-C; and resource prioritization to an unestablished therapeutic approach.

  12. Highlights of the Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Studies have shown that high blood cholesterol levels play a role in the development of coronary heart disease in adults, and that the process leading to atherosclerosis begins in childhood. To address the problem of high cholesterol levels in children, the Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels recommends complementary approaches for individuals and…

  13. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  14. High cholesterol level is essential for myelin membrane growth.

    PubMed

    Saher, Gesine; Brügger, Britta; Lappe-Siefke, Corinna; Möbius, Wiebke; Tozawa, Ryu-ichi; Wehr, Michael C; Wieland, Felix; Ishibashi, Shun; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2005-04-01

    Cholesterol in the mammalian brain is a risk factor for certain neurodegenerative diseases, raising the question of its normal function. In the mature brain, the highest cholesterol content is found in myelin. We therefore created mice that lack the ability to synthesize cholesterol in myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. Mutant oligodendrocytes survived, but CNS myelination was severely perturbed, and mutant mice showed ataxia and tremor. CNS myelination continued at a reduced rate for many months, and during this period, the cholesterol-deficient oligodendrocytes actively enriched cholesterol and assembled myelin with >70% of the cholesterol content of wild-type myelin. This shows that cholesterol is an indispensable component of myelin membranes and that cholesterol availability in oligodendrocytes is a rate-limiting factor for brain maturation.

  15. Diphenyl diselenide decreases serum levels of total cholesterol and tissue oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    de Bem, Andreza Fabro; Portella, Rafael de Lima; Colpo, Elisângela; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Frediane, Andressa; Taube, Paulo Sergio; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Farina, Marcelo; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista

    2009-07-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia and oxidative stress are well-known risk factors in coronary artery diseases. Diphenyl diselenide is a synthetic organoselenium compound that has been shown to have in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated whether diphenyl diselenide could reduce the hypercholesterolaemia and diminish the tissue oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Twenty-four New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. Each group was fed a different diet as follows: Control group--regular chow; Cholesterol group--1% cholesterol-enriched diet; diphenyl diselenide group--regular diet supplemented with 10 ppm diphenyl diselenide; and Chol/diphenyl diselenide group--the same cholesterol-rich supplemented with 10 ppm diphenyl diselenide. After 45 days of treatment, the rabbits were killed and the blood, liver, and brain were used for laboratory analysis. The results showed that the serum levels of total cholesterol were markedly increased in cholesterol-fed rabbits and the consumption of diphenyl diselenide decreased these levels approximately twofold in Chol/diphenyl diselenide rabbits (P < 0.05). The intake of diphenyl diselenide by hypercholesterolaemic rabbits diminished the serum and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as well as the production of reactive oxygen species in the blood and brain (P < 0.05) when compared to the cholesterol group. In addition, diphenyl diselenide supplementation increased hepatic and cerebral delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase activity and hepatic non-protein thiol groups levels despite hypercholesterolaemia (P < 0.05). In summary, the results showed that diphenyl diselenide reduced the hypercholesterolaemia and the oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

  16. Vegetarian diet and cholesterol and TAG levels by gender.

    PubMed

    Jian, Zhi-Hong; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lung, Chia-Chi; Ho, Chien-Chang; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Ndi Nfor, Oswald; Chang, Hui-Chin; Liaw, Yi-Ching; Liang, Yu-Chiu; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2015-03-01

    The present study assessed the effects of vegetarian and omnivorous diets on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), TAG and the ratio of HDL-C to total cholesterol (TC) by gender. HDL-C, LDL-C, TAG and HDL-C:TC were compared among three diet groups (vegan, ovo-lacto vegetarian and omnivorous). Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to examine factors significantly and independently associated with vegetarian status and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles for the diet groups. Settings A cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the Taiwanese Survey on the Prevalence of Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia and Hypertension (TwSHHH). The study comprised included 3257 men and 3551 women. After adjusting for confounders, vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets lowered LDL-C levels (β=-10.98, P=0.005 and β=-7.12, P=0.025, respectively) in men compared with omnivorous diet. There was a significant association between HDL-C and vegan diet (β=-6.53, P=0.004). In females, the β values of HDL-C, TAG and HDL-C:TC were -5.72 (P<0.0001), 16.51 (P=0.011) and -0.02 (P=0.012) for vegan diet, and -4.86 (P=0.002), 15.09 (P=0.008) and -0.01 (P=0.026) for ovo-lacto vegetarian diet, when compared with omnivorous diet. Vegan diet was associated with lower HDL-C concentrations in both males and females. Because the ovo-lacto vegetarian diet was effective in lowering LDL-C, it may be more appropriate for males.

  17. The Effect of Deployment on Cholesterol Levels of Active Duty Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    fairly good results regarding cholesterol levels. It was noted that several members returned from deployment with elevated levels, sometimes to the...LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol (Downs, John R., Beere, Polly A., Whitney, Edwin, Clearfield, Michael, Weis, Stephen, Rochen, Jeffrey, Stein...specific ages, including cholesterol screenings beginning at age 25. Given the age of the majority of this population, one might expect relatively good

  18. Serum Cholesterol Levels in College Students: Opportunities for Education and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparling, Phillip B.; Snow, Teresa K.; Beavers, Bill D.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed lipid profiles in 1,088 college students at a university where lipid profiles were available to students in selected health/wellness courses. Mean total cholesterol levels were similar for men and women, but men had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than women. About 11…

  19. Total cholesterol and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: the impact of total cholesterol level and gender.

    PubMed

    Hall, James R; Wiechmann, April R; Johnson, Leigh A; Edwards, Melissa; Barber, Robert C; Cunningham, Rebecca; Singh, Meharvan; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a major factor in nursing home placement and a primary cause of stress for caregivers. Elevated cholesterol has been linked to psychiatric disorders and has been shown to be a risk factor for AD and to impact disease progression. The present study investigated the relationship between cholesterol and NPS in AD. Data on cholesterol and NPS from 220 individuals (144 females, 76 males) with mild-to-moderate AD from the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC) cohort were analyzed. The total number of NPS and symptoms of hyperactivity, psychosis, affect and apathy were evaluated. Groups based on total cholesterol (TC; ≥200 vs. <200 mg/dl) were compared with regard to NPS. The impact of gender was also assessed. Individuals with high TC had lower MMSE scores as well as significantly more NPS and more symptoms of psychosis. When stratified by gender, males with high TC had significantly more NPS than females with high TC or than males or females with low TC. The role of elevated cholesterol in the occurrence of NPS in AD appears to be gender and symptom specific. A cross-validation of these findings will have implications for possible treatment interventions, especially for males with high TC.

  20. Opioid doses required for pain management in lung cancer patients with different cholesterol levels: negative correlation between opioid doses and cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenhua; Liang, Lining; Li, Lingyu; Xu, Miao; Li, Xiang; Sun, Hao; He, Songwei; Lin, Lilong; Zhang, Yixin; Song, Yancheng; Yang, Man; Luo, Yuling; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee; Zheng, Dayong; Zheng, Hui

    2016-03-08

    Pain management has been considered as significant contributor to broad quality-of-life improvement for cancer patients. Modulating serum cholesterol levels affects analgesia abilities of opioids, important pain killer for cancer patients, in mice system. Thus the correlation between opioids usages and cholesterol levels were investigated in human patients with lung cancer. Medical records of 282 patients were selected with following criteria, 1) signed inform consent, 2) full medical records on total serum cholesterol levels and opioid administration, 3) opioid-naïve, 4) not received/receiving cancer-related or cholesterol lowering treatment, 5) pain level at level 5-8. The patients were divided into different groups basing on their gender and cholesterol levels. Since different opioids, morphine, oxycodone, and fentanyl, were all administrated at fixed low dose initially and increased gradually only if pain was not controlled, the percentages of patients in each group who did not respond to the initial doses of opioids and required higher doses for pain management were determined and compared. Patients with relative low cholesterol levels have larger percentage (11 out of 28 in female and 31 out of 71 in male) to not respond to the initial dose of opioids than those with high cholesterol levels (0 out of 258 in female and 8 out of 74 in male). Similar differences were obtained when patients with different opioids were analyzed separately. After converting the doses of different opioids to equivalent doses of oxycodone, significant correlation between opioid usages and cholesterol levels was also observed. Therefore, more attention should be taken to those cancer patients with low cholesterol levels because they may require higher doses of opioids as pain killer.

  1. A Statistical Study of Serum Cholesterol Level by Gender and Race.

    PubMed

    Tharu, Bhikhari Prasad; Tsokos, Chris P

    2017-07-25

    Cholesterol level (CL) is growing concerned as health issue in human health since it is considered one of the causes in heart diseases. A study of cholesterol level can provide insight about its nature and characteristics. A cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANS) II was conducted on a probability sample of approximately 28,000 persons in the USA and cholesterol level is obtained from laboratory results. Samples were selected so that certain population groups thought to be at high risk of malnutrition. Study included 11,864 persons for CL cases with 9,602 males and 2,262 females with races: whites, blacks, and others. Non-parametric statistical tests and goodness of fit test have been used to identify probability distributions. The study concludes that the cholesterol level exhibits significant racial and gender differences in terms of probability distributions. The study has concluded that white people are relatively higher at risk than black people to have risk line and high risk cholesterol. The study clearly indicates that black males normally have higher cholesterol. Females have lower variation in cholesterol than males. There exists gender and racial discrepancies in cholesterol which has been identified as lognormal and gamma probability distributions. White individuals seem to be at a higher risk of having high risk cholesterol level than blacks. Females tend to have higher variation in cholesterol level than males.

  2. Work, sleep, and cholesterol levels of U.S. long-haul truck drivers

    PubMed Central

    LEMKE, Michael K.; APOSTOLOPOULOS, Yorghos; HEGE, Adam; WIDEMAN, Laurie; SÖNMEZ, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Long-haul truck drivers in the United States experience elevated cardiovascular health risks, possibly due to hypercholesterolemia. The current study has two objectives: 1) to generate a cholesterol profile for U.S. long-haul truck drivers; and 2) to determine the influence of work organization characteristics and sleep quality and duration on cholesterol levels of long-haul truck drivers. Survey and biometric data were collected from 262 long-haul truck drivers. Descriptive analyses were performed for demographic, work organization, sleep, and cholesterol measures. Linear regression and ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine for possible predictive relationships between demographic, work organization, and sleep variables, and cholesterol outcomes. The majority (66.4%) of drivers had a low HDL (<40 mg/dL), and nearly 42% of drivers had a high-risk total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio. Sleep quality was associated with HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, and daily work hours were associated with LDL cholesterol. Workday sleep duration was associated with non-HDL cholesterol, and driving experience and sleep quality were associated with cholesterol ratio. Long-haul truck drivers have a high risk cholesterol profile, and sleep quality and work organization factors may induce these cholesterol outcomes. Targeted worksite health promotion programs are needed to curb these atherosclerotic risks. PMID:28049935

  3. The levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meijuan; Lv, Dezhao; Zhou, Wu; Ji, Lili; Zhou, Beibei; Chen, Han; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; He, Jincai

    2017-04-01

    The serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels have been reported altered in the traditional drug-dependence (such as marijuana and heroin). However, studies assessing the relationships among serum TC, TG, and methamphetamine (MA)-dependence have not been described well. In this study, our aim is to explore the serum TG and TC levels in large sample of MA-dependent patients. A retrospective study was conducted in 938 MA-dependent patients who were recruited between February 2, 2008 and March 11, 2013, with social characteristics and drug-dependence history (duration of MA use, routes of drug administration, and daily dose were collected). Then, the serum levels of TC, TG, glucose (GLU), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were measured among the participants. Meanwhile, 985 age- and gender-matched healthy people in the physical examination center were selected as control group. Compared with the control group, significant decreases of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI were observed in MA-dependent patients (P < 0.05). Besides, we found that the daily dose of MA use was associated with TC (β = -0.079, P = 0.015) and the duration of MA use was independently related to BMI (β = -0.071, P = 0.031). This study demonstrated that the levels of TC, TG, GLU, and BMI factors altered in the MA-dependent patients. In addition, there is a negative association between MA dependence and TC and BMI.

  4. The Comparison of Gemfibrozil and Lovastatin Therapy in Patients with High LDL and Low HDL Cholesterol Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    cholesterol with same method as for TC; however, precision of the HDL measurements were (±SD) ±1.5 mg/dl. Triglycerides ( TG ) were...placebo lipid levels (TC and TG levels), lipoprotein cholesterol levels (LDL, VLDL, and HDL cholesterol levels), and the cholesterol ratios between... high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and risk of mortality: evidence of a threshold effect. Br Med J. 1985; 290:1239-43. 7. Gordon

  5. High levels of confusion for cholesterol awareness campaigns.

    PubMed

    Hall, Danika V

    2008-09-15

    Earlier this year, two industry-sponsored advertising campaigns for cholesterol awareness that target the general public were launched in Australia. These campaigns aimed to alert the public to the risks associated with having high cholesterol and encouraged cholesterol testing for wider groups than those specified by the National Heart Foundation. General practitioners should be aware of the potential for the two campaigns to confuse the general public as to who should be tested, and where. The campaign sponsors (Unilever Australasia and Pfizer) each have the potential to benefit by increased market share for their products, and increased profits. These disease awareness campaigns are examples of what is increasingly being termed "condition branding" by pharmaceutical marketing experts.

  6. High plasma level of remnant-like particle cholesterol in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akira; Adachi, Hisashi; Tsuruta, Makoto; Hirai, Yuji; Hiratsuka, Akiko; Enomoto, Mika; Furuki, Kumiko; Hino, Asuka; Takeuchi, Tomohiro; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2005-10-01

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular disease even when the abnormalities present in the syndrome are mild. The underlying mechanism of the metabolic syndrome has not been elucidated. We investigated whether a strong atherogenic lipoprotein, remnant-like particle (RLP) lipoprotein cholesterol, is elevated in the metabolic syndrome. We performed a health examination among the residents of a rural community in Japan. Complete datasets, including fasting RLP cholesterol levels, were obtained in 1,261 subjects (509 men and 752 women) without diabetes and who were not taking lipid-lowering drugs. The subjects' medical history, use of alcohol, and smoking habits were ascertained by a questionnaire. All of the components of the metabolic syndrome were significantly related to RLP cholesterol by univariate analysis. Total cholesterol and smoking habits were also positively associated with RLP cholesterol. The subjects with the metabolic syndrome showed only mild abnormalities of each component. When RLP cholesterol levels were stratified by the number of the components of the metabolic syndrome, there was a strong association between RLP cholesterol levels and the number of components (P < 0.001 and F = 72.7). RLP cholesterol levels are elevated in the metabolic syndrome, and this elevation may underlie the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Up-Regulates the Cholesterol Transporters ATP-Binding Cassette A1 and G1 and Reduces Cholesterol Levels in the Developing Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyan; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Costa, Lucio G; Guizzetti, Marina

    2014-11-01

    Cholesterol plays a pivotal role in many aspects of brain development; reduced cholesterol levels during brain development, as a consequence of genetic defects in cholesterol biosynthesis, leads to severe brain damage, including microcephaly and mental retardation, both of which are also hallmarks of the fetal alcohol syndrome. We had previously shown that ethanol up-regulates the levels of two cholesterol transporters, ABCA1 (ATP binding cassette-A1) and ABCG1, leading to increased cholesterol efflux and decreased cholesterol content in astrocytes in vitro. In the present study we investigated whether similar effects could be seen in vivo. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed liquid diets containing 36% of the calories from ethanol from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 21. A pair-fed control groups and an ad libitum control group were included in the study. ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression and cholesterol and phospholipid levels were measured in the neocortex of female and male fetuses at GD 21. Body weights were decreased in female fetuses as a consequence of ethanol treatments. ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels were increased, and cholesterol levels were decreased, in the neocortex of ethanol-exposed female, but not male, fetuses. Levels of phospholipids were unchanged. Control female fetuses fed ad libitum displayed an up-regulation of ABCA1 and a decrease in cholesterol content compared with pair-fed controls, suggesting that a compensatory up-regulation of cholesterol levels may occur during food restriction. Maternal ethanol consumption may affect fetal brain development by increasing cholesterol transporters' expression and reducing brain cholesterol levels. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of cancer in an occupationally exposed cohort with increased level of chromosomal aberrations.

    PubMed Central

    Smerhovsky, Z; Landa, K; Rössner, P; Brabec, M; Zudova, Z; Hola, N; Pokorna, Z; Mareckova, J; Hurychova, D

    2001-01-01

    We used cytogenetic analysis to carry out a cohort study in which the major objective was to test the association between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and subsequent risk of cancer. In spite of the extensive use of the cytogenetic analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in biomonitoring of exposure to various mutagens and carcinogens on an ecologic level, the long-term effects of an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals are still uncertain. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed this issue, and a moderate risk of cancer in individuals with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations has been observed. In the present study, we analyzed data on 8,962 cytogenetic tests and 3,973 subjects. We found a significant and strong association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and cancer incidence in a group of miners exposed to radon, where a 1% increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was followed by a 64% increase in risk of cancer (p < 0.000). In contrast, the collected data are inadequate for a critical evaluation of the association with exposure to other chemicals. PMID:11171523

  9. Reasons for the upsetting cholesterol level during the community investigation from residents, physicians, and social aspects: the China Cholesterol Education Program (CCEP).

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiang; Guan, Fei; Wang, Jia-Hong; Hu, Da-Yi

    2011-10-01

    The community medical center is the first barrier for lipid control. We aimed to survey the residents' cholesterol condition in the community, and pursue the reasons for the upsetting results from various aspects. Residents and physicians were recruited from four community centers. Residents completed questionnaires and a physical examination as well as biochemical analysis. Physicians were also asked to complete a questionnaire, some of which were about basic knowledge of lipids. About 37.0% male and 48.1% female had elevated cholesterol levels. Residents' blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose (FG), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were positively associated with their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Framingham risk scoring (FRS) was strongly related to cholesterol (P < 0.001 for LDL-C and TC). Residents' higher education grade was positively related to a normal cholesterol condition (P < 0.001), while personal income was negatively related to it. Rural residents had higher percent of population with normal cholesterol level (normal cholesterol rate) than their city counterpart (P < 0.001). Although physicians with college education had a much higher lipid knowledge level themselves, the physicians' factors had almost no relationship with the residents' cholesterol levels. Management of hypercholesterolemia should be an important component of health strategy in Beijing. Education is imperative for residents as well as for physicians.

  10. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roy, Suparna; Dasgupta, Anindya

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH) start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (the sodium pump) is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients. In 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T₄) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis. Sodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T₄ levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case. Despite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  11. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 on plasma cholesterol levels in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Park, S; Lee, H; Min, B; Jung, S; Park, S; Kim, E; Oh, S

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1, such as acid resistance, bile tolerance, adherence to HT-29 cells, and cholesterol assimilation activity. In an animal study, 7-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 (ca. 1.0×10(8) cfu/mL) for 10 wk. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly lower in mice fed an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 than in those fed an HFD only, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were similar between these 2 groups. To understand the mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of L. acidophilus NS1 on the HFD-mediated increase in plasma cholesterol levels, we determined mRNA levels of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (Srebp2) and LDL receptor (Ldlr) in the liver was dramatically reduced in mice fed a HFD compared with those fed a normal diet. When L. acidophilus NS1 was administered orally to HFD-fed mice, an HFD-induced suppression of Srebp2 and Ldlr expression in the liver was abolished. These results suggest that the oral administration of L. acidophilus NS1 to mice fed an HFD increased the expression of Srebp2 and Ldlr in the liver, which was inhibited by high fat intake, thus leading to a decrease in plasma cholesterol levels. Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 could be a useful probiotic microorganism for cholesterol-lowering dairy products and the improvement of hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of blood polychlorinated biphenyls and cholesterol levels among Canadian Inuit.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Chan, Hing Man

    2018-01-01

    It has generally been thought that Inuit populations have low risk of cardiovascular disease due to high consumption of omega-3 fatty acids found in traditional marine-based diets. However, results of recent surveys showed that Inuit populations are experiencing increasing rates of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate if blood polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with high cholesterol and related parameters in Canadian Inuit, known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The Adult Inuit Health Survey (IHS, 2007-2008) included 2595 Inuit participants from three regions of the Canadian Arctic, of which 2191 could be classified as with or without high cholesterol. The high cholesterol outcome was defined by LDL-C > 3.36mmol/L or taking medication(s) that reduce cholesterol, and was examined in adjusted logistic regression models with individual blood levels of PCB congeners, sum of dioxin-like PCBs (∑DL-PCBs), or sum of non-dioxin-like PCBs (∑NDL-PCBs). Statistically significant covariates for high cholesterol were ranked in importance according to the proportion of the model log likelihood explained. Continuous clinical parameters of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, and HDL-C were examined in multiple linear regression models with ∑DL-PCBs or ∑NDL-PCBs. A total of 719 participants had high cholesterol (32.8%). PCBs were associated with increased risk of high cholesterol, and higher levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-C. No association was observed between PCBs and serum HDL-C. With respect to other statistically significant covariates for high cholesterol, the log likelihood ranking of PCBs generally fell between body mass index (BMI) and age. Further work is needed to corroborate the associations observed with PCBs and lipids in Canadian Inuit and to examine if they are causal in the direction anticipated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Barley β-glucan reduces blood cholesterol levels via interrupting bile acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Harding, Scott V; Thandapilly, Sijo J; Tosh, Susan M; Jones, Peter J H; Ames, Nancy P

    2017-11-01

    Underlying mechanisms responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan have been proposed, yet have not been fully demonstrated. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of barley β-glucan lowers cholesterol by affecting the cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis or bile acid synthesis. In addition, this study was aimed to assess whether the underlying mechanisms are related to cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) SNP rs3808607 as proposed by us earlier. In a controlled, randomised, cross-over study, participants with mild hypercholesterolaemia (n 30) were randomly assigned to receive breakfast containing 3 g high-molecular weight (HMW), 5 g low-molecular weight (LMW), 3 g LMW barley β-glucan or a control diet, each for 5 weeks. Cholesterol absorption was determined by assessing the enrichment of circulating 13C-cholesterol over 96 h following oral administration; fractional rate of synthesis for cholesterol was assessed by measuring the incorporation rate of 2H derived from deuterium oxide within the body water pool into the erythrocyte cholesterol pool over 24 h; bile acid synthesis was determined by measuring serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations. Consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan decreased total cholesterol (TC) levels (P=0·029), but did not affect cholesterol absorption (P=0·25) or cholesterol synthesis (P=0·14). Increased bile acid synthesis after consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan was observed in all participants (P=0·049), and more pronounced in individuals carrying homozygous G of rs3808607 (P=0·033). In addition, a linear relationship between log (viscosity) of β-glucan and serum 7α-HC concentration was observed in homozygous G allele carriers. Results indicate that increased bile acid synthesis rather than inhibition of cholesterol absorption or synthesis may be responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of barley β-glucan. The pronounced TC reduction in G allele carriers of rs

  14. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  15. Central Nervous System Demyelination and Remyelination is Independent from Systemic Cholesterol Level in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Raddatz, Barbara B; Sun, Wenhui; Brogden, Graham; Sun, Yanyong; Kammeyer, Patricia; Kalkuhl, Arno; Colbatzky, Florian; Deschl, Ulrich; Naim, Hassan Y; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    High dietary fat and/or cholesterol intake is a risk factor for multiple diseases and has been debated for multiple sclerosis. However, cholesterol biosynthesis is a key pathway during myelination and disturbances are described in demyelinating diseases. To address the possible interaction of dyslipidemia and demyelination, cholesterol biosynthesis gene expression, composition of the body's major lipid repositories and Paigen diet-induced, systemic hypercholesterolemia were examined in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) using histology, immunohistochemistry, serum clinical chemistry, microarrays and high-performance thin layer chromatography. TME-virus (TMEV)-infected mice showed progressive loss of motor performance and demyelinating leukomyelitis. Gene expression associated with cholesterol biosynthesis was overall down-regulated in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. Spinal cord levels of galactocerebroside and sphingomyelin were reduced on day 196 post TMEV infection. Paigen diet induced serum hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipidosis. However, high dietary fat and cholesterol intake led to no significant differences in clinical course, inflammatory response, astrocytosis, and the amount of demyelination and remyelination in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. The results suggest that down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis is a transcriptional marker for demyelination, quantitative loss of myelin-specific lipids, but not cholesterol occurs late in chronic demyelination, and serum hypercholesterolemia exhibited no significant effect on TMEV infection. © 2015 International Society of Neuropathology.

  16. Estimation and correlation of stress and cholesterol levels in college teachers and housewives of Hyderabad-Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wattoo, Feroza Hamid; Memon, Muhammad Saleh; Memon, Allah Nawaz; Wattoo, Muhammad Hamid Sarwar; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Iqbal, Javed

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate environmental, psychological and physiological stresses in college teachers and housewives, and to correlate with their serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. This cohort study was performed at the Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan during 2003-2005. Eighty females from middle socioeconomic groups, college teachers (40) and housewives (40) aged between 25-45 years participated in this study and subjects were selected from Hyderabad and its adjoining areas. Environmental, psychological and physiological stress levels were measured with Likert scale. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were measured by CHOD-PAP method and triglyceride levels were measured by GPO method. Housewives had high levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride but low levels of HDL cholesterol were found in college teachers. Environmental, psychological and physiological stresses were significantly higher in housewives as compared to college teachers. Housewives were under more stress than college teachers. High levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride but low levels of HDL cholesterol were found in housewives compared to college teachers.

  17. Non-Cholesterol Sterol Levels Predict Hyperglycemia and Conversion to Type 2 Diabetes in Finnish Men

    PubMed Central

    Cederberg, Henna; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A.; Paananen, Jussi; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Stančáková, Alena; Smith, Ulf; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the levels of non-cholesterol sterols as predictors for the development of hyperglycemia (an increase in the glucose area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test) and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Finnish men (METSIM Study, N = 1,050) having non-cholesterol sterols measured at baseline. Additionally we determined the association of 538,265 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with non-cholesterol sterol levels in a cross-sectional cohort of non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetes (the Kuopio cohort of the EUGENE2 Study, N = 273). We found that in a cross-sectional METSIM Study the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol absorption were reduced as a function of increasing fasting glucose levels, whereas the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol synthesis were increased as a function of increasing 2-hour glucose levels. A cholesterol synthesis marker desmosterol significantly predicted an increase, and two absorption markers (campesterol and avenasterol) a decrease in the risk of hyperglycemia and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up of the METSIM cohort, mainly attributable to insulin sensitivity. A SNP of ABCG8 was associated with fasting plasma glucose levels in a cross-sectional study but did not predict hyperglycemia or incident type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, the levels of some, but not all non-cholesterol sterols are markers of the worsening of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23840693

  18. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p < 0.05), and slightly increased serum HDL. B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  19. Relationship of drinking water disinfectants to plasma cholesterol and thyroid hormone levels in experimental studies.

    PubMed Central

    Revis, N W; McCauley, P; Bull, R; Holdsworth, G

    1986-01-01

    The effects of drinking water containing 2 or 15 ppm chlorine (pH 6.5 and 8.5), chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine on thyroid function and plasma cholesterol were studied because previous investigators have reported cardiovascular abnormalities in experimental animals exposed to chlorinated water. Plasma thyroxine (T4) levels, as compared to controls, were significantly decreased in pigeons fed a normal or high-cholesterol diet and drinking water containing these drinking water disinfectants at a concentration of 15 ppm (the exception was chlorine at pH 6.5) for 3 months. In most of the treatment groups, T4 levels were significantly lower following the exposure to drinking water containing the 2 ppm dose. Increases in plasma cholesterol were frequently observed in the groups with lower T4 levels. This association was most evident in pigeons fed the high-cholesterol diet and exposed to these disinfectants at a dose of 15 ppm. For example, after 3 months of exposure to deionized water or water containing 15 ppm monochloramine, plasma cholesterol was 1266 +/- 172 and 2049 +/- 212 mg/dl, respectively, a difference of 783 mg/dl. The factor(s) associated with the effect of these disinfectants on plasma T4 and cholesterol is not known. We suggest however that these effects are probably mediated by products formed when these disinfectants react with organic matter in the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:3456597

  20. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broiler meat by dietary garlic and copper.

    PubMed

    Konjufca, V H; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1997-09-01

    Male Ross x Ross 208 chickens were fed from hatching to 21 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of a commercial garlic powder in Experiments 1 and 2. Once the dose-response relationship was established, 3% garlic powder or 63 or 180 mg/kg copper as cupric citrate or cupric sulfate pentahydrate were supplemented to the diet (Experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6). In the first two experiments, reductions of plasma cholesterol (P = 0.006) and triacylglycerols (P = 0.013) and liver (P = 0.012) and breast muscle (P = 0.165) cholesterol were observed in garlic-supplemented birds. Feeding either garlic powder or copper (63 and 180 mg/kg) resulted in reduced levels of plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol, blood reduced glutathione, and breast and thigh muscle cholesterol. Differences were significant at P < 0.05 in at least one experiment. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase activity was decreased due to dietary garlic (P = 0.0369), but not by pharmacological levels of dietary copper (P = 0.982). The activity of fatty acid synthetase was decreased in birds fed copper (P = 0.035). Both garlic and copper supplements decreased cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity (P = 0.024 and P = 0.022, respectively). The results of these trials confirm the findings that garlic and copper alter lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, they do not work by the same mechanism. Feeding dietary garlic or copper for 21 d reduced cholesterol levels of broiler meat without altering growth of the chickens or feed efficiency.

  1. Addition of Garlic Extract in Ration to Reduce Cholesterol Level of Broiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, M. M. D.; Pantaya, D.; Agus, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the effect of garlic extract (GE) in reducing cholesterol level of broiler chicken by analyzing cholesterol level of broiler chicken blood. Two hundred one day broiler age were used in this study for 35 days. The chickens were randomly divided into four treatments, each treatment consist of five replications and each repetition consist of ten chickens. This research is used completely randomized design, such as: T0: 0% EBP, T1: 2%, T2: 4% and T3: 6%. Furthermore, at age 35 days each chicken was taken blood to be analyzed cholesterol levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and calculated the ratio of LDL and HDL levels. The data obtained were analyzed using software from Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0). The results of significant analysis continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Addition of GE from the 2% level decreases (P <0.05) of LDL and total cholesterol, and increases HDL and HDL-LDL ratio. The conclusions is obtained garlic extract plays an important role in lowering cholesterol levels of broiler meat.

  2. Efficacy of Statin Therapy in Inducing Coronary Plaque Regression in Patients with Low Baseline Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Sato, Akira; Miyake, Shogo; Morino, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Takao; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Michishita, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The efficacy of statin therapy in inducing coronary plaque regression may depend on baseline cholesterol levels. We aimed to determine the efficacy of statin therapy in inducing coronary plaque regression in statin-naïve patients with low cholesterol levels using serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data from the treatment with statin on atheroma regression evaluated by virtual histology IVUS (TRUTH) study. Methods: The TRUTH study is a prospective, multicenter trial, comparing the efficacies of pitavastatin and pravastatin in coronary plaque regression in 164 patients. All patients were statin-naïve and received statin therapy only after study enrollment. The primary endpoint was the observation of coronary plaque progression, despite statin therapy. Results: Serial IVUS data, at baseline and after an 8-month follow-up, were available for 119 patients. The patients were divided into three groups based on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels—low: ≤ 140 mg/dl, n = 38; moderate: 141–169 mg/dl, n = 42; and high: ≥ 170 mg/dl, n = 39. Coronary plaque progression was noted in the low cholesterol group, whereas plaque regression was noted in the moderate and high cholesterol groups [%Δplaque volume: 2.3 ± 7.4 vs. − 2.7 ± 10.7 vs. − 3.2 ± 7.5, p = 0.004 (analysis of variance)]. After adjusting for all variables, a low non-HDLC level (≤ 140 mg/dl) was identified as an independent predictor of coronary plaque progression [odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–9.1, p = 0.004]. Conclusion: Serial IVUS data analysis indicated that statin therapy was less effective in inducing coronary plaque regression in patients with low cholesterol levels but more effective in those with high cholesterol levels at baseline. University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) (UMIN ID: C000000311). PMID:27040362

  3. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p<0.05). Serum HDL cholesterol level tended to increase and hepatic total cholesterol level decreased and were comparable to the CON group (p>0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p<0.05). Serum and hepatic total cholesterol level, kidney, and body fat weights decreased, and were compared to the CON group (p>0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  4. Trans fatty acids and cholesterol levels: an evidence map of the available science

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High intakes of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) increase circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which has implicated iTFA in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Published data on iTFA and LDL-C, however, represent higher intake levels than the U.S. population currently co...

  5. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P < 0.05). The percentage increase during hibernation was more in free cholesterol (57%) than in esterified cholesterol (27%). Analysis of subclasses of serum phospholipids showed that choline containing phospholipids, i.e., sphingomyelin (SPG) (14%) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (76%), are the major phospholipids in the serum of bear. The minor phospholipids included 8% of phosphatidylserine (PS) + phosphatidylinositol (PI), while phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was only 2% of the total phospholipids. A comparison of phospholipid subclasses showed that PC, PS + PI and SPG were significantly increased, while PE was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the hibernating state as compared with the active state in black bears. These results suggest that the catabolism of phospholipids and cholesterol is decreased during hibernation in black bears, leading to their increased levels in the hibernating state as compared with the active state. In summary, our results indicate that serum cholesterol and phospholipid fractions (except PE) are increased during hibernation in bears. It is proposed that the increase of these lipids may be due to the altered metabolism of lipoproteins that are responsible for the clearance of the lipids. ?? 2002 E??ditions scientifiques et me??dicales Elsevier SAS and Socie??te?? franc??aise de biochimie et biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  6. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging.

  7. Low childhood high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and subsequent risk for chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Markku; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Tossavainen, Päivi; Sipponen, Taina; Pitkänen, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Jokinen, Eero; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2018-04-01

    Several genetic and environmental risk factors have been linked to chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The incidence of IBD has significantly increased in developed countries during last decades. The aim of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for subsequent IBD diagnosis in a longitudinal cohort study of children and adolescents. A Finnish study population consisting of 3551 children and adolescents originally evaluated as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study in 1980. At baseline, participant BMI, insulin, lipid, C-reactive protein and blood pressure levels, socioeconomic position, dietary habits, and physical activity, were evaluated. In addition, information was gathered on rural residency, severe infections, breast feeding, parental smoking and birth weight. Subsequent IBD diagnosis status was evaluated based on nationwide registries on hospitalisations and drug imbursement decisions. Altogether, 49 participants (1.4%) had IBD diagnosed during the 34 years of register follow-up, of which 31 had ulcerative colitis, 12 Crohn's disease and 6 undetermined colitis. In univariate analyses, significant correlations were observed between childhood HDL-cholesterol (risk ratio (95% CI) for 1-SD change (0.58 (0.42-0.79)) and CRP concentrations (1.20 (1.01-1.43)) with IBD. The inverse association between HDL-cholesterol and IBD remained significant (0.57 (0.39-0.82)) in a multivariable model including data on age, sex and CRP. In addition, a weighted genetic z-score of 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with elevated HDL-cholesterol levels was significantly lower in IBD patients, P=0.01). Low childhood HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with subsequent IBD diagnosis. In addition, a genetic risk score associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels predict later IBD suggesting that HDL-cholesterol metabolism might have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published

  8. Impact of Circulating Cholesterol Levels on Growth and Intratumoral Androgen Concentration of Prostate Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R.; Montgomery, R. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) leads to tumor involution and reduction of tumor burden. However, tumors eventually reemerge that have overcome the absence of gonadal androgens, termed castration resistant PCa (CRPC). Theories underlying the development of CRPC include androgen receptor (AR) mutation allowing for promiscuous activation by non-androgens, AR amplification and overexpression leading to hypersensitivity to low androgen levels, and/or tumoral uptake and conversion of adrenally derived androgens. More recently it has been proposed that prostate tumor cells synthesize their own androgens through de novo steroidogenesis, which involves the step-wise synthesis of androgens from cholesterol. Using the in vivo LNCaP PCa xenograft model, previous data from our group demonstrated that a hypercholesterolemia diet potentiates prostatic tumor growth via induction of angiogenesis. Using this same model we now demonstrate that circulating cholesterol levels are significantly associated with tumor size (R = 0.3957, p = 0.0049) and intratumoral levels of testosterone (R = 0.41, p = 0.0023) in LNCaP tumors grown in hormonally intact mice. We demonstrate tumoral expression of cholesterol uptake genes as well as the spectrum of steroidogenic enzymes necessary for androgen biosynthesis from cholesterol. Moreover, we show that circulating cholesterol levels are directly correlated with tumoral expression of CYP17A, the critical enzyme required for de novo synthesis of androgens from cholesterol (R = 0.4073, p = 0.025) Since hypercholesterolemia does not raise circulating androgen levels and the adrenal gland of the mouse synthesizes minimal androgens, this study provides evidence that hypercholesterolemia increases intratumoral de novo steroidogenesis. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that cholesterol-fueled intratumoral androgen synthesis may accelerate the growth of

  9. Effects of intensive atorvastatin and rosuvastatin treatment on apolipoprotein B-48 and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin at maximal doses are both highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Rosuvastatin has been shown to be more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL-C, small dense LDL-C and in raising high-density lipoprote...

  10. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  11. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  12. Lower Squalene Epoxidase and Higher Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Protein Levels Are Involved in Reduced Serum Cholesterol Levels in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Michihara, Akihiro; Mido, Mayuko; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Yurika

    2015-01-01

    A lower serum cholesterol level was recently shown to be one of the causes of stroke in an epidemiological study. Spontaneously hypertensive rats stroke-prone (SHRSP) have lower serum cholesterol levels than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the lower serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP, we determined whether the amounts of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes or the receptor and transporter involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux in the liver were altered in SHRSP. When the mRNA levels of seven cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase and squalene epoxidase (SQE) levels in the liver of SHRSP were significantly lower than those in WKY. SQE protein levels were significantly reduced in tissues other than the brain of SHRSP. No significant differences were observed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (uptake of serum LDL-cholesterol) or ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (efflux of cholesterol from the liver/formation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) protein levels in the liver and testis between SHRSP and WKY, whereas scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1: uptake of serum HDL-cholesterol) protein levels were higher in the livers of SHRSP. These results indicated that the lower protein levels of SQE and higher protein levels of SRB1 in the liver were involved in the reduced serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP.

  13. Cholesterol Levels Are Associated with 30-day Mortality from Ischemic Stroke in Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Kuan; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Hsu, Shih-Pin; Chen, Chih-Hung; Lien, Li-Ming; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Chen, An-Chih; Lin, Huey-Juan; Chi, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Ta-Chang; Sun, Yu; Lee, Siu-Pak; Sung, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Po-Lin; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Chiang, Tsuey-Ru; Lin, Shinn-Kuang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Ma, Henry; Wen, Chi-Pang; Sung, Fung-Chang; Hsu, Chung Y

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the impact of serum cholesterol levels on 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke in dialysis patients. From the Taiwan Stroke Registry data, we identified 46,770 ischemic stroke cases, including 1101 dialysis patients and 45,669 nondialysis patients from 2006 to 2013. Overall, the 30-day mortality was 1.46-fold greater in the dialysis group than in the nondialysis group (1.75 versus 1.20 per 1000 person-days). The mortality rates were 1.64, .62, 2.82, and 2.23 per 1000 person-days in dialysis patients with serum total cholesterol levels of <120 mg/dL, 120-159 mg/dL, 160-199 mg/dL, and ≥200 mg/dL, respectively. Compared to dialysis patients with serum total cholesterol levels of 120-159 mg/dL, the corresponding adjusted hazard ratios of mortality were 4.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-17.4), 8.06 (95% CI = 2.02-32.2), and 6.89 (95% CI = 1.59-29.8) for those with cholesterol levels of <120 mg/dL, 160-199 mg/dL, and ≥200 mg/dL, respectively. Dialysis patients with serum total cholesterol levels of ≥160 mg/dL or <120 mg/dL on admission are at an elevated hazard of 30-day mortality after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Siemianowicz, K; Gminski, J; Stajszczyk, M; Wojakowski, W; Goss, M; Machalski, M; Telega, A; Brulinski, K; Magiera-Molendowska, H

    2000-02-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that low serum total cholesterol level may increase the risk of death due to cancer, mainly lung cancer. The aim of our study was to evaluate serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in patients with squamous cell and small cell lung cancer and their dependence on the histological type and the clinical stage of the neoplasm. Lung cancer patients (n=135) and healthy controls (n=39) entered the study. All lung cancer patients had higher rate of hypocholesterolemia and lower TC and TG levels than the control group. TC concentration was lower in lung cancer patients and in both histological types in comparison with the control group, TG level was lower only in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. There were no statistically significant differences of TC and TG levels between the histological types, or between the clinical stages of each histological type.

  15. Can change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels reduce cardiovascular risk?

    PubMed

    Dean, Bonnie B; Borenstein, Jeff E; Henning, James M; Knight, Kevin; Merz, C Noel Bairey

    2004-06-01

    The cardiovascular risk reduction observed in many trials of lipid-lowering agents is greater than expected on the basis of observed low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level reductions. Our objective was to explore the degree to which high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level changes explain cardiovascular risk reduction. A systematic review identified trials of lipid-lowering agents reporting changes in HDL-C and LDL-C levels and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). The observed relative risk reduction (RRR) in CHD morbidity and mortality rates was calculated. The expected RRR, given the treatment effect on total cholesterol level, was calculated for each trial with logistic regression coefficients from observational studies. The difference between observed and expected RRR was plotted against the change in HDL-C level, and a least-squares regression line was calculated. Fifty-one trials were identified. Nineteen statin trials addressed the association of HDL-C with CHD. Limited numbers of trials of other therapies precluded additional analyses. Among statin trials, therapy reduced total cholesterol levels as much as 32% and LDL-C levels as much as 45%. HDL-C level increases were <10%. Treatment effect on HDL-C levels was not a significant linear predictor of the difference in observed and expected CHD mortality rates, although we observed a trend in this direction (P =.08). Similarly, HDL-C effect was not a significant linear predictor of the difference between observed and expected RRRs for CHD morbidity (P =.20). Although a linear trend toward greater risk reduction was observed with greater effects on HDL-C, differences were not statistically significant. The narrow range of HDL-C level increases in the statin trials likely reduced our ability to detect a beneficial HDL-C effect, if present.

  16. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and total serum cholesterol level in Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Bazzaz, J T; Nazari, M; Nazem, H; Amiri, P; Fakhrzadeh, H; Heshmat, R; Abbaszadeh, S; Amoli, M M

    2010-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is known as a major regulator of blood lipid levels in humans. A number of APOE gene allelic variants have been reported including E2, E3 and E4. Recent studies suggested a role for APOE in obesity and increased Body Mass Index (BMI) and plasma lipid levels in obese children. The aim of this study was to examine the association between APOE genetic variants and the BMI and lipid profile in an Iranian cohort. Samples were obtained from subjects who participated in a study based on the WHO-designed MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) study for coronary artery disease risk assessment in Zone 17 of Tehran. The study was approved by the local ethical committee. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects included in this study. Subjects (n=320) were recruited. The level of triglyceride (TG) and total serum cholesterol was tested for all subjects in this study. Genotyping for APOE was carried using polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)technique. Levels of significance were determined using contingency tables by either Chi-square or Fisher exact analysis using the STATA (v8) software. The analysis of regression and significance of differences for level of cholesterol and TG was established by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS software Version 11.5. The frequency of allele E2 was significantly higher in patients with total serum cholesterol level <200 mg/dl (P 0.01 OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2). The association found in this study between allele E2 and lower total cholesterol level had been reported in previous studies. We have also observed that the frequency of genotype E2/E3 and E2/E4 was significantly higher in patients with normal total serum cholesterol level compared to patients with abnormal cholesterol (P=0.003 OR 2.4 95% CI; 1.3-4.6). Our data needs to be repeated in a larger population with

  17. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xuefang; Xu, Qingxian; Zheng, Yi; Qian, Lei; Lin, Bin

    To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v) in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5) for 2h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0) for 3h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. [Polymorphism in the regulatory part of the cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase gene in children with high and low levels of cholesterol].

    PubMed

    Hubácek, J A; Pistulková, H; Skodová, Z; Lánská, V; Poledne, R

    2003-01-01

    High plasma cholesterol is one of the risk factors of atherosclerosis. Both environmental (diet, physic activity) and genetic factors have been concerned in the development of hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase (CYP-7A1) is a key enzyme in the bile acid synthesis and it plays an important role in cholesterol catabolism. The aim of the study was to establish the role of A-204-->C polymorphism in CYP-7A1 gene in plasma lipid determination in children. Using PCR and restriction analysis (BsaI) we have measured A-204-->C polymorphism in CYP-7A1 gene in two groups of children selected from opposite ends of the cholesterol distribution curve of 2000 children. Eighty-two children in high- (HCG) and eighty-six children in low- (LCG) cholesterolemic groups participated in the study. No significant difference was found in the frequencies of the genotypes or alleles of the A-204-->C polymorphism in the CYP-7A1 gene between HCG and LCG. In HCG, C/C-204 homozygotes have the highest and A/A homozygotes the lowest levels of LDL-cholesterol (4.21 +/- 0.68 mmol/l vers. 3.69 +/- 0.60 mmol/l, p < 0.05). No associations between lipid parameters and genotypes within the LCG group were found. The A-204-->C polymorphism in the gene for CYP-7A1 is not the major determinant of plasma lipid levels in childhood. Its impact is expressed only on high cholesterol background.

  19. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, p<0.001) and increased markers of cholesterol synthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  1. Evaluation of the effect of shift work on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Hamed; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nasrabadi, Tahereh; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P < 0.001), yet no such difference was observed for TG (P = 0.853). Moreover, the results showed that the variables of age, work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the "Healthy Heart project" at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company.

  2. Maternal inheritance does not predict cholesterol levels in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Narverud, Ingunn; van Lennep, Jeanine Roeters; Christensen, Jacob J; Versmissen, Jorie; Gran, Jon Michael; Iversen, Per Ole; Aukrust, Pål; Halvorsen, Bente; Ueland, Thor; Ulven, Stine M; Ose, Leiv; Veierød, Marit B; Sijbrands, Eric; Retterstøl, Kjetil; Holven, Kirsten B

    2015-11-01

    Pregnancy exerts metabolic changes with increasing levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides as prominent features. Maternal hypercholesterolemia may thus contribute to an unfavorable in utero environment potentially influencing the susceptibility of adult cardiovascular disease in the offspring. We investigated the impact of maternal familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) on pre-treatment plasma lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in non-statin treated FH children. Children with FH (n = 1063) aged between 0 and 19 years were included. Of these, 500 had inherited FH maternally, 563 paternally and 97.6% had a verified FH mutation. Information about inheritance, mutation type and pretreatment levels of blood lipids and CRP was retrieved from the medical records. There were no significant differences in the plasma levels of lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children with maternal FH compared with children with paternal FH, (0.12 ≤ P ≤ 0.90). Independent of which parent transmitted FH, children with LDL receptor negative mutations had significantly higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol and Apolipoprotein (Apo) B, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol and ApoA1, compared with children with other LDL receptor mutations (P < 0.001). Maternal inheritance of FH was not associated with detectable long-term effects in the offspring's phenotype measured by adverse lipid profiles and increased CRP levels, whereas a LDL receptor negative mutation was associated with an unfavorably phenotype in FH offspring. Our findings do not support the fetal origin of adulthood disease hypothesis, while at the same time not excluding the hypothesis since other pathways leading to atherosclerosis may be involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P < 0.004). d-ROM levels were significantly lower in vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P < 0.011). Additionally, total cholesterol levels in the vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.018). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 101.36 ± 23.57 mg/dL and 120.60 ± 34.62 mg/dL (P < 0.005) in the vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores. PMID:22586505

  4. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P < 0.004). d-ROM levels were significantly lower in vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P < 0.011). Additionally, total cholesterol levels in the vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.018). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 101.36 ± 23.57 mg/dL and 120.60 ± 34.62 mg/dL (P < 0.005) in the vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  5. Nutraceuticals and functional foods for the control of plasma cholesterol levels. An intersociety position paper.

    PubMed

    Poli, Andrea; Barbagallo, Carlo M; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Corsini, Alberto; Manzato, Enzo; Trimarco, Bruno; Bernini, Franco; Visioli, Francesco; Bianchi, Alfio; Canzone, Giuseppe; Crescini, Claudio; de Kreutzenberg, Saula; Ferrara, Nicola; Gambacciani, Marco; Ghiselli, Andrea; Lubrano, Carla; Marelli, Giuseppe; Marrocco, Walter; Montemurro, Vincenzo; Parretti, Damiano; Pedretti, Roberto; Perticone, Francesco; Stella, Roberto; Marangoni, Franca

    2018-05-30

    Current evidence shows that cholesterol management either reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or slows down its progression. Hence, it is important that all health professionals make appropriate use of all the available intervention strategies to control risk factors: from dietary improvement and positive lifestyle changes to the use of functional foods, food supplements, and drugs. This review examines the effect of the most frequently occurring cholesterol-lowering substances in functional foods or in supplements across Europe, namely plant sterols and stanols, monacolin K found in red yeast rice, berberine and beta-glucans. We conclude that currently available supplements and functional foods can effectively reduce plasma LDL cholesterol levels by about 5 to 25%, either alone or in combination. Suitable candidates for these products are mainly individuals at low absolute cardiovascular risk at a young age or according to classic algorithms. Of note, despite being freely available for purchase, these products should be used following shared agreement between the physician and the patient ("concordance"). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Levels of total lipids, cholesterol and progesterone during estrus synchronization and pregnancy in sheep].

    PubMed

    Krajnicáková, M; Bekeová, E; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I

    1993-01-01

    Our investigations were concerned with dynamic changes in total lipids (CL), cholesterol (CHOL) and progesterone (P4) in blood serum of sheep in the period of oestrus synchronization treatment and during mating and gravidity. Our experiment was carried out using 10 animals housed under the conditions of productive rearing. Blood samples were taken from v. jugularis on day of swab application (day 0) and on days 3 and 7 of the action of Agelin vaginal swabs, on day of insemination, and on days 7, 14, 17 and in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th month of gravidity. Blood serum was used to determine total lipids and cholesterol by means of Bio-Lachema tests, and P4 concentrations employing RIA-test-Prog kits (URVJT, Kosice). A statistically significant decrease in concentrations of total lipids (Fig. 1, Tab. I) in sheep blood serum was recorded on day of insemination (P < 0.05) compared to day 0, with the value 1.59 +/- 0.31 g/l of serum, and in the 3rd month of gravidity (P < 0.01), at concentrations 1.36 +/- 0.38 g/l of serum. The determined decrease in their values in the mentioned period can be modulated by the mutually changing ratio of steroid hormones or by inhibition of synthesis of lipoproteins responsible for changes in total plasma lipids. Changes in cholesterol concentrations (Fig. 2, Tab. I) during the introduction of swabs were insignificant and ranged from 1.60 +/- 0.42 to 1.73 +/- 0.33 mmol/l of serum. An insignificant increase in cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05), with its highest levels 1.98 +/- 0.43 mmol/l of serum, was recorded in the 3rd month of gravidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B.; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice. PMID:26017184

  8. Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with severity of coronary artery disease in men with high total cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Borzyszkowska, Joanna; Stanislawska-Sachadyn, Anna; Wirtwein, Marcin; Sobiczewski, Wojciech; Ciecwierz, Dariusz; Targonski, Radoslaw; Gruchala, Marcin; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Limon, Janusz

    2012-05-01

    This study examines whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms: ACE (encoding for angiotensin converting enzyme) c.2306-117_404 I/D, AGTR1 (encoding for angiotensin II type-1 receptor) c.1080*86A>C and CYP11B2 (encoding for aldosterone synthase) c.-344C>T are associated with the extension of coronary atherosclerosis in a group of 647 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography. The extension of CAD was evaluated using the Gensini score. The polymorphisms were determined by PCR and RFLP assays. The associations between genotypes and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by pairwise comparisons using Wilcoxon test. The population has been divided into groups defined by: sex, smoking habit, past myocardial infarction, BMI (>, ≤ 25), age (>, ≤ 55), diabetes mellitus, level of total cholesterol (>, ≤ 200 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (>, ≤ 130 mg/dl), HDL cholesterol (>, ≤ 40 mg/dl), triglycerides (>, ≤ 150 mg/dl). Significant associations between the ACE c.2306-117_404 I/D polymorphism and the Gensini score in men with high total cholesterol levels (P(Kruskal-Wallis) = 0.008; P(adjusted) = 0.009), high level of LDL cholesterol (P(Kruskal-Wallis) = 0.016; P(adjusted) = 0.028) and low level of HDL cholesterol (P(Kruskal-Wallis) = 0.04; P(adjusted) = 0.055) have been found. No association between the AGTR1 c.1080*86A>C and CYP11B2 c.-344C>T and the Gensini score has been found. These results suggest that men who carry ACE c.2306-117_404 DD genotype and have high total cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels may be predisposed to the development of more severe CAD.

  9. LRP5 and plasma cholesterol levels modulate the canonical Wnt pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Borrell-Pages, Maria; Carolina Romero, July; Badimon, Lina

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is triggered after invasion or injury to restore homeostasis. Although the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the first molecular responses to cellular damage, its role in inflammation is still unclear. It was our hypothesis that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are modulators of inflammatory mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) and LRP5(-/-) mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet to trigger dislipidemia and chronic inflammation. Diets were supplemented with plant sterol esters (PSEs) to induce LDL cholesterol lowering and the reduction of inflammation. HC WT mice showed increased serum cholesterol levels that correlated with increased Lrp5 and Wnt/β-catenin gene expression while in the HC LRP5(-/-) mice Wnt/β-catenin pathway was shut down. Functionally, HC induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting an inhibitory role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation. Dietary PSE administration downregulated serum cholesterol levels in WT and LRP5(-/-) mice. Furthermore, in WT mice PSE increased anti-inflammatory genes expression and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activation. Hepatic gene expression of Vldlr, Lrp2 and Lrp6 was increased after HC feeding in WT mice but not in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting a role for these receptors in the clearance of plasmatic lipoproteins. Finally, an antiatherogenic role for LRP5 was demonstrated as HC LRP5(-/-) mice developed larger aortic atherosclerotic lesions than WT mice. Our results show an anti-inflammatory, pro-survival role for LRP5 and the Wnt signaling pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  10. Lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in infertile women with luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hansen, K K; Knopp, R H; Soules, M R

    1991-05-01

    To determine if reductions in plasma progesterone (P) secretion seen in luteal phase deficiency (LPD) might be because of reduced availability of circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL), known substrates for corpus luteum P synthesis. We measured plasma lipoproteins in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in 39 infertile women. These women were divided into two groups on the basis of endometrial biopsies; the LPD group had biopsies that were greater than or equal to 3 days out-of-phase. All participants were recruited from the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Clinic at the University of Washington, an institutional tertiary care center. Eighteen women had in-phase and 21 had out-of-phase LPD biopsies. Lipoprotein levels were obtained in a fasted state on the day of the luteal phase on which the biopsy was performed. No difference in covariates that affect lipoprotein levels such as obesity, age, and alcohol use were observed between the two groups. No significant differences between groups were found for triglycerides, total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, LDL, HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 concentrations. However, LPD was associated with a reduction in the extent to which: age and obesity are associated with higher triglycerides; obesity is associated with a lower HDL2; and alcohol is associated with a higher HDL3-cholesterol. Lipoproteins on average are not different in LPD, suggesting reasons other than a deficient plasma lipoprotein cholesterol source as the explanation for decreased P secretion. A lesser interaction between LDL or HDL and obesity, age, and alcohol in LPD could signify an influence of the altered hormonal milieu of LPD on the way lipoproteins interact with covariates and could lead to differences in lipoproteins between normal and LPD subjects at the extremes of the lipoprotein distribution.

  11. Increased HDL cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Link, Jenny C.; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S.; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N.; Arnold, Arthur P.; Reue, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. Approach and Results We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the Four Core Genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male–female gonadal sex and XX–XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male–female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male–female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared to a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with two X chromosomes compared to mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of two X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. Conclusions We demonstrate that having two X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. PMID:26112012

  12. Increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Link, Jenny C; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N; Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the four core genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male-female gonadal sex and XX-XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male-female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male-female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared with a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with 2 X chromosomes compared with mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY, and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of 2 X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. We demonstrate that having 2 X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblast after alpha particle irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K

    2013-02-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G 2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G 2 -PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. MFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration.

  14. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblasts after alpha particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-02-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. mFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration.

  15. Royal Jelly Reduces Cholesterol Levels, Ameliorates Aβ Pathology and Enhances Neuronal Metabolic Activities in a Rabbit Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yongming; Xu, Jianqin; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Fangming; Jin, Ping; Zhu, Keyan; Hu, Chenyue W; You, Mengmeng; Chen, Minli; Hu, Fuliang

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) and neuronal loss. One of the risk factors for AD is high cholesterol levels, which are known to promote Aβ deposition. Previous studies have shown that royal jelly (RJ), a product of worker bees, has potential neuroprotective effects and can attenuate Aβ toxicity. However, little is known about how RJ regulates Aβ formation and its effects on cholesterol levels and neuronal metabolic activities. Here, we investigated whether RJ can reduce cholesterol levels, regulate Aβ levels and enhance neuronal metabolic activities in an AD rabbit model induced by 2% cholesterol diet plus copper drinking water. Our results suggest that RJ significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased the level of Aβ in rabbit brains. RJ was also shown to markedly ameliorate amyloid deposition in AD rabbits from Aβ immunohistochemistry and thioflavin-T staining. Furthermore, our study suggests that RJ can reduce the expression levels of β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and increase the expression levels of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE). In addition, we found that RJ remarkably increased the number of neurons, enhanced antioxidant capacities, inhibited activated-capase-3 protein expression, and enhanced neuronal metabolic activities by increasing N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and glutamate and by reducing choline and myo-inositol in AD rabbits. Taken together, our data demonstrated that RJ could reduce cholesterol levels, regulate Aβ levels and enhance neuronal metabolic activities in AD rabbits, providing preclinical evidence that RJ treatment has the potential to protect neurons and prevent AD.

  16. Association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and pulmonary function in healthy Korean adolescents: the JS high school study.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hye; Mun, Seyeon; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-12-11

    Accumulating evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with pulmonary function and pulmonary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function in healthy adolescents. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected for the JS High School study. The analysis included 644 adolescents (318 male and 326 female) aged 15-16 years old and free from asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fasting blood samples were collected for hematologic and biochemical assessment. Forced vital capacity volume (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the 1 s (FEV1) were measured using dry-rolling-seal spirometry. The associations between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Among male adolescents, an increase of 1.0 mg/dL in HDL cholesterol was associated with 10 mL decrease in FVC (p = 0.013) and FEV1 (p = 0.013) after adjusting for age, height, weight, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and monthly household income. Percent predicted values of FVC (p = 0.036) and FEV1 (p = 0.017) were also inversely associated with HDL cholesterol. However, among female adolescents, HDL cholesterol level was not significantly associated with absolute or percent predictive value of FVC and FEV1. Higher HDL cholesterol level may be associated with decreased pulmonary function among healthy male adolescents. The sex differences observed in the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function need further investigation.

  17. Effect of VCO and olive oil on HDL, LDL, and cholesterol level of hyperglycemic Rattus Rattus Norvegicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf Wachidah Yuiwarti, Enny; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Kusdiyantini, Endang

    2018-05-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) and olive oil are edible oil containing an antioxidant that can prevent free radicals in Rattus rattus norvegicus hypoglycemic due to the damage of pancreatic beta cell after alloxan injection. Virgin coconut oil and olive oil are fatty acids when being consumed will affect lipid metabolism particularly HDL, LDL and cholesterol in serum. This research aims to determine the effect of VCO and Olive oil on cholesterol levels in hyperglycemic rats. Research materials were twenty male Rattus rattus norvegicus. Randomized Factorial Design was used in four treatment groups including P1(control), P2 (mice injected with alloxan), P3 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each VCO and vitamin E) and P4 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each olive oil and vitamin E. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. Feed and water were provided adlibitum for four weeks. The result showed that there was no significant difference in the level of HDL serum across the treatments, but P4 had a significantly higher LDL than the other treatments. Moreover, total cholesterol was significantly increased in P4 compared to the other groups. It can be concluded that olive oil could increase the level of cholesterol and LDL in serum, while VCO did not increase the level of cholesterol and LDL so VCO more potential to maintain cholesterol in hyperglycemic Rattus rattus norvegicus.

  18. Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the management of blood cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Katan, Martijn B; Grundy, Scott M; Jones, Peter; Law, Malcolm; Miettinen, Tatu; Paoletti, Rodolfo

    2003-08-01

    Foods with plant stanol or sterol esters lower serum cholesterol levels. We summarize the deliberations of 32 experts on the efficacy and safety of sterols and stanols. A meta-analysis of 41 trials showed that intake of 2 g/d of stanols or sterols reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by 10%; higher intakes added little. Efficacy is similar for sterols and stanols, but the food form may substantially affect LDL reduction. Effects are additive with diet or drug interventions: eating foods low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in stanols or sterols can reduce LDL by 20%; adding sterols or stanols to statin medication is more effective than doubling the statin dose. A meta-analysis of 10 to 15 trials per vitamin showed that plasma levels of vitamins A and D are not affected by stanols or sterols. Alpha carotene, lycopene, and vitamin E levels remained stable relative to their carrier molecule, LDL. Beta carotene levels declined, but adverse health outcomes were not expected. Sterol-enriched foods increased plasma sterol levels, and workshop participants discussed whether this would increase risk, in view of the marked increase of atherosclerosis in patients with homozygous phytosterolemia. This risk is believed to be largely hypothetical, and any increase due to the small increase in plasma plant sterols may be more than offset by the decrease in plasma LDL. There are insufficient data to suggest that plant stanols or sterols either prevent or promote colon carcinogenesis. Safety of sterols and stanols is being monitored by follow-up of samples from the general population; however, the power of such studies to pick up infrequent increases in common diseases, if any exist, is limited. A trial with clinical outcomes probably would not answer remaining questions about infrequent adverse effects. Trials with surrogate end points such as intima-media thickness might corroborate the expected efficacy in reducing atherosclerosis. However, present evidence is

  19. Effects of stress on serum triglycerides, nonsterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels in male rats after ethanol administration

    SciTech Connect

    Hershock, D.; Vogel, W.H.

    1989-02-09

    Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regularmore » diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.« less

  20. Corn oil intake favorably impacts lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein and lipoprotein particle levels compared with extra-virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Maki, K C; Lawless, A L; Kelley, K M; Kaden, V N; Geiger, C J; Palacios, O M; Dicklin, M R

    2017-01-01

    Corn oil (CO) and extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) are rich sources of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but UFA profiles differ among oils, which may affect lipoprotein levels. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of CO versus EVOO intake on fasting lipoprotein and subfraction cholesterol levels, apolipoprotein (apo) A1, apo B, and low-density lipoprotein particle concentrations in men and women. As part of a weight maintenance diet, men and women were provided with food items prepared with 54 g per day of CO or EVOO (21-day treatment, 21-day washout) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled-feeding, crossover trial. Fasting lipoprotein cholesterol and related variables were determined with density gradient ultracentrifugation. Among the 54 completers, CO reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apo B and LDL particle concentration to a greater extent compared with EVOO intake. Changes in LDL-C and VLDL-C contributed to the larger reduction in non-HDL-C with CO compared with EVOO intake (-0.39 mmol/l vs -0.04 mmol/l; P<0.001). The larger reduction in LDL-C by CO intake was attributable to changes (P<0.05) caused by CO vs EVOO in large LDL 1+2 -C (-0.22 mmol/l) and intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.12 mmol/l). HDL-C responses did not differ between treatments, but apo A1 increased more with EVOO compared with CO intake (4.6  versus 0.7 mg/dl, respectively, P=0.016). CO intake reduced atherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol and particle concentrations to a larger extent than did EVOO, which may have implications for cardiovascular disease risk.

  1. Trans fatty acids and cholesterol levels: An evidence map of the available science.

    PubMed

    Liska, DeAnn J; Cook, Chad M; Wang, Ding Ding; Gaine, P Courtney; Baer, David J

    2016-12-01

    High intakes of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) increase circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which has implicated iTFA in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Published data on iTFA and LDL-C, however, represent higher intake levels than the U.S. population currently consume. This study used state-of-the-art evidence mapping approaches to characterize the full body of literature on LDL-C and iTFA at low intake levels. A total of 32 independent clinical trials that included at least one intervention or control group with iTFA at ≤3%en were found. Findings indicated that a wide range of oils and interventions were used, limiting the ability to determine an isolated effect of iTFA intake. Few data points were found for iTFA at <3%en, with the majority of low-level exposures actually representing control group interventions containing non-partially hydrogenated (PHO) oils. Further, it appears that few dose-response data points are available to assess the relationship of low levels of iTFA, particularly from PHO exposure, and LDL-C. Therefore, limited evidence is available to determine the effect of iTFA at current consumption levels on CHD risk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. LDL-C levels in older people: Cholesterol homeostasis and the free radical theory of ageing converge.

    PubMed

    Mc Auley, Mark T; Mooney, Kathleen M

    2017-07-01

    The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increases with age, up until the midpoint of life in males and females. However, LDL-C can decrease with age in older men and women. Intriguingly, a recent systematic review also revealed an inverse association between LDL-C levels and cardiovascular mortality in older people; low levels of LDL-C were associated with reduced risk of mortality. Such findings are puzzling and require a biological explanation. In this paper a hypothesis is proposed to explain these observations. We hypothesize that the free radical theory of ageing (FRTA) together with disrupted cholesterol homeostasis can account for these observations. Based on this hypothesis, dysregulated hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in older people is characterised by two distinct metabolic states. The first state accounts for an older person who has elevated plasma LDL-C. This state is underpinned by the FRTA which suggests there is a decrease in cellular antioxidant capacity with age. This deficiency enables hepatic reactive oxidative species (ROS) to induce the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase, the key rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. An increase in cholesterol synthesis elicits a corresponding rise in LDL-C, due to the downregulation of LDL receptor synthesis, and increased production of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). In the second state of dysregulation, ROS also trigger the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase. However, due to an age associated decrease in the activity of cholesterol-esterifying enzyme, acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase, there is restricted conversion of excess free cholesterol (FC) to cholesterol esters. Consequently, the secretion of VLDL-C drops, and there is a corresponding decrease in LDL-C. As intracellular levels of FC accumulate, this state progresses to a pathophysiological condition akin to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is our

  3. Reduced cholesterol levels in renal membranes of undernourished rats may account for urinary Na⁺ loss.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fabiana S T; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Cabral, Edjair V; Sampaio, Luzia S; Silva, Paulo A; Carvalho, Vera C O; Vieyra, Adalberto; Einicker-Lamas, Marcelo; Lima, Vera L M; Paixão, Ana D O

    2013-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that reabsorption of Na⁺ in the thick ascending limb is reduced and the ability to concentrate urine can be compromised in undernourished individuals. Alterations in phospholipid and cholesterol content in renal membranes, leading to Na⁺ loss and the inability to concentrate urine, were investigated in undernourished rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats were utilized to evaluate (1) phospholipid and cholesterol content in the membrane fraction of whole kidneys, (2) cholesterol content and the levels of active Na⁺ transporters, (Na⁺ + K⁺)ATPase and Na⁺-ATPase, in basolateral membranes of kidney proximal tubules, and (3) functional indicators of medullary urine concentration. Body weight in the undernourished group was 73 % lower than in control. Undernourishment did not affect the levels of cholesterol in serum or in renal homogenates. However, membranes of whole kidneys revealed 56 and 66 % reduction in the levels of total phospholipids and cholesterol, respectively. Furthermore, cholesterol and (Na⁺ + K⁺)ATPase activity in proximal tubule membranes were reduced by 55 and 68 %, respectively. Oxidative stress remained unaltered in the kidneys of undernourished rats. In contrast, Na⁺-ATPase activity, an enzyme with all regulatory components in membrane, was increased in the proximal tubules of undernourished rats. Free water clearance and fractional Na⁺ excretion were increased by 86 and 24 %, respectively, and urinary osmolal concentration was 21 % lower in undernourished rats than controls. Life-long undernutrition reduces the levels of total phospholipids and cholesterol in membranes of renal tubular cells. This alteration in membrane integrity could diminish (Na⁺ + K⁺)ATPase activity resulting in reduced Na⁺ reabsorption and urinary concentrating ability.

  4. How cells handle cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Simons, K; Ikonen, E

    2000-12-01

    Cholesterol plays an indispensable role in regulating the properties of cell membranes in mammalian cells. Recent advances suggest that cholesterol exerts many of its actions mainly by maintaining sphingolipid rafts in a functional state. How rafts contribute to cholesterol metabolism and transport in the cell is still an open issue. It has long been known that cellular cholesterol levels are precisely controlled by biosynthesis, efflux from cells, and influx of lipoprotein cholesterol into cells. The regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is now receiving a new focus, and this changed perspective may throw light on diseases caused by cholesterol excess, the prime example being atherosclerosis.

  5. Glucuronic Acid Epimerase Is Associated with Plasma Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Turks

    PubMed Central

    Hodoğlugil, Uğur; Williamson, David W.; Yu, Yi; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Mahley, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We narrowed chromosome 15q21-23 linkage to plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in atherogenic dyslipidemic Turkish families by fine mapping, then focused on glucuronic acid epimerase (GLCE), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) biosynthesis enzyme. HSPGs participate in lipid metabolism along with apolipoprotein (apo) E. Of 31 SNPs in the GLCE locus, nine analyzed by haplotype were associated with plasma HDL-C and triglyceride levels (permuted p = 0.006 and 0.013, respectively) in families. Of five tagging GLCE SNPs in two cohorts of unrelated subjects, three (rs16952868, rs11631403, rs3865014) were associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in males (non-permuted p < 0.05). The association was stronger in APOE 2/3 subjects (apoE2 has reduced binding to HSPGs) and reached multiple-testing significance (p < 0.05) in both males and females (n = 2612). Similar results were obtained in the second cohort (n = 1164). Interestingly, at the GLCE locus, bounded by recombination hotspots, Turks had a minor allele frequency of SNPs resembling Chinese more than European ancestry; adjoining regions on chromosome 15 resembled the European pattern. Studies of glce+/–apoe–/– mice fed a chow or high-fat diet supported a role for GLCE in lipid metabolism. Thus, SNPs in GLCE are associated with triglyceride and HDL-C levels in Turks, and mouse studies support a role for glce in lipid metabolism. PMID:21488854

  6. A genetically informed test of cholesterol levels and self-control, depressive symptoms, antisocial behavior, and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Rowland, Meghan W; Beaver, Kevin M

    2014-08-01

    Low cholesterol levels have been found to be associated with a wide range of behavioral problems, including violent and criminal behavior, and a wide range of psychological problems including impulsivity, depression, and other internalizing problems. The casual mechanisms underlying these associations remain largely unknown, but genetic factors may play a role in the etiology of such associations as previous research has found significant genetic influence on cholesterol levels and various deleterious behavioral and psychological outcomes. The current study addressed this existing gap in the literature by performing a genetically sensitive test of the association between cholesterol levels and various outcomes including levels of self-control, depressive symptoms, anger expression, and neuroticism. DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis was used to analyze data from 388 twin pairs nested within the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). The results of the genetically informed models revealed that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were negatively and significantly associated with depressive symptoms, had a marginally significant effect on neuroticism, and a nonsignificant effect on both anger expression and self-control. The findings may not extrapolate to the larger population of American adults since the subsample of twins with cholesterol information may not be nationally representative. Genetic influences play a significant role in the association between cholesterol levels and various deleterious outcomes and failing to control for these influences may result in model misspecification and may increase the probability of detecting a significant association when one does not actually exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduction in postoperative high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in children undergoing the Fontan operation.

    PubMed

    Zyblewski, Sinai C; Argraves, W Scott; Graham, Eric M; Slate, Elizabeth H; Atz, Andrew M; Bradley, Scott M; McQuinn, Tim C; Wilkerson, Brent A; Wing, Shane B; Argraves, Kelley M

    2012-10-01

    Despite the emerging relevance of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the inflammatory cascade and vascular barrier integrity, HDL levels in children undergoing cardiac surgery are unexplored. As a measure of HDL levels, the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) in single-ventricle patients was quantified before and after the Fontan operation, and it was determined whether relationships existed between the duration and the type of postoperative pleural effusions. The study prospectively enrolled 12 children undergoing the Fontan operation. Plasma HDL-C levels were measured before and after cardiopulmonary bypass. The outcome variables of interest were the duration and type of chest tube drainage (chylous vs. nonchylous). The Kendall rank correlation coefficient and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used. There were 11 complete observations. The median preoperative HDL-C level for all the subjects was 30 mg/dl (range, 24-53 mg/dl), and the median postcardiopulmonary bypass level was 21 mg/dl (range, 14-46 mg/dl) (p = 0.004). There was a tendency toward a moderate inverse correlation (-0.42) between the postcardiopulmonary bypass HDL-C level and the duration of chest tube drainage, but the result was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). In the chylous effusion group, the median postcardiopulmonary bypass HDL-C tended to be lower (16 vs. 23 mg/dl; p = 0.09). After the Fontan operation, the plasma HDL-C levels in children are significantly reduced. It is reasonable to conclude that the reduction in HDL-C reflects reduced plasma levels of HDL particles, which may have pertinent implications in postoperative pleural effusions given the antiinflammatory and endothelial barrier functions of HDL.

  8. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  9. A Spectrum of PCSK9 Alleles Contributes to Plasma Levels of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Kotowski, Ingrid K.; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Luke, Amy; Cooper, Richard S.; Vega, Gloria L.; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Hobbs, Helen H.

    2006-01-01

    Selected missense mutations in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 serine protease gene (PCSK9) cause autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia, whereas nonsense mutations in the same gene are associated with low plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Here, DNA sequencing and chip-based oligonucleotide hybridization were used to determine whether other sequence variations in PCSK9 contribute to differences in LDL-C levels. The coding regions of PCSK9 were sequenced in the blacks and whites from the Dallas Heart Study (n=3,543) who had the lowest (<5th percentile) and highest (>95th percentile) plasma levels of LDL-C. Of the 17 missense variants identified, 3 (R46L, L253F, and A443T) were significantly and reproducibly associated with lower plasma levels of LDL-C (reductions ranging from 3.5% to 30%). None of the low–LDL-C variants were associated with increased hepatic triglyceride content, as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This finding is most consistent with the reduction in LDL-C being caused primarily by accelerating LDL clearance, rather than by reduced lipoprotein production. Association studies with 93 noncoding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the PCSK9 locus identified 3 SNPs associated with modest differences in plasma LDL-C levels. Thus, a spectrum of sequence variations ranging in frequency (from 0.2% to 34%) and magnitude of effect (from a 3% increase to a 49% decrease) contribute to interindividual differences in LDL-C levels. These findings reveal that PCSK9 activity is a major determinant of plasma levels of LDL-C in humans and make it an attractive therapeutic target for LDL-C lowering. PMID:16465619

  10. [Effect of healthy diet and physical activity on the level of non-HDL cholesterol in obese subjects without cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Móczár, Csaba

    2015-10-18

    Prevention program including lifestyle changes was initiated with the participation of obese and overweight subjects recruited from the practices of 29 family doctors. The aim of the author was to analyse changes of non-HDL-cholesterol levels, especially when triglyceride levels were above 2.26 mmol/l, and when non-HDL cholesterol levels were high in association with low HDL-cholesterol levels in overweight or obese subjects who had no cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Data obtained from 1192 subjects (424 men and 768 women) before and 12 month after inclusion into the prevention program was analysed. The average level of non-HDL-cholesterol in the whole group of subjects decreased from 4.74 to 4.64 mmol/l, but the change was not significant. However, the average concentration of non-HDL-cholesterol was reduced significantly from 4.87 to 4.4 mmol/l in men, whereas no significant change was detected in women. In cases when triglyceride levels were higher than 2.26 mmol/l, the non-HDL-cholesterol level was reduced by 0.65 mmol/l. In cases when the non-HDL-cholesterol level was high in association with low HDL-cholesterol level, the non-HDL-cholesterol was significantly decreased from 5.22 to 4.48 mmol/l. In addition, in cases when HDL-cholesterol levels were low, the average level of the HDL-cholesterol significantly increased from 0.84 to 1.3 mmol/l. Lifestyle changes decrease the level of atherogenic lipid fractions, particularly in men with high triglyceride levels. Improvement of the atherogenic lipid profile in response to lifestyle changes is related not only to the reduction of atherogenic lipid fractions, but also to the increase of HDL-cholesterol level.

  11. Comparison of different statin therapy to change low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in Korean patients with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Khang, Ah Reum; Song, Young Shin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to apply the proper intensity of statin for new treatment guidelines in clinical settings because of few data about the statin efficacy in Asians. We conducted a retrospective, observational study to estimate the percentage changes in lipid parameters and glucose induced by different statins. We analyzed 3854 patients including those with nondiabetes and diabetes treated at the outpatient clinic between 2003 and 2013 who were statin-naïve and maintained fixed-dose of statin for at least 18 months. Moderate- and low-intensity statin therapy was effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to <100 mg/dL (70.3%, 83.0%, and 87.2% of diabetic patients in the low-, moderate-, and high-intensity therapy groups, respectively). The rapid decrease of LDL-C was observed in the first 8 months, and LDL-C-lowering effect was maintained throughout the observation period in even the low-intensity statin group. The effects of statins in elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar in each statin groups, except the ezetimibe-simvastatin group (4.5 ± 2.1%) and high-dose atorvastatin groups (9.7 ± 3.3% and 8.7 ± 2.4% for 40 mg and 80 mg of atorvastatin/day, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased less and LDL-C decreased more in diabetes than in nondiabetes. There were no significant changes of fasting glucose after statin use in nondiabetic patients. Moderate- or low-intensity statin was effective enough in reaching National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III LDL-C target goals in Koreans. Low-intensity statin showed around 30% LDL-C reduction from the baseline level in Koreans, which is comparable to moderate-intensity statin in new guideline. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of 10 Weeks Resistance Training on Cholesterol and Blood Triglyceride Levels of Patients with Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Rohollah; Hosseini Askarabadi, Siroos; Karampour, Sedigheh; Abdolhamid Tehrani, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to consider the effect of 10 weeks resistance trainings on cholesterol and blood triglyceride (TG) levels of patients with having fatty liver, aged 50 to 60 in National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC). This research is practical and its plan has been done experimentally with pretest and post-test on experimental and control groups. In this study, 20 samples from 100 patients who referred to sonography clinic in NISOC with distinction of fatty liver were selected randomly and divided into two groups of control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10). Cholesterol and blood trigly-ceride were measured as pretest. Test of normality for TG was (p = 0/200) by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and (p = 0/070) for cholesterol by Shapiro-Wilk test. After 10 weeks resistance trainings, the analysis and resolution of data were done by computer and SPSS (16) software as well as the descriptive and statistical methods (t-test). Comparison between these two groups showed that 8 weeks resistance trainings with a ≤ 0.05 causes significant decrease in the amount of TG but did not any significant effect on cholesterol of fatty liver patients. How to cite this article: Valizadeh R, Askarabadi SH, Karampour S, Tehrani MA. The Effect of 10 Weeks Resistance Training on Cholesterol and Blood Triglyceride Levels of Patients with Fatty Liver Disease. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):64-65.

  13. Effect of exercise training on plasma levels and functional properties of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Casella-Filho, Antonio; Chagas, Antonio Carlos P; Maranhão, Raul C; Trombetta, Ivani C; Cesena, Fernando H Y; Silva, Vanessa M; Tanus-Santos, Jose Eduardo; Negrão, Carlos E; da Luz, Protasio L

    2011-04-15

    Intense lifestyle modifications can change the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration. The aim of the present study was to analyze the early effects of short-term exercise training, without any specific diet, on the HDL cholesterol plasma levels and HDL functional characteristics in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MS). We studied 30 sedentary subjects, 20 with and 10 without the MS. The patients with the MS underwent moderate intensity exercise training for 3 months on bicycle ergometers. Blood was sampled before and after training for biochemical analysis, paraoxonase-1 activity, and HDL subfraction composition and antioxidative capacity. Lipid transfer to HDL was assayed in vitro using a labeled nanoemulsion as the lipid donor. At baseline, the MS group had greater triglyceride levels and a lower HDL cholesterol concentration and lower paraoxonase-1 activity than did the controls. Training decreased the plasma triglycerides but did not change the low-density lipoprotein or HDL cholesterol levels. Nonetheless, exercise training increased the HDL subfractions' antioxidative capacity and paraoxonase-1 activity. After training, the MS group had compositional changes in the smallest HDL subfractions associated with increased free cholesterol and cholesterol ester transfers to HDL, reaching normal values. In conclusion, the present investigation has added relevant information about the dissociation between the quantitative and qualitative aspects of HDL after short-term exercise training without any specific diet in those with the MS, highlighting the importance of evaluating the functional aspects of the lipoproteins, in addition to their plasma levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What's Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's Cholesterol? What's in this ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  15. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Tanvir, E M; Afroz, Rizwana; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day) for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO) products (TBARS) and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST). Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  16. Calpain-5 gene variants are associated with diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, María E; Martínez-Larrad, María T; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; González-Sánchez, José L; Zabena, Carina; Martinez-Calatrava, María J; González, Alejandro; Morón, Francisco J; Ruiz, Agustín; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Genes implicated in common complex disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or cardiovascular diseases are not disease specific, since clinically related disorders also share genetic components. Cysteine protease Calpain 10 (CAPN10) has been associated with T2DM, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, increased body mass index (BMI) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a reproductive disorder of women in which isunlin resistance seems to play a pathogenic role. The calpain 5 gene (CAPN5) encodes a protein homologue of CAPN10. CAPN5 has been previously associated with PCOS by our group. In this new study, we have analysed the association of four CAPN5 gene variants(rs948976A>G, rs4945140G>A, rs2233546C>T and rs2233549G>A) with several cardiovascular risk factors related to metabolic syndrome in general population. Methods Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, insulin, glucose and lipid profiles were determined in 606 individuals randomly chosen from a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey in the province of Segovia in Central Spain (Castille), recruited to investigate the prevalence of anthropometric and physiological parameters related to obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Genotypes at the four polymorphic loci in CAPN5 gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Genotype association analysis was significant for BMI (p ≤ 0.041), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015) and HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.025). Different CAPN5 haplotypes were also associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (0.0005 ≤ p ≤ 0.006) and total cholesterol levels (0.001 ≤ p ≤ 0.029). In addition, the AACA haplotype, over-represented in obese individuals, is also more frequent in individuals with metabolic syndrome defined by ATPIII criteria (p = 0.029). Conclusion As its homologue CAPN10, CAPN5 seems to influence traits related to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Our results also

  17. Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-1 (SMPD1) coding variants do not contribute to low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Dastani, Zari; Ruel, Isabelle L; Engert, James C; Genest, Jacques; Marcil, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Background Niemann-Pick disease type A and B is caused by a deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase due to mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-1 (SMPD1) gene. In Niemann-Pick patients, SMPD1 gene defects are reported to be associated with a severe reduction in plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Methods Two common coding polymorphisms in the SMPD1 gene, the G1522A (G508R) and a hexanucleotide repeat sequence within the signal peptide region, were investigated in 118 unrelated subjects of French Canadian descent with low plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol (< 5th percentile for age and gender-matched subjects). Control subjects (n = 230) had an HDL-cholesterol level > the 25th percentile. Results For G1522A the frequency of the G and A alleles were 75.2% and 24.8% respectively in controls, compared to 78.6% and 21.4% in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.317). The frequency of 6 and 7 hexanucleotide repeats was 46.2% and 46.6% respectively in controls, compared to 45.6% and 49.1% in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.619). Ten different haplotypes were observed in cases and controls. Overall haplotype frequencies in cases and controls were not significantly different. Conclusion These results suggest that the two common coding variants at the SMPD1 gene locus are not associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels in the French Canadian population. PMID:18088425

  18. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Jasmine G; O'Dea, Kerin; Walker, Karen Z

    2014-06-02

    Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia's Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: <1.0 mmol/L. Analyses of primary data associating measures of HDL-C with other CVD risk factors were also performed. Fifteen of 93 retrieved studies were identified for inclusion. These provided 58 mean HDL-C levels; 29 for each sex, most obtained in rural/regional (20%) or remote settings (60%) and including 51-1641 participants. For Australian Aborigines, mean HDL-C values ranged between 0.81-1.50 mmol/L in females and 0.76-1.60 mmol/L in males. Two of 15 studies reported HDL-C levels for Torres Strait Islander populations, mean HDL-C: 1.00 or 1.11 mmol/L for females and 1.01 or 1.13 mmol/L for males. Low HDL-C was observed only in rural/regional and remote settings--not in national or urban studies (n = 3) in either gender. Diabetes prevalence, mean/median waist-to-hip ratio and circulating C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels (all P < 0.05). Thirty-four per cent of studies reported lower mean HDL-C levels in females than in males. Very low mean HDL-C levels are common in Australian Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes prevalence and inflammatory markers suggest a

  19. Multiple Effects of Ginseng Berry Polysaccharides: Plasma Cholesterol Level Reduction and Enteric Neoplasm Prevention.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Huang, Wei-Hua; Zheng, Wei; Park, Chan Woong; Kim, Su Hwan; Seo, Dae Bang; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Zeng, Jinxiang; Yao, Haiqiang; Sava-Segal, Clara; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2017-01-01

    The root of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used for centuries in Oriental medicine to improve general well-being and to relieve various medical conditions. It is commonly understood that ginsenosides are responsible for the pharmacological activities of ginseng. Compared to the root of ginseng, studies on the berry are considerably limited. In this study, we evaluated the effects of polysaccharides from Asian ginseng berries on plasma lipid levels, chemically-induced enteric inflammation and neoplasm, and cancer chemoprevention in different experimental models. We tested two polysaccharide preparations: regular ginseng berry polysaccharide extract (GBPE) and ginseng berry polysaccharide portion (GBPP, removed MV [Formula: see text]). We first observed that both oral GBPE and oral GBPP significantly reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels in a dose-related manner in ob/ob mice, without obvious body weight changes. Then, in AOM/DSS-induced acute colitis mice, GBPE and GBPP significantly ameliorated the increased gut disease activity index and inhibited the reduction of the colon length. Further, the berry polysaccharides significantly suppressed chemically-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. This is consistent with the observation that GBPE and GBPP attenuated tumorigenesis in mice by significantly and dose-dependently reducing tumor load. Finally, in vitro HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells were used. While these berry preparations had better antiproliferation effects on the HCT-116 than the HT-29 cells, the GBPE had significantly stronger inhibitory effects than GBPP. The observed in vitro GBPE's effect could contribute to the actions of its small-molecule non-polysaccharide compounds due to their direct antiproliferative activities. Results obtained from the present study suggest that ginseng berry polysaccharides may have a therapeutic role in the management of high lipid levels, enteric inflammation, and colon

  20. Body mass index and cholesterol level predict surgical outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan - a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ling; Li, Wan-Chun; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chiang, Hsin-Yu; Ting, Chin-Tsung

    2016-04-19

    Curative surgical resection (CSR) remains the most effective therapeutic intervention for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, frequent post-surgical recurrence leads to high cancer related mortality. This study aimed to clarify the role of body mass index (BMI) and serum cholesterol level in predicting post-surgical outcomes in HCC patients after CSR. A total of 484 HCC patients including 213 BMIhigh and 271 BMIlow patients were included. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were examined in patients with differential BMI and serum cholesterol level. The analysis showed that significant different 1-, 3- and 5-year cumulative OS rates (P-value=0.015) and RFS rate (P-value=0.010) between BMIlow and BMIhigh patients. Further analysis in groups with differential serum cholesterol levels among BMIlow and BMIhigh patients indicated that the BMIlow/Chollow patients exhibited the significant lower cumulative OS and RFS rates in comparison with the remaining subjects (P-value=0.007 and 0.039 for OS and RFS rates, respectively). In conclusion, the coexistence of low BMI and low serum cholesterol level could serve as prognostic factors to predict post-operative outcomes in HCC patients undergoing surgical hepatectomy.

  1. Enhanced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in bulimia nervosa: relationships to psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology and hormonal variables.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pannuto, Marilena; Favaro, Angela; Caregaro, Lorenza; Castaldo, Eloisa; Zanetti, Tatiana; Maj, Mario

    2005-04-30

    Increased levels of cholesterol have been reported in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), but all but one of the published studies were performed on non-fasting subjects, which limits the interpretation of this finding. Moreover, the relationships between serum lipids and comorbid psychiatric disorders or bulimic psychopathology have scarcely been investigated. We measured serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, 17beta-estradiol and thyroid hormones in 75 bulimic women and 64 age-matched healthy females after an overnight fast. Compared with healthy women, bulimic patients exhibited significantly enhanced serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but similar values of glucose, 17beta-estradiol, FT3 and FT4. No significant differences emerged in these variables between patients with or without comorbid depression, borderline personality disorder or lifetime anorexia nervosa. Circulating cholesterol was positively correlated to the patients' drive for thinness, ineffectiveness, enteroceptive awareness and impulse regulation sub-item scores of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. These findings confirm that BN is associated with increased levels of serum lipids. This alteration may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain psychopathological characteristics of BN and cannot be explained by the co-occurrence of other psychiatric disorders.

  2. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... having a high LDL cholesterol level lead to cardiovascular disease? • Besides abnormal cholesterol, what are other risk factors for cardiovascular disease? • What are some risk factors for cardiovascular disease ...

  3. Increasing Endocannabinoid Levels in the Ventral Pallidum Restore Aberrant Dopamine Neuron Activity in the Subchronic PCP Rodent Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Lodge, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that affects 1% of the US population. While the exogenous administration of cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol is reported to exacerbate psychosis in schizophrenia patients, augmenting the levels of endogenous cannabinoids has gained attention as a possible alternative therapy to schizophrenia due to clinical and preclinical observations. Thus, patients with schizophrenia demonstrate an inverse relationship between psychotic symptoms and levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide. In addition, increasing endocannabinoid levels (by blockade of enzymatic degradation) has been reported to attenuate social withdrawal in a preclinical model of schizophrenia. Here we examine the effects of increasing endogenous cannabinoids on dopamine neuron activity in the sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP) model. Aberrant dopamine system function is thought to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods: Using in vivo extracellular recordings in chloral hydrate–anesthetized rats, we now demonstrate an increase in dopamine neuron population activity in PCP-treated rats. Results: Interestingly, endocannabinoid upregulation, induced by URB-597, was able to normalize this aberrant dopamine neuron activity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the ventral pallidum is the site where URB-597 acts to restore ventral tegmental area activity. Conclusions: Taken together, we provide preclinical evidence that augmenting endogenous cannabinoids may be an effective therapy for schizophrenia, acting in part to restore ventral pallidal activity. PMID:25539511

  4. Postmortem Cholesterol Levels in Peripheral Nerve Tissue: Preliminar Considerations on Interindividual and Intraindividual Variation.

    PubMed

    Vacchiano, Giuseppe; Luna Maldonado, Aurelio; Matas Ros, Maria; Fiorenza, Elisa; Silvestre, Angela; Simonetti, Biagio; Pieri, Maria

    2018-06-01

    The study reports the evolution of the demyelinization process based on cholesterol ([CHOL]) levels quantified in median nerve samples and collected at different times-from death from both right and left wrists. The statistical data show that the phenomenon evolves differently in the right and left nerves. Such a difference can reasonably be attributed to a different multicenter evolution of the demyelinization. For data analysis, the enrolled subjects were grouped by similar postmortem intervals (PMIs), considering 3 intervals: PMI < 48 hours, 48 hours < PMI < 78 hours, and PMI > 78 hours. Data obtained from tissue dissected within 48 hours of death allowed for a PMI estimation according to the following equations: PMI = 0.000 + 0.7623 [CHOL]right (R = 0.581) for the right wrist and PMI = 0.000 + 0.8911 [CHOL]left (R = 0.794) for the left wrist.At present, this correlation cannot be considered to be definitive because of the limitation of the small size of the samples analyzed, because the differences in the sampling time and the interindividual and intraindividual variation may influence the demyelinization process.

  5. Daily Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Chinwong, Surarong; Chinwong, Dujrudee; Mangklabruks, Ampica

    2017-01-01

    This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO) consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18-25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i) 15 mL VCO or (ii) 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (as control), twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results . Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females), daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL ( p = 0.001) compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion . Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.

  6. Daily Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO) consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18–25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i) 15 mL VCO or (ii) 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (as control), twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results. Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females), daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL (p = 0.001) compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported. PMID:29387131

  7. Targeting cholesterol at different levels in the mevalonate pathway protects fatty liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Llacuna, Laura; Fernández, Anna; Montfort, Claudia Von; Matías, Núria; Martínez, Laura; Caballero, Francisco; Rimola, Antoni; Elena, Montserrat; Morales, Albert; Fernández-Checa, José C; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2011-05-01

    Liver steatosis enhances ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and is considered a primary factor in graft failure after liver transplantation. Although previous reports have shown a role for qualitative steatosis (macrovesicular vs. microvesicular) in hepatic I/R injury, no studies have compared side by side the specific contribution of individual lipids accumulating in fatty liver to I/R damage. We used nutritional and genetic models of micro and macrovesicular fatty livers exhibiting specific lipid profiles to assess their susceptibility to normothermic I/R injury. Unlike choline-deficient (CD) diet-fed mice, characterized by predominant liver triglycerides/free fatty acids (TG/FFA) accumulation, mice fed a cholesterol-enriched (HC) diet, which exhibited enhanced hepatic cholesterol loading in mitochondria, were highly sensitive to I/R-induced liver injury. In vivo two-photon confocal imaging revealed enhanced mitochondrial depolarization and generation of reactive oxygen species following hepatic I/R in HC-fed but not in CD-fed mice, consistent with decreased mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) observed in HC-fed mice. Moreover, ob/ob mice, characterized by increased hepatic TG, FFA, and cholesterol levels, were as sensitive to I/R-mediated liver injury as mice fed the HC diet. Livers from ob/ob mice displayed increased StAR expression and mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation, resulting in mGSH depletion. Interestingly, atorvastatin therapy or squalene synthase inhibition in vivo attenuated StAR overexpression, mitochondrial cholesterol loading, and mGSH depletion, protecting ob/ob mice from I/R-mediated liver injury. Cholesterol accumulation, particularly in mitochondria, sensitizes to hepatic I/R injury, and thus represents a novel target to prevent the enhanced damage of steatotic livers to I/R-mediated damage. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A vitamin D pathway gene-gene interaction affects low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Grave, Nathália; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; da Silveira, Janaína; Rovaris, Diego Luiz; Dal Bosco, Simone Morelo; Contini, Verônica; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini

    2016-12-01

    Much evidence suggests an association between vitamin D deficiency and chronic diseases such as obesity and dyslipidemia. Although genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of these diseases, only a few studies have investigated the relationship between vitamin D-related genes and anthropometric and lipid profiles. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of three vitamin D-related genes with anthropometric and lipid parameters in 542 adult individuals. We analyzed the rs2228570 polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), rs2134095 in the retinoid X receptor gamma gene (RXRG) and rs7041 in the vitamin D-binding protein gene (GC). Polymorphisms were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination. Gene-gene interactions were evaluated by the general linear model. The functionality of the polymorphisms was investigated using the following predictors and databases: SIFT (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant), PolyPhen-2 (Polymorphism Phenotyping v2) and Human Splicing Finder 3. We identified a significant effect of the interaction between RXRG (rs2134095) and GC (rs7041) on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels (P=.005). Furthermore, our in silico analysis suggested a functional role for both variants in the regulation of the gene products. Our results suggest that the vitamin D-related genes RXRG and GC affect LDL-c levels. These findings are in agreement with other studies that consistently associate vitamin D and lipid profile. Together, our results corroborate the idea that analyzing gene-gene interaction would be helpful to clarify the genetic component of lipid profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Hypertriglyceridemia on Carotid Stenosis Progression under Normal Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Kitagami, Masayuki; Yasuda, Ryuta; Toma, Naoki; Shiba, Masato; Nampei, Mai; Yamamoto, Yoko; Nakatsuka, Yoshinari; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2017-08-01

    Dyslipidemia is a well-known risk factor for carotid stenosis progression, but triglycerides have attracted little attention. The aim of this study was to assess if serum triglycerides affect progression of carotid stenosis in patients with well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This is a retrospective study in a single hospital consisting of 71 Japanese patients with internal carotid artery stenosis greater than or equal to 50% and normal serum LDL-C levels who underwent angiographic examination with or without the resultant carotid artery stenting or endarterectomy from 2007 to 2011, and were subsequently followed up for 4 years. Clinical factors including fasting serum triglyceride values were compared between the progression (≥10% increase in degree of carotid stenosis on ultrasonography) and the nonprogression groups. During 4 years, 15 patients (21.1%) had carotid stenosis progression on either side. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that symptomatic cases (hazard ratio [HR], 4.327; P = .019), coexisting intracranial arteriosclerotic stenosis (HR, 5.341; P = .005), and hypertriglyceridemia (HR, 6.228; P = .011) were associated with subsequent progression of carotid stenosis. Kaplan-Meier plots demonstrated that the progression-free survival rate was significantly higher in patients without hypertriglyceridemia and intracranial arteriosclerotic stenosis at baseline. Among patients with moderate to severe carotid stenosis and well-controlled LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia was an important risk factor for progression of carotid stenosis irrespective of surgical treatments. It would be worthwhile to test if triglyceride-lowering medications suppress carotid stenosis progression. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum antioxidant and cholesterol levels in patients with different types of cancer.

    PubMed

    Abiaka, C; Al-Awadi, F; Al-Sayer, H; Gulshan, S; Behbehani, A; Farghally, M; Simbeye, A

    2001-01-01

    Serum antioxidant (urate, alpha-tocopherol) activity and cholesterol concentration in 142 patients of Indian and Arab (Kuwaitis and other Arabs) origin with different types of cancer (breast, colon, stomach, thyroid, oral, rectal, pancreatic, and renal) were compared to 100 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Values were expressed as medians (interquartile range). Urate concentration was significantly decreased in male patients compared to male controls (P < 0.0001) and in female patients and female breast cancer cases compared to female controls; P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively. Alpha-tocopherol concentration decreased significantly in total cancer, stomach, colon, rectal, and breast cancer cases than the controls; P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, P = 0.012, and P = 0.022, respectively. Cholesterol concentration decreased significantly in stomach, oral, colon, and total cancer cases compared to the controls; P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.012, respectively. Among controls, females had significantly (P < 0.0001) lower concentrations of alpha-tocopherol than males. Among patients, cholesterol, urate, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations decreased significantly in smokers than in nonsmokers; P < 0.0001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.047, respectively. Generally, changes in alpha-tocopherol/cholesterol ratios mimicked changes in alpha-tocopherol concentration. Concentrations of all parameters decreased significantly in male patients compared to male controls. Age was positively associated with all three analytes with respect to the controls. Alpha-tocopherol correlated with cholesterol in cancer patients (r = 0.367; P < 0.0001) and with urate in the controls (r = 0.342; P < 0.0001). The data suggest cancer-related diminished synthesis of cholesterol and, generally, a greater antioxidant burden for alpha-tocopherol than urate in cancer-generated oxidative stress. The increased incidence of pancreatic cancer in Kuwaitis warrants further study. Copyright

  11. The effect of preoperative serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels on the prognosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  13. Genetic-epidemiological evidence on genes associated with HDL cholesterol levels: A systematic in-depth review

    PubMed Central

    Boes, Eva; Coassin, Stefan; Kollerits, Barbara; Heid, Iris M.; Kronenberg, Florian

    2009-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles exhibit multiple antiatherogenic effects. They are key players in the reverse cholesterol transport which shuttles cholesterol from peripheral cells (e.g. macrophages) to the liver or other tissues. This complex process is thought to represent the basis for the antiatherogenic properties of HDL particles. The amount of cholesterol transported in HDL particles is measured as HDL cholesterol (HDLC) and is inversely correlated with the risk for coronary artery disease: an increase of 1 mg/dL of HDLC levels is associated with a 2% and 3% decrease of the risk for coronary artery disease in men and women, respectively. Genetically determined conditions with high HDLC levels (e.g. familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia) often coexist with longevity, and higher HDLC levels were found among healthy elderly individuals. HDLC levels are under considerable genetic control with heritability estimates of up to 80%. The identification and characterization of genetic variants associated with HDLC concentrations can provide new insights into the background of longevity. This review provides an extended overview on the current genetic-epidemiological evidence from association studies on genes involved in HDLC metabolism. It provides a path through the jungle of association studies which are sometimes confusing due to the varying and sometimes erroneous names of genetic variants, positions and directions of associations. Furthermore, it reviews the recent findings from genome-wide association studies which have identified new genes influencing HDLC levels. The yet identified genes together explain only a small amount of less than 10% of the HDLC variance, which leaves an enormous room for further yet to be identified genetic variants. This might be accomplished by large population-based genome-wide meta-analyses and by deep-sequencing approaches on the identified genes. The resulting findings will probably result in a re-drawing and extension of

  14. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia provision on blood sugar level, cholesterols, and uric acid of Etawa Crossbreed Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratomo, Hurip

    2018-05-01

    Previous research on male white rat with provision of Eurycoma longifolia until the 3rd days has increased significantly on the formation of final spermatid from spermatozoon, and testosterone, and increase activity of pituitary cell producing the LH hormone. However, these researches yet studied on possibility of side effects caused by provision of Eurycoma longifolia for 6 days on male EC goat. The research aims to measure the effect of Eurycoma longifolia on the levels of: 1). Blood sugar, 2). Cholesterols, and 3). Uric acid of Male Etawa Crossbreed (EC) goat. This research was conducted through two treatment groups, namely : 1). Control group (provision of aquadest) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days, 2) Eurycoma longifolia group with a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight (bb) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days. Measurements on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid level were conducted in the 1st, 2nd and 6th days. The obtained data were analyzed using Duncan test with confidence level by 95% (α=0,05) comparing the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid measured from the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days with the same compound level measured from the Eurycoma longifolia treatment group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. The result obtained there were no significant changes on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid levels between all Eurycoma longifolia treatment groups compared to the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. Thus, the Eurycoma longifolia provision until in the 6th day did not provide any negative side effects and can be applied in the Etawa crossbreed goat farm.

  15. BmNHR96 participate BV entry of BmN-SWU1 cells via affecting the cellular cholesterol level.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Long; Liu, Tai-Hang; Wang, Wei; Pan, Cai-Xia; Du, Guo-Yu; Wu, Yun-Fei; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

    2017-01-22

    B.mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which produces BV and ODV two virion phenotypes in its life cycle, caused the amount of economic loss in sericulture. But the mechanism of its infection was still unclear. In this study we characterized B.mori nuclear hormone receptor 96 (BmNHR96) as a NHR96 family member, which was localized in the nucleus. We also found BmNHR96 over-expression could enhance the entry of BV as well as cellular cholesterol level. Furthermore, we validated that BmNHR96 increased membrane fusion mediated by GP64, which could probably promote BV-infection. In summary, our study suggested that BmNHR96 plays an important role in BV infection and this function probably actualized by affecting cellular cholesterol level, and our results provided insights to the mechanisms of BV-infection of B.mori. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low cholesterol level associated with severity and outcome of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Results from Taiwan Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Li, Chen-Hua; Yang, Chih-Dong; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Hung; Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Lin, Shinn-Kuang; Chen, An-Chih; Chen, Ping-Kun; Chen, Po-Lin; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Chen, Jiunn-Rong; Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Lin, Ching-Huang; Hsu, Shih-Pin; Chen, Tsang-Shan; Sung, Sheng-Feng; Yu, Shih-Chieh; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Wen, Chi Pang; Sung, Fung-Chang; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Hsu, Chung Y.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between cholesterol level and hemorrhagic stroke is inconclusive. We hypothesized that low cholesterol levels may have association with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) severity at admission and 3-month outcomes. This study used data obtained from a multi-center stroke registry program in Taiwan. We categorized acute spontaneous ICH patients, based on their baseline levels of total cholesterol (TC) measured at admission, into 3 groups with <160, 160–200 and >200 mg/dL of TC. We evaluated risk of having initial stroke severity, with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) >15 and unfavorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score >2, 3-month mortality) after ICH by the TC group. A total of 2444 ICH patients (mean age 62.5±14.2 years; 64.2% men) were included in this study and 854 (34.9%) of them had baseline TC <160 mg/dL. Patients with TC <160 mg/dL presented more often severe neurological deficit (NIHSS >15), with an adjusted odds ratio [aOR] of 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41–2.30), and 3-month mRS >2 (aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11–1.78) using patients with TC >200 mg/dL as reference. Those with TC >160 mg/dL and body mass index (BMI) <22 kg/m2 had higher risk of 3-month mortality (aOR 3.94, 95% CI 1.76–8.80). Prior use of lipid-lowering drugs (2.8% of the ICH population) was not associated with initial severity and 3-month outcomes. A total cholesterol level lower than 160 mg/dL was common in patients with acute ICH and was associated with greater neurological severity on presentation and poor 3-month outcomes, especially with lower BMI. PMID:28422955

  17. EFFECT OF THE LEVEL AND TYPE OF DIETARY FAT ON THE METABOLISM OF CHOLESTEROL AND BETA LIPOPROTEINS IN THE CEBUS MONKEY

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Oscar W.; Hegsted, D. Mark; Stare, Fredrick J.; Bruno, Dorothy; Murphy, Robert; Sinisterra, Leonardo

    1956-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of the level and type of dietary fat on the concentration of cholesterol and beta lipoproteins in the sera of Cebus monkeys. Three groups of monkeys were fed isocaloric diets containing a fixed ratio of alpha protein and cholesterol to calories but with different amounts of corn oil and sucrose. Corn oil provided 10, 32, and 45 per cent of the calories in the three diets, and the level of sucrose was varied inversely. After 8 weeks the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoprotein concentrations were significantly greater in the medium and high fat groups. When corn oil was decreased from 45 to 10 per cent of dietary calories and sucrose was increased, the serum cholesterol fell in all cases, and when the reverse change was made, the concentration of serum cholesterol increased. Variation in dietary sucrose had no specific effect. Substitution of starch for sucrose with diets otherwise constant did not cause significant change in the concentration of serum cholesterol. When monkeys fed corn oil diets at any of three levels were changed to hydrogenated cottonseed oil diets at the same level, the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoproteins rose. However, hydrogenated cottonseed oil had no greater hypercholesteremic effect than did corn oil in the absence of dietary cholesterol. Diets containing lard with cholesterol also produced strikingly greater serum lipide responses than did diets based on corn oil and cholesterol. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil had a greater hypercholesteremic effect than an unhydrogenated cottonseed oil from the same lot. Preliminary studies indicated that the saturated fats (hydrogenated cottonseed oil) produced the most striking elevation of serum cholesterol values (above controls fed corn oil) when casein was the dietary protein. PMID:13376806

  18. Dietary isohumulones, the bitter components of beer, raise plasma HDL-cholesterol levels and reduce liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol contents similar to PPARalpha activations in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yutaka; Hosono, Mayu; Oyamada, Chiaki; Odai, Hideharu; Oikawa, Shinichi; Kondo, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    The effects of dietary isohumulones, the main components accounting for the bitter taste of beer, on lipid metabolism were examined. Young female C57BL/6N mice were fed diets containing isomerized hop extract (IHE), which consists mainly of isohumulones. Administration of IHE with an atherogenic (high-fat and high-cholesterol) diet for 2 weeks resulted in a significant increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol (P<0.01), along with a concomitant reduction in the atherosclerosis index, an increase in liver weight and a decrease in body weight gain in a dose-dependent manner. When animals received IHE with either a cholesterol or a basal diet for 1 week, significant decreases in the liver content of cholesterol (P<0.01) and triacylglycerol (cholesterol diet, P<0.01) were observed. Quantitative analyses of hepatic mRNA levels revealed that IHE administration resulted in up-regulation of mRNA for acyl-CoA oxidase, acyl-CoA synthetase, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthetase, lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid transport protein, and down-regulation of mRNA for Apo CIII and Apo AI. Administration of purified isohumulones effectively resulted in the same changes as IHE. Administration of fenofibrate, an agonist for PPARalpha, with a cholesterol diet caused marked hepatomegaly, an increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol, a decrease in hepatic cholesterol content, and alterations in hepatic mRNA levels similar to those observed in mice given IHE. Taken together, these results suggest that the modulation of lipid metabolism observed in mice fed diets containing isohumulones is, at least in part, mediated by activation of PPARalpha.

  19. Cholesterol Balance in Prion Diseases and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hannaoui, Samia; Shim, Su Yeon; Cheng, Yo Ching; Corda, Erica; Gilch, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible and fatal neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals. They are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an aberrantly folded isoform of the cellular prion protein PrPC, in the brains of affected individuals. PrPC is a cell surface glycoprotein attached to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchor. Specifically, it is associated with lipid rafts, membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphinoglipids. It has been established that inhibition of endogenous cholesterol synthesis disturbs lipid raft association of PrPC and prevents PrPSc accumulation in neuronal cells. Additionally, prion conversion is reduced upon interference with cellular cholesterol uptake, endosomal export, or complexation at the plasma membrane. Altogether, these results demonstrate on the one hand the importance of cholesterol for prion propagation. On the other hand, growing evidence suggests that prion infection modulates neuronal cholesterol metabolism. Similar results were reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD): whereas amyloid β peptide formation is influenced by cellular cholesterol, levels of cholesterol in the brains of affected individuals increase during the clinical course of the disease. In this review, we summarize commonalities of alterations in cholesterol homeostasis and discuss consequences for neuronal function and therapy of prion diseases and AD. PMID:25419621

  20. Dietary capsanthin, the main carotenoid in paprika (Capsicum annuum), alters plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and hepatic gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro

    2009-12-01

    The effects of dietary capsanthin, the main carotenoid in paprika (Capsicum annuum), on lipid metabolism were examined. Young male Wistar rats were fed diets containing paprika powder, paprika organic solvent extract, residue of paprika extract, and purified capsanthin. Administration of purified capsanthin for 2 weeks resulted in a significant increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05) without detectable differences in plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations. A statistically significant correlation (r 0.567; P < 0.001) was found between dietary capsanthin concentrations and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Animals receiving diets containing two different capsanthin concentrations exhibited dose-dependent increases in plasma HDL-cholesterol (r 0.597; P < 0.005). While capsanthin was absent in the liver of animals fed the basal diet, it increased markedly in capsanthin-fed animals (P < 0.001). Quantitative analyses of hepatic mRNA levels revealed that capsanthin administration resulted in up-regulation of mRNA for apoA5 and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), without significant differences in other mRNA levels related to HDL-cholesterol metabolism. These results suggest that capsanthin had an HDL-cholesterol-raising effect on plasma, and the potential to increase cholesterol efflux to HDL particles by increasing apoA5 levels and/or enhancement of LCAT activity.

  1. The association between high levels of cumulative life stress and aberrant resting state EEG dynamics in old age.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Amanda C; Cooper, Nicholas R

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative experienced stress produces shortcomings in old adults' cognitive performance. These are reflected in electrophysiological changes tied to task execution. This study explored whether stress-related aberrations in older adults' electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were also apparent in the system at rest. To this effect, the amount of stressful life events experienced by 60 young and 60 elderly participants were assessed in conjunction with resting state power changes in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequencies during a resting EEG recording. Findings revealed elevated levels of delta power among elderly individuals reporting high levels of cumulative life stress. These differed significantly from young high and low stress individuals and old adults with low levels of stress. Increases of delta activity have been linked to the emergence of conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Thus, a potential interpretation of our findings associates large amounts of cumulative stress with an increased risk of developing age-related cognitive pathologies in later life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Farnworth, Edward R; Savard, Tony; Chabot, Denise; Mafu, Akier; Jones, Peter JH

    2002-01-01

    Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p < 0.05) fecal isobutyric, isovaleric and propionic acids as well as the total amount of fecal short chain fatty acids. Kefir supplementation resulted in increased fecal bacterial content in the majority of the subjects. Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent. PMID:11825344

  3. [Level of knowledge and action on lipaemia among Spanish primary and specialist care doctors. Press cholesterol study].

    PubMed

    Abellán Alemán, José; Leal Hernández, Mariano; Martínez Pastor, Antonio; Hernández Menárguez, Fernando; García-Galbis Marín, José Antonio; Jara Gómez, Purificación

    2006-09-01

    To find the level of knowledge, the guidelines for action and the monitoring of lipaemia by Spanish primary care and specialist doctors. A self-defined questionnaire of 12 items was designed. Data on the population treated and the subjective evaluation of objectives, and on the management and monitoring of lipid parameters were filled in. A total of 1998 doctors from the whole of Spain took part; 68.8% of the doctors interviewed worked in primary health care and 30.2% in specialist centres or hospitals. A 91% of the doctors said they followed international consensus on monitoring lipaemia. The most commonly used objective therapeutic parameter for treating lipaemia was LDL-cholesterol (83%), followed by total cholesterol (62%), HDL-cholesterol (56%) and triglycerides (51%). If the patient's lipaemia was well controlled, then 21.8% of doctors reduced the doses of lipid-lowerers. In general terms, no great differences were appreciated between the criteria followed by PC and by specialist doctors. The criteria for action on lipaemia could be improved. There are no important differences of view or action in clinical and therapeutic criteria for Lipaemia cases between PC and specialist doctors.

  4. Serum cholesterol levels, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage. The Multicenter Study on Cerebral Haemorrhage in Italy (MUCH-Italy).

    PubMed

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Iacoviello, Licia; Zedde, Marialuisa; Marcheselli, Simona; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; DeLodovici, Maria Luisa; Sessa, Maria; Zini, Andrea; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Azzini, Cristiano; Gamba, Massimo; Del Sette, Massimo; Toriello, Antonella; Gandolfo, Carlo; Bonifati, Domenico Marco; Tassi, Rossana; Cavallini, Anna; Chiti, Alberto; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Musolino, Rossella; Bovi, Paolo; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Vandelli, Laura; Ritelli, Marco; Agnelli, Giancarlo; De Vito, Alessandro; Pugliese, Nicola; Martini, Giuseppe; Lanari, Alessia; Ciccone, Alfonso; Lodigiani, Corrado; Malferrari, Giovanni; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Morotti, Andrea; Costa, Paolo; Poli, Loris; De Giuli, Valeria; Bonaiti, Silvia; La Spina, Paolo; Marcello, Norina; Micieli, Giuseppe; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Colombi, Marina; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Although a concern exists that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) might increase the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), the contribution of these agents to the relationship between serum cholesterol and disease occurrence has been poorly investigated. We compared consecutive patients having ICH with age and sex-matched stroke-free control subjects in a case-control analysis, as part of the Multicenter Study on Cerebral Haemorrhage in Italy (MUCH-Italy), and tested the presence of interaction effects between total serum cholesterol levels and statins on the risk of ICH. A total of 3492 cases (mean age, 73.0±12.7 years; males, 56.6%) and 3492 control subjects were enrolled. Increasing total serum cholesterol levels were confirmed to be inversely associated with ICH. We observed a statistical interaction between total serum cholesterol levels and statin use for the risk of haemorrhage (Interaction OR (IOR), 1.09; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.12). Increasing levels of total serum cholesterol were associated with a decreased risk of ICH within statin strata (average OR, 0.87; 95% CI 0.86 to 0.88 for every increase of 0.26 mmol/l of total serum cholesterol concentrations), while statin use was associated with an increased risk (OR, 1.54; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.81 of the average level of total serum cholesterol). The protective effect of serum cholesterol against ICH was reduced by statins in strictly lobar brain regions more than in non-lobar ones. Statin therapy and total serum cholesterol levels exhibit interaction effects towards the risk of ICH. The magnitude of such effects appears higher in lobar brain regions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Potential use of cholesterol lipoprotein profile to confirm obesity status in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nobuko; Lee, Peter; Kondo, Kazuo; Kido, Toshimi; Saito, Terumasa; Arai, Toshiro

    2011-04-01

    A common sign of obesity, in dogs, is hyperlipidemia, which is characterized by hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertriglycemia. Hyperlipidemia can be caused by a quantitative increase in circulating lipoproteins (LP) or by a higher lipid concentration in the various LP classes. In this study, we sought to determine whether aberrations occur with cholesterol lipoprotein profile, especially with sub HDL-cholesterol fraction % in obese dogs. Using clinically healthy and disease free (no overt signs) body condition score classified obese dogs, of all ages, we attempted to determine the influence of age, gender and obesity status on cholesterol lipoprotein profiling. Overall, no aberration in pattern was observed in obese dogs <8 years of age. However, in older obese animals (≥8 years of age), the general aberration pattern to cholesterol lipoprotein observed was that a significant decrease in HDL2 and 3 fraction % occurs with a concomitant increase in either HDL1-Cho or VLDL and LDL -Cho fraction % depending on gender. Linear regression analysis indicated that obesity status appears to significantly affect total cholesterol, HDL2 and 3-Cho, VLDL and LDL-Cho levels (P=0.02, 0.046, and 0.045, respectively), whereas it is borderline with HDL1-Cho (P=0.062). On the other hand, age significantly influenced TG, Total cholesterol, and HDL1-Cho levels (P=0.009, 0.006, and 0.002, respectively), while gender influenced VLDL and LDL-Cho (P=0.024) level. Therefore, aberrations in cholesterol lipoprotein profile pattern might be of potential use to assess and diagnose obesity status, in conjunction with BCS, especially of older overweight animals which might be considered borderline obese. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  6. Overview of Flaxseed Patent Applications for the Reduction of Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Simone A; Grando, Rafaela L; Zago, Lilia; Carvajal, Elvira; Fierro, Iolanda M

    2016-01-01

    Flaxseed is becoming an increasingly widely used food ingredient. The rising interest of the food industry in this nutraceutical is primarily because of functional nutrients, such as alpha-linolenic acid and lignans, which have health benefits due to their lipid-lowering properties. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the patenting of flaxseed products with cholesterol-lowering effects. Patent applications filed by country of origin were retrieved from the Derwent Innovations Index®database. A total of 307 patent documents were identified, of which 184 claim the use of flaxseed or parts of the flax plant in the product formulation, for their lipid-lowering effect when consumed by humans. A few of the patent applications contain claims for new products based on flaxseed in isolation, including the preparation of foods designed to inhibit the production of cholesterol. Most of the claims were for flaxseed in the form of oil and in association with other lipid-lowering compounds, mainly for the food industry, in the form of dietary supplements or baked products designed to raise their high-density lipoprotein content, and for treating heart problems. China and the United States are the leading countries of flax-related applications. These results may have important implications for the production of functional food products that meet specific societal demands. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Aberrant levels of histone H3 acetylation induce spermatid anomaly in mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Endo, Daisuke; Akiyama, Naotaro; Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Koji, Takehiko

    2015-02-01

    Histone acetylation is involved in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene function. We reported previously that histone H3 acetylation pattern is subject to dynamic changes and limited to certain stages of germ cell differentiation during murine spermatogenesis, suggesting a crucial role for acetylation in the process. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hyper- and hypo-acetylation on spermatogenesis. Changes in acetylation level were induced by either in vivo administration of sodium phenylbutyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, or by knockdown of histone acetyltransferases using short hairpin RNA plasmids transfection. Administration of sodium phenylbutyrate induced accumulation of acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9 and lysine 18 in round spermatids, together with spermatid morphological abnormalities and induction of apoptosis through a Bax-related pathway. Knockdown of steroid receptor coactivator 1, a member of histone acetyltransferases, but not general control of amino acid synthesis 5 nor elongator protein 3 by in vivo electroporation of shRNA plasmids, reduced acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9 in round spermatids, and induced morphological abnormalities. We concluded that the proper regulation of histone H3 acetylation levels is important for spermatid differentiation and complex chromatin remodeling during spermiogenesis.

  8. Association of a cholesteryl ester transfer protein variant (rs1800777) with fat mass, HDL cholesterol levels, and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Gomez, Emilia; Lopez, Juan Jose; Ortola, Ana; Aller, Rocio

    2018-04-25

    There is little evidence of the association between CETP SNPs and obesity and/or related metabolic parameters. To analyze the association of the polymorphism rs1800777 of the CETP gene with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, metabolic syndrome and its components, and adipokine levels in obese subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension. A population of 1005 obese subjects was analyzed. Electrical bioimpedance was performed, and blood pressure, presence of metabolic syndrome, dietary intake, physical activity, and biochemical tests were recorded. Nine hundred and sixty eight patients (96.3%) had the GG genotype, 37 patients the GA genotype (3.7%) (no AA genotype was detected). Fat mass (delta: 4.4±1.1kg; p=0.04), waist circumference (delta: 5.6±2.1cm; p=0.02), and waist to hip ratio (delta: 0.04±0.01cm; p=0.01) were higher in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers. HDL cholesterol levels were lower in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers (delta: 4.2±1.0mg/dL; p=0.04). In the logistic regression analysis, the GA genotype was associated to an increased risk of central obesity (OR 7.55, 95% CI 1.10-55.70, p=0.02) and low HDL cholesterol levels (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.23-4.91, p=0.014). The CETP variant at position +82 is associated to lower HDL cholesterol levels, increased fat mass, and central obesity in obese subjects. These results may suggest a potential role of this variant gene in pathophysiology of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [Serum total cholesterol levels and eligibility for long-term care insurance: a prospective cohort study of the Tsurugaya project].

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Rena; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuboya, Toru; Nagai, Masato; Watanabe, Ikue; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum total cholesterol levels and certification eligibility for long-term care insurance in elderly Japanese individuals. The Tsurugaya Project was a comprehensive geriatric assessment conducted for community-dwelling elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in the Tsurugaya area, Sendai, Japan. Of the 2,925 inhabitants, 958 subjects participated in the Tsurugaya Project. For this analysis, we used 827 subjects who gave informed consent and were not qualified for long-term care insurance at the time of the baseline survey. Subjects were followed up for 6 years. We classified the subjects into 4 quintiles and used the fourth quintile (212-230 mg/dL) as a reference for statistical analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of certification eligibility for long-term care insurance according to total cholesterol levels in serum. During 6 years of follow-up, a total of 214 subjects were qualified for long-term care insurance certification. The lowest serum total cholesterol level (<177 mg/dL) was significantly associated with increased eligibility for long-term care insurance certification. Compared with the fourth quintile, multivariate HRs (95%CIs) of long-term care insurance certification were 1.91 (1.23-2.98), 1.36 (0.85-2.18), 0.99 (0.62-1.56), 1.38 (0.88-2.17), for <177 mg/dL, 177-194 mg/dL, 195-211 mg/dL, and ≤231 mg/dL, respectively. Moreover, the association was statistically significant even after excluding subjects with a history of liver disease or cancer, an abnormality in the liver function test, or high levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Low serum total cholesterol levels were significantly associated with increased eligibility for long-term care insurance certification even after adjusting for a variety of confounding factors.

  10. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) among children with steady-state sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The search for sickle cell disease (SCD) prognosis biomarkers is a challenge. These markers identification can help to establish further therapy, later severe clinical complications and with patients follow-up. We attempted to study a possible involvement of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in steady-state children with SCD, once that this lipid marker has been correlated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregation, anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic activities, important aspects to be considered in sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Methods We prospectively analyzed biochemical, inflammatory and hematological biomarkers of 152 steady-state infants with SCD and 132 healthy subjects using immunochemistry, immunoassay and electronic cell counter respectively. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Of the 152 infants investigated had a significant positive association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hemoglobin (P < 0.001), hematocrit (P < 0.001) and total cholesterol (P < 0.001) and a negative significant association with reticulocytes (P = 0.046), leukocytes (P = 0.015), monocytes (P = 0.004) and platelets (P = 0.005), bilirubins [total bilirubin (P < 0.001), direct bilirubin (P < 0.001) and indirect bilirubin (P < 0.001], iron (P < 0.001), aminotransferases [aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.004), alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.035)], lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001), urea (P = 0.030), alpha 1-antitrypsin (P < 0.001), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglycerides (P = 0.005) and hemoglobin S (P = 0.002). Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was associated with the history of cardiac abnormalities (P = 0.025), pneumonia (P = 0.033) and blood transfusion use (P = 0.025). Lipids and inflammatory markers were associated with the presence of cholelithiasis. Conclusions We hypothesize that some SCD patients can have a specific dyslipidemic

  11. Relationship between Icodextrin use and decreased level of small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fractioned by high-performance gel permeation chromatography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Because of the absorption of glucose in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution, PD patients show an atherogenic lipid profile, which is predictive of poor survival in PD patients. Lipoprotein subclasses consist of a continuous spectrum of particles of different sizes and densities (fraction). In this study, we investigated the lipoprotein fractions in PD patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, and evaluated the effects of icodextrin on lipid metabolism. Methods Forty-nine PD patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Japan. The proportions of cholesterol levels to total cholesterol level (cholesterol proportion) in 20 lipoprotein fractions were measured using an improved method of high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Results Twenty-six patients used icodextrin. Although no significant differences in cholesterol levels in LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were observed between the patients using icodextrin (icodextrin group) and control groups, HPGPC showed that the icodextrin group had significantly lower cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (t-test, p=0.053) and very small LDL (p=0.019), and significantly higher cholesterol proportions in the very large HDL and large HDL than the control group (p=0.037; p=0.066, respectively). Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient characteristics and statin use showed that icodextrin use was negatively associated with the cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (p=0.037) and very small LDL (p=0.026), and positively with those in the very large HDL (p=0.040), large HDL (p=0.047), and medium HDL (p=0.009). Conclusions HPGPC showed the relationship between icodextrin use and the cholesterol proportions in lipoprotein fractions in PD patients. These results suggest that icodextrin may improve atherogenic lipid profiles in a manner different from statin. PMID:24161017

  12. A dietary cholesterol challenge study to assess Chlorella supplementation in maintaining healthy lipid levels in adults: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmi; Kim, Joohee; Lim, Yeni; Kim, You Jin; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2016-05-13

    Previous animal studies suggested that Chlorella, a unicellular green alga, has a preventive role in maintaining serum cholesterol levels against excess dietary cholesterol intake. This study aimed to conduct a pioneering investigation to clarify this issue in healthy subjects by adopting a dietary cholesterol challenge, which has not been used previously in similar studies of Chlorella in hypercholesterolemia. In this double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 34 participants ingested 510 mg of dietary cholesterol from three eggs concomitantly with a usual dose of Chlorella (5 g/d) or a matched placebo for 4 weeks. The dietary cholesterol challenge induced consistently higher concentrations of serum total cholesterol (TC, P < 0.001), LDL-C (P = 0.004), and HDL-C (P = 0.010) compared with baseline values, suggesting that the challenge was reliable. Thus, we observed a preventive action of Chlorella in maintaining serum TC versus placebo levels (3.5 % versus 9.8 %, respectively; P = 0.037) and LDL-C versus placebo levels (1.7 % versus 14.3 %, respectively; P = 0.012) against excessive dietary cholesterol intake and in augmenting HDL-C versus placebo levels (8.3 % versus 3.8 %, respectively). Furthermore, serum α-carotene showed the best separation between the placebo and Chlorella groups (R(2)X and R(2)Y > 0.5; Q(2) > 0.4). The results suggest that a fully replicated dietary cholesterol challenge may be useful in assessing the effectiveness of dietary supplements in maintaining the serum lipid profiles of adults whose habitual diets are high in cholesterol. WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ( KCT0000258 ).

  13. Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels and risk of Alzheimer disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    PubMed

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F

    2014-09-01

    Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD) and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD. We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n=10,578). We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs) for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol) using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013). Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10-8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5 × 10-8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]=1.005, 95% CI 0.82-1.24, p = 0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR=0.901, 95% CI 0.65-1.25, p=0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR=1.104, 95% CI 0.89-1.37, p=0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR=0.954, 95% CI 0.76-1.21, p=0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol). Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance. Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride

  14. Genetic Predisposition to Increased Blood Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lipid Levels and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K.; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD) and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD. Methods and Findings We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n = 10,578). We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs) for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol) using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013). Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10−8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5×10−8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR] = 1.005, 95% CI 0.82–1.24, p = 0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR = 0.901, 95% CI 0.65–1.25, p = 0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR = 1.104, 95% CI 0.89–1.37, p = 0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR = 0.954, 95% CI 0.76–1.21, p = 0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol). Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller

  15. Cholesterol Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... not enough, and you need to take cholesterol medicines. You should still continue with the lifestyle changes even though you are taking medicines. Who needs cholesterol medicines? Your health care provider ...

  16. Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery disease. Other names for a cholesterol test: Lipid profile, Lipid panel What is it used for? If you ... Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.Cholesterol Test: Overview; 2016 Jan 12 [ ...

  17. Cholesterol (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  18. VLDL Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... it into your bloodstream. The VLDL particles carry triglycerides, another type of fat, to your tissues. VLDL ... LDL carries cholesterol to your tissues instead of triglycerides. VLDL and LDL are "bad" cholesterols because they ...

  19. Linkage study of the low-density lipoprotein-receptor gene and cholesterol levels in an Afrikaner family. Quantitative genetics and identification of a minor founder effect.

    PubMed

    Brink, P A; Brink, L T; Torrington, M; Bester, A J

    1990-03-17

    Overlap of clinical and biochemical characteristics between hypercholesterolaemia in members of the general population and familial hypercholesterolaemic (FH) individuals may lead to misdiagnosis. Quantitative analysis of family data may circumvent this problem. A way of looking for an association between plasma cholesterol levels and restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (RFLP) on the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene by using reference cholesterol distributions was explored. Linkage, with a logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 6.8 at theta 0, was detected between cholesterol levels and the LDL receptor in an extended Afrikaner family. Two RFLP-haplotypes, one previously found in a majority of Afrikaner FH homozygotes, and a second, Stu I-, BstE II+, Pvu II+, Nco I+, were associated with high cholesterol levels in this pedigree.

  20. Zonal differences in the distribution and morphology of lipid droplets using 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine to lower cholesterol level in the rat adrenal.

    PubMed

    Szabó, D; Somogyi, J; Acs, Z; Mihály, K

    1980-01-01

    The effect of reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels on adrenocortical lipid droplets have been examined by treating adult rats with 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine (4-APP), a drug that inhibits hepatic secretion of lipoproteins. Lowering the blood cholesterol level and the cholesterol content of the adrenals was associated with a marked reduction in the lipid droplets and with a simultaneous increase in their electron density in the inner cortical zones. In the zona glomerulosa cells, no perceptible differences were found in the quantity and morphology of lipid droplets. These data suggest that reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels do not affect lipids located in the zona glomerulosa and in the inner cortical zones in the same way, probably due to differences in their intracellular lipid dynamism. Noteworthy, that in spite of the marked lipid depletion, the adrenal glands retained their responsiveness to ACTH stimulation.

  1. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Clinical field-strength MRI of amyloid plaques induced by low-level cholesterol feeding in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanxin; Bernas, Lisa; Kitzler, Hagen H.; Rogers, Kem A.; Hegele, Robert A.; Rutt, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Two significant barriers have limited the development of effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease. First, for many cases the aetiology is unknown and likely multi-factorial. Among these factors, hypercholesterolemia is a known risk predictor and has been linked to the formation of β-amyloid plaques, a pathological hallmark this disease. Second, standardized diagnostic tools are unable to definitively diagnose this disease prior to death; hence new diagnostic tools are urgently needed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using high field-strength scanners has shown promise for direct visualization of β-amyloid plaques, allowing in vivo longitudinal tracking of disease progression in mouse models. Here, we present a new rabbit model for studying the relationship between cholesterol and Alzheimer's disease development and new tools for direct visualization of β-amyloid plaques using clinical field-strength MRI. New Zealand white rabbits were fed either a low-level (0.125–0.25% w/w) cholesterol diet (n = 5) or normal chow (n = 4) for 27 months. High-resolution (66 × 66 × 100 µm3; scan time = 96 min) ex vivo MRI of brains was performed using a 3-Tesla (T) MR scanner interfaced with customized gradient and radiofrequency coils. β-Amyloid-42 immunostaining and Prussian blue iron staining were performed on brain sections and MR and histological images were manually registered. MRI revealed distinct signal voids throughout the brains of cholesterol-fed rabbits, whereas minimal voids were seen in control rabbit brains. These voids corresponded directly to small clusters of extracellular β-amyloid-positive plaques, which were consistently identified as iron-loaded (the presumed source of MR contrast). Plaques were typically located in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, striatum, hypothalamus and thalamus. Quantitative analysis of the number of histologically positive β-amyloid plaques (P < 0.0001) and MR-positive signal voids (P < 0.05) found in cholesterol

  3. Royal Jelly Reduces Cholesterol Levels, Ameliorates Aβ Pathology and Enhances Neuronal Metabolic Activities in a Rabbit Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yongming; Xu, Jianqin; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Fangming; Jin, Ping; Zhu, Keyan; Hu, Chenyue W.; You, Mengmeng; Chen, Minli; Hu, Fuliang

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) and neuronal loss. One of the risk factors for AD is high cholesterol levels, which are known to promote Aβ deposition. Previous studies have shown that royal jelly (RJ), a product of worker bees, has potential neuroprotective effects and can attenuate Aβ toxicity. However, little is known about how RJ regulates Aβ formation and its effects on cholesterol levels and neuronal metabolic activities. Here, we investigated whether RJ can reduce cholesterol levels, regulate Aβ levels and enhance neuronal metabolic activities in an AD rabbit model induced by 2% cholesterol diet plus copper drinking water. Our results suggest that RJ significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased the level of Aβ in rabbit brains. RJ was also shown to markedly ameliorate amyloid deposition in AD rabbits from Aβ immunohistochemistry and thioflavin-T staining. Furthermore, our study suggests that RJ can reduce the expression levels of β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and increase the expression levels of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE). In addition, we found that RJ remarkably increased the number of neurons, enhanced antioxidant capacities, inhibited activated-capase-3 protein expression, and enhanced neuronal metabolic activities by increasing N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and glutamate and by reducing choline and myo-inositol in AD rabbits. Taken together, our data demonstrated that RJ could reduce cholesterol levels, regulate Aβ levels and enhance neuronal metabolic activities in AD rabbits, providing preclinical evidence that RJ treatment has the potential to protect neurons and prevent AD. PMID:29556189

  4. Aberrant protein expression and frequent allelic loss of MSH3 in colorectal cancer with low-level microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Plaschke, Jens; Preußler, Mark; Ziegler, Andreas; Schackert, Hans K

    2012-07-01

    High level of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is caused by the inactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes; however, it is unknown for tumors with low level MSI (MSI-L). The protein complex involving MSH3 preferentially recognizes insertion/deletion loops (IDLs) of two to eight bases and di- and tetranucleotide repeats are affected in the majority of MSI-L CRC. We selected 10 and eight MSI-L CRCs from 228 and 204 patients with sporadic and hereditary disease, respectively. The tumors were analyzed for protein expression of MSH3, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2, and for mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in MSH3. Four tumors showed a markedly reduced MSH3 expression, whereas all 18 tumors had normal expression of the remaining MMR proteins. Twenty-five different sequence variants were identified. None of these results in a truncated protein, though L902W represents the first constitutional missense mutation in MSH3 predicted to be functional based on conservation among mutS homologues. All variants have also been found in normal DNA of the patients and in controls. LOH intragenic to MSH3 was evident for 12 of 16 (75%) informative tumors. Occurrence of sequence variants in normal DNA of the patients and in controls excludes somatic mutations and mutations specific to the CRC patient population, respectively. In contrast, the high frequency of LOH as well as the aberrant protein expression in some tumors indicates an involvement of MSH3 impairment in MSI-L CRC.

  5. Characterization of Cq3, a quantitative trait locus that controls plasma cholesterol and phospholipid levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2006-04-01

    Cq3 was identified in C57BL/6J (B6) x KK-Ay F2 mice as a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that controls plasma cholesterol and phospholipid levels, and normolipidemic B6 allele was associated with increased lipids. Cq3 was statistically significant in F2-a/a, but not in F2-Ay/a; probably because the Cq3 effect was obscured by introduction of the Ay allele, which in itself has a strong hyperlipidemic effect. Because the peak LOD score for Cq3 was identified near D3Mit102 (49.7 cM) on chromosome 3, linkage analyses with microsatellite markers located at 49.7 cM were performed in KK x RR F2, B6 x RR F2, and KK x CF1 F2. However, even a suggestive QTL was not identified in any of the three F2. By testing all pairs of marker loci, I found a significant interaction between Cq3 and the Apoa2 locus, and F2 mice with the Apoa2(KK)/Apoa2(KK); D3Mit102(B6)/D3Mit102(B6) genotype had significantly higher cholesterol levels than did F2 mice with other genotypes. The results showed that the ;round-robin' strategy was not always applicable to the search for QTL genes; probably because specific gene-to-gene interaction limited the validity of the strategy to the utmost extent.

  6. Expression and Chloroplast Targeting of Cholesterol Oxidase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, David R.; Grebenok, Robert J.; Ohnmeiss, Thomas E.; Greenplate, John T.; Purcell, John P.

    2001-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase represents a novel type of insecticidal protein with potent activity against the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with the cholesterol oxidase choM gene and expressed cytosolic and chloroplast-targeted versions of the ChoM protein. Transgenic leaf tissues expressing cholesterol oxidase exerted insecticidal activity against boll weevil larvae. Our results indicate that cholesterol oxidase can metabolize phytosterols in vivo when produced cytosolically or when targeted to chloroplasts. The transgenic plants exhibiting cytosolic expression accumulated low levels of saturated sterols known as stanols, and displayed severe developmental aberrations. In contrast, the transgenic plants expressing chloroplast-targeted cholesterol oxidase maintained a greater accumulation of stanols, and appeared phenotypically and developmentally normal. These results are discussed within the context of plant sterol distribution and metabolism. PMID:11457962

  7. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in amenorrheic athletes: effects of endogenous hormone status and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Friday, K E; Drinkwater, B L; Bruemmer, B; Chesnut, C; Chait, A

    1993-12-01

    To determine the interactive effects of hormones, exercise, and diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, serum estrogen and progesterone levels, nutrient intake, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 24 hypoestrogenic amenorrheic and 44 eumenorrheic female athletes. When compared to eumenorrheic athletes, amenorrheic athletes had higher levels of plasma cholesterol (5.47 +/- 0.17 vs. 4.84 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.003), triglyceride (0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P = 0.046), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 3.16 +/- 0.15 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, P = 0.037), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 1.95 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and HDL2 (0.84 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.02) cholesterol. Plasma LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, very low-density lipoprotein and HDL3 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels were similar in the two groups. Amenorrheic athletes consumed less fat than eumenorrheic subjects (52 +/- 5 vs. 75 +/- 3 g/day, P = 0.02), but similar amounts of calories, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol. HDL cholesterol levels in amenorrheic subjects correlated positively with the percent of dietary calories from fat (r = 0.42, n = 23, P = 0.045) but negatively with the percent from protein (r = -0.49, n = 23, P = 0.017). Thus, exercise-induced amenorrhea may adversely affect cardiovascular risk by increasing plasma LDL and total cholesterol. However, cardioprotective elevations in plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol may neutralize the risk of cardiovascular disease in amenorrheic athletes.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon (goat meat) lowers plasma cholesterol levels and alters gene expressions in rats.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  9. High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... high blood cholesterol: Chronic kidney disease Diabetes HIV Hypothyroidism Overweight and obesity Polycystic ovary syndrome Inflammatory diseases ... your thyroid hormone levels can help rule out hypothyroidism as a cause of high blood levels of ...

  10. Activity assay of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract for decreasing fasting blood cholesterol level and lipid peroxidation in type-2 diabetic mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, Saikhu Akhmad; Winarni, Dwi; Khaleyla, Firas; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Ansori, Arif Nur Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the activity of pericarp extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Mangosteen pericarp contains various active compounds which are beneficial for human health. In-vivo antioxidant assay of pericarp extract was carried out using 3-4 month male mice of strain BALB/c weighed 30-40 g. The mice were divided into two groups: normal control (KN) group and STZ-induced diabetic group. STZ induction was performed using multiple low-dose method 30 mg/kg body weight treated daily for five consecutive days. Diabetic group was separated into two subgroups: diabetic control (KD), metformin control (KM), and crude extract treatment subgroups. The fasting blood glucose and the cholesterol level were measured before and after lard treatment, we also did it on the first, seventh, and fourteenth day of mangosteen pericarp crude extract treatment. The mice were treated with mangosteen pericarp crude extract for 14 days. The MDA level of the fasting blood serum was measured. The body weight and fasting blood cholesterol level before and after lard treatment were analyzed by t-test, whereas, the fasting blood cholesterol and the MDA level were analyzed using one-way variant analysis continued with Duncan test. The correlation between the increasing body weight and the fasting blood cholesterol level was determined by Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that the administration of mangosteen pericarp crude extract was able to reduce the fasting blood cholesterol and the malondialdehide level significantly.

  11. TSH-controlled L-thyroxine therapy reduces cholesterol levels and clinical symptoms in subclinical hypothyroidism: a double blind, placebo-controlled trial (Basel Thyroid Study).

    PubMed

    Meier, C; Staub, J J; Roth, C B; Guglielmetti, M; Kunz, M; Miserez, A R; Drewe, J; Huber, P; Herzog, R; Müller, B

    2001-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of physiological, TSH-guided, L-thyroxine treatment on serum lipids and clinical symptoms in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Sixty-six women with proven subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH, 11.7 +/- 0.8 mIU/liter) were randomly assigned to receive L-thyroxine or placebo for 48 wk. Individual L-thyroxine replacement (mean dose, 85.5 +/- 4.3 microg/d) was performed based on blinded TSH monitoring, resulting in euthyroid TSH levels (3.1 +/- 0.3 mIU/liter). Lipid concentrations and clinical scores were measured before and after treatment. Sixty-three of 66 patients completed the study. In the L-thyroxine group (n = 31) total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced [-0.24 mmol/liter, 3.8% (P = 0.015) and -0.33 mmol/liter, 8.2% (P = 0.004), respectively]. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol decrease was more pronounced in patients with TSH levels greater than 12 mIU/liter or elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at baseline. A significant decrease in apolipoprotein B-100 concentrations was observed (P = 0.037), whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein AI, and lipoprotein(a) levels remained unchanged. Two clinical scores assessing symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism (Billewicz and Zulewski scores) improved significantly (P = 0.02). This is the first double blind study to show that physiological L-thyroxine replacement in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism has a beneficial effect on low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism. An important risk reduction of cardiovascular mortality of 9-31% can be estimated from the observed improvement in low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  12. Increased IL18 mRNA levels in peripheral artery disease and its association with triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Deser, Serkan Burc; Bayoglu, Burcu; Besirli, Kazım; Cengiz, Mujgan; Arapi, Berk; Junusbekov, Yerik; Dirican, Ahmet; Arslan, Caner

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) typically refers to lower limb vessel ischemia caused by atherosclerotic stenosis of lower extremity arteries. IL18 is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine reported to function as an inflammatory biomarker in cardiovascular diseases. IL18 activity is balanced by high-affinity naturally occurring IL18-binding protein (IL18BP). This study aimed to determine whether IL18, IL18 BP mRNA levels and -137 G/C (rs187238) polymorphism, which was previously associated with IL18 gene transcriptional activity, were associated with PAD etiology. IL18, IL18BP mRNA levels from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and -137 G/C (rs187238) polymorphism were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and RT-PCR, respectively, in 55 PAD patients (26 aorta-iliac, 29 femoro-popliteal) and 61 disease-free controls. IL18 mRNA levels were increased in PAD patients compared with healthy controls (p = 0.09); however, did not reach a statistical significant level, also did not significantly differ between aorta-iliac and femoro-popliteal occlusive PAD subgroups (p = 0.285). However, IL18BP mRNA levels were significantly lower in PAD group compared with controls (p < 0.001). Genotype frequencies of rs187238 polymorphism did not significantly differ between PAD patients and controls (p = 0.385). IL18 mRNA levels were significantly correlated with triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels in PAD patients (p = 0.003, p = 0.014, respectively). HDL cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with IL18 mRNA levels in controls (p = 0.05). This report is a preliminary study to show an association between IL18, IL18BP mRNA levels and PAD and suggests that the IL18 gene may have a significant relationship with triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels in PAD patients.

  13. Impact of ticagrelor on P2Y1 and P2Y12 localization and on cholesterol levels in platelet plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Rabani, Vahideh; Montange, Damien; Meneveau, Nicolas; Davani, Siamak

    2017-10-11

    Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet activation via P2Y12 antagonism. There are several studies showing that P2Y12 needs lipid rafts to be activated, but there are few data about how ticagrelor impacts lipid raft organization. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how ticagrelor could impact the distribution of cholesterol and consequently alter the organization of lipid rafts on platelet plasma membranes. We identified cholesterol-enriched raft fractions in platelet membranes by quantification of their cholesterol levels. Modifications in cholesterol and protein profiles (Flotillin 1, Flotillin 2, CD36, P2Y1, and P2Y12) were studied in platelets stimulated by ADP, treated by ticagrelor, or both. In ADP-stimulated and ticagrelor-treated groups, we found a decreased level of cholesterol in raft fractions of platelet plasma membrane compared to the control group. In addition, the peak of cholesterol in different experimental groups changed its localization on membrane fractions. In the control group, it was situated on fraction 2, while in ADP-stimulated platelets, it was located in fractions 3 to 5, and in fraction 4 in ticagrelor-treated group. The proteins studied also showed changes in their level of expression and localization in fractions of plasma membrane. Cholesterol levels of plasma membranes have a direct role in the organization of platelet membranes and could be modified by stimulation or drug treatment. Since ticagrelor and ADP both changed lipid composition and protein profile, investigating the lipid and protein composition of platelet membranes is of considerable importance as a focus for further research in anti-platelet management.

  14. Serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure levels in Japanese type 1 and 2 diabetic patients: BioBank Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Nagai, Akiko; Hirata, Makoto; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Muto, Kaori; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Matsuda, Koichi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2017-03-01

    Evidence of characteristics of Japanese patients with diabetes from a large-scale population is necessary. Few studies have compared glycaemic controls, complications and comorbidities between type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. This paper focuses on illustrating a clinical picture of Japanese diabetic patients and comparing glycaemic control and prognoses between type 1 and 2 diabetes using multi-institutional data. The BioBank Japan Project enrolled adult type 1 and 2 diabetic patients between fiscal years 2003 and 2007. We have presented characteristics, controls of serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure, prevalence of complications and comorbidities and survival curves. We have also shown glycaemic controls according to various individual profiles of diabetic patients. A total of 558 type 1 diabetic patients and 30,834 type 2 diabetic patients participated in this study. The mean glycated haemoglobin A1c was higher in type 1 diabetes than in type 2 diabetes. In the type 1 diabetic patients, the glycated haemoglobin A1c had no consistent trend according to age and body mass index. The Kaplan-Meier estimates represented a longer survival time from baseline with type 1 diabetes than with type 2 diabetes. Compared with type 1 diabetic patients, type 2 diabetic patients had double the prevalence of macrovascular complications. This work has revealed detailed plasma glucose levels of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients according to age, body mass index, blood pressure, serum cholesterol levels and smoking and drinking habits. Our data have also shown that the prognosis is worse for type 2 diabetes than for type 1 diabetes in Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The association of very-low-density lipoprotein with ankle-brachial index in peritoneal dialysis patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peripheral artery disease (PAD) represents atherosclerotic disease and is a risk factor for death in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, who tend to show an atherogenic lipid profile. In this study, we investigated the relationship between lipid profile and ankle-brachial index (ABI) as an index of atherosclerosis in PD patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level. Methods Thirty-five PD patients, whose serum LDL cholesterol level was controlled at less than 120mg/dl, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Japan. The proportions of cholesterol level to total cholesterol level (cholesterol proportion) in 20 lipoprotein fractions and the mean size of lipoprotein particles were measured using an improved method, namely, high-performance gel permeation chromatography. Multivariate linear regression analysis was adjusted for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular diseases. Results The mean (standard deviation) age was 61.6 (10.5) years; PD vintage, 38.5 (28.1) months; ABI, 1.07 (0.22). A low ABI (0.9 or lower) was observed in 7 patients (low-ABI group). The low-ABI group showed significantly higher cholesterol proportions in the chylomicron fraction and large very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) (Fractions 3–5) than the high-ABI group (ABI>0.9). Adjusted multivariate linear regression analysis showed that ABI was negatively associated with serum VLDL cholesterol level (parameter estimate=-0.00566, p=0.0074); the cholesterol proportions in large VLDLs (Fraction 4, parameter estimate=-3.82, p=0.038; Fraction 5, parameter estimate=-3.62, p=0.0039) and medium VLDL (Fraction 6, parameter estimate=-3.25, p=0.014); and the size of VLDL particles (parameter estimate=-0.0352, p=0.032). Conclusions This study showed that the characteristics of VLDL particles were associated with ABI among PD patients. Lowering serum VLDL level may be an effective therapy against atherosclerosis in PD patients after the

  16. Anti-TNFα therapy transiently improves high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and microvascular endothelial function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). This can be only partially attributed to traditional CVD risk factors such as dyslipidaemia and their downstream effects on endothelial function. The most common lipid abnormality in RA is reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, probably due to active inflammation. In this longitudinal study we hypothesised that anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) therapy in patients with active RA improves HDL cholesterol, microvascular and macrovascular endothelial function. Methods Twenty-three RA patients starting on anti-TNFα treatment were assessed for HDL cholesterol level, and endothelial-dependent and -independent function of microvessels and macrovessels at baseline, 2-weeks and 3 months of treatment. Results Disease activity (CRP, fibrinogen, DAS28) significantly decreased during the follow-up period. There was an increase in HDL cholesterol levels at 2 weeks (p < 0.05) which was paralleled by a significant increase in microvascular endothelial-dependent function (p < 0.05). However, both parameters returned towards baseline at 12 weeks. Conclusion Anti-TNFα therapy in RA patients appears to be accompanied by transient but significant improvements in HDL cholesterol levels, which coexists with an improvement in microvascular endothelial-dependent function. PMID:22824166

  17. The effect of balneotherapy on C-reactive protein, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, total antioxidant status and HSP-60 levels.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Mihály; Koncz, Agnes; Fehér, Judit; Kálmánczhey, Judit; Oláh, Csaba; Balogh, Sándor; Nagy, György; Bender, Tamás

    2010-05-01

    An increasing body of evidence substantiating the effectiveness of balneotherapy has accumulated during recent decades. In the present study, 42 ambulatory patients (23 males and 19 females, mean age 59.5 years) with degenerative musculoskeletal disease were randomised into one of two groups-bathing in tap water or in mineral water at the same temperature-and subjected to 30-min balneotherapy sessions on 15 occasions. Study parameters comprised serum levels of sensitised C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma lipids, heat shock protein (HSP-60) and total antioxidant status (TAS). In both groups, CRP levels followed a decreasing tendency, which still persisted 3 months later. At 3 months after balneotherapy, serum cholesterol levels were still decreasing in patients who had used medicinal water, but exhibited a trend towards an increase in the control group. Triglyceride levels followed a decreasing trend in both patient groups. TAS showed a declining tendency in both groups. No changes of HSP-60 levels were observed in either group. Balneotherapy with the thermal water from Hajdúszoboszló spa had a more pronounced physiological effect compared to that seen in the control group treated with tap water in a 3 month period.

  18. Prospective clinical study reveals significant reduction in triglyceride level and white blood cell count after liposuction and abdominoplasty and no change in cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric

    2011-09-01

    Triglyceride levels of 150 mg/dL or greater are known to be associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effect of liposuction and abdominoplasty on lipid levels, complete blood count, and other parameters. A prospective study was undertaken among 322 consecutive patients (270 women and 52 men) who presented for liposuction (n = 229), abdominoplasty with liposuction (n = 87), and abdominoplasty without liposuction (n = 6). The mean body mass index was 26.6 kg/m2 (range, 18.6 to 44.1 kg/m2). Ultrasonic liposuction using a superwet infusion technique was used in all cases, usually treating the lower body in women (64.4 percent) and the trunk in men (86.5 percent). Mean weight loss 3 months after liposuction was 2.2 lbs for liposuction alone (p < 0.001) and 4.2 lbs for liposuction and abdominoplasty (p < 0.05). Mean fasting triglyceride level decreased 25.7 percent after liposuction (p < 0.001). The triglyceride level decreased 43.0 percent (n = 56, p < 0.001) after liposuction in patients with preoperative levels of 150 mg/dl or greater. There was a significant decrease in white cell count after both liposuction and liposuction/abdominoplasty (p < 0.001). There were no significant changes in total, low-density lipoprotein, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Fasting glucose was unchanged. A significant (p < 0.001) reduction in triglyceride level in patients with elevated preoperative levels and a significant decrease in leukocyte count (p < 0.001) are favorable metabolic effects of liposuction and liposuction/abdominoplasty. Cholesterol levels are unaffected. Therapeutic, IV.

  19. Low prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among patients with high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Juren, Andrew J; Sarwal, Gautamn; Al-Sarraf, Ahmad; Vrablik, Michal; Chan, Darren; Humphries, Karin H; Frohlich, Jiri J

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are among several known risk factors for coronary artery disease. Recent research has shown potential mechanistic links between these two diseases. The aim of our study was to characterize, by examining particular coronary artery disease risk factors, patients with extremely high and low levels of HDL-C who were referred to a prevention clinic. We compared the phenotypes of 113 patients with HDL-C levels greater than the 90th percentile with 212 patients with levels less than the 10th percentile by using a retrospective chart review. The cohort with high HDL-C had a remarkable difference in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (1.8% vs 21.7%). The high HDL-C cohort also had a greater age (52.1 years vs 46.7 years), more light or moderate alcohol consumption (70.8% vs 49.4%), more healthy diet (30.1% vs 22.4%), more light or moderate exercise (90.8% vs 52.2%), and a lower body mass index (25.2 kg/m² vs 28.1 kg/m²). Compared with the low HDL-C group--and also the general population--the high HDL-C cohort had a remarkably low prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mendelian randomization analysis in three Japanese populations supports a causal role of alcohol consumption in lowering low-density lipid cholesterol levels and particle numbers.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Takashima, Naoyuki; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Zaid, Maryam; Sumi, Masaki; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2016-11-01

    While alcohol consumption is known to increase plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, its relationship with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels is unclear. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a rate-controlling enzyme in alcohol metabolism, but a large number of Japanese people have the inactive allele. Here, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using the ALDH2 genotype to clarify a causal role of alcohol on circulating cholesterol levels and lipoprotein particle numbers. This study was conducted in three independent general Japanese populations (men, n = 2289; women, n = 1940; mean age 63.3 ± 11.2 years). Alcohol consumption was assessed using a questionnaire. Lipoprotein particle numbers were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Alcohol consumption increased linearly in proportion to the number of subjects carrying the enzymatically active *1 allele in men (p < 0.001). The *1 allele was also positively associated with HDL cholesterol level (adjusted mean ± standard error, *1*1: 60 ± 0.5, *1*2: 56 ± 0.6, *2*2: 55 ± 1.3 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and inversely associated with LDL cholesterol level (116 ± 0.9, 124 ± 1.1, 130 ± 2.6 mg/dl, p < 0.001). The *1 allele was also positively associated with HDL particle numbers (per-allele: 2.60 ± 0.32 μmol/l, p < 0.001) and inversely associated with LDL particle numbers (-67.8 ± 19.6 nmol/l, p = 0.001). Additional Mendelian randomization analysis failed to clarify the involvement of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in alcohol-related changes in lipoprotein cholesterol levels. No significant association was observed in women, presumably due to their small amount of alcohol intake. Alcohol consumption has a causal role in not only increasing HDL cholesterol levels but also decreasing LDL cholesterol levels and particle numbers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In situ probing of cholesterol in astrocytes at the single-cell level using laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric imaging with colloidal silver.

    PubMed

    Perdian, D C; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Yeung, Edward S; Lee, Young Jin

    2010-04-30

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. In Situ Probing of Cholesterol in Astrocytes at the Single Cell Level using Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometric Imaging with Colloidal Silver

    SciTech Connect

    Perdian, D.C.; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun

    2010-03-18

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations atmore » the cellular level.« less

  3. Small, qualitative changes in fatty acid intake decrease plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in mildly hypercholesterolemic outpatients on their usual high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Luc, Gérald; Marécaux, Nadine; Bal, Sylvie; Bonte, Jean-Paul; Lacroix, Brigitte; Cayzeele, Amélie

    2009-01-01

    The diet is the first step in managing hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study is to assess whether moderate changes in dietary fatty acids improve plasma lipid parameters in mildly hypercholesterolemic outpatients. Using a randomized double-blind study, 121 outpatients within two groups received an isocaloric amount of unsaturated margarine or butter. Clinical and anthropometric measurements and a 3-day food record were made. Chi-square and Fisher's tests were used to compare qualitative variables and the general linear procedure was used to compare the groups. Additional analyses were performed after adjustment. There was a significant difference (P <0.03) in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels between the groups. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B values decreased in the unsaturated group in comparison with the saturated group. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol changes were correlated with the variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and with plasma phospholipid linoleic acid levels. A small change in saturated by polyunsaturated fatty acid intake may improve plasma lipid parameters in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  4. HIGHER SERUM TOTAL CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN LATE MIDDLE AGE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH GLUCOSE HYPOMETABOLISM IN BRAIN REGIONS AFFECTED BY ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND NORMAL AGING

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Lee, Wendy; Reschke, Cole; Bandy, Daniel; Alexander, Gene E.; Caselli, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that higher midlife serum total cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) in the study of cognitively normal late-middle-aged people, we demonstrated an association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 gene dose, the major genetic risk factor for late-onset AD, and lower measurements of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl) in AD-affected brain regions, we proposed using PET as a presymptomatic endophenotype to evaluate other putative AD risk modifiers, and we then used it to support an aggregate cholesterol-related genetic risk score in the risk of AD. In the present study, we used PET to investigate the association between serum total cholesterol levels and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose metabolism (CMRgl) in 117 cognitively normal late middle-aged APOE ε4 homozygotes, heterozygotes and noncarriers. Higher serum total cholesterol levels were associated with lower CMRgl bilaterally in precuneus, parietotemporal and prefrontal regions previously found to be preferentially affected by AD, and in additional frontal regions previously found to be preferentially affected by normal aging. The associations were greater in APOE ε4 carriers than non-carriers in some of the AD-affected brain regions. We postulate the higher midlife serum total cholesterol levels accelerate brain processes associated with normal aging and conspire with other risk factors in the predisposition to AD. We propose using PET in proof-of-concept randomized controlled trials to rapidly evaluate the effects of midlife cholesterol-lowering treatments on the brain changes associated with normal aging and AD. PMID:19631758

  5. Necroptosis-like Neuronal Cell Death Caused by Cellular Cholesterol Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Takeshi; Aki, Toshihiko; Tajiri, Masateru; Unuma, Kana; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-11-25

    Aberrant cellular accumulation of cholesterol is associated with neuronal lysosomal storage disorders such as Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NPC). We have shown previously that l-norephedrine (l-Nor), a sympathomimetic amine, induces necrotic cell death associated with massive cytoplasmic vacuolation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. To reveal the molecular mechanism underling necrotic neuronal cell death caused by l-Nor, we examined alterations in the gene expression profile of cells during l-Nor exposure. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the gene levels for cholesterol transport (LDL receptor and NPC2) as well as cholesterol biosynthesis (mevalonate pathway enzymes) are increased after exposure to 3 mm l-Nor for ∼6 h. Concomitant with this observation, the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, SREBP-2, is activated by l-Nor. The increase in cholesterol uptake as well as biosynthesis is not accompanied by an increase in cholesterol in the plasma membrane, but rather by aberrant accumulation in cytoplasmic compartments. We also found that cell death by l-Nor can be suppressed by nec-1s, an inhibitor of a regulated form of necrosis, necroptosis. Abrogation of SREBP-2 activation by the small molecule inhibitor betulin or by overexpression of dominant-negative SREBP-2 efficiently reduces cell death by l-Nor. The mobilization of cellular cholesterol in the presence of cyclodextrin also suppresses cell death. These results were also observed in primary culture of striatum neurons. Taken together, our results indicate that the excessive uptake as well as synthesis of cholesterol should underlie neuronal cell death by l-Nor exposure, and suggest a possible link between lysosomal cholesterol storage disorders and the regulated form of necrosis in neuronal cells. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Necroptosis-like Neuronal Cell Death Caused by Cellular Cholesterol Accumulation*

    PubMed Central

    Funakoshi, Takeshi; Aki, Toshihiko; Tajiri, Masateru; Unuma, Kana; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant cellular accumulation of cholesterol is associated with neuronal lysosomal storage disorders such as Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NPC). We have shown previously that l-norephedrine (l-Nor), a sympathomimetic amine, induces necrotic cell death associated with massive cytoplasmic vacuolation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. To reveal the molecular mechanism underling necrotic neuronal cell death caused by l-Nor, we examined alterations in the gene expression profile of cells during l-Nor exposure. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the gene levels for cholesterol transport (LDL receptor and NPC2) as well as cholesterol biosynthesis (mevalonate pathway enzymes) are increased after exposure to 3 mm l-Nor for ∼6 h. Concomitant with this observation, the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, SREBP-2, is activated by l-Nor. The increase in cholesterol uptake as well as biosynthesis is not accompanied by an increase in cholesterol in the plasma membrane, but rather by aberrant accumulation in cytoplasmic compartments. We also found that cell death by l-Nor can be suppressed by nec-1s, an inhibitor of a regulated form of necrosis, necroptosis. Abrogation of SREBP-2 activation by the small molecule inhibitor betulin or by overexpression of dominant-negative SREBP-2 efficiently reduces cell death by l-Nor. The mobilization of cellular cholesterol in the presence of cyclodextrin also suppresses cell death. These results were also observed in primary culture of striatum neurons. Taken together, our results indicate that the excessive uptake as well as synthesis of cholesterol should underlie neuronal cell death by l-Nor exposure, and suggest a possible link between lysosomal cholesterol storage disorders and the regulated form of necrosis in neuronal cells. PMID:27756839

  7. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, A. V.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K.; Kalaivani, V.; Rajula, M. Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease. PMID:28462181

  8. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, A V; Ravishankar, P L; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K; Kalaivani, V; Rajula, M Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease.

  9. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (P<0.05). A higher level of total cholesterol was associated with the E4 allele (adjusted odds ratio 1.689, 95% confidence interval 1.223-2.334, P<0.01). However, no association was found between APOE status and serum levels of glucose (adjusted odds ratio 0.981, 95% confidence interval 0.720-1.336, P=0.903) or total triglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759-1.429, P=0.800). A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides.

  10. Cholesterol biosynthesis in normocholesterolemic patients after cholesterol removal by plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Feillet, C; Cristol, J P; Michel, F; Kanouni, T; Navarro, R; Navarro, M; Monnier, L; Descomps, B

    1997-01-01

    Plasmapheresis and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis are recognized procedures for the treatment of hyperlipidemia resistant to diet and lipid-lowering drugs and provide information on cholesterol synthesis in hypercholesterolemic patients. However, cholesterol synthesis after acute cholesterol removal from plasma has never been investigated in normocholesterolemic patients. In this study, cholesterol synthesis was evaluated in three normocholesterolemic patients by determination of plasma lathosterol, lathosterol-to-cholesterol ratio, and plasma mevalonic acid. In a short-term kinetic study, samples were collected before and after plasmapheresis and every 6 hours during 24 hours. In the second part of the study, cholesterol synthesis was evaluated daily for 3 days. In normocholesterolemic patients, cholesterol returns to basal levels in 3 days. However, cholesterol removal did not result in a significant increase in lathosterol-to-cholesterol ratio or in plasma mevalonic acid, despite a slight increase in lathosterol. In contrast, when repeated plasma exchanges induced a dramatic hypocholesterolemia (< 1 mmol/liter), an acute but transient stimulation of cholesterol synthesis was observed (lathosterol/cholesterol ratio and MVA, respectively, increase from 8.2 to 22.3 and from 28 nmol/liter to 98 nmol/liter). This study shows that cholesterol synthesis is not stimulated by plasmapheresis in normocholesterolemic patients but is enhanced in dramatic hypocholesterolemic patients (< 1 mmol/liter).

  11. Levels of lactic acid, normal level & its relation to food, glucose, cholesterol, raised blood urea and phenformin therapy.

    PubMed

    Patel, J C; Sawant, M S; Amin, B M

    2000-01-01

    1. The level of lactic acid was found to be 25 mg percent in 95 percent of 186 normal Indians. There was no difference due to sex and age. 2. Level of lactic acid was estimated in blood of normal persons and diabetics Type II patients to observe the effects of food and glucose. There was no change except the level of lactic acid was in higher but in normal range. 3. Hyperglycemia of over 300 mg raised the blood lactic acid in 25 percent of patients. 4. Lactic acid was not affected by hypercholesteremia but was raised in 60 percent of cases with raised blood urea. 5. Lactic acid was found to remain within normal limits in 48 type II diabetics treated with phenformin dose varying from 50 mg to 225 mg per day. The duration of treatment varied from one year to seven years.

  12. Annurca (Malus pumila Miller cv. Annurca) apple as a functional food for the contribution to a healthy balance of plasma cholesterol levels: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Caruso, Domenico; Buonomo, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Emanuela; D'Avino, Maria; Campiglia, Pietro; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-05-01

    Recent human studies have evaluated the effect of daily apple consumption on plasma cholesterol level, which is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, slightly significant effects have been generally registered although consuming more than two apples a day for several weeks. This study describes the influence of daily consumption of Annurca apples on the cholesterol levels of mildly hypercholesterolaemic healthy subjects. A monocentric, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 4-month study was conducted. The subjects (n = 250) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (each one of 50 subjects: 28 men and 22 women). Four groups were administered one apple per day among the following: Red Delicious, Granny Smith, Fuji, Golden Delicious. The fifth group was asked to consume two Annurca apples per day, since the weight of this cultivar is on average half that of the commercial ones considered in this study. Comparing results, Annurca led to the most significant outcome, allowing a reduction in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 8.3% and 14.5%, respectively, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 15.2% (all P < 0.001). Our data would reasonably indicate Annurca apple as a useful tool to contribute to the prevention of CVD risk through normal diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Vanadium inhibits DNA-protein cross-links and ameliorates surface level changes of aberrant crypt foci during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kanna, P Suresh; Saralaya, M G; Samanta, K; Chatterjee, M

    2005-01-01

    The trace mineral vanadium inhibits cancer development in a variety of experimental animal models. The present study was to gain insight into a putative anticancer effect of vanadium in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. The in vivo study was intended to clarify the effect of vanadium on DNA-protein cross-links (DPC), surface level changes of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and biotransformation status during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (1,2-DMH) induced preneoplastic rat colon carcinogenesis. The comet assay showed statistically higher mean base values of DNA-protein mass (p<0.01) and mean frequencies of tailed cells (p<0.001) in the carcinogen-induced group after treatment with proteinase K. Treatment with vanadium in the form of ammonium monovanadate supplemented ad libitum in drinking water for the entire experimental period caused a significant (p<0.02) reduction (40%) in DNA-protein cross-links in colon cells. Further, the biotransformation status of vanadium was ascertained measuring the drug metabolising enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P-450 (Cyt P-450). Significantly, there was an increase in glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P-450 levels (p<0.01 and p<0.02, respectively) in rats supplemented with vanadium as compared to their carcinogen controls. As an endpoint marker, we also evaluated the effect of vanadium on surface level changes of aberrant crypt foci induced by 1,2-DMH by scanning electron microscopy. Animals induced with 1,2-DMH and supplemented with vanadium showed a marked improvement in colonic architecture with less number of aberrant crypt foci in contrast to the animals induced with 1,2-DMH alone, thereby exhibiting its anti-carcinogenicity by modulating the markers studied herein.

  14. Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The consumption of foods containing probiotic and prebiotic ingredients is growing consistently every year, and in view of the limited number of studies investigating their effect in the elderly. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of a symbiotic shake containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and fructooligosaccharides on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group), aged 50 to 60 years. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL; triglycerides > 200 mg/dL and glycemia > 110 mg/dL. Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group) consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 108 UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 108 UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group) drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria. Blood samples were collected 15 days prior to the start of the experiment and at 10-day intervals after the beginning of the shake intake. The standard lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol) and glycemia, or blood sugar levels, were evaluated by an enzyme colorimetric assay. Results The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting glycemia. No significant changes were observed in the placebo group. Conclusion The consumption of symbiotic shake resulted in a significant increase in HDL and a significant decrease of glycemia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00123456 PMID:22356933

  15. Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moroti, Camila; Souza Magri, Loyanne Francine; de Rezende Costa, Marcela; Cavallini, Daniela C U; Sivieri, Katia

    2012-02-22

    The consumption of foods containing probiotic and prebiotic ingredients is growing consistently every year, and in view of the limited number of studies investigating their effect in the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of a symbiotic shake containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and fructooligosaccharides on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group), aged 50 to 60 years. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL; triglycerides > 200 mg/dL and glycemia > 110 mg/dL. Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group) consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 10(8) UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10(8) UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group) drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria. Blood samples were collected 15 days prior to the start of the experiment and at 10-day intervals after the beginning of the shake intake. The standard lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol) and glycemia, or blood sugar levels, were evaluated by an enzyme colorimetric assay. The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting glycemia. No significant changes were observed in the placebo group. The consumption of symbiotic shake resulted in a significant increase in HDL and a significant decrease of glycemia.

  16. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice.

    PubMed

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan A; Tietge, Uwe J F; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K

    2016-08-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we investigated the effects on cholesterol metabolism in mice in detail. Surprisingly, direct measurement of whole body cholesterol synthesis revealed that cholesterol synthesis was robustly increased in statin-treated mice. Measurement of organ-specific cholesterol synthesis demonstrated that the liver is predominantly responsible for the increase in cholesterol synthesis. Excess synthesized cholesterol did not accumulate in the plasma, as plasma cholesterol decreased. However, statin treatment led to an increase in cholesterol removal via the feces. Interestingly, enhanced cholesterol excretion in response to rosuvastatin and lovastatin treatment was mainly mediated via biliary cholesterol secretion, whereas atorvastatin mainly stimulated cholesterol removal via the transintestinal cholesterol excretion pathway. Moreover, we show that plasma cholesterol precursor levels do not reflect cholesterol synthesis rates during statin treatment in mice. In conclusion, cholesterol synthesis is paradoxically increased upon statin treatment in mice. However, statins potently stimulate the excretion of cholesterol from the body, which sheds new light on possible mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of statins. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schonewille, Marleen; Freark de Boer, Jan; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we investigated the effects on cholesterol metabolism in mice in detail. Surprisingly, direct measurement of whole body cholesterol synthesis revealed that cholesterol synthesis was robustly increased in statin-treated mice. Measurement of organ-specific cholesterol synthesis demonstrated that the liver is predominantly responsible for the increase in cholesterol synthesis. Excess synthesized cholesterol did not accumulate in the plasma, as plasma cholesterol decreased. However, statin treatment led to an increase in cholesterol removal via the feces. Interestingly, enhanced cholesterol excretion in response to rosuvastatin and lovastatin treatment was mainly mediated via biliary cholesterol secretion, whereas atorvastatin mainly stimulated cholesterol removal via the transintestinal cholesterol excretion pathway. Moreover, we show that plasma cholesterol precursor levels do not reflect cholesterol synthesis rates during statin treatment in mice. In conclusion, cholesterol synthesis is paradoxically increased upon statin treatment in mice. However, statins potently stimulate the excretion of cholesterol from the body, which sheds new light on possible mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of statins. PMID:27313057

  18. Naringin administration inhibits platelet aggregation and release by reducing blood cholesterol levels and the cytosolic free calcium concentration in hyperlipidemic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    XIAO, YANG; LI, LAI-LAI; WANG, YAN-YAN; GUO, JING-JING; XU, WEN-PING; WANG, YAN-YAN; WANG, YI

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of naringin on platelet aggregation and release in hyperlipidemic rabbits, and the underlying mechanisms. The safety of naringin was also investigated. The rabbits were orally administered 60, 30 or 15 mg/kg of naringin once a day for 14 days after being fed a high fat/cholesterol diet for four weeks. Following the two weeks of drug administration, the degree of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate and collagen was significantly reduced by naringin at certain doses compared with those in the rabbits of the model group (P<0.01). The levels of P-selectin and platelet factor 4 (PF4) also decreased following treatment with naringin compared with those of the model group. Certain doses of naringin significantly reduced the total cholesterol (TC) levels and elevated the ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to TC compared with those in the model group, and significantly decreased the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). No significant difference in the coagulation function was observed between the control and drug-treatment groups. These results indicate that naringin improved platelet aggregation and inhibited the excessive release of P-selectin and PF4 in hyperlipidemic rabbits. This study suggests that the antiplatelet effect of naringin may be due to its ability to regulate the levels of blood cholesterol and [Ca2+]i in platelets. Naringin also did not cause bleeding in the hyperlipidemic rabbits. PMID:25120631

  19. Effect of 50 Hz electric field in diacylglycerol acyltransferase mRNA expression level and plasma concentration of triacylglycerol, free fatty acid, phospholipid and total cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effects of exposure to a 50 Hz electric field (EF) on plasma level of triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, total cholesterol and phospholipid and mRNA expression level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 and 2 in liver and intestines from C57BL/6 J mice were studied. Methods The test was based on comparison between mice post treated with 50 Hz EF of 45 kV/m intensity for 30 min per day for 11 days or without EF. DGATs mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results There was no difference in the gene expression level of DGAT1 in liver and intestines. The DGAT2 gene expression level in liver derived from mice treated with EF was significantly lower than those in the control (P < 0.001). Both plasma total cholesterol (P < 0.01) and phospholipid (P < 0.05) in the group exposed to EF were lower than those in the control, but there was no difference in triacylglycerol or free fatty acid levels. Conclusion Exposure to 50 Hz EF decrease the plasma levels of total cholesterol and phospholipids, and downregulated DGAT2 mRNA expression in liver. The mechanisms for the effects of EF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but altered DGAT2 activity may be involved. PMID:22676350

  20. Red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits and their influence on plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in rats fed with cholesterol-containing and cholesterol-free diets.

    PubMed

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Tapia, María S; Katrich, Elena; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2005-09-23

    Bioactive compounds of peels and peeled red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits were analyzed and their antioxidant potential was assessed. The dietary fibers were determined according to Prosky et al., the total polyphenol content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and measured at 765 nm, minerals and trace elements by atomic absorption spectrometer, phenolic and ascorbic acids by HPLC and the antioxidant potential by two different antioxidant assays (DPPH and beta-carotene linoleate model system). It was found that the contents of most studied bioactive compounds in both qualities are comparable. Only the contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in red grapefruits, but not significant. The antioxidant potentials of red peeled grapefruits and their peels were significantly higher than of blond peeled grapefruits and their peels (P<0.05 in both cases). Diets supplemented with peeled red and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits and their peels have increased the plasma antioxidant capacity and improved plasma lipid levels, especially in rats fed with cholesterol added diet. In conclusion, both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits contain high quantities of bioactive compounds, but the antioxidant potential of red grapefruits is significantly higher. Diets supplemented with both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits improve the plasma lipid levels and increase the plasma antioxidant activity, especially in rats fed with cholesterol added diets. Jaffa grapefruits, especially their red Star Ruby quality, could be a valuable supplementation for diseases-preventing diets.

  1. Persistently high psychological well-being predicts better HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels: findings from the midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Radler, Barry T; Rigotti, Attilio; Ryff, Carol D

    2018-01-03

    Psychological correlates of blood lipid levels have been previously evaluated mostly in cross sectional studies. However, prospectively measured psychological factors might also predict favorable blood lipid profiles, thereby indicating a healthy mind/body interplay that is associated with less disease, better health and longer lives. This paper examined whether longitudinal profiles of psychological well-being over 9-10 years are predictors of blood lipid profiles. Using the MIDUS (Midlife in the U.S.) biological subsample (n = 1054, aged 34 to 84, 55% female), cross-time trajectories of well-being were linked with three lipid outcomes (i.e., HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol), measured for the first time at the 2nd wave of the study. Most adults showed largely stable profiles of well-being, albeit at different levels. Some showed persistently high well-being over time, while others revealed persistently low or moderate well-being. After adjusting for the effect of demographics, health behaviors, medications, and insulin resistance, adults with persistently high levels of environmental mastery and self-acceptance-two components of psychological well-being-had significantly higher levels of HDL as well as significantly lower levels of triglycerides compared to adults with persistently low levels of well-being. Converging with prior findings, no association was found between well-being and LDL cholesterol. Over 9-10 years, persistently high levels of psychological well-being measures predicted high HDL cholesterol and low triglycerides. These findings add longitudinal evidence to the growing body of research showing that positive psychological factors are linked with better lipoprotein profiles. A better blood lipid profile, particularly higher HDL-C, may be key in mediating how psychological well-being positively impacts health and length of life. Additional research is required to further validate this hypothesis as well as to establish potential

  2. Differential effect of walnut oil and safflower oil on the serum cholesterol level and lesion area in the aortic root of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masako; Kono, Misaki; Kawamoto, Daisuke; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi

    2002-01-01

    Walnut oil (WO) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. We compared the effects of WO and high-linoleic safflower oil (HLSO) on the serum lipid level and atherosclerosis development in male and female apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice. The WO diet resulted in a higher level of serum cholesterol than with HLSO. Female mice fed on the WO diet had a greater lesion area in the aortic root than did those on the HLSO diet. There was no diet-dependent difference in the level of cholesterol and its oxidation products in the abdominal and thoracic aorta. These results suggest that the unpleasant effects of the WO diet on apo E-deficient mice may be attributable to alpha-linolenic acid.

  3. A common variant association study reveals novel susceptibility loci for low HDL-cholesterol levels in ethnic Arabs.

    PubMed

    Wakil, S M; Ram, R; Muiya, N P; Andres, E; Mazhar, N; Hagos, S; Alshahid, M; Meyer, B F; Morahan, G; Dzimiri, N

    2016-12-01

    The genetic susceptibility to acquiring low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LHDLC) levels is not completely elucidated yet. In this study, we performed a common variant association study for harboring this trait in ethnic Arabs. We employed the Affymetrix high-density Axiom Genome-Wide ASI Array (Asian population) providing a coverage of 598,000 single nucleotide variations (SNPs) to genotype 5495 individuals in a two-phase study involving discovery and validation sets of experiments. The rs1800775 [1.31 (1.22-1.42); p = 3.41E-12] in the CETP gene and rs359027 [1.26 (1.16-1.36); p = 2.55E-08] in the LMCD1 gene were significantly associated with LHDLC levels. Furthermore, rs3104435 [1.26 (1.15-1.38); p = 1.19E-06] at the MATN1 locus, rs9835344 [1.16 (1.08-1.26); p = 8.75E-06] in the CNTN6 gene, rs1559997 [1.3 (1.14-1.47); p = 9.48E-06] in the SDS gene and rs1670273 [1.2 (1.1-1.31); p = 4.81E-06] in the DMN/SYNM gene exhibited suggestive association with the disorder. Seven other variants including rs1147169 in the PLCL1 gene, rs10248618 in the DNAH11, rs476155 in the GLIS3, rs7024300 in the ABCA1, intergenic rs10836699, rs11603691 in P2RX3 and rs750134 in CORO1C gene exhibited borderline protective properties. Validation and joint meta-analysis resulted in rs1800775, rs3104435 and rs359027 retaining their predisposing properties, while rs10836699 and rs11603691 showed protective properties. Our data show several predisposing variants across the genome for LHDLC levels in ethnic Arabs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. TM6SF2 Glu167Lys polymorphism is associated with low levels of LDL-cholesterol and increased liver injury in obese children.

    PubMed

    Grandone, A; Cozzolino, D; Marzuillo, P; Cirillo, G; Di Sessa, A; Ruggiero, L; Di Palma, M R; Perrone, L; Miraglia Del Giudice, E

    2016-04-01

    The Glu167Lys (E167K) transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) variant has been associated with liver steatosis, high alanine transaminase (ALT) levels and reduced plasma levels of liver-derived triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The objectives of this study were to investigate in a group of obese children the association among the 167K allele of TM6SF2 gene and ALT, cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and hepatic steatosis, and to evaluate the potential interaction between this variant and the I148M patatin like phospholipase 3 gene (PNPLA3) polymorphism on liver enzymes. We genotyped 1010 obese children for TM6SF2 E167K and PNPLA3 I148M polymorphisms. Anthropometrical and biochemical data were collected. Ultrasound imaging of the liver was performed. The 167K allele showed an association with steatosis (P < 0.0001), higher ALT levels (P < 0.001) and lower total cholesterol (P < 0.00001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.0001), triglycerides (P = 0.02) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < 0.000001). The subjects homozygous for the PNPLA3 148M allele carrying the rare variant of TM6SF2 showed an odds ratio of 12.2 (confidence interval 3.8-39.6, P = 0.000001) to present hypertransaminasaemia compared with the remaining patients. Although the TMS6SF2 E167K variant predisposes the obese children to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, there is an association between this variant and lower levels of cardiovascular risk factors. Overall, the data suggest differential effects of TMS6SF2 E167K variant on liver and heart health. © 2015 World Obesity.

  5. Dapagliflozin in patients with type II diabetes mellitus, with and without elevated triglyceride and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold E; Sartipy, Peter; Xu, John; Sjöström, Carl David; Underberg, James A

    Dapagliflozin is a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that improves glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by reducing renal glucose reabsorption. The aim was to evaluate the lipid effects of dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo in patients with T2DM with/without baseline elevated triglyceride and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. This was a post hoc analysis of 10 phase 3, placebo-controlled studies of dapagliflozin 10 mg (N = 2237) or placebo (N = 2164) administered for 24 weeks in patients with T2DM. Patients with elevated triglyceride (≥150 mg/dL [1.69 mmol/L]) and reduced HDL cholesterol levels (<40 mg/dL [1.04 mmol/L] in men; <50 mg/dL [1.29 mmol/L] in women) were included (group A). The reference group (group B) included patients who did not meet the defined lipid criteria. The effects of dapagliflozin on fasting lipid profiles were generally similar in the 2 lipid groups (ie, groups A and B) and, compared with placebo, were associated with minor increases in non-HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL cholesterol levels. The effects on triglyceride levels were inconsistent. The incidence of adverse events (AEs)/serious AEs, and AEs of genital infection, urinary tract infection, volume reduction, renal function, and hypoglycemia were similar in the 2 lipid groups. Patients with T2DM treated with dapagliflozin experienced minor changes in lipid levels; the changes were generally similar in the 2 lipid groups. The clinical significance of these changes in lipids is unclear, especially in view of the positive effects of dapagliflozin on other cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intake levels of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids modify the association between the genetic variation in PCSK5 and HDL cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Jang, Han Byul; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Park, Ji Eun; Oh, Ji Hee; Ahn, YounJhin; Kang, Jae-Heon; Park, Kyung-Hee; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kim, Bong Jo; Park, Sang Ick; Lee, Hye-Ja

    2014-12-01

    A low serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5) modulates HDL-C metabolism through the inactivation of endothelial lipase activity. Therefore, we analysed the effects of PCSK5 on HDL-C and investigated the association between genetic variation in PCSK5 and dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intakes in Korean adults and children. This population-based study which was conducted in South Korea included 4205 adults (43% male) aged 40-69 years and 1548 children (48.6% boys) aged 8-13 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in adults and modified 3-day food records in children. After adjustments for age and body mass index, we identified a significant association between SNP rs1029035 of the PCSK5 gene and HDL-C concentrations specifically for men in both populations (adults, p=0.004; children, p=0.003; meta, p=7×10(-4)). Additionally, the interaction between the PCSK5 rs1029035 genotype and dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids intake influenced serum HDL-C concentrations in men (adults, p=0.001; children, p=0.008). The deleterious effect of the C allele on serum HDL-C was present only when dietary PUFA intake was less than the dichotomised median level (adults, p=0.011; children, p=0.001). Serum HDL-C concentrations were decreased in men with the C allele genotype and low consumption of dietary PUFA including n-3 and n-6. According to these results, men carrying of the C allele were associated with low HDL-C concentrations and might exert beneficial effects on HDL-C concentrations following consumption of a high-PUFA diet. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and glucose in patients with schizophrenia, unipolar depression and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Wysokiński, Adam; Strzelecki, Dominik; Kłoszewska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate differences in triglycerides (TGA), cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL and glucose (FPG) levels in patients with acute schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar depression and bipolar mania. Results for 2305 Caucasian patients were included in the study (1377 women, 59.7%; mean age 45.6). Mean TGA level was: schizophrenia: 139.9±90.6 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 125.4±70.8 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 141.1±81.9 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 147.7±82.8 mg/dL mg/dL, bipolar mania: 120.2±76.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean TC level was: schizophrenia: 188.5±40.4 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 198.8±50.7 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 194.4±48.3 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 198.9±48.8 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 180.1±43.8 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean HDL level was: schizophrenia: 45.3±13.9 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 48.1±14.8 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 45.4±15.3 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 45.1±15.4 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 46.4±15.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean LDL level was: schizophrenia: 115.4±34.7 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 125.7±44.1 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 120.9±42.1 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 124.5±43.1 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 109.3±36.9 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean FPG level was: schizophrenia: 95.9±24.9 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 94.8±22.9 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 97.2±24.4 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 98.3±25.3 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 93.9±21.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were not significant (p=0.08). Odds ratios for glucose and lipids abnormalities, correlations with age, sex distribution in diagnostic groups for normal ranges of glucose and lipids, differences in glucose and lipids levels between the age groups were also calculated. Our results confirm that there is a high prevalence of lipid and glucose abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders (both unipolar and

  8. Short-term treatment with a 2-carba analog of cyclic phosphatidic acid induces lowering of plasma cholesterol levels in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Murakmi-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2016-04-22

    Plasma cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. An elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is a hallmark of hypercholesterolemia in metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggested that when acetylated LDL (AC-LDL) was co-applied with a PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone (ROSI), many oil red O-positive macrophages could be observed. However, addition of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) to ROSI-stimulated macrophages completely abolished oil red O-stained cells, indicating that cPA inhibits PPARγ-regulated AC-LDL uptake. This study aimed to determine whether metabolically stabilized cPA, in the form of a carba-derivative of cPA (2ccPA), could reduce plasma cholesterol levels and affect the expression of genes related to atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. 2ccPA reduced LDL-C levels in these mice (n = 3) from 460 to 330 mg/ml, from 420 to 350 mg/ml, and 420 to 281 mg/ml under a western-type diet. 2ccPA also reduced expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, cytokines, and chemokines in ApoE-deficient mice on a high-fat diet. Taken together, these results suggest that 2ccPA governs anti-atherogenic activities in the carotid arteries of apoE-deficient mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long term effects of guar gum on metabolic control, serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Uusitupa, M; Tuomilehto, J; Karttunen, P; Wolf, E

    1984-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out in 17 Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, treated with diet therapy alone to study the effects of guar gum on metabolic control, serum lipids, and blood pressure levels. Thirteen of the patients had drug treatment for hypertension. Guar gum was taken with meals three times a day, and the dose was gradually increased to 21 g per day. A slight, but not significant improvement was found in the metabolic control of the patients after the guar gum treatment compared to the placebo. Serum total cholesterol was 11% (p greater than 0.01) lower after the guar gum but no significant differences were found in HDL-cholesterol or serum triglycerides during the guar gum treatment compared to the placebo. Diastolic blood pressure level was significantly lower during the guar gum treatment compared to placebo. No difference was observed in systolic blood pressure levels between the guar gum and placebo treatments. The reduction of diastolic blood pressure was independent of changes in fasting blood glucose level or body weight, but could in part be due to simultaneous reduction in serum cholesterol concentration. The changes associated with guar gum supplementation suggest a reduction in the risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients.

  10. Modulation by geraniol of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism leading to a reduction of serum-cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Galle, Marianela; Kladniew, Boris Rodenak; Castro, María Agustina; Villegas, Sandra Montero; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Polo, Mónica; de Bravo, Margarita García; Crespo, Rosana

    2015-07-15

    Geraniol (G) is a natural isoprenoid present in the essential oils of several aromatic plants, with various biochemical and pharmacologic properties. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of action of G on cellular metabolism are largely unknown. We propose that G could be a potential agent for the treatment of hyperlipidemia that could contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to advance our understanding of its mechanism of action on cholesterol and TG metabolism. NIH mice received supplemented diets containing 25, 50, and 75 mmol G/kg chow. After a 3-week treatment, serum total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by commercial kits and lipid biosynthesis determined by the [(14)C] acetate incorporated into fatty acids plus nonsaponifiable and total hepatic lipids of the mice. The activity of the mRNA encoding HMGCR-the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis-along with the enzyme levels and catalysis were assessed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and HMG-CoA-conversion assays, respectively. In-silico analysis of several genes involved in lipid metabolism and regulated by G in cultured cells was also performed. Finally, the mRNA levels encoded by the genes for the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), the sterol-regulatory-element-binding transcription factor (SREBF2), the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), and the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA) were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Plasma total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels plus hepatic fatty-acid, total-lipid, and nonsaponifiable-lipid biosynthesis were significantly reduced by feeding with G. Even though an up-regulation of the mRNA encoding HMGCR occurred in the G treated mouse livers, the protein levels and specific activity of the enzyme were both inhibited. G also enhanced the mRNAs encoding the LDL and VLDL receptors and reduced ACACA mRNA, without altering the transcription of the mRNA encoding the SREBF2. The following

  11. Prolonged Caloric Restriction in Obese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Decreases Plasma CETP and Increases Apolipoprotein AI Levels Without Improving the Cholesterol Efflux Properties of HDL

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanan; Snel, Marieke; Jonker, Jacqueline T.; Hammer, Sebastiaan; Lamb, Hildo J.; de Roos, Albert; Meinders, A. Edo; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Smit, Johannes W.A.; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Rensen, Patrick C.N.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Using a mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism, we observed previously that reduction of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) content resulted in a decrease in plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and an increase in HDL levels. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of prolonged caloric restriction in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in a major reduction in hepatic TG content, on plasma CETP and HDL levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 27 obese (BMI: 37.2 ± 0.9 kg/m2) insulin-dependent patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (14 men and 13 women, aged 55 ± 2 years) who received a 16-week very low calorie diet (VLCD). At baseline and after a 16-week VLCD, plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and CETP were measured. Furthermore, functionality of HDL with respect to inducing cholesterol efflux from human monocyte cells (THP-1) was determined. RESULTS A 16-week VLCD markedly decreased plasma CETP concentration (−18%; P < 0.01) and increased plasma apolipoprotein (apo)AI levels (+16%; P < 0.05), without significantly affecting plasma HDL-cholesterol and HDL-phospholipids. Although a VLCD results in HDL that is less lipidated, the functionality of HDL with respect to inducing cholesterol efflux in vitro was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS The marked decrease in hepatic TG content induced by a 16-week VLCD is accompanied by a decrease in plasma CETP concentration and an increase in apoAI levels, without improving the cholesterol efflux properties of HDL in vitro. PMID:21994427

  12. Extremely elevated HDL-cholesterol levels are not associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness: data from ELSA Brasil.

    PubMed

    Laurinavicius, Antonio G; Santos, Itamar S; Santos, Raul D; Bensenor, Isabela M; Conceição, Raquel D; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that extremely elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), that is, hyperalphalipoproteinemia (HALP) may indicate dysfunctional HDL, conferring increased cardiovascular risk. We studied carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) a marker of subclinical vascular disease according to HDL-c distribution. cIMT was studied in subjects with "normal" HDL-c levels (HDL-c 40-50 mg/dL for men; 50-60 mg/dL for women, mean 49.6 ± 5.7 mg/dL, n = 3226); in those with HALP (HDL-c ≥90 mg/dL for both sexes, mean 101.2 ± 10 mg/dL, n = 264) and according to HDL-c quintile distribution (n = 9779). Multiple linear regression was used to test the association of HDL-c and cIMT. Subjects with HALP were older (54.5 ± 9.6 vs 51.1 ± 8.8 years, P < .001); more frequently females (86.4% vs 49%, P < .001); and presented a lower burden of risk factors: hypertension (24.6% vs 32.7%, P = .009), diabetes (10.2% vs 20.4%, P < .001), and obesity (18.6% vs 37.6%, P < .001). A similar profile was seen with higher HDL-c quintiles in the whole study population. When compared to normal HDL-c values, HALP was associated with lower maximal cIMT (0.779 ± 0.189 mm vs 0.818 ± 0.200 mm, P = .002), and there was a lower prevalence of individuals with cIMT ≥ 75(th) percentile for age and gender or high cIMT (17.5% vs 26.2%, P = .003). After multivariate analysis, no association was seen between HALP and increasing cIMT values, indeed the 5(th) HDL-c quintile was associated with lower risk of high cIMT (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.68-0.95). HALP is associated with lower cIMT and does not indicate a pro-atherogenic phenotype. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Higher total serum cholesterol levels are associated with less severe strokes and lower all-cause mortality: ten-year follow-up of ischemic strokes in the Copenhagen Stroke Study.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2007-10-01

    Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hypercholesterolemia is primarily associated with minor stroke. In the study, 652 unselected patients with ischemic stroke arrived at the hospital within 24 hours of stroke onset. A measure of total serum cholesterol was obtained in 513 (79%) within the 24-hour time window. Stroke severity was measured with the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (0=worst, 58=best); a full cardiovascular risk profile was established for all. Death within 10 years after stroke onset was obtained from the Danish Registry of Persons. Mean+/-SD age of the 513 patients was 75+/-10 years, 54% were women, and the mean+/-SD Scandinavian Stroke Scale score was 39+/-17. Serum cholesterol was inversely and almost linearly related to stroke severity: an increase of 1 mmol/L in total serum cholesterol resulted in an increase in the Scandinavian Stroke Scale score of 1.32 (95% CI, 0.28 to 2.36, P=0.013), meaning that higher cholesterol levels are associated with less severe strokes. A survival analysis revealed an inverse linear relation between serum cholesterol and mortality, meaning that an increase of 1 mmol/L in cholesterol results in a hazard ratio of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97, P=0.01). The results of our study support the hypothesis that a higher cholesterol level favors development of minor strokes. Because of selection, therefore, major strokes are more often seen in patients with lower cholesterol levels. Poststroke mortality, therefore, is inversely related to cholesterol.

  14. HDL: The "Good" Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... and LDL (bad) cholesterol: HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is called the "good" cholesterol because ... cholesterol from your body. LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because ...

  15. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... and HDL (good) cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because ... cholesterol in your arteries. HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is called the "good" cholesterol because ...

  16. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Atherosclerosis What Your Cholesterol ...

  17. Generic atorvastatin is as effective as the brand-name drug (LIPITOR®) in lowering cholesterol levels: a cross-sectional retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Loch, Alexander; Bewersdorf, Jan Philipp; Kofink, Daniel; Ismail, Dzafir; Abidin, Imran Zainal; Veriah, Ramesh Singh

    2017-07-17

    In a world of ever increasing health care costs, generic drugs represent a major opportunity to ensure access to essential medicines for people who otherwise would be unable to afford them. However, some clinicians and patients are still questioning the safety and effectiveness of generic formulations compared to the proprietary drugs necessitating further systematic research analyzing the generic drugs' efficacy. Our objective was to compare the lipid lowering effects of generic and branded atorvastatin. This cross-sectional, retrospective cohort study was conducted at the University of Malaya Medical Centre from 1 May 2013 until 30 May 2013. We analyzed the lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) of 629 patients before and at least 3 months after switching them from proprietary atorvastatin (Lipitor ® ) to generic atorvastatin (atorvastatin calcium from Ranbaxy Laboratories, Inc.). We also investigated if there was any difference in the effectiveness of both atorvastatin formulations in various ethnic groups. 266 patients were included in this study. When comparing the median values we found no statistically significant differences (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p < 0.05) between proprietary and generic atorvastatin in lowering total cholesterol (4.60 mmol/l pre-transition vs. 4.50 mmol/l post-transition; p = 0.583), LDL-cholesterol (2.42 mmol/l vs. 2.41 mmol/l; p = 0.923) and triglycerides (1.50 mmol/l vs. 1.50 mmol/l; p = 0.513). While there was a statistically significant (p = 0.009) difference in HDL-cholesterol levels favouring proprietary atorvastatin, the extent of this change (1.26 mmol/l vs. 1.25 mmol/l) was deemed not to be clinically relevant. There was no statistically significant difference when analyzing the effects on various ethnic groups. Substituting proprietary atorvastatin for its generic formulation atorvastatin calcium does not result in a less effective management of

  18. Enzymatic measurement of free and esterified cholesterol levels in plasma and other biological preparations using the oxygen electrode in a modified glucose analyzer.

    PubMed

    Dietschy, J M; Weeks, L E; Delente, J J

    1976-12-01

    A method is described for assaying free and esterified cholesterol using the oxygen electrode in a modified glucose analyzer to measure the relative amount of oxygen utilization taking place during oxydation of free cholesterol by the enzyme, cholesterol oxidase. A second enzyme, cholesterol ester hydrolase, is utilized to generate free cholesterol from cholesterol esters. This assay procedure is rapid, specific, reproducible and applicable to the measurement of free and esterified cholesterol carried in the major plasma lipoprotein fractions of man and the rat and, in addition, it can be utilized for the assay of sterols in subcellular fractions of cells.

  19. Cholesterol Metabolism in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Allison B.; Voloshyna, Iryna; DeLeon, Joshua; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Mattana, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a substantial risk of developing coronary artery disease. Traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia do not adequately explain the high prevalence of CVD in CKD. Both CVD and CKD are inflammatory states and inflammation adversely impacts lipid balance. Dyslipidemia in CKD is characterized by elevated triglycerides and high density lipoprotein that is both decreased and dysfunctional. This dysfunctional high density lipoprotein becomes pro-inflammatory and loses its atheroprotective ability to promote cholesterol efflux from cells, including lipid-overloaded macrophages in the arterial wall. Elevated triglycerides result primarily from defective clearance. The weak association between low density lipoprotein cholesterol level and coronary risk in CKD has led to controversy over the usefulness of statin therapy. This review examines disrupted cholesterol transport in CKD, presenting both clinical and pre-clinical evidence of the impact of the uremic environment on vascular lipid accumulation. Preventative and treatment strategies are explored. PMID:26337134

  20. Cholesterol, inflammasomes, and atherogenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plasma cholesterol levels have been strongly associated with atherogenesis, underscoring the role of lipid metabolism in defining cardiovascular disease risk. However, atherosclerotic plaque is highly dynamic and contains elements of both the innate and adaptive immune system that respond to the abe...

  1. Intracellular cholesterol level regulates sensitivity of glioblastoma cells against temozolomide-induced cell death by modulation of caspase-8 activation via death receptor 5-accumulation and activation in the plasma membrane lipid raft.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yutaro; Tomiyama, Arata; Sasaki, Nobuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Shirakihara, Takuya; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Kumagai, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Satoru; Toyooka, Terushige; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Narita, Yoshitaka; Ichimura, Koichi; Sakai, Ryuichi; Namba, Hiroki; Mori, Kentaro

    2018-01-01

    Development of resistance against temozolomide (TMZ) in glioblastoma (GBM) after continuous treatment with TMZ is one of the critical problems in clinical GBM therapy. Intracellular cholesterol regulates cancer cell biology, but whether intracellular cholesterol is involved in TMZ resistance of GBM cells remains unclear. The involvement of intracellular cholesterol in acquired resistance against TMZ in GBM cells was investigated. Intracellular cholesterol levels were measured in human U251 MG cells with acquired TMZ resistance (U251-R cells) and TMZ-sensitive control U251 MG cells (U251-Con cells), and found that the intracellular cholesterol level was significantly lower in U251-R cells than in U251-Con cells. In addition, treatment by intracellular cholesterol remover, methyl-beta cyclodextrin (MβCD), or intracellular cholesterol inducer, soluble cholesterol (Chol), regulated TMZ-induced U251-Con cell death in line with changes in intracellular cholesterol level. Involvement of death receptor 5 (DR5), a death receptor localized in the plasma membrane, was evaluated. TMZ without or with MβCD and/or Chol caused accumulation of DR5 into the plasma membrane lipid raft and formed a complex with caspase-8, an extrinsic caspase cascade inducer, reflected in the induction of cell death. In addition, treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor or knockdown of DR5 dramatically suppressed U251-Con cell death induced by combination treatment with TMZ, MβCD, and Chol. Combined treatment of Chol with TMZ reversed the TMZ resistance of U251-R cells and another GBM cell model with acquired TMZ resistance, whereas clinical antihypercholesterolemia agents at physiological concentrations suppressed TMZ-induced cell death of U251-Con cells. These findings suggest that intracellular cholesterol level affects TMZ treatment of GBM mediated via a DR5-caspase-8 mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiovascular Disease, Mortality Risk and Healthcare Costs by Lipoprotein(a) Levels According to Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Levels in Older High Risk Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanglu; Delaney, Joseph A; Quek, Ruben G.W.; Gardin, Julius M.; Hirsch, Calvin; Gandra, Shravanthi R.; Wong, Nathan D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The value of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] for predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) across low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is uncertain. We examined in older high risk adults these associations with CVD events, mortality, and healthcare costs. Methods We included 3,251 high risk subjects (prior CVD, diabetes or 10-year Framingham CVD risk > 20%) aged ≥ 65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study with LDL-C and Lp(a). We examined the relation of Lp(a) tertiles with incident CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality within LDL-C strata (< 70 mg/dL, 70–99 mg/dL, 100–129 mg/dL, 130–159 mg/dL and ≥ 160 mg/dL). We also examined 1-year all-cause and CVD healthcare costs from Medicare claims. Results Over up a 22.5-year follow-up, higher Lp(a) levels predicted CVD and total mortality [both standardized hazard ratio (HR) =1.06, p<0.01] while higher LDL-C levels predicted higher CHD (standardized HR =1.09, p<0.01) but lower total mortality (standardized HR =0.94, p< 0.001). Adjusted HRs in the highest (vs. lowest) tertile of Lp(a) level were 1.95 (p=0.06) for CVD events and 2.68 (p=0.03) for CHD events when LDL-C was < 70 mg/dL. One year all-cause healthcare costs were increased for Lp(a) [$771 per SD of 56 ug/mL (p=0.03), $1,976 for Lp(a) 25–64 ug/mL vs. < 25 ug/mL (p=0.02) and $1648 for Lp(a) ≥ 65 ug/mL vs. < 25 ug/mL (p=0.054)], but not LDL-C. Conclusion In older high risk adults, increased Lp(a) levels were associated with higher CVD risk especially in those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL and with higher healthcare costs. PMID:27177347

  3. Comparison of the response of serum ceruloplasmin and cholesterol, and of tissue ascorbic acid, metallothionein, and nonprotein sulfhydryl in rats to the dietary level of cystine and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Yang, B S; Yamazaki, M; Wan, Q; Kato, N

    1996-12-01

    The effects were compared of the addition of graded levels of L-cystine and of L-cysteine (0.3, 3, or 5%) to a 10% casein diet on several metabolic parameters in rats. The growth-promoting effect of cystine was equivalent to that of cysteine. Supplementation of these two amino acids elevated serum cholesterol, liver ascorbic acid, liver nonprotein sulfhydryl (SH) and kidney metallothionein, and reduced the activity of serum ceruloplasmin. The responses of serum cholesterol, liver nonprotein SH, and serum ceruloplasmin to cystine were greater than of those to cysteine. When the basal diet was supplemented with 0.3% of these amino acids, the elevation of liver ascorbic acid by cystine supplementation was less than that by cysteine supplementation. However, when supplemented with 5% of these amino acids, the elevation of liver ascorbic acid by cystine was greater than that by cysteine. There was no difference in the influence of cystine and cysteine on kidney metallothionein. This study demonstrates that dietary cystine and cysteine had the same influence on growth, but had a differential influence on such metabolic parameters as liver nonprotein SH, serum ceruloplasmin, serum cholesterol, and tissue ascorbic acid.

  4. Plasma membrane cholesterol level and agonist-induced internalization of δ-opioid receptors; colocalization study with intracellular membrane markers of Rab family.

    PubMed

    Brejchova, Jana; Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Roubalova, Lenka; Parenti, Marco; Mauri, Mario; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-08-01

    Decrease of cholesterol level in plasma membrane of living HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by β-cyclodextrin (β-CDX) resulted in a slight internalization of δ-OR. Massive internalization of δ-OR induced by specific agonist DADLE was diminished in cholesterol-depleted cells. These results suggest that agonist-induced internalization of δ-OR, which has been traditionally attributed exclusively to clathrin-mediated pathway, proceeds at least partially via membrane domains. Identification of internalized pools of FLAG-δ-OR by colocalization studies with proteins of Rab family indicated the decreased presence of receptors in early endosomes (Rab5), late endosomes and lysosomes (Rab7) and fast recycling vesicles (Rab4). Slow type of recycling (Rab11) was unchanged by cholesterol depletion. As expected, agonist-induced internalization of oxytocin receptors was totally suppressed in β-CDX-treated cells. Determination of average fluorescence lifetime of TMA-DPH, the polar derivative of hydrophobic membrane probe diphenylhexatriene, in live cells by FLIM indicated a significant alteration of the overall PM structure which may be interpreted as an increased "water-accessible space" within PM area. Data obtained by studies of HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by "antibody feeding" method were extended by analysis of the effect of cholesterol depletion on distribution of FLAG-δ-OR in sucrose density gradients prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing FLAG-δ-OR. Major part of FLAG-δ-OR was co-localized with plasma membrane marker Na,K-ATPase and β-CDX treatment resulted in shift of PM fragments containing both FLAG-δ-OR and Na,K-ATPase to higher density. Thus, the decrease in content of the major lipid constituent of PM resulted in increased density of resulting PM fragments.

  5. On the Definition of Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minghui; Wang, Guangli

    2014-12-01

    There was a groundbreaking step in the history of astronomy in 1728 when the effect of aberration was discovered by James Bradley (1693-1762). Recently, the solar acceleration, due to the variations in the aberrational effect of extragalactic sources caused by it, has been determined from VLBI observations with an uncertainty of about 0.5 mm{\\cdot}{s^{-1}}{\\cdot}{yr^{-1}} level. As a basic concept in astrometry with a nearly 300-year history, the definition of aberration, however, is still equivocal and discordant in the literature. It has been under continuing debate whether it depends on the relative motion between the observer and the observed source or only on the motion of the observer with respect to the frame of reference. In this paper, we will review the debate and the inconsistency in the definition of the aberration since the last century, and then discuss its definition in detail, which involves the discussions on the planetary aberration, the stellar aberration, the proper motion of an object during the travel time of light from the object to the observer, and the way of selecting the reference frame to express and distinguish the motions of the source and the observer. The aberration is essentially caused by the transformation between coordinate systems, and consequently quantified by the velocity of the observer with respect to the selected reference frame, independent of the motion of the source. Obviously, this nature is totally different from that of the definition given by the IAU WG NFA (Capitaine, 2007) in 2006, which is stated as, ``the apparent angular displacement of the observed position of a celestial object from its geometric position, caused by the finite velocity of light in combination with the motions of the observer and of the observed object.''

  6. Food Ingredients That Inhibit Cholesterol Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Jesch, Elliot D.; Carr, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol is a vital component of the human body. It stabilizes cell membranes and is the precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. However, cholesterol accumulation in the bloodstream (hypercholesterolemia) can cause atherosclerotic plaques within artery walls, leading to heart attacks and strokes. The efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is of great interest because human and animal studies have linked cholesterol absorption with plasma concentration of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption is highly regulated and influenced by particular compounds in the food supply. Therefore, it is desirable to learn more about natural food components that inhibit cholesterol absorption so that food ingredients and dietary supplements can be developed for consumers who wish to manage their plasma cholesterol levels by non-pharmacological means. Food components thus far identified as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption include phytosterols, soluble fibers, phospholipids, and stearic acid. PMID:28702423

  7. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  8. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  9. Knowledge-Driven Analysis Identifies a Gene–Gene Interaction Affecting High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Multi-Ethnic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Brautbar, Ariel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease. We tested for gene–gene interactions affecting the level of these four lipids based on prior knowledge of established genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits, protein–protein interactions, and pathway information. Using genotype data from 9,713 European Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we identified an interaction between HMGCR and a locus near LIPC in their effect on HDL-C levels (Bonferroni corrected P c = 0.002). Using an adaptive locus-based validation procedure, we successfully validated this gene–gene interaction in the European American cohorts from the Framingham Heart Study (P c = 0.002) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; P c = 0.006). The interaction between these two loci is also significant in the African American sample from ARIC (P c = 0.004) and in the Hispanic American sample from MESA (P c = 0.04). Both HMGCR and LIPC are involved in the metabolism of lipids, and genome-wide association studies have previously identified LIPC as associated with levels of HDL-C. However, the effect on HDL-C of the novel gene–gene interaction reported here is twice as pronounced as that predicted by the sum of the marginal effects of the two loci. In conclusion, based on a knowledge-driven analysis of epistasis, together with a new locus-based validation method, we successfully identified and validated an interaction affecting a complex trait in multi-ethnic populations. PMID:22654671

  10. Heat stress-induced neuroinflammation and aberration in monoamine levels in hypothalamus are associated with temperature dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nishant Ranjan; Kapoor, Medha; Prabha Singh, Laxmi; Gupta, Rajinder Kumar; Chand Meena, Ramesh; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Nanda, Sarita; Bala Singh, Shashi

    2017-09-01

    Heat Stress (HS) induces diverse pathophysiological changes, which include brain ischemia, oxidative stress and neuronal damage. The present study was undertaken with the objective to ascertain whether neuroinflammation in Hypothalamus (HTH) caused under HS affects monoamine levels and hence, its physiological role in thermoregulation. Rats were exposed to HS in a heat simulation environmental chamber (Ambient temperature, Ta=45±0.5°C and Relative Humidity, RH=30±10%) with real-time measurement of core temperature (Tc) and skin temperature (Ts). Animals were divided into two subgroups: Moderate HS (MHS) (Tc=40°C) and Severe HS (SHS)/Heat stroke (Tc=42°C). Rats with MHS showed an increase in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) and Heart Rate (HR) while fall in MAP and rise in HR was observed in rats with SHS. In addition, oxidative stress and an increase in pyknotic neurons were observed in HTH. High levels of Adrenocorticotropic-hormone (ACTH), Epinephrine (EPI), Norepinephrine (NE) and Dopamine (DA) in the systemic circulation and progressive increase in EPI and DA levels in HTH were recorded after the thermal insult. Moreover, a substantial increase in Glutamate (Glu) level was observed in HTH as well as in systemic circulation of heat stroke rats. We found a rise in NE whereas a fall in Serotonin (5-HT) level in HTH at MHS, without perturbing inflammatory mediators. However, rats with SHS exhibited significant elevations in NF-kB, IL-1β, COX2, GFAP and Iba1 protein expression in HTH. In conclusion, the data suggest that SHS induces neuroinflammation in HTH, which is associated with monoamines and Glu imbalances, leading to thermoregulatory disruption. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The combination of mixed lactic acid bacteria and dietary fiber lowers serum cholesterol levels and fecal harmful enzyme activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Kyung; Park, Shin Young; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Huh, Sun Min; Choi, Kyung Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics such as fiber are generally considered beneficial for health. These affect the microflora composition and fermentation metabolites and consequently contribute to local and systemic effects in humans. The beneficial effects of probiotics can be improved when combined with prebiotics. Here we investigated the effects of a mixed LAB supplement combined with dietary fiber on the population of LAB in the gut, as well as on serum cholesterol levels, fecal water content and microbial harmful enzyme activities. For animal studies, 0.2 mL of mixed LAB (Bifidobacterium longum SPM1205, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and SAFELAC isolated from Pediococcus pentosaceus) supplement (10(7) ∼ 10(8) colony forming units per day) was orally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats every day for 2 weeks along with a diet containing 5% or 10% cellulose. The mixed LAB supplement combined with dietary cellulose significantly (p < 0.05) reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels. This combination also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the population of LAB and the fecal water content and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced microbial harmful enzyme (β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase and tryptophanase) activities. These effects of LAB were particularly improved by its combination with 5% cellulose compared to the control (a diet without cellulose), and the 5% cellulose combination was more effective than the 10% cellulose combination. In conclusion, the incorporation of a fibrous diet such as cellulose with lactic acid bacteria improved the population of LAB, and daily consumption of this combination could reduce the serum cholesterol levels and activities of harmful enzymes such as β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, tryptophanase, urease in rats.

  12. Phenotypic factors influencing the variation in response of circulating cholesterol level to personalised dietary advice in the Food4Me study.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Laura; Walsh, Marianne C; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Livingstone, Katherine M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Fallaize, Rosalind; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Forster, Hannah; Kolossa, Silvia; Daniel, Hannelore; Moschonis, George; Manios, Yannis; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Drevon, Christian A; Gibney, Mike J; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-12-01

    Individual response to dietary interventions can be highly variable. The phenotypic characteristics of those who will respond positively to personalised dietary advice are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the phenotypic profiles of differential responders to personalised dietary intervention, with a focus on total circulating cholesterol. Subjects from the Food4Me multi-centre study were classified as responders or non-responders to dietary advice on the basis of the change in cholesterol level from baseline to month 6, with lower and upper quartiles defined as responder and non-responder groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between demographic and anthropometric profiles of the groups. Furthermore, with the exception of alcohol, there was no significant difference in reported dietary intake, at baseline. However, there were marked differences in baseline fatty acid profiles. The responder group had significantly higher levels of stearic acid (18 : 0, P=0·034) and lower levels of palmitic acid (16 : 0, P=0·009). Total MUFA (P=0·016) and total PUFA (P=0·008) also differed between the groups. In a step-wise logistic regression model, age, baseline total cholesterol, glucose, five fatty acids and alcohol intakes were selected as factors that successfully discriminated responders from non-responders, with sensitivity of 82 % and specificity of 83 %. The successful delivery of personalised dietary advice may depend on our ability to identify phenotypes that are responsive. The results demonstrate the potential use of metabolic profiles in identifying response to an intervention and could play an important role in the development of precision nutrition.

  13. Common sequence variants in CD36 gene and the levels of triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence of the genetic association between CD36 candidate gene and the risk of metabolic syndrome and its components has been inconsistent. This case–control study assessed the haplotype-tagged SNPs from CD36 on the risk of metabolic syndrome and components. Methods and results We recruited 1,000 cases and age, gender-matched controls were randomly selected from the participants with metabolic syndrome defined by International Diabetes Federation. Overall, the haplotype tagged SNPs of CD36 gene were not related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. For individuals with normal lipid levels, several SNPs were significantly associated with the triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol levels: Subjects with rs3211848 homozygote had a higher triglyceride level (99.16 ± 2.61 mg/dL), compared with non-carriers (89.27 ± 1.45 mg/dL, P = 0.001). In addition, compared with non-carriers, individuals with rs1054516 heterozygous and homozygous genotypes had a significantly lower HDL-cholesterol (46.6 ± 0.46 mg/dL for non-carrier, 44.6 ± 0.36 mg/dL for heterozygous, and 44.3 ± 0.56 mg/dL for homozygous, P = 0.0008). Conclusion The CD36 gene variants were significantly associated with triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol concentrations among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan. PMID:23249574

  14. Melanoma cells present high levels of HLA-A2-tyrosinase in association with instability and aberrant intracellular processing of tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Michaeli, Yael; Sinik, Keren; Haus-Cohen, Maya; Reiter, Yoram

    2012-04-01

    Short-lived protein translation products are proposed to be a major source of substrates for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen processing and presentation; however, a direct link between protein stability and the presentation level of MHC class I-peptide complexes has not been made. We have recently discovered that the peptide Tyr((369-377)) , derived from the tyrosinase protein is highly presented by HLA-A2 on the surface of melanoma cells. To examine the molecular mechanisms responsible for this presentation, we compared characteristics of tyrosinase in melanoma cells lines that present high or low levels of HLA-A2-Tyr((369-377)) complexes. We found no correlation between mRNA levels and the levels of HLA-A2-Tyr((369-377)) presentation. Co-localization experiments revealed that, in cell lines presenting low levels of HLA-A2-Tyr((369-377)) complexes, tyrosinase co-localizes with LAMP-1, a melanosome marker, whereas in cell lines presenting high HLA-A2-Tyr((369-377)) levels, tyrosinase localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. We also observed differences in tyrosinase molecular weight and glycosylation composition as well as major differences in protein stability (t(1/2) ). By stabilizing the tyrosinase protein, we observed a dramatic decrease in HLA-A2-tyrosinase presentation. Our findings suggest that aberrant processing and instability of tyrosinase are responsible for the high presentation of HLA-A2-Tyr((369-377)) complexes and thus shed new light on the relationship between intracellular processing, stability of proteins, and MHC-restricted peptide presentation. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Cholesterol treatment guidelines update.

    PubMed

    Safeer, Richard S; Ugalat, Prabha S

    2002-03-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major contributors to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in our society. The National Cholesterol Education Program of the National Institutes of Health has created a set of guidelines that standardize the clinical assessment and management of hypercholesterolemia for practicing physicians and other professionals in the medical community. In May 2001, the National Cholesterol Education Program released its third set of guidelines, reflecting changes in cholesterol management since their previous report in 1993. In addition to modifying current strategies of risk assessment, the new guidelines stress the importance of an aggressive therapeutic approach in the management of hypercholesterolemia. The major risk factors that modify low-density lipoprotein goals include age, smoking status, hypertension, high-density lipoprotein levels, and family history. The concept of "CHD equivalent" is introduced-conditions requiring the same vigilance used in patients with coronary heart disease. Patients with diabetes and those with a 10-year cardiac event risk of 20 percent or greater are considered CHD equivalents. Once low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is at an accepted level, physicians are advised to address the metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemia.

  16. Essential fatty acids for premenstrual syndrome and their effect on prolactin and total cholesterol levels: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) using a graded symptom scale and to assess the effect of this treatment on basal plasma levels of prolactin and total cholesterol. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 120 women with PMS divided into three groups and treated with 1 or 2 grams of the medication or placebo. Symptoms were recorded over a 6-month period using the Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstruation (PRISM) calendar. Total cholesterol and prolactin levels were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson's chi-square test, Wilcoxon's nonparametric signed-rank test for paired samples and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test for independent samples were used in the statistical analysis. Results There were no differences in age, marital status, schooling or ethnicity between the groups. In the group treated with 1 gram of the medication, a significant reduction was found when the median PRISM score recorded in the luteal phase at baseline (99) was compared with the median score recorded in the 3rd month (58) and in the 6th month of evaluation (35). In the 2-gram group, these differences were even more significant (baseline score: 98; 3rd month: 48; 6th month: 28). In the placebo group, there was a significant reduction at the 3rd but not at the 6th month (baseline: 96.5; 3rd month: 63.5; 6th month: 62). The difference between the phases of the menstrual cycle was greater in the 2-gram group compared to the group treated with 1 gram of the medication. There were no statistically significant differences in prolactin or total cholesterol levels between baseline values and those recorded after six months of treatment. Conclusion The difference between the groups using the medication and the placebo group with respect to the improvement in symptomatology appears to indicate the effectiveness of the drug

  17. [The real measurement of non-HDL-cholesterol: Atherogenic cholesterol].

    PubMed

    Millán, Jesús; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Brea, Angel; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Mantilla, Teresa; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Pintó, Xavier

    Lowe density lipoproteins (LDL) are the causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. In practice, we identify LDL with cholesterol transported in LDL (cLDL). So, cLDL has become the major target for cardiovascular prevention. Howewer, we have progressive evidences about the role of triglycerides rich lipoproteins, particularly those very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in promotion and progression of atherosclerosis, that leads cholesterol in VLDL and its remanents as a potential therapeutic target. This feature is particularly important and of a great magnitude, in patients with hypertiglyceridemia. We can to considere, that the non-HDL cholesterol -cLDL+cVLDL+c-remmants+Lp(a)- is the real measurement of atherogenic cholesterol. In addition, non-HDL-cholesterol do not show any variations between postprandial states. In fact, non-HDL-cholesterol should be an excellent marker of atherogenic cholesterol, and an major therapeutic target in patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia. According with different clinical trials and with the epidemiological and mendelian studies, in patients with high cardiovascular risk, optimal level of cLDL will be under 70mg/dl, and under 100 ng/dl for non-HDL-cholesterol; and in high risk patients, 100mg/dl and 130mg/dl, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Hydroxychloroquine reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus: a longitudinal evaluation of the lipid-lowering effect.

    PubMed

    Cairoli, E; Rebella, M; Danese, N; Garra, V; Borba, E F

    2012-10-01

    The influence of antimalarials on lipids in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been identified in several studies but not in many prospective cohorts. The aim of this study was to longitudinally determine the effect of antimalarials on the lipoprotein profile in SLE. Fasting total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) plasma levels were determined at entry and after 3 months of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment in a longitudinal evaluation of 24 patients with SLE. a significant decrease in TC (198 ± 33.7 vs. 183 ± 30.3 mg/dl, p = 0.023) and LDL levels (117 ± 31.3 vs. 101 ± 26.2 mg/dl, p = 0.023) were detected after the 3 months of HCQ therapy. The reduction of 7.6% in TC (p = 0.055) and 13.7% in LDL levels (p = 0.036) determined a significant decrease in the frequency of dyslipidemia (26% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.013) after HCQ therapy. This longitudinal study demonstrated the beneficial effect of antimalarials on lipids in SLE since this therapy induced a reduction of atherogenic lipoproteins.

  19. Low cholesterol level as a risk marker of inpatient and post-discharge violence in acute psychiatry - A prospective study with a focus on gender differences.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Bjørn Magne S; Bjørkly, Stål; Lockertsen, Øyvind; Færden, Ann; Roaldset, John Olav

    2017-09-01

    Several studies indicate an association between low levels of serum cholesterol and aggressive behaviour, but prospective studies are scarce. In this naturalistic prospective inpatient and post-discharge study from an acute psychiatric ward, we investigated total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) as risk markers of violence. From March 21, 2012, to March 20, 2013, 158 men and 204 women were included. TC and HDL were measured at admission. Violence was recorded during hospital stay and for the first 3 months post-discharge. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low TC and low HDL and violence. Results showed that HDL level was significantly inversely associated with violence during hospital stay for all patients. For men, but not for women, HDL level was significantly inversely associated with violence the first 3 months post-discharge. Results indicate that low HDL is a risk marker for inpatient and post-discharge violence in acute psychiatry and also suggest gender differences in HDL as a risk marker for violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene are associated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and not with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Young Min; Moon, Min Kyong; Choi, Hye Hun; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Seong Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Kyong Soo

    2006-11-01

    Ghrelin is known to play a role in glucose metabolism and in beta-cell function. There are controversies regarding the role of ghrelin polymorphisms in diabetes and diabetes-related phenotypes. The objective of this study was to examine polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene in a Korean cohort and investigate associations between them and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and its related phenotypes. The ghrelin gene was sequenced to identify polymorphisms in 24 DNA samples. Common variants were then genotyped in 760 type 2 diabetic patients and 641 nondiabetic subjects. Genetic associations with diabetes-related phenotypes were also analyzed. Nine polymorphisms were identified, and four common polymorphisms [g.-1500C>G, g.-1062G > C, g.-994C > T, g.+408C > A (Leu72Met)] were genotyped in a larger study. The genotype distributions of these four common polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes patients were similar to those of normal nondiabetic controls. However, these four common polymorphisms were variably associated with several diabetes-related phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. In particular, subjects harboring g.-1062C were associated with a lower serum HDL cholesterol level after adjusting for other variables (P = 0.0004 or 0.01 after Bonferroni correction for 24 tests). The aforementioned four common polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene were not found to be significantly associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Korean population. However, the common polymorphism g.-1062G > C in the promoter region of the ghrelin gene was found to be significantly associated with serum HDL cholesterol levels.

  1. Importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia: A 2-year survey of cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Araki, Atsushi; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Takemoto, Minoru; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Noto, Hiroshi; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Ze-Yun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Nomura, Hideki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia are not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between lipid levels and IHD and CVA in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study is a prospective cohort study of 4014 type 2 diabetic patients (1936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years). The primary end-points were the onset of IHD or CVA. Lipid and glucose levels, and other factors were investigated in relation to the occurrence of IHD or CVA. A total of 462 participants were included in the group of patients with type IIb dyslipidemia. The 462 diabetic participants with type IIb dyslipidemia were divided into those who were aged <65 years, 65-74 years and >75 years (n=168, 190 and 104, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C were significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged <65 years, and HDL-C and diastolic blood pressure was significantly associated with cardiovascular events in patients aged 65-74 years. Non-HDL-C was not significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower HDL-C was significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged <65 years and 65-74 years. Lower HDL-C was an important risk factor for cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged <75 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Knockdown of FABP5 mRNA decreases cellular cholesterol levels and results in decreased apoB100 secretion and triglyceride accumulation in ARPE-19 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tinghuai; Tian, Jane; Cutler, Roy G.; Telljohann, Richard S.; Bernlohr, David; Mattson, Mark P.; Handa, James T.

    2010-01-01

    To maintain normal retinal function, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells engulf photoreceptor outer segments (ROS) enriched in free fatty acids (FFAs). We have previously demonstrated fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) down-regulation in the RPE/choroidal complex in a mouse model of aging and early age-related macular degeneration. FABPs are involved in intracellular transport of FFAs and their targeting to specific metabolic pathways. To elucidate the role of FABP5 in lipid metabolism, the production of the FABP5 protein in a human RPE cell line was inhibited using RNA interference technology. As a result, the levels of cholesterol and cholesterol ester were decreased by about 40%, whereas FFAs and triglycerides were increased by 18 and 67% after siRNA treatment, respectively. Some species of phospholipids were decreased in siRNA-treated cells. Cellular lipid droplets were evident and apoB secretion was decreased by 76% in these cells. Additionally, we discovered that ARPE-19 cells could synthesize and secrete Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100), which may serve as a backbone structure for the formation of lipoprotein particles in these cells. Our results indicate that FABP5 mRNA knockdown results in the accumulation of cellular triglycerides, decreased cholesterol levels, and reduced secretion of apoB100 protein and lipoprotein-like particles. These observations indicated that FABP5 plays a critical role in lipid metabolism in RPE cells, suggesting that FABP5 down-regulation in the RPE/choroid complex in vivo might contribute to aging and early age-related macular degeneration. PMID:19434059

  3. The Effect of Cloud Ear Fungus (Auricularia polytricha) on Serum Total Cholesterol, LDL And HDL Levels on Wistar Rats Induced by Reused Cooking Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinastiti, Ratih; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Widiastiti, Nyoman Suci

    2018-02-01

    The usage of reused cooking oil affects the increase of serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL, also the decrease of serum HDL. This condition escalates the risk of atherosclerosis, which could lead to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Cloud ear fungus is a natural antioxidant that contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, niacin, and vitamin C, which can improve the lipid profiles. Objective of this research is to analyze the impact of water from boiled cloud ear fungus on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL level of Wistar rats that have been given reused cooking oil. This study is a true experimental research with post test only control group design, using 12 weeks-aged male Wistar rats (n = 24) that were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 as the negative control, K2 was given reused cooking oil and standard diet, K3 was given water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet, and K4 was given reused cooking oil, water from boiled cloud ear fungus and standard diet. Serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were measured by the CHOD-PAP method after 28 days treatment. The study showed that TC mean value of K1 (80.2217 ± 3.61 mg / dL), K2 (195.8483 ± 5.47 mg / dL), K3 (75.5800 ± 4.02 mg / dL), and K4 (110.8683 ± 5.82 mg / dL); p = 0.000. LDL mean value of K1 (29.9200 ± 1.53 mg / dL), K2 (78.4167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), K3 (24.3167 ± 1.77 mg / dL), and K4 (40, 1617 ± 2.84 mg / dL); p = 0.000. HDL mean value of K1 (65.8950 ± 1.99 mg / dL), K2 (24.3233 ± 1.44 mg / dL), K3 (73.2300 ± 1.92 mg / dL), and K4 (54, 9550 ± 2.04 mg / dL); p= 0.000. Conclusion: Water from boiled cloud ear fungus decreases the serum total cholesterol and LDL, 06006 increases serum HDL levels of Wistar rats that has been given reused cooking oil.

  4. What Is Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cholesterol KidsHealth / For Teens / Cholesterol What's in this article? ... Cholesterol? Print en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  5. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  6. Increasing plasma fibrinogen, but unchanged levels of intraplatelet cyclic nucleotides, plasma endothelin-1, factor VII, and neopterin during cholesterol lowering with fluvastatin.

    PubMed

    Gottsäter, A; Anwaar, I; Lind, P; Mattiasson, I; Lindgärde, F

    1999-04-01

    Lipid-lowering statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and improves endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and the macrophage-derived inflammatory mediator neopterin during lipid lowering. In addition, the endothelial production of platelet antiaggregatory and vasodilatory factors such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and vasoconstrictive factors such as endothelin-1, was assessed. Plasma fibrinogen, factor VII, endothelin-1, and the neopterin and intraplatelet nitric oxide and prostacyclin mediators cyclic 3'-5'guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic 3'-5'adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were measured before and 6 months after the institution of treatment with fluvastatin in 17 patients (eight men and nine women, median age 60 years) with vascular disease and previously untreated hypercholesterolemia. After 6 months, a decrease of 1.62 mmol/l [1.26-2.18 (19%); P < 0.01] was noted in levels of total cholesterol, and a decrease of 1.70 mmol/l [1.52-2.30 (28%); P < 0.01] in levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma levels of fibrinogen had increased [from 4.81 g/l (4.26-5.27) to 5.17 g/l (4.81-5.67); P < 0.05], whereas no significant changes had occurred in intraplatelet levels of cGMP [decrease by 0.05 pmol/10(9) platelets (-0.17 to 0.24); NS], cAMP [decrease by 0.13 pmol/10(9) platelets (-0.37 to 0.86); NS], plasma endothelin-1 [decrease by 0.05 pg/ml (-0.60 to 0.70); NS], plasma factor VII [from 1.14 IE/ml (0.58-1.38) to 1.22 IE/ml (0.96-1.46); NS], or plasma neopterin [from 8.6 nmol/l (7.1-11.5) to 8.7 nmol/l (7.9-11.3); NS]. In conclusion, during cholesterol-lowering treatment with fluvastatin, plasma levels of fibrinogen increased whereas intraplatelet cyclic nucleotide levels and plasma endothelin-1, factor VII and neopterin levels were unchanged.

  7. Strawberries Added to the Usual Diet Suppress Fasting Plasma Paraoxonase Activity and Have a Weak Transient Decreasing Effect on Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Nonobese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Zasowska-Nowak, Anna; Nowak, Piotr J; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Prymont-Przyminska, Anna; Zwolinska, Anna; Sarniak, Agata; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P; Nowak, Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Strawberries can improve oxidants-antioxidants balance and reduce some cardiovascular risk factors in obese subjects. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme with antioxidant properties that can protect from coronary artery disease in humans. We examined the effect of strawberry consumption on plasma PON-1 activity and lipid profile in healthy nonobese subjects. Thirty-one subjects (body mass index [BMI] 24.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2)) on their usual diet consumed 500 g of strawberry pulp daily for 30 days (first course) and after a 10-day washout the cycle was repeated (second course). Fasting blood and spot morning urine samples were collected before, during, and after each strawberry course (8 time points) for determination of paraoxonase and arylesterase PON-1 activities and lipid profile. Twenty subjects served as controls with respect to cholesterol and PON-1 activities changes over the study period. Strawberries decreased mean plasma paraoxonase PON-1 activity and this effect was more evident after the second course (by 11.6%, p < 0.05) than after the first course (5.4%, p = 0.06), whereas arylesterase activity was constant. Strawberries altered total cholesterol levels (p < 0.05) with a tendency to transiently decrease it (by 5.1%) only after 15 days of the first course. Triglycerides and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not change in response to fruit consumption. No changes in PON-1 activities and lipid profile were noted in controls. Paraoxonase correlated with arylesterase activity (ƿ from 0.33 to 0.46 at the first 7 time points, p < 0.05). This association disappeared at the end of study (ƿ = 0.07) when the strongest inhibition of paraoxonase was noted. Supplementation of the usual diet with strawberries decreased paraoxonase PON-1 activity and did not improve lipid profiles in healthy nonobese subjects. Further studies are necessary to establish the clinical significance of paraoxonase suppression and to

  8. Serum total cholesterol levels and all-cause mortality in a home-dwelling elderly population: a six-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Tuikkala, Päivi; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Korhonen, Maarit J.; Lavikainen, Piia; Kettunen, Raimo; Sulkava, Raimo; Enlund, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between serum total cholesterol and all-cause mortality in elderly individuals aged ≥ 75 years. Design A prospective cohort study with a six-year follow-up. Setting and subjects A random sample (n = 700) of all persons aged ≥ 75 years living in Kuopio, Finland. After exclusion of participants living in institutional care and participants using lipid-modifying agents or missing data on blood pressure and cholesterol levels, the final study population consisted of 490 home-dwelling elderly persons with clinical examination. We used the Cox proportional hazard model and the propensity score (PS) method. Main outcome measure All-cause mortality. Results In an age- and sex-adjusted analysis, participants with S-TC ≥ 6mmol/l had the lowest risk of death (hazard ratio, HR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.33–0.70) compared with those with S-TC < 5 mmol/l. HR of death for a 1 mmol increase in S-TC was 0.78. In multivariate analyses, the HR of death for a 1 mmol increase in S-TC was 0.82 and using S-TC < 5 mmol/l as a reference, the HR of death for S-TC ≥ 6 mmol/l was 0.59 (95% CI 0.39–0.89) and for S-TC 5.0–5.9 mmol/l, the HR was 0.62 (95% CI 0.42–0.93). In a PS-adjusted model using S-TC < 5 mmol/l as a reference, the HR of death for S-TC ≥ 6 mmol/l was 0.42 (95% CI 0.28–0.62) and for S-TC 5.0–5.9 mmol/l, the HR was 0.57 (95% CI 0.38–0.84). Conclusions. Participants with low serum total cholesterol seem to have a lower survival rate than participants with an elevated cholesterol level, irrespective of concomitant diseases or health status. PMID:20470020

  9. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  10. Investigation of variants identified in caucasian genome-wide association studies for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels in Mexican dyslipidemic study samples.

    PubMed

    Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Riba, Laura; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Ordoñez-Sánchez, Maria L; Rodriguez-Guillen, Rosario; Cantor, Rita M; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2010-02-01

    Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased predisposition to low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high triglyceride levels in the Mexican population, Mexicans have not been included in any of the previously reported genome-wide association studies for lipids. We investigated 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with triglycerides, 7 with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 1 with both triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in recent Caucasian genome-wide association studies in Mexican familial combined hyperlipidemia families and hypertriglyceridemia case-control study samples. These variants were within or near the genes ABCA1, ANGPTL3, APOA5, APOB, CETP, GALNT2, GCKR, LCAT, LIPC, LPL (2), MMAB-MVK, TRIB1, and XKR6-AMAC1L2. We performed a combined analysis of the family-based and case-control studies (n=2298) using the Z method to combine statistics. Ten of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were nominally significant and 5 were significant after Bonferroni correction (P=2.20 x 10(-3) to 2.6 x 10(-11)) for the number of tests performed (APOA5, CETP, GCKR, and GALNT2). Interestingly, our strongest signal was obtained for triglycerides with the minor allele of rs964184 (P=2.6 x 10(-11)) in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster region that is significantly more common in Mexicans (27%) than in whites (12%). It is important to confirm whether known loci have a consistent effect across ethnic groups. We show replication of 5 Caucasian genome-wide association studies lipid associations in Mexicans. The remaining loci will require a comprehensive investigation to exclude or verify their significance in Mexicans. We also demonstrate that rs964184 has a large effect (odds ratio, 1.74) and is more frequent in the Mexican population, and thus it may contribute to the high predisposition to dyslipidemias in Mexicans.

  11. Early steps in steroidogenesis: intracellular cholesterol trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2011-01-01

    Steroid hormones are made from cholesterol, primarily derived from lipoproteins that enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. In endo-lysosomes, cholesterol is released from cholesterol esters by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL; disordered in Wolman disease) and exported via Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) proteins (disordered in NPC disease). These diseases are characterized by accumulated cholesterol and cholesterol esters in most cell types. Mechanisms for trans-cytoplasmic cholesterol transport, membrane insertion, and retrieval from membranes are less clear. Cholesterol esters and “free” cholesterol are enzymatically interconverted in lipid droplets. Cholesterol transport to the cholesterol-poor outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) appears to involve cholesterol transport proteins. Cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) then initiates steroidogenesis by converting cholesterol to pregnenolone on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Acute steroidogenic responses are regulated by cholesterol delivery from OMM to IMM, triggered by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Chronic steroidogenic capacity is determined by CYP11A1 gene transcription. StAR mutations cause congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, with absent steroidogenesis, potentially lethal salt loss, and 46,XY sex reversal. StAR mutations initially destroy most, but not all steroidogenesis; low levels of StAR-independent steroidogenesis are lost later due to cellular damage, explaining the clinical findings. Rare P450scc mutations cause a similar syndrome. This review addresses these early steps in steroid biosynthesis. PMID:21976778

  12. Functional training reduces body fat and improves functional fitness and cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Neves, Lucas M; Fortaleza, Ana C; Rossi, Fabrício E; Diniz, Tiego A; Codogno, Jamile S; Gobbo, Luis A; Gobbi, Sebastião; Freitas, Ismael F

    2017-04-01

    This randomized clinical trial with concealed allocations, and blinding of the assessors and the data analyst, was aimed at determining the effects of 16 weeks of functional training on the body composition, functional fitness and lipid profiles in postmenopausal women. The study began with 64 subjects (N.=32 functional training and N.=32 control group) and ended with 50 subjects (N.=28 functional training and N.=22 control group). The exercise was conducted in circuit training format with 8 stations related to the development of muscular strength (using elastic bands for resistance) plus 3 stations focused on balance, coordination, and agility. The training session also incorporated an 18 to 30 minute walk. The control group did not participate in the exercise programs during the period of study. The participants were evaluated before and after the training period as regards their body composition (fat and lean mass), functional fitness, abdominal strength and blood chemistry variables. Significant reductions were observed in all body composition variables related to fat (FM= -3.4 and Android FM= -7.7%) (P<0.05). The functional fitness components had significant improvements in coordination (-33.3%), strength (66.5%), agility (-19.5%) and aerobic capacity (-7%), and significant improvement in abdominal strength (188.2%). We observed significant improvements in total cholesterol (-4.4%) and HDL (-9.9%). The observed data lead us to conclude that functional training utilizing with elastic bands and unstable bases causes significantly improved in body composition, functional fitness and lipid profiles.

  13. Association analyses of East Asian individuals and trans-ancestry analyses with European individuals reveal new loci associated with cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Chen, Peng; Kim, Young Jin; Wang, Xu; Cai, Hui; Li, Shengxu; Long, Jirong; Wu, Ying; Wang, Ya Xing; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Jung, Keum-Ji; Hu, Cheng; Akiyama, Koichi; Zhang, Yonghong; Moon, Sanghoon; Johnson, Todd A; Li, Huaixing; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; He, Meian; Cannon, Maren E; Roman, Tamara S; Salfati, Elias; Lin, Keng-Hung; Guo, Xiuqing; Sheu, Wayne H H; Absher, Devin; Adair, Linda S; Assimes, Themistocles L; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Du, Shufa; Fan, Qiao; Fann, Cathy S J; Feranil, Alan B; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Gu, Dongfeng; Gui, Lixuan; Guo, Zhirong; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Hixson, James; Hou, Xuhong; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Hu, Yao; Hwang, Mi Yeong; Hwu, Chii-Min; Isono, Masato; Juang, Jyh-Ming Jimmy; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Sun-Ju; Lee, Wen-Jane; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lim, Blanche; Lim, Sing-Hui; Liu, Jianjun; Nabika, Toru; Pan, Wen-Harn; Peng, Hao; Quertermous, Thomas; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sandow, Kevin; Shi, Jinxiu; Sun, Liang; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Shu-Pei; Taylor, Kent D; Teo, Yik-Ying; Toh, Sue-Anne; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; van Dam, Rob M; Wang, Aili; Wang, Feijie; Wang, Jie; Wei, Wen Bin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yao, Jie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zhang, Rong; Zhao, Wanting; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Wu, Tangchun; Lin, Xu; Han, Bok-Ghee; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Cho, Yoon Shin; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Jia, Weiping; Jee, Sun-Ha; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Kato, Norihiro; Jonas, Jost B; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shu, Xiao-Ou; He, Jiang; Zheng, Wei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Huang, Wei; Kim, Bong-Jo; Tai, E-Shyong; Mohlke, Karen L; Sim, Xueling

    2017-05-01

    Large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >175 loci associated with fasting cholesterol levels, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). With differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure and allele frequencies between ancestry groups, studies in additional large samples may detect new associations. We conducted staged GWAS meta-analyses in up to 69,414 East Asian individuals from 24 studies with participants from Japan, the Philippines, Korea, China, Singapore, and Taiwan. These meta-analyses identified (P < 5 × 10-8) three novel loci associated with HDL-C near CD163-APOBEC1 (P = 7.4 × 10-9), NCOA2 (P = 1.6 × 10-8), and NID2-PTGDR (P = 4.2 × 10-8), and one novel locus associated with TG near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 2.7 × 10-10). Conditional analyses identified a second signal near CD163-APOBEC1. We then combined results from the East Asian meta-analysis with association results from up to 187,365 European individuals from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium in a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. This analysis identified (log10Bayes Factor ≥6.1) eight additional novel lipid loci. Among the twelve total loci identified, the index variants at eight loci have demonstrated at least nominal significance with other metabolic traits in prior studies, and two loci exhibited coincident eQTLs (P < 1 × 10-5) in subcutaneous adipose tissue for BPTF and PDGFC. Taken together, these analyses identified multiple novel lipid loci, providing new potential therapeutic targets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Low serum levels of High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) as an indicator for the development of severe postpartum depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran Pillai, Raji; Wilson, Anand Babu; Premkumar, Nancy R.; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sagili, Haritha

    2018-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10–20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015). Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05). Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047), whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004). Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:29444162

  15. Identification of a novel polymorphism in X-linked sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (Nsdhl) associated with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in I/LnJ mice.

    PubMed

    Bautz, David J; Broman, Karl W; Threadgill, David W

    2013-10-03

    Loci controlling plasma lipid concentrations were identified by performing a quantitative trait locus analysis on genotypes from 233 mice from a F2 cross between KK/HlJ and I/LnJ, two strains known to differ in their high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When fed a standard diet, HDL cholesterol concentration was affected by two significant loci, the Apoa2 locus on Chromosome (Chr) 1 and a novel locus on Chr X, along with one suggestive locus on Chr 6. Non-HDL concentration also was affected by loci on Chr 1 and X along with a suggestive locus on Chr 3. Additional loci that may be sex-specific were identified for HDL cholesterol on Chr 2, 3, and 4 and for non-HDL cholesterol on Chr 5, 7, and 14. Further investigation into the potential causative gene on Chr X for reduced HDL cholesterol levels revealed a novel, I/LnJ-specific nonsynonymous polymorphism in Nsdhl, which codes for sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Although many lipid quantitative trait locus have been reported previously, these data suggest there are additional genes left to be identified that control lipid levels and that can provide new pharmaceutical targets.

  16. Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-03-01

    Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%) + casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

  17. A pooled analysis of the association of isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2017-07-01

    Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.

  18. [The effects of simvastatin combined with different antioxidant vitamin regimens on serum lipid profile in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels].

    PubMed

    Pirat, Bahar; Korkmaz, Mehmet Emin; Eroğlu, Serpil; Tayfun, Egemen; Yildirir, Aylin; Uluçam, Melek; Ozin, Bülent; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2004-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of simvastatin versus a combination of simvastatin with vitamin C or E on serum lipid profile, particularly, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C) level, in patients with a low HDL-C level. Fifty-nine women and 49 men, who had a baseline HDL-C level equal to or lower than 40 mg/dl were randomized to one of the following study treatment groups: Group S (n=39) simvastatin 20 mg/day, Group S+C (n=33) simvastatin 20 mg/day + vitamin C 500 mg/day, and Group S+E (n=36) simvastatin 20 mg/day + vitamin E 400 IU/day. The groups' lipid profiles were obtained at baseline, 3rd and 6th months. Comparing with baseline values, total-C and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C) values significantly reduced (p<0.001) and HDL-C values significantly increased (Group S--33.9+/-3.9 mg/dl vs. 39.8+/-6.9 mg/dl, Group S+C--34.2+/-3.5 mg/dl vs. 38.1+/-6.1 mg/dl, Group S+E--33.1+/-3.6 mg/dl vs. 34.8+/-5.9 mg/dl, p<0.001) on therapy within the groups; however, there were no significant differences among the groups with regards to these parameters. The HDL-C levels increased from baseline by 14.0%, 11.7% and 10.2% in Group S, S+C, and S+E, respectively (p>0.05). A combination of simvastatin with antioxidant vitamins does not offer any beneficial effect over simvastatin alone. Particularly vitamin E seems to blunt the simvastatin induced HDL-C increase.

  19. Effect of yogurt and bifidus yogurt fortified with skim milk powder, condensed whey and lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey on serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Beena, A; Prasad, V

    1997-08-01

    The possible hypocholesterolaemic properties of milk and fermented milk products have been investigated in groups of albino rats given a basal diet, basal diet plus cholesterol, and basal diet plus cholesterol together with whole milk or standard or bifidus yogurt. The yogurts were fortified with skim milk powder, condensed whey or lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey. After 30 d, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were measured in serum. Whole milk and ordinary yogurt had no hypocholesterolaemic effect, but standard yogurt containing lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey and all bifidus yogurts lowered serum cholesterol. In general, yogurts changed HDL-cholesterol little, but tended to raise triacylglycerols. There was marked lowering of LDL-cholesterol in rats given either type of yogurt fortified with whey proteins. This study has demonstrated in a rat model that bifidus yogurts and yogurts fortified with whey proteins can reduce total and LDL-cholesterol, and suggests that if they have the same effect in human subjects they have potential value in cholesterol-lowering diets.

  20. Eating patterns may mediate the association between marital status, body mass index, and blood cholesterol levels in apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA study.

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pitsavos, Christos; Skoumas, Yannis; Stafanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-06-01

    Marital status has been recognized as a significant health-influencing factor, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate whether eating habits mediate the relationship between marital status and levels of CVD risk factors among apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA Study. During 2001-2002, we randomly enrolled 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) from the Attica area, Greece; the sampling was stratified by the age-gender distribution of the region. Participants underwent clinical, anthropometric and psychological assessment. Food consumption was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified as never married, married, divorced and widowed. Discriminant analysis revealed that vegetable consumption, followed by red meat, potatoes, poultry, and soft drinks were the factors with the higher discriminating ability among the food groups studied. In particular, dietary patterns of never married participants were characterized by the consumption of potatoes and red meat, those of married participants by nuts, legumes and fish, those of divorced participants by fruits, cereals and soft drinks, whereas those of widowed participants by dairy, vegetables, sweets and poultry. In addition, never married and divorced participants reported eating fast-foods more frequently and drink less alcohol compared to married or widowed participants. After controlling for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, physical activity, anxiety score and smoking habits), the reported marital status of the participants was associated only with body mass index and total serum cholesterol levels. When the analysis was repeated after taking into account the information on dietary habits by creating four "new" dietary-adjusted marital status groups, no significant association was revealed between marital status and body mass index and blood cholesterol levels. This finding

  1. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Relates to Working Memory, Immediate and Delayed Cued Recall in Brazilian Older Adults: The Role of Cognitive Reserve.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The present study set out to investigate the relation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. We assessed tests of working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in 701 older adults from Amazonas, Brazil. The HDL-C level was derived from fasting blood samples. In addition, we interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. A critically low HDL-C level (<40 mg/dL) was significantly related to lower performance in working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall. Moderation analyses suggested that the relations of the HDL-C level to working memory and delayed cued recall were negligible in individuals with longer education, a higher cognitive level of the job, and greater engagement in cognitive leisure activity. Cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course may reduce the detrimental influences of a critically low HDL-C level on cognitive functioning in old age. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Receptor mediated elevation in FABP4 levels by advanced glycation end products induces cholesterol and triacylglycerol accumulation in THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Qun; Yang, Ke; He, Yu Song; Lu, Lin; Shen, Wei Feng

    2011-06-01

    Excessive formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and lipid accumulation in macrophages play a pivotal role in the progression of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to determine the molecular link between AGE-induced fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) expression and macrophage lipid accumulation. AGE-BSA markedly increased macrophage FABP4 expression via engagement of RAGE, a 35-kDa transmembrane receptor that is able to bind extracellular AGE and responsible for the corresponding signal transduction, whereas knockdown of RAGE significantly reversed the FABP4 up-regulation. This effect was further paralleled with elevated intracellular total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. Finally, administration of FABP4 inhibitor totally abolished the increased lipid contents in response to AGE-BSA. These results indicate that FABP4 up-regulation is responsible for the enhanced macrophage lipid accumulation by AGE, which may underlie the accelerated formation of foam cells and development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients.

  3. Impact of a high-cholesterol diet on expression levels of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 and intestinal transporters in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Atsushi; Araki, Yasuha; Ueda, Yukiko; Nakazaki, Sayaka; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5, and ABCG8 are all involved in intestinal cholesterol absorption. It is unclear whether a high-cholesterol (HC) diet affects the expression of these transporters in rats and mice as well as humans. We examined the effects of an HC diet on their expression in small intestine and the differences between rats and mice in the responsive of this expression to an HC diet. In addition to these transporters, alterations in six representative drug and nutrient transporters (multidrug resistance-associated protein, breast cancer resistance protein, peptide transporter, sodium-glucose linked transporter, glucose transporter, and L-type amino acid transporter) and transcriptional factors such as hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)4α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)2, and liver X receptor (LXR)α were determined. In rats and mice fed an HC diet for 7 days, the mRNA and protein levels of NPC1L1 in the small intestine were determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The mRNA levels of ABCG5 and ABCG8, six representative transporters, and transcriptional factors such as HNF4α, SREBP2, and LXR were examined. Significant decreases in the expression levels of NPC1L1 were observed in mice, but not rats, fed the HC diet. The mRNA levels of ABCG5 and ABCG8 were significantly increased in HC rats but not in mice. Only minor changes in the mRNA levels of the other transporters were seen in HC rats and mice. Decreased mRNA levels of HNF4α and SREBP2 in mice could be involved in the reduction in NPC1L1 expression observed upon the introduction of an HC diet. These results indicate that the effects of an HC diet on the expression levels of NPC1L1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 differ between mice and rats.

  4. Identification of Sequence Variation in the Apolipoprotein A2 Gene and Their Relationship with Serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Bandarian, Fatemeh; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Hedayati, Mehdi; Naseri, Mohsen; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) is the second major apolipoprotein of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The study aim was to identify APOA2 gene variation in individuals within two extreme tails of HDL-C levels and its relationship with HDL-C level. This cross-sectional survey was conducted on participants from Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study (TLGS) at Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2013. In total, 79 individuals with extreme low HDL-C levels (≤5th percentile for age and gender) and 63 individuals with extreme high HDL-C levels (≥95th percentile for age and gender) were selected. Variants were identified using DNA amplification and direct sequencing. Screen of all exons and the core promoter region of APOA2 gene identified nine single nucleotide substitutions and one microsatellite; five of which were known and four were new variants. Of these nine variants, two were common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven were rare SNPs. Both exonic substitutions were missense mutations and caused an amino acid change. There was a significant association between the new missense mutation (variant Chr.1:16119226, Ala98Pro) and HDL-C level. None of two common tag SNPs of rs6413453 and rs5082 contributes to the HDL-C trait in Iranian population, but a new missense mutation in APOA2 in our population has a significant association with HDL-C.

  5. Effect of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods given at 2 levels of intensity of dietary advice on serum lipids in hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoit; Kendall, Cyril W C; Faulkner, Dorothea; Cermakova, Luba; Gigleux, Iris; Ramprasath, Vanu; de Souza, Russell; Ireland, Chris; Patel, Darshna; Srichaikul, Korbua; Abdulnour, Shahad; Bashyam, Balachandran; Collier, Cheryl; Hoshizaki, Sandy; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Connelly, Philip W; Frohlich, Jiri

    2011-08-24

    Combining foods with recognized cholesterol-lowering properties (dietary portfolio) has proven highly effective in lowering serum cholesterol under metabolically controlled conditions. To assess the effect of a dietary portfolio administered at 2 levels of intensity on percentage change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) among participants following self-selected diets. A parallel-design study of 351 participants with hyperlipidemia from 4 participating academic centers across Canada (Quebec City, Toronto, Winnipeg, and Vancouver) randomized between June 25, 2007, and February 19, 2009, to 1 of 3 treatments lasting 6 months. Participants received dietary advice for 6 months on either a low-saturated fat therapeutic diet (control) or a dietary portfolio, for which counseling was delivered at different frequencies, that emphasized dietary incorporation of plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and nuts. Routine dietary portfolio involved 2 clinic visits over 6 months and intensive dietary portfolio involved 7 clinic visits over 6 months. Percentage change in serum LDL-C. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis of 345 participants, the overall attrition rate was not significantly different between treatments (18% for intensive dietary portfolio, 23% for routine dietary portfolio, and 26% for control; Fisher exact test, P = .33). The LDL-C reductions from an overall mean of 171 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 168-174 mg/dL) were -13.8% (95% CI, -17.2% to -10.3%; P < .001) or -26 mg/dL (95% CI, -31 to -21 mg/dL; P < .001) for the intensive dietary portfolio; -13.1% (95% CI, -16.7% to -9.5%; P < .001) or -24 mg/dL (95% CI, -30 to -19 mg/dL; P < .001) for the routine dietary portfolio; and -3.0% (95% CI, -6.1% to 0.1%; P = .06) or -8 mg/dL (95% CI, -13 to -3 mg/dL; P = .002) for the control diet. Percentage LDL-C reductions for each dietary portfolio were significantly more than the control diet (P < .001, respectively). The 2 dietary portfolio

  6. Butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA prevents hyperinsulinemia and increases both serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; Santos da Conceição, Ellen Paula; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Lopes, Fernando César Ferraz; Garcia, Raúl Marcel González

    2014-12-22

    Evidence from in vitro and animal studies indicates that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) possesses anti-diabetic properties, which appear to be attributed to cis-9, trans-11 CLA, the major CLA isomer in ruminant fat. However, there is a shortage of studies addressing CLA from natural source. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA on parameters related to glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: 1) Normal fat-Soybean oil (NF-So): diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); 2) High Fat-Control Butter (HF-Cb): diet containing 21.7% control butter and 2.3% SO; 3) High Fat-CLA enriched Butter (HF-CLAb): diet containing 21.7% cis-9, trans-11 CLA-enriched butter and 2.3% SO; and 4) High fat-Soybean oil (HF-So): diet containing 24.0% SO. HF-Cb and HF-CLAb diets contained 0.075% and 0.235% of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, respectively. HF-CLAb-fed rats had lower serum insulin levels at fasting than those fed with the HF-Cb diet, while the PPARγ protein levels in adipose tissue was increased in HF-CLAb-fed rats compared to HF-Cb-fed rats. Furthermore, R-QUICK was lower in HF-Cb than in NF-So group, while no differences in R-QUICK were observed among NF-So, HF-CLAb and HF-So groups. Serum HDL cholesterol levels were higher in HF-CLAb-fed rats than in those fed NF-So, HF-Cb and HF-So diets, as well as higher in NF-So-fed rats than in HF-Cb and HF-So-fed rats. HF-CLAb, HF-Cb and HF-So diets reduced serum LDL cholesterol levels when compared to NF-So, whereas serum triacylglycerol levels were increased in HF-CLAb. Feeding rats on a high-fat diet containing butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA prevented hyperinsulinemia and increased HDL cholesterol, which could be associated with higher levels of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and lower levels of short and medium

  7. Novel association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children with high prevalence of obesity.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Meléndez, Marco Alberto; Galindo-Gómez, Carlos; Juárez-Martínez, Liliana; Gómez, F Enrique; Diaz-Diaz, Eulises; Ávila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Ávila-Curiel, Abelardo

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a disorder that includes a cluster of several risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene has been associated with low HDL-cholesterol in several studies, but its association with MetS in children remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the R230C variant with MetS and other metabolic traits in school-aged Mexican children. The study was performed in seven urban primary schools in the State of Mexico. Four hundred thirty-two Mexican school-age children 6-13 years old were recruited. MetS was identified using the International Diabetes Federation definition. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene was genotyped to seek associations with MetS and other metabolic traits. The prevalence of MetS was 29% in children aged 10-13 years. The R230C variant was not associated with MetS (OR = 1.65; p = 0.139). Furthermore, in the whole population, the R230C variant was associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels (β coefficient = -3.28, p <0.001). Interestingly, in the total population we found a novel association of this variant with high triglyceride levels (β coefficient = 14.34; p = 0.027). We found a new association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels. Our findings also replicate the association of this variant with low HDL-cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cholesterol metabolism and serum non-cholesterol sterols: summary of 13 plant stanol ester interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The efficacy and safety of plant stanols added to food products as serum cholesterol lowering agents have been demonstrated convincingly, but their effects on cholesterol metabolism and on serum non-cholesterol sterols is less evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of serum non-cholesterol sterols and squalene as bioindices of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, and to examine how the individual serum non-cholesterol sterols respond to consumption of plant stanols. Methods We collected all randomized, controlled plant stanol ester (STAEST) interventions in which serum cholestanol, plant sterols campesterol and sitosterol, and at least two serum cholesterol precursors had been analysed. According to these criteria, there was a total of 13 studies (total 868 subjects without lipid-lowering medication; plant stanol doses varied from 0.8 to 8.8 g/d added in esterified form; the duration of the studies varied from 4 to 52 weeks). Serum non-cholesterol sterols were assayed with gas–liquid chromatography, cholesterol synthesis with the sterol balance technique, and fractional cholesterol absorption with the dual continuous isotope feeding method. Results The results demonstrated that during the control and the STAEST periods, the serum plant sterol/cholesterol- and the cholestanol/cholesterol-ratios reflected fractional cholesterol absorption, and the precursor sterol/cholesterol-ratios reflected cholesterol synthesis. Plant sterol levels were dose-dependently reduced by STAEST so that 2 g of plant stanols reduced serum campesterol/cholesterol-ratio on average by 32%. Serum cholestanol/cholesterol-ratio was reduced less frequently than those of the plant sterols by STAEST, and the cholesterol precursor sterol ratios did not change consistently in the individual studies emphasizing the importance of monitoring more than one surrogate serum marker. Conclusions Serum non-cholesterol sterols are valid markers of cholesterol absorption

  9. Cholesterol metabolism and serum non-cholesterol sterols: summary of 13 plant stanol ester interventions.

    PubMed

    Hallikainen, Maarit; Simonen, Piia; Gylling, Helena

    2014-04-27

    The efficacy and safety of plant stanols added to food products as serum cholesterol lowering agents have been demonstrated convincingly, but their effects on cholesterol metabolism and on serum non-cholesterol sterols is less evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of serum non-cholesterol sterols and squalene as bioindices of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, and to examine how the individual serum non-cholesterol sterols respond to consumption of plant stanols. We collected all randomized, controlled plant stanol ester (STAEST) interventions in which serum cholestanol, plant sterols campesterol and sitosterol, and at least two serum cholesterol precursors had been analysed. According to these criteria, there was a total of 13 studies (total 868 subjects without lipid-lowering medication; plant stanol doses varied from 0.8 to 8.8 g/d added in esterified form; the duration of the studies varied from 4 to 52 weeks). Serum non-cholesterol sterols were assayed with gas-liquid chromatography, cholesterol synthesis with the sterol balance technique, and fractional cholesterol absorption with the dual continuous isotope feeding method. The results demonstrated that during the control and the STAEST periods, the serum plant sterol/cholesterol- and the cholestanol/cholesterol-ratios reflected fractional cholesterol absorption, and the precursor sterol/cholesterol-ratios reflected cholesterol synthesis. Plant sterol levels were dose-dependently reduced by STAEST so that 2 g of plant stanols reduced serum campesterol/cholesterol-ratio on average by 32%. Serum cholestanol/cholesterol-ratio was reduced less frequently than those of the plant sterols by STAEST, and the cholesterol precursor sterol ratios did not change consistently in the individual studies emphasizing the importance of monitoring more than one surrogate serum marker. Serum non-cholesterol sterols are valid markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis even during cholesterol

  10. Free cholesterol and cholesterol esters in bovine oocytes: Implications in survival and membrane raft organization after cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Glenda L.; Canizo, Jesica R.; Antollini, Silvia S.; Alberio, Ricardo H.

    2017-01-01

    Part of the damage caused by cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes occurs at the plasma membrane. The addition of cholesterol to cell membranes as a strategy to make it more tolerant to cryopreservation has been little addressed in oocytes. In order to increase the survival of bovine oocytes after cryopreservation, we proposed not only to increase cholesterol level of oocyte membranes before vitrification but also to remove the added cholesterol after warming, thus recovering its original level. Results from our study showed that modulation of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) did not affect the apoptotic status of oocytes and improved viability after vitrification yielding levels of apoptosis closer to those of fresh oocytes. Fluorometric measurements based on an enzyme-coupled reaction that detects both free cholesterol (membrane) and cholesteryl esters (stored in lipid droplets), revealed that oocytes and cumulus cells present different levels of cholesterol depending on the seasonal period. Variations at membrane cholesterol level of oocytes were enough to account for the differences found in total cholesterol. Differences found in total cholesterol of cumulus cells were explained by the differences found in both the content of membrane cholesterol and of cholesterol esters. Cholesterol was incorporated into the oocyte plasma membrane as evidenced by comparative labeling of a fluorescent cholesterol. Oocytes and cumulus cells increased membrane cholesterol after incubation with MβCD/cholesterol and recovered their original level after cholesterol removal, regardless of the season. Finally, we evaluated the effect of vitrification on the putative raft molecule GM1. Cholesterol modulation also preserved membrane organization by maintaining ganglioside level at the plasma membrane. Results suggest a distinctive cholesterol metabolic status of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) among seasons and a dynamic organizational structure of cholesterol

  11. Black pepper and piperine reduce cholesterol uptake and enhance translocation of cholesterol transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Praputbut, Sakonwun; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2013-04-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) lowers blood lipids in vivo and inhibits cholesterol uptake in vitro, and piperine may mediate these effects. To test this, the present study aimed to compare actions of black pepper extract and piperine on (1) cholesterol uptake and efflux in Caco-2 cells, (2) the membrane/cytosol distribution of cholesterol transport proteins in these cells, and (3) the physicochemical properties of cholesterol micelles. Piperine or black pepper extract (containing the same amount of piperine) dose-dependently reduced cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells in a similar manner. Both preparations reduced the membrane levels of NPC1L1 and SR-BI proteins but not their overall cellular expression. Micellar cholesterol solubility of lipid micelles was unaffected except by 1 mg/mL concentration of black pepper extract. These data suggest that piperine is the active compound in black pepper and reduces cholesterol uptake by internalizing the cholesterol transporter proteins.

  12. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Deelen, Joris; Isaacs, Aaron; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mbarek, Hamdi; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Trompet, Stella; Postmus, Iris; Verweij, Niek; van Enckevort, David J.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; White, Charles C.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Bartz, Traci M.; Manichaikul, Ani; Joshi, Peter K.; Peloso, Gina M.; Deelen, Patrick; van Dijk, Freerk; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Francioli, Laurent C.; Menelaou, Androniki; Pulit, Sara L.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Uh, Hae-Won; Trochet, Holly; Hocking, Lynne J.; Porteous, David J.; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Bis, Joshua C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Campbell, Harry; Duan, Qing; Lange, Leslie A.; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F.; Rich, Stephen S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Stott, David J.; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Neerincx, Pieter B.T.; Elbers, Clara C.; Francesco Palamara, Pier; Pe'er, Itsik; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; van Oven, Mannis; Vermaat, Martijn; Li, Mingkun; Laros, Jeroen F.J.; Stoneking, Mark; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Byelas, Heorhiy; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Dijkstra, Martijn; Amin, Najaf; Joeri van der Velde, K.; van Setten, Jessica; Kattenberg, Mathijs; van Schaik, Barbera D.C.; Bot, Jan; Nijman, Isaäc J.; Mei, Hailiang; Koval, Vyacheslav; Ye, Kai; Lameijer, Eric-Wubbo; Moed, Matthijs H.; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Sohail, Mashaal; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Marschall, Tobias; Schönhuth, Alexander; Guryev, Victor; Suchiman, H. Eka D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Platteel, Mathieu; Pitts, Steven J.; Potluri, Shobha; Cox, David R.; Li, Qibin; Li, Yingrui; Du, Yuanping; Chen, Ruoyan; Cao, Hongzhi; Li, Ning; Cao, Sujie; Wang, Jun; Bovenberg, Jasper A.; Jukema, J. Wouter; van der Harst, Pim; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Eline Slagboom, P.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Variants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (~35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference panel created by the Genome of the Netherlands Project and perform association testing with blood lipid levels. We report the discovery of five novel associations at four loci (P value <6.61 × 10−4), including a rare missense variant in ABCA6 (rs77542162, p.Cys1359Arg, frequency 0.034), which is predicted to be deleterious. The frequency of this ABCA6 variant is 3.65-fold increased in the Dutch and its effect (βLDL-C=0.135, βTC=0.140) is estimated to be very similar to those observed for single variants in well-known lipid genes, such as LDLR. PMID:25751400

  13. The Effect of Residing Altitude on Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Pilot Study From the Omani Arab Population.

    PubMed

    Al Riyami, Nafila B; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Al-Waili, Khalid; Rizvi, Syed G; Al-Yahyaee, Said; Hassan, Mohammed O; Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Bayoumi, Riad A

    2015-07-01

    Lower mortality rates from coronary heart disease and higher levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been observed in populations residing at high altitude. However, this effect has not been investigated in Arab populations, which exhibit considerable genetic homogeneity. We assessed the relationship between residing altitude and HDL-C in 2 genetically similar Omani Arab populations residing at different altitudes. The association between the levels of HDL-C and other metabolic parameters was also investigated. The levels of HDL-C were significantly higher in the high-altitude group compared with the low-altitude group. Stepwise regression analysis showed that altitude was the most significant factor affecting HDL-C, followed by gender, serum triglycerides, and finally the 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose. This finding is consistent with previously published studies from other populations and should be taken into consideration when comparing cardiovascular risk factors in populations residing at different altitudes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Lower levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with a worse Duke treadmill score in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Erkan, A F; Ekici, B; Demir, G G; Töre, H F

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely related to the atherosclerotic burden and are higher in women than in men. We aimed to investigate the sex-specific relationship between serum HDL-C levels and the Duke treadmill score (DTS) in this study. A total of 111 patients (59 men, 42 women) with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent exercise treadmill test (EST) were included. Fasting blood samples were obtained for the assessment of serum lipid levels. DTS was calculated for each patient based on EST findings including ST segment deviation and symptoms. Patients were categorized into a moderate to high risk group based on the DTS score (group-I: 38 patients) and a low risk group (group-II: 63 patients). There was a significant positive correlation between serum HDL-C levels and DTS (r = 0.230; P=0.021). The mean HDL-C level was significantly higher in group-II relative to group-I (49.25 ±11.21 vs. 44.43 ± 11.18, respectively, P = 0.04). An HDL-C level less than the cut-off value of 41.39 mg/dL predicted a moderate to severe risk DTS with 65% sensitivity and 69% specificity in men (area under curve = 0.732, P = 0.004), but not in women (area under curve = 0.505, P = 0.958). After adjustment for traditional CAD risk factors (age, sex, and smoking status), the relationship of DTS to HDL-C remained significant. (P = 0.030; adjusted OR = 0.948 [95% CI, 0.904-0.995]). Low HDL-C levels may be associated with a moderate to high risk Duke treadmill score in men, but not in women. Further research is required to clarify the sex-specific relationship between HDL-C and DTS.

  15. The effect of ezetimibe-statin combination on steroid hormone production in men with coronary artery disease and low cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kowalska, Beata; Żmuda, Witold; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-04-01

    Aggressive statin treatment was found to slightly reduce testosterone production. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ezetimibe-statin combination and high-dose statin therapy on testicular and adrenal cortex function in men with LDL cholesterol levels below 70 mg/dL. The study included 26 adult men with coronary artery disease. Twelve of these patients did not tolerate high-dose statin therapy and were treated with lower doses of a statin plus ezetimibe. Fourteen patients tolerating high-dose simvastatin or rosuvastatin treatment continued high-dose statin therapy throughout the study period. Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers and plasma levels of testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, sex hormone-binding globulin, gonadotropins and ACTH, as well as urine free cortisol were assessed at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment. Replacing high-dose statin therapy with ezetimibe/statin combination therapy reduced plasma levels of LH by 32% (p=0.043), as well as increased plasma levels of testosterone by 20% (p=0.038). Ezetimibe/statin combination did not induce any significant changes in plasma levels or urine excretion of the remaining hormones. At the end of the study, plasma LH levels were higher, while plasma testosterone levels were lower in patients receiving the combination therapy than in those treated only with high-dose statin. Our results indicate that ezetimibe combined with moderate statin dose exerts a less pronounced effect on testicular function in comparison with high-dose statin therapy. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after discharge for acute myocardial infarction in a real-world patient population.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Tang, Fengming; Zhao, Zhenxiang; McCollam, Patrick L; Birt, Julie; Spertus, John A

    2014-06-01

    Aggressively managing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) after myocardial infarction (MI) is a cornerstone of secondary prevention. The changes in LDL-C after MI and the factors associated with LDL-C levels are unknown. Therefore, we directly measured fasting LDL-C levels in 797 MI patients from 24 US hospitals from 2005 to 2008. Mean LDL-C levels at discharge, 1 month, and 6 months were 95.1, 81.9, and 87.1 mg/dL, respectively. In a hierarchical, multivariable, repeated measures model, older age, male sex, and hypertension were associated with lower LDL-C levels, whereas self-reported avoidance of health care because of cost was associated with higher LDL-C. Both the presence and intensity of statin therapy at discharge were strongly associated with LDL-C levels, with adjusted mean 6-month changes of -3.4 mg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): -12.1, 5.3) for no statins; 1.7 mg/dL (95% CI: -4.7, 8.1) for low statins; -10.2 mg/dL (95% CI: -14.5, -6.0) for moderate statins; and -13.9 mg/dL (95% CI: -19.7, -8.0) for intensive statins (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that greater reductions in LDL-C levels after MI were strongly associated with the presence and intensity of statin therapy, older age, male sex, hypertension, and better socioeconomic status. These findings support the use of intensive statin therapy in post-MI patients and provide estimates of the expected LDL-C changes after MI in a real-world population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The -1535 promoter variant of the visfatin gene is associated with serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Ayumi; Miura, Atsuko; Okauchi, Yukiyoshi; Segawa, Katsumori; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Okita, Kohei; Takahashi, Masahiko; Funahashi, Tohru; Miyagawa, Jun-Ichiro; Shimomura, Iichiro; Yamagata, Kazuya

    2008-03-01

    Visfatin is a novel adipocytokine that is expressed by the visceral fat cells. We investigated the role of genetic variation in the visfatin gene in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and clinical variables in Japanese subjects. The 11 exons, and the promoter region of the visfatin gene were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by PCR-direct sequencing. We found SNPs in the promoter region (SNP - 1535T>C), exon 2 (SNP + 131C>G, Thr44Arg), and exon 7 (SNP + 903G>A). The allele and genotype frequencies of these SNPs showed no significant differences between 200-448 diabetic and 200-333 control subjects. However, the -1535T/T genotype was associated with lower serum triglyceride levels (T/T vs. T/C + C/C (p = 0.015) and T/T vs. C/C (p = 0.043)) and higher HDL-cholesterol levels (T/T vs. C/C, p = 0.0496) in the nondiabetic subjects. Reporter gene assay of 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed that the promoter activity of -1535T and -1535C was similar, suggesting that the observed association may reflect linkage disequilibrium between -1535T>C and causative variations of the visfatin gene.

  18. Step by Step: Eating To Lower Your High Blood Cholesterol. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet offers advice for adults who want to lower their blood cholesterol level. The first section, "What You Need To Know about High Blood Cholesterol," discusses blood cholesterol and why it matters, what cholesterol numbers mean, and what affects blood cholesterol levels. Section 2, "What You Need To Do To Lower Blood…

  19. Identification of Sequence Variation in the Apolipoprotein A2 Gene and Their Relationship with Serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bandarian, Fatemeh; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Hedayati, Mehdi; Naseri, Mohsen; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) is the second major apolipoprotein of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The study aim was to identify APOA2 gene variation in individuals within two extreme tails of HDL-C levels and its relationship with HDL-C level. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on participants from Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study (TLGS) at Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2013. In total, 79 individuals with extreme low HDL-C levels (≤5th percentile for age and gender) and 63 individuals with extreme high HDL-C levels (≥95th percentile for age and gender) were selected. Variants were identified using DNA amplification and direct sequencing. Results: Screen of all exons and the core promoter region of APOA2 gene identified nine single nucleotide substitutions and one microsatellite; five of which were known and four were new variants. Of these nine variants, two were common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven were rare SNPs. Both exonic substitutions were missense mutations and caused an amino acid change. There was a significant association between the new missense mutation (variant Chr.1:16119226, Ala98Pro) and HDL-C level. Conclusion: None of two common tag SNPs of rs6413453 and rs5082 contributes to the HDL-C trait in Iranian population, but a new missense mutation in APOA2 in our population has a significant association with HDL-C. PMID:26590203

  20. Cholesterol and Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, E. J.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    There is a widespread belief among the public and even among chemist that plants do not contain cholesterol. This wrong belief is the result of the fact that plants generally contain only small quantities of cholesterol and that analytical methods for the detection of cholesterol in this range were not developed until recently.

  1. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  2. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  3. Characteristics of human hypo- and hyperresponders to dietary cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Katan, M B; Beynen, A C

    1987-03-01

    The characteristics of people whose serum cholesterol level is unusually susceptible to consumption of cholesterol were investigated. Thirty-two volunteers from the general population of Wageningen, the Netherlands, each participated in three controlled dietary trials in 1982. A low-cholesterol diet was fed during the first half and a high-cholesterol diet during the second half of each trial, and the change (response) of serum cholesterol was measured. The responses in the three trials were averaged to give each subject's mean responsiveness. Fecal excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites were measured in the second trial, and body cholesterol synthesis was calculated. Responsiveness showed a positive correlation with serum high density lipoprotein2 (HDL2) cholesterol (r = 0.41, p less than 0.05) and with serum total cholesterol level on a high-cholesterol diet (r = 0.31, p = 0.09). A negative relation was found with habitual cholesterol consumption (r = -0.62, p less than 0.01), with body mass index (r = -0.50, p less than 0.01), and with the rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r = -0.40, p less than 0.05), but not with the reaction of endogenous cholesterol synthesis rate to an increased intake of cholesterol. No relation was found with age, sex, total caloric needs, or the ratio of primary to secondary fecal steroids. Upon multiple regression analysis, only habitual cholesterol intake and serum total and HDL2 cholesterol levels contributed significantly to the explanation of variance in responsiveness. Thus, a low habitual cholesterol intake, a high serum HDL2 cholesterol level, or a low body weight do not make one less susceptible to dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  4. Phenolics from Winemaking By-Products Better Decrease VLDL-Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Levels than Those of Red Wine in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Walkia Polliana; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Marques, Valquíria Fernanda; Dos Santos, Ieda Maria; Magalhães, Kedma; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Negro-Dellacqua, Melissa; Miranda, Maria Spínola; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Winemaking by-products account for more than 30% of the grape production, but this inexpensive feedstock has not yet been fully exploited. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential biological activity of winemaking by-products produced with Syrah grapes in comparison with those of the wine produced using the same grape cultivar. Winemaking by-products showed higher contents of total anthocyanins, flavonols, stilbenes, and flavanols than red wine as evaluated by HPLC-DAD-FD (on a dry weight basis). In contrast, red wine was a better source of phenolic acids. However, the contribution of phenolic acids was minor for both samples. Furthermore, equivalent concentration of winemaking by-products (100 mg/kg/d) showed greater biological activity by than that of red wine by decreasing the levels of VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in Wistar rats. Therefore, this study supports the use of winemaking by-products as an economical source of bioactive phenolics with potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Accommodation to wavefront vergence and chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B; Li, James S; Lin, Peter L; Stark, Lawrence R

    2011-05-01

    Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In this study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less.

  6. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  7. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  8. Effect of long-term physical activity on PCSK9, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) levels: a prospective observational trial

    PubMed

    Sponder, Michael; Campean, Ioana-Alexandra; Dalos, Daniel; Emich, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Litschauer, Brigitte; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Graf, Senta; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2017-08-09

    INTRODUCTION    Since proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors were introduced to the market, the interest in PCSK9 metabolism has increased dramatically. OBJECTIVES    We investigated prospectively the influence of long-term physical activity on PCSK9, highand low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C, respectively), and lipoprotein(a) levels [Lp(a)]. PATIENTS AND METHODS    A total of 109 participants were recruited and instructed to increase their sport pensum by 75 min/wk of vigorous-intensity or 150 min/wk of moderate-intensity endurance training (or a mixture) within the calculated training pulse for 8 months. Stress tests were performed at baseline and at the end of the study to prove and quantify the performance gain. PCSK9 levels were measured at baseline and after 2, 6, and 8 months by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HDL-C, LDL-C, and Lp(a) levels were measured at baseline and every 2 months. RESULTS    The final study sample included 79 subjects, who showed a mean performance gain of 11.4%. Mean (SD) PCSK9 and HDL-C levels increased significantly from 224.7 (66.8) ng/ml to 243.4 (84.0) ng/ml (P = 0.04) and 58.3 (18.4) mg/dl to 61.1 (18.5) mg/dl (P = 0.014), respectively. Mean (SD) LDL-C levels decreased significantly from 115.0 (33.4) mg/dl to 109.8 (31.7) mg/dl (P = 0.04), but there was no significant change in mean (SD) Lp(a) levels: 37.9 (51.9) nmol/l to 43.3 (60.6) nmol/l; P = 0.218. CONCLUSIONS    Our study showed a decrease in LDL-C levels induced by a long-term physical activity with a simultaneous increase in PCSK9 levels. PCSK9 is essential in lipid metabolism and should not be basically considered as harmful. It is possible that a certain amount of PCSK9 is beneficial to ensure an adequate lipid supply.

  9. Effects of long term feeding of Quillaja saponins on sex ratio, muscle and serum cholesterol and LH levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L)).

    PubMed

    Francis, George; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Avitan, Ayelet; Becker, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    Seventeen-day-old Nile tilapia fry were fed a standard diet (C) or diets containing 50-700 mg kg(-1) Quillaja saponin (QS) extract (groups S50, S150, S300, S500 and S700). After the first 8 weeks, 30 randomly selected tilapia from each of the treatments were placed in separate aquaria and fed the standard diet without saponins from then on (these were designated S50/C, S150/C, S300/C, S500/C and S700/C). The fish grew from an initial average weight of approximately 30 mg to a final average weight of 79 g during the 6-month feeding period. The difference between the average weight of C-fed tilapia and the treatment with the highest average weight after 6 months was 53.5%. The sex ratio of tilapia in the saponin-fed groups deviated from the normal 50:50 male:female ratio, with the S700 group showing a significantly higher number of males. Quillaja saponin stimulated LH release from dispersed tilapia pituitary cells in vitro. This effect was abolished in the presence of dilute calf serum. Serum LH values did not show any diet-dependent trend in either male or female tilapia in vivo. In both continuously saponin-fed and only-initially saponin-fed groups, the average serum (but not muscle) cholesterol levels in males showed an increasing trend (R(2) values of 0.62 and 0.69) with increasing dietary saponin level. It was concluded that dietary QS has the potential to change the sex-ratio in favour of males. More investigations are required to determine the mechanism of action and the optimum dietary level of QS for maximum effects.

  10. Prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes, among men with metabolic aberrations.

    PubMed

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-11-01

    Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected from 285,040 men. Risks of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes were calculated by use of competing risk analysis for men with normal (bottom 84%) and high (top 16%) levels of each factor, and a composite score. During a mean follow-up period of 12 years, 5,893 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 1,013 died of prostate cancer, and 26,328 died of other causes. After 1996, when prostate-specific antigen testing was introduced, men up to age 80 years with normal metabolic levels had 13% risk of prostate cancer, 2% risk of prostate cancer death, and 30% risk of death from other causes, whereas men with metabolic aberrations had corresponding risks of 11%, 2%, and 44%. In contrast to recent studies using conventional survival analysis, in a real-world scenario taking risk of competing events into account, men with metabolic aberrations had lower risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, similar risk of prostate cancer death, and substantially higher risk of death from other causes compared with men who had normal metabolic levels.

  11. Effects of a New Nutraceutical Formulation (Berberine, Red Yeast Rice and Chitosan) on Non-HDL Cholesterol Levels in Individuals with Dyslipidemia: Results from a Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Spigoni, Valentina; Antonini, Monica; Micheli, Maria Maddalena; Fantuzzi, Federica; Fratter, Andrea; Pellizzato, Marzia; Derlindati, Eleonora; Zavaroni, Ivana; Bonadonna, Riccardo C.; Dei Cas, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Increased non high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are independent risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) mortality with no documented threshold. A new combination of nutraceuticals (berberine 200 mg, monacolin K 3 mg, chitosan 10 mg and coenzyme Q 10 mg) with additive lipid-lowering properties has become available. The aim of the study is to test the efficacy of the nutraceutical formulation (one daily) in lowering non-HDL cholesterol vs. placebo at 12 weeks in individuals with non-HDL-cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dL. 39 subjects (age 52 ± 11 years; 54% females; body mass index 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized (3:1) in a double blind phase II placebo-controlled study. At baseline, 4 and 12 weeks main clinical/biohumoral parameters, pro-inflammatory cytokines, (gut)-hormones, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number were assessed. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups. The intervention significantly decreased non-HDL cholesterol (−30 ± 20 mg/dL; p = 0.012), LDL cholesterol (−31 ± 18 mg/dL, p = 0.011) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B (−14 ± 12 mg/dL, p = 0.030) levels compared to the placebo. Pro-inflammatory, hormonal, PCSK9 and EPC levels remained stable throughout the study in both groups. The intervention was well tolerated. Three adverse events occurred: Epstein Barr virus infection, duodenitis and asymptomatic but significant increase in creatine phosphokinase (following intense physical exercise) which required hospitalization. The tested nutraceutical formulation may represent a possible therapeutic strategy in dyslipidemic individuals in primary prevention. PMID:28704936

  12. Effects of a New Nutraceutical Formulation (Berberine, Red Yeast Rice and Chitosan) on Non-HDL Cholesterol Levels in Individuals with Dyslipidemia: Results from a Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Spigoni, Valentina; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Antonini, Monica; Micheli, Maria Maddalena; Fantuzzi, Federica; Fratter, Andrea; Pellizzato, Marzia; Derlindati, Eleonora; Zavaroni, Ivana; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Dei Cas, Alessandra

    2017-07-12

    Increased non high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are independent risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) mortality with no documented threshold. A new combination of nutraceuticals (berberine 200 mg, monacolin K 3 mg, chitosan 10 mg and coenzyme Q 10 mg) with additive lipid-lowering properties has become available. The aim of the study is to test the efficacy of the nutraceutical formulation (one daily) in lowering non-HDL cholesterol vs. placebo at 12 weeks in individuals with non-HDL-cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dL. 39 subjects (age 52 ± 11 years; 54% females; body mass index 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomized (3:1) in a double blind phase II placebo-controlled study. At baseline, 4 and 12 weeks main clinical/biohumoral parameters, pro-inflammatory cytokines, (gut)-hormones, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number were assessed. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups. The intervention significantly decreased non-HDL cholesterol (-30 ± 20 mg/dL; p = 0.012), LDL cholesterol (-31 ± 18 mg/dL, p = 0.011) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B (-14 ± 12 mg/dL, p = 0.030) levels compared to the placebo. Pro-inflammatory, hormonal, PCSK9 and EPC levels remained stable throughout the study in both groups. The intervention was well tolerated. Three adverse events occurred: Epstein Barr virus infection, duodenitis and asymptomatic but significant increase in creatine phosphokinase (following intense physical exercise) which required hospitalization. The tested nutraceutical formulation may represent a possible therapeutic strategy in dyslipidemic individuals in primary prevention.

  13. Effects of very-low-carbohydrate (horsemeat- or beef-based) diets and restricted feeding on weight gain, feed and energy efficiency, as well as serum levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin and ketone bodies in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Youn; Yang, Young-Hoon; Kim, Choong-Nam; Lee, Chong-Eon; Kim, Kyu-Il

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial or harmful effect of the low-carbohydrate (low-carb), high-protein, high-fat diet (Atkins diet) has not been clearly demonstrated. We determined the effect of a low-carb diet and restricted feeding (70% ad libitum intake) on serum levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, ketone bodies and insulin in rats. In experiment 1, each of 4 groups with 10 adult rats was assigned to a high-carb diet (AIN-93G) + ad libitum intake or restricted feeding, or a low-carb diet (53% horsemeat) + ad libitum intake or restricted feeding (2 x 2 factorial). In experiment 2, each of 3 groups with 10 adult rats was assigned to a control (AIN-93G) or low-carb diets (53% beef or horsemeat). Restricted feeding and the low-carb diet reduced (p<0.01) serum triacylglycerol compared with ad libitum intake and the AIN-93G diet, respectively (experiment 1). The dietary effect on serum total cholesterol, high-density or low-density lipid cholesterol appeared to be inconsistent, but restricted feeding increased the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The serum ketone body level was increased by the low-carb diet compared with AIN-93G (experiment 2). Restricted feeding and a low-carb diet are beneficial for alleviating cardiovascular disease risk factors, and their effects are additive, restricted feeding being more pronounced. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Cholesterol efflux is differentially regulated in neurons and astrocytes: implications for brain cholesterol homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Kusumo, Handojo; Costa, Lucio G.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with neurological, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The CNS is a closed system with regard to cholesterol homeostasis, as cholesterol-delivering lipoproteins from the periphery cannot pass the blood-brain-barrier and enter the brain. Different cell types in the brain have different functions in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, with astrocytes producing and releasing apolipoprotein E and lipoproteins, and neurons metabolizing cholesterol to 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol. We present evidence that astrocytes and neurons adopt different mechanisms also in regulating cholesterol efflux. We found that in astrocytes cholesterol efflux is induced by both lipid-free apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, while cholesterol removal from neurons is triggered only by lipoproteins. The main pathway by which apolipoproteins induce cholesterol efflux is through ABCA1. By upregulating ABCA1 levels and by inhibiting its activity and silencing its expression, we show that ABCA1 is involved in cholesterol efflux from astrocytes but not from neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest that ABCG1 is involved in cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteins and lipoproteins from astrocytes but not from neurons, while ABCG4, whose expression is much higher in neurons than astrocytes, is involved in cholesterol efflux from neurons but not astrocytes. These results indicate that different mechanisms regulate cholesterol efflux from neurons and astrocytes, reflecting the different roles that these cell types play in brain cholesterol homeostasis. These results are important in understanding cellular targets of therapeutic drugs under development for the treatments of conditions associated with altered cholesterol homeostasis in the CNS. PMID:23010475

  15. Secondary prevention care and effect: Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug use in women and men after incident myocardial infarction - The Tromsø Study 1994-2016.

    PubMed

    Hopstock, Laila A; Eggen, Anne Elise; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Secondary prevention guidelines after myocardial infarction (MI) are gender neutral, but underutilisation of treatment in women has been reported. We investigated the change in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug (LLD) use after first-ever MI in a population-based study. We followed 10,005 participants (54% women) attending the Tromsø Study 1994-1995 and 8483 participants (55% women) attending the Tromsø Study 2007-2008 for first-ever MI up to their participation in 2007-2008 and 2015-2016, respectively. We used linear and logistic regression models to investigate sex differences in change in lipid levels. A total of 395 (MI cohort I) and 132 participants (MI cohort II) had a first-ever MI during 1994-2008 and 2007-2013, respectively. Mean change in total cholesterol was -2.34 mmol/L (SD 1.15) in MI cohort I, and in LDL cholesterol was -1.63 mmol/L (SD 1.12) in MI cohort II. Men had a larger decrease in lipid levels compared to women: the linear regression coefficient for change was -0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.51 to -0.14) for total cholesterol and -0.21 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.04) for LDL cholesterol, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. Men had 73% higher odds (95% CI 1.15-2.61) of treatment target achievement compared to women, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. LLD use was reported in 85% of women and 92% of men in MI cohort I, and 80% in women and 89% in men in MI cohort II. Compared to men, women had significantly less decrease in lipid levels after MI, and a smaller proportion of women achieved the treatment target.

  16. Plasma non-cholesterol sterols.

    PubMed

    Kuksis, A

    2001-11-23

    Increased levels of plasma sterols other than cholesterol can serve as markers for abnormalities in lipid metabolism associated with clinical disease. Premature atherosclerosis and xanthomatosis occur in two rare lipid storage diseases, Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) and sitosterolemia. In CTX, cholestanol is present in all tissues. In sitosterolemia, dietary campesterol and sitosterol accumulate in plasma and red blood cells. Plasma accumulation of oxo-sterols is associated with inhibition of bile acid synthesis and other abnormalities in plasma lipid metabolism. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis is associated with plasma appearance of precursor sterols. The increases in non-cholesterol sterols, while highly significant, represent only minor changes in plasma sterols, which require capillary gas-liquid chromatography and MS for effective detection, identification and quantification.

  17. Differential Benefit of Statin in Secondary Prevention of Acute Myocardial Infarction according to the Level of Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Cheol Hwan; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Wan; Kim, Jong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The differential benefit of statin according to the state of dyslipidemia has been sparsely investigated. We sought to address the efficacy of statin in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) according to the level of triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on admission. Subjects and Methods Acute MI patients (24653) were enrolled and the total patients were divided according to level of triglyceride and HDL-C on admission: group A (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=11819), group B (HDL-C≥40 mg/dL and triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3329), group C (HDL-C<40 mg/dL and triglyceride<150 mg/dL; n=6062), and group D (HDL-C<40 mg/dL & triglyceride≥150 mg/dL; n=3443). We evaluated the differential efficacy of statin according to the presence or absence of component of dyslipidemia. The primary end points were major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for 2 years. Results Statin therapy significantly reduced the risk of MACE in group A (hazard ratio=0.676; 95% confidence interval: 0.582-0.785; p<0.001). However, the efficacy of statin was not prominent in groups B, C, or D. In a propensity-matched population, the result was similar. In particular, the benefit of statin in group A was different compared with group D (interaction p=0.042) Conclusion The benefit of statin in patients with MI was different according to the presence or absence of dyslipidemia. In particular, because of the insufficient benefit of statin in patients with MI and dyslipidemia, a different lipid-lowering strategy is necessary in these patients. PMID:27275169

  18. Quantitative trait locus analysis of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in C57BL/6J x RR F2 mice.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Yuji; Sekikawa, Kenji

    2004-10-01

    A highly significant cholesterol quantitative trait locus (QTL) (Cq6) was identified on chromosome 1 in C57BL/6J x RR F2 mice. The Cq6 was located over the gene for apolipoprotein A-Il (Apoa2), and the RR allele was associated with increased plasma cholesterol. C57BL/6J has Apoa2a alleles and RR has Apoa2b alleles. Three different Apoa2 alleles are known on the basis of amino acid substitutions at four residues. Analysis with partial Apoa2 congenic strains possessing Apoa2a, Apoa2b, and Apoa2C alleles revealed that the Apoa2b allele is unique in the ability to increase cholesterol among the three Apoa2 alleles, and that the Ala-to-Val substitution at residue 61 may be crucial as far as cholesterol metabolism is concerned. We also investigated the question of whether the Apoa1 gene is responsible for the cholesterol QTLs (Cq4 and Cq5) that had been identified previously on chromosome 9 in C57BL/6J x KK-Ay/a F2 and in KK x RR F2, but not in C57BL/6J x RR F2 mice. Similar to Apoa2 alleles, three different Apoal alleles with two successive amino acid substitutions were revealed among the strains. However, we could not correlate Apoal polymorphisms with the occurrence of QTLs in these three sets of F2 mice.

  19. Effects of past and recent blood pressure and cholesterol level on coronary heart disease and stroke mortality, accounting for measurement error.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Lanti, Mariapaola; Menotti, Alessandro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Tolonen, Hanna; Nissinen, Aulikki; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Kafatos, Anthony; Kromhout, Daan

    2007-02-15

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke among subjects aged 65 years or more from nine cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. The two-step method of Tsiatis et al. (J Am Stat Assoc 1995;90:27-37) was used to adjust for regression dilution bias, and results were compared with those obtained using more commonly applied methods of adjustment for regression dilution bias. It was found that the commonly used univariate adjustment for regression dilution bias overestimates the effects of both SBP and cholesterol compared with multivariate methods. Also, the two-step method makes better use of the information available, resulting in smaller confidence intervals. Results comparing recent and past exposure indicated that past SBP is more important than recent SBP in terms of its effect on coronary heart disease mortality, while both recent and past values seem to be important for effects of cholesterol on coronary heart disease mortality and effects of SBP on stroke mortality. Associations between serum cholesterol concentration and risk of stroke mortality are weak.

  20. 5 Tips: What You Should Know About High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... marketed for improving cholesterol. The dietary supplements red yeast rice, flaxseed, and garlic, are among the many ... supplements are effective in reducing cholesterol levels. Red yeast rice. Some red yeast rice products contain substances ...

  1. Analysis of Multiple Association Studies Provides Evidence of an Expression QTL Hub in Gene-Gene Interaction Network Affecting HDL Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Ballantyne, Christie; Brautbar, Ariel; Keinan, Alon

    2014-01-01

    Epistasis has been suggested to underlie part of the missing heritability in genome-wide association studies. In this study, we first report an analysis of gene-gene interactions affecting HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in a candidate gene study of 2,091 individuals with mixed dyslipidemia from a clinical trial. Two additional studies, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (ARIC; n = 9,713) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; n = 2,685), were considered for replication. We identified a gene-gene interaction between rs1532085 and rs12980554 (P = 7.1×10−7) in their effect on HDL-C levels, which is significant after Bonferroni correction (P c = 0.017) for the number of SNP pairs tested. The interaction successfully replicated in the ARIC study (P = 7.0×10−4; P c = 0.02). Rs1532085, an expression QTL (eQTL) of LIPC, is one of the two SNPs involved in another, well-replicated gene-gene interaction underlying HDL-C levels. To further investigate the role of this eQTL SNP in gene-gene interactions affecting HDL-C, we tested in the ARIC study for interaction between this SNP and any other SNP genome-wide. We found the eQTL to be involved in a few suggestive interactions, one of which significantly replicated in MESA. Importantly, these gene-gene interactions, involving only rs1532085, explain an additional 1.4% variation of HDL-C, on top of the 0.65% explained by rs1532085 alone. LIPC plays a key role in the lipid metabolism pathway and it, and rs1532085 in particular, has been associated with HDL-C and other lipid levels. Collectively, we discovered several novel gene-gene interactions, all involving an eQTL of LIPC, thus suggesting a hub role of LIPC in the gene-gene interaction network that regulates HDL-C levels, which in turn raises the hypothesis that LIPC's contribution is largely via interactions with other lipid metabolism related genes. PMID:24651390

  2. Analysis and comparison of the cost-effectiveness of statins according to the baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Y J; Kim, H; Baik, S J; Kim, T M; Yang, S J; Lee, S-H; Cho, J-H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Choi, I Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, H-S

    2017-06-01

    There are a few Korean studies on the economics of statins based on reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) data from other countries. This study aimed to analyse and compare the cost-effectiveness of statins according to the baseline LDL-C level in Korea. Between January 2009 and December 2015, the data of patients who were prescribed statins for the first time were extracted from electronic medical records. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) based on the LDL-C reduction rate (CEA-RR) and target achievement rate. Among high-intensity statins, the CEA-RR value of rosuvastatin (20 mg) was significantly lower than that of atorvastatin (40 mg) at all baseline LDL-C levels, except levels of 160-189 mg/dL. Additionally, at baseline LDL-C levels of 130-159 mg/dL, the CEA-RR value of rosuvastatin (20 mg) was three times lower than that of atorvastatin (40 mg) (9·1 ± 2·5 $/% vs. 31·7 ± 15·0 $/%, P < 0·001). Among moderate-to-low-intensity statins, rosuvastatin (5 mg) showed the lowest CEA-RR value (4·0 ± 0·6 $/%), and the value significantly increased for pitavastatin (2 mg) (8·0 ± 0·6 $/%), atorvastatin (10 mg) (9·5 ± 0·5 $/%), simvastatin (10·8 ± 1·1 $/%) and pravastatin (40 mg) (11·5 ± 0·9 $/%) in order (P < 0·0001). On changing from atorvastatin (10 mg) to atorvastatin (20 mg), the additional yearly cost was 16·0 and additional CEA-RR value was 2·74 $/%. On the other hand, on changing from atorvastatin (10 mg) to rosuvastatin (10 mg), the additional yearly cost was -16·3 and additional CEA-RR value was -1·8 $/%. We successfully compared the cost-effectiveness of statins according to the baseline LDL-C level in Korea. It is expected that our findings will help clinical decision-making with regard to statin prescription, and this will help reduce national medical expenditure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. α-Synuclein Regulates Neuronal Cholesterol Efflux.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Jen-Hsiang T; Halliday, Glenda M; Kim, Woojin Scott

    2017-10-19

    α-Synuclein is a neuronal protein that is at the center of focus in understanding the etiology of a group of neurodegenerative diseases called α-synucleinopathies, which includes Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite much research, the exact physiological function of α-synuclein is still unclear. α-Synuclein has similar biophysical properties as apolipoproteins and other lipid-binding proteins and has a high affinity for cholesterol. These properties suggest a possible role for α-synuclein as a lipid acceptor mediating cholesterol efflux (the process of removing cholesterol out of cells). To test this concept, we "loaded" SK-N-SH neuronal cells with fluorescently-labelled cholesterol, applied exogenous α-synuclein, and measured the amount of cholesterol removed from the cells using a classic cholesterol efflux assay. We found that α-synuclein potently stimulated cholesterol efflux. We found that the process was dose and time dependent, and was saturable at 1.0 µg/mL of α-synuclein. It was also dependent on the transporter protein ABCA1 located on the plasma membrane. We reveal for the first time a novel role of α-synuclein that underscores its importance in neuronal cholesterol regulation, and identify novel therapeutic targets for controlling cellular cholesterol levels.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Pemafibrate Versus Fenofibrate in Patients with High Triglyceride and Low HDL Cholesterol Levels: A Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidenori; Yamashita, Shizuya; Yokote, Koutaro; Araki, Eiichi; Suganami, Hideki; Ishibashi, Shun

    2018-06-01

    To verify the superiority of pemafibrate over placebo and the non-inferiority of pemafibrate to the maximum dose of fenofibrate for determining the percent change in fasting serum triglyceride (TG) levels and to investigate safety by assessing the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This phase III, placebo/active drug-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparison study enrolled patients with high TG and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo; pemafibrate 0.1 mg/day, 0.2 mg/day, or 0.4 mg/day; or fenofibrate 100 mg/day or 200 mg/day for 12 weeks. Among 526 randomized patients, 489 completed the study, with drop-out rates of 0%, 6.7%, 5.5%, 5.9%, 8.2%, and 10.7% in the placebo; pemafibrate 0.1 mg/day, 0.2 mg/day, and 0.4 mg/day; and fenofibrate 100 mg/day and 200 mg/day groups. The study showed the non-inferiority of pemafibrate 0.4 mg/day and 0.2 mg/day to fenofibrate 200 mg/day as well the non-inferiority and superiority of all pemafibrate doses to fenofibrate 100 mg/day for reducing TG levels. No dose-dependent increase in the incidence of AEs or ADRs was observed among the pemafibrate dose groups. The incidence of AEs and ADRs for all pemafibrate doses was similar to that for placebo and fenofibrate 100 mg/day and significantly lower than that for fenofibrate 200 mg/day (P<0.05). The favorable safety profile of pemafibrate, with fewer adverse effects on kidney/liver-related laboratory tests and fewer AEs/ADRs, including those leading to treatment discontinuation, over fenofibrate 200 mg/day may justify the use of this novel and potent treatment option for reducing TG levels in a broader range of patients.

  5. Quantitative trait locus analysis of plasma cholesterol levels and body weight by controlling the effects of the Apoa2 allele in mice.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2007-04-01

    Colleagues and I previously performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on plasma total-cholesterol (T-CHO) levels in C57BL/6J (B6) x RR F2 mice. We identified only one significant QTL (Cq6) on chromosome 1 in a region containing the Apoa2 gene locus, a convincing candidate gene for Cq6. Because Cq6 was a highly significant QTL, we considered that the detection of other potential QTLs might be hindered. In the present study, QTL analysis was performed in B6.KK-Apoa2b N(8) x RR F2 mice [B6.KK-Apoa2b N(8) is a partial congenic strain carrying the Apoa2b allele from the KK strain, and RR also has the Apoa2b allele] by controlling of the effects of the Apoa2 allele, for identifying additional QTLs. Although no significant QTLs were identified, 2 suggestive QTLs were found on chromosomes 2 and 3 in place of the effects of the Apoa2 allele. A significant body weight QTL was identified on chromosome 3 (Bwq7, peak LOD score 5.2); its effect on body weight was not significant in previously analyzed B6 x RR F2 mice. Suggestive body weight QTL that had been identified in B6 x RR F2 mice on chromosome 4 (LOD score 3.8) was not identified in B6.KK-Apoa2b N(8) x RR F2 mice. Thus, contrary to expectation, the genetic control of body weight was also altered significantly by controlling of the effects of the Apoa2 allele. The QTL mapping strategy by controlling of the effects of a major QTL facilitated the identification of additional QTLs.

  6. Relation of uric acid to serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and to hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Tanya; Blaha, Michael J; Nasir, Khurram; Silverman, Michael G; Tota-Maharaj, Rajesh; Carvalho, Jose A M; Conceição, Raquel D; Blumenthal, Roger S; Santos, Raul D

    2012-12-15

    Increased uric acid (UA) is strongly linked to cardiovascular disease. However, the independent role of UA is still debated because it is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors including obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study assessed the association of UA with increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), increased ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL), sonographically detected hepatic steatosis, and their clustering in the presence and absence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We evaluated 3,518 employed subjects without clinical cardiovascular disease from November 2008 through July 2010. Prevalence of hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L was 19%, that of TG/HDL ≥3 was 44%, and that of hepatic steatosis was 43%. In multivariable logistic regression after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and confounders, highest versus lowest UA quartile was associated with hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 2.28, p = 0.04), TG/HDL ≥3 (OR 3.29, 95% CI 2.36 to 4.60, p <0.001), and hepatic steatosis (OR 3.10, 95% CI 2.22 to 4.32, p <0.001) independently of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Association of UA with hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L became nonsignificant in analyses stratified by obesity. Ascending UA quartiles compared to the lowest UA quartile demonstrated a graded increase in the odds of having 2 or 3 of these risk conditions and a successive decrease in the odds of having none. In conclusion, high UA levels were associated with increased TG/HDL and hepatic steatosis independently of metabolic syndrome and obesity and with increased hs-CRP independently of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cellular cholesterol regulates ubiquitination and degradation of the cholesterol export proteins ABCA1 and ABCG1.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Victar; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Gelissen, Ingrid C; Brown, Andrew J; Sandoval, Cecilia; Hallab, Jeannette C; Kockx, Maaike; Traini, Mathew; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

    2014-03-14

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cholesterol in post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. Using CHO cell lines stably expressing human ABCA1 or ABCG1, we observed that the abundance of these proteins is increased by cell cholesterol loading. The response to increased cholesterol is rapid, is independent of transcription, and appears to be specific for these membrane proteins. The effect is mediated through cholesterol-dependent inhibition of transporter protein degradation. Cell cholesterol loading similarly regulates degradation of endogenously expressed ABCA1 and ABCG1 in human THP-1 macrophages. Turnover of ABCA1 and ABCG1 is strongly inhibited by proteasomal inhibitors and is unresponsive to inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis. Furthermore, cell cholesterol loading inhibits ubiquitination of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Our findings provide evidence for a rapid, cholesterol-dependent, post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels, mediated through a specific and sterol-sensitive mechanism for suppression of transporter protein ubiquitination, which in turn decreases proteasomal degradation. This provides a mechanism for acute fine-tuning of cholesterol transporter activity in response to fluctuations in cell cholesterol levels, in addition to the longer term cholesterol-dependent transcriptional regulation of these genes.

  8. Cellular Cholesterol Regulates Ubiquitination and Degradation of the Cholesterol Export Proteins ABCA1 and ABCG1*

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Victar; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Gelissen, Ingrid C.; Brown, Andrew J.; Sandoval, Cecilia; Hallab, Jeannette C.; Kockx, Maaike; Traini, Mathew; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cholesterol in post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. Using CHO cell lines stably expressing human ABCA1 or ABCG1, we observed that the abundance of these proteins is increased by cell cholesterol loading. The response to increased cholesterol is rapid, is independent of transcription, and appears to be specific for these membrane proteins. The effect is mediated through cholesterol-dependent inhibition of transporter protein degradation. Cell cholesterol loading similarly regulates degradation of endogenously expressed ABCA1 and ABCG1 in human THP-1 macrophages. Turnover of ABCA1 and ABCG1 is strongly inhibited by proteasomal inhibitors and is unresponsive to inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis. Furthermore, cell cholesterol loading inhibits ubiquitination of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Our findings provide evidence for a rapid, cholesterol-dependent, post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels, mediated through a specific and sterol-sensitive mechanism for suppression of transporter protein ubiquitination, which in turn decreases proteasomal degradation. This provides a mechanism for acute fine-tuning of cholesterol transporter activity in response to fluctuations in cell cholesterol levels, in addition to the longer term cholesterol-dependent transcriptional regulation of these genes. PMID:24500716

  9. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating

  10. Cholesterol homeostasis: How do cells sense sterol excess?

    PubMed

    Howe, Vicky; Sharpe, Laura J; Alexopoulos, Stephanie J; Kunze, Sarah V; Chua, Ngee Kiat; Li, Dianfan; Brown, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol is vital in mammals, but toxic in excess. Consequently, elaborate molecular mechanisms have evolved to maintain this sterol within narrow limits. How cells sense excess cholesterol is an intriguing area of research. Cells sense cholesterol, and other related sterols such as oxysterols or cholesterol synthesis intermediates, and respond to changing levels through several elegant mechanisms of feedback regulation. Cholesterol sensing involves both direct binding of sterols to the homeostatic machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and indirect effects elicited by sterol-dependent alteration of the physical properties of membranes. Here, we examine the mechanisms employed by cells to maintain cholesterol homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The comparison of the effects of standard 20 mg atorvastatin daily and 20 mg atorvastatin every other day on serum LDL-cholesterol and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels.

    PubMed

    Keleş, Telat; Akar Bayram, Nihal; Kayhan, Tuğba; Canbay, Alper; Sahin, Deniz; Durmaz, Tahir; Ozdemir, Ozcan; Aydoğdu, Sinan; Diker, Erdem

    2008-12-01

    In this study, we aimed at comparing the effects of standard once daily 20 mg atorvastatin treatment with that of atorvastatin 20 mg administered every other day on serum lipids and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Sixty-one patients with serum total cholesterol levels of above 200 mg/dl and low density lipoprotein (LDL)--cholesterol levels of above 130 mg/dl were included in this prospective, randomized study. The patients were randomized into daily treatment of 20 mg atorvastatin (standard treatment) and 20 mg atorvastatin every other day (every other day treatment) groups. Before the treatment and at each visit, serum lipids and hs-CRP levels of all the patients were measured. Statistical analyses were performed Chi-square, unpaired t and two-way repeated measurements ANOVA tests. In the every other day treatment group, there was a 36.1% reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels by the end of first month (p<0.01). At the end of three months there was further decrease of 10.2% in LDL-cholesterol levels when compared to 1 month levels (p>0.05). The LDL cholesterol levels of the group receiving 20 mg atorvastatin every day was reduced by %41 by the end of 1 month (p<0.01). At the end of three months, the difference between the changes in the all lipid parameters of the two groups was not found to be of statistical significance. In the group receiving the medication every other day, there was a 21% decrease in hs-CRP levels compared to the basal measurements at the end of first month (p<0.05). In the group, receiving the medication every day the decrease in hs-CRP levels at the end of one month was more striking (37%, p<0.05). However, the effects of both treatment arms on hs-CRP levels, did not differ significantly (p>0.05). Alternate-day dosing of atorvastatin causes a significant lipid-lowering and antiinflammatory effects similar to that of daily administration and yet may provide some cost savings.

  12. Increased plasma membrane cholesterol in cystic fibrosis cells correlates with CFTR genotype and depends on de novo cholesterol synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous observations demonstrate that Cftr-null cells and tissues exhibit alterations in cholesterol processing including perinuclear cholesterol accumulation, increased de novo synthesis, and an increase in plasma membrane cholesterol accessibility compared to wild type controls. The hypothesis of this study is that membrane cholesterol accessibility correlates with CFTR genotype and is in part influenced by de novo cholesterol synthesis. Methods Electrochemical detection of cholesterol at the plasma membrane is achieved with capillary microelectrodes with a modified platinum coil that accepts covalent attachment of cholesterol oxidase. Modified electrodes absent cholesterol oxidase serves as a baseline control. Cholesterol synthesis is determined by deuterium incorporation into lipids over time. Incorporation into cholesterol specifically is determined by mass spectrometry analysis. All mice used in the study are on a C57Bl/6 background and are between 6 and 8 weeks of age. Results Membrane cholesterol measurements are elevated in both R117H and ΔF508 mouse nasal epithelium compared to age-matched sibling wt controls demonstrating a genotype correlation to membrane cholesterol detection. Expression of wt CFTR in CF epithelial cells reverts membrane cholesterol to WT levels further demonstrating the impact of CFTR on these processes. In wt epithelial cell, the addition of the CFTR inhibitors, Gly H101 or CFTRinh-172, for 24 h surprisingly results in an initial drop in membrane cholesterol measurement followed by a rebound at 72 h suggesting a feedback mechanism may be driving the increase in membrane cholesterol. De novo cholesterol synthesis contributes to membrane cholesterol accessibility. Conclusions The data in this study suggest that CFTR influences cholesterol trafficking to the plasma membrane, which when depleted, leads to an increase in de novo cholesterol synthesis to restore membrane content. PMID:20487541

  13. Anagliptin, A Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Ameliorates Arterial Stiffness in Association with Reduction of Remnant-Like Particle Cholesterol and Alanine Transaminase Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Nobuhiro; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Bekki, Munehisa; Kodama, Norihiro; Nakamura, Tomohisa; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Oshige, Tamami; Kumashiro, Yuki; Honda, Akihiro; Tahara, Atsuko; Igata, Sachiyo; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) has been proposed as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Arterial stiffness, a predictor of future cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, is augmented in these patients. However, effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on arterial stiffness remain unknown. In this study, we compared effects of anagliptin, an inhibitor of DPP-4 on arterial stiffness evaluated by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) with those of an equipotent glucose-lowering agent, glimepiride in patients with T2DM. The study involved 50 consecutive outpatients (33 males and 17 females; mean age of 72.5±9.5 years) who visited our hospitals for a risk-screening test or treatment for T2DM. They underwent complete history and physical examination, and determination of blood chemistry and anthropometric variables, and then were randomized to receive either anagliptin (n=26) or glimepiride (n=24) for 6 months. After 6-months treatment, fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c values were comparably reduced in both groups. Anagliptin, but not glimepiride treatment significantly decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde-modified LDL, remnant-like particle (RLP) cholesterol, CAVI, alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transferase and visceral fat volume. In multiple regression analysis, absolute changes from baseline of RLP cholesterol and ALT after anagliptin treatment for 6 months (ΔRLP cholesterol and ΔALT) were independently correlated with ΔCAVI (R2=0.445). The present study suggests that anagliptin may exert a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in patients with T2DM, which is independent of its blood glucose-lowering property. Anagliptin may ameliorate arterial stiffness partly via reduction of RLP cholesterol and improvement of liver function.

  14. The pharmacoeconomic benefits of cholesterol reduction.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, E R

    1998-02-01

    Recent studies show that cholesterol-lowering therapy can reduce morbidity and mortality in hypercholesterolemic patients without preexisting coronary heart disease (primary prevention) and with coronary heart disease (secondary prevention). The high cost of treatment per event prevented, especially for primary prevention, raises concerns about widespread use of cholesterol-lowering therapy. Does cholesterol reduction reduce utilization of healthcare resources, and can society afford to pay for reducing cholesterol in all patients with hypercholesterolemia, irrespective of risk factors? Is cost-effectiveness of therapy affected by differing cholesterol levels, age of the patients, the duration of therapy, or the presence of risk factors? Current pharmacoeconomic studies support the use of the statins for secondary prevention, and primary prevention in high-risk patients, and provide key information for policy decision making in the treatment of patients with hypercholesterolemia.

  15. Continuous transport of a small fraction of plasma membrane cholesterol to endoplasmic reticulum regulates total cellular cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Rodney Elwood; Radhakrishnan, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Cells employ regulated transport mechanisms to ensure that their plasma membranes (PMs) are optimally supplied with cholesterol derived from uptake of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and synthesis. To date, all inhibitors of cholesterol transport block steps in lysosomes, limiting our understanding of post-lysosomal transport steps. Here, we establish the cholesterol-binding domain 4 of anthrolysin O (ALOD4) as a reversible inhibitor of cholesterol transport from PM to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Using ALOD4, we: (1) deplete ER cholesterol without altering PM or overall cellular cholesterol levels; (2) demonstrate that LDL-derived cholesterol travels from lysosomes first to PM to meet cholesterol needs, and subsequently from PM to regulatory domains of ER to suppress activation of SREBPs, halting cholesterol uptake and synthesis; and (3) determine that continuous PM-to-ER cholesterol transport allows ER to constantly monitor PM cholesterol levels, and respond rapidly to small declines in cellular cholesterol by activating SREBPs, increasing cholesterol uptake and synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25466.001 PMID:28414269

  16. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and risk of cancer in HIV-infected subjects: Data from the ICONA Foundation Cohort.

    PubMed

    Squillace, Nicola; Galli, Laura; Bandera, Alessandra; Castagna, Antonella; Madeddu, Giordano; Caramello, Pietro; Antinori, Andrea; Cattelan, Annamaria; Maggiolo, Franco; Cingolani, Antonella; Gori, Andrea; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio

    2016-09-01

    Investigation of the relationship between high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and the risk of developing cancer in a prospective cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.The Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-naïve Patients Foundation Cohort is an Italian multicenter observational study recruiting HIV-positive patients while still antiretroviral treatment-naïve, regardless of the reason since 1997.Patients with at least 1 HDL-c value per year since enrollment and one such value before antiretroviral treatment initiation were included. HDL-c values were categorized as either low (<39 mg/dL in males or <49 mg/dL in females) or normal. Cancer diagnoses were classified as AIDS-defining malignancies (ADMs) or non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used.Among 4897 patients (13,440 person-years of follow-up [PYFU]), 104 diagnoses of cancer were observed (56 ADMs, 48 NADMs) for an overall incidence rate of 7.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.3-9.2) per 1000 PYFU.Low HDL-c values at enrollment were associated with higher risk both of cancer (crude hazard ratio [HR] 1.72, 95% CI 1.16-2.56, P = 0.007) and of NADM (crude HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.35-4.76, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of cancer diagnosis was higher in patients with low HDL-c values (adjusted HR [AHR] 1.87, 95% CI 1.18-2.95, P = 0.007) in older patients, those patients more recently enrolled, and in those with low current cluster of differentiation 4+ levels, and/or high current HIV-ribonucleic acid.The multivariate model confirmed an association between HDL-c (AHR 2.61, 95% CI 1.40-4.89, P = 0.003) and risk of NADM.Low HDL-c is an independent predictor of cancer in HIV-1-infected subjects.

  17. Inhibiting cholesterol degradation induces neuronal sclerosis and epileptic activity in mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chali, Farah; Djelti, Fathia; Eugene, Emmanuel; Valderrama, Mario; Marquer, Catherine; Aubourg, Patrick; Duykaerts, Charles; Miles, Richard; Cartier, Nathalie; Navarro, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Elevations in neuronal cholesterol have been associated with several degenerative diseases. An enhanced excitability and synchronous firing in surviving neurons are among the sequels of neuronal death in these diseases and also in some epileptic syndromes. Here, we attempted to increase neuronal cholesterol levels, using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to suppress expression of the enzyme CYP46A1. This protein hydroxylates cholesterol and so facilitates trans-membrane extrusion. A sh-RNA CYP46A1construction coupled to an adeno-associated virus (AAV5) was injected focally and unilaterally into mouse hippocampus. It was selectively expressed first in neurons of the CA3a region. Cytoplasmic and membrane cholesterol increased, neuronal soma volume increased and then decreased before pyramidal cells died. As CA3a pyramidal cells died, inter-ictal EEG events occurred during exploration and non-REM sleep. With time, neuronal death spread to involve pyramidal cells and interneurons of the CA1 region. CA1 neuronal death was correlated with a delayed local expression of phosphorylated tau. Astrocytes were activated throughout the hippocampus and microglial activation was specific to regions of neuronal death. CA1 neuronal death was correlated with distinct aberrant EEG activity. During exploratory behaviour and rapid eye movement sleep, EEG oscillations at 7-10 Hz (theta) could accelerate to 14-21 Hz (beta) waves. They were accompanied by low amplitude, high-frequency oscillations of peak power at ~300Hz and a range of 250-350 Hz. While episodes of EEG acceleration were not correlated with changes in exploratory behaviour, they were followed in some animals by structured seizure-like discharges. These data strengthen links between increased cholesterol, neuronal sclerosis and epileptic behavior PMID:25847620

  18. Differential Regulation of Gene Expression by Cholesterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors That Reduce (Pravastatin) or Enhance (Squalestatin 1) Nonsterol Isoprenoid Levels in Primary Cultured Mouse and Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rondini, Elizabeth A.; Duniec-Dmuchowski, Zofia; Cukovic, Daniela; Dombkowski, Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    Squalene synthase inhibitors (SSIs), such as squalestatin 1 (SQ1), reduce cholesterol biosynthesis but cause the accumulation of isoprenoids derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), which can modulate the activity of nuclear receptors, including the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), farnesoid X receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). In comparison, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (e.g., pravastatin) inhibit production of both cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids. To characterize the effects of isoprenoids on hepatocellular physiology, microarrays were used to compare orthologous gene expression from primary cultured mouse and rat hepatocytes that were treated with either SQ1 or pravastatin. Compared with controls, 47 orthologs were affected by both inhibitors, 90 were affected only by SQ1, and 51 were unique to pravastatin treatment (P < 0.05, ≥1.5-fold change). When the effects of SQ1 and pravastatin were compared directly, 162 orthologs were found to be differentially coregulated between the two treatments. Genes involved in cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis were up-regulated by both inhibitors, consistent with cholesterol depletion; however, the extent of induction was greater in rat than in mouse hepatocytes. SQ1 induced several orthologs associated with microsomal, peroxisomal, and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and repressed orthologs involved in cell cycle regulation. By comparison, pravastatin repressed the expression of orthologs involved in retinol and xenobiotic metabolism. Several of the metabolic genes altered by isoprenoids were inducible by a PPARα agonist, whereas cytochrome P450 isoform 2B was inducible by activators of CAR. Our findings indicate that SSIs uniquely influence cellular lipid metabolism and cell cycle regulation, probably due to FPP catabolism through the farnesol pathway. PMID:27225895

  19. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  20. OF TRYPANOSOMATIDS. ENDOTRANSFORMATIONS AND ABERRATIONS].

    PubMed

    Frolov, A O; Malysheva, M N; Kostygov, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Endotransformations and aberrations of the life cycle in the evolutionary history of trypanosomatids (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) are analyzed. We treat the term "endotransformations" as evolutionarily fixed changes of phases and/or developmental stages of parasites. By contrast, we treat aberrations as evolutionary unstable, periodically arising deformations of developmental phases of trypanosomatids, never leading to life cycle changes. Various examples of life cycle endotransformations and aberrations in representatives of the family Trypanosomatidae are discussed.

  1. The type 2 diabetes and insulin-resistance locus near IRS1 is a determinant of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels among diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajani; Prudente, Sabrina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Powers, Christine; Mannino, Gaia; Bacci, Simonetta; Gervino, Ernest V; Hauser, Thomas H; Succurro, Elena; Mercuri, Luana; Goheen, Elizabeth H; Shah, Hetal; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Sesti, Giorgio; Doria, Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    SNP rs2943641 near the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene has been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and insulin-resistance in genome-wide association studies. We investigated whether this SNP is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) among diabetic individuals. SNP rs2943641 was typed in 2133 White T2D subjects and tested for association with BMI, serum HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, hypertension history, and CAD risk. HDL cholesterol decreased by 1mg/dl (p = 0.004) and serum triglycerides increased by 6 mg/dl (p = 0.016) for each copy of the insulin-resistance allele. Despite these effects, no association was found with increased CAD risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.88-1.13). The insulin-resistance and T2D locus near the IRS1 gene is a determinant of lower HDL cholesterol among T2D subjects. However, this effect is small and does not translate into a detectable increase in CAD risk in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Regulate Dynamic Caveolin Trafficking through the Golgi Complex and between the Cell Surface and Lipid BodiesV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Albert; Martin, Sally; Fernández, Manuel A.; Ingelmo-Torres, Mercedes; Ferguson, Charles; Enrich, Carlos; Parton, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    Caveolins are a crucial component of plasma membrane (PM) caveolae but have also been localized to intracellular compartments, including the Golgi complex and lipid bodies. Mutant caveolins associated with human disease show aberrant trafficking to the PM and Golgi accumulation. We now show that the Golgi pool of mainly newly synthesized protein is detergent-soluble and predominantly in a monomeric state, in contrast to the surface pool. Caveolin at the PM is not recognized by specific caveolin antibodies unless PM cholesterol is depleted. Exit from the Golgi complex of wild-type caveolin-1 or -3, but not vesicular stomatitis virus-G protein, is modulated by changing cellular cholesterol levels. In contrast, a muscular dystrophy-associated mutant of caveolin-3, Cav3P104L, showed increased accumulation in the Golgi complex upon cholesterol treatment. In addition, we demonstrate that in response to fatty acid treatment caveolin can follow a previously undescribed pathway from the PM to lipid bodies and can move from lipid bodies to the PM in response to removal of fatty acids. The results suggest that cholesterol is a rate-limiting component for caveolin trafficking. Changes in caveolin flux through the exocytic pathway can therefore be an indicator of cellular cholesterol and fatty acid levels. PMID:15689493

  3. [Antagonistic effect of the insertion/deletion (HpaI) polymorphism in the regulatory part of the gene for apolipoprotein CI in children with high and low levels of cholesterol].

    PubMed

    Hubácek, J A; Pistulková, H; Skodová, Z; Lánská, V; Poledne, R

    2004-01-01

    High plasma lipids are one of the risk factor of atherosclerosis. Both environmental (diet, physic activity) and genetic factors have been implicated in the development of hyperlipidaemia. Apolipoprotein (apo) CI plays an important role in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides transport by VLDL particles. The aim of the study was to establish the role of the insertion/deletion polymorphism in apoCI gene in the determination of plasma lipids in children. Using PCR and restriction analysis (HpaI) we have measured I/D polymorphism in APOCI gene in two groups of children selected from opposite ends of the cholesterol distribution curve of 2000 children. Eighty-two children in high-(HCG) and eighty-six children in low-(LCG) cholesterolemic groups participated on the study. No significant difference was found in the frequencies of the APOCI genotypes or alleles between HCG vs. LCG. Association between LDL cholesterol and genotypes within the LCG was found--the D/D homozygotes have higher lipid level compared to the others (p < 0.05). In LCG opposite, but insignificant (p = 0.09) trend was observed. The widespread I/D polymorphism in the gene for APOCI determines the plasma lipid levels in childhood and it could become another important genetic marker that plays a role in the genetic determination of cholesterolemia.

  4. Blood Cholesterol Measurement in Clinical Laboratories in the United States. Current Status. A Report from the Laboratory Standardization Panel of the National Cholesterol Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Precise and accurate cholesterol measurements are required to identify and treat individuals with high blood cholesterol levels. However, the current state of reliability of blood cholesterol measurements suggests that considerable inaccuracy in cholesterol testing exists. This report describes the Laboratory Standardization Panel findings on the…

  5. [Relationship between body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change to middle age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in middle aged Chinese people].

    PubMed

    Zhao, L C; Zhou, L; Li, Y; Guo, M; Wu, Y F

    2016-08-24

    To explore the relationship between early adulthood weight status and body weight changes from early adulthood to middle age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Data were obtained from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology Study, which was conducted in 1998, 15 participants population samples aged from 35-59 years old from 12 provinces were selected by random cluster sampling. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample population were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, body weight at age 25 from all participants were also obtained. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 25 years was calculated with the weight at 25 years and the height measured during the survey, participants were divided into underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2), n=1 331), normal-weight (18.5 kg/m(2)≤BMI <24 kg/m(2), n=10 400), overweight (24 kg/m(2)≤BMI<28 kg/m(2), n=2 019) and obesity (BMI≥28 kg/m(2), n=133) groups. Weight change was defined as the difference between the body weight at the age of 25 and at the survey and was grouped into<-7.5 kg (n=903), -7.5--2.6 kg (n=1 883), -2.5-2.5 kg (n=2 573), 2.6-7.5 kg (n=2 786), 7.6-12.5 kg (n=2 674) and>12.5 kg (n=3 064). The association of body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change from early adulthood to middle age with HDL-C level was examined by logistic regression model. The prevalence of low HDL-C in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity groups at age of 25 years were 10.7%(143/1 331), 15.5%(1 612/10 400), 16.3%(330/2 019) and 24.8%(33/133), respectively(P for trend <0.01). The prevalence of low HDL-C for adult weight change were 8.8%(79/903), 8.0%(151/1 883), 10.5%(269/2 573), 13.4%(373/2 786), 19.1%(511/2 674), and 24.0%(735/3 064)(P for trend <0.01)for weight change of <-7.5 kg, -7.5--2.6 kg, -2.5-2.5 kg, 2.6-7.5 kg, 7.6-12.5 kg and>12.5 kg, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that overweight and obesity at age of 25 years and

  6. [Safety Evaluation of Rare Sugar Syrup: Single-dose Oral Toxicity in Rats, Reverse Mutation Assay, Chromosome Aberration Assay, and Acute Non-Effect Level for Diarrhea of a Single Dose in Humans].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Takamine, Satoshi; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The safety of rare sugar syrup obtained from high-fructose corn syrup under slightly alkaline conditions was studied. Mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was assessed by a reverse mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, and an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using Chinese hamster lung cell line (CHL/IU). No mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was detected under these experimental conditions. Oral administration of single dose (15,000 mg/kg) of rare sugar syrup to rats caused no abnormalities, suggesting no adverse effect of rare sugar syrup. In humans, the acute non-effect level of rare sugar syrup for causing diarrhea was estimated as 0.9 g/kg body weight as dry solid base in both males and females.

  7. Shortened estrous cycle length, increased FSH levels, FSH variance, oocyte spindle aberrations, and early declining fertility in aging senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice: concomitant characteristics of human midlife female reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Kraemer, Duane C; Morley, John E; Farr, Susan; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2014-06-01

    Women experience a series of specific transitions in their reproductive function with age. Shortening of the menstrual cycle begins in the mid to late 30s and is regarded as the first sign of reproductive aging. Other early changes include elevation and increased variance of serum FSH levels, increased incidences of oocyte spindle aberrations and aneuploidy, and declining fertility. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the mouse strain senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) is a suitable model for the study of these midlife reproductive aging characteristics. Midlife SAMP8 mice aged 6.5-7.85 months (midlife SAMP8) exhibited shortened estrous cycles compared with SAMP8 mice aged 2-3 months (young SAMP8, P = .0040). Midlife SAMP8 mice had high FSH levels compared with young SAMP8 mice, and mice with a single day of high FSH exhibited statistically elevated FSH throughout the cycle, ranging from 1.8- to 3.6-fold elevation on the days of proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus (P < .05). Midlife SAMP8 mice displayed more variance in FSH than young SAMP8 mice (P = .01). Midlife SAMP8 ovulated fewer oocytes (P = .0155). SAMP8 oocytes stained with fluorescently labeled antitubulin antibodies and scored in fluorescence microscopy exhibited increased incidence of meiotic spindle aberrations with age, from 2/126 (1.59%) in young SAMP8 to 38/139 (27.3%) in midlife SAMP8 (17.2-fold increase, P < .0001). Finally, SAMP8 exhibited declining fertility from 8.9 pups/litter in young SAMP8 to 3.5 pups/litter in midlife SAMP8 mice (P < .0001). The age at which these changes occur is younger than for most mouse strains, and their simultaneous occurrence within a single strain has not been described previously. We propose that SAMP8 mice are a model of midlife human female reproductive aging.

  8. Cholesterol and Statins

    MedlinePlus

    ... es th se en d In the intestines, fat, carbohydrates and proteins are broken down. These nutrients are ... as the primary treatment. Eating a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet should help lower your LDL (bad ...

  9. All about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... more information. J If you smoke or use e-cigarettes, quit. J Lose weight if needed. Eating healthy, ... lower LDL cholesterol. They also help lower your risk for a heart attack or stroke. Adults with ...

  10. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor); Hua, Duy H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  11. Niacin for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... cholesterol. Research now suggests that niacin does not add to the benefit of a statin alone for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events, including heart attacks and stroke. In addition, niacin ...

  12. Cholesterol testing and results

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results; Heart disease - cholesterol results ... at an earlier age if you have: Diabetes Heart disease Stroke High blood pressure A strong family history ...

  13. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes.

    PubMed

    Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05). The mean triglyceride and total body weight were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the exposed group when compared with the unexposed. The plasma level of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.

  14. Discordant response of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) levels to monoclonal antibodies targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9.

    PubMed

    Edmiston, Jonathan B; Brooks, Nathan; Tavori, Hagai; Minnier, Jessica; Duell, Bart; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Kaufman, Tina; Wojcik, Cezary; Voros, Szilard; Fazio, Sergio; Shapiro, Michael D

    Clinical trials testing proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) have demonstrated an unanticipated but significant lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a))-lowering effect, on the order of 25% to 30%. Although the 50% to 60% reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C) achieved by PCSK9i is mediated through its effect on LDL receptor (LDLR) preservation, the mechanism for Lp(a) lowering is unknown. We sought to characterize the degree of concordance between LDL-C and Lp(a) lowering because of PCSK9i in a standard of care patient cohort. Participants were selected from our Center for Preventive Cardiology, an outpatient referral center in a tertiary academic medical center. Subjects were included in this study if they had (1) at least 1 measurement of LDL-C and Lp(a) before and after initiation of the PCSK9i; (2) baseline Lp(a) > 10 mg/dL; and (3) continued adherence to PCSK9i therapy. They were excluded if (1) they were undergoing LDL apheresis; (2) pre- or post-PCSK9i LDL-C or Lp(a) laboratory values were censored; or (3) subjects discontinued other lipid-modifying therapies. In total, 103 subjects were identified as taking a PCSK9i and 26 met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Concordant response to therapy was defined as an LDL-C reduction >35% and an Lp(a) reduction >10%. The cohort consisted of 26 subjects (15 females, 11 males, mean age 63 ± 12 years). Baseline mean LDL-C and median Lp(a) levels were 167.4 ± 72 mg/dL and 81 mg/dL (interquartile range 38-136 mg/dL), respectively. The average percent reductions in LDL-C and Lp(a) were 52.8% (47.0-58.6) and 20.2% (12.2-28.1). The correlation between %LDL and %Lp(a) reduction was moderate, with a Spearman's correlation of 0.56 (P < .01). All subjects except for 1 had a protocol-appropriate LDL-C response to therapy. However, only 16 of the 26 (62%; 95% confidence interval 41%-82%) subjects had a protocol-concordant Lp(a) response. Although some subjects demonstrated

  15. Surgical and healing changes to ocular aberrations following refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jochen; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To measure ocular aberrations before and at several time periods after LASIK surgery to determine the change to the aberration structure of the eye. Methods: A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure 88 LASIK patients pre-operatively and at 1 week and 12 months following surgery. Reconstructed wavefront errors are compared to look at induced differences. Manifest refraction was measured at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months following surgery. Sphere, cylinder, spherical aberration, and pupil diameter are analyzed. Results: A dramatic elevation in spherical aberration is seen following surgery. This elevation appears almost immediately and remains for the duration of the study. A temporary increase in pupil size is seen following surgery. Conclusions: LASIK surgery dramatically reduces defocus and astigmatism in the eye, but simultaneously increases spherical aberration levels. This increase occurs at the time of surgery and is not an effect of the healing response.

  16. High hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic increases the HDL cholesterol level via up-regulation of apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of mortality worldwide and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is an important marker of CVD risk. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been widely used in the clinic for treatment of CVD and regulation of lipid metabolism. This study investigated the effects of a high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) on HDL-C level and regulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) gene expression. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two groups and maintained on a high-fat control diet (CON) or high-fat control diet supplemented with high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) for 5 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes related to HDL-C metabolism were analyzed in liver, together with biometric and blood parameters. Results In the HEG group, the plasma triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased in comparison with the CON group (P < 0.05). Dietary HEG also lowered the hepatic TG and total cholesterol (TC) levels compared to the CON group. While the plasma HDL-C level and mRNA level of hepatic apoA-I, which is one of primarily proteins of HDL-C particle, were significantly increased in the HEG group compared to the CON group (P < 0.05). The gene expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), importantly involved in the biogenesis in HDL, were also up-regulated by dietary HEG. Conclusions These results suggest that HEG ameliorates plasma lipid profiles and attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in the high-fat fed rats. Our findings provides that the effects of HEG on the increase of the plasma HDL-C level was at least partially mediated by up-regulation of hepatic genes expression such as apoA-I, ABCA1, and LCAT in rats fed a high-fat diet. PMID:22713542

  17. High hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic increases the HDL cholesterol level via up-regulation of apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seohyun; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Yangha

    2012-06-19

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of mortality worldwide and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is an important marker of CVD risk. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been widely used in the clinic for treatment of CVD and regulation of lipid metabolism. This study investigated the effects of a high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) on HDL-C level and regulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and maintained on a high-fat control diet (CON) or high-fat control diet supplemented with high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) for 5 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes related to HDL-C metabolism were analyzed in liver, together with biometric and blood parameters. In the HEG group, the plasma triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased in comparison with the CON group (P < 0.05). Dietary HEG also lowered the hepatic TG and total cholesterol (TC) levels compared to the CON group. While the plasma HDL-C level and mRNA level of hepatic apoA-I, which is one of primarily proteins of HDL-C particle, were significantly increased in the HEG group compared to the CON group (P < 0.05). The gene expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), importantly involved in the biogenesis in HDL, were also up-regulated by dietary HEG. These results suggest that HEG ameliorates plasma lipid profiles and attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in the high-fat fed rats. Our findings provides that the effects of HEG on the increase of the plasma HDL-C level was at least partially mediated by up-regulation of hepatic genes expression such as apoA-I, ABCA1, and LCAT in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  18. Elevated Cholesterol in the Coxiella burnetii Intracellular Niche Is Bacteriolytic

    PubMed Central

    Mulye, Minal; Samanta, Dhritiman; Winfree, Seth; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and a significant cause of culture-negative endocarditis in the United States. Upon infection, the nascent Coxiella phagosome fuses with the host endocytic pathway to form a large lysosome-like vacuole called the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV membrane is rich in sterols, and drugs perturbing host cell cholesterol homeostasis inhibit PV formation and bacterial growth. Using cholesterol supplementation of a cholesterol-free cell model system, we found smaller PVs and reduced Coxiella growth as cellular cholesterol concentration increased. Further, we observed in cells with cholesterol a significant number of nonfusogenic PVs that contained degraded bacteria, a phenotype not observed in cholesterol-free cells. Cholesterol had no effect on axenic Coxiella cultures, indicating that only intracellular bacteria are sensitive to cholesterol. Live-cell microscopy revealed that both plasma membrane-derived cholesterol and the exogenous cholesterol carrier protein low-density lipoprotein (LDL) traffic to the PV. To test the possibility that increasing PV cholesterol levels affects bacterial survival, infected cells were treated with U18666A, a drug that traps cholesterol in lysosomes and PVs. U18666A treatment led to PVs containing degraded bacteria and a significant loss in bacterial viability. The PV pH was significantly more acidic in cells with cholesterol or cells treated with U18666A, and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin blocked cholesterol-induced PV acidification and bacterial death. Additionally, treatment of infected HeLa cells with several FDA-approved cholesterol-altering drugs led to a loss of bacterial viability, a phenotype also rescued by bafilomycin. Collectively, these data suggest that increasing PV cholesterol further acidifies the PV, leading to Coxiella death. PMID:28246364

  19. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  20. Impact of a public cholesterol screening program.

    PubMed

    Fischer, P M; Guinan, K H; Burke, J J; Karp, W B; Richards, J W

    1990-12-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has endorsed physician case finding as the primary method to detect individuals with elevated cholesterol levels. Despite this recommendation, promotional and for-profit public screening programs have flourished. We surveyed participants of a mall-based cholesterol screening program 1 year after their screening. Sixty-four percent of those screened had not previously known their cholesterol levels. Those who were newly screened were less likely to benefit from this testing than the general public, since they were older (mean age, 55.3 years), more likely to be female (67.4%), and nonsmokers (88%). Screenees had excellent recall of their cholesterol level (mean absolute reporting error, 0.24 mmol/L [9 mg/dL]) and a good understanding of cholesterol as a coronary heart disease risk. Those with elevated cholesterol levels reported high distress from screening but no reduction in overall psychosocial well-being and an actual decrease in absenteeism. Only 53.7% of all who were advised to seek follow-up because of an elevated screening value had done so within the year following the screening program. However, of those with values greater than 6.2 mmol/L (240 mg/dL), 68% had sought follow-up. Many of those who participate in public screening programs have been previously tested, fall into low-benefit groups, or fail to comply with recommended follow-up. We therefore conclude that cholesterol screening programs of the type now commonly offered are unlikely to contribute greatly to the national efforts to further reduce coronary heart disease.

  1. Human cytomegalovirus UL76 induces chromosome aberrations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is known to induce chromosome aberrations in infected cells, which can lead to congenital abnormalities in infected fetuses. HCMV UL76 belongs to a conserved protein family from herpesviruses. Some reported roles among UL76 family members include involvement in virulence determination, lytic replication, reactivation of latent virus, modulation of gene expression, induction of apoptosis, and perturbation of cell cycle progression, as well as potential nuclease activity. Previously, we have shown that stable expression of UL76 inhibits HCMV replication in glioblastoma cells. Methods To examine chromosomal integrity and the DNA damage signal γ-H2AX in cells constitutively expressing UL76, immunofluorescent cell staining and Western blotting were performed. The comet assay was employed to assess DNA breaks in cells transiently expressing UL76. Results We report that stably transfected cells expressing UL76 developed chromosome aberrations including micronuclei and misaligned chromosomes, lagging and bridging. In mitotic cells expressing UL76, aberrant spindles were increased compared to control cells. However, cells with supernumerary centrosomes were marginally increased in UL76-expressing cells relative to control cells. We further demonstrated that UL76-expressing cells activated the DNA damage signal γ-H2AX and caused foci formation in nuclei. In addition, the number of cells with DNA breaks increased in proportion to UL76 protein levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the virus-associated protein UL76 induces DNA damage and the accumulation of chromosome aberrations. PMID:19930723

  2. Non-cholesterol sterols and cholesterol metabolism in sitosterolemia.

    PubMed

    Othman, Rgia A; Myrie, Semone B; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-12-01

    Sitosterolemia (STSL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, manifested by extremely elevated plant sterols (PS) in plasma and tissue, leading to xanthoma and premature atherosclerotic disease. Therapeutic approaches include limiting PS intake, interrupting enterohepatic circulation of bile acid using bile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, and/or ileal bypass, and inhibiting intestinal sterol absorption by ezetimibe (EZE). The objective of this review is to evaluate sterol metabolism in STSL and the impact of the currently available treatments on sterol trafficking in this disease. The role of PS in initiation of xanthomas and premature atherosclerosis is also discussed. Blocking sterols absorption with EZE has revolutionized STSL patient treatment as it reduces circulating levels of non-cholesterol sterols in STSL. However, none of the available treatments including EZE have normalized plasma PS concentrations. Future studies are needed to: (i) explore where cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols accumulate, (ii) assess to what extent these sterols in tissues can be mobilized after blocking their absorption, and (iii) define the factors governing sterol flux. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Serum level of triglycerides is a potent risk factor comparable to LDL cholesterol for coronary heart disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: subanalysis of the Japan Diabetes Complications Study (JDCS).

    PubMed

    Sone, Hirohito; Tanaka, Sachiko; Tanaka, Shiro; Iimuro, Satoshi; Oida, Koji; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Oikawa, Shinichi; Ishibashi, Shun; Katayama, Shigehiro; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2011-11-01

    Risk factors for cardiovascular complications in Japanese patients with diabetes have not been fully elucidated. Our objective was to determine incidence of and risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in Japanese diabetic patients. We conducted a prospective study at 59 hospitals throughout Japan. Patients included 940 men and 831 women with type 2 diabetes (mean age, 58.2 yr) without a history of cardiovascular complications who were followed for a median of 7.86 yr. This was an observational study. Incidence of CHD and stroke was evaluated. Incidences of CHD and stroke per 1000 person-years were 9.59 and 7.45, respectively, whereas those of myocardial and brain infarctions were 3.84 and 6.29, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that the serum log-transformed triglyceride level was a potent and independent predictor of CHD [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-1.94 per 1 sd increase), comparable to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (HR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.25-1.78 per 1 sd increase). Triglycerides and LDL cholesterol linearly and continuously increased CHD risk, and subjects in the top third for both had markedly high risks of CHD, and their effects were possibly additive. However, serum triglycerides worked independently of blood pressure levels. Systolic blood pressure was the only significant predictor for stroke except for age (HR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.04-1.65, per 1 sd increase). In Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, the serum triglyceride level was a leading predictor of CHD, comparable to LDL cholesterol. Because the serum triglyceride level is not a leading predictor of CHD in diabetic subjects in Western countries, ethnic group-specific strategies for prevention of diabetic macroangiopathy may be indicated.

  4. Effect of Chromium Niacinate and Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Lipid Peroxidation, TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, Glycated Hemoglobin, Triglycerides and Cholesterol Levels in blood of Streptozotocin-treated Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sushil K.; Rains, Justin L.; Croad, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromium (Cr3+) supplementation facilitate normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1), cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (ip, 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, Cr-N or Cr-P (400 µg Cr/Kg BW) was administered by gavages daily for 7 wks. Blood was collected by heart puncture using light anesthesia. Diabetes caused a significant increase in blood levels of TNF-α, IL-6, glucose, HbA1, cholesterol, TG and LP. Compared with D, Cr-N supplementation lowered the blood levels of TNF-α (p=0.04), IL-6 (p=0.02), CRP (p=0.02) LP (p=0.01), HbA1 (p=0.02), TG (p=0.04) and cholesterol (p=0.04). Compared with D, Cr-P supplementation showed a decrease in TNF-α (p=0.02), IL-6 (p=0.02) and LP (p=0.01). Chromium niacinate lowers blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, CRP), oxidative stress and lipids levels in diabetic rats, and appears to be more effective form of Cr3+-supplementation. This study suggests that Cr3+-supplementation can lower risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes. PMID:17854708

  5. Effect of chromium niacinate and chromium picolinate supplementation on lipid peroxidation, TNF-alpha, IL-6, CRP, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels in blood of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sushil K; Rains, Justin L; Croad, Jennifer L

    2007-10-15

    Chromium (Cr(3+)) supplementation facilitates normal protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by the public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-alpha, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1)), cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (ip, 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, Cr-N, or Cr-P (400 microg Cr/kg BW) was administered by gavages daily for 7 weeks. Blood was collected by heart puncture using light anesthesia. Diabetes caused a significant increase in blood levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, glucose, HbA(1), cholesterol, TG, and LP. Compared with D, Cr-N supplementation lowered the blood levels of TNF-alpha (P=0.04), IL-6 (P=0.02), CRP (P=0.02), LP (P=0.01), HbA(1) (P=0.02), TG (P=0.04), and cholesterol (P=0.04). Compared with D, Cr-P supplementation showed a decrease in TNF-alpha (P=0.02), IL-6 (P=0.02), and LP (P=0.01). Chromium niacinate lowers blood levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, CRP), oxidative stress, and lipids levels in diabetic rats, and appears to be a more effective form of Cr(3+) supplementation. This study suggests that Cr(3+) supplementation can lower the risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes.

  6. Lethality of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human tumour cell lines with different radiosensitivities.

    PubMed

    Coco-Martin, J M; Ottenheim, C P; Bartelink, H; Begg, A C

    1996-03-01

    In order to find an explanation for the eventual disappearance of all chromosome aberrations in two radiosensitive human tumour cell lines, the type and stability of different aberration types was investigated in more detail. To classify the aberrations into unstable and stable types, three-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed, including a whole-chromosome probe, a pancentromere probe, and a stain for total DNA. This technique enables the appropriate classification of the aberrations principally by the presence (stable) or not (unstable) of a single centromere per chromosome. Unstable-type aberrations were found to disappear within 7 days (several divisions) in the two radiosensitive and the two radioresistant tumour lines investigated. Stable-type aberrations were found to remain at an approximately constant level over the duration of the experiment (14 days; 8-10 divisions) in the two radioresistant lines. In contrast, the majority of these stable-type aberrations had disappeared by 14 days in the two radiosensitive lines. The previous findings of disappearance of total aberrations in radiosensitive cells was therefore not due to a reduced induction of stable-type aberrations, but the complete disappearance of cells with this aberration type. These results could not be explained by differences in apoptosis or G1 blocks. Two possible explanations for these unexpected findings involve non-random induction of unstable-type aberrations, or lethality of stable-type aberrations. The results suggest caution in the use of stable-type aberration numbers as a predictor for radiosensitivity.

  7. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides Updated:May 3,2018 Cholesterol isn’ ... be measured by a blood test. LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is called “bad” cholesterol. Think of ...

  8. Cholesterol catalyses Aβ42 aggregation through a heterogeneous nucleation pathway in the presence of lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habchi, Johnny; Chia, Sean; Galvagnion, Céline; Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Bellaiche, Mathias M. J.; Ruggeri, Francesco Simone; Sanguanini, Michele; Idini, Ilaria; Kumita, Janet R.; Sparr, Emma; Linse, Sara; Dobson, Christopher M.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2018-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the aberrant aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide. Although increasing evidence implicates cholesterol in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, the detailed mechanistic link between this lipid molecule and the disease process remains to be fully established. To address this problem, we adopt a kinetics-based strategy that reveals a specific catalytic role of cholesterol in the aggregation of Aβ42 (the 42-residue form of the amyloid-β peptide). More specifically, we demonstrate that lipid membranes containing cholesterol promote Aβ42 aggregation by enhancing its primary nucleation rate by up to 20-fold through a heterogeneous nucleation pathway. We further show that this process occurs as a result of cooperativity in the interaction of multiple cholesterol molecules with Aβ42. These results identify a specific microscopic pathway by which cholesterol dramatically enhances the onset of Aβ42 aggregation, thereby helping rationalize the link between Alzheimer's disease and the impairment of cholesterol homeostasis.

  9. Reduction of blood serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    By feeding a human subject as the sole source of sustenance a defined diet wherein the carbohydrate consists substantially entirely of glucose, maltose or a polysaccharide of glucose, the blood serum cholesterol level of the human subject is substantially reduced. If 25 percent of the carbohydrate is subsequently supplied in the form of sucrose, an immediate increase from the reduced level is observed. The remainder of the defined diet normally includes a source of amino acids, such as protein or a protein hydrolysate, vitamins, minerals and a source of essential fatty acid.

  10. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  11. Pitfalls in the detection of cholesterol in Huntington's disease models.

    PubMed

    Marullo, Manuela; Valenza, Marta; Leoni, Valerio; Caccia, Claudio; Scarlatti, Chiara; De Mario, Agnese; Zuccato, Chiara; Di Donato, Stefano; Carafoli, Ernesto; Cattaneo, Elena

    2012-10-11

    Background Abnormalities in brain cholesterol homeostasis have been reported in Huntington's disease (HD), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion in the number of CAG repeats in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. However, the results have been contradictory with respect to whether cholesterol levels increase or decrease in HD models. Biochemical and mass spectrometry methods show reduced levels of cholesterol precursors and cholesterol in HD cells and in the brains of several HD animal models. Abnormal brain cholesterol homeostasis was also inferred from studies in HD patients. In contrast, colorimetric and enzymatic methods indicate cholesterol accumulation in HD cells and tissues. Here we used several methods to investigate cholesterol levels in cultured cells in the presence or absence of mutant HTT protein. Results Colorimetric and enzymatic methods with low sensitivity gave variable results, whereas results from a sensitive analytical method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were more reliable. Sample preparation, high cell density and cell clonality also influenced the detection of intracellular cholesterol. Conclusions Detection of cholesterol in HD samples by colorimetric and enzymatic assays should be supplemented by detection using more sensitive analytical methods. Care must be taken to prepare the sample appropriately. By evaluating lathosterol levels using isotopic dilution mass spectrometry, we confirmed reduced cholesterol biosynthesis in knock-in cells expressing the polyQ mutation in a constitutive or inducible manner. *Correspondence should be addressed to Elena Cattaneo: elena.cattaneo@unimi.it.

  12. Aberrations associated with rigid contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Atchison, D A

    1995-10-01

    A rigid contact lens on an eye can produce levels of spherical aberration very different from those produced by a spectacle lens in front of the eye. These levels are considerably affected by contact lens surface asphericity. Change in longitudinal spherical aberration associated with aspherizing a contact lens surface is well predicted by a simple equation for change in sagittal power of the surface. Displacing an aspheric contact lens on the eye can produce considerable defocus, which is well predicted by simple equations for change in sagittal and tangential surface powers. The best refractive correction with contact lenses can be determined only by overrefraction with a patient wearing a contact lens of power and characteristics similar to that which will be prescribed. An aspheric contact lens that moves to a considerable extent on the eye will cause more unstable vision than will a spherical lens that moves to the same extent.

  13. Cholesterol and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while cholesterol lowering strategies may confer protective benefit. Relevant molecular processes that have been experimentally tested and might explain these associations are described. We suggest that these promising results now could be applied prospectively to attempt to lower risk of prostate cancer in select populations. PMID:22824430

  14. Effect of atorvastatin, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibition, and diabetes mellitus on circulating proprotein subtilisin kexin type 9 and lipoprotein(a) levels in patients at high cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Benoit J; Petrides, Francine; Tabet, Fatiha; Bao, Weihang; Hovingh, G Kees; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Ramin-Mangata, Stéphane; Meilhac, Olivier; DeMicco, David; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Waters, David D; Kastelein, John J P; Barter, Philip; Lambert, Gilles

    Proprotein subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels are causative risk factors for coronary heart disease. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of lipid-lowering treatments on circulating PCSK9 and Lp(a). We measured PCSK9 and Lp(a) levels in plasma samples from Investigation of Lipid Level Management to Understand its Impact in Atherosclerotic Events trial patients with coronary heart disease and/or type II diabetes (T2D) mellitus. Patients received atorvastatin, which was titrated (10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/d) to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <100 mg/dL (baseline) and were subsequently randomized either to atorvastatin + torcetrapib, a cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor, or to atorvastatin + placebo. At baseline, both plasma PCSK9 and Lp(a) were dose-dependently increased with increasing atorvastatin doses. Compared with patients without T2D, those with T2D had higher PCSK9 (357 ± 123 vs 338 ± 115 ng/mL, P = .0012) and lower Lp(a) levels (28 ± 32 vs 32 ± 33 mg/dL, P = .0005). Plasma PCSK9 levels significantly increased in patients treated with torcetrapib (+13.1 ± 125.3 ng/mL [+3.7%], P = .005), but not in patients treated with placebo (+2.6 ± 127.9 ng/mL [+0.7%], P = .39). Plasma Lp(a) levels significantly decreased in patients treated with torcetrapib (-3.4 ± 10.7 mg/dL [-11.1%], P < .0001), but not in patients treated with placebo (+0.3 ± 9.4 mg/dL [+0.1%], P = .92). In patients at high cardiovascular disease risk, PCSK9 and Lp(a) are positively and dose-dependently correlated with atorvastatin dosage, whereas the presence of T2D is associated with higher PCSK9 but lower Lp(a) levels. Cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibition with torcetrapib slightly increases PCSK9 levels and decreases Lp(a) levels. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Population dynamics of aberrant chromosome 1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Sabantsev, I; Spitsin, O; Agulnik, S; Ruvinsky, A

    1993-05-01

    Natural populations of two semispecies of house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m. musculus, were found to be polymorphic for an aberrant chromosome 1 bearing a large inserted block of homogeneously staining heterochromatin. Strong meiotic drive for the aberrant chromosome from M.m. musculus was previously observed in heterozygous female mice. There are at least three meiotic drive levels determined by different allelic variants of distorter. Homozygotes had low viability and females showed low fertility. Both homo- and heterozygous males had normal fertility and their segregation patterns did not deviate from normal. Computer simulations were performed of the dynamics of aberrant chromosome 1 in demes and populations. The data demonstrate that a spontaneous mutation (inversion) of an aberrant chromosome 1, once arisen, has a high probability of spreading in a population at high coefficients of meiotic drive and migration. In the long-term, the population attains a stationary state which is determined by the drive level and migration intensity. The state of stable genotypic equilibrium is independent of deme and population size, as well as of the initial concentration of the aberrant chromosome. As populations initially polymorphic for the distorters approach the stationary state, the stronger distorter is eliminated. The frequencies of the aberrant chromosome determined by computer analysis agree well with those obtained for the studied Asian M.m. musculus populations. The evolutionary pathways for the origin and fixation of the aberrant chromosome in natural populations are considered.

  16. Cholesterol and myelin biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Saher, Gesine; Simons, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Myelin consists of several layers of tightly compacted membranes wrapped around axons in the nervous system. The main function of myelin is to provide electrical insulation around the axon to ensure the rapid propagation of nerve conduction. As the myelinating glia terminally differentiates, they begin to produce myelin membranes on a remarkable scale. This membrane is unique in its composition being highly enriched in lipids, in particular galactosylceramide and cholesterol. In this review we will summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system.

  17. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  18. Breast cancer brain metastases show increased levels of genomic aberration based homologous recombination deficiency scores relative to their corresponding primary tumors.

    PubMed

    Diossy, M; Reiniger, L; Sztupinszki, Z; Krzystanek, M; Timms, K M; Neff, C; Solimeno, C; Pruss, D; Eklund, A C; Tóth, E; Kiss, O; Rusz, O; Cserni, G; Zombori, T; Székely, B; Tímár, J; Csabai, I; Szallasi, Z

    2018-06-18

    Based on its mechanism of action, PARP inhibitor therapy is expected to benefit mainly tumor cases with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD). Therefore, identification of tumor types with increased HRD is important for the optimal use of this class of therapeutic agents. HRD levels can be estimated using various mutational signatures from next generation sequencing data and we used this approach to determine whether breast cancer brain metastases show altered levels of HRD scores relative to their corresponding primary tumor. We used a previously published next generation sequencing dataset of twenty-one matched primary breast cancer/brain metastasis pairs to derive the various mutational signatures/HRD scores strongly associated with HRD. We also performed the myChoice HRD analysis on an independent cohort of seventeen breast cancer patients with matched primary/brain metastasis pairs. All of the mutational signatures indicative of HRD showed a significant increase in the brain metastases relative to their matched primary tumor in the previously published whole exome sequencing dataset. In the independent validation cohort the myChoice HRD assay showed an increased level in 87.5% of the brain metastases relative to the primary tumor, with 56% of brain metastases being HRD positive according to the myChoice criteria. The consistent observation that brain metastases of breast cancer tend to have higher HRD measures may raise the possibility that brain metastases may be more sensitive to PARP inhibitor treatment. This observation warrants further investigation to assess whether this increase is common to other metastatic sites as well, and whether clinical trials should adjust their strategy in the application of HRD measures for the prioritization of patients for PARP inhibitor therapy.

  19. Baseline frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals living in Turin (North-Western Italy): assessment of the effects of age, sex and GSTs gene polymorphisms on the levels of genomic damage.

    PubMed

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2016-05-01

    The increased exposure to environmental pollutants has led to the awareness of the necessity for constant monitoring of human populations, especially those living in urban areas. This study evaluated the background levels of genomic damage in a sample of healthy subjects living in the urban area of Turin (Italy). The association between DNA damage with age, sex and GSTs polymorphisms was assessed. One hundred and one individuals were randomly sampled. Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCEs) and Chromosomal Aberrations (CAs) assays, as well as genotyping of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes, were performed. Mean values of SCEs and CAs were 5.137 ± 0.166 and 0.018 ± 0.002, respectively. Results showed age and gender associated with higher frequencies of these two cytogenetic markers. The eldest subjects (51-65 years) showed significantly higher levels of genomic damage than younger individuals. GSTs polymorphisms did not appear to significantly influence the frequencies of either markers. The CAs background frequency observed in this study is one of the highest reported among European populations. Turin is one of the most polluted cities in Europe in terms of air fine PM10 and ozone and the clastogenic potential of these pollutants may explain the high frequencies of chromosomal rearrangements reported here.

  20. Ocular higher-order aberrations in a school children population.

    PubMed

    Papamastorakis, George; Panagopoulou, Sophia; Tsilimbaris, Militadis K; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Plainis, Sotiris

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to explore the statistics of ocular higher-order aberrations in a population of primary and secondary school children. A sample of 557 children aged 10-15 years were selected from two primary and two secondary schools in Heraklion, Greece. Children were classified by age in three subgroups: group I (10.7±0.5 years), group II (12.4±0.5 years) and group III (14.5±0.5 years). Ocular aberrations were measured using a wavefront aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences, USA) at mesopic light levels (illuminance at cornea was 4lux). Wavefront analysis was achieved for a 5mm pupil. Statistical analysis was carried out for the right eye only. The average coefficient of most high-order aberrations did not differ from zero with the exception of vertical (0.076μm) and horizontal (0.018μm) coma, oblique trefoil (-0.055μm) and spherical aberration (0.018μm). The most prominent change between the three groups was observed for the spherical aberration, which increased from 0.007μm (SE 0.005) in group I to 0.011μm (SE 0.004) in group II and 0.030μm (SE 0.004) in group III. Significant differences were also found for the oblique astigmatism and the third-order coma aberrations. Differences in the low levels of ocular spherical aberration in young children possibly reflect differences in lenticular spherical aberration and relate to the gradient refractive index of the lens. The evaluation of spherical aberration at certain stages of eye growth may help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of myopia development. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Ocular higher-order aberrations in a school children population

    PubMed Central

    Papamastorakis, George; Panagopoulou, Sophia; Tsilimbaris, Militadis K.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Plainis, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of the study was to explore the statistics of ocular higher-order aberrations in a population of primary and secondary school children. Methods A sample of 557 children aged 10–15 years were selected from two primary and two secondary schools in Heraklion, Greece. Children were classified by age in three subgroups: group I (10.7 ± 0.5 years), group II (12.4 ± 0.5 years) and group III (14.5 ± 0.5 years). Ocular aberrations were measured using a wavefront aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences, USA) at mesopic light levels (illuminance at cornea was 4 lux). Wavefront analysis was achieved for a 5 mm pupil. Statistical analysis was carried out for the right eye only. Results The average coefficient of most high-order aberrations did not differ from zero with the exception of vertical (0.076 μm) and horizontal (0.018 μm) coma, oblique trefoil (−0.055 μm) and spherical aberration (0.018 μm). The most prominent change between the three groups was observed for the spherical aberration, which increased from 0.007 μm (SE 0.005) in group I to 0.011 μm (SE 0.004) in group II and 0.030 μm (SE 0.004) in group III. Significant differences were also found for the oblique astigmatism and the third-order coma aberrations. Conclusions Differences in the low levels of ocular spherical aberration in young children possibly reflect differences in lenticular spherical aberration and relate to the gradient refractive index of the lens. The evaluation of spherical aberration at certain stages of eye growth may help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of myopia development. PMID:25288226

  2. Elevated free nitrotyrosine levels, but not protein-bound nitrotyrosine or hydroxyl radicals, throughout amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like disease implicate tyrosine nitration as an aberrant in vivo property of one familial ALS-linked superoxide dismutase 1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Bruijn, L I; Beal, M F; Becher, M W; Schulz, J B; Wong, P C; Price, D L; Cleveland, D W

    1997-07-08

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1; EC 1.15.1.1) are responsible for a proportion of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through acquisition of an as-yet-unidentified toxic property or properties. Two proposed possibilities are that toxicity may arise from imperfectly folded mutant SOD1 catalyzing the nitration of tyrosines [Beckman, J. S., Carson, M., Smith, C. D. & Koppenol, W. H. (1993) Nature (London) 364, 584] through use of peroxynitrite or from peroxidation arising from elevated production of hydroxyl radicals through use of hydrogen peroxide as a substrate [Wiedau-Pazos, M., Goto, J. J., Rabizadeh, S., Gralla, E. D., Roe, J. A., Valentine, J. S. & Bredesen, D. E. (1996) Science 271, 515-518]. To test these possibilities, levels of nitrotyrosine and markers for hydroxyl radical formation were measured in two lines of transgenic mice that develop progressive motor neuron disease from expressing human familial ALS-linked SOD1 mutation G37R. Relative to normal mice or mice expressing high levels of wild-type human SOD1, 3-nitrotyrosine levels were elevated by 2- to 3-fold in spinal cords coincident with the earliest pathological abnormalities and remained elevated in spinal cord throughout progression of disease. However, no increases in protein-bound nitrotyrosine were found during any stage of SOD1-mutant-mediated disease in mice or at end stage of sporadic or SOD1-mediated familial human ALS. When salicylate trapping of hydroxyl radicals and measurement of levels of malondialdehyde were used, there was no evidence throughout disease progression in mice for enhanced production of hydroxyl radicals or lipid peroxidation, respectively. The presence of elevated nitrotyrosine levels beginning at the earliest stages of cellular pathology and continuing throughout progression of disease demonstrates that tyrosine nitration is one in vivo aberrant property of this ALS-linked SOD1 mutant.

  3. Effects of triple antioxidant combination (vitamin E, vitamin C and alpha-lipoic acid) with insulin on lipid and cholesterol levels and fatty acid composition of brain tissue in experimental diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Yusuf; Yilmaz, Okkeş; Oztürk, Ali Ihsan; Erşan, Yasemin

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the effects of a triple antioxidant combination (vitamins E (VE) and C (VC) plus alpha-lipoic acid (LA)) on the total lipid and cholesterol levels and the fatty acid composition of brain tissues in experimental diabetic and non-diabetic rats. VE and LA were injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg) four times per week and VC was provided as a supplement dissolved in the drinking water (50 mg/kg). In addition, rats in the diabetes 1 and D+VELAVC groups were given daily by subcutaneous insulin injections (8 IU/kg), but no insulin was given to rats in the diabetes 2 group. The results indicate that the brain lipid levels in the D+VELAVC, diabetes 1 and diabetes 2 groups were higher than in the control group (P<0.01). Total lipid was also higher in the non-diabetic rats treated with LA and VC. Total cholesterol was higher in the diabetes 1 and diabetes 2 groups (P<0.05) than in controls. Cholesterol levels were similar in the D+VELAVC and LA groups but lower in the VC, VE and VELAVC groups of non-diabetic rats (P<0.05 and P<0.01). In respect of fatty acid composition, palmitic acid levels were lower in the diabetes 2 and non-diabetic VE groups than the control group (P<0.05), but higher in the non-diabetic LA group (P<0.05). Oleic acid (18:1 n-9) levels were lower in the diabetic and non-diabetic groups than the control group (P<0.01), but higher in the non-diabetic LA group. Arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) levels were similar in the diabetes 1, D+VELAVC and control groups (P>0.05) but higher in the non-diabetic VE, VC, LA and VEVCLA groups (P<0.05) and lower in the diabetes 2 group (P<0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) was elevated in the diabetes 2 and VEVCLA groups (P<0.01, P<0.05). In conclusion, the current study confirmed that treatment with a triple combination of VE, VC and LA protects the arachidonic acid level in the brains of diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

  4. Cholesterol - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Cholesterol - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 1 May 2018

  5. From Evolution to Revolution: miRNAs as Pharmacological Targets for Modulating Cholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Alberto; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    There has been strong evolutionary pressure to ensure that an animal cell maintain levels of cholesterol within tight limits for normal function. Imbalances in cellular cholesterol levels are a major player in the development of different pathologies associated to dietary excess. Although epidemiological studies indicate that elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, recent genetic evidence and pharmacological therapies to raise HDL levels do not support their beneficial effects. Cholesterol efflux as the first and probably the most important step in reverse cholesterol transport is an important biological process relevant to HDL function. Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs), post-transcriptional control different aspects of cellular cholesterol homeostasis including cholesterol efflux. miRNA families miR-33, miR-758, miR-10b, miR-26 and miR-106b directly modulates cholesterol efflux by targeting the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). Pre-clinical studies with anti-miR therapies to inhibit some of these miRNAs have increased cellular cholesterol efflux, reverse cholesterol transport and reduce pathologies associated to dyslipidemia. Although miRNAs as therapy have benefits from existing antisense technology, different obstacles need to be solved before we incorporate such research into clinical care. Here we focus on the clinical potential of miRNAs as therapeutic target to increase cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport as a new alternative to ameliorate cholesterol-related pathologies. PMID:23435093

  6. [Utility of treatment with atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg versus atorvastatin 80 mg in reducing the levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack].

    PubMed

    Palacio, Enrique; Viadero-Cervera, Raquel; Revilla, Marián; Larrosa-Campo, Davinia; Acha-Salazar, Olga; Novo-Robledo, Francisco; Oterino, Agustín

    2016-03-01

    After an ischaemic stroke, to reduce LDL cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreases the risk of recurrence. The risk of recurrence is lower with more intense reductions in LDLc levels. To evaluate the efficacy and security of atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg after ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). We retrospectively evaluated stroke or TIA patients admitted to our hospital who received atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg (n = 34) or atorvastatin 80 mg (n = 52) at discharge. We analyzed changes in lipid parameters and established as a primary outcome LDLc <= 70 mg/dL and/or reduction in LDLc >= 50%. Furthermore, safety parameters were assessed. Predictors associated with primary outcome achievement were treatment with atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg (odds ratio: 11.94; 95% CI: 2.82-50.64; p = 0.001) and male (odds ratio: 4.76; 95% CI: 1.35-16.67; p = 0.02). Treatment with atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg achieved significantly greater reductions in LDLc (p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p < 0.001) and non-HDLc (p < 0.001). Both treatments were safe and well tolerated, with a low number of secondary effects. Compared with atorvastatin 80 mg, atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg increases the likelihood of achieving LDLc goals after ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Both treatments were safe and well tolerated.

  7. Inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in rats by sesamin.

    PubMed

    Hirose, N; Inoue, T; Nishihara, K; Sugano, M; Akimoto, K; Shimizu, S; Yamada, H

    1991-04-01

    The effects of sesamin, a lignan from sesame oil, on various aspects of cholesterol metabolism were examined in rats maintained on various dietary regimens. When given at a dietary level of 0.5% for 4 weeks, sesamin reduced the concentration of serum and liver cholesterol significantly irrespective of the presence or absence of cholesterol in the diet, except for one experiment in which the purified diet free of cholesterol was given. On feeding sesamin, there was a decrease in lymphatic absorption of cholesterol accompanying an increase in fecal excretion of neutral, but not acidic, steroids, particularly when the cholesterol-enriched diet was given. Sesamin inhibited micellar solubility of cholesterol, but not bile acids, whereas it neither bound taurocholate nor affected the absorption of fatty acids. Only a marginal proportion (ca. 0.15%) of sesamin administered intragastrically was recovered in the lymph. There was a significant reduction in the activity of liver microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase after feeding sesamin, although the activity of hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, drug metabolizing enzymes, and alcohol dehydrogenase remained uninfluenced. Although the weight and phospholipid concentration of the liver increased unequivocally on feeding sesamin, the histological examination by microscopy showed no abnormality, and the activity of serum GOT and GPT remained unchanged. Since sesamin lowered both serum and liver cholesterol levels by inhibiting absorption and synthesis of cholesterol simultaneously, it deserves further study as a possible hypocholesterolemic agent of natural origin.

  8. Meat fatty acid and cholesterol level of free-range broilers fed on grasshoppers on alpine rangeland in the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Zhiyun; Qin, Liping; Long, Ruijun

    2012-08-30

    Meat safety and nutrition are major concerns of consumers. The development of distinctive poultry production methods based on locally available natural resources is important. Grasshoppers are rich in important nutrients and occur in dense concentrations in most rangelands of northern China. Foraging chickens could be used to suppress grasshopper infestations. However, knowledge of the fatty acid content of meat from free-range broilers reared on alpine rangeland is required. Rearing conditions and diet did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid or the ratio of total n-6 to total n-3 fatty acids. Breast muscle of chickens that had consumed grasshoppers contained significantly (P < 0.05) less monounsaturated fatty acid, but the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)/SFA and contents of total n-3, total n-6 and PUFA were significantly (P > 0.05) higher than intensively reared birds. Compared with meat from intensively reared birds, meat from free-range broilers had less cholesterol and higher concentrations of total lipid and phospholipids. Chickens eating grasshoppers in rangeland produce superior quality meat and reduce the grasshopper populations that damage the pastures. This provides an economic system of enhanced poultry-meat production, which derives benefits from natural resources rather than artificial additives. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Variability of cholesterol accessibility in human red blood cells measured using a bacterial cholesterol-binding toxin

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Rima S; Ingham, Sally A; Kozlitina, Julia; Gay, Austin; Cohen, Jonathan C; Radhakrishnan, Arun; Hobbs, Helen H

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol partitions into accessible and sequestered pools in cell membranes. Here, we describe a new assay using fluorescently-tagged anthrolysin O, a cholesterol-binding bacterial toxin, to measure accessible cholesterol in human red blood cells (RBCs). Accessible cholesterol levels were stable within individuals, but varied >10 fold among individuals. Significant variation was observed among ethnic groups (Blacks>Hispanics>Whites). Variation in accessibility of RBC cholesterol was unrelated to the cholesterol content of RBCs or plasma, but was associated with the phospholipid composition of the RBC membranes and with plasma triglyceride levels. Pronase treatment of RBCs only modestly altered cholesterol accessibility. Individuals on hemodialysis, who have an unexplained increase in atherosclerotic risk, had significantly higher RBC cholesterol accessibility. Our data indicate that RBC accessible cholesterol is a stable phenotype with significant inter-individual variability. Factors both intrinsic and extrinsic to the RBC contribute to variation in its accessibility. This assay provides a new tool to assess cholesterol homeostasis among tissues in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23355.001 PMID:28169829

  10. Effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Zhang, Xi; Long, Xiaowen; Tao, Linli; Wang, Zhen; Niu, Guoyi; Kang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal (CSM) or rapeseed meal (RSM). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 550 g kg(-1) CSM or 450 g kg(-1) RSM with or without 9 g kg(-1) supplemental cholesterol. Growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with 450 g kg(-1) RSM were inferior to fish fed diets with 550 g kg(-1) CSM regardless of cholesterol level. Dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the growth rate of fish fed diets with RSM, and growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with CSM. Similarly, dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triiodothyronine levels, but decreased the plasma triglycerides and cortisol levels of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. In addition, supplemental cholesterol increased the free cholesterol and TC levels in intestinal contents, but decreased the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. These results indicate that 9 g kg(-1) cholesterol supplementation seems to improve the growth of rainbow trout fed diets with CSM or RSM, and the growth-promoting action may be related to the alleviation of the negative effects caused by antinutritional factors and/or make up for the deficiency of endogenous cholesterol in rainbow trout.

  11. [The effect of synchronization on estrus and pregnancy in sheep and on levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, 17 beta-estradiol, progesterone and cholesterol].

    PubMed

    Bekeová, E; Krajnicáková, M; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I

    1991-07-01

    Knowledge of pathogenesis of sexual dysfunctions at altered thyroid activity is limited by the knowledge of multiple and ubiquitous action of its hormones throughout the organism. One of the possibilities of modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on sexual functions can be realized through the participation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the synthesis and metabolism of primary substrate of steroid synthesis--cholesterol. The presented work is aimed at the study of simultaneous dynamic changes of concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), 17 beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) and cholesterol (Chol) during synchronization of the rutting period and gravidity at parallel correlative evaluation of mutual relations of the followed parameters in ten Merino sheep in the seasonal period. Synchronization was achieved by chlorsuperlutin (Agelin--vaginal swabs, Spofa; 20 mg of chlorsuperlutin/swab) and PMSG (500 I. U./animal). Blood was sampled by means of a jugular vein puncture at the time of swab insertion (-13th day) and after three (-10th day) and seven (-7th day) following days, at the removal of swabs and application of PMSG (-3rd day), on the day of insemination (zero day), on the 7th, 14th and 17th day and in the middle of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th month of gravidity. In the phase of oestrus synchronization a significant increase of E2 concentrations on days -7 and -3 of the experiment (0.47 +/- 0.079 and 0.542 +/- 0.177 nmol.l-1 of serum, P less than 0.001; P less than 0.001) was observed compared to the E2 values on day -13 (0.084 +/- 0.036 nmol.l-1 of serum). Parallel to these observations, marked intermittent changes of T4 (Tab. I, Graph 1) were recorded with the lowest values of this parameter observed on days -10 (41.75 +/- 20.23, P less than 0.05) and -3 (50.22 +/- 18.77, P less than 0.05) and the highest on day -7 (96.77 +/- 17.51 nmol.l-1, P less than 0.01) and day zero (85.40 +/- 19.59 nmol.l-1 of serum, P less than 0.05) in

  12. Predictors of Subclinical Inflammatory Obesity: Plasma Levels of Leptin, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and CD14 Expression of CD16+ Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda; Leite, Ângela; Santos, Ana; Lima, Margarida; Barbosa, Joselina; Cosentino, Marco; Ribeiro, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Objective Predictors of subclinical inflammatory obesity (SIO) can be important tools for early therapeutic interventions in obesity-related comorbidities. Waist circumference (WC) and BMI have different SIO sensitivity. We aimed to i) identify SIO predictors and ii) investigate whether CD16+ monocytes are associated with BMI- (generally) or WC-defined (centrally) obesity. Methods Anthropometric and metabolic/endocrine (namely catecholamines, adrenaline and noradrenaline) parameters were evaluated, and CD16+ monocytes were studied by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood from 63 blood donors, and compared and correlated to each other. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify variables that best predict SIO. Results CD16+ monocyte counts were similar in BMI and WC groups. CD16+ monocytes from centrally obese (CO) showed a more inflammatory pattern, as compared to non-CO subjects. WC was sensitive to lipidemia and, in CO subjects, lipidemia was associated with a more inflammatory phenotype of CD16+ monocytes. These differences were not noticed between BMI groups. Adrenaline was correlated with CD16+ monocyte expansion with a lower inflammatory pattern. Leptin, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and CD14 expression of CD16+ monocytes were found to be CO predictors. Conclusions WC-, but not BMI-defined obesity, was associated with a more inflammatory pattern of CD16+ monocytes, without monocyte expansion, suggesting that a monocyte maturation process rather than an independent arise of CD16+ monocytes occurs in CO. Thus, in a population with low cardiovascular risk, leptin, VLDL-C, and CD14 expression of CD16+ monocytes predict CO, constituting a putative tool for screening of SIO. PMID:28738359

  13. Cholesterol, APOE genotype, and Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Hall, K.; Murrell, J.; Ogunniyi, A.; Deeg, M.; Baiyewu, O.; Gao, S.; Gureje, O.; Dickens, J.; Evans, R.; Smith-Gamble, V.; Unverzagt, F.W.; Shen, J.; Hendrie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between cholesterol and other lipids, APOE genotype, and risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) in a population-based study of elderly Yoruba living in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods Blood samples and clinical data were collected from Yoruba study participants aged 70 years and older (N = 1,075) as part of the Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project, a longitudinal epidemiologic study of AD. Cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride levels were measured in fasting blood samples. DNA was extracted and APOE was genotyped. Diagnoses of AD were made by consensus using National Institute of Neurologic Disorders/Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria. Results Logistic regression models showed interaction after adjusting for age and gender between APOE-ε4 genotype and biomarkers in the risk of AD cholesterol*genotype (p = 0.022), LDL*genotype (p = 0.018), and triglyceride*genotype (p = 0.036). Increasing levels of cholesterol and LDL were associated with increased risk of AD in individuals without the APOE-ε4 allele, but not in those with APOE-ε4. There was no significant association between levels of triglycerides and AD risk in those without APOE-ε4. Conclusions There was a significant interaction between cholesterol, APOE-ε4, and the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) in the Yoruba, a population that has lower cholesterol levels and lower incidence rates of AD compared to African Americans. APOE status needs to be considered when assessing the relationship between lipid levels and AD risk in population studies. PMID:16434658

  14. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Martin; Velez-Carrasco, Wanda; Hudgins, Lisa C.; Breslow, Jan L.

    2001-01-01

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway. PMID:11606787

  15. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice.

    PubMed

    Merkel, M; Velez-Carrasco, W; Hudgins, L C; Breslow, J L

    2001-11-06

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway.

  16. Incremental replacement of saturated fats by n-3 fatty acids in high-fat, high-cholesterol diets reduces elevated plasma lipid levels and arterial lipoprotein lipase, macrophages and atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chuchun L; Torrejon, Claudia; Jung, Un Ju; Graf, Kristin; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of progressive substitution of dietary n-3 fatty acids (FA) for saturated FA (SAT) on modulating risk factors for atherosclerosis have not been fully defined. Our previous reports demonstrate that SAT increased, but n-3 FA decreased, arterial lipoprotein lipase (LpL) levels and arterial LDL-cholesterol deposition early in atherogenesis. We now questioned whether incremental increases in dietary n-3 FA can counteract SAT-induced pro-atherogenic effects in atherosclerosis-prone LDL-receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice and have identified contributing mechanisms. Mice were fed chow or high-fat diets enriched in SAT, n-3, or a combination of both SAT and n-3 in ratios of 3:1 (S:n-3 3:1) or 1:1 (S:n-3 1:1). Each diet resulted in the expected changes in fatty acid composition in blood and aorta for each feeding group. SAT-fed mice became hyperlipidemic. By contrast, n-3 inclusion decreased plasma lipid levels, especially cholesterol. Arterial LpL and macrophage levels were increased over 2-fold in SAT-fed mice but these were decreased with incremental replacement with n-3 FA. n-3 FA partial inclusion markedly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory markers (CD68, IL-6, and VCAM-1) in aorta. SAT diets accelerated advanced atherosclerotic lesion development, whereas all n-3 FA-containing diets markedly slowed atherosclerotic progression. Mechanisms whereby dietary n-3 FA may improve adverse cardiovascular effects of high-SAT, high-fat diets include improving plasma lipid profiles, increasing amounts of n-3 FA in plasma and the arterial wall. Even low levels of replacement of SAT by n-3 FA effectively reduce arterial lipid deposition by decreasing aortic LpL, macrophages and pro-inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, M S; van Tol, A; Vermunt, S H; Scheek, L M; Schaafsma, G; Hendriks, H F

    2001-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathway: cellular cholesterol efflux and plasma cholesterol esterification. Eleven healthy middle-aged men consumed four glasses (40 g of alcohol) of red wine, beer, spirits (Dutch gin), or carbonated mineral water (control) daily with evening dinner, for 3 weeks, according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. After 3 weeks of alcohol consumption the plasma ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity, measured with Fu5AH cells, was raised by 6.2% (P < 0.0001) and did not differ between the alcoholic beverages. Plasma cholesterol esterification was increased by 10.8% after alcohol (P = 0.008). Changes were statistically significant after beer and spirits, but not after red wine consumption (P = 0.16). HDL lipids changed after alcohol consumption; HDL total cholesterol, HDL cholesteryl ester, HDL free cholesterol, HDL phospholipids and plasma apolipoprotein A-I all increased (P < 0.01). In conclusion, alcohol consumption stimulates cellular cholesterol efflux and its esterification in plasma. These effects were mostly independent of the kind of alcoholic beverage

  18. [Effects of vitamin C administration on cholesterol gallstone formation].

    PubMed

    del Pozo, Reginald; Muñoz, Mirna; Dumas, Andrés; Tapia, Claudio; Muñoz, Katia; Fuentes, Felipe; Maldonado, Mafalda; Jüngst, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol is transported by vesicles and micelles. Cholesterol microcrystals are derived from thermodynamically unstable vesicles. In experimental animals vitamin C deficiency leads to a super-saturation of biliary cholesterol and to the formation of gallstones. To search for a possible relationship between serum levels of vitamin C and the formation of cholesterol gallstones in patients with cholelithiasis. Thirteen patients with cholelithiasis and a programmed surgical intervention were treated with 2 g/day of vitamin C per os for two weeks before surgery. Forty nine patients subjected to a cholecystectomy not supplemented with vitamin C were studied as controls. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and lipid profiles were measured. The cholesterol saturation index, crystallization time, cholesterol and phospholipid content in vesicles and micelles, separated by gel filtration chromatography, were studied in bile samples obtained from the gallbladder. Vitamin C supplementation did not change significantly plasma lipids and bile lipid concentrations. However, in supplemented patients, significant reductions in vesicular cholesterol content (6.5 ± 4.8% compared to 17.9 ± 14.0% in the control group; p < 0.05) and vesicular cholesterol/phospholipid ratio (0.71 ± 0.53 compared to 1.36 ± 1.15 in controls; p < 0.05), were observed. Vitamin C administration may modify bile cholesterol crystallization process, the first step in cholesterol gallstone formation.

  19. Lipoproteins, cholesterol homeostasis and cardiac health.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Tyler F; Killinger, Karen M; Michal, Jennifer J; Wright, Raymond W; Jiang, Zhihua

    2009-06-29

    Cholesterol is an essential substance involved in many functions, such as maintaining cell membranes, manufacturing vitamin D on surface of the skin, producing hormones, and possibly helping cell connections in the brain. When cholesterol levels rise in the blood, they can, however, have dangerous consequences. In particular, cholesterol has generated considerable notoriety for its causative role in atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in developed countries around the world. Homeostasis of cholesterol is centered on the metabolism of lipoproteins, which mediate transport of the lipid to and from tissues. As a synopsis of the major events and proteins that manage lipoprotein homeostasis, this review contributes to the substantial attention that has recently been directed to this area. Despite intense scrutiny, the majority of phenotypic variation in total cholesterol and related traits eludes explanation by current genetic knowledge. This is somewhat disappointing considering heritability estimates have established these traits as highly genetic. Thus, the continued search for candidate genes, mutations, and mechanisms is vital to our understanding of heart disease at the molecular level. Furthermore, as marker development continues to predict risk of vascular illness, this knowledge has the potential to revolutionize treatment of this leading human disease.

  20. Modeling total cholesterol as predictor of mortality: the low-cholesterol paradox.

    PubMed

    Wesley, David; Cox, Hugh F

    2011-01-01

    Elevated total cholesterol is well-established as a risk factor for coronary artery disease and cardiovascular mortality. However, less attention is paid to the association between low cholesterol levels and mortality--the low cholesterol paradox. In this paper, restricted cubic splines (RCS) and complex survey methodology are used to show the low-cholesterol paradox is present in the laboratory, examination, and mortality follow-up data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). A series of Cox proportional hazard models, demonstrate that RCS are necessary to incorporate desired covariates while avoiding the use of categorical variables. Valid concerns regarding the accuracy of such predictive models are discussed. The one certain conclusion is that low cholesterol levels are markers for excess mortality, just as are high levels. Restricted cubic splines provide the necessary flexibility to demonstrate the U-shaped relationship between cholesterol and mortality without resorting to binning results. Cox PH models perform well at identifying associations between risk factors and outcomes of interest such as mortality. However, the predictions from such a model may not be as accurate as common statistics suggest and predictive models should be used with caution.

  1. Cholesterol as a co-solvent and a ligand for membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuanli; Kenworthy, Anne K; Sanders, Charles R

    2014-01-01

    As of mid 2013 a Medline search on “cholesterol” yielded over 200,000 hits, reflecting the prominence of this lipid in numerous aspects of animal cell biology and physiology under conditions of health and disease. Aberrations in cholesterol homeostasis underlie both a number of rare genetic disorders and contribute to common sporadic and complex disorders including heart disease, stroke, type II diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. The corresponding author of this review and his lab stumbled only recently into the sprawling area of cholesterol research when they discovered that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds cholesterol, a topic covered by the Hans Neurath Award lecture at the 2013 Protein Society Meeting. Here, we first provide a brief overview of cholesterol-protein interactions and then offer our perspective on how and why binding of cholesterol to APP and its C99 domain (β-CTF) promotes the amyloidogenic pathway, which is closely related to the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24155031

  2. High Cholesterol in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... some cholesterol to work properly. But if your child or teen has high cholesterol (too much cholesterol ... other heart diseases. What causes high cholesterol in children and teens? Three main factors contribute to high ...

  3. Infection of Hepatocytes With HCV Increases Cell Surface Levels of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans, Uptake of Cholesterol and Lipoprotein, and Virus Entry by Up-regulating SMAD6 and SMAD7.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Sodroski, Catherine; Cha, Helen; Li, Qisheng; Liang, T Jake

    2017-01-01

    The signaling molecule and transcriptional regulator SMAD6, which inhibits the transforming growth factor β signaling pathway, is required for infection of hepatocytes by hepatitis C virus (HCV). We investigated the mechanisms by which SMAD6 and another inhibitory SMAD (SMAD7) promote HCV infection in human hepatoma cells and hepatocytes. We infected Huh7 and Huh7.5.1 cells and primary human hepatocytes with Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 (JFH1) HCV cell culture system (HCVcc). We then measured HCV binding, intracellular levels of HCV RNA, and expression of target genes. We examined HCV entry in HepG2/microRNA (miR) 122/CD81 cells, which support entry and replication of HCV, were transfected these cells with small interfering RNAs targeting inhibitory SMADs to analyze gene expression profiles. Uptake of labeled low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol was measured. Cell surface proteins were quantified by flow cytometry. We obtained liver biopsy samples from 69 patients with chronic HCV infection and 19 uninfected individuals (controls) and measured levels of syndecan 1 (SDC1), SMAD7, and SMAD6 messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Small interfering RNA knockdown of SMAD6 blocked the binding and infection of hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes by HCV, whereas SMAD6 overexpression increased HCV infection. We found levels of mRNAs encoding heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), particularly SDC1 mRNA, and cell surface levels of heparan sulfate to be reduced in cells after SMAD6 knockdown. SMAD6 knockdown also reduced transcription of genes encoding lipoprotein and cholesterol uptake receptors, including the LDL receptor (LDLR), the very LDLR, and the scavenger receptor class B member 1 in hepatocytes; knockdown of SMAD6 also inhibited cell uptake of cholesterol and lipoprotein. Overexpression of SMAD6 increased the expression of these genes. Similar effects were observed with knockdown and overexpression of SMAD7. In addition, HCV infection of cells increased

  4. Colorimetric detection of cholesterol based on enzyme modified gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirala, Narsingh R.; Saxena, Preeti S.; Srivastava, Anchal

    2018-02-01

    We develop a simple colorimetric method for determination of free cholesterol in aqueous solution based on functionalized gold nanoparticles with cholesterol oxidase. Functionalized gold nanoparticles interact with free cholesterol to produce H2O2 in proportion to the level of cholesterol visually is being detected. The quenching in optical properties and agglomeration of functionalized gold nanoparticles play a key role in cholesterol sensing due to the electron accepting property of H2O2. While the lower ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 0.2 mg/dL) can be effectively detected using fluorescence study, the absorption study attests evident visual color change which becomes effective for detection of higher ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 19 mg/dL). The shades of red gradually change to blue/purple as the level of cholesterol detected (as evident at 100 mg/dL) using unaided eye without the use of expensive instruments. The potential of the proposed method to be applied in the field is shown by the proposed cholesterol measuring color wheel.

  5. Serum HDL-C levels, log (TG/HDL-C) values and serum total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios significantly correlate with radiological extent of disease in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Omer; Tozkoparan, Ergun; Yaman, Halil; Cakir, Erdinc; Gumus, Seyfettin; Ozcan, Omer; Bozlar, Ugur; Bilgi, Cumhur; Bilgic, Hayati; Ekiz, Kudret

    2006-03-01

    In several studies, it was shown that there was a marked decrease in serum levels of HDL-C during infection and inflammation in general. In particular, a decrease in the level of serum HDL-C was also shown in pneumonia. Correlations between inflammatory markers such as acute phase proteins, cytokines and serum HDL-C levels were shown. However, there are no studies indicating a correlation between serum HDL-C levels and the radiological extent of the disease (RED) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We hypothesized that there could be a relationship between serum HDL-C levels and RED in CAP. A case-controlled study, including 97 patients with CAP and 45 healthy subjects, was performed. Chest X-rays of CAP patients were scored for RED, and correlations were investigated between RED scores, serum lipid parameters, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum albumin levels. The mean serum HDL-C level was lower in CAP patients than in controls. A significant and negative correlation between RED scores (REDS) and serum HDL-C levels was detected (r = -0.64, P = 0.0001). There were also significant correlations between REDS and other lipid parameters. Significant correlations between ESR and serum HDL-C levels and between ESR and other serum lipid parameters were also found. It appears that serum HDL-C levels are generally lower in CAP cases than in healthy controls. Serum HDL-C levels and serum albumin levels might decrease and serum total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios and log (TG/HDL-C) values might increase proportionally with RED in CAP patients. These results might have some significance for individuals having long-standing and/or recurrent pneumonia and other cardiovascular risk factors.

  6. Do genetic modifiers of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels also modify their response to a lifestyle intervention in the setting of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus?: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) study.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Gordon S; Papandonatos, George D; Erar, Bahar; Belalcazar, L Maria; Brautbar, Ariel; Ballantyne, Christie; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Knowler, William C; Pownall, Henry J; Wing, Rena R; Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M

    2013-08-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides are cardiovascular risk factors susceptible to lifestyle behavior modification and genetics. We hypothesized that genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies as associated with HDL-C or triglyceride levels modify 1-year treatment response to an intensive lifestyle intervention, relative to a usual care of diabetes mellitus support and education. We evaluated 82 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent 31 loci demonstrated by genome-wide association studies to be associated with HDL-C and triglycerides, in 3561 participants who consented for genetic studies and met eligibility criteria. Variants associated with higher baseline HDL-C levels, cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) rs3764261 and hepatic lipase (LIPC) rs8034802, were found to be associated with HDL-C increases with intensive lifestyle intervention (P=0.0038 and 0.013, respectively) and had nominally significant treatment interactions (P=0.047 and 0.046, respectively). The fatty acid desaturase-2 rs1535 variant, associated with low baseline HDL-C (P=0.017), was associated with HDL-C increases with intensive lifestyle intervention (0.0037) and had a nominal treatment interaction (P=0.035). Apolipoprotein B (rs693) and LIPC (rs8034802) single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed nominally significant associations with HDL-C and triglyceride changes with intensive lifestyle intervention and a treatment interaction (P<0.05). Phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase-1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4082919) showed the most significant triglyceride treatment interaction in the full cohort (P=0.0009). This is the first study to identify genetic variants modifying lipid responses to a randomized lifestyle behavior intervention in overweight or obese individuals with diabetes mellitus. The effects of genetic factors on lipid changes may differ from the effects on baseline lipids and are modifiable by behavioral intervention.

  7. The Art of Optical Aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylde, Clarissa Eileen Kenney

    Art and optics are inseparable. Though seemingly opposite disciplines, the combination of art and optics has significantly impacted both culture and science as they are now known. As history has run its course, in the sciences, arts, and their fruitful combinations, optical aberrations have proved to be a problematic hindrance to progress. In an effort to eradicate aberrations the simple beauty of these aberrational forms has been labeled as undesirable and discarded. Here, rather than approach aberrations as erroneous, these beautiful forms are elevated to be the photographic subject in a new body of work, On the Bright Side. Though many recording methods could be utilized, this work was composed on classic, medium-format, photographic film using white-light, Michelson interferometry. The resulting images are both a representation of the true light rays that interacted on the distorted mirror surfaces (data) and the artist's compositional eye for what parts of the interferogram are chosen and displayed. A detailed description of the captivating interdisciplinary procedure is documented and presented alongside the final artwork, CCD digital reference images, and deformable mirror contour maps. This alluring marriage between the arts and sciences opens up a heretofore minimally explored aspect of the inextricable art-optics connection. It additionally provides a fascinating new conversation on the importance of light and optics in photographic composition.

  8. Serum cholesterol reduction by feeding a high-cholesterol diet containing a lower-molecular-weight polyphenol fraction from peanut skin.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomoko; Inoue, Naoko; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Tadaishi, Miki; Takita, Toshichika; Arai, Soichi; Mura, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Feeding a high-cholesterol diet with a water-soluble peanut skin polyphenol fraction to rats reduced their plasma cholesterol level, with an increase in fecal cholesterol excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect was greater with the lower-molecular-weight rather than higher-molecular-weight polyphenol fraction. This effect was possibly due to some oligomeric polyphenols which reduced the solubility of dietary cholesterol in intestinal bile acid-emulsified micelles.

  9. Niemann-pick type C1 (NPC1) overexpression alters cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Millard, E E; Srivastava, K; Traub, L M; Schaffer, J E; Ory, D S

    2000-12-08

    The Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) protein is a key participant in intracellular trafficking of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, but its role in regulation of sterol homeostasis is not well understood. To characterize further the function of NPC1, we generated stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines overexpressing the human NPC1 protein (CHO/NPC1). NPC1 overexpression increases the rate of trafficking of low density lipoprotein cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum and the rate of delivery of endosomal cholesterol to the plasma membrane (PM). CHO/NPC1 cells exhibit a 1.5-fold increase in total cellular cholesterol and up to a 2.9-fold increase in PM cholesterol. This increase in PM cholesterol is closely paralleled by a 3-fold increase in de novo cholesterol synthesis. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis results in marked redistribution of PM cholesterol to intracellular sites, suggesting an unsuspected role for NPC1 in internalization of PM cholesterol. Despite elevated total cellular cholesterol, CHO/NPC1 cells exhibit increased cholesterol synthesis, which may be attributable to both resistance to oxysterol suppression of sterol-regulated gene expression and to reduced endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol levels under basal conditions. Taken together, these studies provide important new insights into the role of NPC1 in the determination of the levels and distribution of cellular cholesterol.

  10. Malformation syndromes caused by disorders of cholesterol synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Forbes D.; Herman, Gail E.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis is critical for normal growth and development. In addition to being a major membrane lipid, cholesterol has multiple biological functions. These roles include being a precursor molecule for the synthesis of steroid hormones, neuroactive steroids, oxysterols, and bile acids. Cholesterol is also essential for the proper maturation and signaling of hedgehog proteins, and thus cholesterol is critical for embryonic development. After birth, most tissues can obtain cholesterol from either endogenous synthesis or exogenous dietary sources, but prior to birth, the human fetal tissues are dependent on endogenous synthesis. Due to the blood-brain barrier, brain tissue cannot utilize dietary or peripherally produced cholesterol. Generally, inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis lead to both a deficiency of cholesterol and increased levels of potentially bioactive or toxic precursor sterols. Over the past couple of decades, a number of human malformation syndromes have been shown to be due to inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis. Herein, we will review clinical and basic science aspects of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, desmosterolosis, lathosterolosis, HEM dysplasia, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform erythroderma and Limb Defects Syndrome, sterol-C-4 methyloxidase-like deficiency, and Antley-Bixler syndrome. PMID:20929975

  11. Distortion of ultrashort pulses caused by aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Z. L.; Kovács, A. P.; Bor, Zs.

    The effect of the primary wave aberrations (spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma) on ultrashort pulses is studied by the Nijboer-Zernike theory. The results of the geometrical and the wave optical treatments are compared.

  12. Oral supplementation of Lanthanum Zirconate nanoparticles moderately affected behavior but drastically disturbed leukocyte count, serum cholesterol levels and antioxidant parameters from vital organs of albino mice in a gender specific manner.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Muhammad Nazar; Akram, Irum Naz; Khosa, Tafheem; Zahra, Syeda Qandeel; Bashir, Irum; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Iqbal, Furhan

    2018-05-21

    Lanthanum Zirconate nanoparticles (NPs) are used in blades of gas turbine engines to thermally insulate them and to protect them against hot and corrosive gas streams. However, the information regarding their biocompatibility is limited. The present study was aimed to report the effect of Lanthanum Zirconate NPs on selected aspects of behavior, serum biochemistry, complete blood count and antioxidant parameters from vital organs of albino mice in a gender specific manner. Albino mice, seven weeks old, were orally treated with 75 mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight of Lanthanum Zirconate nanoparticles for consecutive 22 days. Saline treated control groups were maintained in parallel. It was observed that rearing frequency was significantly decreased (P = 0.01) in NPs treated male mice. Complete blood count analysis indicated that NPs treated female mice had significantly reduced white blood cells (P = 0.05) and lymphocytes count (P = 0.03). NPs treated male had significantly reduced serum cholesterol levels (P = 0.05) than control group. It was observed that Superoxide dismutase concentrations in liver (P = 0.025) and kidney (P = 0.008), Malondialdehyde concentrations in liver (P = 0.044) of female and Malondialdehyde concentrations in kidney (P < 0.001) and brain (P < 0.001) and catalase concentrations in liver (P = 0.05) of NPs treated male mice were significantly higher than their respective control groups.. In conclusion, we are reporting that oral supplementation with 75 mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight of Lanthanum Zirconate nanoparticles can affect the behavior, leukocyte count, serum cholesterol and antioxidant metabolites from vital organs of albino mice in a gender specific manner.

  13. Dietary cholesterol promotes repair of demyelinated lesions in the adult brain.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Stefan A; Gerndt, Nina; Winchenbach, Jan; Stumpf, Sina K; Hosang, Leon; Odoardi, Francesca; Ruhwedel, Torben; Böhler, Carolin; Barrette, Benoit; Stassart, Ruth; Liebetanz, David; Dibaj, Payam; Möbius, Wiebke; Edgar, Julia M; Saher, Gesine

    2017-01-24

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder in which remyelination failure contributes to persistent disability. Cholesterol is rate-limiting for myelin biogenesis in the developing CNS; however, whether cholesterol insufficiency contributes to remyelination failure in MS, is unclear. Here, we show the relationship between cholesterol, myelination and neurological parameters in mouse models of demyelination and remyelination. In the cuprizone model, acute disease reduces serum cholesterol levels that can be restored by dietary cholesterol. Concomitant with blood-brain barrier impairment, supplemented cholesterol directly supports oligodendrocyte precursor proliferation and differentiation, and restores the balance of growth factors, creating a permissive environment for repair. This leads to attenuated axon damage, enhanced remyelination and improved motor learning. Remarkably, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, cholesterol supplementation does not exacerbate disease expression. These findings emphasize the safety of dietary cholesterol in inflammatory diseases and point to a previously unrecognized role of cholesterol in promoting repair after demyelinating episodes.

  14. Dietary cholesterol promotes repair of demyelinated lesions in the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Berghoff, Stefan A.; Gerndt, Nina; Winchenbach, Jan; Stumpf, Sina K.; Hosang, Leon; Odoardi, Francesca; Ruhwedel, Torben; Böhler, Carolin; Barrette, Benoit; Stassart, Ruth; Liebetanz, David; Dibaj, Payam; Möbius, Wiebke; Edgar, Julia M.; Saher, Gesine

    2017-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder in which remyelination failure contributes to persistent disability. Cholesterol is rate-limiting for myelin biogenesis in the developing CNS; however, whether cholesterol insufficiency contributes to remyelination failure in MS, is unclear. Here, we show the relationship between cholesterol, myelination and neurological parameters in mouse models of demyelination and remyelination. In the cuprizone model, acute disease reduces serum cholesterol levels that can be restored by dietary cholesterol. Concomitant with blood-brain barrier impairment, supplemented cholesterol directly supports oligodendrocyte precursor proliferation and differentiation, and restores the balance of growth factors, creating a permissive environment for repair. This leads to attenuated axon damage, enhanced remyelination and improved motor learning. Remarkably, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, cholesterol supplementation does not exacerbate disease expression. These findings emphasize the safety of dietary cholesterol in inflammatory diseases and point to a previously unrecognized role of cholesterol in promoting repair after demyelinating episodes. PMID:28117328

  15. Relative variations of gut microbiota in disordered cholesterol metabolism caused by high-cholesterol diet and host genetics.

    PubMed

    Bo, Tao; Shao, Shanshan; Wu, Dongming; Niu, Shaona; Zhao, Jiajun; Gao, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies performed provide mechanistic insight into effects of the microbiota on cholesterol metabolism, but less focus was given to how cholesterol impacts the gut microbiota. In this study, ApoE -/- Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and their wild-type counterparts (n = 12) were, respectively, allocated for two dietary condition groups (normal chow and high-cholesterol diet). Total 16S rDNA of fecal samples were extracted and sequenced by high-throughput sequencing to determine differences in microbiome composition. Data were collected and performed diversity analysis and phylogenetic analysis. The influence of cholesterol on gut microbiota was discussed by using cholesterol dietary treatment as exogenous cholesterol disorder factor and genetic modification as endogenous metabolic disorder factor. Relative microbial variations were compared to illustrate the causality and correlation of cholesterol and gut microbiota. It turned out comparing to genetically modified rats, exogenous cholesterol intake may play more effective role in changing gut microbiota profile, although the serum cholesterol level of genetically modified rats was even higher. Relative abundance of some representative species showed that the discrepancies due to dietary variation were more obvious, whereas some low abundance species changed because of genetic disorders. Our results partially demonstrated that gut microbiota are relatively more sensitive to dietary variation. Nevertheless, considering the important effect of bacteria in cholesterol metabolism, the influence to gut flora by "genetically caused cholesterol disorder" cannot be overlooked. Manipulation of gut microbiota might be an effective target for preventing cholesterol-related metabolic disorders. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cholesterol in islet dysfunction and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Brunham, Liam R.; Kruit, Janine K.; Verchere, C. Bruce; Hayden, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) frequently occurs in the context of abnormalities of plasma lipoproteins. However, a role for elevated levels of plasma cholesterol in the pathogenesis of this disease is not well established. Recent evidence suggests that alterations of plasma and islet cholesterol levels may contribute to islet dysfunction and loss of insulin secretion. A number of genes involved in lipid metabolism have been implicated in T2D. Recently an important role for ABCA1, a cellular cholesterol transporter, has emerged in regulating cholesterol homeostasis and insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. Here we review the impact of cholesterol metabolism on islet function and its potential relationship to T2D. PMID:18246189

  17. HDL cholesterol transport during inflammation.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; de Beer, Frederick C; Webb, Nancy R

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this article is to review recent advances made towards understanding how inflammation and acute phase proteins, particularly serum amyloid A and group IIa secretory phospholipase A2, may alter reverse cholesterol transport by HDL during inflammation and the acute phase response. Findings suggest that the decreased apoA-I content and markedly increased serum amyloid A content in HDL during the acute phase response result from reciprocal and coordinate transcriptional regulation of these proteins as well as HDL remodeling by group IIa secretory phospholipase A2. Serum amyloid A functions efficiently in a lipid-free or lipid-poor form to promote cholesterol efflux by ATP binding cassette protein ABCA1, evidently by functioning directly as an acceptor for cholesterol efflux as well as by increasing the availability of cellular free cholesterol. Serum amyloid A increases the ability of acute phase HDL to serve as an acceptor for SR-BI-dependent cellular cholesterol efflux. Altered remodeling of HDL by group IIa secretory phospholipase A2 in concert with cholesterol ester transfer protein may contribute to the generation of lipid-poor apoA-I and serum amyloid A acceptors for cholesterol efflux. Current data support a model for the acute phase response in which serum amyloid A and sPLA2-IIa, present at sites of inflammation and tissue damage, play a protective role by enhancing cellular cholesterol efflux, thereby promoting the removal of excess cholesterol from macrophages.

  18. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol vs low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a risk factor for ischemic stroke: a result from the Kailuan study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianwei; Chen, Shengyun; Liu, Liping; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Chunxue; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Anxin; Hussain, Mohammed; Sun, Baoying; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

    2013-06-01

    To compare the predictive value of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol levels for ischemic stroke in the Chinese population. We performed a four-year cohort study of 95 778 men and women, aged 18-98 years, selected from the Kailuan study (2006-2007). Baseline LDL cholesterol levels were estimated using direct test method. Total cholesterol levels were estimated using endpoint test method. The predictive values of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol for ischemic stroke were compared. During the follow-up period, there were 1153 incident cases of ischemic stroke. The hazard ratio (HR) for ischemic stroke in the top quintile of LDL cholesterol was the highest among five quintiles (HR: 1·25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1·01-1·53). The HR in the top quintile of non-HDL cholesterol for ischemic stroke was also the highest among five quintiles (HR: 1·53; 95% CI, 1·24-1·88). Analysis of trends showed a significant positive relationship between ischemic stroke incidence and serum LDL cholesterol level, and non-HDL cholesterol level, respectively (both P < 0·05). The area under the curve of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol for ischemic stroke was 0·51 and 0·56, respectively (P < 0·05 for the difference). Serum Non-HDL cholesterol level is a stronger predictor for the risk of ischemic stroke than serum LDL cholesterol level in the Chinese population.

  19. A mixture of Salacia oblonga extract and IP-PA1 reduces fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Kazue; Taniguchi, Yoshie; Yoshioka, Noriko; Yoshida, Aya; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shin-ichiro; Kohchi, Chie; Kuroki, Masahide

    2011-01-01

    At present, lifestyle-related diseases are one of the most critical health issues worldwide. It has been reported that lipopolysaccharide derived from a Gram-negative bacteria (IP-PA1) symbiotic with wheat exhibited several advantageous biological effects, such as the reduction of plasma glucose levels in NOD mice and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in WHHL rabbits. In this study, the beneficial effects on plasma glucose and lipids of a tea (SI tea) consisting of IP-PA1 and Salacia (which contains an inhibitor of α-glucosidase) were investigated in the KK-Ay/TaJcl type 2 diabetic model mice and in human subjects with premetabolic syndrome in a double-blind, randomized study. SI tea significantly decreased plasma glucose levels in KK-Ay/TaJcl mice. A clinical trial of SI tea was performed with 41 subjects between the ages of 40 and 69, who belonged either to a high plasma glucose group (HG: FPG 100-125 mg/dl) or to a hyperlipidemia group (HL: TG ≥ 150 mg/dl, or LDL ≥ 120 mg/dl, or HDL < 40 mg/dl). These subjects ingested either Salacia without IP-PA1 (the control) or SI tea. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 days after initiating SI tea treatment, and were measured for FPG, HbA1c, TG, LDL, and HDL. These results showed that SI tea reduced FPG and HbA1c more rapidly than the control in the HL group, and also significantly improved LDL and HDL levels in the HG group. Thus, SI tea may be helpful in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:22125681

  20. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is strong risk factor for acquired color vision impairment in young to middle-aged Japanese men: the Okubo Color Study Report 2.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Takuhei; Sakurai, Yutaka; Sato, Hiroki; Chihara, Etsuo; Ishida, Masahiro; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2010-06-01

    To investigate associations between blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the prevalence of acquired color vision impairment (ACVI) in middle-aged Japanese men. Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent color vision testing, ophthalmic examination, a standardized interview and examination of venous blood samples. Ishihara plates, a Lanthony 15-hue desaturated panel, and Standard pseudoisochromatic Plates part 2 were used to examine color vision ability. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test was performed to define ACVI. Smoking status and alcohol intake were recorded during the interview. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, LDL-C level, systemic hypertension, diabetes, cataract, glaucoma, overweight, smoking status, and alcohol intake. Adjusted odds ratios for four LDL-C levels were calculated. A total of 1042 men were enrolled, 872 participants were eligible for the study, and 31 subjects were diagnosed with ACVI. As compared to the lowest LDL-C category level (<100 mg/dl), the crude OR of ACVI was 3.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-11.00) for the 2nd highest category (130-159 mg/dl), and 4.84 (95% CI, 1.42-16.43) for the highest level (>or=160 mg/dl). The multiple-adjusted ORs were 2.91 (95% CI, 0.87-9.70) for the 2nd highest category and 3.81 (95% CI, 1.03-14.05) for the highest level. Tests for trend were significant (P<0.05) in both analyses. These findings suggested that the prevalence of ACVI is higher among middle-aged Japanese men with elevated LDL-C levels. These changes might be related to deteriorated neurologic function associated with lipid metabolite abnormalities. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separatormore » to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were

  2. Strategies for increasing house staff management of cholesterol with inpatients.

    PubMed

    Boekeloo, B O; Becker, D M; Levine, D M; Belitsos, P C; Pearson, T A

    1990-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of two conceptually different chart audit-based approaches to modifying physicians' clinical practices to conform with quality-assurance standards. The objective was to increase intern utilization of cholesterol management opportunities in the inpatient setting. Using a clinical trial study design, 29 internal medicine interns were randomly assigned to four intervention groups identified by the intervention they received: control, reminder checklists (checklists), patient-specific feedback (feedback), or both interventions (combined). Over a nine-month period, intern management of high blood cholesterol levels in internal medicine inpatients (n = 459) was monitored by postdischarge chart audit. During both a baseline and subsequent intervention period, interns documented significantly more cholesterol management for inpatients with coronary artery disease (CAD) than without CAD. During baseline, 27.3%, 24.3%, 21.7%, 12.4%, 5.4%, and 2.7% of all inpatient charts had intern documentation concerning a low-fat hospital diet, cholesterol history, screening blood cholesterol level assessment, follow-up lipid profile, nutritionist consult, and preventive cardiology consult, respectively. The feedback intervention significantly increased overall intern-documented cholesterol management among inpatients with CAD. The checklists significantly decreased overall intern-documented cholesterol management. Feedback appears to be an effective approach to increasing intern cholesterol management in inpatients.

  3. Cholesterol metabolism and transport in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ian J; Berger, Tamar; Sharman, Matthew J; Verdile, Giuseppe; Fuller, Stephanie J; Martins, Ralph N

    2009-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting millions of people worldwide. Apart from age, the major risk factor identified so far for the sporadic form of AD is possession of the epsilon4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE), which is also a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Other apolipoproteins known to play an important role in CAD such as apolipoprotein B are now gaining attention for their role in AD as well. AD and CAD share other risk factors, such as altered cholesterol levels, particularly high levels of low density lipoproteins together with low levels of high density lipoproteins. Statins--drugs that have been used to lower cholesterol levels in CAD, have been shown to protect against AD, although the protective mechanism(s) involved are still under debate. Enzymatic production of the beta amyloid peptide, the peptide thought to play a major role in AD pathogenesis, is affected by membrane cholesterol levels. In addition, polymorphisms in several proteins and enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipoprotein transport and metabolism have been linked to risk of AD. Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that changes in cholesterol metabolism are intimately involved in AD pathogenic processes. This paper reviews cholesterol metabolism and transport, as well as those aspects of cholesterol metabolism that have been linked with AD.

  4. [Frequency of chromosome aberrations in residents of the Semipalatinsk Oblast].

    PubMed

    Gubitskaia, E G; Akhmatullina, N B; Vsevolodov, E B; Bishnevskaia, S S; Sharipov, I K; Cherednichenko, O G

    1999-06-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of the population of the Beskaragai district of the Semipalatinsk oblast adjacent to the territory of the nuclear test site was conducted by means of an ecological genetic questionnaire and cytogenetic examination of metaphase chromosomes. An increase in the total mutation level in the region was observed. The frequency of chromosome aberrations among the population of the Beskaragai district (3.2%) was statistically significantly (about 1.5 times) higher than the background levels in the clear regions (from 1 to 2%). Furthermore, the frequency of aberrations in adolescents was comparable with that in the adults. The spectrum of chromosome aberrations pointed to a significant contribution of radiation component to the mutagenesis.

  5. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of train engine drivers.

    PubMed

    Nordenson, I; Mild, K H; Järventaus, H; Hirvonen, A; Sandström, M; Wilén, J; Blix, N; Norppa, H

    2001-07-01

    Studies of Swedish railway employees have indicated that railroad engine drivers have an increased cancer morbidity and incidence of chronic lymphatic leukemia. The drivers are exposed to relatively high magnetic fields (MF), ranging from a few to over a hundred microT. Although the possible genotoxic potential of MF is unclear, some earlier studies have indicated that occupational exposure to MF may increase chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Since an increased level of chromosomal aberrations has been suggested to predict elevated cancer risk, we performed a cytogenetic analysis on cultured (48 h) peripheral lymphocytes of Swedish train engine drivers. A pilot study of 18 engine drivers indicated a significant difference in the frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations (gaps included or excluded) in comparison with seven concurrent referents (train dispatchers) and a control group of 16 office workers. The engine drivers had about four times higher frequency of cells with chromosome-type aberrations (excluding gaps) than the office workers (P < 0.01) and the dispatchers (P < 0.05). Seventy-eight percent of the engine drivers showed at least one cell per 100 with chromosome-type aberrations compared with 29% among the dispatchers and 31% among the office workers. In a follow-up study, another 30 engine drivers showed an increase (P < 0.05) in the frequency of cells with chromosome-type aberrations (gaps excluded) as compared with 30 referent policemen. Sixty percent of the engine drivers had one or more cells (per 100 cells) with chromosome-type aberrations compared with 30% among the policemen. In conclusion, the results of the two studies support the hypothesis that exposure to MF at mean intensities of 2-15 microT can induce chromosomal damage. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Regular consumption of cocoa powder with milk increases HDL cholesterol and reduces oxidized LDL levels in subjects at high-risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, N; Monagas, M; Andres-Lacueva, C; Casas, R; Urpí-Sardà, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Estruch, R

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that regular consumption of cocoa-containing products may confer cardiovascular protection, reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, studies on the effects of cocoa on different cardiovascular risk factors are still scarce. The aim of this study was too evaluate the effects of chronic cocoa consumption on lipid profile, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) particles and plasma antioxidant vitamin concentrations in high-risk patients. Forty-two high-risk volunteers (19 men and 23 women, mean age 69.7 ± 11.5 years) were included in a randomized, crossover feeding trial. All received 40g of cocoa powder with 500 mL of skimmed milk/day(C + M) or only 500 mL/day of skimmed milk (M) for 4 weeks in a random order. Before and after each intervention period, plasma lipids, oxLDL and antioxidant vitamin concentrations were measured, as well as urinary cocoa polyphenols metabolites derived from phase II and microbial metabolisms. Compared to M, C + M intervention increases HDLc [2.67 mg/dL (95% confidence intervals, CI, 0.58-4.73; P = 0.008)] and decreases oxLDL levels [-12.3 U/L (CI,-19.3 to -5.2;P = 0.001)]. No changes between intervention groups were observed in vitamins B1, B6, B12, C and E, or folic acid concentrations. In addition, subjects who showed higher increments in urinary cocoa polyphenol metabolites exhibited significant increases in HDLc and significant decreases in oxLDL levels (P < 0.05; all). Consumption of cocoa power with milk modulates the lipid profile in high-risk subjects for CHD. In addition, the relationship observed between the urinary excretion of cocoa polyphenol metabolites and plasma HDLc and oxLDL levels suggests a beneficial role for cocoa polyphenols in lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Resequencing of the CETP gene in American whites and African blacks: Association of rare and common variants with HDL-cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Pirim, Dilek; Wang, Xingbin; Niemsiri, Vipavee; Radwan, Zaheda H.; Bunker, Clareann H.; Hokanson, John E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Barmada, M. Michael; Demirci, F. Yesim; Kamboh, M. Ilyas

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism. Associations of common CETP variants with variation in plasma lipid levels, and/or CETP mass/activity have been extensively studied and well-documented; however, the effects of uncommon/rare CETP variants on plasma lipid profile remain undefined. Hence, resequencing of the gene in extreme phenotypes and follow-up rare-variant association analyses are essential to fill this gap. Objective To identify common and uncommon/rare variants in the CETP gene by resequencing the entire gene and test the effects of both common and uncommon/rare CETP variants on plasma lipid traits in two genetically distinct populations. Methods and Results The entire CETP gene plus flanking regions were resequenced in 190 individuals comprising 95 non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) and 95 African blacks with extreme HDL-C levels. A total of 279 sequence variants were identified, of which 25 were novel. Selected variants were genotyped in the entire samples of 623 NHWs and 788 African blacks and 184 QC-passed variants were tested in relation to plasma lipid traits by using gene-based, single-site, haplotype and rare variant association analyses (SKAT-O). Two novel and independent associations of rs1968905 and rs289740 with HDL-C were identified in African blacks. Using SKAT-O analysis, we also identified rare variants with minor allele frequency <0.01 to be associated with HDL-C in both NHWs (P=0.024) and African blacks (P=0.009). Conclusions Our results point out that in addition to the common CETP variants, rare genetic variants in the CETP gene also contribute to the phenotypic variation of HDL-C in the general population. PMID:26683795

  8. Evidence of major genes for plasma HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels at baseline and in response to 20 weeks of endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    An, P; Borecki, I B; Rankinen, T; Després, J-P; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed major gene effects for baseline HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, and their training responses (post-training minus baseline) in 527 individuals from 99 White families and 326 individuals from 113 Black families in the HERITAGE Family Study. The baseline phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age and BMI, and the training response phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age, BMI, and their respective baseline values, within each of the sex-by-generation-by-race groups, prior to genetic analyses. In Whites, we found that LDL-C at baseline and HDL-C training response were under influence of major recessive genes (accounting for 2--30 % of the variance) and multifactorial (polygenic and familial environmental) effects. Interactions of these major genes with sex, age, and BMI were tested, and found to be nonsignificant. In Blacks, we found that baseline HDL-C was influenced by a major dominant gene without a multifactorial component. This major gene effect accounted for 45 % of the variance, and exhibited no significant genotype-specific interactions with age, sex, and BMI. Evidence of major genes for the remaining phenotypes at baseline and in response to endurance training were not found in both races, though some were influenced by major effects that did not follow Mendelian expectations or were with ambiguous transmission from parents to offspring. In summary, major gene effects that influence baseline plasma HDL-C and LDL-C levels as well as changes in HDL-C levels in response to regular exercise were detected in the current study.

  9. Patients' knowledge about fats and cholesterol in the Community Cholesterol Survey Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R B; Hazey, J A; McMahon, S H

    1992-09-01

    The Community Cholesterol Survey Project assessed attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors relating to cholesterol. Survey. Six outpatient primary care practice sites (two urban, two suburban, and two rural) in northeast Ohio. Four hundred seventy-seven site-, age-, and gender-stratified adult patients were enrolled from a total of 604 approached (79% recruitment). Self-administered questionnaire and structured dietitian interview. A knowledge score derived from responses to multiple-choice questions and a knowledge rating given by the study dietitian. Motivation and dietary health were similarly measured. Subjects did worse than random guessing for seven of 12 knowledge questions regarding label reading, fats, and cholesterol. In particular, the meaning of "hydrogenated" and the relative energy content of fats was poorly understood. Knowledge scores and ratings were significantly correlated (r = .52). Knowledge ratings were higher in those who were receiving a cholesterol-lowering diet or who had received other advice or treatment from their physician for high cholesterol level. By analysis of variance, knowledge measures were found to have significant independent positive associations with higher social status (P < .001) and living in a suburban area (P < .05). Motivation and dietary health demonstrated similar relationships to social status. To make use of patients' motivation for change, it will be essential to provide education at an effective level. Instruction in label reading or creation of more meaningful food labels may have the greatest impact. A particular challenge is the education of less advantaged patients to promote healthy nutrition practices.

  10. Measurement of Mitochondrial Cholesterol Import Using a Mitochondria-Targeted CYP11A1 Fusion Construct.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Barry E; Charman, Mark; Karten, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    All animal membranes require cholesterol as an essential regulator of biophysical properties and function, but the levels of cholesterol vary widely among different subcellular compartments. Mitochondria, and in particular the inner mitochondrial membrane, have the lowest levels of cholesterol in the cell. Nevertheless, mitochondria need cholesterol for membrane maintenance and biogenesis, as well as oxysterol, steroid, and hepatic bile acid production. Alterations in mitochondrial cholesterol have been associated with a range of pathological conditions, including cancer, hepatosteatosis, cardiac ischemia, Alzheimer's, and Niemann-Pick Type C Disease. The mechanisms of mitochondrial cholesterol import are not fully elucidated yet, and may vary in different cell types and environmental conditions. Measuring cholesterol trafficking to the mitochondrial membranes is technically challenging because of its low abundance; for example, traditional pulse-chase experiments with isotope-labeled cholesterol are not feasible. Here, we describe improvements to a method first developed by the Miller group at the University of California to measure cholesterol trafficking to the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) through the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. This method uses a mitochondria-targeted, ectopically expressed fusion construct of CYP11A1, ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin. Pregnenolone is formed exclusively from cholesterol at the IMM, and can be analyzed with high sensitivity and specificity through ELISA or radioimmunoassay of the medium/buffer to reflect mitochondrial cholesterol import. This assay can be used to investigate the effects of genetic or pharmacological interventions on mitochondrial cholesterol import in cultured cells or isolated mitochondria.

  11. Mask-induced aberration in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Sato, Takashi; Inanami, Ryoichi; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

    2009-04-01

    We estimated aberrations using Zernike sensitivity analysis. We found the difference of the tolerated aberration with line direction for illumination. The tolerated aberration of perpendicular line for illumination is much smaller than that of parallel line. We consider this difference to be attributable to the mask 3D effect. We call it mask-induced aberration. In the case of the perpendicular line for illumination, there was a difference in CD between right line and left line without aberration. In this report, we discuss the possibility of pattern formation in NA 0.25 generation EUV lithography tool. In perpendicular pattern for EUV light, the dominant part of aberration is mask-induced aberration. In EUV lithography, pattern correction based on the mask topography effect will be more important.

  12. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Takanari; Inoue, Ikuo; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Ono, Hiraku; Katayama, Shigehiro; Awata, Takuya; Murakoshi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM)-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to modulate the flux

  13. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takanari; Inoue, Ikuo; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Ono, Hiraku; Katayama, Shigehiro; Awata, Takuya; Murakoshi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM)-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to modulate the flux

  14. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 317.362 Section 317.362 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be...

  15. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 381.462 Section 381.462 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be...

  16. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 381.462 Section 381.462 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be...

  17. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 317.362 Section 317.362 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be...

  18. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 381.462 Section 381.462 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. Link to... level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of...

  19. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 317.362 Section 317.362 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. Link to... level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of...

  20. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  1. Anti-hyperlipidemia of garlic by reducing the level of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-E; Wang, Weidong; Qin, Jie

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to understand the impact of garlic on improving blood lipids using a meta-analysis. A literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases was performed using keywords such as "garlic" and "hypercholesterolemia," and the deadline "July 14 (th), 2017." After extracting relevant details, each selected literature was evaluated for quality according to the quality evaluation criteria of bias risk recommended by Cochrane Collaboration recommendations and heterogeneity tests were performed. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were evaluated using R 3.12 software. The publication bias was assessed using Egger method. A total of 14 eligible papers published from 1981 to 2016 were included. The quality of the literatures was of moderate to high qualities. The values of TC (SMD = -1.26, 95% CI, -1.86 to -0.66), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (SMD = -1.07, 95% CI, -1.67 to -0.47), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (SMD = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.06-0.94) after taking garlic in the experimental group and the control group have statistical significance, while there was no significant difference of TG in the 2 groups (SMD = -0.16, 95% CI, -0.87-0.55). However, the result of HDL was reversed when removed some of the literatures. No significant publication bias among the eligible studies with values of TC (P = .0625), LDL (P = .0770), HDL (P = .2293), and TG (P = .3436). Garlic can reduce the level of TC and LDL instead of HDL and TG, indicating the ability of anti-hyperlipidemia.

  2. Helicobacter pylori's cholesterol uptake impacts resistance to docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Correia, Marta; Casal, Susana; Vinagre, João; Seruca, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette; Machado, José C

    2014-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the world population and is associated with gastric cancer. We have previously demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid known for its anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects, directly inhibits H. pylori growth in vitro and in mice. Nevertheless, the concentration of DHA shown to reduce H. pylori mice gastric colonization was ineffective in vitro. Related to the auxotrophy of H. pylori for cholesterol, we hypothesize that other mechanisms, in addition to DHA direct antibacterial effect, must be responsible for the reduction of the infection burden. In the present study we investigated if DHA affects also H. pylori growth, by reducing the availability of membrane cholesterol in the epithelial cell for H. pylori uptake. Levels of cholesterol in gastric epithelial cells and of cholesteryl glucosides in H. pylori were determined by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The consequences of epithelial cells' cholesterol depletion on H. pylori growth were assessed in liquid cultures. We show that H. pylori uptakes cholesterol from epithelial cells. In addition, DHA lowers cholesterol levels in epithelial cells, decreases its de novo synthesis, leading to a lower synthesis of cholesteryl glucosides by H. pylori. A previous exposition of H. pylori to cholesterol influences the bacterium response to the direct inhibitory effect of DHA. Overall, our results suggest that a direct effect of DHA on H. pylori survival is modulated by its access to epithelial cell cholesterol, supporting the notion that cholesterol enhances the resistance of H. pylori. The cholesterol-dependent resistance of H. pylori to antimicrobial compounds raises new important aspects for the development of new anti-bacterial strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of ocular aberrations on contrast detection in noise.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bo; Liu, Rong; Dai, Yun; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Yudong

    2012-08-06

    We use adaptive optics (AO) techniques to manipulate the ocular aberrations and elucidate the effects of these ocular aberrations on contrast detection in a noisy background. The detectability of sine wave gratings at frequencies of 4, 8, and 16 circles per degree (cpd) was measured in a standard two-interval force-choice staircase procedure against backgrounds of various levels of white noise. The observer's ocular aberrations were either corrected with AO or left uncorrected. In low levels of external noise, contrast detection thresholds are always lowered by AO correction, whereas in high levels of external noise, they are generally elevated by AO correction. Higher levels of external noise are required to make this threshold elevation observable when signal spatial frequencies increase from 4 to 16 cpd. The linear-amplifier-model fit shows that mostly sampling efficiency and equivalent noise both decrease with AO correction. Our findings indicate that ocular aberrations could be beneficial for contrast detection in high-level noises. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Minimum change in spherical aberration that can be perceived

    PubMed Central

    Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    It is important to know the visual sensitivity to optical blur from both a basic science perspective and a practical point of view. Of particular interest is the sensitivity to blur induced by spherical aberration because it is being used to increase depth of focus as a component of a presbyopic solution. Using a flicker detection-based procedure implemented on an adaptive optics visual simulator, we measured the spherical aberration thresholds that produce just-noticeable differences in perceived image quality. The thresholds were measured for positive and negative values of spherical aberration, for best focus and + 0.5 D and + 1.0 D of defocus. At best focus, the SA thresholds were 0.20 ± 0.01 µm and −0.17 ± 0.03 µm for positive and negative spherical aberration respectively (referred to a 6-mm pupil). These experimental values may be useful in setting spherical aberration permissible levels in different ophthalmic techniques. PMID:27699113

  5. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  6. The Guinea Pig as a Model for Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (AD): The Impact of Cholesterol Intake on Expression of AD-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Daniel; Wijaya, Linda; Laws, Simon M.; Taddei, Kevin; Newman, Morgan; Lardelli, Michael; Martins, Ralph N.; Verdile, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, as a model for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), both in terms of the conservation of genes involved in AD and the regulatory responses of these to a known AD risk factor - high cholesterol intake. Unlike rats and mice, guinea pigs possess an Aβ peptide sequence identical to human Aβ. Consistent with the commonality between cardiovascular and AD risk factors in humans, we saw that a high cholesterol diet leads to up-regulation of BACE1 (β-secretase) transcription and down-regulation of ADAM10 (α-secretase) transcription which should increase release of Aβ from APP. Significantly, guinea pigs possess isoforms of AD-related genes found in humans but not present in mice or rats. For example, we discovered that the truncated PS2V isoform of human PSEN2, that is found at raised levels in AD brains and that increases γ-secretase activity and Aβ synthesis, is not uniquely human or aberrant as previously believed. We show that PS2V formation is up-regulated by hypoxia and a high-cholesterol diet while, consistent with observations in humans, Aβ concentrations are raised in some brain regions but not others. Also like humans, but unlike mice, the guinea pig gene encoding tau, MAPT, encodes isoforms with both three and four microtubule binding domains, and cholesterol alters the ratio of these isoforms. We conclude that AD-related genes are highly conserved and more similar to human than the rat or mouse. Guinea pigs represent a superior rodent model for analysis of the impact of dietary factors such as cholesterol on the regulation of AD-related genes. PMID:23805206

  7. Beneficial effects of coconut water feeding on lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sandhya, V G; Rajamohan, T

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of coconut water feeding in cholesterol-fed rats. Male albino rats were fed tender coconut water and mature coconut water at a dose level of 4 mL/100 g of body weight. Cholesterol feeding caused a marked increase in total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) + low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides in serum. Administration of coconut water counteracts the increase in total cholesterol, VLDL + LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher. Lipid levels in the tissues viz. liver, heart, kidney, and aorta were markedly decreased in cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with coconut water. Feeding coconut water resulted in increased activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in liver, lipoprotein lipase in heart and adipose tissue, and plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase, while lipogenic enzymes showed decreased activities. An increased rate of cholesterol conversion to bile acid and an increased excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols were observed in rats fed coconut water. Histopathological studies of liver and aorta revealed much less fatty accumulation in these tissues in cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with coconut water. Feeding coconut water resulted in increased plasma L-arginine content, urinary nitrite level, and nitric oxide synthase activity. These results indicate that both tender and mature coconut water has beneficial effects on serum and tissue lipid parameters in rats fed cholesterol-containing diet.

  8. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2013-12-01

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction Cholesterol What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? Cholesterol travels to the body’s cells through the bloodstream by way of lipoproteins (LDL and ...

  10. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  11. Nanowire growth kinetics in aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Chou, Yi -Chia; Panciera, Federico; Reuter, Mark C.; ...

    2016-03-15

    Here, we visualize atomic level dynamics during Si nanowire growth using aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy, and compare with lower pressure results from ultra-high vacuum microscopy. We discuss the importance of higher pressure observations for understanding growth mechanisms and describe protocols to minimize effects of the higher pressure background gas.

  12. β-glucans and cholesterol (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Petr; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2018-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of primary risk factors of cardiovascular disease, together with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes. Although progress has been made, the search for novel methods of preventing and treating dyslipidemia is ongoing and current therapies for cardiovascular disease induce various side effects. β-glucans are linear unbranched polysaccharides found in various natural sources, such as mushrooms. Due to their structure they are able to interact with innate immunity receptors, however they also act as dietary fibers in the digestive tract. As there are two forms of β-glucans, insoluble and soluble forms, they are able to interact with lipids and biliary salts in the bowel and consequently reduce cholesterol levels. Therefore, they may be developed as a suitable therapeutic option to treat patients with dyslipidemia, as they are natural molecules that do not induce any significant side effects. The current review discusses the evidence supporting the effects of β-glucans on cholesterol levels. PMID:29393350

  13. Association of extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies including 43,407 individuals: The EPOCH-JAPAN study.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Aya; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Watanabe, Makoto; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2018-02-08

    The effect of very high or extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well described. Although a few recent studies have reported the adverse effects of extremely high levels of HDL-C on CVD events, these did not show a statistically significant association between extremely high levels of HDL-C and cause-specific CVD mortality. In addition, Asian populations have not been studied. We examine the impact of extremely high levels of HDL-C on cause-specific CVD mortality using pooled data of Japanese cohort studies. We performed a large-scale pooled analysis of 9 Japanese cohorts including 43,407 participants aged 40-89 years, dividing the participants into 5 groups by HDL-C levels, including extremely high levels of HDL-C ≥2.33 mmol/L (≥90 mg/dL). We estimated the adjusted hazard ratio of each HDL-C category for all-cause death and cause-specific deaths compared with HDL-C 1.04-1.55 mmol/L (40-59 mg/dL) using a cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. During a 12.1-year follow-up, 4995 all-cause deaths and 1280 deaths due to overall CVD were identified. Extremely high levels of HDL-C were significantly associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic CVD mortality (hazard ratio = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-4.09 for total) and increased risk for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. In addition, the risk for extremely high HDL-C was more evident among current drinkers. We showed extremely high levels of HDL-C had an adverse effect on atherosclerotic CVD mortality in a pooled analysis of Japanese cohorts. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How can we further improve the LDL-cholesterol target level achievement rate based on the Hungarian MULTI GAP 2011 study results and considering the new European dyslipidemia guidelines?

    PubMed

    Mark, Laszlo; Paragh, György; Karadi, Istvan; Reiber, Istvan; Pados, Gyula; Kiss, Zoltan

    2012-09-08

    Despite the continuous improvement of the quality of lipid lowering therapy the achievement of target values is still not satisfactory, mainly in the very high cardiovascular risk category patients, where the goal of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is 1.80 mmol/l. The trends in lipid lowering treatment of 17420 patients from different studies conducted between 2004 and 2010 were compared to that of 1626 patients of MULTI GAP (MULTI Goal Attainment Problem) 2011 treated by general practitioners (GPs) and specialists. In MULTI GAP 2011 the mean LDL-C level ± SD) of patients treated by GPs was found to be 2.87 ±1.01 mmol/l, the target value of 2.50 was achieved by 40% of them, in the specialists' patients the mean LDL-C level proved to be 2.77 ±1.10 mmol/l and the achievement rate was 45%. In the 2.50 mmol/l achievement rate of GPs' patients a satisfactory improvement was observed in the studied years, but the 1.80 mmol/l LDL-C goal in 2011 was attained only in 11% of very high risk cases. There was a linear correlation between the patient compliance estimated by the physicians and the LDL-C achievement rate. As the number of very high risk category patients has been increased according to the new European dyslipidemia guidelines, growing attention needs to be placed on attainment of the 1.80 mmol/l LDL-C level. Based on the results of the MULTI GAP studies, improving patients' adherence and the continuous training of physicians are necessary.

  15. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... of saturated fats include some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. ... trans fats that you eat. Examples include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH Eating Plan. ...

  16. Introducing inducible fluorescent split cholesterol oxidase to mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Chernov, Konstantin G; Neuvonen, Maarit; Brock, Ivonne; Ikonen, Elina; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2017-05-26

    Cholesterol oxidase (COase) is a bacterial enzyme catalyzing the first step in the biodegradation of cholesterol. COase is an important biotechnological tool for clinical diagnostics and production of steroid drugs and insecticides. It is also used for tracking intracellular cholesterol; however, its utility is limited by the lack of an efficient temporal control of its activity. To overcome this we have developed a regulatable fragment complementation system for COase cloned from Chromobacterium sp. The enzyme was split into two moieties that were fused to FKBP (FK506-binding protein) and FRB (rapamycin-binding domain) pair and split GFP fragments. The addition of rapamycin reconstituted a fluorescent enzyme, termed split GFP-COase, the fluorescence level of which correlated with its oxidation activity. A rapid decrease of cellular cholesterol induced by intracellular expression of the split GFP-COase promoted the dissociation of a cholesterol biosensor D4H from the plasma membrane. The process was reversible as upon rapamycin removal, the split GFP-COase fluorescence was lost, and cellular cholesterol levels returned to normal. These data demonstrate that the split GFP-COase provides a novel tool to manipulate cholesterol in mammalian cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The Canadian experience: why Canada decided against an upper limit for cholesterol.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Bruce E

    2004-12-01

    Canada, like the United States, held a "consensus conference on cholesterol" in 1988. Although the final report of the consensus panel recommended that total dietary fat not exceed 30 percent and saturated fat not exceed 10 percent of total energy intake, it did not specify an upper limit for dietary cholesterol. Similarly, the 1990, Health Canada publication "Nutrition Recommendations: The Report of the Scientific Review Committee" specified upper limits for total and saturated fat in the diet but did not specify an upper limit for cholesterol. Canada's Guidelines for Healthy Eating, a companion publication from Health Canada, suggested that Canadians "choose low-fat dairy products, lean meats, and foods prepared with little or no fat" while enjoying "a variety of foods." Many factors contributed to this position but a primary element was the belief that total dietary fat and saturated fat were primary dietary determinants of serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, not dietary cholesterol. Hence, Canadian health authorities focused on reducing saturated fat and trans fats in the Canadian diet to help lower blood cholesterol levels rather than focusing on limiting dietary cholesterol. In an effort to allay consumer concern with the premise that blood cholesterol level is linked to dietary cholesterol, organizations such as the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency (CEMA) reminded health professionals, including registered dietitians, family physicians and nutrition educators, of the extensive data showing that there is little relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular mortality. In addition, it was pointed out that for most healthy individuals, endogenous synthesis of cholesterol by the liver adjusts to the level of dietary cholesterol intake. Educating health professionals about the relatively weak association between dietary cholesterol and the relatively strong association between serum cholesterol and saturated fat and

  18. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  19. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  20. Genotoxicity of mercury used in chromosome aberration tests.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M; Oshima, H; Nakamura, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effects of Hg released from dental amalgams. The chromosome aberration test was conducted using original extracts and their diluted solutions of conventional type amalgam and high copper amalgam. The concentrations of Hg, Cu and Ag in the original extract of high copper amalgam were 17.64, 7.97 and 43.90 microM, respectively. Those in the original extract of conventional type amalgam were 20.63, 7.87 and 14.79 microM, respectively. 10 and 30 microM Hg(2+) were also used for comparison. The frequency of chromosome aberrations was below 5% with 0 microM Hg(2+) and with a triple dilution of high copper amalgam extract, containing 5.88 microM Hg, 14.63 microM Cu and 2.65 microM Ag. However, 9.5% of the cells showed chromosome aberrations with a quadruple dilution of conventional type amalgam, containing 5.15 microM Hg, 3.69 microM Cu and 1.96 microM Ag. The amount of Hg in the quadruple dilution of conventional type amalgam was less than that in the triple dilution of high copper amalgam extract and 10 microM Hg(2+). A concentration of 30 microM Hg(2+) caused 34.5% of the cells to show chromosome aberrations while with a two-thirds dilution of high copper amalgam extract, containing 11.76 microM Hg, 29.26 microM Cu and 5.31 microM Ag, 58.5% of the cells showed chromosome aberrations. A two-thirds dilution of high copper amalgam extract induced more chromosome aberrations than 30 microM Hg(2+), although the amount of Hg was less than 30 microM Hg(2+). A triple dilution of conventional type amalgam extract, original extracts of conventional type amalgam and high copper amalgam and 100 microM Hg(2+) were induced few metaphases. It was revealed that the conventional type amalgam induced chromosome aberrations with quadruple dilution where cell viability was about 80% and that the high copper amalgam induced a high level of chromosome aberrations with the two-thirds dilution. The effects of low level Hg on humans

  1. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R.; ...

    2016-04-04

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered L o phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the L o phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown – at least in some bilayers – to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group ismore » in the vicinity of the lipid–water interface. In this study we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies.« less

  2. Impact of low level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol sampled in overnight fasting state on the clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (difference between ST-segment and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction).

    PubMed

    Ji, Mi Seon; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Young Keun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2015-01-01

    Despite good treatment, there are residual risks in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, and low level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) has drawn attention as a possible cause. However, the impact of low HDL on ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) compared with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is not clear. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of low HDL on clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI or NSTEMI. We included 9270 AMI patients undergoing successful percutaneous coronary intervention. They were grouped into STEMI and NSTEMI, and subdivided into two groups according to HDL level sampled in overnight fasting state. Primary end point was in-hospital death. Secondary end point was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in hospital survivors during one-year follow-up. In the STEMI population, low HDL group showed significantly higher in-hospital death rate [4.6% vs. 1.4%, hazard ratio (HR): 2.380, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.143-4.956, p=0.020] than normal HDL group. In NSTEMI population, there was no significant difference between two groups (1.8% vs. 0.9%, HR: 1.231, 95% CI: 0.649-2.335, p=0.525), but in subgroup analysis, very low HDL subgroup showed higher in-hospital mortality rate compared with normal HDL group (4.0% vs. 0.9%, respectively, p=0.009). In 12-month MACE rates, there was no significant difference between two groups in both populations. Low HDL was associated with significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality in STEMI patients, but not in NSTEMI patients. Thus, more aggressive treatment should be considered in STEMI patients with low HDL. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Association of dietary pattern and physical activity level with triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio among adults in Jiangsu, China: a cross-sectional study with sex-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Shurong; Su, Jian; Xiang, Quanyong; Wu, Ming

    2014-08-01

    Our study aims to explore the association between dietary patterns and physical activity levels (PAL) with a triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio, and to examine whether the association is sex dependent among Chinese adults. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected through questionnaires, anthropometric measurement, and biochemical tests. Four food patterns ("meat," "healthy," "high-energy," and "traditional Chinese") were established through factor analysis. Physical activity level was categorized as "active," "moderate," and "inactive." Logistic regression models were used to determine the associations between food patterns and PAL with TG/HDL-C ratio. Compared with quartile 1, quartiles 2 and 3 of meat pattern among men were found to be associated with lower risk of high TG/HDL-C ratio (the highest quartile of TG/HDL-C ratio). Similar decreased risk of high TG/HDL-C ratio was also observed in the highest quartile 4 of healthy pattern among women. Active PAL was protective against high TG/HDL-C ratio among both men (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.86) and women (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.96). Although no statistically significant interaction was observed, we found that individuals with active PAL and low healthy diet had a similar OR with those with inactive PAL and high healthy diet (0.62 vs 0.68). In conclusion, dietary patterns were associated with TG/HDL-C ratio in a sex-specific way, and active PAL was consistently related to decreased risk of high TG/HDL-C ratio across genders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    High-order monochromatic aberrations could potentially influence vision-dependent refractive development in a variety of ways. As a first step in understanding the effects of wave aberration on refractive development, we characterized the maturational changes that take place in the high-order aberrations of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations of infant and adolescent animals and measured the longitudinal changes in the high-order aberrations of infant monkeys during the early period when emmetropization takes place. Our main findings were that (1) adolescent monkey eyes have excellent optical quality, exhibiting total RMS errors that were slightly better than those for adult human eyes that have the same numerical aperture and (2) shortly after birth, infant rhesus monkeys exhibited relatively larger magnitudes of high-order aberrations predominately spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil, which decreased rapidly to assume adolescent values by about 200 days of age. The results demonstrate that rhesus monkey eyes are a good model for studying the contribution of individual ocular components to the eye’s overall aberration structure, the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in optical quality that occur during early ocular development, and the effects of high-order aberrations on ocular growth and emmetropization. PMID:16750549

  5. Cholesterol and related sterols autoxidation.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Chiara; Iuliano, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Cholesterol is a unique lipid molecule providing the building block for membranes, hormones, vitamin D and bile acid synthesis. Metabolism of cholesterol involves several enzymes acting on the sterol nucleus or the isooctyl tail. In the recent years, research interest has been focused on oxysterols, cholesterol derivatives generated by the addition of oxygen to the cholesterol backbone. Oxysterols can be produced enzymatically or by autoxidation. Autoxidation of cholesterol proceeds through type I or type II mechanisms. Type I autoxidation is initiated by free radical species, such as those arising from the superoxide/hydrogen peroxide/hydroxyl radical system. Type II autoxidation occurs stoichiometrically by non-radical highly reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, HOCl, and ozone. The vulnerability of cholesterol towards high reactive species has raised considerable interest for mechanistic studies and for the potential biological activity of oxysterols, as well as for the use of oxysterols as biomarkers for the non-invasive study of oxidative stress in vivo. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. 25-Hydroxycholesterol Inhibition of Lassa Virus Infection through