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Sample records for aberrant cytosine methylation

  1. Aberrant Promoter Methylation at CpG Cytosines Induce the Upregulation of the E2F5 Gene in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Arshad; Ullah, Farman; Ali, Irum Sabir; Faraz, Ahmad; Khan, Mumtaz; Shah, Syed Tahir Ali; Ali, Nawab

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The promoter methylation status of cell cycle regulatory genes plays a crucial role in the regulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle. CpG cytosines are actively subjected to methylation during tumorigenesis, resulting in gain/loss of function. E2F5 gene has growth repressive activities; various studies suggest its involvement in tumorigenesis. This study aims to investigate the epigenetic regulation of E2F5 in breast cancer to better understand tumor biology. Methods The promoter methylation status of 50 breast tumor tissues and adjacent normal control tissues was analyzed. mRNA expression was determined using SYBR® green quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and methylation-specific PCR was performed for bisulfite-modified genomic DNA using E2F5-specific primers to assess promoter methylation. Data was statistically analyzed. Results Significant (p<0.001) upregulation was observed in E2F5 expression among tumor tissues, relative to the control group. These samples were hypo-methylated at the E2F5 promoter region in the tumor tissues, compared to the control. Change in the methylation status (Δmeth) was significantly lower (p=0.022) in the tumor samples, indicating possible involvement in tumorigenesis. Patients at the postmenopausal stage showed higher methylation (75%) than those at the premenopausal stage (23.1%). Interestingly, methylation levels gradually increased from the early to the advanced stages of the disease (p<0.001), which suggests a putative role of E2F5 methylation in disease progression that can significantly modulate tumor biology at more advanced stage and at postmenopausal age (Pearson's r=0.99 and 0.86, respectively). Among tissues with different histological status, methylation frequency was higher in invasive lobular carcinoma (80.0%), followed by invasive ductal carcinoma (46.7%) and ductal carcinoma in situ (20.0%). Conclusion Methylation is an important epigenetic factor that might be involved in the upregulation of E2F5

  2. Information Thermodynamics of Cytosine DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a stable epigenetic modification to the genome and a widespread regulatory process in living organisms that involves multicomponent molecular machines. Genome-wide cytosine methylation patterning participates in the epigenetic reprogramming of a cell, suggesting that the biological information contained within methylation positions may be amenable to decoding. Adaptation to a new cellular or organismal environment also implies the potential for genome-wide redistribution of CDM changes that will ensure the stability of DNA molecules. This raises the question of whether or not we would be able to sort out the regulatory methylation signals from the CDM background (“noise”) induced by thermal fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel statistical and information thermodynamic description of the CDM changes to address the last question. The physical basis of our statistical mechanical model was evaluated in two respects: 1) the adherence to Landauer’s principle, according to which molecular machines must dissipate a minimum energy ε = kBT ln2 at each logic operation, where kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature and 2) whether or not the binary stretch of methylation marks on the DNA molecule comprise a language of sorts, properly constrained by thermodynamic principles. The study was performed for genome-wide methylation data from 152 ecotypes and 40 trans-generational variations of Arabidopsis thaliana and 93 human tissues. The DNA persistence length, a basic mechanical property altered by CDM, was estimated with values from 39 to 66.9 nm. Classical methylome analysis can be retrieved by applying information thermodynamic modelling, which is able to discriminate signal from noise. Our finding suggests that the CDM signal comprises a language scheme properly constrained by molecular thermodynamic principles, which is part of an epigenomic communication system that obeys the same thermodynamic rules as do

  3. Information Thermodynamics of Cytosine DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a stable epigenetic modification to the genome and a widespread regulatory process in living organisms that involves multicomponent molecular machines. Genome-wide cytosine methylation patterning participates in the epigenetic reprogramming of a cell, suggesting that the biological information contained within methylation positions may be amenable to decoding. Adaptation to a new cellular or organismal environment also implies the potential for genome-wide redistribution of CDM changes that will ensure the stability of DNA molecules. This raises the question of whether or not we would be able to sort out the regulatory methylation signals from the CDM background ("noise") induced by thermal fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel statistical and information thermodynamic description of the CDM changes to address the last question. The physical basis of our statistical mechanical model was evaluated in two respects: 1) the adherence to Landauer's principle, according to which molecular machines must dissipate a minimum energy ε = kBT ln2 at each logic operation, where kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature and 2) whether or not the binary stretch of methylation marks on the DNA molecule comprise a language of sorts, properly constrained by thermodynamic principles. The study was performed for genome-wide methylation data from 152 ecotypes and 40 trans-generational variations of Arabidopsis thaliana and 93 human tissues. The DNA persistence length, a basic mechanical property altered by CDM, was estimated with values from 39 to 66.9 nm. Classical methylome analysis can be retrieved by applying information thermodynamic modelling, which is able to discriminate signal from noise. Our finding suggests that the CDM signal comprises a language scheme properly constrained by molecular thermodynamic principles, which is part of an epigenomic communication system that obeys the same thermodynamic rules as do current

  4. High-Resolution Analysis of Cytosine Methylation in Ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Cropley, Jennifer E.; Cooper, Alan; Suter, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic changes to gene expression can result in heritable phenotypic characteristics that are not encoded in the DNA itself, but rather by biochemical modifications to the DNA or associated chromatin proteins. Interposed between genes and environment, these epigenetic modifications can be influenced by environmental factors to affect phenotype for multiple generations. This raises the possibility that epigenetic states provide a substrate for natural selection, with the potential to participate in the rapid adaptation of species to changes in environment. Any direct test of this hypothesis would require the ability to measure epigenetic states over evolutionary timescales. Here we describe the first single-base resolution of cytosine methylation patterns in an ancient mammalian genome, by bisulphite allelic sequencing of loci from late Pleistocene Bison priscus remains. Retrotransposons and the differentially methylated regions of imprinted loci displayed methylation patterns identical to those derived from fresh bovine tissue, indicating that methylation patterns are preserved in the ancient DNA. Our findings establish the biochemical stability of methylated cytosines over extensive time frames, and provide the first direct evidence that cytosine methylation patterns are retained in DNA from ancient specimens. The ability to resolve cytosine methylation in ancient DNA provides a powerful means to study the role of epigenetics in evolution. PMID:22276161

  5. Detection of Cytosine Methylation in Ancient DNA from Five Native American Populations Using Bisulfite Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rick W. A.; Monroe, Cara; Bolnick, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    While cytosine methylation has been widely studied in extant populations, relatively few studies have analyzed methylation in ancient DNA. Most existing studies of epigenetic marks in ancient DNA have inferred patterns of methylation in highly degraded samples using post-mortem damage to cytosines as a proxy for cytosine methylation levels. However, this approach limits the inference of methylation compared with direct bisulfite sequencing, the current gold standard for analyzing cytosine methylation at single nucleotide resolution. In this study, we used direct bisulfite sequencing to assess cytosine methylation in ancient DNA from the skeletal remains of 30 Native Americans ranging in age from approximately 230 to 4500 years before present. Unmethylated cytosines were converted to uracils by treatment with sodium bisulfite, bisulfite products of a CpG-rich retrotransposon were pyrosequenced, and C-to-T ratios were quantified for a single CpG position. We found that cytosine methylation is readily recoverable from most samples, given adequate preservation of endogenous nuclear DNA. In addition, our results indicate that the precision of cytosine methylation estimates is inversely correlated with aDNA preservation, such that samples of low DNA concentration show higher variability in measures of percent methylation than samples of high DNA concentration. In particular, samples in this study with a DNA concentration above 0.015 ng/μL generated the most consistent measures of cytosine methylation. This study presents evidence of cytosine methylation in a large collection of ancient human remains, and indicates that it is possible to analyze epigenetic patterns in ancient populations using direct bisulfite sequencing approaches. PMID:26016479

  6. The CHH motif in sugar beet satellite DNA: a modulator for cytosine methylation.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Falk; Schubert, Veit; Viehoever, Prisca; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Methylation of DNA is important for the epigenetic silencing of repetitive DNA in plant genomes. Knowledge about the cytosine methylation status of satellite DNAs, a major class of repetitive DNA, is scarce. One reason for this is that arrays of tandemly arranged sequences are usually collapsed in next-generation sequencing assemblies. We applied strategies to overcome this limitation and quantified the level of cytosine methylation and its pattern in three satellite families of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) which differ in their abundance, chromosomal localization and monomer size. We visualized methylation levels along pachytene chromosomes with respect to small satellite loci at maximum resolution using chromosome-wide fluorescent in situ hybridization complemented with immunostaining and super-resolution microscopy. Only reduced methylation of many satellite arrays was obtained. To investigate methylation at the nucleotide level we performed bisulfite sequencing of 1569 satellite sequences. We found that the level of methylation of cytosine strongly depends on the sequence context: cytosines in the CHH motif show lower methylation (44-52%), while CG and CHG motifs are more strongly methylated. This affects the overall methylation of satellite sequences because CHH occurs frequently while CG and CHG are rare or even absent in the satellite arrays investigated. Evidently, CHH is the major target for modulation of the cytosine methylation level of adjacent monomers within individual arrays and contributes to their epigenetic function. This strongly indicates that asymmetric cytosine methylation plays a role in the epigenetic modification of satellite repeats in plant genomes.

  7. Roles, and establishment, maintenance and erasing of the epigenetic cytosine methylation marks in plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Kumari, Renu; Sharma, Vishakha; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-12-01

    Heritable information in plants consists of genomic information in DNA sequence and epigenetic information superimposed on DNA sequence. The latter is in the form of cytosine methylation at CG, CHG and CHH elements (where H = A, T orC) and a variety of histone modifications in nucleosomes. The epialleles arising from cytosine methylation marks on the nuclear genomic loci have better heritability than the epiallelic variation due to chromatin marks. Phenotypic variation is increased manifold by epiallele comprised methylomes. Plants (angiosperms) have highly conserved genetic mechanisms to establish, maintain or erase cytosine methylation from epialleles. The methylation marks in plants fluctuate according to the cell/tissue/organ in the vegetative and reproductive phases of plant life cycle. They also change according to environment. Epialleles arise by gain or loss of cytosine methylation marks on genes. The changes occur due to the imperfection of the processes that establish and maintain the marks and on account of spontaneous and stress imposed removal of marks. Cytosine methylation pattern acquired in response to abiotic or biotic stress is often inherited over one to several subsequent generations.Cytosine methylation marks affect physiological functions of plants via their effect(s) on gene expression levels. They also repress transposable elements that are abundantly present in plant genomes. The density of their distribution along chromosome lengths affects meiotic recombination rate, while their removal increases mutation rate. Transposon activation due to loss of methylation causes rearrangements such that new gene regulatory networks arise and genes for microRNAs may originate. Cytosine methylation dynamics contribute to evolutionary changes. This review presents and discusses the available evidence on origin, removal and roles of cytosine methylation and on related processes, such as RNA directed DNA methylation, imprinting, paramutation and

  8. Genome-Wide Discriminatory Information Patterns of Cytosine DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a highly abundant, heritable but reversible chemical modification to the genome. Herein, a machine learning approach was applied to analyze the accumulation of epigenetic marks in methylomes of 152 ecotypes and 85 silencing mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In an information-thermodynamics framework, two measurements were used: (1) the amount of information gained/lost with the CDM changes IR and (2) the uncertainty of not observing a SNP LCR. We hypothesize that epigenetic marks are chromosomal footprints accounting for different ontogenetic and phylogenetic histories of individual populations. A machine learning approach is proposed to verify this hypothesis. Results support the hypothesis by the existence of discriminatory information (DI) patterns of CDM able to discriminate between individuals and between individual subpopulations. The statistical analyses revealed a strong association between the topologies of the structured population of Arabidopsis ecotypes based on IR and on LCR, respectively. A statistical-physical relationship between IR and LCR was also found. Results to date imply that the genome-wide distribution of CDM changes is not only part of the biological signal created by the methylation regulatory machinery, but ensures the stability of the DNA molecule, preserving the integrity of the genetic message under continuous stress from thermal fluctuations in the cell environment. PMID:27322251

  9. DNA duplex stability of the thio-iso-guanine•methyl-iso-Cytosine base pair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongkye; Switzer, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis, incorporation into oligonucleotides, and base-pairing properties of the 2-thio-variant of iso-guanine. Iso-guanine is the purine component of a nonstandard base pair with 5-methyl-iso-cytosine. The 2-thio-iso-guanine • 5-methyl-iso-cytosine base pair is found to have similar stability to an adenine • thymine pair.

  10. Global cytosine methylation in Daphnia magna depends on genotype, environment, and their interaction.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; De Coninck, Dieter I M; Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Jansen, Mieke; Decaestecker, Ellen; De Meester, Luc; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-05-01

    The authors characterized global cytosine methylation levels in 2 different genotypes of the ecotoxicological model organism Daphnia magna after exposure to a wide array of biotic and abiotic environmental stressors. The present study aimed to improve the authors' understanding of the role of cytosine methylation in the organism's response to environmental conditions. The authors observed a significant genotype effect, an environment effect, and a genotype × environment effect. In particular, global cytosine methylation levels were significantly altered after exposure to Triops predation cues, Microcystis, and sodium chloride compared with control conditions. Significant differences between the 2 genotypes were observed when animals were exposed to Triops predation cues, Microcystis, Cryptomonas, and sodium chloride. Despite the low global methylation rate under control conditions (0.49-0.52%), global cytosine methylation levels upon exposure to Triops demonstrated a 5-fold difference between the genotypes (0.21% vs 1.02%). No effects were found in response to arsenic, cadmium, fish, lead, pH of 5.5, pH of 8, temperature, hypoxia, and white fat cell disease. The authors' results point to the potential role of epigenetic effects under changing environmental conditions such as predation (i.e., Triops), diet (i.e., Cryptomonas and Microcystis), and salinity. The results of the present study indicate that, despite global cytosine methylation levels being low, epigenetic effects may be important in environmental studies on Daphnia.

  11. Analysis of DNA Cytosine Methylation Patterns Using Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP).

    PubMed

    Guevara, María Ángeles; de María, Nuria; Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Vélez, María Dolores; Cervera, María Teresa; Cabezas, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Different molecular techniques have been developed to study either the global level of methylated cytosines or methylation at specific gene sequences. One of them is the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique (MSAP) which is a modification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). It has been used to study methylation of anonymous CCGG sequences in different fungi, plants, and animal species. The main variation of this technique resides on the use of isoschizomers with different methylation sensitivity (such as HpaII and MspI) as a frequent-cutter restriction enzyme. For each sample, MSAP analysis is performed using both EcoRI/HpaII- and EcoRI/MspI-digested samples. A comparative analysis between EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI fragment patterns allows the identification of two types of polymorphisms: (1) methylation-insensitive polymorphisms that show common EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI patterns but are detected as polymorphic amplified fragments among samples and (2) methylation-sensitive polymorphisms which are associated with the amplified fragments that differ in their presence or absence or in their intensity between EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI patterns. This chapter describes a detailed protocol of this technique and discusses the modifications that can be applied to adjust the technology to different species of interest.

  12. Aberrant DNA Methylation and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sunipa; Buckles, Eric; Estrada, John; Koochekpour, Shahriar

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer, a significant contributor to morbidity and a leading cause of cancer-related death in men in Western industrialized countries. In contrast to genetic changes that vary among individual cases, somatic epigenetic alterations are early and highly consistent events. Epigenetics encompasses several different phenomena, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, RNA interference, and genomic imprinting. Epigenetic processes regulate gene expression and can change malignancy-associated phenotypes such as growth, migration, invasion, or angiogenesis. Methylations of certain genes are associated with PCa progression. Compared to normal prostate tissues, several hypermethylated genes have also been identified in benign prostate hyperplasia, which suggests a role for aberrant methylation in this growth dysfunction. Global and gene-specific DNA methylation could be affected by environmental and dietary factors. Among other epigenetic changes, aberrant DNA methylation might have a great potential as diagnostic or prognostic marker for PCa and could be tested in tumor tissues and various body fluids (e.g., serum, urine). The DNA methylation markers are simple in nature, have high sensitivity, and could be detected either quantitatively or qualitatively. Availability of genome-wide screening methodologies also allows the identification of epigenetic signatures in high throughput population studies. Unlike irreversible genetic changes, epigenetic alterations are reversible and could be used for PCa targeted therapies. PMID:22547956

  13. Global DNA cytosine methylation as an evolving trait: phylogenetic signal and correlated evolution with genome size in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Conchita; Pérez, Ricardo; Bazaga, Pilar; Herrera, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA cytosine methylation is a widespread epigenetic mechanism in eukaryotes, and plant genomes commonly are densely methylated. Genomic methylation can be associated with functional consequences such as mutational events, genomic instability or altered gene expression, but little is known on interspecific variation in global cytosine methylation in plants. In this paper, we compare global cytosine methylation estimates obtained by HPLC and use a phylogenetically-informed analytical approach to test for significance of evolutionary signatures of this trait across 54 angiosperm species in 25 families. We evaluate whether interspecific variation in global cytosine methylation is statistically related to phylogenetic distance and also whether it is evolutionarily correlated with genome size (C-value). Global cytosine methylation varied widely between species, ranging between 5.3% (Arabidopsis) and 39.2% (Narcissus). Differences between species were related to their evolutionary trajectories, as denoted by the strong phylogenetic signal underlying interspecific variation. Global cytosine methylation and genome size were evolutionarily correlated, as revealed by the significant relationship between the corresponding phylogenetically independent contrasts. On average, a ten-fold increase in genome size entailed an increase of about 10% in global cytosine methylation. Results show that global cytosine methylation is an evolving trait in angiosperms whose evolutionary trajectory is significantly linked to changes in genome size, and suggest that the evolutionary implications of epigenetic mechanisms are likely to vary between plant lineages. PMID:25688257

  14. Inheritance of cytosine methylation patterns in purebred versus hybrid chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q; Sun, D X; Li, J L; Liu, R; Wang, Y C; Zhang, Y

    2013-07-30

    We used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism to examine DNA methylation levels and CCGG patterns in parents and offsprings of 3 groups of adult chickens, purebred White Leghorn (AA), White Plymouth Rock (EE), and crossbred individuals (EA) using 10 primer combinations. We found that about 66% of the cytosines at CCGG sites were not methylated. Fully methylated sites were less frequent than hemi-methylated sites in the chicken genome; these frequencies were different from those of plants. We observed that the probability that the offspring would inherit the methylation pattern for any given site from the parents was 88%; consequently, unexpected methylation patterns in offspring occurred at a rate of about 12%. The methylation degree in offspring was lower than in parents, and there were more sites with altered methylation patterns in EA crossbreds compared with AA and EE purebreds. Seven differentially methylated fragments between parental lines and their offspring were isolated, sequenced, and characterized, 4 of which were located in the coding regions. We conclude that most of the methylation status is transferred from parents to offspring in chickens, and that there are differences in the inheritance of methylation status in purebred versus crossbred offspring. We also concluded that methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism is highly efficient for large-scale detection of cytosine methylation in the chicken genome.

  15. The role of cytosine methylation on charge transport through a DNA strand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianqing; Govind, Niranjan; Anantram, M. P.

    2015-09-01

    Cytosine methylation has been found to play a crucial role in various biological processes, including a number of human diseases. The detection of this small modification remains challenging. In this work, we computationally explore the possibility of detecting methylated DNA strands through direct electrical conductance measurements. Using density functional theory and the Landauer-Büttiker method, we study the electronic properties and charge transport through an eight base-pair methylated DNA strand and its native counterpart. We first analyze the effect of cytosine methylation on the tight-binding parameters of two DNA strands and then model the transmission of the electrons and conductance through the strands both with and without decoherence. We find that the main difference of the tight-binding parameters between the native DNA and the methylated DNA lies in the on-site energies of (methylated) cytosine bases. The intra- and inter-strand hopping integrals between two nearest neighboring guanine base and (methylated) cytosine base also change with the addition of the methyl groups. Our calculations show that in the phase-coherent limit, the transmission of the methylated strand is close to the native strand when the energy is nearby the highest occupied molecular orbital level and larger than the native strand by 5 times in the bandgap. The trend in transmission also holds in the presence of the decoherence with the same rate. The lower conductance for the methylated strand in the experiment is suggested to be caused by the more stable structure due to the introduction of the methyl groups. We also study the role of the exchange-correlation functional and the effect of contact coupling by choosing coupling strengths ranging from weak to strong coupling limit.

  16. The role of cytosine methylation on charge transport through a DNA strand

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jianqing Anantram, M. P.; Govind, Niranjan

    2015-09-07

    Cytosine methylation has been found to play a crucial role in various biological processes, including a number of human diseases. The detection of this small modification remains challenging. In this work, we computationally explore the possibility of detecting methylated DNA strands through direct electrical conductance measurements. Using density functional theory and the Landauer-Büttiker method, we study the electronic properties and charge transport through an eight base-pair methylated DNA strand and its native counterpart. We first analyze the effect of cytosine methylation on the tight-binding parameters of two DNA strands and then model the transmission of the electrons and conductance through the strands both with and without decoherence. We find that the main difference of the tight-binding parameters between the native DNA and the methylated DNA lies in the on-site energies of (methylated) cytosine bases. The intra- and inter-strand hopping integrals between two nearest neighboring guanine base and (methylated) cytosine base also change with the addition of the methyl groups. Our calculations show that in the phase-coherent limit, the transmission of the methylated strand is close to the native strand when the energy is nearby the highest occupied molecular orbital level and larger than the native strand by 5 times in the bandgap. The trend in transmission also holds in the presence of the decoherence with the same rate. The lower conductance for the methylated strand in the experiment is suggested to be caused by the more stable structure due to the introduction of the methyl groups. We also study the role of the exchange-correlation functional and the effect of contact coupling by choosing coupling strengths ranging from weak to strong coupling limit.

  17. Mechanism of human methyl-directed DNA methyltransferase and the fidelity of cytosine methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S S; Kaplan, B E; Sowers, L C; Newman, E M

    1992-01-01

    The properties of the methyl-directed DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.37) suggest that it is the enzyme that maintains patterns of methylation in the human genome. Proposals for the enzyme's mechanism of action suggest that 5-methyldeoxycytidine is produced from deoxycytidine via a dihydrocytosine intermediate. We have used an oligodeoxynucleotide containing 5-fluorodeoxycytidine as a suicide substrate to capture the enzyme and the dihydrocytosine intermediate. Gel retardation experiments demonstrate the formation of the expected covalent complex between duplex DNA containing 5-fluorodeoxycytidine and the human enzyme. Formation of the complex was dependent upon the presence of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine, suggesting that it comprises an enzyme-linked 5-substituted dihydrocytosine moiety in DNA. Dihydrocytosine derivatives are extremely labile toward hydrolytic deamination in aqueous solution. Because C-to-T transition mutations are especially prevalent at CG sites in human DNA, we have used high-performance liquid chromatography to search for thymidine that might be generated by hydrolysis during the methyl transfer reaction. Despite the potential for deamination inherent in the formation of the intermediate, the methyltransferase did not produce detectable amounts of thymidine. The data suggest that the ability of the human methyltransferase to preserve genetic information when copying a methylation pattern (i.e., its fidelity) is comparable to the ability of a mammalian DNA polymerase to preserve genetic information when copying a DNA sequence. Thus the high frequency of C-to-T transitions at CG sites in human DNA does not appear to be due to the normal enzymatic maintenance of methylation patterns. Images PMID:1584813

  18. The Role of Cytosine Methylation on Charge Transport through a DNA Strand

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jianqing; Govind, Niranjan; Anantram, M. P.

    2015-09-04

    Cytosine methylation has been found to play a crucial role in various biological processes, including a number of human diseases. The detection of this small modifi-cation remains challenging. In this work, we computationally explore the possibility of detecting methylated DNA strands through direct electrical conductance measurements. Using density functional theory and the Landauer-Buttiker method, we study the electronic properties and charge transport through an eight base-pair methylated DNA strand and its native counterpart. Specifically, we compare the results generated with the widely used B3LYP exchange-correlation (XC) functional and CAM-B3LYP based tuned range-separated hybrid density functional. We first analyze the effect of cytosine methylation on the tight-binding parameters of two DNA strands and then model the transmission of the electrons and conductance through the strands both with and without decoherence. We find that with both functionals, the main difference of the tight-binding parameters between the native DNA and the methylated DNA lies in the on-site energies of (methylated) cytosine bases. The intra- and interstrand hopping integrals between two nearest neighboring guanine base and (methylated) cytosine base also change with the addition of the methyl groups. Our calculations show that in the phase-coherent limit, the transmission of the methylated strand is close to the native strand when the energy is nearby the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and larger than the native strand by 5 times in the bandgap. The trend in transmission also holds in the presence of the decoherence with both functionals. We also study the effect of contact coupling by choosing coupling strengths ranging from weak to strong coupling limit. Our results suggest that the effect of the two different functionals is to alter the on-site energies of the DNA bases at the HOMO level, while the transport properties don't depend much on the two functionals.

  19. The effects of cytosine methylation on general transcription factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jianshi; Lian, Tengfei; Gu, Chan; Yu, Kai; Gao, Yi Qin; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation on CpG sites is the most common epigenetic modification. Recently, methylation in a non-CpG context was found to occur widely on genomic DNA. Moreover, methylation of non-CpG sites is a highly controlled process, and its level may vary during cellular development. To study non-CpG methylation effects on DNA/protein interactions, we have chosen three human transcription factors (TFs): glucocorticoid receptor (GR), brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) - circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and estrogen receptor (ER) with methylated or unmethylated DNA binding sequences, using single-molecule and isothermal titration calorimetry assays. The results demonstrated that these TFs interact with methylated DNA with different effects compared with their cognate DNA sequences. The effects of non-CpG methylation on transcriptional regulation were validated by cell-based luciferase assay at protein level. The mechanisms of non-CpG methylation influencing DNA-protein interactions were investigated by crystallographic analyses and molecular dynamics simulation. With BisChIP-seq assays in HEK-293T cells, we found that GR can recognize highly methylated sites within chromatin in cells. Therefore, we conclude that non-CpG methylation of DNA can provide a mechanism for regulating gene expression through directly affecting the binding of TFs.

  20. [Methods for detection of methylated cytosine residues in DNA].

    PubMed

    Smirnikhina, S A; Lavrov, A V

    2009-01-01

    The article provides analysis of common methods for DNA methylation detection. Advantages and limitations of methods used for different purposes are compared. Clue step for most common methods is bisulfite treatment of DNA samples and its protocol is described in details. Recommendations are formulated for each method best in solving specific problems.

  1. Overcoming transcription activator-like effector (TALE) DNA binding domain sensitivity to cytosine methylation.

    PubMed

    Valton, Julien; Dupuy, Aurélie; Daboussi, Fayza; Thomas, Séverine; Maréchal, Alan; Macmaster, Rachel; Melliand, Kevin; Juillerat, Alexandre; Duchateau, Philippe

    2012-11-09

    Within the past 2 years, transcription activator-like effector (TALE) DNA binding domains have emerged as the new generation of engineerable platform for production of custom DNA binding domains. However, their recently described sensitivity to cytosine methylation represents a major bottleneck for genome engineering applications. Using a combination of biochemical, structural, and cellular approaches, we were able to identify the molecular basis of such sensitivity and propose a simple, drug-free, and universal method to overcome it.

  2. Role of DNA methylation in growth and differentiation in Physcomitrella patens and characterization of cytosine DNA methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Malik, Garima; Dangwal, Meenakshi; Kapoor, Sanjay; Kapoor, Meenu

    2012-11-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are known to regulate important developmental processes in higher eukaryotes. However, little is known about the necessity and role of this process in early land plants. Using the methyltransferase (MTase) inhibitor zebularine (1-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)-1,2-dihydropyrimidine-2-one), the impact of loss of genome-wide methylation on the overall development in Physcomitrella patens was analyzed. It is observed that various aspects of growth and differentiation during gametophyte development become aberrant. A search for the core molecular components of methylation machinery, cytosine DNA MTases, revealed the presence of seven loci in the P. patens genome. Five of the loci code for MTases that are similar to corresponding proteins in higher plants, while two MTases appear specific to P. patens and are closely related to human DNMT3a and DNMT3b, respectively. These proteins possess all the conserved catalytic motifs characteristic of MTases and a domain of unknown function, DUF3444. Association of these highly conserved motifs with a DUF has not been reported in any of the MTases known so far. All the seven genes are differentially but ubiquitously expressed in gametophytes at low levels. Subcellular localization of GFP-fused proteins shows patterns of distribution that can be correlated with their putative cellular functions. This work bridges the knowledge of MTases in P. patens and makes this simple model plant accessible for studies on epigenetic aspects that remain intractable in higher plants.

  3. Base flip in DNA studied by molecular dynamics simulationsof differently-oxidized forms of methyl-Cytosine.

    PubMed

    Helabad, Mahdi Bagherpoor; Kanaan, Natalia; Imhof, Petra

    2014-07-03

    Distortions in the DNA sequence, such as damage or mispairs, are specifically recognized and processed by DNA repair enzymes. Many repair proteins and, in particular, glycosylases flip the target base out of the DNA helix into the enzyme's active site. Our molecular dynamics simulations of DNA with intact and damaged (oxidized) methyl-cytosine show that the probability of being flipped is similar for damaged and intact methyl-cytosine. However, the accessibility of the different 5-methyl groups allows direct discrimination of the oxidized forms. Hydrogen-bonded patterns that vary between methyl-cytosine forms carrying a carbonyl oxygen atom are likely to be detected by the repair enzymes and may thus help target site recognition.

  4. Persistence of cytosine methylation of DNA following fertilisation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; O'Neill, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Normal development of the mammalian embryo requires epigenetic reprogramming of the genome. The level of cytosine methylation of CpG-rich (5meC) regions of the genome is a major epigenetic regulator and active global demethylation of 5meC throughout the genome is reported to occur within the first cell-cycle following fertilization. An enzyme or mechanism capable of catalysing such rapid global demethylation has not been identified. The mouse is a widely used model for studying developmental epigenetics. We have reassessed the evidence for this phenomenon of genome-wide demethylation following fertilisation in the mouse. We found when using conventional methods of immunolocalization that 5meC showed a progressive acid-resistant antigenic masking during zygotic maturation which gave the appearance of demethylation. Changing the unmasking strategy by also performing tryptic digestion revealed a persistence of a methylated state. Analysis of methyl binding domain 1 protein (MBD1) binding confirmed that the genome remained methylated following fertilisation. The maintenance of this methylated state over the first several cell-cycles required the actions of DNA methyltransferase activity. The study shows that any 5meC remodelling that occurs during early development is not explained by a global active loss of 5meC staining during the cleavage stage of development and global loss of methylation following fertilization is not a major component of epigenetic reprogramming in the mouse zygote.

  5. Arabidopsis RNA Polymerases IV and V Are Required To Establish H3K9 Methylation, but Not Cytosine Methylation, on Geminivirus Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Jackel, Jamie N.; Storer, Jessica M.; Coursey, Tami

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In plants, RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) employs small RNAs to target enzymes that methylate cytosine residues. Cytosine methylation and dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) are often linked. Together they condition an epigenetic defense that results in chromatin compaction and transcriptional silencing of transposons and viral chromatin. Canonical RdDM (Pol IV-RdDM), involving RNA polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V), was believed to be necessary to establish cytosine methylation, which in turn could recruit H3K9 methyltransferases. However, recent studies have revealed that a pathway involving Pol II and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) (RDR6-RdDM) is likely responsible for establishing cytosine methylation at naive loci, while Pol IV-RdDM acts to reinforce and maintain it. We used the geminivirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV) as a model to examine the roles of Pol IV and Pol V in establishing repressive viral chromatin methylation. As geminivirus chromatin is formed de novo in infected cells, these viruses are unique models for processes involved in the establishment of epigenetic marks. We confirm that Pol IV and Pol V are not needed to establish viral DNA methylation but are essential for its amplification. Remarkably, however, both Pol IV and Pol V are required for deposition of H3K9me2 on viral chromatin. Our findings suggest that cytosine methylation alone is not sufficient to trigger de novo deposition of H3K9me2 and further that Pol IV-RdDM is responsible for recruiting H3K9 methyltransferases to viral chromatin. IMPORTANCE In plants, RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) uses small RNAs to target cytosine methylation, which is often linked to H3K9me2. These epigenetic marks silence transposable elements and DNA virus genomes, but how they are established is not well understood. Canonical RdDM, involving Pol IV and Pol V, was thought to establish cytosine methylation that in turn could recruit H3K9 methyltransferases, but

  6. Variation in cytosine methylation patterns during ploidy level conversions in Eragrostis curvula.

    PubMed

    Ochogavía, Ana C; Cervigni, Gerardo; Selva, Juan P; Echenique, Viviana C; Pessino, Silvina C

    2009-05-01

    In many species polyploidization involves rearrangements of the progenitor genomes, at both genetic and epigenetic levels. We analyzed the cytosine methylation status in a 'tetraploid-diploid-tetraploid' series of Eragrostis curvula with a common genetic background by using the MSAP (Methylation-sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) technique. Considerable levels of polymorphisms were detected during ploidy conversions. The total level of methylation observed was lower in the diploid genotype compared to the tetraploid ones. A significant proportion of the epigenetic modifications occurring during the tetraploid-diploid conversion reverted during the diploid-tetraploid one. Genetic and expression data from previous work were used to analyze correlation with methylation variation. All genetic, epigenetic and gene expression variation data correlated significantly when compared by pairs in simple Mantel tests. Dendrograms reflecting genetic, epigenetic and expression distances as well as principal coordinate analysis suggested that plants of identical ploidy levels present similar sets of data. Twelve (12) different genomic fragments displaying different methylation behavior during the ploidy conversions were isolated, sequenced and characterized.

  7. Aberrant DNA methylation imprints in aborted bovine clones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-He; Yin, Shen; Xiong, Bo; Hou, Yi; Chen, Da-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-04-01

    Genomic imprinting plays a very important role during development and its abnormality may heavily undermine the developmental potential of bovine embryos. Because of limited resources of the cow genome, bovine genomic imprinting, both in normal development and in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning, is not well documented. DNA methylation is thought to be a major factor for the establishment of genomic imprinting. In our study, we determined the methylation status of differential methylated regions (DMRs) of four imprinted genes in four spontaneously aborted SCNT-cloned fetuses (AF). Firstly, abnormal methylation imprints were observed in each individual to different extents. In particular, Peg3 and MAOA were either seriously demethylated or showed aberrant methylation patterns in four aborted clones we tested, but Xist and Peg10 exhibited relatively better maintained methylation status in AF1 and AF4. Secondly, two aborted fetuses, AF2 and AF3 exhibited severe aberrant methylation imprints of four imprinted genes. Finally, MAOA showed strong heterogeneous methylation patterns of its DMR in normal somatic adult tissue, but largely variable methylation levels and relatively homogeneous methylation patterns in aborted cloned fetuses. Our data indicate that the aborted cloned fetuses exhibited abnormal methylation imprints, to different extent, in aborted clones, which partially account for the higher abortion and developmental abnormalities during bovine cloning.

  8. Salt-Induced Tissue-Specific Cytosine Methylation Downregulates Expression of HKT Genes in Contrasting Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Beena, Ananda Sankara; Awana, Monika; Singh, Archana

    2017-04-01

    Plants have evolved several strategies, including regulation of genes through epigenetic modifications, to cope with environmental stresses. DNA methylation is dynamically regulated through the methylation and demethylation of cytosine in response to environmental perturbations. High-affinity potassium transporters (HKTs) have accounted for the homeostasis of sodium and potassium ions in plants under salt stress. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is sensitive to soil salinity, which impedes its growth and development, resulting in decreased productivity. The differential expression of HKTs has been reported to confer tolerance to salt stress in plants. In this study, we investigated variations in cytosine methylation and their effects on the expression of HKT genes in contrasting wheat genotypes under salt stress. We observed a genotype- and tissue-specific increase in cytosine methylation induced by NaCl stress that downregulated the expression of TaHKT2;1 and TaHKT2;3 in the shoot and root tissues of Kharchia-65, thereby contributing to its improved salt-tolerance ability. Although TaHKT1;4 was expressed only in roots and was downregulated under the stress in salt-tolerant genotypes, it was not regulated through variations in cytosine methylation. Thus, understanding epigenetic regulation and the function of HKTs would enable an improvement in salt tolerance and the development of salt-tolerant crops.

  9. Genome-wide nucleosome map and cytosine methylation levels of an ancient human genome.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Valen, Eivind; Velazquez, Amhed M Vargas; Parker, Brian J; Rasmussen, Morten; Lindgreen, Stinus; Lilje, Berit; Tobin, Desmond J; Kelly, Theresa K; Vang, Søren; Andersson, Robin; Jones, Peter A; Hoover, Cindi A; Tikhonov, Alexei; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Rubin, Edward M; Sandelin, Albin; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Krogh, Anders; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetic information is available from contemporary organisms, but is difficult to track back in evolutionary time. Here, we show that genome-wide epigenetic information can be gathered directly from next-generation sequence reads of DNA isolated from ancient remains. Using the genome sequence data generated from hair shafts of a 4000-yr-old Paleo-Eskimo belonging to the Saqqaq culture, we generate the first ancient nucleosome map coupled with a genome-wide survey of cytosine methylation levels. The validity of both nucleosome map and methylation levels were confirmed by the recovery of the expected signals at promoter regions, exon/intron boundaries, and CTCF sites. The top-scoring nucleosome calls revealed distinct DNA positioning biases, attesting to nucleotide-level accuracy. The ancient methylation levels exhibited high conservation over time, clustering closely with modern hair tissues. Using ancient methylation information, we estimated the age at death of the Saqqaq individual and illustrate how epigenetic information can be used to infer ancient gene expression. Similar epigenetic signatures were found in other fossil material, such as 110,000- to 130,000-yr-old bones, supporting the contention that ancient epigenomic information can be reconstructed from a deep past. Our findings lay the foundation for extracting epigenomic information from ancient samples, allowing shifts in epialleles to be tracked through evolutionary time, as well as providing an original window into modern epigenomics.

  10. Genome-wide nucleosome map and cytosine methylation levels of an ancient human genome

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Valen, Eivind; Velazquez, Amhed M. Vargas; Parker, Brian J.; Rasmussen, Morten; Lindgreen, Stinus; Lilje, Berit; Tobin, Desmond J.; Kelly, Theresa K.; Vang, Søren; Andersson, Robin; Jones, Peter A.; Hoover, Cindi A.; Tikhonov, Alexei; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Rubin, Edward M.; Sandelin, Albin; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Krogh, Anders; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic information is available from contemporary organisms, but is difficult to track back in evolutionary time. Here, we show that genome-wide epigenetic information can be gathered directly from next-generation sequence reads of DNA isolated from ancient remains. Using the genome sequence data generated from hair shafts of a 4000-yr-old Paleo-Eskimo belonging to the Saqqaq culture, we generate the first ancient nucleosome map coupled with a genome-wide survey of cytosine methylation levels. The validity of both nucleosome map and methylation levels were confirmed by the recovery of the expected signals at promoter regions, exon/intron boundaries, and CTCF sites. The top-scoring nucleosome calls revealed distinct DNA positioning biases, attesting to nucleotide-level accuracy. The ancient methylation levels exhibited high conservation over time, clustering closely with modern hair tissues. Using ancient methylation information, we estimated the age at death of the Saqqaq individual and illustrate how epigenetic information can be used to infer ancient gene expression. Similar epigenetic signatures were found in other fossil material, such as 110,000- to 130,000-yr-old bones, supporting the contention that ancient epigenomic information can be reconstructed from a deep past. Our findings lay the foundation for extracting epigenomic information from ancient samples, allowing shifts in epialleles to be tracked through evolutionary time, as well as providing an original window into modern epigenomics. PMID:24299735

  11. Epigenetic contribution to successful polyploidizations: variation in global cytosine methylation along an extensive ploidy series in Dianthus broteri (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Alonso, Conchita; Balao, Francisco; Bazaga, Pilar; Pérez, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    Polyploidization is a significant evolutionary force in plants which involves major genomic and genetic changes, frequently regulated by epigenetic factors. We explored whether natural polyploidization in Dianthus broteri complex resulted in substantial changes in global DNA cytosine methylation associated to ploidy. Global cytosine methylation was estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 12 monocytotypic populations with different ploidies (2×, 4×, 6×, 12×) broadly distributed within D. broteri distribution range. The effects of ploidy level and local variation on methylation were assessed by generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). Dianthus broteri exhibited a higher methylation percent (˜33%) than expected by its monoploid genome size and a large variation among study populations (range: 29.3-35.3%). Global methylation tended to increase with ploidy but did not significantly differ across levels due to increased variation within the highest-order polyploidy categories. Methylation varied more among hexaploid and dodecaploid populations, despite such cytotypes showing more restricted geographic location and increased genetic relatedness than diploids and tetraploids. In this study, we demonstrate the usefulness of an HPLC method in providing precise and genome reference-free global measure of DNA cytosine methylation, suitable to advance current knowledge of the roles of this epigenetic mechanism in polyploidization processes.

  12. Epigenetic variation, inheritance, and parent-of-origin effects of cytosine methylation in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Lauria, Massimiliano; Piccinini, Sara; Pirona, Raul; Lund, Gertrud; Viotti, Angelo; Motto, Mario

    2014-03-01

    Pure epigenetic variation, or epigenetic variation that is independent of genetic context, may provide a mechanism for phenotypic variation in the absence of DNA mutations. To estimate the extent of pure epigenetic variation within and across generations and to identify the DNA regions targeted, a group of eight plants derived from a highly inbred line of maize (Zea mays) was analyzed by the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. We found that cytosine methylation (mC) differences among individuals accounted for up to 7.4% of CCGG sites investigated by MSAP. Of the differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) identified in the S0 generation, ∼12% were meiotically inherited for at least six generations. We show that meiotically heritable mC variation was consistently generated for an average of 0.5% CCGG sites per generation and that it largely occurred somatically. We provide evidence that mC variation can be established and inherited in a parent-of-origin manner, given that the paternal lineage is more prone to both forward and reverse mC changes. The molecular characterization of selected DMFs revealed that the variation was largely determined by CG methylation changes that map within gene regions. The expression analysis of genes overlapping with DMFs did not reveal an obvious correlation between mC variation and transcription, reinforcing the idea that the primary function of gene-body methylation is not to control gene expression. Because this study focuses on epigenetic variation in field-grown plants, the data presented herein pertain to spontaneous epigenetic changes of the maize genome in a natural context.

  13. Evolutionary breakpoints in the gibbon suggest association between cytosine methylation and karyotype evolution.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Lucia; Harris, R Alan; Vessere, Gery M; Mootnick, Alan R; Humphray, Sean; Rogers, Jane; Kim, Sung K; Wall, Jeffrey D; Martin, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; de Jong, Pieter J

    2009-06-01

    Gibbon species have accumulated an unusually high number of chromosomal changes since diverging from the common hominoid ancestor 15-18 million years ago. The cause of this increased rate of chromosomal rearrangements is not known, nor is it known if genome architecture has a role. To address this question, we analyzed sequences spanning 57 breaks of synteny between northern white-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus l. leucogenys) and humans. We find that the breakpoint regions are enriched in segmental duplications and repeats, with Alu elements being the most abundant. Alus located near the gibbon breakpoints (<150 bp) have a higher CpG content than other Alus. Bisulphite allelic sequencing reveals that these gibbon Alus have a lower average density of methylated cytosine that their human orthologues. The finding of higher CpG content and lower average CpG methylation suggests that the gibbon Alu elements are epigenetically distinct from their human orthologues. The association between undermethylation and chromosomal rearrangement in gibbons suggests a correlation between epigenetic state and structural genome variation in evolution.

  14. Factors associated with aberrant imprint methylation and oligozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Norio; Miyauchi, Naoko; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Kitamura, Akane; Okae, Hiroaki; Hiura, Hitoshi; Sato, Akiko; Utsunomiya, Takafumi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Nakai, Kunihiko; Arima, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Disturbingly, the number of patients with oligozoospermia (low sperm count) has been gradually increasing in industrialized countries. Epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in this condition. Recent studies have clarified that intrinsic and extrinsic factors can induce epigenetic transgenerational phenotypes through apparent reprogramming of the male germ line. Here we examined DNA methylation levels of 22 human imprinted loci in a total of 221 purified sperm samples from infertile couples and found methylation alterations in 24.8% of the patients. Structural equation model suggested that the cause of imprint methylation errors in sperm might have been environmental factors. More specifically, aberrant methylation and a particular lifestyle (current smoking, excess consumption of carbonated drinks) were associated with severe oligozoospermia, while aging probably affected this pathology indirectly through the accumulation of PCB in the patients. Next we examined the pregnancy outcomes for patients when the sperm had abnormal imprint methylation. The live-birth rate decreased and the miscarriage rate increased with the methylation errors. Our research will be useful for the prevention of methylation errors in sperm from infertile men, and sperm with normal imprint methylation might increase the safety of assisted reproduction technology (ART) by reducing methylation-induced diseases of children conceived via ART. PMID:28186187

  15. Aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming in bovine SCNT preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Xin; Wang, Fang; An, Xinglan; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Xueming; Sun, Liguang; Li, Ziyi

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation reprogramming plays important roles in mammalian embryogenesis. Mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos with reprogramming defects fail to develop. Thus, we compared DNA methylation reprogramming in preimplantation embryos from bovine SCNT and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and analyzed the influence of vitamin C (VC) on the reprogramming of DNA methylation. The results showed that global DNA methylation followed a typical pattern of demethylation and remethylation in IVF preimplantation embryos; however, the global genome remained hypermethylated in SCNT preimplantation embryos. Compared with the IVF group, locus DNA methylation reprogramming showed three patterns in the SCNT group. First, some pluripotency genes (POU5F1 and NANOG) and repeated elements (satellite I and α-satellite) showed insufficient demethylation and hypermethylation in the SCNT group. Second, a differentially methylated region (DMR) of an imprint control region (ICR) in H19 exhibited excessive demethylation and hypomethylation. Third, some pluripotency genes (CDX2 and SOX2) were hypomethylated in both the IVF and SCNT groups. Additionally, VC improved the DNA methylation reprogramming of satellite I, α-satellite and H19 but not that of POU5F1 and NANOG in SCNT preimplantation embryos. These results indicate that DNA methylation reprogramming was aberrant and that VC influenced DNA methylation reprogramming in SCNT embryos in a locus-specific manner. PMID:27456302

  16. DNA methylation at the C-5 position of cytosine by methyl radicals: a possible role for epigenetic change during carcinogenesis by environmental agents.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Hiroshi; Kawai, Kazuaki

    2009-06-01

    During carcinogenesis, methylation of the C-5 position of cytosines in the promoter region of tumor suppressor genes is often observed. Enzymatic DNA methylation is a widely accepted mechanism for this phenomenon. It is interesting to propose a free radical mechanism for 5-methyldeoxycytidine (m(5)dC) production, because the C-5 position of cytosine is an active site for free radical reactions. When deoxycytidine (dC) and cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH), a tumor promoter and a methyl radical producer, were reacted in the presence of ferrous ion at pH 7.4, the formation of m(5)dC was observed. The same reaction also proceeded with t-butyl hydroperoxide (BuOOH). The formation of m(5)dC was also observed in DNA by the CuOOH treatment. This is the first report of chemical DNA methylation at cytosine C-5 by environmental tumor promoters. We propose here that this reaction is one of the important mechanisms of de novo DNA methylation during carcinogenesis, because methyl radicals are produced by the biotransformation of various endogenous and exogenous compounds.

  17. Methyl-Cytosine-Driven Structural Changes Enhance Adduction Kinetics of an Exon 7 fragment of the p53 Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malla, Spundana; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Fu, You-Jun; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Methylation of cytosine (C) at C-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites enhances reactivity of DNA towards electrophiles. Mutations at CpG sites on the p53 tumor suppressor gene that can result from these adductions are in turn correlated with specific cancers. Here we describe the first restriction-enzyme-assisted LC-MS/MS sequencing study of the influence of methyl cytosines (MeC) on kinetics of p53 gene adduction by model metabolite benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), using methodology applicable to correlate gene damage sites for drug and pollutant metabolites with mutation sites. This method allows direct kinetic measurements by LC-MS/MS sequencing for oligonucleotides longer than 20 base pairs (bp). We used MeC and non-MeC (C) versions of a 32 bp exon 7 fragment of the p53 gene. Methylation of 19 cytosines increased the rate constant 3-fold for adduction on G at the major reactive CpG in codon 248 vs. the non-MeC fragment. Rate constants for non-CpG codons 244 and 243 were not influenced significantly by MeC. Conformational and hydrophobicity changes in the MeC-p53 exon 7 fragment revealed by CD spectra and molecular modeling increase the BPDE binding constant to G in codon 248 consistent with a pathway in which preceding reactant binding greatly facilitates the rate of covalent SN2 coupling.

  18. Methyl-Cytosine-Driven Structural Changes Enhance Adduction Kinetics of an Exon 7 fragment of the p53 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Malla, Spundana; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Fu, You-Jun; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Methylation of cytosine (C) at C-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites enhances reactivity of DNA towards electrophiles. Mutations at CpG sites on the p53 tumor suppressor gene that can result from these adductions are in turn correlated with specific cancers. Here we describe the first restriction-enzyme-assisted LC-MS/MS sequencing study of the influence of methyl cytosines (MeC) on kinetics of p53 gene adduction by model metabolite benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), using methodology applicable to correlate gene damage sites for drug and pollutant metabolites with mutation sites. This method allows direct kinetic measurements by LC-MS/MS sequencing for oligonucleotides longer than 20 base pairs (bp). We used MeC and non-MeC (C) versions of a 32 bp exon 7 fragment of the p53 gene. Methylation of 19 cytosines increased the rate constant 3-fold for adduction on G at the major reactive CpG in codon 248 vs. the non-MeC fragment. Rate constants for non-CpG codons 244 and 243 were not influenced significantly by MeC. Conformational and hydrophobicity changes in the MeC-p53 exon 7 fragment revealed by CD spectra and molecular modeling increase the BPDE binding constant to G in codon 248 consistent with a pathway in which preceding reactant binding greatly facilitates the rate of covalent SN2 coupling. PMID:28102315

  19. Effect of C5-Methylation of Cytosine on the UV-Induced Reactivity of Duplex DNA: Conformational and Electronic Factors.

    PubMed

    Banyasz, Akos; Esposito, Luciana; Douki, Thierry; Perron, Marion; Lepori, Clément; Improta, Roberto; Markovitsi, Dimitra

    2016-05-12

    C5-methylation of cytosines is strongly correlated with UV-induced mutations detected in skin cancers. Mutational hot-spots appearing at TCG sites are due to the formation of pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers (CPDs). The present study, performed for the model DNA duplex (TCGTA)3·(TACGA)3 and the constitutive single strands, examines the factors underlying the effect of C5-methylation on pyrimidine dimerization at TCG sites. This effect is quantified for the first time by quantum yields ϕ. They were determined following irradiation at 255, 267, and 282 nm and subsequent photoproduct analysis using HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. C5-methylation leads to an increase of the CPD quantum yield up to 80% with concomitant decrease of that of pyrimidine(6-4) pyrimidone adducts (64PPs) by at least a factor of 3. The obtained ϕ values cannot be explained only by the change of the cytosine absorption spectrum upon C5-methylation. The conformational and electronic factors that may affect the dimerization reaction are discussed in light of results obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and quantum mechanical calculations. Thus, it appears that the presence of an extra methyl on cytosine affects the sugar puckering, thereby enhancing conformations of the TC step that are prone to CPD formation but less favorable to 64PPs. In addition, C5-methylation diminishes the amplitude of conformational motions in duplexes; in the resulting stiffer structure, ππ* excitations may be transferred from initially populated exciton states to reactive pyrimidines giving rise to CPDs.

  20. Aberrant methylation and associated transcriptional mobilization of Alu elements contributes to genomic instability in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pal, Arnab; Srivastava, Tapasya; Sharma, Manish K; Mehndiratta, Mohit; Das, Prerna; Sinha, Subrata; Chattopadhyay, Parthaprasad

    2010-11-01

    Hypoxia is an integral part of tumorigenesis and contributes extensively to the neoplastic phenotype including drug resistance and genomic instability. It has also been reported that hypoxia results in global demethylation. Because a majority of the cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands are found within the repeat elements of DNA, and are usually methylated under normoxic conditions, we suggested that retrotransposable Alu or short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) which show altered methylation and associated changes of gene expression during hypoxia, could be associated with genomic instability. U87MG glioblastoma cells were cultured in 0.1% O₂ for 6 weeks and compared with cells cultured in 21% O₂ for the same duration. Real-time PCR analysis showed a significant increase in SINE and reverse transcriptase coding long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) transcripts during hypoxia. Sequencing of bisulphite treated DNA as well as the Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA) assay showed that the SINE loci studied underwent significant hypomethylation though there was patchy hypermethylation at a few sites. The inter-alu PCR profile of DNA from cells cultured under 6-week hypoxia, its 4-week revert back to normoxia and 6-week normoxia showed several changes in the band pattern indicating increased alu mediated genomic alteration. Our results show that aberrant methylation leading to increased transcription of SINE and reverse transcriptase associated LINE elements could lead to increased genomic instability in hypoxia. This might be a cause of genetic heterogeneity in tumours especially in variegated hypoxic environment and lead to a development of foci of more aggressive tumour cells.

  1. Transcription factor LSF-DNMT1 complex dissociation by FQI1 leads to aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Hang Gyeong; Ponnaluri, V.K. Chaithanya; Zhang, Guoqiang; Estève, Pierre-Olivier; Schaus, Scott E.; Hansen, Ulla; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor LSF is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promotes oncogenesis. Factor quinolinone inhibitor 1 (FQI1), inhibits LSF DNA-binding activity and exerts anti-proliferative activity. Here, we show that LSF binds directly to the maintenance DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and its accessory protein UHRF1 both in vivo and in vitro. Binding of LSF to DNMT1 stimulated DNMT1 activity and FQI1 negated the methyltransferase activation. Addition of FQI1 to the cell culture disrupted LSF bound DNMT1 and UHRF1 complexes, resulting in global aberrant CpG methylation. Differentially methylated regions (DMR) containing at least 3 CpGs, were significantly altered by FQI1 compared to control cells. The DMRs were mostly concentrated in CpG islands, proximal to transcription start sites, and in introns and known genes. These DMRs represented both hypo and hypermethylation, correlating with altered gene expression. FQI1 treatment elicits a cascade of effects promoting altered cell cycle progression. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of FQI1 mediated alteration of the epigenome by DNMT1-LSF complex disruption, leading to aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression. PMID:27845898

  2. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs in colon neoplasms arising in the azoxymethane colon cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Borinstein, Scott C.; Conerly, Melissa; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Biswas, Swati; Washington, M. Kay; Trobridge, Patty; Henikoff, Steve; Grady, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Mouse models of intestinal tumors have advanced our understanding of the role of gene mutations in colorectal malignancy. However, the utility of these systems for studying the role of epigenetic alterations in intestinal neoplasms remains to be defined. Consequently, we assessed the role of aberrant DNA methylation in the azoxymethane (AOM) rodent model of colon cancer. AOM induced tumors display global DNA hypomethylation, which is similar to human colorectal cancer. We next assessed the methylation status of a panel of candidate genes previously shown to be aberrantly methylated in human cancer or in mouse models of malignant neoplasms. This analysis revealed different patterns of DNA methylation that were gene specific. Zik1 and Gja9 demonstrated cancer-specific aberrant DNA methylation, whereas, Cdkn2a/p16, Igfbp3, Mgmt, Id4, and Cxcr4 were methylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. No aberrant methylation of Dapk1 or Mlt1 was detected in the neoplasms, but normal colon mucosa samples displayed methylation of these genes. Finally, p19Arf, Tslc1, Hltf, and Mlh1 were unmethylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. Thus, aberrant DNA methylation does occur in AOM tumors, although the frequency of aberrantly methylated genes appears to be less common than in human colorectal cancer. Additional studies are necessary to further characterize the patterns of aberrantly methylated genes in AOM tumors. PMID:19777566

  3. Compendium of aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Naoko; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2014-12-05

    Epigenetics now refers to the study or research field related to DNA methylation and histone modifications. Historically, global DNA hypomethylation was first revealed in 1983, and, after a decade, silencing of a tumor suppressor gene by regional DNA hypermethylation was reported. After the proposal of the histone code in the 2000s, alterations of histone methylation were also identified in cancers. Now, it is established that aberrant epigenetic alterations are involved in cancer development and progression, along with mutations and chromosomal losses. Recent cancer genome analyses have revealed a large number of mutations of epigenetic modifiers, supporting their important roles in cancer pathogenesis. Taking advantage of the reversibility of epigenetic alterations, drugs targeting epigenetic regulators and readers have been developed for restoration of normal pattern of the epigenome, and some have already demonstrated clinical benefits. In addition, DNA methylation of specific marker genes can be used as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis, including risk diagnosis, detection of cancers, and pathophysiological diagnosis. In this paper, we will summarize the major concepts of cancer epigenetics, placing emphasis on history.

  4. Mechanisms for the induction of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori infection: aberrant DNA methylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Masahiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2017-03-01

    Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer have been established in the last two decades. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation is induced in multiple driver genes, which inactivates them. Methylation profiles in gastric cancer are associated with specific subtypes, such as microsatellite instability. Recent comprehensive and integrated analyses showed that many cancer-related pathways are more frequently altered by aberrant DNA methylation than by mutations. Aberrant DNA methylation can even be present in noncancerous gastric mucosae, producing an "epigenetic field for cancerization." Mechanistically, H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation, but not H. pylori itself, plays a direct role in the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. The expression of three inflammation-related genes, Il1b, Nos2, and Tnf, is highly associated with the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. Importantly, the degree of accumulated aberrant DNA methylation is strongly correlated with gastric cancer risk. A recent multicenter prospective cohort study demonstrated the utility of epigenetic cancer risk diagnosis for metachronous gastric cancer. Suppression of aberrant DNA methylation by a demethylating agent was shown to inhibit gastric cancer development in an animal model. Induction of aberrant DNA methylation is the major pathway by which H. pylori infection induces gastric cancer, and this can be utilized for translational opportunities.

  5. Accurate CpG and non-CpG cytosine methylation analysis by high-throughput locus-specific pyrosequencing in plants.

    PubMed

    How-Kit, Alexandre; Daunay, Antoine; Mazaleyrat, Nicolas; Busato, Florence; Daviaud, Christian; Teyssier, Emeline; Deleuze, Jean-François; Gallusci, Philippe; Tost, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    Pyrosequencing permits accurate quantification of DNA methylation of specific regions where the proportions of the C/T polymorphism induced by sodium bisulfite treatment of DNA reflects the DNA methylation level. The commercially available high-throughput locus-specific pyrosequencing instruments allow for the simultaneous analysis of 96 samples, but restrict the DNA methylation analysis to CpG dinucleotide sites, which can be limiting in many biological systems. In contrast to mammals where DNA methylation occurs nearly exclusively on CpG dinucleotides, plants genomes harbor DNA methylation also in other sequence contexts including CHG and CHH motives, which cannot be evaluated by these pyrosequencing instruments due to software limitations. Here, we present a complete pipeline for accurate CpG and non-CpG cytosine methylation analysis at single base-resolution using high-throughput locus-specific pyrosequencing. The devised approach includes the design and validation of PCR amplification on bisulfite-treated DNA and pyrosequencing assays as well as the quantification of the methylation level at every cytosine from the raw peak intensities of the Pyrograms by two newly developed Visual Basic Applications. Our method presents accurate and reproducible results as exemplified by the cytosine methylation analysis of the promoter regions of two Tomato genes (NOR and CNR) encoding transcription regulators of fruit ripening during different stages of fruit development. Our results confirmed a significant and temporally coordinated loss of DNA methylation on specific cytosines during the early stages of fruit development in both promoters as previously shown by WGBS. The manuscript describes thus the first high-throughput locus-specific DNA methylation analysis in plants using pyrosequencing.

  6. Trace analysis of methylated and hydroxymethylated cytosines in DNA by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS: first evidence of DNA methylation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chiung-Wen; Chen, Jian-Lian; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Chao, Mu-Rong

    2015-01-01

    From 1986 to the present, the popular research model organism Caenorhabditis elegans has been thought to completely lack DNA methylation and seems to have lost DNA methylation enzymes from its genomes. In the present study, we report the development of a sensitive and selective assay based on LC-MS/MS to simultaneously measure 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-mdC) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-hmdC) in DNA hydrolysates. With the use of isotope internal standards ([2H3]5-mdC and [2H3]5-hmdC) and online solid-phase extraction, the detection limits of 5-mdC and 5-hmdC were estimated to be 0.01 and 0.02 pg respectively, which correspond to a 0.000006% and 0.00001% methylation and hydroxymethylation level. This method was applied to investigate whether DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation exists in C. elegans. The present study for the first time demonstrates that 5-mdC is present in C. elegans genomic DNA (0.0019-0.0033% of cytosine methylated) using LC-MS/MS, whereas another epigenetic modification, 5-hmdC, is not detectable. Furthermore, we found that C. elegans DNA was hypo- or hyper-methylated in a dose-dependent manner by the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-inhibiting drug decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) or cadmium respectively. Our data support the possible existence of an active DNA-methylation mechanism in C. elegans, in which unidentified DNMTs could be involved. The present study highlights the importance of re-evaluating the evolutionary conservation of DNA-methylation machinery in nematodes which were traditionally considered to lack functional DNA methylation.

  7. The calculated free energy effects of 5-methyl cytosine on the B to Z transition in DNA.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, D A; Kollman, P A

    We have examined the free energy effects of 5-methylation of cytosine on the B in equilibrium Z conformational equilibrium in DNA. Free energy differences were calculated using the free energy perturbation approach, which uses an easily derived equation from classical statistical mechanics to relate the free energy difference between two states to the ensemble average of the potential energy difference between the states. Calculations were carried both in explicit solvent and (for comparison) in vacuo. The free energy values obtained for the explicit solvent systems are total free energies, with contributions from all parts of the system (solvent + solute), and so are relevant to the B in equilibrium Z transitions observed under real (physiological) conditions. We calculate that in solution, methylation makes the B in equilibrium Z transition more favorable by about -0.4 kcal/mole base pair (bp) in free energy. This value compares well with approximate experimentally derived values of about -0.3 kcal/mole-bp. We also discuss a method for determining the free energy difference between conformational states poorly maintained by a potential energy model. Finally, the effects of methylation on the melting temperature of DNA are examined.

  8. Aberrant methylation of tRNAs links cellular stress to neuro-developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Sandra; Dietmann, Sabine; Flores, Joana V; Hussain, Shobbir; Kutter, Claudia; Humphreys, Peter; Lukk, Margus; Lombard, Patrick; Treps, Lucas; Popis, Martyna; Kellner, Stefanie; Hölter, Sabine M; Garrett, Lillian; Wurst, Wolfgang; Becker, Lore; Klopstock, Thomas; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabĕ de Angelis, Martin; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur T; Helm, Mark; Ule, Jernej; Gleeson, Joseph G; Odom, Duncan T; Frye, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferase NSun2 cause microcephaly and other neurological abnormalities in mice and human. How post-transcriptional methylation contributes to the human disease is currently unknown. By comparing gene expression data with global cytosine-5 RNA methylomes in patient fibroblasts and NSun2-deficient mice, we find that loss of cytosine-5 RNA methylation increases the angiogenin-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage of transfer RNAs (tRNA) leading to an accumulation of 5′ tRNA-derived small RNA fragments. Accumulation of 5′ tRNA fragments in the absence of NSun2 reduces protein translation rates and activates stress pathways leading to reduced cell size and increased apoptosis of cortical, hippocampal and striatal neurons. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that angiogenin binds with higher affinity to tRNAs lacking site-specific NSun2-mediated methylation and that the presence of 5′ tRNA fragments is sufficient and required to trigger cellular stress responses. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity of NSun2-deficient brains to oxidative stress can be rescued through inhibition of angiogenin during embryogenesis. In conclusion, failure in NSun2-mediated tRNA methylation contributes to human diseases via stress-induced RNA cleavage. PMID:25063673

  9. Hydration properties of natural and synthetic DNA sequences with methylated adenine or cytosine bases in the R.DpnI target and BDNF promoter studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Shanak, Siba; Helms, Volkhard

    2014-12-14

    Adenine and cytosine methylation are two important epigenetic modifications of DNA sequences at the levels of the genome and transcriptome. To characterize the differential roles of methylating adenine or cytosine with respect to their hydration properties, we performed conventional MD simulations and free energy perturbation calculations for two particular DNA sequences, namely the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoter and the R.DpnI-bound DNA that are known to undergo methylation of C5-methyl cytosine and N6-methyl adenine, respectively. We found that a single methylated cytosine has a clearly favorable hydration free energy over cytosine since the attached methyl group has a slightly polar character. In contrast, capping the strongly polar N6 of adenine with a methyl group gives a slightly unfavorable contribution to its free energy of solvation. Performing the same demethylation in the context of a DNA double-strand gave quite similar results for the more solvent-accessible cytosine but much more unfavorable results for the rather buried adenine. Interestingly, the same demethylation reactions are far more unfavorable when performed in the context of the opposite (BDNF or R.DpnI target) sequence. This suggests a natural preference for methylation in a specific sequence context. In addition, free energy calculations for demethylating adenine or cytosine in the context of B-DNA vs. Z-DNA suggest that the conformational B-Z transition of DNA transition is rather a property of cytosine methylated sequences but is not preferable for the adenine-methylated sequences investigated here.

  10. Hydration properties of natural and synthetic DNA sequences with methylated adenine or cytosine bases in the R.DpnI target and BDNF promoter studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanak, Siba; Helms, Volkhard

    2014-12-01

    Adenine and cytosine methylation are two important epigenetic modifications of DNA sequences at the levels of the genome and transcriptome. To characterize the differential roles of methylating adenine or cytosine with respect to their hydration properties, we performed conventional MD simulations and free energy perturbation calculations for two particular DNA sequences, namely the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoter and the R.DpnI-bound DNA that are known to undergo methylation of C5-methyl cytosine and N6-methyl adenine, respectively. We found that a single methylated cytosine has a clearly favorable hydration free energy over cytosine since the attached methyl group has a slightly polar character. In contrast, capping the strongly polar N6 of adenine with a methyl group gives a slightly unfavorable contribution to its free energy of solvation. Performing the same demethylation in the context of a DNA double-strand gave quite similar results for the more solvent-accessible cytosine but much more unfavorable results for the rather buried adenine. Interestingly, the same demethylation reactions are far more unfavorable when performed in the context of the opposite (BDNF or R.DpnI target) sequence. This suggests a natural preference for methylation in a specific sequence context. In addition, free energy calculations for demethylating adenine or cytosine in the context of B-DNA vs. Z-DNA suggest that the conformational B-Z transition of DNA transition is rather a property of cytosine methylated sequences but is not preferable for the adenine-methylated sequences investigated here.

  11. ABERRANT PROMOTER METHYLATION OF MULTIPLE GENES IN SPUTUM FROM INDIVIDUALS EXPOSED TO SMOKY COAL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aberrant methylation in the promoter region of cancer-related genes leads to gene transcriptional inactivation and plays an integral role in lung tumorigenesis. Recent studies demonstrated that promoter methylation was detected not only in lung tumors from patients with lung canc...

  12. Deletion and aberrant CpG island methylation of Caspase 8 gene in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Pilar; Bello, M Josefa; Inda, M Mar; Alonso, M Eva; Arjona, Dolores; Amiñoso, Cinthia; Lopez-Marin, Isabel; de Campos, Jose M; Sarasa, Jose L; Castresana, Javier S; Rey, Juan A

    2004-09-01

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands in human genes is an alternative genetic inactivation mechanism that contributes to the development of human tumors. Nevertheless, few studies have analyzed methylation in medulloblastomas. We determined the frequency of aberrant CpG island methylation for Caspase 8 (CASP8) in a group of 24 medulloblastomas arising in 8 adult and 16 pediatric patients. Complete methylation of CASP8 was found in 15 tumors (62%) and one case displayed hemimethylation. Three samples amplified neither of the two primer sets for methylated or unmethylated alleles, suggesting that genomic deletion occurred in the 5' flanking region of CASP8. Our findings suggest that methylation commonly contributes to CASP8 silencing in medulloblastomas and that homozygous deletion or severe sequence changes involving the promoter region may be another mechanism leading to CASP8 inactivation in this neoplasm.

  13. Association of 5-hydroxymethylation and 5-methylation of DNA cytosine with tissue-specific gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Ponnaluri, V. K. Chaithanya; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Zhang, Guoqiang; Lacey, Michelle; Johnston, Douglas; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Differentially methylated or hydroxymethylated regions (DMRs) in mammalian DNA are often associated with tissue-specific gene expression but the functional relationships are still being unraveled. To elucidate these relationships, we studied 16 human genes containing myogenic DMRs by analyzing profiles of their epigenetics and transcription and quantitatively assaying 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and 5-methylcytosine (5mC) at specific sites in these genes in skeletal muscle (SkM), myoblasts, heart, brain, and diverse other samples. Although most human promoters have little or no methylation regardless of expression, more than half of the genes that we chose to study—owing to their myogenic DMRs—overlapped tissue-specific alternative or cryptic promoters displaying corresponding tissue-specific differences in histone modifications. The 5mC levels in myoblast DMRs were significantly associated with 5hmC levels in SkM at the same site. Hypermethylated myogenic DMRs within CDH15, a muscle- and cerebellum-specific cell adhesion gene, and PITX3, a homeobox gene, were used for transfection in reporter gene constructs. These intragenic DMRs had bidirectional tissue-specific promoter activity that was silenced by in vivo-like methylation. The CDH15 DMR, which was previously associated with an imprinted maternal germline DMR in mice, had especially strong promoter activity in myogenic host cells. These findings are consistent with the controversial hypothesis that intragenic DNA methylation can facilitate transcription and is not just a passive consequence of it. Our results support varied roles for tissue-specific 5mC- or 5hmC-enrichment in suppressing inappropriate gene expression from cryptic or alternative promoters and in increasing the plasticity of gene expression required for development and rapid responses to tissue stress or damage. PMID:27911668

  14. Effect of C5-methylation of cytosine on the photoreactivity of DNA: a joint experimental and computational study of TCG trinucleotides.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Luciana; Banyasz, Akos; Douki, Thierry; Perron, Marion; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Improta, Roberto

    2014-08-06

    DNA methylation, occurring at the 5 position of cytosine, is a natural process associated with mutational hotspots in skin tumors. By combining experimental techniques (optical spectroscopy, HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry) with theoretical methods (molecular dynamics, DFT/TD-DFT calculations in solution), we study trinucleotides with key sequences (TCG/T5mCG) in the UV-induced DNA damage. We show how the extra methyl, affecting the conformational equilibria and, hence, the electronic excited states, increases the quantum yield for the formation of cyclobutane dimers while reducing that of (6-4) adducts.

  15. TET1 Depletion Induces Aberrant CpG Methylation in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Harada, Taku; Aoki, Hironori; Maruyama, Reo; Toyota, Mutsumi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Sugai, Tamotsu; Tokino, Takashi; Nakase, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is commonly observed in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels and TET1 expression are both reduced in CRC, while epigenetic silencing of TET1 is reportedly associated with the CpG island methylator phenotype. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the relationship between loss of TET1 and aberrant DNA methylation in CRC. Stable TET1 knockdown clones were established using Colo320DM cells, which express high levels of TET1, and HCT116 cells, which express TET1 at a level similar to that in normal colonic tissue. Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays revealed increased levels of 5-methylcytosine at more than 10,000 CpG sites in TET1-depleted Colo320DM cells. Changes in DNA methylation were observed at various positions within the genome, including promoters, gene bodies and intergenic regions, and the altered methylation affected expression of a subset of genes. By contrast, TET1 knockdown did not significantly affect DNA methylation in HCT116 cells. However, TET1 depletion was associated with attenuated effects of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine on gene expression profiles in both cell lines. These results suggest that loss of TET1 may induce aberrant DNA methylation and may attenuate the effect of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine in CRC cells. PMID:27977763

  16. Pathway Implications of Aberrant Global Methylation in Adrenocortical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Legendre, Christophe R.; Demeure, Michael J.; Whitsett, Timothy G.; Gooden, Gerald C.; Bussey, Kimberly J.; Jung, Sungwon; Waibhav, Tembe; Kim, Seungchan; Salhia, Bodour

    2016-01-01

    Context Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are a rare tumor type with a poor five-year survival rate and limited treatment options. Objective Understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease has been aided by genomic analyses highlighting alterations in TP53, WNT, and IGF signaling pathways. Further elucidation is needed to reveal therapeutically actionable targets in ACC. Design In this study, global DNA methylation levels were assessed by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Array on 18 ACC tumors and 6 normal adrenal tissues. A new, non-linear correlation approach, the discretization method, assessed the relationship between DNA methylation/gene expression across ACC tumors. Results This correlation analysis revealed epigenetic regulation of genes known to modulate TP53, WNT, and IGF signaling, as well as silencing of the tumor suppressor MARCKS, previously unreported in ACC. Conclusions DNA methylation may regulate genes known to play a role in ACC pathogenesis as well as known tumor suppressors. PMID:26963385

  17. Aberrant DNA methylation in non-small cell lung cancer-associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Vizoso, Miguel; Puig, Marta; Carmona, F.Javier; Maqueda, María; Velásquez, Adriana; Gómez, Antonio; Labernadie, Anna; Lugo, Roberto; Gabasa, Marta; Rigat-Brugarolas, Luis G.; Trepat, Xavier; Ramírez, Josep; Moran, Sebastian; Vidal, Enrique; Reguart, Noemí; Perera, Alexandre; Esteller, Manel; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes through altered DNA methylation have been implicated in critical aspects of tumor progression, and have been extensively studied in a variety of cancer types. In contrast, our current knowledge of the aberrant genomic DNA methylation in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) or other stromal cells that act as critical coconspirators of tumor progression is very scarce. To address this gap of knowledge, we conducted genome-wide DNA methylation profiling on lung TAFs and paired control fibroblasts (CFs) from non-small cell lung cancer patients using the HumanMethylation450 microarray. We found widespread DNA hypomethylation concomitant with focal gain of DNA methylation in TAFs compared to CFs. The aberrant DNA methylation landscape of TAFs had a global impact on gene expression and a selective impact on the TGF-β pathway. The latter included promoter hypermethylation-associated SMAD3 silencing, which was associated with hyperresponsiveness to exogenous TGF-β1 in terms of contractility and extracellular matrix deposition. In turn, activation of CFs with exogenous TGF-β1 partially mimicked the epigenetic alterations observed in TAFs, suggesting that TGF-β1 may be necessary but not sufficient to elicit such alterations. Moreover, integrated pathway-enrichment analyses of the DNA methylation alterations revealed that a fraction of TAFs may be bone marrow-derived fibrocytes. Finally, survival analyses using DNA methylation and gene expression datasets identified aberrant DNA methylation on the EDARADD promoter sequence as a prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Our findings shed light on the unique origin and molecular alterations underlying the aberrant phenotype of lung TAFs, and identify a stromal biomarker with potential clinical relevance. PMID:26449251

  18. Base-pairing energies of protonated nucleobase pairs and proton affinities of 1-methylated cytosines: model systems for the effects of the sugar moiety on the stability of DNA i-motif conformations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Moehlig, Aaron R; Frieler, C E; Rodgers, M T

    2015-02-05

    Expansion of (CCG)n·(CGG)n trinucleotide repeats leads to hypermethylation of cytosine residues and results in Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in humans. The (CCG)n·(CGG)n repeats adopt i-motif conformations that are preferentially stabilized by base-pairing interactions of noncanonical protonated nucleobase pairs of cytosine (C(+)·C). Previously, we investigated the effects of 5-methylation of cytosine on the base-pairing energies (BPEs) using threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) techniques. In the present work, we extend our investigations to include protonated homo- and heteronucleobase pairs of cytosine, 1-methylcytosine, 5-methylcytosine, and 1,5-dimethylcytosine. The 1-methyl substituent prevents most tautomerization processes of cytosine and serves as a mimic for the sugar moiety of DNA nucleotides. In contrast to permethylation of cytosine at the 5-position, 1-methylation is found to exert very little influence on the BPE. All modifications to both nucleobases lead to a small increase in the BPEs, with 5-methylation producing a larger enhancement than either 1-methyl or 1,5-dimethylation. In contrast, modifications to a single nucleobase are found to produce a small decrease in the BPEs, again with 5-methylation producing a larger effect than 1-methylation. However, the BPEs of all of the protonated nucleobase pairs examined here significantly exceed those of canonical G·C and neutral C·C base pairs, and thus should still provide the driving force stabilizing DNA i-motif conformations even in the presence of such modifications. The proton affinities of the methylated cytosines are also obtained from the TCID experiments by competitive analyses of the primary dissociation pathways that occur in parallel for the protonated heteronucleobase pairs.

  19. Early aberrant DNA methylation events in a mouse model of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant DNA methylation is frequently found in human malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). While most studies focus on later disease stages, the onset of aberrant DNA methylation events and their dynamics during leukemic progression are largely unknown. Methods We screened genome-wide for aberrant CpG island methylation in three disease stages of a murine AML model that is driven by hypomorphic expression of the hematopoietic transcription factor PU.1. DNA methylation levels of selected genes were correlated with methylation levels of CD34+ cells and lineage negative, CD127-, c-Kit+, Sca-1+ cells; common myeloid progenitors; granulocyte-macrophage progenitors; and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors. Results We identified 1,184 hypermethylated array probes covering 762 associated genes in the preleukemic stage. During disease progression, the number of hypermethylated genes increased to 5,465 in the late leukemic disease stage. Using publicly available data, we found a significant enrichment of PU.1 binding sites in the preleukemic hypermethylated genes, suggesting that shortage of PU.1 makes PU.1 binding sites in the DNA accessible for aberrant methylation. Many known AML associated genes such as RUNX1 and HIC1 were found among the preleukemic hypermethylated genes. Nine novel hypermethylated genes, FZD5, FZD8, PRDM16, ROBO3, CXCL14, BCOR, ITPKA, HES6 and TAL1, the latter four being potential PU.1 targets, were confirmed to be hypermethylated in human normal karyotype AML patients, underscoring the relevance of the mouse model for human AML. Conclusions Our study identified early aberrantly methylated genes as potential contributors to onset and progression of AML. PMID:24944583

  20. Global methylation status of sperm DNA in carriers of chromosome structural aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Olszewska, Marta; Barciszewska, Miroslawa Z; Fraczek, Monika; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Chernykh, Vyacheslav B; Zastavna, Danuta; Barciszewski, Jan; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Male infertility might be clearly associated with aberrant DNA methylation patterns in human spermatozoa. An association between oxidative stress and the global methylation status of the sperm genome has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the global sperm DNA methylation status was affected in the spermatozoa of carriers of chromosome structural aberrations. The relationships between the 5-methylcytosine (m5C) levels in spermatozoa and chromatin integrity status were evaluated. The study patients comprised male carriers of chromosome structural aberrations with reproductive failure (n = 24), and the controls comprised normozoospermic sperm volunteers (n = 23). The global m5C level was measured using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and immunofluorescence (IF) techniques. The sperm chromatin integrity was assessed using aniline blue (AB) staining and TUNEL assay. The mean m5C levels were similar between the investigated chromosome structural aberrations carriers (P) and controls (K). However, sperm chromatin integrity tests revealed significantly higher values in chromosomal rearrangement carriers than in controls (P < 0.05). Although the potential relationship between sperm chromatin integrity status and sperm DNA fragmentation and the m5C level juxtaposed in both analyzed groups (P vs K) was represented in a clearly opposite manner, the low chromatin integrity might be associated with the high hypomethylation status of the sperm DNA observed in carriers of chromosome structural aberrations. PMID:26908061

  1. Aberrant DNA Methylation: Implications in Racial Health Disparity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefeng; Ji, Ping; Zhang, Yuanhao; LaComb, Joseph F.; Tian, Xinyu; Li, Ellen; Williams, Jennie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) are higher in African Americans (AAs) than in Caucasian Americans (CAs). Deficient micronutrient intake due to dietary restrictions in racial/ethnic populations can alter genetic and molecular profiles leading to dysregulated methylation patterns and the inheritance of somatic to germline mutations. Materials and Methods Total DNA and RNA samples of paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues were prepared from AA and CA CRC specimens. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) and RNA sequencing were employed to evaluate total genome methylation of 5’-regulatory regions and dysregulation of gene expression, respectively. Robust analysis was conducted using a trimming-and-retrieving scheme for RRBS library mapping in conjunction with the BStool toolkit. Results DNA from the tumor of AA CRC patients, compared to adjacent normal tissues, contained 1,588 hypermethylated and 100 hypomethylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Whereas, 109 hypermethylated and 4 hypomethylated DMRs were observed in DNA from the tumor of CA CRC patients; representing a 14.6-fold and 25-fold change, respectively. Specifically; CHL1, 4 anti-inflammatory genes (i.e., NELL1, GDF1, ARHGEF4, and ITGA4), and 7 miRNAs (of which miR-9-3p and miR-124-3p have been implicated in CRC) were hypermethylated in DNA samples from AA patients with CRC. From the same sample set, RNAseq analysis revealed 108 downregulated genes (including 14 ribosomal proteins) and 34 upregulated genes (including POLR2B and CYP1B1 [targets of miR-124-3p]) in AA patients with CRC versus CA patients. Conclusion DNA methylation profile and/or products of its downstream targets could serve as biomarker(s) addressing racial health disparity. PMID:27111221

  2. 5-Methylation of cytosine in CG:CG base-pair steps: a physicochemical mechanism for the epigenetic control of DNA nanomechanics.

    PubMed

    Yusufaly, Tahir I; Li, Yun; Olson, Wilma K

    2013-12-27

    van der Waals density functional theory is integrated with analysis of a non-redundant set of protein-DNA crystal structures from the Nucleic Acid Database to study the stacking energetics of CG:CG base-pair steps, specifically the role of cytosine 5-methylation. Principal component analysis of the steps reveals the dominant collective motions to correspond to a tensile "opening" mode and two shear "sliding" and "tearing" modes in the orthogonal plane. The stacking interactions of the methyl groups globally inhibit CG:CG step overtwisting while simultaneously softening the modes locally via potential energy modulations that create metastable states. Additionally, the indirect effects of the methyl groups on possible base-pair steps neighboring CG:CG are observed to be of comparable importance to their direct effects on CG:CG. The results have implications for the epigenetic control of DNA mechanics.

  3. Comparative methylome analysis in solid tumors reveals aberrant methylation at chromosome 6p in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Ko, Josephine Mun Yee; Cheng, Yue; Zheng, Hong; Ngan, Roger Kai Cheong; Ng, Wai Tong; Lee, Anne Wing Mui; Yau, Chun Chung; Lee, Victor Ho Fu; Lung, Maria Li

    2015-01-01

    Altered patterns of DNA methylation are key features of cancer. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest incidence in Southern China. Aberrant methylation at the promoter region of tumor suppressors is frequently reported in NPC; however, genome-wide methylation changes have not been comprehensively investigated. Therefore, we systematically analyzed methylome data in 25 primary NPC tumors and nontumor counterparts using a high-throughput approach with the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Comparatively, we examined the methylome data of 11 types of solid tumors collected by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). In NPC, the hypermethylation pattern was more dominant than hypomethylation and the majority of de novo methylated loci were within or close to CpG islands in tumors. The comparative methylome analysis reveals hypermethylation at chromosome 6p21.3 frequently occurred in NPC (false discovery rate; FDR=1.33 × 10−9), but was less obvious in other types of solid tumors except for prostate and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric cancer (FDR<10−3). Bisulfite pyrosequencing results further confirmed the aberrant methylation at 6p in an additional patient cohort. Evident enrichment of the repressive mark H3K27me3 and active mark H3K4me3 derived from human embryonic stem cells were found at these regions, indicating both DNA methylation and histone modification function together, leading to epigenetic deregulation in NPC. Our study highlights the importance of epigenetic deregulation in NPC. Polycomb Complex 2 (PRC2), responsible for H3K27 trimethylation, is a promising therapeutic target. A key genomic region on 6p with aberrant methylation was identified. This region contains several important genes having potential use as biomarkers for NPC detection. PMID:25924914

  4. Aberrant DNA Methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Teschler, Stefanie; Gotthardt, Julia; Dammann, Gerhard; Dammann, Reinhard H.

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious psychic disease with a high risk for suicide. DNA methylation is a hallmark for aberrant epigenetic regulation and could be involved in the etiology of BPD. Previously, it has been reported that increased DNA methylation of neuropsychiatric genes is found in the blood of patients with BPD compared to healthy controls. Here, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA promoter region and 5′-external transcribed spacer/5′ETS) and the promoter of the proline rich membrane anchor 1 gene (PRIMA1) in peripheral blood samples of 24 female patients (mean age (33 ± 11) years) diagnosed with DSM-IV BPD and in 11 female controls (mean age (32 ± 7) years). A significant aberrant methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 was revealed for BPD patients using pyrosequencing. For the promoter of PRIMA1, the average methylation of six CpG sites was 1.6-fold higher in BPD patients compared to controls. In contrast, the methylation levels of the rDNA promoter region and the 5′ETS were significantly lower (0.9-fold) in patients with BPD compared to controls. Thus, for nine CpGs located in the rDNA promoter region and for four CpGs at the 5′ETS decreased methylation was found in peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Our results suggest that aberrant methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 is associated with the pathogenesis of BPD. PMID:26742039

  5. Aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-related genes in giant breast fibroadenoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Giant fibroadenoma is an uncommon variant of benign breast lesions. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in promoter regions is known to be involved in the silencing of genes (for example, tumor-suppressor genes) and appears to be an early event in the etiology of breast carcinogenesis. Only hypermethylation of p16INK4a has been reported in non-giant breast fibroadenoma. In this particular case, there are no previously published data on epigenetic alterations in giant fibroadenomas. Our previous results, based on the analysis of 49 cancer-related CpG islands have confirmed that the aberrant methylation is specific to malignant breast tumors and that it is completely absent in normal breast tissue and breast fibroadenomas. Case presentation A 13-year-old Hispanic girl was referred after she had noted a progressive development of a mass in her left breast. On physical examination, a 10 × 10 cm lump was detected and axillary lymph nodes were not enlarged. After surgical removal the lump was diagnosed as a giant fibroadenoma. Because of the high growth rate of this benign tumor, we decided to analyze the methylation status of 49 CpG islands related to cell growth control. We have identified the methylation of five cancer-related CpG islands in the giant fibroadenoma tissue: ESR1, MGMT, WT-1, BRCA2 and CD44. Conclusion In this case report we show for the first time the methylation analysis of a giant fibroadenoma. The detection of methylation of these five cancer-related regions indicates substantial epigenomic differences with non-giant fibroadenomas. Epigenetic alterations could explain the higher growth rate of this tumor. Our data contribute to the growing knowledge of aberrant methylation in breast diseases. In this particular case, there exist no previous data regarding the role of methylation in giant fibroadenomas, considered by definition as a benign breast lesion. PMID:22011321

  6. Cell culture-induced aberrant methylation of the imprinted IG DMR in human lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Saferali, Aabida; Grundberg, Elin; Berlivet, Soizik; Beauchemin, Hugues; Morcos, Lisanne; Polychronakos, Constantin; Pastinen, Tomi; Graham, Jinko; McNeney, Brad; Naumova, Anna K

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns are often poorly conserved through cell culturing. To determine the effect of cell immortalization and culture on DNA methylation profiles, we analyzed methylation in the differentially methylated regions (DMR) of five imprinted domains: the intergenic (IG) DMR on chromosome 14q32; potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1, (KCNQ1); small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN), mesoderm specific transcript homolog (MEST); and H19 in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In the IG DMR we found an aberrant methylation pattern that was consistent through all the cell lines tested and significantly different from that of noncultured peripheral blood cells. Using a generalized linear mixed model to compare methylation profiles, we show that recently derived LCLs significantly differ from the CEPH LCLs. This implies a gradual cell-culture related deterioration of DNA methylation in the IG DMR with at least two steps that may be identified: loss of methylation at CG sites 1 and 8; and loss of allelic differences in DNA methylation. The IG DMR methylation profile also confirms the high level of clonality of the CEPH LCLs. We conclude that non-transformed primary cells may be less susceptible to epigenetic anomalies and therefore may provide a more accurate reflection of gene expression in vivo.

  7. Recommendations for a nomenclature system for reporting methylation aberrations in imprinted domains.

    PubMed

    Monk, David; Morales, Joannella; den Dunnen, Johan T; Russo, Silvia; Court, Franck; Prawitt, Dirk; Eggermann, Thomas; Beygo, Jasmin; Buiting, Karin; Tümer, Zeynep

    2016-12-02

    The analysis of DNA methylation has become routine in the pipeline for diagnosis of imprinting disorders, with many publications reporting aberrant methylation associated with imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs). However, comparisons between these studies are routinely hampered by the lack of consistency in reporting sites of methylation evaluated. To avoid confusion surrounding nomenclature, special care is needed to communicate results accurately, especially between scientists and other health care professionals. Within the European Network for Human Congenital Imprinting Disorders we have discussed these issues and designed a nomenclature for naming imprinted DMRs as well as for reporting methylation values. We apply these recommendations for imprinted DMRs that are commonly assayed in clinical laboratories and show how they support standardized database submission. The recommendations are in line with existing recommendations, most importantly the Human Genome Variation Society nomenclature, and should facilitate accurate reporting and data exchange among laboratories and thereby help to avoid future confusion.

  8. 5-Methylation of Cytosine in CG:CG Base-Pair Steps: A Physicochemical Mechanism for the Epigenetic Control of DNA Nanomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufaly, Tahir; Olson, Wilma; Li, Yun

    2014-03-01

    Van der Waals density functional theory is integrated with analysis of a non-redundant set of protein-DNA crystal structures from the Nucleic Acid Database to study the stacking energetics of CG:CG base-pair steps, specifically the role of cytosine 5-methylation. Principal component analysis of the steps reveals the dominant collective motions to correspond to a tensile ``opening'' mode and two shear ``sliding'' and ``tearing'' modes in the orthogonal plane. The stacking interactions of the methyl groups are observed to globally inhibit CG:CG step overtwisting while simultaneously softening the modes locally via potential energy modulations that create metastable states. The results have implications for the epigenetic control of DNA mechanics.

  9. Aberrant methylation of imprinted genes is associated with negative hormone receptor status in invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, Timothy M; Barault, Ludovic; Ellsworth, Rachel E; Harris, Holly R; Binder, Alexandra M; Valente, Allyson L; Shriver, Craig D; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes enables monoallelic expression according to parental origin, and its disruption is implicated in many cancers and developmental disorders. The expression of hormone receptors is significant in breast cancer as they are indicators of cancer cell growth rate and determine response to endocrine therapies. We investigated the frequency of aberrant events and variation in DNA methylation at nine imprinted sites in invasive breast cancer and examined the association with estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Breast tissue and blood from patients with invasive breast cancer (n=38) and benign breast disease (n=30) were compared to those from healthy individuals (n=36), matched to the cancer patients by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, BMI, menopausal status, and familial history of cancer. DNA methylation and allele-specific expression were analyzed by pyrosequencing. Tumor-specific methylation changes at IGF2 DMR2 were observed in 59% of cancer patients, IGF2 DMR0 in 38%, DIRAS3 DMR in 36%, GRB10 ICR in 23%, PEG3 DMR in 21%, MEST ICR in 19%, H19 ICR in 18%, KvDMR in 8%, and SNRPN/SNURF ICR in 4%. Variation of methylation was significantly greater in breast tissue from cancer patients than healthy individuals and benign breast disease. Aberrant methylation of three or more sites was significantly associated with negative estrogen-alpha (Fisher’s Exact Test, p=0.02) and progesterone-A (p=0.02) receptor status. Aberrant events and increased variation of imprinted gene DNA methylation therefore appear to be frequent in invasive breast cancer and are associated with negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status, without loss of monoallelic expression. PMID:25560175

  10. Aberrant Keap1 methylation in breast cancer and association with clinicopathological features

    PubMed Central

    Barbano, Raffaela; Muscarella, Lucia Anna; Pasculli, Barbara; Valori, Vanna Maria; Fontana, Andrea; Coco, Michelina; la Torre, Annamaria; Balsamo, Teresa; Poeta, Maria Luana; Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Maiello, Evaristo; Castelvetere, Marina; Pellegrini, Fabio; Murgo, Roberto; Fazio, Vito Michele; Parrella, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) is an adaptor protein that mediates the ubiquitination/degradation of genes regulating cell survival and apoptosis under oxidative stress conditions. We determined methylation status of the KEAP1 promoter in 102 primary breast cancers, 14 pre-invasive lesions, 38 paired normal breast tissues and 6 normal breast from reductive mammoplasty by quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP). Aberrant promoter methylation was detected in 52 out of the 102 primary breast cancer cases (51%) and 10 out of 14 pre-invasive lesions (71%). No mutations of the KEAP1 gene were identified in the 20 breast cancer cases analyzed by fluorescence based direct sequencing. Methylation was more frequent in the subgroup of patients identified as ER positive-HER2 negative tumors (66.7%) as compared with triple-negative breast cancers (35%) (p = 0.05, Chi-square test). The impact of the interactions between Er, PgR, Her2 expression and KEAP1 methylation on mortality was investigated by RECPAM multivariable statistical analysis, identifying four prognostic classes at different mortality risks. Triple-negative breast cancer patients with KEAP1 methylation had higher mortality risk than patients without triple-negative breast cancer (HR = 14.73, 95%CI: 3.65–59.37). Both univariable and multivariable COX regressions analyses showed that KEAP1 methylation was associated with a better progression free survival in patients treated with epirubicin/cyclophosfamide and docetaxel as sequential chemotherapy (HR = 0.082; 95%CI: 0.007–0.934). These results indicate that aberrant promoter methylation of the KEAP1 gene is involved in breast cancerogenesis. In addition, identifying patients with KEAP1 epigenetic abnormalities may contribute to disease progression prediction in breast cancer patients. PMID:23249627

  11. Aberrant DNA methylation impacts gene expression and prognosis in breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Győrffy, Balázs; Bottai, Giulia; Fleischer, Thomas; Munkácsy, Gyöngyi; Budczies, Jan; Paladini, Laura; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N; Santarpia, Libero

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation has a substantial impact on gene expression, affecting the prognosis of breast cancer (BC) patients dependent on molecular subtypes. In this study, we investigated the prognostic relevance of the expression of genes reported as aberrantly methylated, and the link between gene expression and DNA methylation in BC subtypes. The prognostic value of the expression of 144 aberrantly methylated genes was evaluated in ER+/HER2-, HER2+, and ER-/HER2- molecular BC subtypes, in a meta-analysis of two large transcriptomic cohorts of BC patients (n = 1,938 and n = 1,640). The correlation between gene expression and DNA methylation in distinct gene regions was also investigated in an independent dataset of 104 BCs. Survival and Pearson correlation analyses were computed for each gene separately. The expression of 48 genes was significantly associated with BC prognosis (p < 0.05), and 32 of these prognostic genes exhibited a direct expression-methylation correlation. The expression of several immune-related genes, including CD3D and HLA-A, was associated with both relapse-free survival (HR = 0.42, p = 3.5E-06; HR = 0.35, p = 1.7E-08) and overall survival (HR = 0.50, p = 5.5E-04; HR = 0.68, p = 4.5E-02) in ER-/HER2- BCs. On the overall, the distribution of both positive and negative expression-methylation correlation in distinct gene regions have different effects on gene expression and prognosis in BC subtypes. This large-scale meta-analysis allowed the identification of several genes consistently associated with prognosis, whose DNA methylation could represent a promising biomarker for prognostication and clinical stratification of patients with distinct BC subtypes.

  12. Aberrant DNA methylation in 5' regions of DNA methyltransferase genes in aborted bovine clones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghe; Liang, Xingwei; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Wei, Liang; Hou, Yi; Chen, Da-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-09-01

    High rate of abortion and developmental abnormalities is thought to be closely associated with inefficient epigenetic reprogramming of the transplanted nuclei during bovine cloning. It is known that one of the important mechanisms for epigenetic reprogramming is DNA methylation. DNA methylation is established and maintained by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), therefore, it is postulated that the inefficient epigenetic reprogramming of transplanted nuclei may be due to abnormal expression of DNMTs. Since DNA methylation can strongly inhibit gene expression, aberrant DNA methylation of DNMT genes may disturb gene expression. But presently, it is not clear whether the methylation abnormality of DNMT genes is related to developmental failure of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. In our study, we analyzed methylation patterns of the 5' regions of four DNMT genes including Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Dnmt1 and Dnmt2 in four aborted bovine clones. Using bisulfite sequencing method, we found that 3 out of 4 aborted bovine clones (AF1, AF2 and AF3) showed either hypermethylation or hypomethylation in the 5' regions of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, indicating that Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b genes are not properly reprogrammed. However, the individual AF4 exhibited similar methylation level and pattern to age-matched in vitro fertilized (IVF) fetuses. Besides, we found that the 5' regions of Dnmt1 and Dnmt2 were nearly completely unmethylated in all normal adults, IVF fetuses, sperm and aborted clones. Together, our results suggest that the aberrant methylation of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b 5' regions is probably associated with the high abortion of bovine clones.

  13. Aberrant promoter methylation of multiple genes in sputum from individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Lan, Qing; Shen, Min; Mumford, Judy; Keohavong, Phouthone

    2010-01-01

    Summary Aberrant methylation in the promoter region of cancer-related genes leads to gene transcriptional inactivation and plays an integral role in lung tumorigenesis. Recent studies demonstrated that promoter methylation was detected not only in lung tumors from patients with lung cancer but also in sputum of smokers without the disease, suggesting the potential for aberrant gene promoter methylation in sputum as a predictive marker for lung cancer. In the present study, we investigated promoter methylation of 4 genes frequently detected in lung tumors, including p16, MGMT, RASSF1A and DAPK genes, in sputum samples obtained from 107 individuals, including 34 never-smoking females and 73 mostly smoking males, who had no evidence of lung cancer but who were exposed to smoky coal emission in Xuan Wei County, China, where lung cancer rate is more than 6 times the Chinese national average rate. Forty nine of the individuals showed evidence of chronic bronchitis while the remaining 58 individuals showed no such a symptom. Promoter methylation of p16, MGMT, RASSF1A and DAPK was detected in 51.4% (55/107), 17.8% (19/107), 29.9% (32/107), and 15.9% (17/107) of the sputum samples from these individuals, respectively. There were no differences in promoter methylation frequencies of any of these genes according to smoking status or gender of the subjects or between individuals with chronic bronchitis and those without evidence of such a symptom. Therefore, individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions in this region harbored in their sputum frequent promoter methylation of these genes that have been previously found in lung tumors and implicated in lung cancer development. PMID:18751376

  14. Aberrant DNA Methylation Is Associated with a Poor Outcome in Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Muramatsu, Hideki; Okuno, Yusuke; Makishima, Hideki; Xu, Yinyan; Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Wang, Xinan; Narita, Atsushi; Yoshida, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Doisaki, Sayoko; Yoshida, Nao; Hama, Asahito; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), an overlap of myelodysplastic / myeloproliferative neoplasm, is an intractable pediatric myeloid neoplasm. Epigenetic regulation of transcription, particularly by CpG methylation, plays an important role in tumor progression, mainly by repressing tumor-suppressor genes. To clarify the clinical importance of aberrant DNA methylation, we studied the hypermethylation status of 16 target genes in the genomes of 92 patients with JMML by bisulfite conversion and the pryosequencing technique. Among 16 candidate genes, BMP4, CALCA, CDKN2A, and RARB exhibited significant hypermethylation in 72% (67/92) of patients. Based on the number of hypermethylated genes, patients were stratified into three cohorts based on an aberrant methylation score (AMS) of 0, 1–2, or 3–4. In the AMS 0 cohort, the 5-year overall survival (OS) and transplantation-free survival (TFS) were good (69% and 76%, respectively). In the AMS 1–2 cohort, the 5-year OS was comparable to that in the AMS 0 cohort (68%), whereas TFS was poor (6%). In the AMS 3–4 cohort, 5-year OS and TFS were markedly low (8% and 0%, respectively). Epigenetic analysis provides helpful information for clinicians to select treatment strategies for patients with JMML. For patients with AMS 3–4 in whom hematopoietic stem cell transplantation does not improve the prognosis, alternative therapies, including DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and new molecular-targeting agents, should be established as treatment options. PMID:26720758

  15. Aberrant methylation of CDH13 can be a diagnostic biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Weilin; Geng, Xin; Chen, Sidi; Tan, Lixing; Tan, Yulong; Wang, An; Lu, Zhouyi; Guo, Shicheng; Chen, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jiucun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in tumor cells in promoter regions is a critical event in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tumorigenesis and can be a potential diagnostic biomarker for NSCLC patients. The present study systemically and quantitatively reviewed the diagnostic ability of CDH13 methylation in NSCLC as well as in its subsets. Eligible studies were identified through searching PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Embase. The pooled odds of CDH13 promoter methylation in lung cancer tissues versus normal controls were calculated by meta-analysis method. Simultaneously, four independent DNA methylation datasets of NSCLC from TCGA and GEO database were downloaded and analyzed to validate the results from meta-analysis. Results: Thirteen studies, including 1850 samples were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio of CDH13 promoter methylation in cancer tissues was 7.41 (95% CI: 5.34 to 10.29, P < 0.00001) compared with that in controls under fixed-effect model. In validation stage, 126 paired samples from TCGA were analyzed and 5 out of the 6 CpG sites in the CpG island of CDH13 were significantly hypermethylated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues but none of the 6 CpG sites was hypermethylated in squamous cell carcinoma tissues. Concordantly, the results from other three datasets, which were subsequently obtained from GEO database consisting of 568 tumors and 256 normal tissues, also consisted with those from TCGA dataset. Conclusion: The pooled data showed that the methylation status of the CDH13 promoter is strongly associated with lung adenocarcinoma. The CDH13 methylation status could be a promising diagnostic biomarker for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27994665

  16. Folate status and aberrant DNA methylation are associated with HPV infection and cervical pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Flatley, Janet E; McNeir, Kristelle; Balasubramani, Latha; Tidy, John; Stuart, Emma L; Young, Tracey A; Powers, Hilary J

    2009-10-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a recognized feature of human cancers, and folate is directly involved in DNA methylation via one-carbon metabolism. Previous reports also suggest that folate status is associated with the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted to test the hypothesis that folate status and aberrant DNA methylation show a progressive change across stages of cervical pathology from normal cells to cervical cancer. Additionally, we postulated that a gene-specific hypermethylation profile might be used as a predictive biomarker of cervical cancer risk. DNA hypermethylation of seven tumor suppressor genes, global DNA hypomethylation, systemic folate status, and HPV status were measured in 308 women with a diagnosis of normal cervix (n = 58), low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1; n = 68), high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2, n = 56; and CIN3, n = 76), or invasive cervical cancer (ICC; n = 50). Lower folate status was associated with high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.031) and with a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or invasive cervical cancer (P < 0.05). Global DNA hypomethylation was greater in women with invasive cervical cancer than all other groups (P < 0.05). A cluster of three tumor suppressor genes, CDH1, DAPK, and HIC1, displayed a significantly increased frequency of promoter methylation with progressively more severe cervical neoplasia (P < 0.05). These findings are compatible with a role for folate in modulating the risk of cervical cancer, possibly through an influence over high-risk HPV infection. DAPK, CDH1, and HIC1 genes are potential biomarkers of cervical cancer risk.

  17. Aberrant promoter methylation of cancer-related genes in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Shen, Ye; Peng, Xianzhen; Zhang, Simin; Wang, Ming; Xu, Guisheng; Zheng, Xianzhi; Wang, Jianming; Lu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The clinical relevance of aberrant DNA methylation is being increasingly recognized in breast cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the promoter methylation status of seven candidate genes and to explore their potential use as a biomarker for the diagnosis of breast cancer. A total of 70 Chinese patients with breast cancer were recruited, and matched with 20 patients with benign breast disease (BBD). Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the methylation status of selected genes. The protein expression of candidate genes was determined by immunohistochemistry. Hypermethylation of Breast cancer 1, early onset; DNA repair associated (BRCA1), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, phosphatase and tensin homolog, retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and cyclin D2 was observed to be more common in cancerous tissues (24.3, 31.4, 40.0, 27.1, 48.6, 55.7 and 67.1%, respectively) as compared with BBD controls (0.0, 0.0, 20.0, 25.0, 40.0, 40.0 and 45.0%, respectively). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a correlation between the methylation of the target gene and downregulation of protein expression. When BRCA1 and GSTP1 were combined as the biomarker, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve reached 0.721 (95% confidence interval, 0.616–0.827). The present findings indicated that promoter methylation of cancer-related genes was frequently observed in patients with breast cancer and was associated with various clinical features. Hypermethylation of BRCA1 and GSTP1 may be used as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. PMID:28105221

  18. Brahmarasayana protects against Ethyl methanesulfonate or Methyl methanesulfonate induced chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Rasayana is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda which refers to rejuvenant therapy. It has been reported that rasayanas have immuno-modulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions, however, the genotoxic potential and modulation of DNA repair of many rasayanas have not been evaluated. Methods The present study assessed the role of Brahmarasayana (BR) on Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-and Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced genotoxicity and DNA repair in in vivo mouse test system. The mice were orally fed with BR (5 g or 8 mg / day) for two months and 24 h later EMS or MMS was given intraperitoneally. The genotoxicity was analyzed by chromosomal aberrations, sperm count, and sperm abnormalities. Results The results have revealed that BR did not induce significant chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of the control animals (p >0.05). On the other hand, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (240 mg / kg body weight) or MMS (125 mg / kg body weight) were significantly higher (p<0.05) to that of the control group. The treatment of BR for 60 days and single dose of EMS or MMS on day 61, resulted in significant (p <0.05) reduction in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in comparison to EMS or MMS treatment alone, indicating a protective effect of BR. Constitutive base excision repair capacity was also increased in BR treated animals. Conclusion The effect of BR, as it relates to antioxidant activity was not evident in liver tissue however rasayana treatment was observed to increase constitutive DNA base excision repair and reduce clastogenicity. Whilst, the molecular mechanisms of such repair need further exploration, this is the first report to demonstrate these effects and provides further evidence for the role of brahmarasayana in the possible improvement of quality of life. PMID:22853637

  19. Identification of aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation in primordial germ cells between E13 and E16 rat F3 generation vinclozolin lineage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Transgenerational epigenetics (TGE) are currently considered important in disease, but the mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. TGE abnormalities expected to cause disease are likely to be initiated during development and to be mediated by aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation that is heritable between generations. However, because methylation is removed and then re-established during development, it is not easy to identify promoter methylation abnormalities by comparing normal lineages with those expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities. Methods This study applied the recently proposed principal component analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction to previously reported and publically available gene expression/promoter methylation profiles of rat primordial germ cells, between E13 and E16 of the F3 generation vinclozolin lineage that are expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities, to identify multiple genes that exhibited aberrant gene expression/promoter methylation during development. Results The biological feasibility of the identified genes were tested via enrichment analyses of various biological concepts including pathway analysis, gene ontology terms and protein-protein interactions. All validations suggested superiority of the proposed method over three conventional and popular supervised methods that employed t test, limma and significance analysis of microarrays, respectively. The identified genes were globally related to tumors, the prostate, kidney, testis and the immune system and were previously reported to be related to various diseases caused by TGE. Conclusions Among the genes reported by PCA-based unsupervised feature extraction, we propose that chemokine signaling pathways and leucine rich repeat proteins are key factors that initiate transgenerational epigenetic-mediated diseases, because multiple genes included in these two categories were identified in this study. PMID:26677731

  20. Methylation by a Unique α-class N4-Cytosine Methyltransferase Is Required for DNA Transformation of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM6725

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Daehwan; Farkas, Joel; Huddleston, Jennifer R.; Olivar, Estefania; Westpheling, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic microorganisms capable of using complex substrates offer special advantages for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and bioproducts. Members of the Gram-positive bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are anaerobic thermophiles with optimum growth temperatures between 65°C and 78°C and are the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms known. In fact, they efficiently use biomass non-pretreated as their sole carbon source and in successive rounds of application digest 70% of total switchgrass substrate. The ability to genetically manipulate these organisms is a prerequisite to engineering them for use in conversion of these complex substrates to products of interest as well as identifying gene products critical for their ability to utilize non-pretreated biomass. Here, we report the first example of DNA transformation of a member of this genus, C. bescii. We show that restriction of DNA is a major barrier to transformation (in this case apparently absolute) and that methylation with an endogenous unique α-class N4-Cytosine methyltransferase is required for transformation of DNA isolated from E. coli. The use of modified DNA leads to the development of an efficient and reproducible method for DNA transformation and the combined frequencies of transformation and recombination allow marker replacement between non-replicating plasmids and chromosomal genes providing the basis for rapid and efficient methods of genetic manipulation. PMID:22928042

  1. A/T Run Geometry of B-form DNA Is Independent of Bound Methyl-CpG Binding Domain, Cytosine Methylation and Flanking Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Jyh Yea; Tan, Wen Siang; Ng, Chyan Leong; Hu, Nien-Jen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Ho, Kok Lian

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation in a CpG context can be recognised by methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) via its methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). An A/T run next to a methyl-CpG maximises the binding of MeCP2 to the methylated DNA. The A/T run characteristics are reported here with an X-ray structure of MBD A140V in complex with methylated DNA. The A/T run geometry was found to be strongly stabilised by a string of conserved water molecules regardless of its flanking nucleotide sequences, DNA methylation and bound MBD. New water molecules were found to stabilise the Rett syndrome-related E137, whose carboxylate group is salt bridged to R133. A structural comparison showed no difference between the wild type and MBD A140V. However, differential scanning calorimetry showed that the melting temperature of A140V constructs in complex with methylated DNA was reduced by ~7 °C, although circular dichroism showed no changes in the secondary structure content for A140V. A band shift analysis demonstrated that the larger fragment of MeCP2 (A140V) containing the transcriptional repression domain (TRD) destabilises the DNA binding. These results suggest that the solution structure of MBD A140V may differ from the wild-type MBD although no changes in the biochemical properties of X-ray A140V were observed. PMID:27502833

  2. Decrease in cytosine methylation at CpG island shores and increase in DNA fragmentation during zebrafish aging.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Nobuyoshi; Izawa, Toshiaki; Yoshizawa, Akio; Yokoi, Hayoto; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2014-02-01

    Age-related changes in DNA methylation have been demonstrated in mammals, but it remains unclear as to the generality of this phenomenon in vertebrates, which is a criterion for the fundamental cause of senescence. Here we showed that the zebrafish genome gradually and clearly lost methylcytosine in somatic cells, but not in male germ cells during aging, and that age-dependent hypomethylation preferentially occurred at a particular domain called the CpG island shore, which is associated with vertebrates' genes and has been shown to be hypomethylated in humans with age. We also found that two CpG island shores hypomethylated in zebrafish oocytes were de novo methylated in fertilized eggs, which suggests that the zebrafish epigenome is reset upon fertilization, enabling new generations to restart with a heavily methylated genome. Furthermore, we observed an increase in cleavage of the zebrafish genome to an oligonucleosome length in somatic cells from the age of 12 months, which is suggestive of an elevated rate of apoptosis in the senescent stage.

  3. Effects of protonation and C5 methylation on the electrophilic addition reaction of cytosine: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingxia; Wang, Wenliang; Hu, Daodao; Min, Suotian

    2013-01-10

    The mechanism for the effects of protonation and C5 methylation on the electrophilic addition reaction of Cyt has been explored by means of CBS-QB3 and CBS-QB3/PCM methods. In the gas phase, three paths, two protonated paths (N3 and O2 protonated paths B and C) as well as one neutral path (path A), were mainly discussed, and the calculated results indicate that the reaction of the HSO(3)(-) group with neutral Cyt is unlikely because of its high activation free energy, whereas O2-protonated path (path C) is the most likely to occur. In the aqueous phase, path B is the most feasible mechanism to account for the fact that the activation free energy of path B decreases compared with the corresponding path in the gas phase, whereas those of paths A and C increase. The main striking results are that the HSO(3)(-) group directly interacts with the C5═C6 bond rather than the N3═C4 bond and that the C5 methylation, compared with Cyt, by decreasing values of global electrophilicity index manifests that C5 methylation forms are less electrophilic power as well as by decreasing values of NPA charges on C5 site of the intermediates make the trend of addition reaction weaken, which is in agreement with the experimental observation that the rate of 5-MeCyt reaction is approximately 2 orders of magnitude slower than that of Cyt in the presence of bisulfite. Apart from cis and trans isomers, the rare third isomer where both the CH(3) and SO(3) occupy axial positions has been first found in the reactions of neutral and protonated 5-MeCyt with the HSO(3)(-) group. Furthermore, the transformation of the third isomer from the cis isomer can occur easily.

  4. Genome-wide screen of genes imprinted in sorghum endosperm, and the roles of allelic differential cytosine methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meishan; Li, Ning; He, Wenan; Zhang, Huakun; Yang, Wei; Liu, Bao

    2016-02-01

    Imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon referring to allele-biased expression of certain genes depending on their parent of origin. Accumulated evidence suggests that, while imprinting is a conserved mechanism across kingdoms, the identities of the imprinted genes are largely species-specific. Using deep RNA sequencing of endosperm 14 days after pollination in sorghum, 5683 genes (29.27% of the total 19 418 expressed genes) were found to harbor diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms between two parental lines. The analysis of parent-of-origin expression patterns in the endosperm of a pair of reciprocal F1 hybrids between the two sorghum lines led to identification of 101 genes with ≥ fivefold allelic expression difference in both hybrids, including 85 maternal expressed genes (MEGs) and 16 paternal expressed genes (PEGs). Thirty of these genes were previously identified as imprinted in endosperm of maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa) or Arabidopsis, while the remaining 71 genes are sorghum-specific imprinted genes relative to these three plant species. Allele-biased expression of virtually all of the 14 tested imprinted genes (nine MEGs and five PEGs) was validated by pyrosequencing using independent sources of RNA from various developmental stages and dissected parts of endosperm. Forty-six imprinted genes (30 MEGs and 16 PEGs) were assayed by quantitative RT-PCR, and the majority of them showed endosperm-specific or preferential expression relative to embryo and other tissues. DNA methylation analysis of the 5' upstream region and gene body for seven imprinted genes indicated that, while three of the four PEGs were associated with hypomethylation of maternal alleles, no MEG was associated with allele-differential methylation.

  5. Mapping structurally defined guanine oxidation products along DNA duplexes: influence of local sequence context and endogenous cytosine methylation.

    PubMed

    Ming, Xun; Matter, Brock; Song, Matthew; Veliath, Elizabeth; Shanley, Ryan; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-03-19

    DNA oxidation by reactive oxygen species is nonrandom, potentially leading to accumulation of nucleobase damage and mutations at specific sites within the genome. We now present the first quantitative data for sequence-dependent formation of structurally defined oxidative nucleobase adducts along p53 gene-derived DNA duplexes using a novel isotope labeling-based approach. Our results reveal that local nucleobase sequence context differentially alters the yields of 2,2,4-triamino-2H-oxal-5-one (Z) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (OG) in double stranded DNA. While both lesions are overproduced within endogenously methylated (Me)CG dinucleotides and at 5' Gs in runs of several guanines, the formation of Z (but not OG) is strongly preferred at solvent-exposed guanine nucleobases at duplex ends. Targeted oxidation of (Me)CG sequences may be caused by a lowered ionization potential of guanine bases paired with (Me)C and the preferential intercalation of riboflavin photosensitizer adjacent to (Me)C:G base pairs. Importantly, some of the most frequently oxidized positions coincide with the known p53 lung cancer mutational "hotspots" at codons 245 (GGC), 248 (CGG), and 158 (CGC) respectively, supporting a possible role of oxidative degradation of DNA in the initiation of lung cancer.

  6. Tissue-specific effects of in vitro fertilization procedures on genomic cytosine methylation levels in overgrown and normal sized bovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Hiendleder, Stefan; Wirtz, Michaela; Mund, Cora; Klempt, Martina; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Weppert, Myriam; Wenigerkind, Hendrik; Elmlinger, Martin; Lyko, Frank; Schmitz, Oliver J; Wolf, Eckhard

    2006-07-01

    Epigenetic perturbations are assumed to be responsible for phenotypic abnormalities of fetuses and offspring originating from in vitro embryo techniques. We studied 29 viable Day-80 bovine fetuses to assess the effects of two in vitro fertilization protocols (IVF1 and IVF2) on fetal phenotype and genomic cytosine methylation levels in liver, skeletal muscle, and brain. The IVF1 protocol employed 0.01 U/ml of FSH and LH in oocyte maturation medium and 5% estrous cow serum (ECS) in embryo culture medium, whereas the IVF2 protocol employed 0.2 U/ml of FSH and no LH for oocyte maturation and 10% ECS for embryo culture. Comparisons with in vivo-fertilized controls (n=14) indicated an apparently normal phenotype for IVF1 fetuses (n=5), but IVF2 fetuses (n=10) were significantly heavier (19.9%) and longer (4.7%), with increased heart (25.2%) and liver (27.9%) weights, and thus displayed an overgrowth phenotype. A clinicochemical screen of 18 plasma parameters revealed significantly increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (40.8%) and creatinine (37.5%) in IVF2, but not in IVF1, fetuses. Quantification of genomic 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by capillary electrophoresis indicated that both IVF1 and IVF2 fetuses differed from controls. We observed significant DNA hypomethylation in liver and muscle of IVF1 fetuses (-16.1% and -9.3%, respectively) and significant hypermethylation in liver of IVF2 fetuses (+11.2%). The 5mC level of cerebral DNA was not affected by IVF protocol. Our data indicate that bovine IVF procedures can affect fetal genomic 5mC levels in a protocol- and tissue-specific manner and show that hepatic hypermethylation is associated with fetal overgrowth and its correlated endocrine changes.

  7. Tissue-specific elevated genomic cytosine methylation levels are associated with an overgrowth phenotype of bovine fetuses derived by in vitro techniques.

    PubMed

    Hiendleder, Stefan; Mund, Cora; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Wenigerkind, Hendrik; Brem, Gottfried; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Lyko, Frank; Wolf, Eckhard

    2004-07-01

    Epigenetic perturbations are assumed to be responsible for abnormalities observed in fetuses and offspring derived by in vitro techniques. We have designed an experiment with bovine Day 80 fetuses generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and artificial insemination (AI) to determine the relationship between fetal phenotype and genome-wide 5-methylcytosine (5mC) content. When compared with AI controls, SCNT and IVF fetuses displayed significantly increased body weight (61% and 28%), liver weight (100% and 36%), and thorax circumference (20% and 11%). A reduced crown-rump length:thorax circumference ratio (1.175 +/- 0.017 in SCNT and 1.292 +/- 0.018 in IVF vs. 1.390 +/- 0.018 in AI, P < 0.001 and P < 0.002) was the external hallmark of this disproportionate overgrowth phenotype. The SCNT fetuses showed significant hypermethylation of liver DNA in comparison with AI controls (3.46% +/- 0.08% vs. 3.17% +/- 0.09% 5mC, P < 0.03), and the cytosine methylation levels for IVF fetuses (3.34% +/- 0.09%) were, as observed for phenotypic parameters, intermediate to the other groups. Regressions of fetal body and liver weight and thorax circumference on 5mC content of liver DNA were positive (P < 0.073-0.079). Furthermore, a significant negative regression (P < 0.021) of the crown-rump length:thorax circumference ratio on liver 5mC was observed. The 5mC content of placental cotyledon DNA was 46% lower than in liver DNA (P < 0.0001) but did not differ among groups. These data are in striking contrast with the recently reported hypomethylation of DNA from SCNT fetuses and indicate that hypermethylation of fetal tissue, but not placenta, is linked to the overgrowth phenotype in bovine SCNT and IVF fetuses.

  8. Abnormal expression of mRNA, microRNA alteration and aberrant DNA methylation patterns in rectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianglong; Yuan, Xiangfei; Qin, Hai; Zhang, Xipeng

    2017-01-01

    Aim Rectal adenocarcinoma (READ) is a malignancy cancer with the high morbidity and motility worldwide. Our study aimed to explore the potential pathogenesis of READ through integrated analysis of gene expression profiling and DNA methylation data. Methods The miRNA, mRNA expression profiling and corresponding DNA methylation data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Differentially expressed mRNAs/ miRNAs/methylated regions (DEmRNA/DEmiRNAs) were identified in READ. The negatively correlation of DEmiRNA-DEmRNAs and DNA methylation-DEmRNAs were obtained. DEmRNAs expression was validated through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and microarray expression profiling analyses. Results 1192 dysregulated DEmRNAs, 27 dysregulated DEmiRNAs and 6403 aberrant methylation CpG sites were screened in READ compared to normal controls. 1987 negative interaction pairs among 27 DEmiRNAs and 668 DEmRNAs were predicted. 446 genes with aberrant methylation were annotated. Eventually, 50 DEmRNAs (39 down- and 11 up-regulated DEmRNAs) with hypermethylation, synchronously negatively targeted by DEmiRNAs, were identified through the correlation analysis among 446 genes with aberrant methylation and 668 DEmRNAs. 50 DEmRNAs were significantly enriched in cAMP signaling pathway, circadian entrainment and glutamatergic synapse. The validation results of expression levels of DEmRNAs through qRT-PCR and microarray analyses were compatible with our study. Conclusion 7 genes of SORCS1, PDZRN4, LONRF2, CNGA3, HAND2, RSPO2 and GNAO1 with hypermethylation and negatively regulation by DEmiRNAs might contribute to the tumorigenesis of READ. Our work might provide valuable foundation for the READ in mechanism elucidation, early diagnosis and therapeutic target identification. PMID:28350845

  9. A Multi-Factorial Signature of DNA Sequence and Polycomb Binding Predicts Aberrant CpG Island Methylation

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Michael T.; Lee, Eva K.; Vertino, Paula M.

    2008-01-01

    Aberrant CpG island methylation is associated with transcriptional silencing of regulatory genes in human cancer. While most CpG islands remain unmethylated, a subset accrues aberrant methylation in cancer via unknown mechanisms. Previously, we showed that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic propensity towards hypermethylation. We developed a classifier (PatMAn) based on the frequencies of seven DNA sequence patterns that discriminated methylation-prone (MP) and methylation-resistant (MR) CpG islands. Here we report on the genome-wide application and direct testing of PatMAn in cancer. Although trained on data from a cell culture model of de novo methylation involving overexpression of DNMT1, PatMAn accurately predicted CpG islands at increased risk of hypermethylation in cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Analysis of CpG islands predicted to be MP revealed a strong association with embryonic targets of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), indicating that PatMAn predicts not only aberrant methylation, but also PRC2 binding. A second classifier (SUPER-PatMAn) that integrates the seven PatMAn DNA patterns with SUZ12 protein enriched regions as a marker of PRC2 occupancy showed improved performance (prediction accuracy=81-88%). In addition to many non-PRC2 targets, SUPER-PatMAn identified a subset of PRC2 targets that were more likely to be hypermethylated in cancer. Genome-wide, CpG islands predicted to be MP were enriched in genes known to undergo hypermethylation in cancer, genes functioning in transcriptional regulation, and components of developmental pathways. These findings demonstrate that hypermethylation of certain gene loci is controlled in part by an underlying susceptibility influenced by both local sequence context and trans-acting factors. PMID:19118013

  10. Aberrant promoter CpG methylation as a molecular marker for disease monitoring in natural killer cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Siu, Lisa L P; Chan, John K C; Wong, Kit F; Choy, Carolyn; Kwong, Yok L

    2003-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas lack suitable clonal markers for tumour cell detection, making the monitoring of minimal residual lymphoma difficult. Aberrant promoter CpG methylation occurs frequently in NK cell lymphomas. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of aberrant methylation as a surrogate tumour marker. Twenty-five primary tumours and 105 serial biopsies taken at various time points after treatment were examined using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) for a panel of genes, comprising p73, p16, hMLH1, RARbeta and p15, previously shown to be methylated in NK cell lymphomas. All samples underwent independent morphological examination, supplemented by immunostaining for CD56 and in-situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr-virus-encoded RNA. Primary tumours showed the frequent methylation of the genes p73 (92%), p16 (71%), hMLH1 (61%), RARbeta (56%) and p15 (48%). MSP results in serial post-treatment biopsies were correlated with clinicopathological findings. Results were concordant in 89 follow-up samples (18 samples, histology positive/MSP positive; 71 samples, histology negative/MSP negative) and discordant in 16. Fifteen samples were histology negative/MSP positive, and tumour involvement was subsequently confirmed (positive re-biopsies or relapses at the same sites), indicating that MSP was more sensitive for minimal lymphoma detection. One sample was histology positive/MSP negative; a subsequent histological review and continuous clinical remission of the patient did not support tumour involvement. Our findings suggest that MSP for aberrantly methylated genes is a potentially valuable molecular marker for detecting either residual or relapsed disease in NK cell lymphoma patients.

  11. Detection of cytosine and CpG density in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in promoter sequences of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Senol; Cilic, Anis; Marjanovic, Damir; Kurtovic-Kozaric, Amina

    2017-03-21

    Aberrant methylation is one of the driving forces of cancer genome development. Although the rate of methylation appears massively variable across the genome, it is mainly observed in histone modification, chromatin organization, DNA accessibility, or promoter sequence. Methylation of promoter sequence occurs mostly to cytosine nucleotides, which can affect transcription factors' binding affinities. In this study, we demonstrated that cytosine repeats (C types density), consisting of CC, CCC, CCCC, CCCCC, CCCCCC, CCCCCCC motifs and CpG islands density in 25 proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and control genes may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia. The promoter sequences were divided into a 100 nucleotide window from -500 to +100 nucleotides and 20 nucleotide window from -100 to +100. Each window is analyzed to find the higher C type and CpG islands density, which may cause the increased methylation in the promoter sequence. Our novel findings show that promoter sequence cytosine repeats and CpG density increase closer to transcription sites, especially just before and after the transcription start site (TSS). The results demonstrate that cytosine density increases while proto-oncogenes and TSG promoter sequences are closer to TSS 50.8% and 41.0% respectively, if (-500 to -200) and (-100 to +100) windows of the nucleotide sequences are compared. This proves that around TSS location has special nucleotide motifs and could be an important implication for our understanding of potential methylating locations in promoters.

  12. IPPP-CLOPPA Analysis of the Influence of the Methylation on the Potential Energy and the Molecular Polarizability of the Hydrogen Bonds in the Cytosine-Guanine Base Pair.

    PubMed

    Giribet, Claudia G; Ruiz de Azua, Martin C

    2017-03-28

    The IPPP-CLOPPA method is applied to investigate the influence of a methyl group on the energy of the hydrogen bonds and the potential energy curve of the bridge protons in model compounds which mimic the methylated and unmethylated cytosine guanine base pairs. On the same grounds, this influence on the polarizability of the intermolecular hydrogen bonds of these compounds is also addressed, in order to determine if this linear response property provides a significant proof of the electronic mechanisms that affect the stabilization of the hydrogen bonds. Results obtained show that the methyl electronic system delocalizes on the hydrogen bond region, and changes of these intermolecular hydrogen bonds are due to this effect of delocalization.

  13. Aberrant DNA Methylation in Human iPSCs Associates with MYC-Binding Motifs in a Clone-Specific Manner Independent of Genetics.

    PubMed

    Panopoulos, Athanasia D; Smith, Erin N; Arias, Angelo D; Shepard, Peter J; Hishida, Yuriko; Modesto, Veronica; Diffenderfer, Kenneth E; Conner, Clay; Biggs, William; Sandoval, Efren; D'Antonio-Chronowska, Agnieszka; Berggren, W Travis; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Frazer, Kelly A

    2017-04-06

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show variable methylation patterns between lines, some of which reflect aberrant differences relative to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). To examine whether this aberrant methylation results from genetic variation or non-genetic mechanisms, we generated human iPSCs from monozygotic twins to investigate how genetic background, clone, and passage number contribute. We found that aberrantly methylated CpGs are enriched in regulatory regions associated with MYC protein motifs and affect gene expression. We classified differentially methylated CpGs as being associated with genetic and/or non-genetic factors (clone and passage), and we found that aberrant methylation preferentially occurs at CpGs associated with clone-specific effects. We further found that clone-specific effects play a strong role in recurrent aberrant methylation at specific CpG sites across different studies. Our results argue that a non-genetic biological mechanism underlies aberrant methylation in iPSCs and that it is likely based on a probabilistic process involving MYC that takes place during or shortly after reprogramming.

  14. Aberrant Promoter Methylation of Caveolin-1 Is Associated with Favorable Response to Taxane-Platinum Combination Chemotherapy in Advanced NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, Seth A.; Lombardo, Courtney; Li, Ge; Kowalski, Jeanne; Gandhi, Khanjan; You, Shaojin; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Marcus, Adam; Vertino, Paula M.; Brandes, Johann C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Aberrant promoter DNA methylation can serve as a predictive biomarker for improved clinical responses to certain chemotherapeutics. One of the major advantages of methylation biomarkers is the ease of detection and clinical application. In order to identify methylation biomarkers predictive of a response to a taxane-platinum based chemotherapy regimen in advanced NSCLC we performed an unbiased methylation analysis of 1,536 CpG dinucleotides in cancer-associated gene loci and correlated results with clinical outcomes. Methods We studied a cohort of 49 patients (median age 62 years) with advanced NSCLC treated at the Atlanta VAMC between 1999 and 2010. Methylation analysis was done on the Illumina GoldenGate Cancer panel 1 methylation microarray platform. Methylation data were correlated with clinical response and adjusted for false discovery rates. Results Cav1 methylation emerged as a powerful predictor for achieving disease stabilization following platinum taxane based chemotherapy (p = 1.21E-05, FDR significance  = 0.018176). In Cox regression analysis after multivariate adjustment for age, performance status, gender, histology and the use of bevacizumab, CAV1 methylation was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR 0.18 (95%CI: 0.03–0.94)). Silencing of CAV1 expression in lung cancer cell lines(A549, EKVX)by shRNA led to alterations in taxane retention. Conclusions CAV1 methylation is a predictor of disease stabilization and improved overall survival following chemotherapy with a taxane-platinum combination regimen in advanced NSCLC. CAV1 methylation may predict improved outcomes for other chemotherapeutic agents which are subject to cellular clearance mediated by caveolae. PMID:25222296

  15. Binding of 14-3-3 reader proteins to phosphorylated DNMT1 facilitates aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Estève, Pierre-Olivier; Zhang, Guoqiang; Ponnaluri, V.K. Chaithanya; Deepti, Kanneganti; Chin, Hang Gyeong; Dai, Nan; Sagum, Cari; Black, Karynne; Corrêa, Ivan R.; Bedford, Mark T.; Cheng, Xiaodong; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is essential for maintenance methylation. Phosphorylation of Ser143 (pSer143) stabilizes DNMT1 during DNA replication. Here, we show 14-3-3 is a reader protein of DNMT1pSer143. In mammalian cells 14-3-3 colocalizes and binds DNMT1pSer143 post-DNA replication. The level of DNMT1pSer143 increased with overexpression of 14-3-3 and decreased by its depletion. Binding of 14-3-3 proteins with DNMT1pSer143 resulted in inhibition of DNA methylation activity in vitro. In addition, overexpression of 14-3-3 in NIH3T3 cells led to decrease in DNMT1 specific activity resulting in hypomethylation of the genome that was rescued by transfection of DNMT1. Genes representing cell migration, mobility, proliferation and focal adhesion pathway were hypomethylated and overexpressed. Furthermore, overexpression of 14-3-3 also resulted in enhanced cell invasion. Analysis of TCGA breast cancer patient data showed significant correlation for DNA hypomethylation and reduced patient survival with increased 14-3-3 expressions. Therefore, we suggest that 14-3-3 is a crucial reader of DNMT1pSer143 that regulates DNA methylation and altered gene expression that contributes to cell invasion. PMID:26553800

  16. Aberrant DNA methylation of acute myeloid leukemia and colorectal cancer in a Chinese pedigree with a MLL3 germline mutation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fuhua; Gong, Qiang; Shi, Wentao; Zou, Yunding; Shi, Jingmin; Wei, Fengjiang; Li, Qingrong; Chen, Jieping; Li, Wei-Dong

    2016-09-01

    Unlike genetic aberrations, epigenetic alterations do not modify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) coding sequence and can be reversed pharmacologically. Identifying a particular epigenetic alteration such as abnormal DNA methylation may provide better understanding of cancers and improve current therapy. In a Chinese pedigree with colorectal carcinoma and acute myeloid leukemia, we examined the genome-wide DNA methylation level of cases and explored the role of methylation in pathogenesis and progression. DNA methylation status in the four cases, which all harbor a MLL3 germline mutation, differed from that of the normal control, and hypermethylation was more prevalent. Also, more CpG sites were hypermethylated in the acute-phase AML patient than in the AML patient in remission. Fifty-nine hyper- or hypomethylated genes were identified as common to all four cases. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that differentially methylated sites among acute myeloid leukemia and colorectal carcinoma cases and the control were in both promoters (CpG island) and gene body regions (shelf/shore areas). Hypermethylation was more prevalent in cancer cases. The study supports the suggestion that the level of DNA methylation changes in AML progression.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of aberrant methylation in human breast cancer cells using methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer cells undergo massive alterations to their DNA methylation patterns that result in aberrant gene expression and malignant phenotypes. However, the mechanisms that underlie methylome changes are not well understood nor is the genomic distribution of DNA methylation changes well characterized. Results Here, we performed methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq) to obtain whole-genome DNA methylation profiles for eight human breast cancer cell (BCC) lines and for normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). The MeDIP-seq analysis generated non-biased DNA methylation maps by covering almost the entire genome with sufficient depth and resolution. The most prominent feature of the BCC lines compared to HMEC was a massively reduced methylation level particularly in CpG-poor regions. While hypomethylation did not appear to be associated with particular genomic features, hypermethylation preferentially occurred at CpG-rich gene-related regions independently of the distance from transcription start sites. We also investigated methylome alterations during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF7 cells. EMT induction was associated with specific alterations to the methylation patterns of gene-related CpG-rich regions, although overall methylation levels were not significantly altered. Moreover, approximately 40% of the epithelial cell-specific methylation patterns in gene-related regions were altered to those typical of mesenchymal cells, suggesting a cell-type specific regulation of DNA methylation. Conclusions This study provides the most comprehensive analysis to date of the methylome of human mammary cell lines and has produced novel insights into the mechanisms of methylome alteration during tumorigenesis and the interdependence between DNA methylome alterations and morphological changes. PMID:20181289

  18. The Silencing of CCND2 by Promoter Aberrant Methylation in Renal Cell Cancer and Analysis of the Correlation between CCND2 Methylation Status and Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Cui, Yun; Zhang, Lian; Sheng, Jindong; Yang, Yang; Kuang, Guanyu; Fan, Yu; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin D2 (CCND2) is a member of the D-type cyclins, which plays a pivotal role in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and malignant transformation. However, its expression status and relative regulation mechanism remains unclear in renal cell cancer (RCC). In our study, the mRNA expression level of CCND2 is down-regulated in 22/23 paired RCC tissues (p<0.05). In addition, its protein expression level is also decreased in 43/43 RCC tumor tissues compared with its corresponding non-malignant tissues (p<0.001). We further detected that CCND2 was down-regulated or silenced in 6/7 RCC cell lines, but expressed in “normal” human proximal tubular (HK-2) cell line. Subsequently, MSP and BGS results showed that the methylation status in CCND2 promoter region is closely associated with its expression level in RCC cell lines. Treatment with 5-Aza with or without TSA restored CCND2 expression in several methylated RCC cell lines. Among the 102 RCC tumors, methylation of CCND2 was detected in 29/102 (28%) cases. Only 2/23 (8.7%) adjacent non-malignant tissues showed methylation. We then analyzed the correlation of clinical features and its promoter methylation. Collectively, our data suggested that loss of CCND2 expression is closely associated with the promoter aberrant methylation. PMID:27583477

  19. Aberrant DNA methylation of WNT pathway genes in the development and progression of CIMP-negative colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Galamb, Orsolya; Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Csabai, István; Bodor, András; Ribli, Dezső; Krenács, Tibor; Patai, Árpád V; Wichmann, Barnabás; Barták, Barbara Kinga; Tóth, Kinga; Valcz, Gábor; Spisák, Sándor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2016-08-02

    The WNT signaling pathway has an essential role in colorectal carcinogenesis and progression, which involves a cascade of genetic and epigenetic changes. We aimed to analyze DNA methylation affecting the WNT pathway genes in colorectal carcinogenesis in promoter and gene body regions using whole methylome analysis in 9 colorectal cancer, 15 adenoma, and 6 normal tumor adjacent tissue (NAT) samples by methyl capture sequencing. Functional methylation was confirmed on 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-treated colorectal cancer cell line datasets. In parallel with the DNA methylation analysis, mutations of WNT pathway genes (APC, β-catenin/CTNNB1) were analyzed by 454 sequencing on GS Junior platform. Most differentially methylated CpG sites were localized in gene body regions (95% of WNT pathway genes). In the promoter regions, 33 of the 160 analyzed WNT pathway genes were differentially methylated in colorectal cancer vs. normal, including hypermethylated AXIN2, CHP1, PRICKLE1, SFRP1, SFRP2, SOX17, and hypomethylated CACYBP, CTNNB1, MYC; 44 genes in adenoma vs. NAT; and 41 genes in colorectal cancer vs. adenoma comparisons. Hypermethylation of AXIN2, DKK1, VANGL1, and WNT5A gene promoters was higher, while those of SOX17, PRICKLE1, DAAM2, and MYC was lower in colon carcinoma compared to adenoma. Inverse correlation between expression and methylation was confirmed in 23 genes, including APC, CHP1, PRICKLE1, PSEN1, and SFRP1. Differential methylation affected both canonical and noncanonical WNT pathway genes in colorectal normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Aberrant DNA methylation appears already in adenomas as an early event of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  20. Aberrant DNA methylation of the PDGF gene in homocysteine‑mediated VSMC proliferation and its underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue-Bo; Zhang, Hui-Ping; Cao, Cheng-Jian; Wang, Yan-Hua; Tian, Jue; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Yang, An-Ning; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Yi-Deng; Xu, Hua

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (AS), which is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AS in VSMCs is yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of aberrant DNA methylation of the platelet‑derived growth factor (PDGF) gene in Hcy‑mediated VSMC proliferation and its underlying mechanism. Cultured human VSMCs were treated with varying concentrations of Hcy. VSMC proliferation, PDGF mRNA and protein expression and PDGF promoter demethylation showed a dose‑dependent increase with Hcy concentration, suggesting an association among them. Cell cycle analysis revealed a decreased proportion of VSMCs in G0/G1 and an increased proportion in S phase, indicating that VSMC proliferation was increased under Hcy treatment. Furthermore, S‑adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) levels were observed to increase and those of S‑adenosylmethionine (SAM) were observed to decrease. The consequent decrease in the ratio of SAM/SAH may partially explain the hypomethylation of PDGF with Hcy treatment. Folate treatment exhibited an antagonistic effect against Hcy‑induced VSMC proliferation, aberrant PDGF methylation and PDGF expression. These data suggest that Hcy may stimulate VSMC proliferation through the PDGF signaling pathway by affecting the epigenetic regulation of PDGF through the demethylation of its promoter region. These findings may provide novel insight into the molecular association between aberrant PDGF gene demethylation and the proliferation of VSMCs in Hcy‑associated AS.

  1. Reasons of carcinogenesis indicate a big-bang inside: a hypothesis for the aberration of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Roy Chattopadhyay, N

    2013-07-01

    Cancer involves various sets of altered gene functions which embrace all the three basic mechanisms of regulation of gene expression. However, no common mechanism is inferred till date for this versatile disease and thus no full proof remedy can be offered. Here we show that the basic mechanisms are interlinked and indicate towards one of those mechanisms as being the superior one; the methylation of cytosines in specific DNA sequences, for the initiation and maintenance of carcinogenesis. The analyses of the previous reports and the nucleotide sequences of the DNA methyltransferases strongly support the assumption that the mutation(s) in the DNA-binding site(s) of DNA-methyltransferases acts as a master regulator; though it continues the cycle from mutation to repair to methylation. We anticipate that our hypothesis will start a line of study for the proposal of a treatment regime for cancers by introducing wild type methyltransferases in the diseased cells and/or germ cells, and/or by targeting ligands to the altered binding domain(s) where a mutation in the concerned enzyme(s) is seen.

  2. Aberrant methylation of H19-DMR acquired after implantation was dissimilar in soma versus placenta of patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Higashimoto, Ken; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Yatsuki, Hitomi; Yoshinaga, Hokuto; Jozaki, Kosuke; Okada, Junichiro; Watanabe, Yoriko; Aoki, Aiko; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Saito, Shigeru; Koide, Kayoko; Mukai, Tsunehiro; Hata, Kenichiro; Soejima, Hidenobu

    2012-07-01

    Gain of methylation (GOM) at the H19-differentially methylated region (H19-DMR) is one of several causative alterations in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), an imprinting-related disorder. In most patients with epigenetic changes at H19-DMR, the timing of and mechanism mediating GOM is unknown. To clarify this, we analyzed methylation at the imprinting control regions of somatic tissues and the placenta from two unrelated, naturally conceived patients with sporadic BWS. Maternal H19-DMR was abnormally and variably hypermethylated in both patients, indicating epigenetic mosaicism. Aberrant methylation levels were consistently lower in placenta than in blood and skin. Mosaic and discordant methylation strongly suggested that aberrant hypermethylation occurred after implantation, when genome-wide de novo methylation normally occurs. We expect aberrant de novo hypermethylation of H19-DMR happens to a greater extent in embryos than in placentas, as this is normally the case for de novo methylation. In addition, of 16 primary imprinted DMRs analyzed, only H19-DMR was aberrantly methylated, except for NNAT DMR in the placental chorangioma of Patient 2. To our knowledge, these are the first data suggesting when GOM of H19-DMR occurs.

  3. Involvement of aberrant DNA methylation on reduced expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene in rat tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi . E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp; Shimizu, Kyoko; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Fujii, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshio; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2006-10-27

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. Recently, it has been reported that alterations of LPA receptor expression might be important in the malignant transformation of tumor cells. Therefore, to assess an involvement of DNA methylation in reduced expression of the LPA receptor-1 (lpa1) gene, we investigated the expression of the lpa1 gene and its DNA methylation patterns in rat tumor cell lines. Both rat brain-derived neuroblastoma B103 and liver-derived hepatoma RH7777 cells used in this study indicated no expression of lpa1. For the analysis of methylation status, bisulfite sequencing was performed with B103 and RH7777 cells, comparing with other lpa1 expressed cells and normal tissues of brain and liver. The lpa1 expressed cells and tissues were all unmethylated in this region of lpa1. In contrast, both B103 and RH7777 cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expression of the lpa1. Treatment with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine induced expression of lpa1 gene in B103 and RH7777 cells after 24 h. In RH7777 cells treated with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine, stress fiber formation was also observed in response to LPA in RH7777 cells, but not in untreated RH7777 cells. These results suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of the lpa1 gene may be involved in its reduced expression in rat tumor cells.

  4. Cigarette smoke extract induces aberrant cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II methylation and apoptosis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Chen, Ping; Peng, Hong; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Yan; Cai, Shan; Lu, Qianjin; Guan, Chaxiang

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the mechanisms responsible for endothelial apoptosis remain poorly understood. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate whether DNA methylation is involved in smoking-induced endothelial apoptosis. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) at a range of concentrations (0-10%). HUVECs were also incubated with a demethylating reagent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidinem (AZA), with and without CSE. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay and flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining. We found that CSE treatment significantly increased HUVEC apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot revealed that CSE treatment decreased cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II (COX II) mRNA and protein levels and decreased COX activity. Methylation-specific PCR and direct bisulfite sequencing revealed positive COX II gene methylation. AZA administration partly increased mRNA and protein expressions of COX II, and COX activity decreased by CSE and attenuated the toxic effects of CSE. Our results showed that CSE induced aberrant COX II methylation and apoptosis in HUVECs.

  5. Detection of aberrant methylated SEPT9 and NTRK3 genes in sporadic colorectal cancer patients as a potential diagnostic biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Behrouz Sharif, Shahin; Hashemzadeh, Shahriar; Mousavi Ardehaie, Reza; Eftekharsadat, Amirtaher; Ghojazadeh, Mortaza; Mehrtash, Amir Hossein; Estiar, Mehrdad Asghari; Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Sakhinia, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies, and the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Timely detection of CRC in patients with earlier stages provides the highest rate of survival. Epigenetic alterations are important in the occurrence and progression of CRC, and represent the primary modifications of cancer cells. Therefore, detection of these alterations in CRC cases are thought to hold great promise as diagnostic biomarkers. It has been shown that the SEPT9 and NTRK3 genes are aberrantly methylated and their detection can be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis of CRC. The present study analyzed promoter methylation status of these genes in CRC patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from 45 CRC and paired adjacent healthy tissues and undergone bisulfite conversion, and the methylation status of NTRK3 and SEPT9 were defined using the MS-HRM assay. Our results showed that there are statistically significant differences in methylation status of NTRK3 and specially SEPT9 between CRC and adjacent normal tissues (P<0.001). High sensitivity and specificity for a specific location in SEPT9 gene promoter as a diagnostic biomarker was observed. SEPT9 promoter hypermethylation may serve as a promising biomarker for the detection of CRC development. However, to validate the biomarker potential of NTRK3 there is a requirement for further investigation. PMID:28105243

  6. Aberrant DNA methylation profiles in the premature aging disorders Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria and Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation gradiently changes with age and is likely to be involved in aging-related processes with subsequent phenotype changes and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. The Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGP) and Werner Syndrome (WS) are two premature aging diseases showing features of common natural aging early in life. Mutations in the LMNA and WRN genes were associated to disease onset; however, for a subset of patients the underlying causative mechanisms remain elusive. We aimed to evaluate the role of epigenetic alteration on premature aging diseases by performing comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of HGP and WS patients. We observed profound changes in the DNA methylation landscapes of WRN and LMNA mutant patients, which were narrowed down to a set of aging related genes and processes. Although of low overall variance, non-mutant patients revealed differential DNA methylation at distinct loci. Hence, we propose DNA methylation to have an impact on premature aging diseases.

  7. Aberrant DNA methylation of some tumor suppressor genes in lung cancers from workers with chromate exposure.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abdellah H K; Kondo, Kazuya; Namura, Toshiaki; Senba, Yoshitaka; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Toba, Hiroaki; Kenzaki, Koichiro; Sakiyama, Shoji; Tangoku, Akira

    2011-02-01

    Our previous studies revealed a variety of genetic changes in lung cancers from chromate-exposed workers (chromate lung cancer). In the present study, we examined epigenetic changes in chromate lung cancers. Nested-methylation-specific PCR was employed in studying the methylation of CpG islands in the APC, MGMT, hMLH1 genes in 36 chromate lung cancers and 25 nonchromate lung cancers. Methylation in chromate lung cancers was detected at 86% for APC, 20% for MGMT, and 28% for hMLH1. Whereas, it occurred at lower frequencies in nonchromate lung cancers, particularly in APC (44%) and hMLH1 (0%) genes. Our previous study showed that methylation of p16 gene in chromate lung cancer and nonchromate lung cancer was 33% and 26%, respectively. The mean methylation index (MI), a reflection of the overall methylation status, was significantly higher in chromate lung cancers than nonchromate lung cancers (0.41 vs. 0.21, P=0.001). Methylation of multiple genes (particularly hMLH1, p16, and APC genes) had experienced more than 15 yr of chromate exposure in chromate lung cancer (MI: <15 yr; 0.19, ≥ 15 yr, 0.42). There is a significant correlation of p16 and hMLH1 methylation with the expressional decrease or loss of the corresponding gene products (P=0.037 and 0.024) respectively, and an inverse correlation between APC and MGMT methylation (P = 0.014). This study provides a novel evidence for the chromium carcinogenesis that chromate lung cancer is linked to the progressive methylation of some tumor suppressor genes, which may be related to genomic instability.

  8. Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk by Aberrant Methylation in Mammary Duct Lavage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    patients 67/108 (62.0) were lavaged per breast, and 3.5 ducts were lavaged History of ADH 1167 (1.51 per patient. There were 41 women with incident BRCA gene ...range from intraductal papilloma to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Laboratory studies indicate that methylation of tumor suppressor genes is an...ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Laboratory studies indicate that methylation of tumor suppressor genes is an early event in breast carcinogenesis. We have

  9. Aberrant Methylation Inactivates Somatostatin and Somatostatin Receptor Type 1 in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Kiyoshi; Misawa, Yuki; Kondo, Haruki; Mochizuki, Daiki; Imai, Atsushi; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Uehara, Takayuki; Kanazawa, Takeharu; Mineta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to define somatostatin (SST) and somatostatin receptor type 1 (SSTR1) methylation profiles for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tumors at diagnosis and follow up and to evaluate their prognostic significance and value as a biomarker. Methods Gene expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Promoter methylation status was determined by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP) in HNSCC. Results Methylation was associated with transcription inhibition. SST methylation in 81% of HNSCC tumor specimens significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.043), stage (P = 0.008), galanin receptor type 2 (GALR2) methylation (P = 0.041), and tachykinin-1 (TAC1) (P = 0.040). SSTR1 hypermethylation in 64% of cases was correlated with tumor size (P = 0.037), stage (P = 0.037), SST methylation (P < 0.001), and expression of galanin (P = 0.03), GALR2 (P = 0.014), TAC1 (P = 0.023), and tachykinin receptor type 1 (TACR1) (P = 0.003). SST and SSTR1 promoter hypermethylation showed highly discriminating receiver operator characteristic curve profiles, which clearly distinguished HNSCC from adjacent normal mucosal tissues. Concurrent hypermethylation of galanin and SSTR1 promoters correlated with reduced disease-free survival (log-rank test, P = 0.0001). Among patients with oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, methylation of both SST and SSTR1 promoters correlated with reduced disease-free survival (log-rank test, P = 0.028). In multivariate logistic-regression analysis, concomitant methylation of galanin and SSTR1 was associated with an odds ratio for recurrence of 12.53 (95% CI, 2.62 to 59.8; P = 0.002). Conclusions CpG hypermethylation is a likely mechanism of SST and SSTR1 gene inactivation, supporting the hypothesis that SST and SSTR1 play a role in the tumorigenesis of HNSCC and that this hypermethylation may serve as an important biomarker. PMID:25734919

  10. Aberrant methylation-mediated silencing of microRNAs contributes to HPV-induced anchorage independence

    PubMed Central

    Wilting, Saskia M.; Boon, Debby; Sørgård, Hanne; Lando, Malin; Snoek, Barbara C.; van Wieringen, Wessel N.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Lyng, Heidi; Snijders, Peter J.F.; Steenbergen, Renske D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer and a subset of anogenital and head-and-neck carcinomas are caused by high-risk types of the human papillomavirus (hrHPV). During hrHPV-induced malignant transformation keratinocytes become able to grow anchorage independently, a tumorigenic trait at least partly associated with inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. We used hrHPV-containing keratinocytes to investigate the role of DNA methylation-mediated silencing of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the acquisition of anchorage independence. Anchorage dependent (n=11) and independent passages (n=19) of 4 hrHPV-immortalized keratinocyte cell lines were treated with 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine (DAC). Genome-wide miRNA expression profiles before and after treatment were compared to identify miRNAs silenced by methylation. Bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR showed increased methylation of hsa-mir-129-2/-137/-935/-3663/-3665 and -4281 in anchorage independent HPV-transformed keratinocytes and cervical cancer cell lines. Mature miRNAs derived from hsa-mir-129-2/-137/-3663 and -3665 showed functional relevance as they decreased anchorage independence in cervical cancer cell lines. Cervical (pre)cancerous lesions demonstrated increased methylation of hsa-mir-129-2/-935/-3663/-3665 and -4281, underlining the clinical relevance of our findings. In conclusion, methylation-mediated silencing of tumor suppressive miRNAs contributes to acquisition of an anchorage independent phenotype. This study further substantiates the importance of miRNAs during early stages of carcinogenesis and underlines their potential as both disease markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27270309

  11. Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk by Aberrant Methylation in Mammary Duct Lavage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    retinoic acid receptor-beta2 gene in breast ca 2001;92:826-832. Clark SJ, Harrison J, Paul CL, Frommer M. High sensitivity mapping of methylated...USA. 2000;97:2779–2784. 15. Mitchell G, Trott PA, Morris L, Coleman N, Sauter E, Eeles RA. Cellular characteristics of nipple aspiration fluid during

  12. Aberrant DNA methylation profile in pleural fluid for differential diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masanori; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Hiraki, Akio; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Umemura, Shigeki; Katayama, Hideki; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2012-03-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) usually develops pleural fluid. We investigated the value of DNA methylation in the pleural fluid for differentiating MPM from lung cancer (LC). Pleural fluid was collected from 39 patients with MPM, 46 with LC, 25 with benign asbestos pleurisy (BAP) and 30 with other causes. The methylation of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p16(INK4a) , ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), and retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. DNA methylation of RASSF1A, p16(INK4a), RARβ, MGMT and DAPK was detected in 12 (30.8%), 3 (7.7%), 11 (28.2%), 0 (0.0%) and five patients (12.8%) with MPM, and in 22 (47.8%), 14 (30.4%), 24 (52.2%), 1 (2.2%) and six patients (13.0%) with LC, respectively. The mean methylation ratios of RASSF1A, p16(INK4a) and RARβ were 0.37 (range 0.0-2.84), 0.11 (0.0-2.67) and 0.44 (0.0-3.32) in MPM, and 0.87 (0.0-3.14), 1.16 (0.0-5.35) and 1.69 (0.0-6.49) in LC, respectively. The methylation ratios for the three genes were significantly higher in LC than in MPM (RASSF1A, P = 0.039; p16(INK4a), P = 0.005; and RARβ, P = 0.002). Patients with methylation in at least one gene were 3.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-11.34) times more likely to have LC. Hypermethylation seemed no greater with MPM than with BAP. Extended exposure to asbestos (≧30 years) was correlated with an increased methylation frequency (P = 0.020). Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in pleural fluid DNA has the potential to be a valuable marker for differentiating MPM from LC.

  13. Associations of risk factors obesity and occupational airborne exposures with CDKN2A/p16 aberrant DNA methylation in esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Ganji, S; Miotto, E; Callegari, E; Sayehmiri, K; Fereidooni, F; Yazdanbod, M; Rastgar-Jazii, F; Negrini, M

    2010-09-01

    It is known that obesity and occupational airborne exposure such as dust are among risk factors of esophageal cancer development, in particular squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of esophagus. Here, we tested whether these factors could also affect aberrant DNA methylation. DNAs from 44 fresh tumor tissues and 19 non-tumor adjacent normal tissues, obtained from 44 patients affected by SCC of esophagus (SCCE), were studied for methylation at the CDKN2A/p16 gene promoter by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Statistical methods were used to assess association of promoter methylation with biopathological, clinical, and personal information data, including obesity and airborne exposures. Methylation at the CDKN2A/p16 gene promoter was detected in 12 out of 44 tumor samples. None of the non-tumor tissues exhibited the aberrant methylation. Our results confirmed previously described significant association with low tumor stage (P= 0.002); in addition, we found that obesity (P= 0.001) and occupational exposure (P= 0.008) were both significantly associated with CDKN2A/p16 promoter methylation. This study provides evidence that obesity and occupational exposure increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer through an enhancement of CDKN2A/p16 promoter methylation.

  14. Genetic differences and aberrant methylation in the apelin system predict the risk of high-altitude pulmonary edema

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Aastha; Kohli, Samantha; Dua, Sanchi; Thinlas, Tashi; Mohammad, Ghulam; Pasha, M. A. Qadar

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor stimulates the expression of apelin, a potent vasodilator, in response to reduced blood arterial oxygen saturation. However, aberrations in the apelin system impair pulmonary vascular function, potentially resulting in the development of high-altitude (HA)-related disorders. This study aimed to elucidate the genetic and epigenetic regulation of apelin, apelin receptor (APLNR), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) in HA adaptation and HA pulmonary edema (HAPE). A genome-wide association study and sequencing identified variants of apelin, APLNR, and NOS3 that were validated in a larger sample size of HAPE-patients (HAPE-p), HAPE-free controls (HAPE-f), and healthy highland natives (HLs). Apelin-13 and nitrite levels and apelin and NOS3 expression were down-regulated in HAPE-p (P < 0.001). Among the several studied polymorphisms, apelin rs3761581, rs2235312, and rs3115757; APLNR rs11544374 and rs2282623; and NOS3 4b/4a, rs1799983, and rs7830 were associated with HAPE (P < 0.03). The risk allele rs3761581G was associated with a 58.6% reduction in gene expression (P = 0.017), and the risk alleles rs3761581G and rs2235312T were associated with low levels of apelin-13 and nitrite (P < 0.05). The latter two levels decreased further when both of these risk alleles were present in the patients (P < 0.05). Methylation of the apelin CpG island was significantly higher in HAPE-p at 11.92% than in HAPE-f and HLs at ≤7.1% (P < 0.05). Moreover, the methylation effect was 9% stronger in the 5′ UTR and was associated with decreased apelin expression and apelin-13 levels. The rs3761581 and rs2235312 polymorphisms and methylation of the CpG island influence the expression of apelin in HAPE. PMID:25918383

  15. Genetic differences and aberrant methylation in the apelin system predict the risk of high-altitude pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Aastha; Kohli, Samantha; Dua, Sanchi; Thinlas, Tashi; Mohammad, Ghulam; Pasha, M A Qadar

    2015-05-12

    Hypoxia-inducible factor stimulates the expression of apelin, a potent vasodilator, in response to reduced blood arterial oxygen saturation. However, aberrations in the apelin system impair pulmonary vascular function, potentially resulting in the development of high-altitude (HA)-related disorders. This study aimed to elucidate the genetic and epigenetic regulation of apelin, apelin receptor (APLNR), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) in HA adaptation and HA pulmonary edema (HAPE). A genome-wide association study and sequencing identified variants of apelin, APLNR, and NOS3 that were validated in a larger sample size of HAPE-patients (HAPE-p), HAPE-free controls (HAPE-f), and healthy highland natives (HLs). Apelin-13 and nitrite levels and apelin and NOS3 expression were down-regulated in HAPE-p (P < 0.001). Among the several studied polymorphisms, apelin rs3761581, rs2235312, and rs3115757; APLNR rs11544374 and rs2282623; and NOS3 4b/4a, rs1799983, and rs7830 were associated with HAPE (P < 0.03). The risk allele rs3761581G was associated with a 58.6% reduction in gene expression (P = 0.017), and the risk alleles rs3761581G and rs2235312T were associated with low levels of apelin-13 and nitrite (P < 0.05). The latter two levels decreased further when both of these risk alleles were present in the patients (P < 0.05). Methylation of the apelin CpG island was significantly higher in HAPE-p at 11.92% than in HAPE-f and HLs at ≤ 7.1% (P < 0.05). Moreover, the methylation effect was 9% stronger in the 5' UTR and was associated with decreased apelin expression and apelin-13 levels. The rs3761581 and rs2235312 polymorphisms and methylation of the CpG island influence the expression of apelin in HAPE.

  16. Cytosine modifications in neurodevelopment and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bing; Jin, Peng

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation has been studied comprehensively and linked to both normal neurodevelopment and neurological diseases. The recent identification of several new DNA modifications, including 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), has given us a new perspective on the previously observed plasticity in 5mC-dependent regulatory processes. Here we review the latest research into these cytosine modifications, focusing mainly on their roles in neurodevelopment and diseases. PMID:23912899

  17. Chilling- and Freezing- Induced Alterations in Cytosine Methylation and Its Association with the Cold Tolerance of an Alpine Subnival Plant, Chorispora bungeana

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuan; Liu, Lijun; Feng, Yanhao; Wei, Yunzhu; Yue, Xiule; He, Wenliang; Zhang, Hua; An, Lizhe

    2015-01-01

    Chilling (0–18°C) and freezing (<0°C) are two distinct types of cold stresses. Epigenetic regulation can play an important role in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. However, it is not yet clear whether and how epigenetic modification (i.e., DNA methylation) mediates the adaptation to cold stresses in nature (e.g., in alpine regions). Especially, whether the adaptation to chilling and freezing is involved in differential epigenetic regulations in plants is largely unknown. Chorispora bungeana is an alpine subnival plant that is distributed in the freeze-thaw tundra in Asia, where chilling and freezing frequently fluctuate daily (24 h). To disentangle how C. bungeana copes with these intricate cold stresses through epigenetic modifications, plants of C. bungeana were treated at 4°C (chilling) and -4°C (freezing) over five periods of time (0–24 h). Methylation-sensitive amplified fragment-length polymorphism markers were used to investigate the variation in DNA methylation of C. bungeana in response to chilling and freezing. It was found that the alterations in DNA methylation of C. bungeana largely occurred over the period of chilling and freezing. Moreover, chilling and freezing appeared to gradually induce distinct DNA methylation variations, as the treatment went on (e.g., after 12 h). Forty-three cold-induced polymorphic fragments were randomly selected and further analyzed, and three of the cloned fragments were homologous to genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase, UDP-glucosyltransferase and polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein. These candidate genes verified the existence of different expressive patterns between chilling and freezing. Our results showed that C. bungeana responded to cold stresses rapidly through the alterations of DNA methylation, and that chilling and freezing induced different DNA methylation changes. Therefore, we conclude that epigenetic modifications can potentially serve as a rapid and flexible mechanism for C. bungeana to

  18. Cytosine methylation of tRNA-Asp by DNMT2 has a role in translation of proteins containing poly-Asp sequences.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Raghuvaran; Fierer, Jacob; Kaiser, Steffen; Helm, Mark; Jurkowski, Tomasz P; Jeltsch, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The Dnmt2 RNA methyltransferase catalyses the methylation of C38 in the anticodon loop of tRNA-Asp, but the molecular role of this methylation is unknown. Here, we report that mouse aspartyl-tRNA synthetase shows a four to fivefold preference for C38-methylated tRNA-Asp. Consistently, a 30% reduced charging level of tRNA-Asp was observed in Dnmt2 knockout (KO) murine embryonic fibroblast cells. Gene expression analysis with fluorescent reporter proteins fused to an N-terminal poly-Asp sequence showed that protein synthesis of poly-Asp-tagged reporter proteins was reduced in Dnmt2 KO cells as well. The same effect was observed with endogenous proteins containing poly-Asp sequences, indicating that Dnmt2-mediated C38 methylation of tRNA-Asp regulates the translation of proteins containing poly-Asp sequences. Gene ontology searches for proteins containing poly-Asp sequences in the human proteome showed that a significant number of these proteins have roles in transcriptional regulation and gene expression. Hence, the Dnmt2-mediated methylation of tRNA-Asp exhibits a post-transcriptional regulatory role by controlling the synthesis of a group of target proteins containing poly-Asp sequences.

  19. Identification of the CIMP-like subtype and aberrant methylation of members of the chromosomal segregation and spindle assembly pathways in esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Lutz; Nones, Katia; Loffler, Kelly A.; Nancarrow, Derek; Oey, Harald; Tang, Yue Hang; Wayte, Nicola J.; Patch, Ann Marie; Patel, Kalpana; Brosda, Sandra; Manning, Suzanne; Lampe, Guy; Clouston, Andrew; Thomas, Janine; Stoye, Jens; Hussey, Damian J.; Watson, David I.; Lord, Reginald V.; Phillips, Wayne A.; Gotley, David; Smithers, B.Mark; Whiteman, David C.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Grimmond, Sean M.; Waddell, Nicola; Barbour, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen significantly over recent decades. Although survival has improved, cure rates remain poor, with <20% of patients surviving 5 years. This is the first study to explore methylome, transcriptome and ENCODE data to characterize the role of methylation in EAC. We investigate the genome-wide methylation profile of 250 samples including 125 EAC, 19 Barrett’s esophagus (BE), 85 squamous esophagus and 21 normal stomach. Transcriptome data of 70 samples (48 EAC, 4 BE and 18 squamous esophagus) were used to identify changes in methylation associated with gene expression. BE and EAC showed similar methylation profiles, which differed from squamous tissue. Hypermethylated sites in EAC and BE were mainly located in CpG-rich promoters. A total of 18575 CpG sites associated with 5538 genes were differentially methylated, 63% of these genes showed significant correlation between methylation and mRNA expression levels. Pathways involved in tumorigenesis including cell adhesion, TGF and WNT signaling showed enrichment for genes aberrantly methylated. Genes involved in chromosomal segregation and spindle formation were aberrantly methylated. Given the recent evidence that chromothripsis may be a driver mechanism in EAC, the role of epigenetic perturbation of these pathways should be further investigated. The methylation profiles revealed two EAC subtypes, one associated with widespread CpG island hypermethylation overlapping H3K27me3 marks and binding sites of the Polycomb proteins. These subtypes were supported by an independent set of 89 esophageal cancer samples. The most hypermethylated tumors showed worse patient survival. PMID:26905591

  20. Methylation of cytosine at C5 in a CpG sequence context causes a conformational switch of a benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-N2-guanine adduct in DNA from a minor groove alignment to intercalation with base displacement.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, N.; Lin, C.; Huang, X.; Kolbanovskiy, A.; Hingerty, Brian E; Amin, S.; Broyde, S.; Geactinov, N. E.; Patel, D. J.

    2005-03-01

    It is well known that CpG dinucleotide steps in DNA, which are highly methylated at the 5-position of cytosine (meC) in human tissues, exhibit a disproportionate number of mutations within certain codons of the p53 gene. There is ample published evidence indicating that the reactivity of guanine with anti-B[a]PDE (a metabolite of the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene) at CpG mutation hot spots is enhanced by the methylation of the cytosine residue flanking the target guanine residue on the 5'-side. In this work we demonstrate that such a methylation can also dramatically affect the conformational characteristics of an adduct derived from the reaction of one of the two enantiomers of anti-B[a]PDE with the exocyclic amino group of guanine ([BP]G adduct). A detailed NMR study indicates that the 10R (-)-trans-anti-[BP]G adduct undergoes a transition from a minor groove-binding alignment of the aromatic BP ring system in the unmethylated C-[BP]G sequence context, to an intercalative BP alignment with a concomitant displacement of the modified guanine residue into the minor groove in the methylated meC-[BP]G sequence context. By contrast, a minor groove-binding alignment was observed for the stereoisomeric 10S (+)-trans-anti-[BP]G adduct in both the C-[BP]G and meC-[BP]G sequence contexts. This remarkable conformational switch resulting from the presence of a single methyl group at the 5-position of the cytosine residue flanking the lesion on the 5'-side, is attributed to the hydrophobic effect of the methyl group that can stabilize intercalated adduct conformations in an adduct stereochemistry-dependent manner. Such conformational differences in methylated and unmethylated CpG sequences may be significant because of potential alterations in the cellular processing of the [BP]G adducts by DNA transcription, replication, and repair enzymes.

  1. Arabidopsis MET1 cytosine methyltransferase mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Kankel, Mark W; Ramsey, Douglas E; Stokes, Trevor L; Flowers, Susan K; Haag, Jeremy R; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Riddle, Nicole C; Verbsky, Michelle L; Richards, Eric J

    2003-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of two missense mutations in the cytosine-DNA-methyltransferase gene, MET1, from the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Both missense mutations, which affect the catalytic domain of the protein, led to a global reduction of cytosine methylation throughout the genome. Surprisingly, the met1-2 allele, with the weaker DNA hypomethylation phenotype, alters a well-conserved residue in methyltransferase signature motif I. The stronger met1-1 allele caused late flowering and a heterochronic delay in the juvenile-to-adult rosette leaf transition. The distribution of late-flowering phenotypes in a mapping population segregating met1-1 indicates that the flowering-time phenotype is caused by the accumulation of inherited defects at loci unlinked to the met1 mutation. The delay in flowering time is due in part to the formation and inheritance of hypomethylated fwa epialleles, but inherited defects at other loci are likely to contribute as well. Centromeric repeat arrays hypomethylated in met1-1 mutants are partially remethylated when introduced into a wild-type background, in contrast to genomic sequences hypomethylated in ddm1 mutants. ddm1 met1 double mutants were constructed to further our understanding of the mechanism of DDM1 action and the interaction between two major genetic loci affecting global cytosine methylation levels in Arabidopsis. PMID:12663548

  2. Aberrant hypomethylated STAT3 was identified as a biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning through integrating DNA methylation and mRNA expression data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Bai, Wenlin; Niu, Piye; Tian, Lin; Gao, Ai

    2014-06-01

    Chronic occupational benzene exposure is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies such as aplastic anemia and leukemia. The new biomarker and action mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning are still required to be explored. Aberrant DNA methylation, which may lead to genomic instability and the altered gene expression, is frequently observed in hematological cancers. To gain an insight into the new biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning, DNA methylation profiles and mRNA expression pattern from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of four chronic benzene poisoning patients and four health controls that matched age and gender without benzene exposure were performed using the high resolution Infinium 450K methylation array and Gene Chip Human Gene 2.0ST Arrays, respectively. By integrating DNA methylation and mRNA expression data, we identified 3 hypermethylated genes showing concurrent down-regulation (PRKG1, PARD3, EPHA8) and 2 hypomethylated genes showing increased expression (STAT3, IFNGR1). Signal net analysis of differential methylation genes associated with chronic benzene poisoning showed that two key hypomethylated STAT3 and hypermethylated GNAI1 were identified. Further GO analysis and pathway analysis indicated that hypomethylated STAT3 played central roles through regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, JAK-STAT cascade and adipocytokine signaling pathway, Acute myeloid leukemia, and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. In conclusion, the aberrant hypomethylated STAT3 might be a potential biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning.

  3. Aberrant CpG methylation of the TFAP2A gene constitutes a mechanism for loss of TFAP2A expression in human metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, Andrea R; Vorrink, Sabine U; Hudachek, Danielle R; Cramer-Morales, Kimberly; Milhem, Mohammed M; Cornell, Robert A; Domann, Frederick E

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a deadly treatment-resistant form of skin cancer whose global incidence is on the rise. During melanocyte transformation and melanoma progression the expression profile of many genes changes. Among these, a gene implicated in several steps of melanocyte development, TFAP2A, is frequently silenced; however, the molecular mechanism of TFAP2A silencing in human melanoma remains unknown. In this study, we measured TFAP2A mRNA expression in primary human melanocytes compared to 11 human melanoma samples by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In addition, we assessed CpG DNA methylation of the TFAP2A promoter in these samples using bisulfite sequencing. Compared to primary melanocytes, which showed high TFAP2A mRNA expression and no promoter methylation, human melanoma samples showed decreased TFAP2A mRNA expression and increased promoter methylation. We further show that increased CpG methylation correlates with decreased TFAP2A mRNA expression. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, we further identified TFAP2A as a gene displaying among the most decreased expression in stage 4 melanomas vs. non-stage 4 melanomas, and whose CpG methylation was frequently associated with lack of mRNA expression. Based on our data, we conclude that TFAP2A expression in human melanomas can be silenced by aberrant CpG methylation of the TFAP2A promoter. We have identified aberrant CpG DNA methylation as an epigenetic mark associated with TFAP2A silencing in human melanoma that could have significant implications for the therapy of human melanoma using epigenetic modifying drugs. PMID:25625848

  4. The Cytosine Water Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, A. M.; Mata, S.; Bermudez, C.; Berdakin, M.; Pena, I.; Cabezas, C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    A multi FID system has been adapted into the operation sequence of the LA-MB-FTMW spectrometer. Thanks to the reached sensitivity, one monohydrate of cytosine (A= 3725.61 (26) MHz, B=980.385 (76) MHz, C=777.231 (46) MHz) has been detected in the supersonic expansion. J. --U. Grabow, W. Stahl, H. Dreizler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1996, 67, 4072 -- 4084. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2009, 11, 617 -- 627.

  5. Density Functional Study of the Influence of C5 Cytosine Substitution in Base Pairs with Guanine

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Adam; Guza, Rebecca; Tretyakova, Natalia; York, Darrin M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study employs density-functional electronic structure methods to investigate the effect of chemical modification at the C5 position of cytosine. A series of experimentally motivated chemical modifications are considered, including alkyl, halogen, aromatic, fused ring, and strong σ and π withdrawing functional groups. The effect of these modifications on cytosine geometry, electronic structure, proton affinities, gas phase basicities, cytosine-guanine base-pair hydrogen bond network and corresponding nucleophilicity at guanine are examined. Ultimately, these results play a part in dissecting the effect of endogenous cytosine methylation on the reactivity of neighboring guanine toward carcinogens and DNA alkylating agents. PMID:19890472

  6. Sterically hindered complexes of platinum(II) with planar heterocyclic nitrogen donors. A novel complex with 1-methyl-cytosine has a spectrum of activity different from cisplatin and is able of overcoming acquired cisplatin resistance.

    PubMed

    Margiotta, Nicola; Natile, Giovanni; Capitelli, Francesco; Fanizzi, Francesco P; Boccarelli, Angelina; De Rinaldis, Pietro; Giordano, Domenico; Coluccia, Mauro

    2006-11-01

    A very interesting series of water soluble platinum compounds violating some of the classical structure-activity relationships, but still showing antitumor activity, was reported by Hollis and collaborators some 25 years ago [L.S. Hollis, A.R. Amundsenm, E.W. Stern. J. Med. Chem. 32 (1989) 128-136]. The compounds, having formula [PtClA(2)L](+) (A(2)=two monodentate or a bidentate amine, L=a secondary or tertiary amine or a N-donor heterocycle), were characterized by a positive charge and three non-labile N-donor ligands. We have extended the investigation to analogous compounds in which 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline has taken the place of the A(2) ligand(s) and L is 2-picoline (1), 6-amino-2-picoline (2), or 1-methyl-cytosine (3). The X-ray analysis of 2 has revealed a bow-like distortion of the phenanthroline plane, a sloping of the phenanthroline plane with respect to the coordination plane, and an overall shielding of the metallic core by the ortho substituents of the phenanthroline and pyridine ligands. In vitro grow inhibition assays have been performed on the most water soluble complex 3. The results indicate that this complex is characterized by a potent growth inhibitory activity with mean IC(50) value (in a panel of 11 human tumor cell lines) of 1.1 microM to be compared with a mean value of 3.8 microM for cisplatin. The same compound also appears to completely overcome the acquired cisplatin resistance stemming from reduced uptake or a multifocal mechanism, thus pointing to a mechanism of action distinctly different from that of cisplatin.

  7. Allium cepa anaphase-telophase root tip chromosome aberration assay on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, maleic hydrazide, sodium azide, and ethyl methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Rank, J; Nielsen, M H

    1997-04-24

    The Allium anaphase-telophase assay was used to show genotoxicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), maleic hydrazide (MH), sodium azide (NaN3) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). All agents induced chromosome aberrations at statistically significant levels. The rank of the lowest doses with positive effect was as follows: NaN3 0.3 mg/l < MH 1 mg/l < MNU 41 mg/l < EMS 100 mg/l. The results were compared with results from other plant assays (Arabidopsis, Vicia, Tradescantia) and for MH and MNU the values were found to be within the same range, whereas the results in the Allium test for NaN3 and EMS were in a lower range than that found for the other plant assays. EMS and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate), two chemicals used as positive controls in mutagenicity testing, were compared in the Allium test, and MMS was found to be about ten times more potent in inducing chromosome aberrations than EMS. Recording of micronuclei in interphase cells showed that this endpoint does not give more information of clastogenicity than recording of chromosome aberrations in anaphase-telophase cells.

  8. Regulation of expression and activity of DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Shannon R Morey; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2011-01-01

    Three active DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases (DNMTs) have been identified in mammalian cells, Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b. DNMT1 is primarily a maintenance methyltransferase, as it prefers to methylate hemimethylated DNA during DNA replication and in vitro. DNMT3A and DNMT3B are de novo methyltransferases and show similar activity on unmethylated and hemimethylated DNA. DNMT3L, which lacks the catalytic domain, binds to DNMT3A and DNMT3B variants and facilitates their chromatin targeting, presumably for de novo methylation. There are several mechanisms by which mammalian cells regulate DNMT levels, including varied transcriptional activation of the respective genes and posttranslational modifications of the enzymes that can affect catalytic activity, targeting, and enzyme degradation. In addition, binding of miRNAs or RNA-binding proteins can also alter the expression of DNMTs. These regulatory processes can be disrupted in disease or by environmental factors, resulting in altered DNMT expression and aberrant DNA methylation patterns.

  9. Base-pairing energies of proton-bound homodimers determined by guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry: application to cytosine and 5-substituted cytosines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Wu, R R; Rodgers, M T

    2013-11-19

    Base-pairing interactions in proton-bound dimers of cytosine (C(+)·C) are the major forces responsible for stabilization of DNA i-motif conformations. Permethylation of cytosine in extended (CCG)·(CGG)n trinucleotide repeats has been shown to cause fragile-X syndrome, the most widespread inherited cause of mental retardation in humans. Oligonucleotides containing 5-bromo- or 5-fluorocytosine can bind to proteins that selectively bind methylated DNA, suggesting that halogenated cytosine damage products can potentially mimic methylation signals. However, the influence of methylation or halogenation on the base-pairing energies (BPEs) of proton-bound dimers of cytosine and their impact on the stability of DNA i-motif conformations is presently unknown. To address this, proton-bound homodimers of cytosine and 5-methyl-, 5-fluoro-, 5-bromo-, and 5-iodocytosine are investigated in detail both experimentally and theoretically. The BPEs of proton-bound homodimers of cytosine and the modified cytosines are measured by threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) techniques. 5-Methylation of cytosine is found to increase the BPE and would therefore tend to stabilize DNA i-motif conformations. In contrast, 5-halogenation lowers the BPE. However, the BPEs of the proton-bound 5-halocytosine homodimers examined here still significantly exceed that of Watson-Crick G·C base pairs, such that DNA i-motif conformations should be preserved in the presence of these modifications. Excellent agreement between TCID measured and B3LYP calculated BPEs is found, suggesting that B3LYP calculations can be used to provide reliable energetic predictions for related systems.

  10. DNA methylation detection based on difference of base content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shinobu; Ohtsuka, Keiichi; Honda, Satoshi; Sato, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2016-04-01

    Methylation frequently occurs in cytosines of CpG sites to regulate gene expression. The identification of aberrant methylation of certain genes is important for cancer marker analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the methylation frequency in DNA samples of unknown length and/or concentration. Unmethylated cytosine is known to be converted to thymine following bisulfite treatment and subsequent PCR. For this reason, the AT content in DNA increases with an increasing number of methylation sites. In this study, the fluorescein-carrying bis-acridinyl peptide (FKA) molecule was used for the detection of methylation frequency. FKA contains fluorescein and two acridine moieties, which together allow for the determination of the AT content of double-stranded DNA fragments. Methylated and unmethylated human genomes were subjected to bisulfide treatment and subsequent PCR using primers specific for the CFTR, CDH4, DBC1, and NPY genes. The AT content in the resulting PCR products was estimated by FKA, and AT content estimations were found to be in good agreement with those determined by DNA sequencing. This newly developed method may be useful for determining methylation frequencies of many PCR products by measuring the fluorescence in samples excited at two different wavelengths.

  11. B-RAF mutation and accumulated gene methylation in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) and cancer in SSA/P

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, A; Okamoto, K; Fujino, Y; Nakagawa, T; Muguruma, N; Sannomiya, K; Mitsui, Y; Takaoka, T; Kitamura, S; Miyamoto, H; Okahisa, T; Fujimori, T; Imoto, I; Takayama, T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) are a putative precursor of colon cancer with microsatellite instability (MSI). However, the developmental mechanism of SSA/P remains unknown. We performed genetic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), SSA/P, and cancer in SSA/P specimens to show a close association between ACF and the SSA/P-cancer sequence. We also evaluated the prevalence and number of ACF in SSA/P patients. Methods: ACF in the right-side colon were observed in 36 patients with SSA/Ps alone, 2 with cancers in SSA/P, and 20 normal subjects and biopsied under magnifying endoscopy. B-RAF mutation and MSI were analysed by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR–SSCP, respectively, in 15 ACF, 20 SSA/P, and 2 cancer specimens. DNA methylation array analysis of seven ACF, seven SSA/P, and two cancer in SSA/P specimens was performed using the microarray-based integrated analysis of methylation by isochizomers (MIAMI) method. Results: B-RAF mutations were frequently detected in ACF, SSA/P, and cancer in SSA/P tissues. The number of methylated genes increased significantly in the order of ACFmethylated genes in SSA/P were PQLC1, HDHD3, RASL10B, FLI1, GJA3, and SLC26A2. Some of these genes were methylated in ACF, whereas all genes were methylated in cancers. Immunohistochemistry revealed their silenced expression. Microsatellite instability and MLH1 methylation were observed only in cancer. The prevalence and number of ACF were significantly higher in SSA/P patients than in normal subjects. A significant correlation was seen between the numbers of SSA/P and ACF in SSA/P patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that ACF are precursor lesions of the SSA/P-cancer sequence in patients with SSA/P, where ACF arise by B-RAF mutation and methylation of some of the six identified genes and develop into SSA/Ps through accumulated methylation of these genes. PMID

  12. Promoter histone H3 lysine 9 di-methylation is associated with DNA methylation and aberrant expression of p16 in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chun-Feng; Zhu, Xin-Jiang; Peng, Guo; Dai, Dong-Qiu

    2009-11-01

    In the course of gastric cancer development, gene silencing by DNA hypermethylation is an important mechanism. While DNA methylation often co-exists with histone modifications to regulate gene expression, the function of histone modifications in gene silencing in gastric cancer has not been evaluated in detail. p16, a well-known tumor suppressor gene, is frequently silenced in DNA hypermethylation manner in gastric cancer. Accordingly, we chose p16 to clarify whether there is a correlation among histone H3 lysine 9 (H3-K9) di-methylation, H3-K9 acetylation, DNA methylation and p16 expression in human gastric cancer. Three gastric cancer cells, MKN-45, SGC-7901 and BGC-823, were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and/or trichostatin A (TSA). We investigated p16 promoter DNA methylation status, p16 mRNA levels, regional and global levels of di-methyl-H3-K9 and acetyl-H3-K9 in four groups: i) 5-Aza-dC, ii) TSA, iii) the combination of 5-Aza-dC and TSA and iv) control group with no treatments. p16 silencing is characterized by DNA hypermethylation, H3-K9 hypoacetylation and H3-K9 hypermethylation at the promoter region. Treatment with TSA, increased H3-K9 acetylation at the hypermethylated promoter, but did not affect H3-K9 di-methylation or p16 expression. By contrast, treatment with 5-Aza-dC, reduced H3-K9 di-methylation, increased H3-K9 acetylation at the hypermethylated promoter and reactivated the expression of p16. Combined treatment restored the expression of p16 synergistically. In addition, 5-Aza-dC and the combined treatment did not result in global alteration of H3-K9 di-methylation. These results suggest that H3-K9 di-methylation, H3-K9 acetylation and DNA methylation work in combination to silence p16 in gastric cancer. The decreased H3-K9 di-methylation correlates with DNA demethylation and reactivation of p16. H3-K9 di-methylation as well as DNA methylation related to p16 silencing is limited to the promoter region. In addition to its effect

  13. HPVbase--a knowledgebase of viral integrations, methylation patterns and microRNAs aberrant expression: As potential biomarkers for Human papillomaviruses mediated carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kumar Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-07-24

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are extremely associated with different carcinomas. Despite consequential accomplishments, there is still need to establish more promising biomarkers to discriminate cancerous progressions. Therefore, we have developed HPVbase (http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/hpvbase/), a comprehensive resource for three major efficacious cancer biomarkers i.e. integration and breakpoint events, HPVs methylation patterns and HPV mediated aberrant expression of distinct host microRNAs (miRNAs). It includes clinically important 1257 integrants and integration sites from different HPV types i.e. 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 associated with distinct histological conditions. An inclusive HPV integrant and breakpoints browser was designed to provide easy browsing and straightforward analysis. Our study also provides 719 major quantitative HPV DNA methylation observations distributed in 5 distinct HPV genotypes from higher to lower in numbers namely HPV 16 (495), HPV 18 (113), HPV45 (66), HPV 31 (34) and HPV 33 (11). Additionally, we have curated and compiled clinically significant aberrant expression profile of 341 miRNAs including their target genes in distinct carcinomas, which can be utilized for miRNA therapeutics. A user-friendly web interface has been developed for easy data retrieval and analysis. We foresee that HPVbase an integrated and multi-comparative platform would facilitate reliable cancer diagnostics and prognosis.

  14. Epigenetic aberrations in leukocytes of patients with schizophrenia: association of global DNA methylation with antipsychotic drug treatment and disease onset.

    PubMed

    Melas, Philippe A; Rogdaki, Maria; Ösby, Urban; Schalling, Martin; Lavebratt, Catharina; Ekström, Tomas J

    2012-06-01

    Even though schizophrenia has a strong hereditary component, departures from simple genetic transmission are prominent. DNA methylation has emerged as an epigenetic explanatory candidate of schizophrenia's nonmendelian characteristics. To investigate this assumption, we examined genome-wide (global) and gene-specific DNA methylation levels, which are associated with genomic stability and gene expression activity, respectively. Analyses were conducted using DNA from leukocytes of patients with schizophrenia and controls. Global methylation results revealed a highly significant hypomethylation in patients with schizophrenia (P<2.0×10(-6)) and linear regression among patients generated a model in which antipsychotic treatment and disease onset explained 11% of the global methylation variance (adjusted R(2)=0.11, ANOVA P<0.001). Specifically, haloperidol was associated with higher ("control-like") methylation (P=0.001), and early onset (a putative marker of schizophrenia severity) was associated with lower methylation (P=0.002). With regard to the gene-specific methylation analyses, and in accordance with the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis, we found that the analyzed region of S-COMT was hypermethylated in patients with schizophrenia (P=0.004). In summary, these data support the notion of a dysregulated epigenome in schizophrenia, which, at least globally, is more pronounced in early-onset patients and can be partly rescued by antipsychotic medication. In addition, blood DNA-methylation signatures show promise of serving as a schizophrenia biomarker in the future.

  15. Altered regulation of DNA ligase IV activity by aberrant promoter DNA methylation and gene amplification in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuhmann, Christine; Li, Carmen; Kloor, Matthias; Salou, Mariam; Weigel, Christoph; Schmidt, Christopher R; Ng, Linda W C; Tsui, Wendy W Y; Leung, Suet Y; Yuen, Siu T; Becker, Natalia; Weichenhan, Dieter; Plass, Christoph; Schmezer, Peter; Chan, Tsun L; Popanda, Odilia

    2014-04-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) presents as a very heterogeneous disease which cannot sufficiently be characterized with the currently known genetic and epigenetic markers. To identify new markers for CRC we scrutinized the methylation status of 231 DNA repair-related genes by methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation followed by global methylation profiling on a CpG island microarray, as altered expression of these genes could drive genomic and chromosomal instability observed in these tumors. We show for the first time hypermethylation of MMP9, DNMT3A and LIG4 in CRC which was confirmed in two CRC patient groups with different ethnicity. DNA ligase IV (LIG4) showed strong differential promoter methylation (up to 60%) which coincided with downregulation of mRNA in 51% of cases. This functional association of LIG4 methylation and gene expression was supported by LIG4 re-expression in 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-treated colon cancer cell lines, and reduced ligase IV amounts and end-joining activity in extracts of tumors with hypermethylation. Methylation of LIG4 was not associated with other genetic and epigenetic markers of CRC in our study. As LIG4 is located on chromosome 13 which is frequently amplified in CRC, two loci were tested for gene amplification in a subset of 47 cases. Comparison of amplification, methylation and expression data revealed that, in 30% of samples, the LIG4 gene was amplified and methylated, but expression was not changed. In conclusion, hypermethylation of the LIG4 promoter is a new mechanism to control ligase IV expression. It may represent a new epigenetic marker for CRC independent of known markers.

  16. Aberrant methylation of MUC1 and MUC4 promoters are potential prognostic biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Seiya; Higashi, Michiyo; Kitamoto, Sho; Oeldorf, Monika; Knippschild, Uwe; Kornmann, Marko; Maemura, Kosei; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Wiest, Edwin; Hamada, Tomofumi; Kitazono, Ikumi; Goto, Yuko; Tasaki, Takashi; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Mataki, Yuko; Taguchi, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Batra, Surinder K.; Tanimoto, Akihide; Yonezawa, Suguru; Hollingsworth, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is still a disease of high mortality despite availability of diagnostic techniques. Mucins (MUC) play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion in pancreatic neoplasms. MUC1 and MUC4 are high molecular weight transmembrane mucins. These are overexpressed in many carcinomas, and high expression of these molecules is a risk factor associated with poor prognosis. We evaluated the methylation status of MUC1 and MUC4 promoter regions in pancreatic tissue samples from 169 patients with various pancreatic lesions by the methylation specific electrophoresis (MSE) method. These results were compared with expression of MUC1 and MUC4, several DNA methylation/demethylation factors (e.g. ten-eleven translocation or TET, and activation-induced cytidine deaminase or AID) and CAIX (carbonic anhydrase IX, as a hypoxia biomarker). These results were also analyzed with clinicopathological features including time of overall survival of PDAC patients. We show that the DNA methylation status of the promoters of MUC1 and MUC4 in pancreatic tissue correlates with the expression of MUC1 and MUC4 mRNA. In addition, the expression of several DNA methylation/demethylation factors show a significant correlation with MUC1 and MUC4 methylation status. Furthermore, CAIX expression significantly correlates with the expression of MUC1 and MUC4. Interestingly, our results indicate that low methylation of MUC1 and/or MUC4 promoters correlates with decreased overall survival. This is the first report to show a relationship between MUC1 and/or MUC4 methylation status and prognosis. Analysis of epigenetic changes in mucin genes may be of diagnostic utility and one of the prognostic predictors for patients with PDAC. PMID:27283771

  17. Association between aberrant APC promoter methylation and breast cancer pathogenesis: a meta-analysis of 35 observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dan; Tang, Weiwei; Wang, Wenyi; Pan, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is widely known as an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway via the inactivation of β-catenin. An increasing number of studies have reported that APC methylation contributes to the predisposition to breast cancer (BC). However, recent studies have yielded conflicting results. Methods. Herein, we systematically carried out a meta-analysis to assess the correlation between APC methylation and BC risk. Based on searches of the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science and Embase databases, the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) values were pooled and summarized. Results. A total of 31 articles involving 35 observational studies with 2,483 cases and 1,218 controls met the inclusion criteria. The results demonstrated that the frequency of APC methylation was significantly higher in BC cases than controls under a random effect model (OR = 8.92, 95% CI [5.12–15.52]). Subgroup analysis further confirmed the reliable results, regardless of the sample types detected, methylation detection methods applied and different regions included. Interestingly, our results also showed that the frequency of APC methylation was significantly lower in early-stage BC patients than late-stage ones (OR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.42–0.93]). Conclusion. APC methylation might play an indispensable role in the pathogenesis of BC and could be regarded as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of BC. PMID:27478702

  18. Inferring a role for methylation of intergenic DNA in the regulation of genes aberrantly expressed in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Almamun, Md; Kholod, Olha; Stuckel, Alexei J; Levinson, Benjamin T; Johnson, Nathan T; Arthur, Gerald L; Davis, J Wade; Taylor, Kristen H

    2017-01-17

    A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of pre-B ALL is lacking. In this study, we integrated DNA methylation data and gene expression data to elucidate the impact of aberrant intergenic DNA methylation on gene expression in pre-B ALL. We found a subset of differentially methylated intergenic loci that were associated with altered gene expression in pre-B ALL patients. Notably, 84% of these regions were also bound by transcription factors (TF) known to play roles in differentiation and B-cell development in a lymphoblastoid cell line. Further, an overall downregulation of eRNA transcripts was observed in pre-B ALL patients and these transcripts were associated with the downregulation of putative target genes involved in B-cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. The identification of novel putative regulatory regions highlights the significance of intergenic DNA sequences and may contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of pre-B ALL.

  19. Electrochemical biosensing strategies for DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Tanvir; Mahmudunnabi, Golam; Masud, Mostafa Kamal; Islam, Md Nazmul; Ooi, Lezanne; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Martinac, Boris; Alici, Gursel; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A

    2017-02-17

    DNA methylation is one of the key epigenetic modifications of DNA that results from the enzymatic addition of a methyl group at the fifth carbon of the cytosine base. It plays a crucial role in cellular development, genomic stability and gene expression. Aberrant DNA methylation is responsible for the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancers. Over the past several decades, many methodologies have been developed to detect DNA methylation. These methodologies range from classical molecular biology and optical approaches, such as bisulfite sequencing, microarrays, quantitative real-time PCR, colorimetry, Raman spectroscopy to the more recent electrochemical approaches. Among these, electrochemical approaches offer sensitive, simple, specific, rapid, and cost-effective analysis of DNA methylation. Additionally, electrochemical methods are highly amenable to miniaturization and possess the potential to be multiplexed. In recent years, several reviews have provided information on the detection strategies of DNA methylation. However, to date, there is no comprehensive evaluation of electrochemical DNA methylation detection strategies. Herein, we address the recent developments of electrochemical DNA methylation detection approaches. Furthermore, we highlight the major technical and biological challenges involved in these strategies and provide suggestions for the future direction of this important field.

  20. An Observational Study on Aberrant Methylation of Runx3 With the Prognosis in Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunna; Li, Ping; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Bei; Xiao, Lili; Guo, Feng; Wei, Yueguang

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss whether the methylation levels of Runx3 could be used as the early biomarker for predicting the prognosis in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) patients. A total of 200 subjects including 60 controls without CAG (Group 1), 70 patients with mild CAG (Group 2), and 70 patients with moderate and severe CAG (Group 3) were recruited for this cross-sectional investigation in the Department of Gastroenterology in Daqing Oilfield General Hospital from July 2013 to May 2014. The MlALDI-TOF-MS was used to measure the methylation levels of Runx3 in all of the subjects. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were chosen to determine the expression levels of Runx3. The correlations between methylation levels of Runx3 among these CAG patients and their prognosis were shown by logistic regression models. The results demonstrated that the methylation levels of CpG13, CpG14, and CpG15 in Runx3 were higher in Group 3 than those in Groups 1 and 2 (P <0.05), whereas the mRNA and protein expression levels of Runx3 were lower in Group 3 than those in Groups 1 and 2 (P <0.05). There were significantly negative correlations between the methylation levels of Runx3 with its expression and the healing prognosis of CAG patients. In brief, this study proved that the hypermethylation modifications of CpG13, CpG14, and CpG15 in the promoter region of Runx3 could result in the down regulation of Runx3 expression to affect the prognosis of CAG. So the methylation levels of these CpG sites in Runx3 in the peripheral blood can be used as the biomarker for predicting the healing prognosis of CAG patients.

  1. Aberrant 5’-CpG Methylation of Cord Blood TNFα Associated with Maternal Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaobin; Tang, Wan-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that maternal exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals during pregnancy may lead to poor pregnancy outcomes and increased fetal susceptibility to adult diseases. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are ubiquitously used flame-retardants, could leach into the environment; and become persistent organic pollutants via bioaccumulation. In the United States, blood PBDE levels in adults range from 30–100 ng/g- lipid but the alarming health concern revolves around children who have reported blood PBDE levels 3 to 9-fold higher than adults. PBDEs disrupt endocrine, immune, reproductive and nervous systems. However, the mechanism underlying its adverse health effect is not fully understood. Epigenetics is a possible biological mechanism underlying maternal exposure-child health outcomes by regulating gene expression without changes in the DNA sequence. We sought to examine the relationship between maternal exposure to environmental PBDEs and promoter methylation of a proinflammatory gene, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). We measured the maternal blood PBDE levels and cord blood TNFα promoter methylation levels on 46 paired samples of maternal and cord blood from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). We showed that decreased cord blood TNFα methylation associated with high maternal PBDE47 exposure. CpG site-specific methylation showed significantly hypomethylation in the girl whose mother has a high blood PBDE47 level. Consistently, decreased TNFα methylation associated with an increase in TNFα protein level in cord blood. In conclusion, our finding provided evidence that in utero exposure to PBDEs may epigenetically reprogram the offspring’s immunological response through promoter methylation of a proinflammatory gene. PMID:26406892

  2. Combined analysis of DNA methylation and cell cycle in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Desjobert, Cécile; El Maï, Mounir; Gérard-Hirne, Tom; Guianvarc'h, Dominique; Carrier, Arnaud; Pottier, Cyrielle; Arimondo, Paola B; Riond, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a chemical modification of DNA involved in the regulation of gene expression by controlling the access to the DNA sequence. It is the most stable epigenetic mark and is widely studied for its role in major biological processes. Aberrant DNA methylation is observed in various pathologies, such as cancer. Therefore, there is a great interest in analyzing subtle changes in DNA methylation induced by biological processes or upon drug treatments. Here, we developed an improved methodology based on flow cytometry to measure variations of DNA methylation level in melanoma and leukemia cells. The accuracy of DNA methylation quantification was validated with LC-ESI mass spectrometry analysis. The new protocol was used to detect small variations of cytosine methylation occurring in individual cells during their cell cycle and those induced by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AzadC). Kinetic experiments confirmed that inheritance of DNA methylation occurs efficiently in S phase and revealed a short delay between DNA replication and completion of cytosine methylation. In addition, this study suggests that the uncoupling of 5AzadC effects on DNA demethylation and cell proliferation might be related to the duration of the DNA replication phase.

  3. Cytosine-to-uracil deamination by SssI DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Stier, Ildikó; Kiss, Antal

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryotic DNA(cytosine-5)methyltransferase M.SssI shares the specificity of eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases (CG) and is an important model and experimental tool in the study of eukaryotic DNA methylation. Previously, M.SssI was shown to be able to catalyze deamination of the target cytosine to uracil if the methyl donor S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) was missing from the reaction. To test whether this side-activity of the enzyme can be used to distinguish between unmethylated and C5-methylated cytosines in CG dinucleotides, we re-investigated, using a sensitive genetic reversion assay, the cytosine deaminase activity of M.SssI. Confirming previous results we showed that M.SssI can deaminate cytosine to uracil in a slow reaction in the absence of SAM and that the rate of this reaction can be increased by the SAM analogue 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine. We could not detect M.SssI-catalyzed deamination of C5-methylcytosine ((m5)C). We found conditions where the rate of M.SssI mediated C-to-U deamination was at least 100-fold higher than the rate of (m5)C-to-T conversion. Although this difference in reactivities suggests that the enzyme could be used to identify C5-methylated cytosines in the epigenetically important CG dinucleotides, the rate of M.SssI mediated cytosine deamination is too low to become an enzymatic alternative to the bisulfite reaction. Amino acid replacements in the presumed SAM binding pocket of M.SssI (F17S and G19D) resulted in greatly reduced methyltransferase activity. The G19D variant showed cytosine deaminase activity in E. coli, at physiological SAM concentrations. Interestingly, the C-to-U deaminase activity was also detectable in an E. coli ung (+) host proficient in uracil excision repair.

  4. Linking the aryl hydrocarbon receptor with altered DNA methylation patterns and developmentally induced aberrant antiviral CD8+ T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Winans, Bethany; Nagari, Anusha; Chae, Minho; Post, Christina M.; Ko, Chia-I; Puga, Alvaro; Kraus, W. Lee; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2015-01-01

    Successfully fighting infection requires a properly tuned immune system. Recent epidemiological studies link exposure to pollutants that bind the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) during development with poorer immune responses later in life. Yet, how developmental triggering of AHR durably alters immune cell function remains unknown. Using a mouse model, we show that developmental activation of AHR leads to long-lasting reduction in the response of CD8+ T cells during influenza virus infection, cells critical for resolving primary infection. Combining genome-wide approaches, we demonstrate that developmental activation alters DNA methylation and gene expression patterns in isolated CD8+ T cells prior to and during infection. Altered transcriptional profiles in CD8+ T cells from developmentally exposed mice reflect changes in pathways involved in proliferation and immunoregulation, with an overall pattern that bears hallmarks of T cell exhaustion. Developmental exposure also changed DNA methylation across the genome, but differences were most pronounced following infection, where we observed inverse correlation between promoter methylation and gene expression. This points to altered regulation of DNA methylation as one mechanism by which AHR causes durable changes in T cell function. Discovering that distinct gene sets and pathways were differentially changed in developmentally exposed mice prior to and after infection further reveals that the process of CD8+ T cell activation is rendered fundamentally different by early life AHR signaling. These findings reveal a novel role for AHR in the developing immune system: regulating DNA methylation and gene expression as T cells respond to infection later in life. PMID:25810390

  5. Ras regulation of DNA-methylation and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Samir Kumar

    2008-04-01

    Genome wide hypomethylation and regional hypermethylation of cancer cells and tissues remain a paradox, though it has received a convincing confirmation that epigenetic switching systems, including DNA-methylation represent a fundamental regulatory mechanism that has an impact on genome maintenance and gene transcription. Methylated cytosine residues of vertebrate DNA are transmitted by clonal inheritance through the strong preference of DNA methyltransferase, DNMT1, for hemimethylated-DNA. Maintenance of methylation patterns is necessary for normal development of mice, and aberrant methylation patterns are associated with many human tumours. DNMT1 interacts with many proteins during cell cycle progression, including PCNA, p53, EZH2 and HP1. Ras family of GTPases promotes cell proliferation by its oncogenic nature, which transmits signals by multiple pathways in both lipid raft dependent and independent fashion. DNA-methylation-mediated repression of DNA-repair protein O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene and increased rate of K-Ras mutation at codon for amino acids 12 and 13 have been correlated with a secondary role for Ras-effector homologues (RASSFs) in tumourigenesis. Lines of evidence suggest that DNA-methylation associated repression of tumour suppressors and apoptotic genes and ceaseless proliferation of tumour cells are regulated in part by Ras-signaling. Control of Ras GTPase signaling might reduce the aberrant methylation and accordingly may reduce the risk of cancer development.

  6. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlmann-Diaz, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 10[sup 5] copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G[sub 0], the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes.

  7. Aberrant DNA Methylation of P16, MGMT, and hMLH1 Genes in Combination with MTHFR C677T Genetic Polymorphism in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Binbin; Ai, Jiang; Kong, Xianghong; Liu, Dexin; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to explore the association of P16, MGMT and HMLH1 with gastric cancer and their relation with Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Methods: 322 gastric patients who were confirmed with pathological diagnosis were included in our study. Aberrant DNA methylation of P16, MGMT and HMLH1 and polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T and A1298C were detected using PCR-RFLP. Results: The proportions of DNA hypermethylation in P16, MGMT and hMLH1 genes in gastric cancer tissues were 75.2% (242/322), 27.6% (89/322) and 5.3% (17/322), respectively. In the remote normal-appearing tissues, 29.5% (95/322) and 16.1%(52/322) showed hypermethylation in P16 and MGMT genes, respectively. We found a significantly higher proportion of DNA hypermethylation of P16 in patients with N1 TNM stage in cancer tissues and remote normal-appearing tissues (P<0.05). Similarly, we found DNA hypermethylation of MGMT had significantly higher proportion in N1 and M1 TNM stage (P<0.05). Individuals with homozygotes (TT) of MTHFR C677T had significant risk of DNA hypermethylation of MGMT in cancer tissues [OR (95% CI)=4.27(1.76-7.84)], and a significant risk was also found in those carrying MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype [OR (95% CI)= 3.27(1.21-4.77)]. Conclusion: We found the aberrant hypermethylation of cancer-related genes, such as P16, MGMT and HMLH1, could be predictive biomarkers for detection of gastric cancer. PMID:24550949

  8. Supplementation of Seaweeds Extracts Suppresses Azoxymethane-induced Aberrant DNA Methylation in Colon and Liver of ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bu, So Young; Kwon, Hoonjeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Seamustard and seatangle are commonly consumed seaweeds in Korea and rich sources of non-digestible polysaccharides which possess biological activities. However anti-mutagenic and anti-cancer activities of these seaweeds under physiological condition have not been clarified yet. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of seaweeds consumption on azoxymethane (AOM) -induced DNA methylation at N7 and O6 position of guanine base, an indicator of DNA damage related to cancer initiation. Methods: Thirty ICR mice were divided into five groups and fed one of the following diets for two weeks: control diet, diet containing 10% water-soluble or water-insoluble fraction of seamustard or seatangle. After two weeks of experimental diet AOM was injected at 6 hours before sacrifice and N7-methylguanine (N7-meG) and O6-methylguanine (O6-meG) from the colon and liver DNA were quantified using a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results: Water-soluble fractions of both seamustard and seatangle significantly reduced AOM-induced production of N7-meG guanine in colon and liver. Also water-soluble fractions of these seaweeds suppressed the level of methylation at O6-guanine of colon and liver directly responsible for tumorigenesis. While water-insoluble fraction of seamustard suppressed the production of N7-meG in liver this seaweed fraction decreased O6-meG and the ratio of O6/N7-meG in liver. Water insoluble fraction of seatangle decreased both O6- and N7-meG in colon and liver. Supplementation of all seaweeds extracts increased fecal weight of animals and the increase of fecal weight by water-insoluble fraction of seaweeds were higher than that by water-soluble fraction. Conclusion: Seamustard and seatangle intake may effectively prevent colon and liver carcinogenesis by decreasing DNA damage and the mechanism of inhibiting carcinogenesis by seaweeds in a long term study are warranted. PMID:25337591

  9. Hydroxymethyl cytosine marks in the human mitochondrial genome are dynamic in nature.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sourav; Sengupta, Shantanu; Scaria, Vinod

    2016-03-01

    Apart from DNA methylation, hydroxymethylation has increasingly been studied as an important epigenetic mark. 5- hydroxymethylcytosines, though initially were thought to be an intermediary product of demethylation, recent studies suggest this to be a highly regulated process and modulated by the TET family of enzymes. Recent genome wide studies have shown that hydroxymethylcytosine marks are closely associated with the regulation of important biological processes like transcription and embryonic development. It is also known that aberrant hydroxymethylation marks have been associated with diseases like cancer. The presence of hydroxymethylcytosines in the mitochondrial genome has been earlier suggested, though the genome-scale map has not been laid out. In this present study, we have mapped and analyzed the hydroxymethylcytosine marks in the mitochondrial genome using 23 different publicly available datasets. We cross validated our data by checking for consistency across a subset of genomic regions previously annotated to hydroxymethylcytosines and show good consistency. We observe a dynamic distribution of hydroxymethylation marks in the mitochondrial genome. Unlike the methylcytosine marks, hydroxymethylcytosine marks are characterized by the lack of conservation across the samples considered, though similar cell types shared the pattern. We additionally observed that the hydroxymethylation marks are enriched in the upstream of GSS (gene start site) regions and in gene body as similar as nuclear genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome-scale map of hydroxymethyl cytosines in the human mitochondrial genome.

  10. Base-pairing energies of proton-bound heterodimers of cytosine and modified cytosines: implications for the stability of DNA i-motif conformations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Rodgers, M T

    2014-01-08

    The DNA i-motif conformation was discovered in (CCG)•(CGG)n trinucleotide repeats, which are associated with fragile X syndrome, the most widespread inherited cause of mental retardation in humans. The DNA i-motif is a four-stranded structure whose strands are held together by proton-bound dimers of cytosine (C(+)•C). The stronger base-pairing interactions in C(+)•C proton-bound dimers as compared to Watson-Crick G•C base pairs are the major forces responsible for stabilization of i-motif conformations. Methylation of cytosine results in silencing of the FMR1 gene and causes fragile X syndrome. However, the influence of methylation or other modifications such as halogenation of cytosine on the base-pairing energies (BPEs) in the i-motif remains elusive. To address this, proton-bound heterodimers of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine, 5-fluorocytosine, 5-bromocytosine, and 5-iodocytosine are probed in detail. Experimentally, the BPEs of proton-bound heterodimers of cytosine and modified cytosines are determined using threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) techniques. All modifications at the 5-position of cytosine are found to lower the BPE and therefore would tend to destabilize DNA i-motif conformations. However, the BPEs in these proton-bound heterodimers still significantly exceed those of the Watson-Crick G•C and neutral C•C base pairs, suggesting that C(+)•C mismatches are still energetically favored such that i-motif conformations are preserved. Excellent agreement between TCID measured BPEs and B3LYP calculated values is found with the def2-TZVPPD and 6-311+G(2d,2p) basis sets, suggesting that calculations at these levels of theory can be employed to provide reliable energetic predictions for related systems.

  11. Determining the effect of DNA methylation on gene expression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai-Jin; Evans, Jared; Kim, Kwangsoo; Chae, Heejoon; Kim, Sun

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation, a DNA modification by adding methyl group to cytosine, has an important role in the regulation of gene expression. DNA methylation is known to be associated with gene transcription by interfering with DNA-binding proteins, such as transcription factors. DNA methylation is closely related to tumorigenesis, and the methylation state of some genes can be used as a biomarker for tumorigenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation of genomic regions, including CpG islands, CpG shores, and first exons, is related to the altered gene expression pattern characteristics of all human cancers. Subheading 1 surveys recent developments on DNA methylation and gene expressions in cancer. Then we provide analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression in 30 breast cancer cell lines representing different tumor phenotypes. This study conducted an integrated analysis to identify the relationship between DNA methylation in various genomic regions and expression levels of downstream genes, using MethylCapseq data (affinity purification followed by next-generation sequencing of eluted DNA) and Affymetrix gene expression microarray data. The goal of this study was to assess genome-wide methylation profiles associated with different molecular subtypes of human breast cancer (luminal, basal A, and basal B) and to comprehensively investigate the effect of DNA methylation on gene expression in breast cancer phenotypes. This showed that methylation of genomic regions near transcription start sites, CpG island, CpG shore, and first exon was strongly associated with gene repression, and the effects of the regions on gene expression patterns were different for different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The results further indicated that aberrant methylation of specific genomic regions was significantly associated with different breast cancer subtypes.

  12. Detection of Modified Forms of Cytosine Using Sensitive Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Abakir, Abdulkadir; Wheldon, Lee; Johnson, Andrew D.; Laurent, Patrick; Ruzov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of cytosine bases (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) occurring in vertebrate genomes is usually associated with transcriptional silencing. 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) are the recently discovered modified cytosine bases produced by enzymatic oxidation of 5mC, whose biological functions remain relatively obscure. A number of approaches ranging from biochemical to antibody based techniques have been employed to study the genomic distribution and global content of these modifications in various biological systems. Although some of these approaches can be useful for quantitative assessment of these modified forms of 5mC, most of these methods do not provide any spatial information regarding the distribution of these DNA modifications in different cell types, required for correct understanding of their functional roles. Here we present a highly sensitive method for immunochemical detection of the modified forms of cytosine. This method permits co-detection of these epigenetic marks with protein lineage markers and can be employed to study their nuclear localization, thus, contributing to deciphering their potential biological roles in different experimental contexts. PMID:27585398

  13. Watson-Crick and sugar-edge base pairing of cytosine in the gas phase: UV and infrared spectra of cytosine·2-pyridone.

    PubMed

    Frey, Jann A; Ottiger, Philipp; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2014-01-23

    While keto-amino cytosine is the dominant species in aqueous solution, spectroscopic studies in molecular beams and in noble gas matrices show that other cytosine tautomers prevail in apolar environments. Each of these offers two or three H-bonding sites (Watson-Crick, wobble, sugar-edge). The mass- and isomer-specific S1 ← S0 vibronic spectra of cytosine·2-pyridone (Cyt·2PY) and 1-methylcytosine·2PY are measured using UV laser resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI), UV/UV depletion, and IR depletion spectroscopy. The UV spectra of the Watson-Crick and sugar-edge isomers of Cyt·2PY are separated using UV/UV spectral hole-burning. Five different isomers of Cyt·2PY are observed in a supersonic beam. We show that the Watson-Crick and sugar-edge dimers of keto-amino cytosine with 2PY are the most abundant in the beam, although keto-amino-cytosine is only the third most abundant tautomer in the gas phase. We identify the different isomers by combining three different diagnostic tools: (1) methylation of the cytosine N1-H group prevents formation of both the sugar-edge and wobble isomers and gives the Watson-Crick isomer exclusively. (2) The calculated ground state binding and dissociation energies, relative gas-phase abundances, excitation and the ionization energies are in agreement with the assignment of the dominant Cyt·2PY isomers to the Watson-Crick and sugar-edge complexes of keto-amino cytosine. (3) The comparison of calculated ground state vibrational frequencies to the experimental IR spectra in the carbonyl stretch and NH/OH/CH stretch ranges strengthen this identification.

  14. First evidence of DNA methylation in insect Tribolium castaneum: environmental regulation of DNA methylation within heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Parazajder, Josip; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Durđica

    2013-05-01

    DNA methylation has been studied in many eukaryotic organisms, in particular vertebrates, and was implicated in developmental and phenotypic variations. Little is known about the role of DNA methylation in invertebrates, although insects are considered as excellent models for studying the evolution of DNA methylation. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera), no evidence of DNA methylation has been found till now. In this paper, a cytosine methylation in Tribolium castaneum embryos was detected by methylation sensitive restriction endonucleases and immuno-dot blot assay. DNA methylation in embryos is followed by a global demethylation in larvae, pupae and adults. DNA demethylation seems to proceed actively through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, most probably by the action of TET enzyme. Bisulfite sequencing of a highly abundant satellite DNA located in pericentromeric heterochromatin revealed similar profile of cytosine methylation in adults and embryos. Cytosine methylation was not only restricted to CpG sites but was found at CpA, CpT and CpC sites. In addition, complete cytosine demethylation of heterochromatic satellite DNA was induced by heat stress. The results reveal existence of DNA methylation cycling in T. castaneum ranging from strong overall cytosine methylation in embryos to a weak DNA methylation in other developmental stages. Nevertheless, DNA methylation is preserved within heterochromatin during development, indicating its role in heterochromatin formation and maintenance. It is, however, strongly affected by heat stress, suggesting a role for DNA methylation in heterochromatin structure modulation during heat stress response.

  15. Molecular cloning and expression-profile analysis of sea cucumber DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 and methyl-CpG binding domain type 2/3 genes during aestivation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Su, Lin; Wang, Tianming; Liu, Shilin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2013-05-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka survives high summer temperature by entering aestivation, characterized by hypometabolism and global gene silencing. We investigated the hypothesis that aestivation is associated with DNA methylation-dependent epigenetic mechanisms by cloning, sequencing and measuring the transcript abundances of two genes dnmt1 and mbd2/3, which comprise the DNA methylation system in A. japonicus Selenka. The deduced amino acid sequences and characteristic motifs of sea cucumber DNMT1 and MBD2/3 showed high homology to those of their mammalian counterparts. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that dnmt1 and mbd2/3 genes were similarly expressed in all four tissues examined (intestine, respiratory tree, muscle and body wall). Dnmt1 expression in the intestine was up-regulated during deep aestivation (P<0.05), while mbd2/3 was over-expressed in both the intestine and respiratory tree during the same period (P<0.01). No differences in expression levels were observed between other tissues. The results of this study suggest that DNA methylation may be involved in transcriptional silencing, and that the intestine is the major site for epigenetic regulation during aestivation in the sea cucumber.

  16. Late-occurring chromosome aberrations and global DNA methylation in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells of CBA/CaJ mice exposed to silicon ((28)Si) ions.

    PubMed

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Honikel, Louise M; Reungpathanaphong, Paiboon; Tungjai, Montree; Jangiam, Witawat; Whorton, Elbert B

    2015-11-01

    Although myeloid leukemia (ML) is one of the major health concerns from exposure to space radiation, the risk prediction for developing ML is unsatisfactory. To increase the reliability of predicting ML risk, a much improved understanding of space radiation-induced changes in the target cells, i.e. hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), is important. We focused on the in vivo induction of late-occurring damage in HSPCs of mice exposed to (28)Si ions since such damage is associated with radiation-induced genomic instability (a key event of carcinogenesis). We gave adult male CBA/CaJ mice, known to be sensitive to radiation-induced ML, a whole-body exposure (2 fractionated exposures, 15 days apart, that totaled each selected dose, delivered at the dose-rate of 1 cGy/min) to various doses of 300 MeV/n (28)Si ions, i.e. 0 (sham controls), 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy. At 6 months post-irradiation, we collected bone marrow cells from each mouse (five mice per treatment-group) for obtaining the myeloid-lineage of HSPC-derived clones for analyses. We measured the frequencies of late-occurring chromosome aberrations (CAs), using the genome-wide multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization method. The measurement of CAs was coupled with the characterization of the global DNA methylation patterns, i.e. 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC). A dose-dependent increase in the frequencies of CAs was detected (Analysis of Variance or ANOVA, p<0.01), indicating the induction of genomic instability after exposure of mice to 300 MeV/n (28)Si ions. Slight increases in the levels of 5 mC were observed in all treatment groups, as compared to the sham-control level. In contrast, there was a significant reduction in levels of 5 hmC (ANOVA, p<0.01). Since these endpoints were evaluated in the same mouse, our data suggested for the first time a link between a reduction in 5 hmC and genomic instability in HSPC-derived myeloid colonies of CBA/CaJ mice exposed to 300 Me

  17. Effects of TET2 mutations on DNA methylation in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TET2 enzymatically converts 5-methyl-cytosine to 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine, possibly leading to loss of DNA methylation. TET2 mutations are common in myeloid leukemia and were proposed to contribute to leukemogenesis through DNA methylation. To expand on this concept, we studied chronic myelomonocyti...

  18. The 'golden age' of DNA methylation in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Fuso, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    DNA methylation reactions are regulated, in the first instance, by enzymes and the intermediates that constitute the 'so called' one-carbon metabolism. This is a complex biochemical pathway, also known as the homocysteine cycle, regulated by the presence of B vitamins (folate, B6, B12) and choline, among other metabolites. One of the intermediates of this metabolism is S-adenosylmethionine, which represent the methyl donor in all the DNA methyltransferase reactions in eukaryotes. The one-carbon metabolism therefore produces the substrate necessary for the transferring of a methyl group on the cytosine residues of DNA; S-adenosylmethionine also regulates the activity of the enzymes that catalyze this reaction, namely the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Alterations of this metabolic cycle can therefore be responsible for aberrant DNA methylation processes possibly leading to several human diseases. As a matter of fact, increasing evidences indicate that a number of human diseases with multifactorial origin may have an epigenetic basis. This is also due to the great technical advances in the field of epigenetic research. Among the human diseases associated with epigenetic factors, aging-related and neurodegenerative diseases are probably the object of most intense research. This review will present the main evidences linking several human diseases to DNA methylation, with particular focus on neurodegenerative diseases, together with a short description of the state-of-the-art of methylation assays.

  19. Cytosine hypomethylation at CHG and CHH sites in the pleiotropic mutants of Mendelian inheritance in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Renu; Yadav, Gitanjali; Sharma, Vishakha; Sharma, Vinay; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    The 5S and 18S rDNA sequences of Catharanthus roseus cv 'Nirmal' (wild type) and its leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill) single mutants and lli egd, lli ill and egd ill double mutants were characterized. The lli, egd and ill mutants of Mendelian inheritance bore the names after their most conspicuous morphological feature(s). They had been chemically induced and isolated for their salt tolerance. The double mutants were isolated as morphological segregants from crosses between single mutants. The morphological features of the two parents accompanied salt tolerance in the double mutants. All the six mutants were hypomethylated at repeat sequences, upregulated and downregulated for many genes and carried pleiotropic alterations for several traits. Here the 5S and 18S rDNAs of C. roseus were found to be relatively low in cytosine content. Cytosines were preponderantly in CG context (53%) and almost all of them were methylated (97%). The cytosines in CHH and CHG (where H = A, T or C) contexts were largely demethylated (92%) in mutants. The demethylation was attributable to reduced expression of RDR2 and DRM2 led RNA dependant DNA methylation and CMT3 led maintenance methylation pathways. Mutants had gained some cytosines by substitution of C at T sites. These perhaps arose on account of errors in DNA replication, mediated by widespread cytosine demethylation at CHG and CHH sites. It was concluded that the regulation of cytosine ethylation mechanisms was disturbed in the mutants. ILL, EGD and LLI genes were identified as the positive regulators of other genes mediating the RdDM and CMT3 pathways, for establishment and maintenance of cytosine methylation in C. roseus.

  20. AID enzymatic activity is inversely proportional to the size of cytosine C5 orbital cloud.

    PubMed

    Rangam, Gopinath; Schmitz, Kerstin-Maike; Cobb, Alexander J A; Petersen-Mahrt, Svend K

    2012-01-01

    Activation induced deaminase (AID) deaminates cytosine to uracil, which is required for a functional humoral immune system. Previous work demonstrated, that AID also deaminates 5-methylcytosine (5 mC). Recently, a novel vertebrate modification (5-hydroxymethylcytosine - 5 hmC) has been implicated in functioning in epigenetic reprogramming, yet no molecular pathway explaining the removal of 5 hmC has been identified. AID has been suggested to deaminate 5 hmC, with the 5 hmU product being repaired by base excision repair pathways back to cytosine. Here we demonstrate that AID's enzymatic activity is inversely proportional to the electron cloud size of C5-cytosine - H > F > methyl > hydroxymethyl. This makes AID an unlikely candidate to be part of 5 hmC removal.

  1. Lack of Correlation between Aberrant p16, RAR-β2, TIMP3, ERCC1, and BRCA1 Protein Expression and Promoter Methylation in Squamous Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Candida albicans-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperplastic candidiasis is characterized by thickening of the mucosal epithelia with Candida albicans infection with occasional progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). C. albicans is a critical factor in tumor development; however, the oncogenic mechanism is unclear. We have previously produced an animal model for hyperplastic candidiasis in the rat forestomach. In the present study, we investigate whether impaired DNA methylation and associated protein expression of tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes are involved in the SCC carcinogenesis process using this hyperplastic candidiasis model. Promoter methylation and protein expression were analyzed by methylation specific PCR and immunohistochemical staining, respectively, of 5 areas in the forestomachs of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with hyperplastic candidiasis: normal squamous epithelia, squamous hyperplasia, squamous hyperplasia adjacent to SCC, squamous hyperplasia transitioning to SCC, and SCC. We observed nuclear p16 overexpression despite increases in p16 gene promoter methylation during the carcinogenic process. TIMP3 and RAR-β2 promoter methylation progressed until the precancerous stage but disappeared upon malignant transformation. In comparison, TIMP3 protein expression was suppressed during carcinogenesis and RAR-β2 expression was attenuated in the cytoplasm but enhanced in nuclei. ERCC1 and BRCA1 promoters were not methylated at any stage; however, their protein expression disappeared beginning at hyperplasia and nuclear protein re-expression in SCC was observed only for ERCC1. These results suggest that aberrant p16, RAR-β2, TIMP3, ERCC1, and BRCA1 expression might occur that is inconsistent with the respective gene promoter methylation status, and that this overexpression might serve to promote the inflammatory carcinogenesis caused by C. albicans infection. PMID:27410681

  2. Specificity Protein 1 (Sp1)-dependent Activation of the Synapsin I Gene (SYN1) Is Modulated by RE1-silencing Transcription Factor (REST) and 5′-Cytosine-Phosphoguanine (CpG) Methylation*

    PubMed Central

    Paonessa, Francesco; Latifi, Shahrzad; Scarongella, Helena; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The development and function of the nervous system are directly dependent on a well defined pattern of gene expression. Indeed, perturbation of transcriptional activity or epigenetic modifications of chromatin can dramatically influence neuronal phenotypes. The phosphoprotein synapsin I (Syn I) plays a crucial role during axonogenesis and synaptogenesis as well as in synaptic transmission and plasticity of mature neurons. Abnormalities in SYN1 gene expression have been linked to important neuropsychiatric disorders, such as epilepsy and autism. SYN1 gene transcription is suppressed in non-neural tissues by the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST); however, the molecular mechanisms that allow the constitutive expression of this genetic region in neurons have not been clarified yet. Herein we demonstrate that a conserved region of human and mouse SYN1 promoters contains cis-sites for the transcriptional activator Sp1 in close proximity to REST binding motifs. Through a series of functional assays, we demonstrate a physical interaction of Sp1 on the SYN1 promoter and show that REST directly inhibits Sp1-mediated transcription, resulting in SYN1 down-regulation. Upon differentiation of neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells, we observe a decrease in endogenous REST and a higher stability of Sp1 on target GC boxes, resulting in an increase of SYN1 transcription. Moreover, methylation of Sp1 cis-sites in the SYN1 promoter region could provide an additional level of transcriptional regulation. Our results introduce Sp1 as a fundamental activator of basal SYN1 gene expression, whose activity is modulated by the neural master regulator REST and CpG methylation. PMID:23250796

  3. Impact of cytosine 5-halogens on the interaction of DNA with restriction endonucleases and methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Valinluck, Victoria; Wu, Winnie; Liu, Pingfang; Neidigh, Jonathan W; Sowers, Lawrence C

    2006-04-01

    Growing evidence from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes indicates that pyrimidine 5-methyl groups can have profound biological consequences that are mediated by the affinity of DNA-protein interactions. The presence of the 5-methyl group could potentially create a steric block preventing the binding of some proteins whereas the affinity of many other proteins is substantially increased by pyrimidine methylation. In this paper, we have constructed a series of oligonucleotides containing cytosine and a series of 5-substituted cytosine analogues including all halogens. This set of oligonucleotides has been used to probe the relationship between the size of the substituent and its capacity to modulate cleavage by the methylation-sensitive restriction endonucleases MspI and HpaII. Additionally, we have examined the impact of the halogen substitution on the corresponding bacterial methyltransferase (M.HpaII). We observed that MspI cleavage is only subtly affected by substituted cytosine analogues at the inner position of the CCGG recognition site. In contrast, HpaII cleaves cytosine-containing oligonucleotides completely whereas 5-fluorocytosine-containing oligonucleotides are cleaved at a reduced rate. The presence of the larger halogens Cl, Br, or I as well as a methyl group completely prevents cleavage by HpaII. These data suggest that the steric wall is encountered by HpaII slightly beyond the fluorine substituent, at about 2.65 A from the pyrimidine C5-position. It is known that 5-fluorocytosine in an oligonucleotide can form a covalent irreversible suicide complex with either prokaryotic or eukaryotic methyltransferases. Kinetic data reported here suggest that the 5-fluorocytosine-containing oligonucleotide can also inhibit M.HpaII by formation of a reversible, noncovalent complex. Our results indicate that although a 5-Cl substituent has electronic properties similar to 5-F, 5-chlorocytosine duplexes neither form a complex with M.HpaII nor inhibit enzymatic

  4. Effects of non-CpG site methylation on DNA thermal stability: a fluorescence study

    PubMed Central

    Nardo, Luca; Lamperti, Marco; Salerno, Domenico; Cassina, Valeria; Missana, Natalia; Bondani, Maria; Tempestini, Alessia; Mantegazza, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is a widespread epigenetic regulation mechanism. In healthy mature cells, methylation occurs at CpG dinucleotides within promoters, where it primarily silences gene expression by modifying the binding affinity of transcription factors to the promoters. Conversely, a recent study showed that in stem cells and cancer cell precursors, methylation also occurs at non-CpG pairs and involves introns and even gene bodies. The epigenetic role of such methylations and the molecular mechanisms by which they induce gene regulation remain elusive. The topology of both physiological and aberrant non-CpG methylation patterns still has to be detailed and could be revealed by using the differential stability of the duplexes formed between site-specific oligonucleotide probes and the corresponding methylated regions of genomic DNA. Here, we present a systematic study of the thermal stability of a DNA oligonucleotide sequence as a function of the number and position of non-CpG methylation sites. The melting temperatures were determined by monitoring the fluorescence of donor-acceptor dual-labelled oligonucleotides at various temperatures. An empirical model that estimates the methylation-induced variations in the standard values of hybridization entropy and enthalpy was developed. PMID:26354864

  5. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  6. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells.

  7. DNA methylation and differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Michalowsky, L A; Jones, P A

    1989-01-01

    The methylation of specific cytosine residues in DNA has been implicated in regulating gene expression and facilitating functional specialization of cellular phenotypes. Generally, the demethylation of certain CpG sites correlates with transcriptional activation of genes. 5-Azacytidine is an inhibitor of DNA methylation and has been widely used as a potent activator of suppressed genetic information. Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine results in profound phenotypic alterations. The drug-induced hypomethylation of DNA apparently perturbs DNA-protein interactions that may consequently alter transcriptional activity and cell determination. The inhibitory effect of cytosine methylation may be exerted via altered DNA-protein interactions specifically or may be transduced by a change in the conformation of chromatin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cytosine methylation also plays a central role in parental imprinting, which in turn determines the differential expression of maternal and paternal genomes during embryogenesis. In other words, methylation is the mechanism whereby the embryo retains memory of the gametic origin of each component of genetic information. A memory of this type would probably persist during DNA replication and cell division as methylation patterns are stable and heritable. PMID:2466640

  8. Experimental Thermochemistry of Gas Phase Cytosine Tautomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, A. M.; Douberly, G. E.

    2011-06-01

    Enthalpies of interconversion are measured for the three lowest energy tautomers of isolated cytosine. The equilibrium distribution of tautomers near 600 K is frozen upon the capture of the gas phase species by low temperature helium nanodroplets. The temperature dependence of the gas phase cytosine tautomer populations is determined with infrared laser spectroscopy of the helium solvated species. The interconverison enthalpies obtained from the van't Hoff relation are 1.14 ± 0.21 and 1.63 ± 0.12 for the C31 rightleftharpoons C32 and C31 rightleftharpoons C1 equilibria, respectively. C31 and C32 are rotamers of an enol tautomer, and C1 is a keto tautomer. The interconversion enthalpies are compared to recent CCSD(T) thermochemistry calculations of cytosine tautomers.

  9. Antipsychotic drugs attenuate aberrant DNA methylation of DTNBP1 (dysbindin) promoter in saliva and post-mortem brain of patients with schizophrenia and Psychotic bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Mostafavi, Ashraf; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2015-12-01

    Due to the lack of genetic association between individual genes and schizophrenia (SCZ) pathogenesis, the current consensus is to consider both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Here, we report the examination of DNA methylation status of DTNBP1 promoter region, one of the most credible candidate genes affected in SCZ, assayed in saliva and post-mortem brain samples. The Illumina DNA methylation profiling and bisulfite sequencing of representative samples were used to identify methylation status of the DTNBP1 promoter region. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) was employed to assess methylation of DTNBP1 promoter CpGs flanking a SP1 binding site in the saliva of SCZ patients, their first-degree relatives and control subjects (30, 15, and 30/group, respectively) as well as in post-mortem brains of patients with SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) versus controls (35/group). qRT-PCR was used to assess DTNBP1 expression. We found DNA hypermethylation of DTNBP1 promoter in the saliva of SCZ patients (∼12.5%, P = 0.036), particularly in drug-naïve patients (∼20%, P = 0.011), and a trend toward hypermethylation in their first-degree relatives (P = 0.085) versus controls. Analysis of post-mortem brain samples revealed an inverse correlation between DTNBP1 methylation and expression, and normalization of this epigenetic change by classic antipsychotic drugs. Additionally, BD patients with psychotic depression exhibited higher degree of methylation versus other BD patients (∼80%, P = 0.025). DTNBP1 promoter DNA methylation may become a key element in a panel of biomarkers for diagnosis, prevention, or therapy in SCZ and at risk individuals pending confirmatory studies with larger sample sizes to attain a higher degree of significance.

  10. Aberrant promoter methylation of SH3GL2 gene in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma correlates with clinicopathological characteristics and HPV infection status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; He, Yinghui; Han, Xue; Zhang, Shitai; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Yang; Song, Zixuan; Ouyang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study attempted to examine the methylation status of SH3GL2 gene in different types of human vulvar lesions and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis was used to identify the expression status of SH3GL2 in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC), vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and benign vulvar squamous epithelium tissues. Bisulfite genomic sequencing method was used to detect methylation status of the SH3GL2 gene. Clinicopathological correlation of the alterations was analysed by the chi-square tests. Results: Immunohistochemical analysis showed expression of SH3GL2 in VSCC was significantly downregulated than that in VIN and normal vulvar tissues. In accordance with higher frequency of methylation status in SH3GL2, statistical analysis showed methylation status of SH3GL2 was closely related to tumor TNM stage (P=0.003), but not related to age, tumor volume, tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and VIN grade. High-methylation status of SH3GL2 showed significant association with HPV infection status. Conclusions: Our results indicated that the methylation status of SH3GL2 gene was associated with the TNM staging and HPV infection status of VSCC, suggesting that it might play a synergistic role in the development of VSCC. PMID:26823912

  11. Theoretical study of the catalytic mechanism of DNA-(N4-cytosine)-methyltransferase from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan; Roca, Maite; López-Canut, Violeta; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2010-07-01

    In this paper the reaction mechanism for methylation of cytosine at the exocyclic N4 position catalyzed by M.PvuII has been explored by means of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. A reaction model was prepared by placing a single cytosine base in the active site of the enzyme. In this model the exocyclic amino group of the base establishes hydrogen bond interactions with the hydroxyl oxygen atom of Ser53 and the carbonyl oxygen atom of Pro54. The reaction mechanism involves a direct methyl transfer from AdoMet to the N4 atom and a proton transfer from this atom to Ser53, which in turn transfers a proton to Asp96. Different timings for the proton transfers and methylation steps have been explored at the AM1/MM and B3LYP/MM levels including localization and characterization of stationary structures. At our best estimate the reaction proceeds by means of a simultaneous but asynchronous proton transfer from Ser53 to Asp96 and from N4 of cytosine to Ser53 followed by a direct methyl transfer from AdoMet to the exocyclic N4 of cytosine.

  12. Methylation matters

    PubMed Central

    Costello, J.; Plass, C.

    2001-01-01

    DNA methylation is not just for basic scientists any more. There is a growing awareness in the medical field that having the correct pattern of genomic methylation is essential for healthy cells and organs. If methylation patterns are not properly established or maintained, disorders as diverse as mental retardation, immune deficiency, and sporadic or inherited cancers may follow. Through inappropriate silencing of growth regulating genes and simultaneous destabilisation of whole chromosomes, methylation defects help create a chaotic state from which cancer cells evolve. Methylation defects are present in cells before the onset of obvious malignancy and therefore cannot be explained simply as a consequence of a deregulated cancer cell. Researchers are now able to detect with exquisite sensitivity the cells harbouring methylation defects, sometimes months or years before the time when cancer is clinically detectable. Furthermore, aberrant methylation of specific genes has been directly linked with the tumour response to chemotherapy and patient survival. Advances in our ability to observe the methylation status of the entire cancer cell genome have led us to the unmistakable conclusion that methylation abnormalities are far more prevalent than expected. This methylomics approach permits the integration of an ever growing repertoire of methylation defects with the genetic alterations catalogued from tumours over the past two decades. Here we discuss the current knowledge of DNA methylation in normal cells and disease states, and how this relates directly to our current understanding of the mechanisms by which tumours arise.


Keywords: methylation; cancer PMID:11333864

  13. The presence of JC virus in gastric carcinomas correlates with patient's age, intestinal histological type and aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Ksiaa, Feryel; Ziadi, Sonia; Mokni, Moncef; Korbi, Sadok; Trimeche, Mounir

    2010-04-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a neurotropic polyomavirus and the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. A role for JCV in gastrointestinal malignancies has been recently suggested. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of polyomaviruses including JCV, BKV and SV40 in gastric cancers in Tunisia and to determine the clinicopathological characteristics of virus-associated gastric carcinomas. The presence of polyomaviruses DNA sequences was surveyed in 61 cases of primary gastric carcinomas and in 53 paired non-tumor gastric mucosa by PCR. Findings were correlated to clinicopathological parameters, p53 expression and methylation status of 11 tumor-related genes. Using PCR assays, JCV T-antigen sequence was more frequently detected in gastric carcinomas than in non-tumor gastric mucosa (26 vs 6%, P=0.03), while those of SV40 and BKV were not detected in any cases. Correlation analysis showed that JCV had higher frequency in patients older than 55 years (P=0.034) and in the intestinal histological type (P=0.04). With regard to methylation status, P16 and P14 showed significantly higher methylation frequencies in JCV-positive gastric carcinomas than in JCV-negative cases (P=0.007 and P=0.003, respectively). Moreover, the mean of the methylation index was significantly higher in JCV-positive than in JCV-negative cases (P=0.024). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age of patients and the methylation index are only the two independent factors associated with JCV infection. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a trend toward better survival for JCV-associated gastric carcinomas patients (log-rank, P=0.11). Our study suggests a role of JCV as cofactor in the pathogenesis of the intestinal type of gastric carcinomas in older persons.

  14. Neuronal DNA Methylation Profiling of Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yongchao; Chen, Sean; Xin, Yurong; Umali, Michelle U.; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A.; Ahlers, Stephen T.; Elder, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Long-term molecular changes in the brain resulting from blast exposure may be mediated by epigenetic changes, such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, that regulate gene expression. Aberrant regulation of gene expression is associated with behavioral abnormalities, where DNA methylation bridges environmental signals to sustained changes in gene expression. We assessed DNA methylation changes in the brains of rats exposed to three 74.5 kPa blast overpressure events, conditions that have been associated with long-term anxiogenic manifestations weeks or months following the initial exposures. Rat frontal cortex eight months post-exposure was used for cell sorting of whole brain tissue into neurons and glia. We interrogated DNA methylation profiles in these cells using Expanded Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing. We obtained data for millions of cytosines, showing distinct methylation profiles for neurons and glia and an increase in global methylation in neuronal versus glial cells (p<10−7). We detected DNA methylation perturbations in blast overpressure–exposed animals, compared with sham blast controls, within 458 and 379 genes in neurons and glia, respectively. Differentially methylated neuronal genes showed enrichment in cell death and survival and nervous system development and function, including genes involved in transforming growth factor β and nitric oxide signaling. Functional validation via gene expression analysis of 30 differentially methylated neuronal and glial genes showed a 1.2 fold change in gene expression of the serotonin N-acetyltransferase gene (Aanat) in blast animals (p<0.05). These data provide the first genome-based evidence for changes in DNA methylation induced in response to multiple blast overpressure exposures. In particular, increased methylation and decreased gene expression were observed in the Aanat gene, which is involved in converting serotonin to the circadian hormone melatonin and is implicated in

  15. Neuronal DNA Methylation Profiling of Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ge, Yongchao; Chen, Sean; Xin, Yurong; Umali, Michelle U; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A; Ahlers, Stephen T; Elder, Gregory A

    2015-08-15

    Long-term molecular changes in the brain resulting from blast exposure may be mediated by epigenetic changes, such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, that regulate gene expression. Aberrant regulation of gene expression is associated with behavioral abnormalities, where DNA methylation bridges environmental signals to sustained changes in gene expression. We assessed DNA methylation changes in the brains of rats exposed to three 74.5 kPa blast overpressure events, conditions that have been associated with long-term anxiogenic manifestations weeks or months following the initial exposures. Rat frontal cortex eight months post-exposure was used for cell sorting of whole brain tissue into neurons and glia. We interrogated DNA methylation profiles in these cells using Expanded Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing. We obtained data for millions of cytosines, showing distinct methylation profiles for neurons and glia and an increase in global methylation in neuronal versus glial cells (p<10(-7)). We detected DNA methylation perturbations in blast overpressure-exposed animals, compared with sham blast controls, within 458 and 379 genes in neurons and glia, respectively. Differentially methylated neuronal genes showed enrichment in cell death and survival and nervous system development and function, including genes involved in transforming growth factor β and nitric oxide signaling. Functional validation via gene expression analysis of 30 differentially methylated neuronal and glial genes showed a 1.2 fold change in gene expression of the serotonin N-acetyltransferase gene (Aanat) in blast animals (p<0.05). These data provide the first genome-based evidence for changes in DNA methylation induced in response to multiple blast overpressure exposures. In particular, increased methylation and decreased gene expression were observed in the Aanat gene, which is involved in converting serotonin to the circadian hormone melatonin and is implicated in sleep

  16. Transcriptional Regulation of the GPX1 Gene by TFAP2C and Aberrant CpG Methylation in Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kulak, Mikhail V.; Cyr, Anthony R.; Woodfield, George W.; Bogachek, Maria; Spanheimer, Philip M.; Li, Tiandao; Price, David H.; Domann, Frederick E.; Weigel, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of gene regulation has created obstacles to defining mechanisms that establish the patterns of gene expression characteristic of the different clinical phenotypes of breast cancer. TFAP2C is a transcription factor, which plays a critical role in the regulation of both estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and c-ErbB2/HER2 (Her2). Herein, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation and direct sequencing (ChIP-seq) for TFAP2C in four breast cancer cell lines. Comparing the genomic binding sites for TFAP2C, we identified that glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) is regulated by TFAP2C through an AP-2 regulatory region in the promoter of the GPX1 gene. Knock down of TFAP2C, but not the related factor TFAP2A, resulted in an abrogation of GPX1 expression. Selenium-dependent GPX activity correlated with endogenous GPX1 expression and overexpression of exogenous GPX1 induced GPX activity and significantly increased resistance to tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Methylation of the CpG island encompassing the AP-2 regulatory region was identified in cell lines where TFAP2C failed to bind the GPX1 promoter and GPX1 expression was unresponsive to TFAP2C. Furthermore, in cell lines where GPX1 promoter methylation was associated with gene silencing, treatment with 5-aza-dC (an inhibitor of DNA methylation) allowed TFAP2C to bind to the GPX1 promoter resulting in activation of GPX1 RNA and protein expression. Methylation of the GPX1 promoter was identified in approximately 20% of primary breast cancers and a highly significant correlation between TFAP2C and GPX1 expression was confirmed when considering only those tumors with an unmethylated promoter, whereas the related factor, TFAP2A, failed to demonstrate a correlation. The results demonstrate that TFAP2C regulates the expression of GPX1, which influences the redox state and sensitivity to oxidative stress induced by peroxides. Given the established role of GPX1 in breast cancer, the results provide an important mechanism for TFAP2C

  17. Enhancement and reduction by methylated oxypurines of the frequencies of chromatid aberrations induced by camptothecin in root-tip cells of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Kihlman, B A; Andersson, H C

    1992-10-01

    In root-tip cells of Vicia faba the frequencies of chromatid aberrations induced by 3-h treatments with 0.05 microM camptothecin were strongly modified when the treatments were carried out in the presence of caffeine at concentrations above 1 mM. Depending on the concentration of caffeine, the clastogenic effect of camptothecin was either enhanced or reduced. At concentrations between 1 and 6 mM, caffeine increased the camptothecin-induced chromosome damage, the strongest enhancement being obtained at 5 mM. A reduction of the chromosome damage was apparent at caffeine concentrations above 10 mM, and in the presence of 20 mM caffeine the clastogenic effect of camptothecin was almost completely suppressed. When present during the camptothecin treatment, theophylline, 8-chlorocaffeine and 1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid influenced the induced chromosome damage in a similar way as caffeine, although with varying efficiency. If the concentrations required to produce the two types of modifying effect are used as a criterion, 8-chlorocaffeine was the most effective and 1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid the least, whereas caffeine and theophylline were about equally effective.

  18. Protective effect of lactofermented red beetroot juice against aberrant crypt foci formation, genotoxicity of fecal water and oxidative stress induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in rats model.

    PubMed

    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Nowak, Adriana; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Cukrowska, Bożena

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of beetroot juice fermented by Lactobacillus brevis 0944 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0920 (FBJ) on carcinogen induction of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) was used as carcinogen, which was administrated intragastrically at a dose of 10 μg/day, every day of the experiment. Additionally, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of fecal water from experimental animals in the Caco-2 cell line, evaluated by MTT test and the comet assay, respectively, as well as by the count of bacteria adhered to colon epithelium assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Oxidative stress in rats was expressed by measuring serum antioxidant status and the level of malondialdehyde in the kidneys and liver. The experimental rats were divided into four groups based on diet type: basal diet, basal diet supplemented with FBJ, basal diet and PhIP treatment, and basal diet supplemented with FBJ and PhIP treatment. FBJ significantly reduced the number of ACF in PhIP-treated rats (from 59 ± 18 to 26 ± 4). Moreover, the number of extensive aberrations (more than 4 crypts in a focus) decreased from 52 ± 18 to 18 ± 4. Fecal water obtained from rats fed with a PhIP-containing diet induced pronounced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in Caco-2 cells, but FBJ supplementation of the diet abolished these effects. In groups fed dietary PhP and FBJ the latter was found to increase the antioxidant status of serum from 40% to 66% depending on the fraction. Reduced concentration of malondialdehyde was found only in the kidneys of rats fed with PhIP and FBJ. FBJ present in the diet of rats causes a reduction of MDA in the kidneys from 118.7 nmol/g tissue to 100 nmol/g tissue. The presence of FBJ in the diet of rats significantly increased the count of bacteria, including Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and Bacteroides-Prevotella group adhered to colonic epithelium. In conclusion

  19. Altered expression of BRG1 and histone demethylases, and aberrant H3K4 methylation in less developmentally competent embryos at the time of embryonic genome activation.

    PubMed

    Glanzner, Werner G; Wachter, Audrey; Coutinho, Ana Rita S; Albornoz, Marcelo S; Duggavathi, Raj; GonÇAlves, Paulo B D; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetics is a fundamental regulator underlying many biological functions, such as development and cell differentiation. Epigenetic modifications affect key chromatin regulation, including transcription and DNA repair, which are critical for normal embryo development. In this study, we profiled the expression of epigenetic modifiers and patterns of epigenetic changes in porcine embryos around the period of embryonic genome activation (EGA). We observed that Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) and Lysine demethylase 1A (KDM1A), which can alter the methylation status of lysine 4 in histone 3 (H3K4), localize to the nucleus at Day 3-4 of development. We then compared the abundance of epigenetic modifiers between early- and late-cleaving embryos, which were classified based on the time to the first cell cleavage, to investigate if their nuclear localization contributes to developmental competence. The mRNA abundance of BRG1, KDM1A, as well as other lysine demethylases (KDM1B, KDM5A, KDM5B, and KDM5C), were significantly higher in late- compared to early-cleaving embryos near the EGA period, although these difference disappeared at the blastocyst stage. The abundance of H3K4 mono- (H3K4me) and di-methylation (H3K4me2) during the EGA period was reduced in late-cleaving and less developmentally competent embryos. By contrast, BRG1, KDM1A, and H3K4me2 abundance was greater in embryos with more than eight cells at Day 3-4 of development compared to those with fewer than four cells. These findings suggest that altered epigenetic modifications of H3K4 around the EGA period may affect the developmental capacity of porcine embryos to reach the blastocyst stage. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 19-29, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Aberrant CpG Methylation Mediates Abnormal Transcription of MAO-A Induced by Acute and Chronic L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Administration in SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaofei; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jian; Sun, Min; Wang, Yong; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-04-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) remains the most effective drug for therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, long-term use of it causes serious side effects. L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) has consistently been related to L-dopa-derived excessive dopamine release, but the mechanisms have not been addressed very clear. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is one of the key enzymes in dopamine metabolism and therefore may be involved in L-dopa-induced side effects. And, epigenetic modification controls MAO-A gene transcription. To investigate the effects of L-dopa on MAO-A transcription and its underlying epigenetic mechanism, neuronal SH-SY5Y cells were treated with L-dopa for 24 h (acute) and for 7-21 days (chronic). Results showed that chronic L-dopa administration resulted in a dose-dependent and time-dependent downregulation of MAO-A, whereas acute L-dopa administration induced upregulation of MAO-A transcription and expression. Meanwhile, chronic L-dopa exposure induced CpG hypermethylation in MAO-A promoter, while acute L-dopa administration caused CpG hypomethylation. And, CpG demethylation resulted in reactivation of MAO-A transcription. These results indicated that aberrant CpG methylation might play a key role in MAO-A transcriptional misregulation in L-dopa administration. In addition, results showed that acute L-dopa administration induced downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a). Transcription of ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) were significantly downregulated in chronic L-dopa administration. These data indicated that in chronic L-dopa administration, TET1 downregulation might mediate CpG hypermethylation, which is responsible for the downregulation of MAO-A transcription. In contrast, in acute L-dopa administration, DNMT3a downregulation might mediate hypomethylation, contributing to the MAO-A upregulation. In conclusion, our findings suggested that TET1 and DNMTs might mediate aberrant CpG methylation, associated with the

  1. Skew aberration: a form of polarization aberration.

    PubMed

    Yun, Garam; Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A

    2011-10-15

    We define a new class of aberration, skew aberration, which is a component of polarization aberration. Skew aberration is an intrinsic rotation of polarization states due to the geometric transformation of local coordinates, independent of coatings and interface polarization. Skew aberration in a radially symmetric system has the form of a circular retardance tilt plus coma aberration. Skew aberration causes undesired polarization distribution in the exit pupil. We demonstrate statistics on skew aberration of 2383 optical systems described in Code V's U.S. patent library [Code V Version 10.3 (Synopsys, 2011), pp. 22-24]; the mean skew aberration is 0.89° and the standard deviation is 1.37°. The maximum skew aberration found is 17.45° and the minimum is -11.33°. U.S. patent 2,896,506, which has ±7.01° of skew aberration, is analyzed in detail. Skew aberration should be of concern in microlithography optics and other high NA and large field of view optical systems.

  2. Fatty acid-binding protein FABP4 mechanistically links obesity with aggressive AML by enhancing aberrant DNA methylation in AML cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, F; Shen, N; Pang, J X; Zhang, Y W; Rao, E Y; Bode, A M; Al-Kali, A; Zhang, D E; Litzow, M R; Li, B; Liu, S J

    2016-12-02

    Obesity is becoming more prevalent worldwide and is a major risk factor for cancer development. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common acute leukemia in adults, remains a frequently fatal disease. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which obesity favors AML growth and uncovered the fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) regulatory axis that mediates aggressive AML in obesity. We showed that leukemia burden was much higher in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, which had higher levels of FABP4 and interleukin (IL)-6 in the sera. Upregulation of environmental and cellular FABP4 accelerated AML cell growth in both a cell-autonomous and cell-non-autonomous manner. Genetic disruption of FABP4 in AML cells or in mice blocked cell proliferation in vitro and induced leukemia regression in vivo. Mechanistic investigations showed that FABP4 upregulation increased IL-6 expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 phosphorylation leading to DNMT1 overexpression and further silencing of the p15(INK4B) tumor-suppressor gene in AML cells. Conversely, FABP4 ablation reduced DNMT1-dependent DNA methylation and restored p15(INK4B) expression, thus conferring substantial protection against AML growth. Our findings reveal the FABP4/DNMT1 axis in the control of AML cell fate in obesity and suggest that interference with the FABP4/DNMT1 axis might be a new strategy to treat leukemia.Leukemia advance online publication, 2 December 2016; doi:10.1038/leu.2016.349.

  3. Epigenetic regulation of motor neuron cell death through DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Chestnut, Barry A; Chang, Qing; Price, Ann; Lesuisse, Catherine; Wong, Margaret; Martin, Lee J

    2011-11-16

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for gene silencing engaged by DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt)-catalyzed methyl group transfer to cytosine residues in gene-regulatory regions. It is unknown whether aberrant DNA methylation can cause neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that Dnmts can mediate neuronal cell death. Enforced expression of Dnmt3a induced degeneration of cultured NSC34 cells. During apoptosis of NSC34 cells induced by camptothecin, levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a increased fivefold and twofold, respectively, and 5-methylcytosine accumulated in nuclei. Truncation mutation of the Dnmt3a catalytic domain and Dnmt3a RNAi blocked apoptosis of cultured neurons. Inhibition of Dnmt catalytic activity with RG108 and procainamide protected cultured neurons from excessive DNA methylation and apoptosis. In vivo, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a are expressed differentially during mouse brain and spinal cord maturation and in adulthood when Dnmt3a is abundant in synapses and mitochondria. Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a are expressed in motor neurons of adult mouse spinal cord, and, during their apoptosis induced by sciatic nerve avulsion, nuclear and cytoplasmic 5-methylcytosine immunoreactivity, Dnmt3a protein levels and Dnmt enzyme activity increased preapoptotically. Inhibition of Dnmts with RG108 blocked completely the increase in 5-methycytosine and the apoptosis of motor neurons in mice. In human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), motor neurons showed changes in Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and 5-methylcytosine similar to experimental models. Thus, motor neurons can engage epigenetic mechanisms to drive apoptosis, involving Dnmt upregulation and increased DNA methylation. These cellular mechanisms could be relevant to human ALS pathobiology and disease treatment.

  4. Accurate quantification of DNA methylation of DRD4 applying capillary gel electrophoresis with LIF detection.

    PubMed

    Goedecke, Simon; Schlosser, Sabrina; Mühlisch, Jörg; Hempel, Georg; Frühwald, Michael C; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2009-04-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation of gene promoters may be investigated by an array of different technologies. Besides DNA sequencing techniques following bisulfite treatment and determination of overall methylation by quantification of 5-methylcytosine/cytosine ratio following DNA hydrolysis, most approaches rely on PCR amplification of a defined template and subsequent analysis by conventional gel electrophoresis. As an additional analytical tool, a capillary gel electrophoresis method has been developed to quantify the methylation in combined bisulfite restriction analysis products of the gene dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4). Analyses were carried out in a bare fused-silica capillary dynamically coated with a 1% w/w solution of PVA (M(r)=72,000). A buffer (pH 7.3) containing 3% w/w 2-hydroxyethylcellulose (M(nu) approximately 90,000 g/mol) was used as sieving matrix. With 1/x weighted regression the accuracy (bias) of the method is within +/-10% and the precision (expressed as RSD) also meets the common acceptance criteria of 15% (20% near lower LOQ). It overcomes the limitations of standard gel electrophoresis, which allows only one single run per analysis and requires large amounts of DNA. Therefore, the method represents a valuable tool for routine quantitative analysis of the methylation status of DRD4 and other target genes.

  5. A cytosine methyltransferase homologue is essential for repeat-induced point mutation in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Michael; Williams, Rebecca L.; Kothe, Gregory O.; Selker, Eric U.

    2002-01-01

    During sexual development, Neurospora crassa inactivates genes in duplicated DNA segments by a hypermutation process, repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). RIP introduces C:G to T:A transition mutations and creates targets for subsequent DNA methylation in vegetative tissue. The mechanism of RIP and its relationship to DNA methylation are not fully understood. Mutations in DIM-2, a DNA methyltransferase (DMT) responsible for all known cytosine methylation in Neurospora, does not prevent RIP. We used RIP to disrupt a second putative DMT gene in the Neurospora genome and tested mutants for defects in DNA methylation and RIP. No effect on DNA methylation was detected in the tissues that could be assayed, but the mutants showed recessive defects in RIP. Duplications of the am and mtr genes were completely stable in crosses homozygous for the mutated potential DMT gene, which we call rid (RIP defective). The same duplications were inactivated normally in heterozygous crosses. Disruption of the rid gene did not noticeably affect fertility, growth, or development. In contrast, crosses homozygous for a mutation in a related gene in Ascobolus immersus, masc1, reportedly fail to develop and heterozygous crosses reduce methylation induced premeiotically [Malagnac, F., Wendel, B., Goyon, C., Faugeron, G., Zickler, D., et al. (1997) Cell 91, 281–290]. We isolated homologues of rid from Neurospora tetrasperma and Neurospora intermedia to identify conserved regions. Homologues possess all motifs characteristic of eukaryotic DMTs and have large distinctive C- and N-terminal domains. PMID:12072568

  6. DNA methylation profiling identifies CG methylation clusters in Arabidopsis genes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Robert K; Henikoff, Jorja G; Zilberman, Daniel; Ditt, Renata F; Jacobsen, Steven E; Henikoff, Steven

    2005-01-26

    Cytosine DNA methylation in vertebrates is widespread, but methylation in plants is found almost exclusively at transposable elements and repetitive DNA. Within regions of methylation, methylcytosines are typically found in CG, CNG, and asymmetric contexts. CG sites are maintained by a plant homolog of mammalian Dnmt1 acting on hemi-methylated DNA after replication. Methylation of CNG and asymmetric sites appears to be maintained at each cell cycle by other mechanisms. We report a new type of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis, dense CG methylation clusters found at scattered sites throughout the genome. These clusters lack non-CG methylation and are preferentially found in genes, although they are relatively deficient toward the 5' end. CG methylation clusters are present in lines derived from different accessions and in mutants that eliminate de novo methylation, indicating that CG methylation clusters are stably maintained at specific sites. Because 5-methylcytosine is mutagenic, the appearance of CG methylation clusters over evolutionary time predicts a genome-wide deficiency of CG dinucleotides and an excess of C(A/T)G trinucleotides within transcribed regions. This is exactly what we find, implying that CG methylation clusters have contributed profoundly to plant gene evolution. We suggest that CG methylation clusters silence cryptic promoters that arise sporadically within transcription units.

  7. DNA methylation in higher plants: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Vanyushin, Boris F; Ashapkin, Vasili V

    2011-08-01

    A relatively high degree of nuclear DNA (nDNA) methylation is a specific feature of plant genomes. Targets for cytosine DNA methylation in plant genomes are CG, CHG and CHH (H is A, T, C) sequences. More than 30% total m(5)C in plant DNA is located in non-CG sites. DNA methylation in plants is species-, tissue-, organelle- and age-specific; it is involved in the control of all genetic functions including transcription, replication, DNA repair, gene transposition and cell differentiation. DNA methylation is engaged in gene silencing and parental imprinting, it controls expression of transgenes and foreign DNA in cell. Plants have much more complicated and sophisticated system of the multicomponent genome methylations compared to animals; DNA methylation in plant mitochondria is performed in other fashion as compared to that in nuclei. The nDNA methylation is carried out by cytosine DNA methyltransferases of, at least, three families. In contrast to animals the plants with the major maintenance methyltransferase MET1 (similar to animal Dnmt1) inactivated do survive. One and the same plant gene may be methylated at both adenine and cytosine residues; specific plant adenine DNA methyltransferase was described. Thus, two different systems of the genome modification based on methylation of cytosines and adenines seem to coexist in higher plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Epigenetic control of cellular and developmental processes in plants.

  8. Homodimers of cytosine and 1-methylcytosine. A DFT study of geometry, relative stability and H-NMR shifts in gas-phase and selected solvents.

    PubMed

    Paytakov, Guvanchmyrat; Gorb, Leonid; Stepanyugin, Andriy; Samiylenko, Svitlana; Hovorun, Dmytro; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    Dimers of cytosine and its N¹-methylated counterpart were investigated in gas-phase and in various solvents including chloroform, dimethylsulfoxide, and water. The studies were performed at DFT/M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Relative stabilities of tautomers of cytosine solvated explicitly by a small number of solvent molecules were evaluated. Further solvation effect calculations for homodimers were carried out with conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM). H-NMR shifts and IR frequencies for optimized structures were calculated and compared with available experimental data.

  9. Light-regulated and cell-specific methylation of the maize PEPC promoter

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Ben J.; Woodfield, Helen; Wanchana, Samart; Bruskiewich, Richard; Hibberd, Julian M.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms governing PEPC expression in maize remain to be fully defined. Differential methylation of a region in the PEPC promoter has been shown to correlate with transcript accumulation, however, to date, investigations into the role of DNA methylation in maize PEPC expression have relied on the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. Bisulphite sequencing was used here to provide a single-base resolution methylation map of the maize PEPC promoter. It is shown that four cytosine residues in the PEPC promoter are heavily methylated in maize root tissue. In leaves, de-methylation of these cytosines is dependent on illumination and is coincident with elevated PEPC expression. Furthermore, light-regulated de-methylation of these cytosines occurs only in mesophyll cells. No methylation was discovered in the 0.6 kb promoter required for mesophyll-specific expression indicating that cytosine methylation is not required to direct the cell-specificity of PEPC expression. This raises interesting questions regarding the function of the cell-specific cytosine de-methylation observed in the upstream region of the PEPC promoter. PMID:22143916

  10. DNA methylation changes in the postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Shusuke; Ye, Tianzhang; Herman, Mary; Lipska, Barbara K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder with a lifetime morbidity rate of 0.5–1.0%. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia still remains obscure. Accumulating evidence indicates that DNA methylation, which is the addition of a methyl group to the cytosine in a CpG dinucleotide, might play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Methods: To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying schizophrenia, a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling (27,578 CpG dinucleotides spanning 14,495 genes) of the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was conducted in a large cohort (n = 216) of well characterized specimens from individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls, combined with an analysis of genetic variance at ~880,000 SNPs. Results: Aberrant DNA methylation in schizophrenia was identified at 107 CpG sites at 5% Bonferroni correction (p < 1.99 × 10−6). Of these significantly altered sites, hyper-DNA methylation was observed at 79 sites (73.8%), mostly in the CpG islands (CGIs) and in the regions flanking CGIs (CGI: 31 sites; CGI shore: 35 sites; CGI shelf: 3 sites). Furthermore, a large number of cis-methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) were identified, including associations with risk SNPs implicated in schizophrenia. Conclusions: These results suggest that altered DNA methylation might be involved in the pathophysiology and/or treatment of schizophrenia, and that a combination of epigenetic and genetic approaches will be useful to understanding the molecular mechanism of this complex disorder. PMID:25206360

  11. Genetic effects of methylation diets.

    PubMed

    Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2002-01-01

    DNA methylation at cytosines in CpG dinucleotides can lead to changes in gene expression and function without altering the primary sequence of the DNA. Methylation can be affected by dietary levels of methyl-donor components, such as folic acid. This may be an important mechanism for environmentally induced changes in gene expression. Recent literature supports a role for DNA-methylation changes in a number of adult-onset disorders and during development. These changes may be significant for better understanding certain birth defects (e.g., neural tube defects) and the long-term consequences of early environmental influences on gene expression (metabolic programming). Optimal "methylation diets" should be investigated as part of the prevention and treatment of all these conditions, as well as in disorders such as Rett syndrome, whose primary defects may lie in DNA methylation-dependent gene regulation.

  12. Chicago aberration correction work.

    PubMed

    Beck, V D

    2012-12-01

    The author describes from his personal involvement the many improvements to electron microscopy Albert Crewe and his group brought by minimizing the effects of aberrations. The Butler gun was developed to minimize aperture aberrations in a field emission electron gun. In the 1960s, Crewe anticipated using a spherical aberration corrector based on Scherzer's design. Since the tolerances could not be met mechanically, a method of moving the center of the octopoles electrically was developed by adding lower order multipole fields. Because the corrector was located about 15 cm ahead of the objective lens, combination aberrations would arise with the objective lens. This fifth order aberration would then limit the aperture of the microscope. The transformation of the off axis aberration coefficients of a round lens was developed and a means to cancel anisotropic coma was developed. A new method of generating negative spherical aberration was invented using the combination aberrations of hexapoles. Extensions of this technique to higher order aberrations were developed. An electrostatic electron mirror was invented, which allows the cancellation of primary spherical aberration and first order chromatic aberration. A reduction of chromatic aberration by two orders of magnitude was demonstrated using such a system.

  13. Human repair endonuclease incises DNA at cytosine photoproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, P.E.; Weiss, R.B.; Brent, T.P.; Duker, N.J.

    1987-05-01

    The nature of DNA damage by uvB and uvC irradiation was investigated using a defined sequence of human DNA. A UV-irradiated, 3'-end-labeled, 92 base pair sequence from the human alphoid segment was incubated with a purified human lymphoblast endonuclease that incises DNA at non-dimer photoproducts. Analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis identified all sites of endonucleolytic incision as cytosines. These were found in regions of the DNA sequence lacking adjacent pyrimidines and therefore are neither cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers nor 6-4'-pyrimidines. Incision at cytosine photoproducts was not detected at loci corresponding to alkali-labile sites in either control or irradiated substrates. This demonstrates that the bands detected after the enzymic reactions were not the result of DNA strand breaks, base loss sites or ring-opened cytosines. The optimal wavelengths for formation of cytosine photoproducts are 270-295 nm, similar to those associated with maximal tumor yields in animal ultraviolet carcinogenesis studies. Irradiation by monochromatic 254 nm light resulted in reduced cytosine photoproduct formation. This human UV endonuclease has an apparently identical substrate specificity to E. coli endonuclease III. Both the human and bacterial enzymes incise cytosine moieties in UV irradiated DNA and modified thymines in oxidized DNA.

  14. Aberrant repair initiated by mismatch-specific thymine-DNA glycosylases provides a mechanism for the mutational bias observed in CpG islands

    PubMed Central

    Talhaoui, Ibtissam; Couve, Sophie; Gros, Laurent; Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Matkarimov, Bakhyt; Saparbaev, Murat K.

    2014-01-01

    The human thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) initiates the base excision repair (BER) pathway to remove spontaneous and induced DNA base damage. It was first biochemically characterized for its ability to remove T mispaired with G in CpG context. TDG is involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expressions by protecting CpG-rich promoters from de novo DNA methylation. Here we demonstrate that TDG initiates aberrant repair by excising T when it is paired with a damaged adenine residue in DNA duplex. TDG targets the non-damaged DNA strand and efficiently excises T opposite of hypoxanthine (Hx), 1,N6-ethenoadenine, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoadenine and abasic site in TpG/CpX context, where X is a modified residue. In vitro reconstitution of BER with duplex DNA containing Hx•T pair and TDG results in incorporation of cytosine across Hx. Furthermore, analysis of the mutation spectra inferred from single nucleotide polymorphisms in human population revealed a highly biased mutation pattern within CpG islands (CGIs), with enhanced mutation rate at CpA and TpG sites. These findings demonstrate that under experimental conditions used TDG catalyzes sequence context-dependent aberrant removal of thymine, which results in TpG, CpA→CpG mutations, thus providing a plausible mechanism for the putative evolutionary origin of the CGIs in mammalian genomes. PMID:24692658

  15. Genome-Wide Identification and Comparative Analysis of Cytosine-5 DNA Methyltransferase and Demethylase Families in Wild and Cultivated Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei; Gao, Chao; Bian, Xiaotong; Zhao, Shuzhen; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Xia, Han; Song, Hui; Hou, Lei; Wan, Shubo; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation plays important roles in genome protection, regulation of gene expression and is associated with plants development. Plant DNA methylation pattern was mediated by cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferase and demethylase. Although the genomes of AA and BB wild peanuts have been fully sequenced, these two gene families have not been studied. In this study we report the identification and analysis of putative cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases (C5-MTases) and demethylases in AA and BB wild peanuts. Cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases in AA and BB wild peanuts could be classified in MET, CMT, and DRM2 groups based on their domain organization. This result was supported by the gene and protein structural characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. We found that some wild peanut DRM2 members didn't contain UBA domain which was different from other plants such as Arabidopsis, maize and soybean. Five DNA demethylase encoding genes were found in AA genome and five in BB genome. The selective pressure analysis showed that wild peanut C5-MTase genes mainly underwent purifying selection but many positive selection sites can be detected. Conversely, DNA demethylase genes mainly underwent positive selection during evolution. Additionally, the expression dynamic of cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferase and demethylase genes in different cultivated peanut tissues were analyzed. Expression result showed that cold, heat or PEG stress could influence the expression level of C5-MTase and DNA demethylase genes in cultivated peanut. These results are useful for better understanding the complexity of these two gene families, and will facilitate epigenetic studies in peanut in the future. PMID:26870046

  16. Profiling cytosine oxidation in DNA by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Samson-Thibault, Francois; Madugundu, Guru S; Gao, Shanshan; Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard

    2012-09-17

    Spontaneous and oxidant-induced damage to cytosine is probably the main cause of CG to TA transition mutations in mammalian genomes. The reaction of hydroxyl radical (·OH) and one-electron oxidants with cytosine derivatives produces numerous oxidation products, which have been identified in large part by model studies with monomers and short oligonucleotides. Here, we developed an analytical method based on LC-MS/MS to detect 10 oxidized bases in DNA, including 5 oxidation products of cytosine. The utility of this method is demonstrated by the measurement of base damage in isolated calf thymus DNA exposed to ionizing radiation in aerated aqueous solutions (0-200 Gy) and to well-known Fenton-like reactions (Fe(2+) or Cu(+) with H(2)O(2) and ascorbate). The following cytosine modifications were quantified as modified 2'-deoxyribonucleosides upon exposure of DNA to ionizing radiation in aqueous aerated solution: 5-hydroxyhydantoin (Hyd-Ura) > 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHUra) > 5-hydroxycytosine (5-OHCyt) > 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrouracil (Ura-Gly) > 1-carbamoyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-oxoimidazolidine (Imid-Cyt). The total yield of cytosine oxidation products was comparable to that of thymine oxidation products (5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine (Thy-Gly), 5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantotin (Hyd-Thy), 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil (5-HmUra), and 5-formyluracil (5-ForUra)) as well as the yield of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua). The major oxidation product of cytosine in DNA was Hyd-Ura. In contrast, the formation of Imid-Cyt was a minor pathway of DNA damage, although it is the major product arising from irradiation of the monomers, cytosine, and 2'-deoxycytidine. The reaction of Fenton-like reagents with DNA gave a different distribution of cytosine derived products compared to ionizing radiation, which likely reflects the reaction of metal ions with intermediate peroxyl radicals or hydroperoxides. The analysis of the main cytosine oxidation products will help elucidate the complex

  17. DNA methylation of Alzheimer disease and tauopathy-related genes in postmortem brain.

    PubMed

    Barrachina, Marta; Ferrer, Isidre

    2009-08-01

    DNA methylation occurs predominantly at cytosines that precede guanines in dinucleotide CpG sites; it is one of the most important mechanisms for epigenetic DNA regulation during normal development and for aberrant DNA in cancer. To determine the feasibility of DNA methylation studies in the postmortem human brain, we evaluated brain samples with variable postmortem artificially increased delays up to 48 hours. DNA methylation was analyzed in selected regions of MAPT, APP, and PSEN1 in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of controls (n=26) and those with Alzheimer disease at Stages I to II (n=17); Alzheimer disease at Stages III to IV (n=15); Alzheimer disease at Stages V to VI (n=12); argyrophilic grain disease (n=10); frontotemporal lobar degeneration linked to tau mutations (n=6); frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions (n=4); frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease (n=3); Pick disease (n=3); Parkinson disease (n=8); dementia with Lewy bodies, pure form (n=5); and dementia with Lewy bodies, common form (n=15). UCHL1 (ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1 gene) was analyzed in the frontal cortex of controls and those with Parkinson disease and related synucleinopathies. DNA methylation sites were very reproducible in every case. No differences in the percentage of CpG methylation were found between control and disease samples or among the different pathological entities in any region analyzed. Because small changes in methylation of DNA promoters in vulnerable cells might have not been detected in total homogenates, however, these results should be interpreted with caution, particularly as they relate to chronic degenerative diseases in which small modifications may be sufficient to modulate disease progression.

  18. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation changes with development of arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladesh: a case-control follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Seow, Wei Jie; Kile, Molly L; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Pan, Wen-Chi; Byun, Hyang-Min; Mostofa, Golam; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C

    2014-07-01

    Studies have found an association between aberrant DNA methylation and arsenic-induced skin lesions. However, little is known about DNA methylation changes over time in people who develop arsenic-induced skin lesions. We sought to investigate epigenome-wide changes of DNA methylation in people who developed arsenic-induced skin lesions in a 10-year period. In 2009-2011, we conducted a follow-up study of 900 skin lesion cases and 900 controls and identified 10 people who developed skin lesions since a baseline survey in 2001-2003. The 10 cases ("New Cases") were matched with 10 controls who did not have skin lesions at baseline or follow-up ("Persistent Controls"). Drinking water and blood samples were collected, and skin lesion was diagnosed by the same physician at both time points. We measured DNA methylation in blood using Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip, followed by quantitative validation using pyrosequencing. Two-sample t-tests were used to compare changes in percent methylation between New Cases and Persistent Controls. Six CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites with greatest changes of DNA methylation over time among New Cases were further validated with a correlation of 93% using pyrosequencing. One of the validated CpG site (cg03333116; change of %methylation was 13.2 in New Cases versus -0.09 in Persistent Controls; P < 0.001) belonged to the RHBDF1 gene, which was previously reported to be hypermethylated in arsenic-exposed cases. We examined DNA methylation changes with the development of arsenic-induced skin lesions over time but nothing was statistically significant given the small sample size of this exploratory study and the high dimensionality of data.

  19. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  20. Covering Your Bases: Inheritance of DNA Methylation in Plant Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is an important base modification that is inherited across mitotic and meiotic cell divisions in plant genomes. Heritable methylation variants can contribute to within-species phenotypic variation. Few methylation variants were known until recently, making it possible to begin to address major unanswered questions: the extent of natural methylation variation within plant genomes, its effects on phenotypic variation, its degree of dependence on genotype, and how it fits into an evolutionary context. Techniques like whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) make it possible to determine cytosine methylation states at single-base resolution across entire genomes and populations. Application of this method to natural and novel experimental populations is revealing answers to these long-standing questions about the role of DNA methylation in plant genomes. PMID:24270503

  1. Genetic variation in DNMT3B and increased global DNA methylation is associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T M; Mullins, N; Ryan, M; Foster, T; Kelly, C; McClelland, R; O'Grady, J; Corcoran, E; Brady, J; Reilly, M; Jeffers, A; Brown, K; Maher, A; Bannan, N; Casement, A; Lynch, D; Bolger, S; Buckley, A; Quinlivan, L; Daly, L; Kelleher, C; Malone, K M

    2013-02-01

    Recently, a significant epigenetic component in the pathology of suicide has been realized. Here we investigate candidate functional SNPs in epigenetic-regulatory genes, DNMT1 and DNMT3B, for association with suicide attempt (SA) among patients with co-existing psychiatric illness. In addition, global DNA methylation levels [5-methyl cytosine (5-mC%)] between SA and psychiatric controls were quantified using the Methylflash Methylated DNA Quantification Kit. DNA was obtained from blood of 79 suicide attempters and 80 non-attempters, assessed for DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Functional SNPs were selected for each gene (DNMT1; n = 7, DNMT3B; n = 10), and genotyped. A SNP (rs2424932) residing in the 3' UTR of the DNMT3B gene was associated with SA compared with a non-attempter control group (P = 0.001; Chi-squared test, Bonferroni adjusted P value = 0.02). Moreover, haplotype analysis identified a DNMT3B haplotype which differed between cases and controls, however this association did not hold after Bonferroni correction (P = 0.01, Bonferroni adjusted P value = 0.56). Global methylation analysis showed that psychiatric patients with a history of SA had significantly higher levels of global DNA methylation compared with controls (P = 0.018, Student's t-test). In conclusion, this is the first report investigating polymorphisms in DNMT genes and global DNA methylation quantification in SA risk. Preliminary findings suggest that allelic variability in DNMT3B may be relevant to the underlying diathesis for suicidal acts and our findings support the hypothesis that aberrant DNA methylation profiles may contribute to the biology of suicidal acts. Thus, analysis of global DNA hypermethylation in blood may represent a biomarker for increased SA risk in psychiatric patients.

  2. Synthesis of magnetic cytosine-imprinted chitosan nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mei-Hwa; Ahluwalia, Arti; Chen, Jian-Zhou; Shih, Neng-Lang; Lin, Hung-Yin

    2017-02-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles incorporating magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been investigated for their selective adsorption properties. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of magnetic cytosine-imprinted chitosan nanoparticles (CIPs) for gene delivery. In particular, CIPs carrying the mammalian expression plasmid of enhanced green fluorescent protein were prepared by the co-precipitation of MNPs, chitosan and a template nucleobase (cytosine). The results show that the selective reabsorption of cytosine to magnetic CIPs was at least double that of non-imprinted polymers and other nucleobases (such as adenine and thymine). The gene carrier CIPs were used for the transfection of human embryonic kidney 293 cells showing dramatic increase their efficiency with that of conventional chitosan nanoparticles. Furthermore, the gene carrier magnetic CIPs also exhibit low toxicity compared to that of commercially available cationic lipids.

  3. Synthesis of magnetic cytosine-imprinted chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Hwa; Ahluwalia, Arti; Chen, Jian-Zhou; Shih, Neng-Lang; Lin, Hung-Yin

    2017-02-24

    Molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles incorporating magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been investigated for their selective adsorption properties. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of magnetic cytosine-imprinted chitosan nanoparticles (CIPs) for gene delivery. In particular, CIPs carrying the mammalian expression plasmid of enhanced green fluorescent protein were prepared by the co-precipitation of MNPs, chitosan and a template nucleobase (cytosine). The results show that the selective reabsorption of cytosine to magnetic CIPs was at least double that of non-imprinted polymers and other nucleobases (such as adenine and thymine). The gene carrier CIPs were used for the transfection of human embryonic kidney 293 cells showing dramatic increase their efficiency with that of conventional chitosan nanoparticles. Furthermore, the gene carrier magnetic CIPs also exhibit low toxicity compared to that of commercially available cationic lipids.

  4. Combined QM(DFT)/MM molecular dynamics simulations of the deamination of cytosine by yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Yuan; Yan, Honggao; Cao, Zexing; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-15

    Extensive combined quantum mechanical (B3LYP/6-31G*) and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to elucidate the hydrolytic deamination mechanism of cytosine to uracil catalyzed by the yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD). Though cytosine has no direct binding to the zinc center, it reacts with the water molecule coordinated to zinc, and the adjacent conserved Glu64 serves as a general acid/base to shuttle protons from water to cytosine. The overall reaction consists of several proton-transfer processes and nucleophilic attacks. A tetrahedral intermediate adduct of cytosine and water binding to zinc is identified and similar to the crystal structure of yCD with the inhibitor 2-pyrimidinone. The rate-determining step with the barrier of 18.0 kcal/mol in the whole catalytic cycle occurs in the process of uracil departure where the proton transfer from water to Glu64 and nucleophilic attack of the resulting hydroxide anion to C2 of the uracil ring occurs synchronously. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Induced Pib Expression and Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea are Compromised by Cytosine Demethylation at Critical Promoter Regions in Rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Xia, Qiong; Kou, Hongping; Wang, Dan; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chunming; Xing, Shaochen; Liu, Bao

    2011-10-01

    Pib is a well-characterized rice blast-resistance gene belonging to the nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily. Expression of Pib was low under non-challenged conditions, but strongly induced by the blast-causing fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea, thereby conferring resistance to the pathogen. It is generally established that cytosine methylation of the promoter-region often plays a repressive role in modulating expression of the gene in question. We report here that two critical regions of the Pib promoter were heavily CG cytosine-methylated in both cultivars studied. Surprisingly, induced expression of Pib by M. grisea infection did not entail its promoter demethylation, and partial demethylation by 5-azacytidine-treatment actually reduced Pib expression relative to wild-type plants. Accordingly, the blast disease-resistance was compromised in the 5'-azaC-treated plants relative to wild-type. In contrast, the disease susceptibility was not affected by the 5'-azaC treatment in another two rice cultivars that did not contain the Pib gene, ruling out effects of other R genes and non-specific genotoxic effects by the drug-treatment as a cause for the compromised Pib-conditioned blast-resistance. Taken together, our results suggest that promoter DNA methylation plays a novel enhancing role in conditioning high-level of induced expression of the Pib gene in times of M. grisea infection, and its conferred resistance to the pathogen.

  6. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, John J

    2013-11-26

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  7. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, John J.

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  8. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, John J.

    2012-09-11

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  9. [DNA methylation and epigenetics].

    PubMed

    Vaniushin, B F

    2006-09-01

    In eukaryotic cells, nuclear DNA is subject to enzymatic methylation with the formation of 5-methylcytosine residues, mostly within the CG and CNG sequences. In plants and animals this DNA methylation is species-, tissue-, and organelle-specific. It changes (decreases) with age and is regulated by hormones. On the other hand, genome methylation can control hormonal signal. Replicative and post-replicative DNA methylation types are distinguished. They are mediated by multiple DNA methyltransferases with different site-specificity. Replication is accompanied by the appearance of hemimethylated DNA sites. Pronounced asymmetry of the DNA strand methylation disappears to the end of the cell cycle. A model of methylation-regulated DNA replication is proposed. DNA methylation controls all genetic processes in the cell (replication, transcription, DNA repair, recombination, and gene transposition). It is the mechanism of cell differentiation, gene discrimination and silencing. In animals, suppression of DNA methylation stops development (embryogenesis), switches on apoptosis, and is usually lethal. Disruption of DNA methylation pattern results in the malignant cell transformation and serves as one of the early diagnostic features of carcinogenesis. In malignant cell the pattern of DNA methylation, as well as the set of DNA methyltransferase activities, differs from that in normal cell. In plants inhibition of DNA methylation is accompanied by the induction of seed storage and florescence genes. In eukaryotes one and the same gene can be simultaneously methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues. It can be thus suggested, that the plant cell contains at least two different, and probably, interdependent systems of DNA methylation. The first eukaryotic adenine DNA methyltransferase was isolated from plants. This enzyme methylates DNA with the formation of N6-methyladenine residues in the sequence TGATCA (TGATCA-->TGm6ATCA). Plants possess AdoMet-dependent endonucleases

  10. Hypomethylation of cytosine residues in cold-sensitive regions of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Guarido, Paula Carolina Paes; de Paula, Adriano Alves; da Silva, Carlos Roberto Maximiano; Rodriguez, Carmen; Vanzela, André Luís Laforga

    2012-04-01

    Heterochromatin comprises a fraction of the genome usually with highly repeated DNA sequences and lacks of functional genes. This region can be revealed by using Giemsa C-banding, fluorochrome staining and cytomolecular tools. Some plant species are of particular interest through having a special type of heterochromatin denominated the cold-sensitive region (CSR). Independent of other chromosomal regions, when biological materials are subjected to low temperatures (about 0 °C), CSRs appear slightly stained and decondensed. In this study, we used Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae) to understand some aspects of CSR condensation associated with cytosine methylation levels, and to compare the behavior of different heterochromatin types of this species, when subjected to low temperatures.

  11. Cytosine chemoreceptor McpC in Pseudomonas putida F1 also detects nicotinic acid.

    PubMed

    Parales, Rebecca E; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Hughes, Jonathan G; Luu, Rita A; Ditty, Jayna L

    2014-12-01

    Soil bacteria are generally capable of growth on a wide range of organic chemicals, and pseudomonads are particularly adept at utilizing aromatic compounds. Pseudomonads are motile bacteria that are capable of sensing a wide range of chemicals, using both energy taxis and chemotaxis. Whilst the identification of specific chemicals detected by the ≥26 chemoreceptors encoded in Pseudomonas genomes is ongoing, the functions of only a limited number of Pseudomonas chemoreceptors have been revealed to date. We report here that McpC, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein in Pseudomonas putida F1 that was previously shown to function as a receptor for cytosine, was also responsible for the chemotactic response to the carboxylated pyridine nicotinic acid.

  12. Hypomethylation of cytosine residues in cold-sensitive regions of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Guarido, Paula Carolina Paes; de Paula, Adriano Alves; da Silva, Carlos Roberto Maximiano; Rodriguez, Carmen; Vanzela, André Luís Laforga

    2012-01-01

    Heterochromatin comprises a fraction of the genome usually with highly repeated DNA sequences and lacks of functional genes. This region can be revealed by using Giemsa C-banding, fluorochrome staining and cytomolecular tools. Some plant species are of particular interest through having a special type of heterochromatin denominated the cold-sensitive region (CSR). Independent of other chromosomal regions, when biological materials are subjected to low temperatures (about 0 °C), CSRs appear slightly stained and decondensed. In this study, we used Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae) to understand some aspects of CSR condensation associated with cytosine methylation levels, and to compare the behavior of different heterochromatin types of this species, when subjected to low temperatures. PMID:22888295

  13. Mutation Processes in 293-Based Clones Overexpressing the DNA Cytosine Deaminase APOBEC3B

    PubMed Central

    Quist, Jelmar S.; Temiz, Nuri A.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Grigoriadis, Anita; Harris, Reuben S.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular, cellular, and clinical studies have combined to demonstrate a contribution from the DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) to the overall mutation load in breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, ovarian, and other cancer types. However, the complete landscape of mutations attributable to this enzyme has yet to be determined in a controlled human cell system. We report a conditional and isogenic system for A3B induction, genomic DNA deamination, and mutagenesis. Human 293-derived cells were engineered to express doxycycline-inducible A3B-eGFP or eGFP constructs. Cells were subjected to 10 rounds of A3B-eGFP exposure that each caused 80–90% cell death. Control pools were subjected to parallel rounds of non-toxic eGFP exposure, and dilutions were done each round to mimic A3B-eGFP induced population fluctuations. Targeted sequencing of portions of TP53 and MYC demonstrated greater mutation accumulation in the A3B-eGFP exposed pools. Clones were generated and microarray analyses were used to identify those with the greatest number of SNP alterations for whole genome sequencing. A3B-eGFP exposed clones showed global increases in C-to-T transition mutations, enrichments for cytosine mutations within A3B-preferred trinucleotide motifs, and more copy number aberrations. Surprisingly, both control and A3B-eGFP clones also elicited strong mutator phenotypes characteristic of defective mismatch repair. Despite this additional mutational process, the 293-based system characterized here still yielded a genome-wide view of A3B-catalyzed mutagenesis in human cells and a system for additional studies on the compounded effects of simultaneous mutation mechanisms in cancer cells. PMID:27163364

  14. Quantitative DNA Methylation Profiling in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ammerpohl, Ole; Haake, Andrea; Kolarova, Julia; Siebert, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are fundamental for the regulation of gene expression. Epigenetic alterations can lead to the development and the evolution of malignant tumors as well as the emergence of phenotypically different cancer cells or metastasis from one single tumor cell. Here we describe bisulfite pyrosequencing, a technology to perform quantitative DNA methylation analyses, to detect aberrant DNA methylation in malignant tumors.

  15. RNA-mediated epigenetic heredity requires the cytosine methyltransferase Dnmt2.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Jafar; Grandjean, Valérie; Liebers, Reinhard; Tuorto, Francesca; Ghanbarian, Hossein; Lyko, Frank; Cuzin, François; Rassoulzadegan, Minoo

    2013-05-01

    RNA-mediated transmission of phenotypes is an important way to explain non-Mendelian heredity. We have previously shown that small non-coding RNAs can induce hereditary epigenetic variations in mice and act as the transgenerational signalling molecules. Two prominent examples for these paramutations include the epigenetic modulation of the Kit gene, resulting in altered fur coloration, and the modulation of the Sox9 gene, resulting in an overgrowth phenotype. We now report that expression of the Dnmt2 RNA methyltransferase is required for the establishment and hereditary maintenance of both paramutations. Our data show that the Kit paramutant phenotype was not transmitted to the progeny of Dnmt2(-/-) mice and that the Sox9 paramutation was also not established in Dnmt2(-/-) embryos. Similarly, RNA from Dnmt2-negative Kit heterozygotes did not induce the paramutant phenotype when microinjected into Dnmt2-deficient fertilized eggs and microinjection of the miR-124 microRNA failed to induce the characteristic giant phenotype. In agreement with an RNA-mediated mechanism of inheritance, no change was observed in the DNA methylation profiles of the Kit locus between the wild-type and paramutant mice. RNA bisulfite sequencing confirmed Dnmt2-dependent tRNA methylation in mouse sperm and also indicated Dnmt2-dependent cytosine methylation in Kit RNA in paramutant embryos. Together, these findings uncover a novel function of Dnmt2 in RNA-mediated epigenetic heredity.

  16. Assemblies of cytosine within H-bonded network of adipic acid and citric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Babulal; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-08-01

    Adipic acid binds to cytosine to form H-bonded discrete cytosine-cytosinium assemblies embedded in 1D infinite chain of adipic acid, whereas citric acid stabilizes trimeric cytosine-cytosinium assemblies having length of 19.44 Å stabilized between layered structures of citric acid molecules.

  17. Photophysical properties of pyrrolocytosine, a cytosine fluorescent base analogue†

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh L.; Spata, Vincent A.

    2016-01-01

    The photophysical behavior of pyrrolocytosine (PC), a fluorescent base analogue of cytosine, has been investigated using theoretical approaches. The similarities between the PC and cytosine structures allow PC to maintain the pseudo-Watson–Crick base-pairing arrangement with guanine. Cytosine, similar to the other natural nucleobases, is practically non-fluorescent, because of ultrafast radiationless decay occurring through conical intersections. PC displays a much higher fluorescence quantum yield than cytosine, making it an effective fluorescent marker to study the structure, function, and dynamics of DNA/RNA complexes. Similar to 2-aminopurine, a constitutional isomer of adenine that base-pairs with thymine, PC's fluorescence is quenched when it is incorporated into a dinucleotide or a trinucleotide. In this work we examine the photophysical properties of isolated PC, microhydrated PC, as well as, complexes where PC is either base-stacked or hydrogen-bonded with guanine. Our results indicate that hydration affects the radiationless decay pathways in PC by destabilizing conical intersections. The calculations of dimers and trimers show that the radiative decay is affected by π stacking, while the presence of charge transfer states between PC and guanine may contribute to radiationless decay. PMID:27251599

  18. Phenotype prediction based on genome-wide DNA methylation data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation (DNAm) has important regulatory roles in many biological processes and diseases. It is the only epigenetic mark with a clear mechanism of mitotic inheritance and the only one easily available on a genome scale. Aberrant cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) methylation has been discussed in the context of disease aetiology, especially cancer. CpG hypermethylation of promoter regions is often associated with silencing of tumour suppressor genes and hypomethylation with activation of oncogenes. Supervised principal component analysis (SPCA) is a popular machine learning method. However, in a recent application to phenotype prediction from DNAm data SPCA was inferior to the specific method EVORA. Results We present Model-Selection-SPCA (MS-SPCA), an enhanced version of SPCA. MS-SPCA applies several models that perform well in the training data to the test data and selects the very best models for final prediction based on parameters of the test data. We have applied MS-SPCA for phenotype prediction from genome-wide DNAm data. CpGs used for prediction are selected based on the quantification of three features of their methylation (average methylation difference, methylation variation difference and methylation-age-correlation). We analysed four independent case–control datasets that correspond to different stages of cervical cancer: (i) cases currently cytologically normal, but will later develop neoplastic transformations, (ii, iii) cases showing neoplastic transformations and (iv) cases with confirmed cancer. The first dataset was split into several smaller case–control datasets (samples either Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) positive or negative). We demonstrate that cytology normal HPV+ and HPV- samples contain DNAm patterns which are associated with later neoplastic transformations. We present evidence that DNAm patterns exist in cytology normal HPV- samples that (i) predispose to neoplastic transformations after HPV infection and (ii

  19. Optical biosensing strategies for DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Nazmul Islam, Md; Yadav, Sharda; Hakimul Haque, Md; Munaz, Ahmed; Islam, Farhadul; Al Hossain, Md Shahriar; Gopalan, Vinod; Lam, Alfred K; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A

    2017-06-15

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of DNA, where a methyl group is added at the fifth carbon of the cytosine base to form 5 methyl cytosine (5mC) without altering the DNA sequences. It plays important roles in regulating many cellular processes by modulating key genes expression. Alteration in DNA methylation patterns becomes particularly important in the aetiology of different diseases including cancers. Abnormal methylation pattern could contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer either by silencing key tumor suppressor genes or by activating oncogenes. Thus, DNA methylation biosensing can help in the better understanding of cancer prognosis and diagnosis and aid the development of therapies. Over the last few decades, a plethora of optical detection techniques have been developed for analyzing DNA methylation using fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), electrochemiluminescence and colorimetric readouts. This paper aims to comprehensively review the optical strategies for DNA methylation detection. We also present an overview of the remaining challenges of optical strategies that still need to be focused along with the lesson learnt while working with these techniques.

  20. Conservation and divergence of methylation patterning in plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Suhua; Cokus, Shawn J; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Pao-Yang; Bostick, Magnolia; Goll, Mary G; Hetzel, Jonathan; Jain, Jayati; Strauss, Steven H; Halpern, Marnie E; Ukomadu, Chinweike; Sadler, Kirsten C; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Pellegrini, Matteo; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2010-05-11

    Cytosine DNA methylation is a heritable epigenetic mark present in many eukaryotic organisms. Although DNA methylation likely has a conserved role in gene silencing, the levels and patterns of DNA methylation appear to vary drastically among different organisms. Here we used shotgun genomic bisulfite sequencing (BS-Seq) to compare DNA methylation in eight diverse plant and animal genomes. We found that patterns of methylation are very similar in flowering plants with methylated cytosines detected in all sequence contexts, whereas CG methylation predominates in animals. Vertebrates have methylation throughout the genome except for CpG islands. Gene body methylation is conserved with clear preference for exons in most organisms. Furthermore, genes appear to be the major target of methylation in Ciona and honey bee. Among the eight organisms, the green alga Chlamydomonas has the most unusual pattern of methylation, having non-CG methylation enriched in exons of genes rather than in repeats and transposons. In addition, the Dnmt1 cofactor Uhrf1 has a conserved function in maintaining CG methylation in both transposons and gene bodies in the mouse, Arabidopsis, and zebrafish genomes.

  1. DNA Methylation Affects the Efficiency of Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases-Mediated Genome Editing in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Hidetaka; Numa, Hisataka; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Toki, Seiichi; Habu, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing in plants becomes popular since the advent of sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) that are simple to set up and efficient in various plant species. Although transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are one of the most prevalent SSNs and have a potential to provide higher target specificity by their dimeric property, TALENs are sensitive to methylated cytosines that are present not only in transposons but also in active genes in plants. In mammalian cells, the methylation sensitivity of TALENs could be overcome by using a base-recognition module (N∗) that has a higher affinity to methylated cytosine. In contrast to mammals, plants carry DNA methylation at all cytosine contexts (CG, CHG, and CHH, where H represents A, C, or T) with various degrees and effectiveness of N∗ module in genome editing in plants has not been explored. In this study, we designed sets of TALENs with or without N∗ modules and examined their efficiency in genome editing of methylated regions in rice. Although improvement in genome editing efficiency was observed with N∗-TALENs designed to a stably methylated target, another target carrying cytosines with various levels of methylation showed resistance to both normal and N∗-TALENs. The results suggest that variability of cytosine methylation in target regions is an additional factor affecting the genome editing efficiency of TALENs. PMID:28348570

  2. [Synthese of 1-(5-deoxy-beta-D-ribo-hexofuranosyl)cytosine and 1-(2,5-dideoxy-beta-D-erythro-hexofuranosyl)cytosine, and their phosphates. Specificity of an mammalian (rat) ribonucleotide-reductase].

    PubMed

    David, S; de Sennyey, G

    1979-12-01

    Mild, acidic hydrolysis of 3-O-benzoyl-1,2,:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-allofuranose gave a diol that was selectively benzoylated at O-6 in high yield by intermediate conversion to the stannylene derivative. The 3,6-dibenzoate was converted to the 5-O-tosyl derivative and thence to a mixture of iodides, which were reduced with tributylstannane to 3,6-di-O-benzoyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-ribo-hexofuranose (6). Acetolysis gave an anomeric mixture of diacetates, which, when treated with N-acetylbis(trimethylsilyl)cytosine gave the protected nucleoside, which was deprotected to free "homocytidine", 1-(5-deoxy-beta-D-ribo-hexofuranosyl)cytosine (11), by alklaine methanolysis. This was N-acetylated and then treated with acetone to give a protected nucleoside, which was labelled by oxidation to the aldehyde, reduction with sodium borotritide, and deprotection. Acidic methanolysis of 6 gave a mixture of methyl 2,6- and 3,6-di-O-benzoylfuranosides, the hydroxyl groups of which were treated by the tetrachloromethane-triphenylphosphine reagent to give the 2-chloro-2-deoxy (21) and 3-chloro-3-deoxy derivatives. Reduction of 21 gave methyl 3,6-di-O-benzoyl-2,5-dideoxy-D-erythro-furanoside, further transformed in 1-(2,5-dideoxy-beta-D-erythro-hexofuranosyl)cytosine mixed with the alpha anomer. Phosphates and diphosphates of the nucleosides were prepared by extensions of known methods. The phosphate and the diphosphate of 11 act neither as substrates nor as inhibitors of a ribonucleotide-reductase from rat asicites tumor.

  3. The evidence for functional non-CpG methylation in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vibha; Ward, Robyn L; Hesson, Luke B

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian genomes, the methylation of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides is crucial to normal development and cell differentiation. However, methylation of cytosines in the contexts of CpA, CpT, and CpC (non-CpG methylation) has been reported for decades, yet remains poorly understood. In recent years, whole genome bisulphite sequencing (WGBS) has confirmed significant levels of non-CpG methylation in specific tissues and cell types. Non-CpG methylation has several properties that distinguish it from CpG methylation. Here we review the literature describing non-CpG methylation in mammalian cells, describe the important characteristics that distinguish it from CpG methylation, and discuss its functional importance. PMID:24717538

  4. In situ analysis of DNA methylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Kathiria, Palak; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in the plant genome are associated with differential genome methylation, histone modifications, and the binding of various chromatin-binding factors. Methylation of cytosine residues is one of the most versatile mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. The analysis of DNA methylation can be performed in different ways. However, most of these procedures involve the extraction of chromatin from cells with further isolation and analysis of DNA. Modest success has been achieved in DNA methylation analysis in plant tissues in situ. Here, we present an in situ method for DNA methylation analysis, which has high sensitivity and good reproducibility.

  5. Strand-biased cytosine deamination at the replication fork causes cytosine to thymine mutations in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Ashok S; Hao, Weilong; Townes, Jesse P; Lee, Heewook; Tang, Haixu; Foster, Patricia L

    2016-02-23

    The rate of cytosine deamination is much higher in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) than in double-stranded DNA, and copying the resulting uracils causes C to T mutations. To study this phenomenon, the catalytic domain of APOBEC3G (A3G-CTD), an ssDNA-specific cytosine deaminase, was expressed in an Escherichia coli strain defective in uracil repair (ung mutant), and the mutations that accumulated over thousands of generations were determined by whole-genome sequencing. C:G to T:A transitions dominated, with significantly more cytosines mutated to thymine in the lagging-strand template (LGST) than in the leading-strand template (LDST). This strand bias was present in both repair-defective and repair-proficient cells and was strongest and highly significant in cells expressing A3G-CTD. These results show that the LGST is accessible to cellular cytosine deaminating agents, explains the well-known GC skew in microbial genomes, and suggests the APOBEC3 family of mutators may target the LGST in the human genome.

  6. DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Delpu, Yannick; Cordelier, Pierre; Cho, William C.; Torrisani, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results. PMID:23873296

  7. Mycoplasma CG- and GATC-specific DNA methyltransferases selectively and efficiently methylate the host genome and alter the epigenetic landscape in human cells.

    PubMed

    Chernov, Andrei V; Reyes, Leticia; Xu, Zhenkang; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Golovko, Georgiy; Peterson, Scott; Perucho, Manuel; Fofanov, Yuriy; Strongin, Alex Y

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is frequently observed in disease, including many cancer types, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because germline and somatic mutations in the genes that are responsible for DNA methylation are infrequent in malignancies, additional mechanisms must be considered. Mycoplasmas spp., including Mycoplasma hyorhinis, efficiently colonize human cells and may serve as a vehicle for delivery of enzymatically active microbial proteins into the intracellular milieu. Here, we performed, for the first time, genome-wide and individual gene mapping of methylation marks generated by the M. hyorhinis CG- and GATC-specific DNA cytosine methyltransferases (MTases) in human cells. Our results demonstrated that, upon expression in human cells, MTases readily translocated to the cell nucleus. In the nucleus, MTases selectively and efficiently methylated the host genome at the DNA sequence sites free from pre-existing endogenous methylation, including those in a variety of cancer-associated genes. We also established that mycoplasma is widespread in colorectal cancers, suggesting that either the infection contributed to malignancy onset or, alternatively, that tumors provide a favorable environment for mycoplasma growth. In the human genome, ∼ 11% of GATC sites overlap with CGs (e.g., CGAT(m)CG); therefore, the methylated status of these sites can be perpetuated by human DNMT1. Based on these results, we now suggest that the GATC-specific methylation represents a novel type of infection-specific epigenetic mark that originates in human cells with a previous exposure to infection. Overall, our findings unveil an entirely new panorama of interactions between the human microbiome and epigenome with a potential impact in disease etiology.

  8. DNA Methylation of BDNF Gene in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Çöpoğlu, Ümit Sertan; Igci, Mehri; Bozgeyik, Esra; Kokaçya, M Hanifi; İğci, Yusuf Ziya; Dokuyucu, Recep; Ari, Mustafa; Savaş, Haluk A

    2016-02-06

    BACKGROUND Although genetic factors are risk factors for schizophrenia, some environmental factors are thought to be required for the manifestation of disease. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene functions without causing a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. It has been suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It is established that methylation status of the BDNF gene is associated with fear learning, memory, and stressful social interactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the DNA methylation status of BDNF gene in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 49 patients (33 male and 16 female) with schizophrenia and 65 unrelated healthy controls (46 male and 19 female). Determination of methylation pattern of CpG islands was based on the principle that bisulfite treatment of DNA results in conversion of unmethylated cytosine residues into uracil, whereas methylated cytosine residues remain unmodified. Methylation-specific PCR was performed with primers specific for either methylated or unmethylated DNA. RESULTS There was no significant difference in methylated or un-methylated status for BDNF promoters between schizophrenia patients and controls. The mean duration of illness was significantly lower in the hemi-methylated group compared to the non-methylated group for BDNF gene CpG island-1 in schizophrenia patients. CONCLUSIONS Although there were no differences in BDNF gene methylation status between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, there was an association between duration of illness and DNA methylation.

  9. DNA Methylation of BDNF Gene in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Çöpoğlu, Ümit Sertan; İğci, Mehri; Bozgeyik, Esra; Kokaçya, M. Hanifi; İğci, Yusuf Ziya; Dokuyucu, Recep; Arı, Mustafa; Savaş, Haluk A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although genetic factors are risk factors for schizophrenia, some environmental factors are thought to be required for the manifestation of disease. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene functions without causing a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. It has been suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It is established that methylation status of the BDNF gene is associated with fear learning, memory, and stressful social interactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the DNA methylation status of BDNF gene in patients with schizophrenia. Material/Methods The study included 49 patients (33 male and 16 female) with schizophrenia and 65 unrelated healthy controls (46 male and 19 female). Determination of methylation pattern of CpG islands was based on the principle that bisulfite treatment of DNA results in conversion of unmethylated cytosine residues into uracil, whereas methylated cytosine residues remain unmodified. Methylation-specific PCR was performed with primers specific for either methylated or unmethylated DNA. Results There was no significant difference in methylated or un-methylated status for BDNF promoters between schizophrenia patients and controls. The mean duration of illness was significantly lower in the hemi-methylated group compared to the non-methylated group for BDNF gene CpG island-1 in schizophrenia patients. Conclusions Although there were no differences in BDNF gene methylation status between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, there was an association between duration of illness and DNA methylation. PMID:26851233

  10. Enhanced reduced representation bisulfite sequencing for assessment of DNA methylation at base pair resolution.

    PubMed

    Garrett-Bakelman, Francine E; Sheridan, Caroline K; Kacmarczyk, Thadeous J; Ishii, Jennifer; Betel, Doron; Alonso, Alicia; Mason, Christopher E; Figueroa, Maria E; Melnick, Ari M

    2015-02-24

    DNA methylation pattern mapping is heavily studied in normal and diseased tissues. A variety of methods have been established to interrogate the cytosine methylation patterns in cells. Reduced representation of whole genome bisulfite sequencing was developed to detect quantitative base pair resolution cytosine methylation patterns at GC-rich genomic loci. This is accomplished by combining the use of a restriction enzyme followed by bisulfite conversion. Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (ERRBS) increases the biologically relevant genomic loci covered and has been used to profile cytosine methylation in DNA from human, mouse and other organisms. ERRBS initiates with restriction enzyme digestion of DNA to generate low molecular weight fragments for use in library preparation. These fragments are subjected to standard library construction for next generation sequencing. Bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosines prior to the final amplification step allows for quantitative base resolution of cytosine methylation levels in covered genomic loci. The protocol can be completed within four days. Despite low complexity in the first three bases sequenced, ERRBS libraries yield high quality data when using a designated sequencing control lane. Mapping and bioinformatics analysis is then performed and yields data that can be easily integrated with a variety of genome-wide platforms. ERRBS can utilize small input material quantities making it feasible to process human clinical samples and applicable in a range of research applications. The video produced demonstrates critical steps of the ERRBS protocol.

  11. 78 FR 32157 - Methyl 5-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-5-oxopentanoate; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... treatment with methyl 5-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-5-oxopentanoate. A Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test... frequency. A Chromosome Aberration Test with Human Lymphocytes in vitro showed no signs of cells carrying...; mutagenicity studies (gene mutation, chromosomal aberrations assay), including in vivo micronucleus assay;...

  12. DNA methylation and cancer diagnosis: new methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Dehan, Pierre; Kustermans, Gaelle; Guenin, Samuel; Horion, Julie; Boniver, Jacques; Delvenne, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Methylation of cytosines in cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides is one of the most important epigenetic alterations in animals. The presence of methylcytosine in the promoter of specific genes has profound consequences on local chromatin structure and on the regulation of gene expression. Changes in DNA methylation play a central role in carcinogenesis. Hypermethylation and consecutive transcriptional silencing of tumor-suppressor genes has been documented in numerous cancers. The identification of target genes silenced by this modification has a great impact on diagnosis, classification, definition of risk groups and prognosis of cancer patients. Here we outline genome-wide techniques aiming at the identification of relevant methylated promoters. Methods and applications allowing clinicians to monitor the methylation of target genes will be also reviewed.

  13. Dynamics of DNA methylation in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Irier, Hasan A; Jin, Peng

    2012-10-01

    Gene expression is modulated by epigenetic factors that come in varying forms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs. Recent studies reveal that these epigenetic marks are important regulatory factors in brain function. In particular, DNA methylation dynamics are found to be essential components of epigenetic regulation in the mammalian central nervous system. In this review, we provide an overview of the literature on DNA methylation in neurodegenerative diseases, with a special focus on methylation of 5-position of cytosine base (5mC) and hydroxymethylation of 5-position of cytosine base (5hmC) in the context of neurodegeneration associated with aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Fragmentation mechanisms of cytosine, adenine and guanine ionized bases.

    PubMed

    Sadr-Arani, Leila; Mignon, Pierre; Chermette, Henry; Abdoul-Carime, Hassan; Farizon, Bernadette; Farizon, Michel

    2015-05-07

    The different fragmentation channels of cytosine, adenine and guanine have been studied through DFT calculations. The electronic structure of bases, their cations, and the fragments obtained by breaking bonds provides a good understanding of the fragmentation process that can complete the experimental approach. The calculations allow assigning various fragments to the given peaks. The comparison between the energy required for the formation of fragments and the peak intensity in the mass spectrum is used. For cytosine and guanine the elimination of the HNCO molecule is a major route of dissociation, while for adenine multiple loss of HCN or HNC can be followed up to small fragments. For cytosine, this corresponds to the initial bond cleavage of N3-C4/N1-C2, which represents the main dissociation route. For guanine the release of HNCO is obtained through the N1-C2/C5-C6 bond cleavage (reverse order also possible) leading to the largest peak of the spectrum. The corresponding energies of 3.5 and 3.9 eV are typically in the range available in the experiments. The loss of NH3 or HCN is also possible but requires more energy. For adenine, fragmentation consists of multiple loss of the HCN molecule and the main route corresponding to HC8N9 loss is followed by the release of HC2N1.

  15. Three-dimensional structure and catalytic mechanism of cytosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard S; Fedorov, Alexander A; Xu, Chengfu; Fedorov, Elena V; Almo, Steven C; Raushel, Frank M

    2011-06-07

    Cytosine deaminase (CDA) from E. coli is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily. The structure of the zinc-activated enzyme was determined in the presence of phosphonocytosine, a mimic of the tetrahedral reaction intermediate. This compound inhibits the deamination of cytosine with a K(i) of 52 nM. The zinc- and iron-containing enzymes were characterized to determine the effect of the divalent cations on activation of the hydrolytic water. Fe-CDA loses activity at low pH with a kinetic pK(a) of 6.0, and Zn-CDA has a kinetic pK(a) of 7.3. Mutation of Gln-156 decreased the catalytic activity by more than 5 orders of magnitude, supporting its role in substrate binding. Mutation of Glu-217, Asp-313, and His-246 significantly decreased catalytic activity supporting the role of these three residues in activation of the hydrolytic water molecule and facilitation of proton transfer reactions. A library of potential substrates was used to probe the structural determinants responsible for catalytic activity. CDA was able to catalyze the deamination of isocytosine and the hydrolysis of 3-oxauracil. Large inverse solvent isotope effects were obtained on k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m), consistent with the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond during the conversion of cytosine to uracil. A chemical mechanism for substrate deamination by CDA was proposed.

  16. An efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine and uracil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, M. P.; Miller, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the purines, the routes that have been proposed for the prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidines from simple precursors give only low yields. Cytosine can be synthesized from cyanoacetylene and cyanate; the former precursor is produced from a spark discharge in a CH4/N2 mixture and is an abundant interstellar molecule. But this reaction requires relatively high concentrations of cyanate (> 0.1 M), which are unlikely to occur in aqueous media as cyanate is hydrolysed rapidly to CO2 and NH3. An alternative route that has been explored is the reaction of cyanoacetaldehyde (formed by hydrolysis of cyanoacetylene) with urea. But at low concentrations of urea, this reaction produces no detectable quantities of cytosine. Here we show that in concentrated urea solution--such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon or in pools on drying beaches on the early Earth--cyanoacetaldehyde reacts to form cytosine in yields of 30-50%, from which uracil can be formed by hydrolysis. These reactions provide a plausible route to the pyrimidine bases required in the RNA world.

  17. Three-Dimensional Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Cytosine Deaminase

    SciTech Connect

    R Hall; A Fedorov; C Xu; E Fedorov; S Almo; F Raushel

    2011-12-31

    Cytosine deaminase (CDA) from E. coli is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily. The structure of the zinc-activated enzyme was determined in the presence of phosphonocytosine, a mimic of the tetrahedral reaction intermediate. This compound inhibits the deamination of cytosine with a K{sub i} of 52 nM. The zinc- and iron-containing enzymes were characterized to determine the effect of the divalent cations on activation of the hydrolytic water. Fe-CDA loses activity at low pH with a kinetic pKa of 6.0, and Zn-CDA has a kinetic pKa of 7.3. Mutation of Gln-156 decreased the catalytic activity by more than 5 orders of magnitude, supporting its role in substrate binding. Mutation of Glu-217, Asp-313, and His-246 significantly decreased catalytic activity supporting the role of these three residues in activation of the hydrolytic water molecule and facilitation of proton transfer reactions. A library of potential substrates was used to probe the structural determinants responsible for catalytic activity. CDA was able to catalyze the deamination of isocytosine and the hydrolysis of 3-oxauracil. Large inverse solvent isotope effects were obtained on k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K{sub m}, consistent with the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond during the conversion of cytosine to uracil. A chemical mechanism for substrate deamination by CDA was proposed.

  18. Genome-wide DNA methylation profile in mungbean

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yang Jae; Bae, Ahra; Shim, Sangrea; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Satyawan, Dani; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation on cytosine residues is known to affect gene expression and is potentially responsible for the phenotypic variations among different crop cultivars. Here, we present the whole-genome DNA methylation profiles and assess the potential effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for two mungbean cultivars, Sunhwanogdu (VC1973A) and Kyunggijaerae#5 (V2984). By measuring the DNA methylation levels in leaf tissue with the bisulfite sequencing (BSseq) approach, we show both the frequencies of the various types of DNA methylation and the distribution of weighted gene methylation levels. SNPs that cause nucleotide changes from/to CHH – where C is cytosine and H is any other nucleotide – were found to affect DNA methylation status in VC1973A and V2984. In order to better understand the correlation between gene expression and DNA methylation levels, we surveyed gene expression in leaf tissues of VC1973A and V2984 using RNAseq. Transcript expressions of paralogous genes were controlled by DNA methylation within the VC1973A genome. Moreover, genes that were differentially expressed between the two cultivars showed distinct DNA methylation patterns. Our mungbean genome-wide methylation profiles will be valuable resources for understanding the phenotypic variations between different cultivars, as well as for molecular breeding. PMID:28084412

  19. An osmium-DNA interstrand complex: application to facile DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Tainaka, Kazuki; Umemoto, Tadashi; Nomura, Akiko; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2007-11-21

    Nucleic acids often acquire new functions by forming a variety of complexes with metal ions. Osmium, in an oxidized state, also reacts with C5-methylated pyrimidines. However, control of the sequence specificity of osmium complexation with DNA is still immature, and the value of the resulting complexes is unknown. We have designed a bipyridine-attached adenine derivative for sequence-specific osmium complexation. Sequence-specific osmium complexation was achieved by hybridization of a short DNA molecule containing this functional nucleotide to a target DNA sequence and resulted in the formation of a cross-linked structure. The interstrand cross-link clearly distinguished methylated cytosines from unmethylated cytosines and was used to quantify the degree of methylation at a specific cytosine in the genome.

  20. Determination of DNA methylation associated with Acer rubrum (red maple) adaptation to metals: analysis of global DNA modifications and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Im, Min-Ji; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Red maple (Acer rubum), a common deciduous tree species in Northern Ontario, has shown resistance to soil metal contamination. Previous reports have indicated that this plant does not accumulate metals in its tissue. However, low level of nickel and copper corresponding to the bioavailable levels in contaminated soils in Northern Ontario causes severe physiological damages. No differentiation between metal-contaminated and uncontaminated populations has been reported based on genetic analyses. The main objective of this study was to assess whether DNA methylation is involved in A. rubrum adaptation to soil metal contamination. Global cytosine and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analyses were carried out in A. rubrum populations from metal-contaminated and uncontaminated sites. The global modified cytosine ratios in genomic DNA revealed a significant decrease in cytosine methylation in genotypes from a metal-contaminated site compared to uncontaminated populations. Other genotypes from a different metal-contaminated site within the same region appear to be recalcitrant to metal-induced DNA alterations even ≥30 years of tree life exposure to nickel and copper. MSAP analysis showed a high level of polymorphisms in both uncontaminated (77%) and metal-contaminated (72%) populations. Overall, 205 CCGG loci were identified in which 127 were methylated in either outer or inner cytosine. No differentiation among populations was established based on several genetic parameters tested. The variations for nonmethylated and methylated loci were compared by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). For methylated loci, molecular variance among and within populations was 1.5% and 13.2%, respectively. These values were low (0.6% for among populations and 5.8% for within populations) for unmethylated loci. Metal contamination is seen to affect methylation of cytosine residues in CCGG motifs in the A. rubrum populations that were analyzed.

  1. Site-specific methylated reporter constructs for functional analysis of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiguo; Shi, Miao; Spivack, Simon D

    2013-11-01

    Methods to experimentally alter and functionally evaluate cytosine methylation in a site-specific manner have proven elusive. We describe a site-specific DNA methylation method, using synthetically methylated primers and high fidelity PCR coupled with ligation of reporter constructs. We applied this method to introduce methylated cytosines into fragments of the respective DAPK and RASSF1A promoters that had been cloned into luciferase reporters. We found that methylation of 3-7 residue CpG clusters that were 5' adjacent to the transcription start site (TSS) of the DAPK gene produced up to a 54% decrease in promoter activity (p<0.01). Similarly, for RASSF1A promoter reporter constructs, the methylation of either of two clusters of four CpGs each, but not an intervening cluster, produced a 63% decrease in promoter activity (p<0.01), suggesting that precise mCpG position is crucial, and factors other than simple proximity to the TSS are at play. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of these reporter constructs demonstrated that transcription factor Oct-1 and Sp1 preferentially bound the unmethylated vs. methylated DAPK or RASSF1A promoter reporter constructs at the functional CpG sites. Histone H1, hnRNP1, and MeCP2 showed preferential binding to methylated sequence at functional sites in these reporter constructs, as well as highly preferential (> 8-80-fold) binding to native methylated vs. unmethylated chromatin. These results suggest that: (1) site-specific, precision DNA methylation of a reporter construct can be used for functional analysis of commonly observed gene promoter methylation patterns; (2) the reporter system contains key elements of the endogenous chromatin machinery.

  2. Methylation and expression analysis of 15 genes and three normally-methylated genes in 13 Ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Imura, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Cai, Li-Yi; Furuta, Jun-Ichi; Wakabayashi, Mika; Yasugi, Toshiharu; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2006-09-28

    Aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGIs) in promoter regions of tumor-suppressor genes causes their silencing, and aberrant demethylation of normally methylated CGIs in promoter regions causes aberrant expression of cancer-testis antigens. Here, we comprehensively analyzed aberrant methylation of 15 genes and demethylation of three normally methylated genes in 13 ovarian cancer cell lines. RASSF1A was most frequently methylated (complete methylation in 7 and partial methylation in 4 cell lines), followed by ESR1 (5 and 2, respectively), FLNC (4 and 4), HAND1 (4 and 2), LOX (3 and 2), HRASLS (3 and 2), MGMT (3 and 0), CDKN2A (3 and 0), THBD (2 and 1), hMLH1 (2 and 0), CDH1 (1 and 1) and GSTP1 (1 and 0). hTERC and TIMP3 were only partially methylated in 7 and 2 cell lines, respectively. BRCA1 was not methylated at all. Aberrant demethylation of MAGE-A3, -B2 and -A1 was detected in 8, 4 and 3 cell lines, respectively. Gene expression was consistently absent in cell lines without unmethylated DNA molecules. Aberrant methylation was frequently observed in MCAS, RMUG-L (mucinous cell carcinomas), RTSG (poorly-differentiated carcinoma) and TYK-nu (undifferentiated carcinoma) while infrequent in HTOA, JHOS-2, and OV-90 (serous cell carcinomas). Aberrant demethylation was frequently observed in OV-90, OVK-18, and ES-2 cell lines. It was shown that aberrant methylation and demethylation were frequently observed in ovarian cancer cell lines, and these data will provide a basis for further epigenetic analysis in ovarian cancers.

  3. Low temperature FTIR spectroscopy and hydrogen bonding in cytosine polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenberg, M.; Shoham, G.; Reva, I.; Fausto, R.

    2004-01-01

    The FTIR spectra of both the pure NH and isotopically substituted ND (<10% and >90% D) polycrystalline cytosine were recorded in the range 400-4000 cm -1 as a function of temperature (10-300 K). For the first time, uncoupled NH(D) stretching mode bands of amine and imine groups were observed in the spectra of isotopically diluted cytosine at low temperatures. These bands correspond to the three distinct H-bonds that are present in the crystal, in agreement with the available data obtained by structural methods. At least nine bands were observed below 1000 cm -1 and, in consonance with their temperature and isotopic exchange behavior, were assigned to the NH proton out-of-the-plane bending modes. Six of these bands were found to correspond to additional "disordered" H-bonds, which could not be observed by structural methods. Empirical correlations of spectral and thermodynamic parameters enabled to estimate the contribution of the H-bonds to the sublimation enthalpy of the crystal, in agreement with independent experimental data.

  4. Communication: UV photoionization of cytosine catalyzed by Ag{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Taccone, Martín I.; Berdakin, Matías; Pino, Gustavo A.; Féraud, Geraldine; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe

    2015-07-28

    The photo-induced damages of DNA in interaction with metal cations, which are found in various environments, still remain to be characterized. In this paper, we show how the complexation of a DNA base (cytosine (Cyt)) with a metal cation (Ag{sup +}) changes its electronic properties. By means of UV photofragment spectroscopy of cold ions, it was found that the photoexcitation of the CytAg{sup +} complex at low energy (315-282) nm efficiently leads to ionized cytosine (Cyt{sup +}) as the single product. This occurs through a charge transfer state in which an electron from the p orbital of Cyt is promoted to Ag{sup +}, as confirmed by ab initio calculations at the TD-DFT/B3LYP and RI-ADC(2) theory level using the SV(P) basis set. The low ionization energy of Cyt in the presence of Ag{sup +} could have important implications as point mutation of DNA upon sunlight exposition.

  5. The DNA methylation level against the background of the genome size and t-heterochromatin content in some species of the genus Secale L

    PubMed Central

    Kalinka, Anna; Poter, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Methylation of cytosine in DNA is one of the most important epigenetic modifications in eukaryotes and plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene activity and the maintenance of genomic integrity. DNA methylation and other epigenetic mechanisms affect the development, differentiation or the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress. This study compared the level of methylation of cytosines on a global (ELISA) and genomic scale (MSAP) between the species of the genus Secale. We analyzed whether the interspecific variation of cytosine methylation was associated with the size of the genome (C-value) and the content of telomeric heterochromatin. MSAP analysis showed that S. sylvestre was the most distinct species among the studied rye taxa; however, the results clearly indicated that these differences were not statistically significant. The total methylation level of the studied loci was very similar in all taxa and ranged from 60% in S. strictum ssp. africanum to 66% in S. cereale ssp. segetale, which confirmed the lack of significant differences in the sequence methylation pattern between the pairs of rye taxa. The level of global cytosine methylation in the DNA was not significantly associated with the content of t-heterochromatin and did not overlap with the existing taxonomic rye relationships. The highest content of 5-methylcytosine was found in S. cereale ssp. segetale (83%), while very low in S. strictum ssp. strictum (53%), which was significantly different from the methylation state of all taxa, except for S. sylvestre. The other studied taxa of rye had a similar level of methylated cytosine ranging from 66.42% (S. vavilovii) to 74.41% in (S. cereale ssp. afghanicum). The results obtained in this study are evidence that the percentage of methylated cytosine cannot be inferred solely based on the genome size or t-heterochromatin. This is a significantly more complex issue. PMID:28149679

  6. Characterization of CpG sites that escape methylation on the inactive human X-chromosome.

    PubMed

    Moen, Erika L; Litwin, Edward; Arnovitz, Stephen; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Dolan, M Eileen; Godley, Lucy A

    2015-01-01

    In many whole genome studies of gene expression or modified cytosines, data from probes localized to the X-chromosome are removed from analyses due to gender bias. Previously, we observed population differences in cytosine modifications between Caucasian and African lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) on the autosomes using whole genome arrays to measure modified cytosines. DNA methylation plays a critical role in establishment and maintenance of X-chromosome inactivation in females. Therefore, we reasoned that by investigating cytosine modification patterns specifically on the X-chromosome, we could obtain valuable information about a chromosome that is often disregarded in genome-wide analyses. We investigated population differences in cytosine modification patterns along the X-chromosome between Caucasian and African LCLs and identified novel sites that escape methylation on the inactive X-chromosome (Xi) in females. We characterized the chromatin state of these loci by incorporating the extensive histone modification ChIP-seq data generated by ENCODE. To explore the relationship between DNA and histone modifications further, we hypothesized that BRD4, a protein that binds acetylated histones, could be preventing some sites from becoming de novo methylated. To test this, we treated 4 female LCLs with JQ1, a small molecule inhibitor of BRD4, but found that JQ1 treatment induced minor changes in cytosine modification levels, and the majority of sites escaping methylation on the Xi remained unmethylated. This suggests that other epigenetic mechanisms or transcription factors are likely playing a larger role in protecting these sites from de novo methylation on the Xi.

  7. An integrative characterization of recurrent molecular aberrations in glioblastoma genomes.

    PubMed

    Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Liu, Pei-Ling; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Decades of investigations and the recent effort of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project have mapped many molecular alterations in GBM cells. Alterations on DNAs may dysregulate gene expressions and drive malignancy of tumors. It is thus important to uncover causal and statistical dependency between 'effector' molecular aberrations and 'target' gene expressions in GBMs. A rich collection of prior studies attempted to combine copy number variation (CNV) and mRNA expression data. However, systematic methods to integrate multiple types of cancer genomic data-gene mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms, CNVs, DNA methylations, mRNA and microRNA expressions and clinical information-are relatively scarce. We proposed an algorithm to build 'association modules' linking effector molecular aberrations and target gene expressions and applied the module-finding algorithm to the integrated TCGA GBM data sets. The inferred association modules were validated by six tests using external information and datasets of central nervous system tumors: (i) indication of prognostic effects among patients; (ii) coherence of target gene expressions; (iii) retention of effector-target associations in external data sets; (iv) recurrence of effector molecular aberrations in GBM; (v) functional enrichment of target genes; and (vi) co-citations between effectors and targets. Modules associated with well-known molecular aberrations of GBM-such as chromosome 7 amplifications, chromosome 10 deletions, EGFR and NF1 mutations-passed the majority of the validation tests. Furthermore, several modules associated with less well-reported molecular aberrations-such as chromosome 11 CNVs, CD40, PLXNB1 and GSTM1 methylations, and mir-21 expressions-were also validated by external information. In particular, modules constituting trans-acting effects with chromosome 11 CNVs and cis-acting effects with chromosome

  8. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation in serum DNA from patients with silicosis.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Shigeki; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Hiraki, Akio; Gemba, Kenichi; Takigawa, Nagio; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Fujii, Masanori; Umemura, Hiroshi; Satoh, Mamoru; Tabata, Masahiro; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Kishimoto, Takumi; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2008-09-01

    It is well established that patients with silicosis are at high risk for lung cancer; however, it is difficult to detect lung cancer by chest radiography during follow-up treatment of patients with silicosis because of preexisting diffuse pulmonary shadows. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of detection of serum DNA methylation for early detection of lung cancer in silicosis. Serum samples from healthy controls (n = 20) and silicosis patients with (n = 11) and without (n = 67) lung cancer were tested for aberrant hypermethylation at the promoters of the DNA repair gene O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p16(INK4a), ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), the apoptosis-related gene death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Aberrant promoter methylation in at least one of five tumor suppressor genes was detected more frequently in the serum DNA of silicosis patients with lung cancer than in that of patients without it (P = 0.006). Furthermore, the odds ratio of having lung cancer was 9.77 (P = 0.009) for those silicosis patients with methylation of at least one gene. Extended exposure to silica (>30 years) was correlated with an increased methylation frequency (P = 0.017); however, methylation status did not correlate with age, smoking history or radiographic findings of silicosis. These results suggest that testing for aberrant promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes using serum DNA may facilitate early detection of lung cancer in patients with silicosis.

  9. Genistein alters methylation patterns in mice.

    PubMed

    Day, J Kevin; Bauer, Andrew M; DesBordes, Charles; Zhuang, Yi; Kim, Byung-Eun; Newton, Leslie G; Nehra, Vedika; Forsee, Kara M; MacDonald, Ruth S; Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Lubahn, Dennis B

    2002-08-01

    In this study we examine the effect of the phytoestrogen genistein on DNA methylation. DNA methylation is thought to inhibit transcription of genes by regulating alterations in chromatin structure. Estrogenic compounds have been reported to regulate DNA methylation in a small number of studies. Additionally, phytoestrogens are believed to affect progression of some human diseases, such as estrogen-dependent cancers, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Specifically, our working hypothesis is that certain soy phytoestrogens, such as genistein, may be involved in preventing the development of certain prostate and mammary cancers by maintaining a protective DNA methylation profile. The objective of the present study is to use mouse differential methylation hybridization (DMH) arrays to test for changes in the methylation status of the cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG) islands in the mouse genome by examining how these methylation patterns are affected by genistein. Male mice were fed a casein-based diet (control) or the same diet containing 300 mg genistein/kg according to one of four regimens: control diet for 4 wk, genistein diet for 4 wk, control diet for 2 wk followed by genistein diet for 2 wk and genistein diet for 2 wk followed by control diet for 2 wk. DNA from liver, brain and prostate were then screened with DMH arrays. Clones with methylation differences were sequenced and compared with known sequences. In conclusion, consumption of genistein diet was positively correlated with changes in prostate DNA methylation at CpG islands of specific mouse genes.

  10. RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Aufsatz, Werner; Mette, M. Florian; van der Winden, Johannes; Matzke, Antonius J. M.; Matzke, Marjori

    2002-01-01

    In plants, double-stranded RNA that is processed to short RNAs ≈21–24 nt in length can trigger two types of epigenetic gene silencing. Posttranscriptional gene silencing, which is related to RNA interference in animals and quelling in fungi, involves targeted elimination of homologous mRNA in the cytoplasm. RNA-directed DNA methylation involves de novo methylation of almost all cytosine residues within a region of RNA–DNA sequence identity. RNA-directed DNA methylation is presumed to be responsible for the methylation observed in protein coding regions of posttranscriptionally silenced genes. Moreover, a type of transcriptional gene silencing and de novo methylation of homologous promoters in trans can occur if a double-stranded RNA contains promoter sequences. Although RNA-directed DNA methylation has been described so far only in plants, there is increasing evidence that RNA can also target genome modifications in other organisms. To understand how RNA directs methylation to identical DNA sequences and how changes in chromatin configuration contribute to initiating or maintaining DNA methylation induced by RNA, a promoter double-stranded RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing system has been established in Arabidopsis. A genetic analysis of this system is helping to unravel the relationships among RNA signals, DNA methylation, and chromatin structure. PMID:12169664

  11. Aberration correction of unstable resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Construction of aspheric reflectors for unstable resonator lasers to provide an arbitrary laser mode inside the resonator to correct aberrations of an output beam by the construction of the shape of an end reflector opposite the output reflector of the resonator cavity, such as aberrations resulting from refraction of a beam exiting the solid of the resonator having an index of refraction greater than 1 or to produce an aberration in the output beam that will precisely compensate for the aberration of an optical train into which the resonator beam is coupled.

  12. Photodynamic therapy-driven induction of suicide cytosine deaminase gene.

    PubMed

    Bil, Jacek; Wlodarski, Pawel; Winiarska, Magdalena; Kurzaj, Zuzanna; Issat, Tadeusz; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Wegiel, Barbara; Dulak, Jozef; Golab, Jakub

    2010-04-28

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors is associated with induction of hypoxia that results in activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Several observations indicate that increased HIFs transcriptional activity in tumor cells is associated with cytoprotective responses that limit cytotoxic effectiveness of PDT. Therefore, we decided to examine whether this cytoprotective mechanism could be intentionally used for designing more efficient tumor cell cytotoxicity. To this end we transfected tumor cells with a plasmid vector carrying a suicide cytosine deaminase gene driven by a promoter containing hypoxia response elements (HRE). The presence of such a genetic molecular beacon rendered tumor cells sensitive to cytotoxic effects of a non-toxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC). The results of this study provides a proof of concept that inducible cytoprotective mechanisms can be exploited to render tumor cells more susceptible to cytotoxic effects of prodrugs activated by products of suicide genes.

  13. Distinctive Klf4 mutants determine preference for DNA methylation status

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Wang, Dongxue; Steves, Alyse N.; Jin, Peng; Blumenthal, Robert M.; Zhang, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of mammalian genome methylation is critically important but poorly understood. Klf4, a transcription factor directing reprogramming, contains a DNA binding domain with three consecutive C2H2 zinc fingers. Klf4 recognizes CpG or TpG within a specific sequence. Mouse Klf4 DNA binding domain has roughly equal affinity for methylated CpG or TpG, and slightly lower affinity for unmodified CpG. The structural basis for this key preference is unclear, though the side chain of Glu446 is known to contact the methyl group of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or thymine (5-methyluracil). We examined the role of Glu446 by mutagenesis. Substituting Glu446 with aspartate (E446D) resulted in preference for unmodified cytosine, due to decreased affinity for 5mC. In contrast, substituting Glu446 with proline (E446P) increased affinity for 5mC by two orders of magnitude. Structural analysis revealed hydrophobic interaction between the proline's aliphatic cyclic structure and the 5-methyl group of the pyrimidine (5mC or T). As in wild-type Klf4 (E446), the proline at position 446 does not interact directly with either the 5mC N4 nitrogen or the thymine O4 oxygen. In contrast, the unmethylated cytosine's exocyclic N4 amino group (NH2) and its ring carbon C5 atom hydrogen bond directly with the aspartate carboxylate of the E446D variant. Both of these interactions would provide a preference for cytosine over thymine, and the latter one could explain the E446D preference for unmethylated cytosine. Finally, we evaluated the ability of these Klf4 mutants to regulate transcription of methylated and unmethylated promoters in a luciferase reporter assay. PMID:27596594

  14. Distinctive Klf4 mutants determine preference for DNA methylation status

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Wang, Dongxue; Steves, Alyse N.; Jin, Peng; Blumenthal, Robert M.; Zhang, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-09-04

    Reprogramming of mammalian genome methylation is critically important but poorly understood. Klf4, a transcription factor directing reprogramming, contains a DNA binding domain with three consecutive C2H2 zinc fingers. Klf4 recognizes CpG or TpG within a specific sequence. Mouse Klf4 DNA binding domain has roughly equal affinity for methylated CpG or TpG, and slightly lower affinity for unmodified CpG. The structural basis for this key preference is unclear, though the side chain of Glu446 is known to contact the methyl group of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or thymine (5-methyluracil). We examined the role of Glu446 by mutagenesis. Substituting Glu446 with aspartate (E446D) resulted in preference for unmodified cytosine, due to decreased affinity for 5mC. In contrast, substituting Glu446 with proline (E446P) increased affinity for 5mC by two orders of magnitude. Structural analysis revealed hydrophobic interaction between the proline's aliphatic cyclic structure and the 5-methyl group of the pyrimidine (5mC or T). As in wild-type Klf4 (E446), the proline at position 446 does not interact directly with either the 5mC N4 nitrogen or the thymine O4 oxygen. In contrast, the unmethylated cytosine's exocyclic N4 amino group (NH2) and its ring carbon C5 atom hydrogen bond directly with the aspartate carboxylate of the E446D variant. Both of these interactions would provide a preference for cytosine over thymine, and the latter one could explain the E446D preference for unmethylated cytosine. Finally, we evaluated the ability of these Klf4 mutants to regulate transcription of methylated and unmethylated promoters in a luciferase reporter assay.

  15. Natural history of eukaryotic DNA methylation systems.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2011-01-01

    Methylation of cytosines and adenines in DNA is a widespread epigenetic mark in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, it has a profound influence on chromatin structure and dynamics. Recent advances in genomics and biochemistry have considerably elucidated the functions and provenance of these DNA modifications. DNA methylases appear to have emerged first in bacterial restriction-modification (R-M) systems from ancient RNA-modifying enzymes, in transitions that involved acquisition of novel catalytic residues and DNA-recognition features. DNA adenine methylases appear to have been acquired by ciliates, heterolobosean amoeboflagellates, and certain chlorophyte algae. Six distinct clades of cytosine methylases, including the DNMT1, DNMT2, and DNMT3 clades, were acquired by eukaryotes through independent lateral transfer of their precursors from bacteria or bacteriophages. In addition to these, multiple adenine and cytosine methylases were acquired by several families of eukaryotic transposons. In eukaryotes, the DNA-methylase module was often combined with distinct modified and unmodified peptide recognition domains and other modules mediating specialized interactions, for example, the RFD module of DNMT1 which contains a permuted Sm domain linked to a helix-turn-helix domain. In eukaryotes, the evolution of DNA methylases appears to have proceeded in parallel to the elaboration of histone-modifying enzymes and the RNAi system, with functions related to counter-viral and counter-transposon defense, and regulation of DNA repair and differential gene expression being their primary ancestral functions. Diverse DNA demethylation systems that utilize base-excision repair via DNA glycosylases and cytosine deaminases appear to have emerged in multiple eukaryotic lineages. Comparative genomics suggests that the link between cytosine methylation and DNA glycosylases probably emerged first in a novel R-M system in bacteria. Recent studies suggest that the 5mC is not

  16. Accidental Amplification and Inactivation of a Methyltransferase Gene Eliminates Cytosine Methylation in Mycosphaerella Graminicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A de novo search for repetitive elements in the genome sequence of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola identified a family of repeats containing a DNA methyltransferase sequence (MgDNMT), which is a homologue of the Neurospora crassa Dim-2 gene. A total of 28 MgDNMT sequences was identifie...

  17. Surface study of gallium- and aluminum- doped graphenes upon adsorption of cytosine: DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokuhi Rad, Ali; Zareyee, Daryoush; Peyravi, Majid; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2016-12-01

    The adsorption of cytosine molecule on Al- and Ga- doped graphenes is studied using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The energetically most stable geometries of cytosine on both Al- and Ga- doped graphenes are determined and the adsorption energies are calculated. The net charge of transfer as well as local charge of doped atoms upon adsorption of cytosine are studied by natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis. Orbital hybridizing of complexes was searched by frontier molecular orbital theory (FMO), and density of states (DOS). Depending on the side of cytosine, there are four possible sites for its adsorption on doped graphene; denoted as P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively. The order of binding energy in the case of Al-doped graphene is found as P1 ˃ P4 ˃ P3 ˃ P2. Interestingly, the order in the case of Ga-doped graphene changes to: P4 ∼ P1˃ P3˃ P2. Both surfaces show superior adsorbent property, resulting chemisorption of cytosine, especially at P1 and P4 position configurations. The NBO charge analysis reveals that the charge transfers from Al- and Ga- doped graphene sheets to cytosine. The electronic properties of both surfaces undertake important changes after cytosine adsorption, which indicates notable change in its electrical conductivity.

  18. [Applications of DNA methylation markers in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-sen; Yang, Qing-en

    2005-02-01

    DNA methylation is a post-replication modification that is predominantly found in cytosines of the dinucleotide sequence CpG. Epigenetic information is stored in the distribution of the modified base 5-methylcytosine. DNA methylation profiles represent a more chemically and biologically stable source of molecular diagnostic information than RNA or most proteins. Recent advances attest to the great promise of DNA methylation markers as powerful future tools in the clinic. In the past decade, DNA methylation analysis has been revolutionized by two technological advances--bisulphite modification of DNA and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). The methylation pattern of human genome is space-time specific, sex-specific, parent-of-origin specific and disease specific, providing us an alternative way to solve forensic problems.

  19. Alkali metal cation binding affinities of cytosine in the gas phase: revisited.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Rodgers, M T

    2014-08-14

    Binding of metal cations to the nucleobases can influence base pairing, base stacking and nucleobase tautomerism. Gas-phase condensation of dc discharge generated alkali metal cations and thermally vaporized cytosine (DC/FT) has been found to produce kinetically trapped excited tautomeric conformations of the M(+)(cytosine) complexes, which influences the threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) behavior. In order to elucidate the effects of the size of alkali metal cation on the strength of binding to the canonical form of cytosine, the binding affinities of Na(+) and K(+) to cytosine are re-examined here, and studies are extended to include Rb(+) and Cs(+) again using TCID techniques. The M(+)(cytosine) complexes are generated in an electrospray ionization source, which has been shown to produce ground-state tautomeric conformations of M(+)(cytosine). The energy-dependent cross sections are interpreted to yield bond dissociation energies (BDEs) using an analysis that includes consideration of unimolecular decay rates, the kinetic and internal energy distributions of the reactants, and multiple M(+)(cytosine)-Xe collisions. Revised BDEs for the Na(+)(cytosine) and K(+)(cytosine) complexes exceed those previously measured by 31.9 and 25.5 kJ mol(-1), respectively, consistent with the hypothesis proposed by Yang and Rodgers that excited tautomeric conformations are accessed when the complexes are generated by DC/FT ionization. Experimentally measured BDEs are compared to theoretical values calculated at the B3LYP and MP2(full) levels of theory using the 6-311+G(2d,2p)_HW* and def2-TZVPPD basis sets. The B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level of theory is found to provide the best agreement with the measured BDEs, suggesting that this level of theory can be employed to provide reliable energetics for similar metal-ligand systems.

  20. Hydrogen bonding in proton-transfer complexes of cytosine with trimesic and pyromellitic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Reji; Kulkarni, G. U.

    2008-02-01

    Protons-transfer complexes (1:1) of cytosine with trimesic and pyromellitic acids have been crystallized and single crystal structures have been solved by X-ray crystallography. Both cocrystals exhibit layered structures, each layer containing a plethora of N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the proton-transfer duplets. The cytosine-trimesic acid complex exhibits a bilayered structure (2.87 Å) in contrast to the commonly observed layered structure seen in the cytosine-pyromellitic acid complex (3.98 Å). Another layered system, an adduct of pyromellitic acid and 1,4-dihydroxy benzene, has also been studied.

  1. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  2. DNA methylation in endometriosis (Review)

    PubMed Central

    KOUKOURA, OURANIA; SIFAKIS, STAVROS; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined by the presence and growth of functional endometrial tissue, outside the uterine cavity, primarily in the ovaries, pelvic peritoneum and rectovaginal septum. Although it is a benign disease, it presents with malignant characteristics, such as invasion to surrounding tissues, metastasis to distant locations and recurrence following treatment. Accumulating evidence suggests that various epigenetic aberrations may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Aberrant DNA methylation represents a possible mechanism repsonsible for this disease, linking gene expression alterations observed in endometriosis with hormonal and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence indicate that endometriosis may partially be due to selective epigenetic deregulations influenced by extrinsic factors. Previous studies have shed light into the epigenetic component of endometriosis, reporting variations in the epigenetic patterns of genes known to be involved in the aberrant hormonal, immunologic and inflammatory status of endometriosis. Although recent studies, utilizing advanced molecular techniques, have allowed us to further elucidate the possible association of DNA methylation with altered gene expression, whether these molecular changes represent the cause or merely the consequence of the disease is a question which remains to be answered. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology and malignant evolution of endometriosis. We also provide insight into the mechanisms through which DNA methylation-modifying agents may be the next step in the research of the pharmaceutical treatment of endometriosis. PMID:26934855

  3. Whole-genome DNA methylation profile of the jewel wasp (Nasonia vitripennis).

    PubMed

    Beeler, Suzannah M; Wong, Garrett T; Zheng, Jennifer M; Bush, Eliot C; Remnant, Emily J; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Drewell, Robert A

    2014-03-20

    The epigenetic mark of DNA methylation, the addition of a methyl (CH3) group to a cytosine residue, has been extensively studied in many mammalian genomes and, although it is commonly found at the promoter regions of genes, it is also involved in a number of different biological functions. In other complex animals, such as social insects, DNA methylation has been determined to be involved in caste differentiation and to occur primarily in gene bodies. The role of methylation in nonsocial insects, however, has not yet been explored thoroughly. Here, we present the whole-genome DNA methylation profile of the nonsocial hymenopteran, the jewel wasp (Nasonia vitripennis). From high-throughput sequencing of bisulfite-converted gDNA extracted from male Nasonia thoraces, we were able to determine which cytosine residues are methylated in the entire genome. We found that an overwhelming majority of methylated sites (99.7%) occur at cytosines followed by a guanine in the 3' direction (CpG sites). Additionally, we found that a majority of methylation in Nasonia occurs within exonic regions of the genome (more than 62%). Overall, methylation is sparse in Nasonia, occurring only at 0.18% of all sites and at 0.63% of CpGs. Our analysis of the Nasonia methylome revealed that in contrast to the methylation profile typically seen in mammals, methylation is sparse and is constrained primarily to exons. This methylation profile is more similar to that of the social hymenopteran species, the honey bee (Apis mellifera). In presenting the Nasonia methylome, we hope to promote future investigation of the regulatory function of DNA methylation in both social and nonsocial hymenoptera.

  4. Benzo[a]pyrene decreases global and gene specific DNA methylation during zebrafish development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA methylation is important for gene regulation and is vulnerable to early-life exposure to environmental contaminants. We found that direct waterborne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposure at 24 'g/L from 2.5 to 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) to zebrafish embryos significantly decreased global cytosine...

  5. Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal…

  6. Inhibition of HhaI DNA (Cytosine-C5) methyltransferase by oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine: examination of the intertwined roles of co-factor, target, transition state structure and enzyme conformation.

    PubMed

    Brank, Adam S; Eritja, Ramon; Garcia, Ramon Guimil; Marquez, Victor E; Christman, Judith K

    2002-10-11

    The presence of 5-azacytosine (ZCyt) residues in DNA leads to potent inhibition of DNA (cytosine-C5) methyltranferases (C5-MTases) in vivo and in vitro. Enzymatic methylation of cytosine in mammalian DNA is an epigenetic modification that can alter gene activity and chromosomal stability, influencing both differentiation and tumorigenesis. Thus, it is important to understand the critical mechanistic determinants of ZCyt's inhibitory action. Although several DNA C5-MTases have been reported to undergo essentially irreversible binding to ZCyt in DNA, there is little agreement as to the role of AdoMet and/or methyl transfer in stabilizing enzyme interactions with ZCyt. Our results demonstrate that formation of stable complexes between HhaI methyltransferase (M.HhaI) and oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing ZCyt at the target position for methylation (ZCyt-ODNs) occurs in both the absence and presence of co-factors, AdoMet and AdoHcy. Both binary and ternary complexes survive SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and take on a compact conformation that increases their electrophoretic mobility in comparison to free M.HhaI. Since methyl transfer can occur only in the presence of AdoMet, these results suggest (1) that the inhibitory capacity of ZCyt in DNA is based on its ability to induce a stable, tightly closed conformation of M.HhaI that prevents DNA and co-factor release and (2) that methylation of ZCyt in DNA is not required for inhibition of M.HhaI.

  7. Methylation of coding region alone inhibits gene expression in plant protoplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Hohn, T; Corsten, S; Rieke, S; Müller, M; Rothnie, H

    1996-01-01

    Derivatives of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter lacking CG and CNG methylation targets were constructed and used to direct transcription of reporter gene constructs in transiently transformed protoplasts. Such methylation-target-free (MTF) promoters, although weaker than the 35S promoter, retain significant activity despite mutation of the as-1 element. The effect of methylation on gene expression in MTF- and 35S-promoter driven constructs was examined. Even when the promoter region was free of methylation targets, reporter gene expression was markedly reduced when cytosine residues in CG dinucleotides were methylated in vitro prior to transformation. Mosaic methylation experiments, in which only specific parts of the plasmids were methylated, revealed that methylation of the coding region alone has a negative effect on reporter gene expression. Methylation nearer the 5' end of the coding region was more inhibitory, consistent with inhibition of transcription elongation. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8710871

  8. APOBEC3G cytosine deamination hotspots are defined by both sequence context and single-stranded DNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Colleen M; Sadler, Holly A; Mansky, Louis M

    2013-07-01

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3G (i.e., APOBEC3G or A3G) is an evolutionarily conserved cytosine deaminase that potently restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), retrotransposons and other viruses. A3G has a nucleotide target site specificity for cytosine dinucleotides, though only certain cytosine dinucleotides are 'hotspots' for cytosine deamination, and others experience little or no editing by A3G. The factors that define these critical A3G hotspots are not fully understood. To investigate how A3G hotspots are defined, we used an in vitro fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based oligonucleotide assay to probe the site specificity of A3G. Our findings strongly suggest that the target single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) secondary structure as well as the bases directly 3' and 5' of the cytosine dinucleotide are critically important A3G recognition. For instance, A3G cannot readily deaminate a cytosine dinucleotide in ssDNA stem structures or in nucleotide base loops composed of three bases. Single-stranded nucleotide loops up to seven bases in length were poor targets for A3G activity unless cytosine residues flanked the cytosine dinucleotide. Furthermore, we observed that A3G favors adenines, cytosines and thymines flanking the cytosine dinucleotide target in unstructured regions of ssDNA. Low cytosine deaminase activity was detected when guanines flanked the cytosine dinucleotide. Taken together, our findings provide the first demonstration that A3G cytosine deamination hotspots are defined by both the sequence context of the cytosine dinucleotide target as well as the ssDNA secondary structure. This knowledge can be used to better trace the origins of mutations to A3G activity, and illuminate its impact on processes such as HIV-1 genetic variation.

  9. DNA Methylation Profiling Reveals Correlation of Differential Methylation Patterns with Gene Expression in Human Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Fu, Xinwei; Peng, Xi; Xiao, Zheng; Li, Zhonggui; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation plays important roles in regulating gene expression and has been reported to be related with epilepsy. This study aimed to define differential DNA methylation patterns in drug-refractory epilepsy patients and to investigate the role of DNA methylation in human epilepsy. We performed DNA methylation profiling in brain tissues from epileptic and control patients via methylated-cytosine DNA immunoprecipitation microarray chip. Differentially methylated loci were validated by bisulfite sequencing PCR, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of candidate genes were evaluated by reverse transcriptase PCR. We found 224 genes that showed differential DNA methylation between epileptic patients and controls. Among the seven candidate genes, three genes (TUBB2B, ATPGD1, and HTR6) showed relative transcriptional regulation by DNA methylation. TUBB2B and ATPGD1 exhibited hypermethylation and decreased mRNA levels, whereas HTR6 displayed hypomethylation and increased mRNA levels in the epileptic samples. Our findings suggest that certain genes become differentially regulated by DNA methylation in human epilepsy.

  10. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  11. Correction of Distributed Optical Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Olivier, S; Carrano, C; Phillion, D

    2006-02-12

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of multiple distributed deformable mirrors (DMs) to improve the performance of optical systems with distributed aberrations. This concept is expected to provide dramatic improvement in the optical performance of systems in applications where the aberrations are distributed along the optical path or within the instrument itself. Our approach used multiple actuated DMs distributed to match the aberration distribution. The project developed the algorithms necessary to determine the required corrections and simulate the performance of these multiple DM systems.

  12. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis reveals a cytosine deaminase mutant with altered substrate preference.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Sheri D; Ireton, Greg C; Stoddard, Barry L; Black, Margaret E

    2004-07-20

    Suicide gene therapy of cancer is a method whereby cancerous tumors can be selectively eradicated while sparing damage to normal tissue. This is accomplished by delivering a gene, encoding an enzyme capable of specifically converting a nontoxic prodrug into a cytotoxin, to cancer cells followed by prodrug administration. The Escherichia coli gene, codA, encodes cytosine deaminase and is introduced into cancer cells followed by administration of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC). Cytosine deaminase converts 5-FC into cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil, which leads to tumor-cell eradication. One limitation of this enzyme/prodrug combination is that 5-FC is a poor substrate for bacterial cytosine deaminase. The crystal structure of bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) reveals that a loop structure in the active site pocket of wild-type bCD comprising residues 310-320 undergoes a conformational change upon cytosine binding, making several contacts to the pyrimidine ring. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis was used to investigate the structure-function relationship of amino acid residues within this region, especially with regard to substrate specificity. Using an E. coli genetic complementation system, seven active mutants were identified (F310A, G311A, H312A, D314A, V315A, F316A, and P318A). Further characterization of these mutants reveals that mutant F316A is 14-fold more efficient than the wild-type at deaminating cytosine to uracil. The mutant D314A enzyme demonstrates a dramatic decrease in cytosine activity (17-fold) as well as a slight increase in activity toward 5-FC (2-fold), indicating that mutant D314A prefers the prodrug over cytosine by almost 20-fold, suggesting that it may be a superior suicide gene.

  13. Benchmark Thermochemistry for Biologically Relevant Adenine and Cytosine. A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Shoifet, Evgeni; Meurer, Florian; Verevkin, Sergey P; Schick, Christoph; Held, Christoph

    2015-09-17

    The thermochemical properties available in the literature for adenine and cytosine are in disarray. A new condensed phase standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation at T = 298.15 K was measured by using combustion calorimetry. New molar enthalpies of sublimation were derived from the temperature dependence of vapor pressure measured by transpiration and by the quarz-crystal microbalance technique. The heat capacities of crystalline adenine and cytosine were measured by temperature-modulated DSC. Thermodynamic data on adenine and cytosine available in the literature were collected, evaluated, and combined with our experimental results. Thus, the evaluated collection of data together with the new experimental results reported here has helped to resolve contradictions in the available enthalpies of formation. A set of reliable thermochemical data is recommended for adenine and cytosine for further thermochemical calculations. Quantum-chemical calculations of the gas phase molar enthalpies of formation of adenine and cytosine have been performed by using the G4 method and results were in excellent agreement with the recommended experimental data. The standard molar entropies of formation and the standard molar Gibbs functions of formation in crystal and gas state have been calculated. Experimental vapor-pressure data measured in this work were used to estimate pure-component PC-SAFT parameters. This allowed modeling solubility of adenine and cytosine in water over the temperature interval 278-310 K.

  14. Electron attachment to the cytosine-centered DNA single strands: does base stacking matter?

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Wang, Jing; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2012-02-02

    Electron attachment to the trimer of nucleotide, dGpdCpdG, has been investigated by a quantum mechanical approach at a reliable level of theory. The study of the electron attached dGpdCpdG species demonstrates that cytosine contained DNA single strands have a strong tendency to capture low-energy electrons and to form electronically stable cytosine-centered radical anions. The comparative study of the model molecules pdCpdG and dGpdCp reveals that base stacking has little contribution to the adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of cytosine in DNA single strands. Additionally, the base-base stacking does not affect the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the cytosine-centered radicals. Intrastrand H-bonding is found to be critical in increasing the values of the AEA and VDE. However, base-base stacking is revealed to be important in enlarging the vertical electron affinity (VEA) of cytosine. The electron attachment to the cytosine moiety intensifies the intrastrand H-bonding between the neighboring G and C bases. This process disrupts the base-base stacking interaction in the radical anion of dGpdCpdG.

  15. TET proteins: on the frenetic hunt for new cytosine modifications

    PubMed Central

    Delatte, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic genome marking and chromatin regulation are central to establishing tissue-specific gene expression programs, and hence to several biological processes. Until recently, the only known epigenetic mark on DNA in mammals was 5-methylcytosine, established and propagated by DNA methyltransferases and generally associated with gene repression. All of a sudden, a host of new actors—novel cytosine modifications and the ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes—has appeared on the scene, sparking great interest. The challenge is now to uncover the roles they play and how they relate to DNA demethylation. Knowledge is accumulating at a frantic pace, linking these new players to essential biological processes (e.g. cell pluripotency and development) and also to cancerogenesis. Here, we review the recent progress in this exciting field, highlighting the TET enzymes as epigenetic DNA modifiers, their physiological roles, and their functions in health and disease. We also discuss the need to find relevant TET interactants and the newly discovered TET–O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) pathway. PMID:23625996

  16. Comprehensive DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation analysis in the human brain and its implication in mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tadafumi; Iwamoto, Kazuya

    2014-05-01

    Covalent modifications of nucleotides, such as methylation or hydroxymethylation of cytosine, regulate gene expression. Early environmental risk factors play a role in mental disorders in adulthood. This may be in part mediated by epigenetic DNA modifications. Methods for comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation include DNA modification methods such as bisulfite sequencing, or collection of methylated, hydroxymethylated, or unmethylated DNA by specific binding proteins, antibodies, or restriction enzymes, followed by sequencing or microarray analysis. Results from these experiments should be interpreted with caution because each method gives different result. Cytosine hydroxymethylation has different effects on gene expression than cytosine methylation; methylation of CpG islands is associated with lower gene expression, whereas hydroxymethylation in intragenic regions is associated with higher gene expression. The role of hydroxymethylcytosine is of particular interest in mental disorders because the modification is enriched in the brain and synapse related genes, and it exhibits dynamic regulation during development. Many DNA methylation patterns are conserved across species, but there are also human specific signatures. Comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation shows characteristic changes associated with tissues, brain regions, cell types, and developmental states. Thus, differences in DNA methylation status between tissues, brain regions, cell types, and developmental stages should be considered when the role of DNA methylation in mental disorders is studied. Several disease-associated changes in methylation have been reported: hypermethylation of SOX10 in schizophrenia, hypomethylation of HCG9 (HLA complex group 9) in bipolar disorder, hypermethylation of PRIMA1, hypermethylation of SLC6A4 (serotonin transporter) in bipolar disorder, and hypomethylation of ST6GALNAC1 in bipolar disorder. These findings need to be replicated in

  17. The Role of Methylation of DNA in Environmental Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Kevin B.; Wolschin, Florian; Amdam, Gro V.

    2013-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is an epigenetic mechanism that influences patterns of gene expression. DNA methylation marks contribute to adaptive phenotypic variation but are erased during development. The role of DNA methylation in adaptive evolution is therefore unclear. We propose that environmentally-induced DNA methylation causes phenotypic heterogeneity that provides a substrate for selection via forces that act on the epigenetic machinery. For example, selection can alter environmentally-induced methylation of DNA by acting on the molecular mechanisms used for the genomic targeting of DNA methylation. Another possibility is that specific methylation marks that are environmentally-induced, yet non-heritable, could influence preferential survival and lead to consistent methylation of the same genomic regions over time. As methylation of DNA is known to increase the likelihood of cytosine-to-thymine transitions, non-heritable adaptive methylation marks can drive an increased likelihood of mutations targeted to regions that are consistently marked across several generations. Some of these mutations could capture, genetically, the phenotypic advantage of the epigenetic mark. Thereby, selectively favored transitory alterations in the genome invoked by DNA methylation could ultimately become selectable genetic variation through mutation. We provide evidence for these concepts using examples from different taxa, but focus on experimental data on large-scale DNA sequencing that expose between-group genetic variation after bidirectional selection on honeybees, Apis mellifera. PMID:23620251

  18. Aberrant Vimentin DNA Methylation in Stool — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The VIM gene encodes a member of the intermediate filament family. VIM proteins are class-III intermediate filaments found in various non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells. These intermediate filaments, along with microtubules and actin microfilaments, make up the cytoskeleton.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a novel chitosan based E. coli cytosine deaminase nanocomposite for potential application in prodrug enzyme therapy.

    PubMed

    Yata, Vinod Kumar; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2011-01-01

    Cytosine deaminase is a non-mammalian enzyme of widespread interest for prodrug enzyme therapy due to its ability to convert prodrug 5-fluorocytosine into anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil. Cytosine deaminase enzyme has been purified to homogeneity from E. coli K-12 MTCC 1302 strain. K(m) values for cytosine and 5-fluorocytosine were found to be 0.26 mM and 1.82 mM, respectively. We developed a chitosan-entrapped cytosine deaminase nanocomposite. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed an elongated sphere shape nanocomposite with an average size of 80 nm diameter. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results confirmed gel formation and entrapment of cytosine deaminase within the nanocomposite. Sustained release of cytosine deaminase from the nanocomposite up to one week depicted its potential implication in prodrug inducted enzyme therapy.

  20. Chromosome aberration assays in genetic toxicology testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ishidate, M; Miura, K F; Sofuni, T

    1998-08-03

    The chromosome aberration test using cultured mammalian cells is one of the sensitive methods to predict environmental mutagens and/or carcinogens, and is a complementary test to the Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test). From our recent survey of 951 chemicals which have been tested for their clastogenicity in cultured mammalian cells such as Chinese hamster fibroblasts or human lymphocytes, it was noted that 47% of them are consistently positive either with or without metabolic activation. When the test was performed using the cell line CHL/IU, 39.2% (292/745) were found to be positive. However, 8% (36/447) of such clastogens were positive only at an extremely high concentration of more than 10 mM. About 11% (48/447) of clastogens such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) and methyl AalphaC (Glob-P-1) induced mainly polyploid cells. Most chemicals induced chromatid-type aberrations, some induce only break-type aberrations at relatively high dose levels, but others induce more exchange-type aberrations at relatively low dose levels. Clastogenic activities were compared among different clastogens, using the D20 value, which is the minimum dose (mg/ml) at which aberrations were found in 20% of metaphases. In addition, the translocation (TR) value was calculated from the incidence of cells with exchange-type aberrations. It was suggested that possible carcinogens are included in the group of compounds with relatively low D20 values, but with high TR values. Karyological analysis was performed, using a FISH painting probe prepared from No. 1 chromosome of CHO cells, on the clonal subline isolated after treatment with benzo(a)pyrene. However, no specific changes common to the agent were detected. Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) was also applied to screen for abnormal karyotypes. A translocation between particular chromosomes was reflected by the deletion of a DNA peak.

  1. DNA methylation and application in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2015-04-01

    DNA methylation of cytosine residues is a stable epigenetic alteration, beginning as early as foetal development in the uterus and continuously evolving throughout life. DNA methylation as well as other epigenetic modifications such as chromatin remodelling and histone modifications are indispensable in mammalian development. Methylation is to a large extent influenced by the ageing process, diets and lifestyle choices. Our understanding of this crucial modification may even contribute to the treatment and prevention of age-related illnesses in the very near future. Genome-wide methylation analysis using high throughput DNA technologies has discovered numerous differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) which differ in levels of methylation in various cell types and tissues. TDMRs have been useful in various applications, particularly medicine and forensic sciences. Forensic scientists are constantly seeking exciting and novel methods to aid in the reconstruction of crime scenes, and the analysis of tDMRs represents a new and reliable technique to identify biological fluids and tissues found at the scene of a violent act. Not only has research been able to unequivocally identify various fluids and tissues, but methods to determine the sex, age and phenotype of donors has been developed. New tDMRs in genes are being searched for consistently to serve as novel markers in forensic DNA analysis.

  2. PGC−1α Promoter Methylation in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaomin; Chu, Yaping; Kordower, Jeffrey H.; Li, Bin; Cao, Hong; Huang, Liang; Nishida, Maki; Song, Lei; Wang, Difei; Federoff, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD) remains elusive although mitochondrial dysfunction has long been implicated. Recent evidence revealed reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator−1 α (PGC−1α) and downstream regulated nuclear encoded respiratory complex genes in affected brain tissue from PD patients. We sought to determine whether epigenetic modification of the PGC−1α gene could account for diminished expression. In substantia nigra from PD patients but not control subjects, we show significant promoter-proximal non-canonical cytosine methylation of the PGC−1α gene but not an adjacent gene. As neuroinflammation is a prominent feature of PD and a mediator of epigenetic change, we evaluated whether the pro-inflammatory fatty acid, palmitate, would stimulate PGC−1α promoter methylation in different cell types from the CNS. Indeed, in mouse primary cortical neurons, microglia and astrocytes, palmitate causes PGC−1α gene promoter non-canonical cytosine methylation, reduced expression of the gene and reduced mitochondrial content. Moreover, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of palmitate to transgenic human α−synuclein mutant mice resulted in increased PGC−1α promoter methylation, decreased PGC−1α expression and reduced mitochondrial content in substantia nigra. Finally we provide evidence that dysregulation of ER stress and inflammatory signaling is associated with PGC−1α promoter methylation. Together, these data strengthen the connection between saturated fatty acids, neuroflammation, ER stress, epigenetic alteration and bioenergetic compromise in PD. PMID:26317511

  3. CyMATE: a new tool for methylation analysis of plant genomic DNA after bisulphite sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hetzl, Jennifer; Foerster, Andrea M; Raidl, Günther; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

    2007-08-01

    Cytosine methylation is a hallmark of epigenetic information in the DNA of many fungi, vertebrates and plants. The technique of bisulphite genomic sequencing reveals the methylation state of every individual cytosine in a sequence, and thereby provides high-resolution data on epigenetic diversity; however, the manual evaluation and documentation of large amounts of data is laborious and error-prone. While some software is available for facilitating the analysis of mammalian DNA methylation, which is found nearly exclusively at CG sites, there is no software optimally suited for data from DNA with significant non-CG methylation. We describe CyMATE (Cytosine Methylation Analysis Tool for Everyone) for in silico analysis of DNA sequences after bisulphite conversion of plant DNA, in which methylation is more divergent with respect to sequence context and biological relevance. From aligned sequences, CyMATE includes and distinguishes methylation at CG, CHG and CHH (where H = A, C or T), and can extract both quantitative and qualitative data regarding general and pattern-specific methylation per sequence and per position, i.e. data for individual sites in a sequence and the epigenetic divergence within a sample. In addition, it can provide graphical output from alignments in either an overview or a 'zoom-in' view as pdf files. Detailed information, including a quality control of the sequencing data, is provided in text format. We applied CyMATE to the analysis of DNA methylation at transcriptionally silenced promoters in diploid and polyploid Arabidopsis and found significant hypermethylation, high stability of the methylated state independent of chromosome number, and non-redundant patterns of mC distribution. CyMATE is freely available for non-commercial use at http://www.gmi.oeaw.ac.at/CyMATE.

  4. Methylation specific targeting of a chromatin remodeling complex from sponges to humans

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Jason M.; Pohlmann, Deborah; Gomez, Fernando; Mark, Leslie; Kornegay, Benjamin; Hall, Chelsea; Siraliev-Perez, Edhriz; Walavalkar, Ninad M.; Sperlazza, M. Jeannette; Bilinovich, Stephanie; Prokop, Jeremy W.; Hill, April L.; Williams Jr., David C.

    2017-01-01

    DNA cytosine methylation and methyl-cytosine binding domain (MBD) containing proteins are found throughout all vertebrate species studied to date. However, both the presence of DNA methylation and pattern of methylation varies among invertebrate species. Invertebrates generally have only a single MBD protein, MBD2/3, that does not always contain appropriate residues for selectively binding methylated DNA. Therefore, we sought to determine whether sponges, one of the most ancient extant metazoan lineages, possess an MBD2/3 capable of recognizing methylated DNA and recruiting the associated nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. We find that Ephydatia muelleri has genes for each of the NuRD core components including an EmMBD2/3 that selectively binds methylated DNA. NMR analyses reveal a remarkably conserved binding mode, showing almost identical chemical shift changes between binding to methylated and unmethylated CpG dinucleotides. In addition, we find that EmMBD2/3 and EmGATAD2A/B proteins form a coiled-coil interaction known to be critical for the formation of NuRD. Finally, we show that knockdown of EmMBD2/3 expression disrupts normal cellular architecture and development of E. muelleri. These data support a model in which the MBD2/3 methylation-dependent functional role emerged with the earliest multicellular organisms and has been maintained to varying degrees across animal evolution. PMID:28094816

  5. Methylation-Sensitive Melt Curve Analysis of the Reprimo Gene Methylation in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Junzhong; Luo, Qianping; Ke, Huican; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Reprimo (RPRM) is a p53-induced tumor suppressor gene. Its aberrant DNA methylation is correlated with carcinogenesis and may be used as a surrogate marker for the early detection of gastric cancer. However, the detail information regarding its DNA methylation has not been revealed. Here, we investigated the RPRM gene methylation in gastric cancer tumor and plasma samples by methylation-sensitive melt curve analysis (MS-MCA) and bisulfite sequencing in depth. We developed a semi-quantitative method based on MS-MCA for detecting DNA methylation and unraveled the RPRM gene methylation pattern in gastric cancer. This study provides a solid foundation for the future application of detecting RPRM gene methylation in human plasma or serum samples to help diagnose gastric cancer or for prognosis evaluation. PMID:27992600

  6. Cytosine deaminase MX cassettes as positive/negative selectable markers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hartzog, Phillip E; Nicholson, Bradly P; McCusker, John H

    2005-07-30

    We describe positive/negative selectable cytosine deaminase MX cassettes for use in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The basis of positive selection for cytosine deaminase (Fcy1) activity is that (a) fcy1 strains are unable to grow on medium containing cytosine as a sole nitrogen source and (b) fcy1 ura3 strains are unable to grow on medium containing cytosine as the sole pyrimidine source. Conversely, as 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) is toxic to cytosine deaminase-producing cells, fcy1 strains are resistant to 5FC. FCY1MX and FCA1MX cassettes, containing open reading frames (ORFs) of S. cerevisiae FCY1 and Candida albicans FCA1, respectively, were constructed and used to disrupt targeted genes in S. cerevisiae fcy1 strains. In addition, new direct repeat cassettes, kanPR, FCA1PR, FCY1PR and CaURA3PR, were developed to allow efficient deletion of target genes in cells containing MX3 repeats. Finally, the FCY1- and FCA1MX3 or PR direct repeat cassettes can be readily recycled after 5FC counter-selection on both synthetic and rich media.

  7. Next Generation Epigenetic Detection Technique: Identifying Methylated DNA using Graphene Nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Haraldsen, Jason T.; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Balatsky, A. V.

    2014-03-01

    DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in the genetic evolution of both embryonic and adult cells.Unusual methylation on CPG islands are identified as the prime causes for silencing the tumor suppressant genes. Early detection of such methylation can diagnose the potentially harmful oncogenic evolution of cells, and provide a promising guideline for cancer prevention.We propose a detection technique and calculate the transport current through punctured graphene as the cytosine and methylated cytosine translocate through the nanopore. We also calculate the transport properties for uracil and cyano-cytosine to compare. Our calculations of transmission, current and tunneling conductance show distinct signatures in their spectrum for each molecular type. Our theoretical study provides a next generation detection technique for identifying DNA methylation using graphene based nanopore device. This work was supported by U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and by VR 621-2012-2983 and ERC 321031-DM. This work was, in part, supported by the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE BES user facility.

  8. Transduction of RNA-directed DNA methylation signals to repressive histone marks in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Numa, Hisataka; Kim, Jong-Myong; Matsui, Akihiro; Kurihara, Yukio; Morosawa, Taeko; Ishida, Junko; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Kimura, Hiroshi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Seki, Motoaki; Yoshikawa, Manabu; Habu, Yoshiki

    2010-01-20

    RNA-directed modification of histones is essential for the maintenance of heterochromatin in higher eukaryotes. In plants, cytosine methylation is an additional factor regulating inactive chromatin, but the mechanisms regulating the coexistence of cytosine methylation and repressive histone modification remain obscure. In this study, we analysed the mechanism of gene silencing mediated by MORPHEUS' MOLECULE1 (MOM1) of Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcript profiling revealed that the majority of up-regulated loci in mom1 carry sequences related to transposons and homologous to the 24-nt siRNAs accumulated in wild-type plants that are the hallmarks of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). Analysis of a single-copy gene, SUPPRESSOR OF drm1 drm2 cmt3 (SDC), revealed that mom1 activates SDC with concomitant reduction of di-methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) at the tandem repeats in the promoter region without changes in siRNA accumulation and cytosine methylation. The reduction of H3K9me2 is not observed in regions flanking the tandem repeats. The results suggest that MOM1 transduces RdDM signals to repressive histone modification in the core region of RdDM.

  9. DNA Methylation in Basal Metazoans: Insights from Ctenophores

    PubMed Central

    Dabe, Emily C.; Sanford, Rachel S.; Kohn, Andrea B.; Bobkova, Yelena; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications control gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. However, little is known about DNA methylation in invertebrates and its evolution. Here, we characterize two types of genomic DNA methylation in ctenophores, 5-methyl cytosine (5-mC) and the unconventional form of methylation 6-methyl adenine (6-mA). Using both bisulfite sequencing and an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 5-mC DNA methylation in ctenophores. In contrast to other invertebrates studied, Mnemiopsis leidyi has lower levels of genome-wide 5-mC methylation, but higher levels of 5-mC methylation in promoters when compared with gene bodies. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ctenophores have distinct forms of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1); the zf-CXXC domain type, which localized DNMT1 to CpG sites, and is a metazoan specific innovation. We also show that ctenophores encode the full repertoire of putative enzymes for 6-mA DNA methylation, and these genes are expressed in the aboral organ of Mnemiopsis. Using an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 6-mA methylation in the genomes of three different species of ctenophores, M. leidyi, Beroe abyssicola, and Pleurobrachia bachei. The functional role of this novel epigenomic mark is currently unknown. In summary, despite their compact genomes, there is a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by basal metazoans that provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties. PMID:26173712

  10. DNA Methylation in Basal Metazoans: Insights from Ctenophores.

    PubMed

    Dabe, Emily C; Sanford, Rachel S; Kohn, Andrea B; Bobkova, Yelena; Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-12-01

    Epigenetic modifications control gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. However, little is known about DNA methylation in invertebrates and its evolution. Here, we characterize two types of genomic DNA methylation in ctenophores, 5-methyl cytosine (5-mC) and the unconventional form of methylation 6-methyl adenine (6-mA). Using both bisulfite sequencing and an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 5-mC DNA methylation in ctenophores. In contrast to other invertebrates studied, Mnemiopsis leidyi has lower levels of genome-wide 5-mC methylation, but higher levels of 5-mC methylation in promoters when compared with gene bodies. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ctenophores have distinct forms of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1); the zf-CXXC domain type, which localized DNMT1 to CpG sites, and is a metazoan specific innovation. We also show that ctenophores encode the full repertoire of putative enzymes for 6-mA DNA methylation, and these genes are expressed in the aboral organ of Mnemiopsis. Using an ELISA-based colorimetric assay, we experimentally confirmed the presence of 6-mA methylation in the genomes of three different species of ctenophores, M. leidyi, Beroe abyssicola, and Pleurobrachia bachei. The functional role of this novel epigenomic mark is currently unknown. In summary, despite their compact genomes, there is a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by basal metazoans that provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties.

  11. How To Measure Gravitational Aberration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizek, M.; Solcova, A.

    2007-08-01

    In 1905, Henri Poincaré predicted the existence of gravitational waves and assumed that their speed c[g] would be that of the speed of light c. If the gravitational aberration would also have the same magnitude as the aberration of light, we would observe several paradoxical phenomena. For instance, the orbit of two bodies of equal mass would be unstable, since two attractive forces arise that are not in line and hence form a couple. This tends to increase the angular momentum, period, and total energy of the system. This can be modelled by a system of ordinary differential equations with delay. A big advantage of computer simulation is that we can easily perform many test for various possible values of the speed of gravity [1]. In [2], Carlip showed that gravitational aberration in general relativity is almost cancelled out by velocity-dependent interactions. This means that rays of sunlight are not parallel to the attractive gravitational force of the Sun, i.e., we do not see the Sun in the direction of its attractive force, but slightly shifted about an angle less than 20``. We show how the actual value of the gravitational aberration can be obtained by measurement of a single angle at a suitable time instant T corresponding to the perihelion of an elliptic orbit. We also derive an a priori error estimate that expresses how acurately T has to be determined to attain the gravitational aberration to a prescribed tolerance. [1] M. Křížek: Numerical experience with the finite speed of gravitational interaction, Math. Comput. Simulation 50 (1999), 237-245. [2] S. Carlip: Aberration and the speed of gravity, Phys. Lett. A 267 (2000), 81-87.

  12. DNA Methylation: Insights into Human Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Andrew J.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental initiative for evolutionary biologists is to understand the molecular basis underlying phenotypic diversity. A long-standing hypothesis states that species-specific traits may be explained by differences in gene regulation rather than differences at the protein level. Over the past few years, evolutionary studies have shifted from mere sequence comparisons to integrative analyses in which gene regulation is key to understanding species evolution. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes. Nevertheless, the evolution of the human methylome and the processes driving such changes are poorly understood. Here, we review the close interplay between Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) methylation and the underlying genome sequence, as well as its evolutionary impact. We also summarize the latest advances in the field, revisiting the main literature on human and nonhuman primates. We hope to encourage the scientific community to address the many challenges posed by the field of comparative epigenomics. PMID:26658498

  13. Altered DNA methylation in PAH deficient phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Steven F; Lyons-Weiler, James; Spridik, Kayla; Biery, Amy; Breck, Jane; Vockley, Jerry; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Sultana, Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    While phenylalanine (PHE) is the toxic insult in phenylketonuria (PKU), mechanisms underlying PHE toxicity remain ill-defined. Altered DNA methylation in response to toxic exposures is well-recognized. DNA methylation patterns were assessed in blood and brain from PKU patients to determine if PHE toxicity impacts methylation. Methylome assessment, utilizing methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and paired-end sequencing, was performed in DNA obtained from brain tissue of classical PKU patients, leukocytes from poorly controlled PKU patients, leukocytes from well controlled PKU patients, and appropriate control tissues. In PKU brain tissue, expression analysis determined the impact of methylation on gene function. Differential methylation was observed in brain tissue of PKU patients and expression studies identified downstream impact on gene expression. Altered patterns of methylation were observed in leukocytes of well controlled and poorly controlled patients with more extensive methylation in patients with high PHE exposure. Differential methylation of noncoding RNA genes was extensive in patients with high PHE exposure but minimal in well controlled patients. Methylome repatterning leading to altered gene expression was present in brain tissue of PKU patients, suggesting a role in neuropathology. Aberrant methylation is observed in leukocytes of PKU patients and is influenced by PHE exposure. DNA methylation may provide a biomarker relating to historic PHE exposure.

  14. Aberrantly Silenced Promoters Retain a Persistent Memory of the Silenced State After Long-Term Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Oyer, Jon A.; Yates, Phillip A.; Godsey, Sarah; Turker, Mitchell S.

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of aberrant DNA methylation-associated silencing is reversibility. However, long-term stability of reactivated promoters has not been explored. To examine this issue, spontaneous reactivant clones were isolated from mouse embryonal carcinoma cells bearing aberrantly silenced Aprt alleles and re-silencing frequencies were determined as long as three months after reactivation occurred. Despite continuous selection for expression of the reactivated Aprt alleles, exceptionally high spontaneous re-silencing frequencies were observed. A DNA methylation analysis demonstrated retention of sporadic methylation of CpG sites in a protected region of the Aprt promoter in many reactivant alleles suggesting a role for these methylated sites in the re-silencing process. In contrast, a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis for methyl-H3K4, acetyl-H3K9, and dimethyl-H3K9 levels failed to reveal a specific histone modification that could explain high frequency re-silencing. These results demonstrate that aberrantly silenced and reactivated promoters retain a persistent memory of having undergone the silencing process and suggest the failure to eliminate all CpG methylation as a potential contributing mechanism. PMID:21035468

  15. Detection of epigenetic aberrations in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujing

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex, multistep process. It is now recognized that HCC is a both genetic and epigenetic disease; genetic and epigenetic components cooperate at all stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. Epigenetic changes involve aberrant DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications and aberrant expression of microRNAs all of which can affect the expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other tumor-related genes and alter the pathways in cancer development. Several risk factors for HCC, including hepatitis B and C virus infections and exposure to the chemical carcinogen aflatoxin B1 have been found to influence epigenetic changes. Their interactions could play an important role in the initiation and progression of HCC. Discovery and detection of biomarkers for epigenetic changes is a promising area for early diagnosis and risk prediction of HCC.

  16. Developmental modulation of DNA methylation in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus.

    PubMed Central

    Antequera, F; Tamame, M; Vilanueva, J R; Santos, T

    1985-01-01

    DNA methylation is a rather sparse event among fungi. Phycomyces blakesleeanus seems to be one of the few exceptions in this context. 5-Methylcytosine represents 2.9% of the total cytosine in spore DNA and is located in approximately the same amount at any of the four CA, CT, CC or CG dinucleotides. A progressive and gradual drop in total 5-methylcytosine parallels the development of the fungus. This demethylation is non random but sequence specific and is not accounted for equally by the four different methylated dinucleotides, CG being much less affected (20% demethylated) than CA, CT and CC (more than 90% demethylated at the same time). "De novo" methylation to restore the initial pattern probably takes place during spore maturation. By using specific hybridization probes we have been able to show that the rRNA genes are not significantly methylated at any stage of development, regardless of their transcription status. Images PMID:2997714

  17. Cytosine deamination and the precipitous decline of spontaneous mutation during Earth's history

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Charles A.; Crayle, Jesse; Zhou, Shuntai; Swanstrom, Ronald; Wolfenden, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The hydrolytic deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine residues in DNA appears to contribute significantly to the appearance of spontaneous mutations in microorganisms and in human disease. In the present work, we examined the mechanism of cytosine deamination and the response of the uncatalyzed reaction to changing temperature. The positively charged 1,3-dimethylcytosinium ion was hydrolyzed at a rate similar to the rate of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of 1-methylcytosine, for which it furnishes a satisfactory kinetic model and a probable mechanism. In agreement with earlier reports, uncatalyzed deamination was found to proceed at very similar rates for cytosine, 1-methylcytosine, cytidine, and cytidine 5′-phosphate, and also for cytosine residues in single-stranded DNA generated from a phagemid, in which we sequenced an insert representing the gene of the HIV-1 protease. Arrhenius plots for the uncatalyzed deamination of cytosine were linear over the temperature range from 90 °C to 200 °C and indicated a heat of activation (ΔH‡) of 23.4 ± 0.5 kcal/mol at pH 7. Recent evidence indicates that the surface of the earth has been cool enough to support life for more than 4 billion years and that life has been present for almost as long. If the temperature at Earth's surface is assumed to have followed Newton's law of cooling, declining exponentially from 100 °C to 25 °C during that period, then half of the cytosine-deaminating events per unit biomass would have taken place during the first 0.2 billion years, and <99.4% would have occurred during the first 2 billion years. PMID:27382162

  18. Ionization of cytosine monomer and dimer studied by VUV photoionization and electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Bravaya, Ksenia; Krylov, Anna; Ahmed, Musahid

    2009-12-14

    We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of ionization of cytosine monomers and dimers. Gas-phase molecules are generated by thermal vaporization of cytosine followed by expansion of the vapor in a continuous supersonic jet seeded in Ar. The resulting species are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Energy onsets for the measured photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra are 8.60+-0.05 eV and 7.6+-0.1 eV for the monomer and the dimer, respectively, and provide an estimate for the adiabatic ionization energies (AIE). The first AIE and the ten lowest vertical ionization energies (VIEs) for selected isomers of cytosine dimer computed using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-IP-CCSD) method are reported. The comparison of the computed VIEs with the derivative of the PIE spectra, suggests that multiple isomers of the cytosine dimer are present in the molecular beam. The calculations reveal that the large red shift (0.7 eV) of the first IE of the lowest-energy cytosine dimer is due to strong inter-fragment electrostatic interactions, i.e., the hole localized on one of the fragments is stabilized by the dipole moment of the other. A sharp rise in the CH+ signal at 9.20+-0.05 eV is ascribed to the formation of protonated cytosine by dissociation of the ionized dimers. The dominant role of this channel is supported by the computed energy thresholds for the CH+ appearance and the barrierless or nearly barrierless ionization-induced proton transfer observed for five isomers of the dimer.

  19. Cytosine deamination and the precipitous decline of spontaneous mutation during Earth's history.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Charles A; Crayle, Jesse; Zhou, Shuntai; Swanstrom, Ronald; Wolfenden, Richard

    2016-07-19

    The hydrolytic deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine residues in DNA appears to contribute significantly to the appearance of spontaneous mutations in microorganisms and in human disease. In the present work, we examined the mechanism of cytosine deamination and the response of the uncatalyzed reaction to changing temperature. The positively charged 1,3-dimethylcytosinium ion was hydrolyzed at a rate similar to the rate of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of 1-methylcytosine, for which it furnishes a satisfactory kinetic model and a probable mechanism. In agreement with earlier reports, uncatalyzed deamination was found to proceed at very similar rates for cytosine, 1-methylcytosine, cytidine, and cytidine 5'-phosphate, and also for cytosine residues in single-stranded DNA generated from a phagemid, in which we sequenced an insert representing the gene of the HIV-1 protease. Arrhenius plots for the uncatalyzed deamination of cytosine were linear over the temperature range from 90 °C to 200 °C and indicated a heat of activation (ΔH(‡)) of 23.4 ± 0.5 kcal/mol at pH 7. Recent evidence indicates that the surface of the earth has been cool enough to support life for more than 4 billion years and that life has been present for almost as long. If the temperature at Earth's surface is assumed to have followed Newton's law of cooling, declining exponentially from 100 °C to 25 °C during that period, then half of the cytosine-deaminating events per unit biomass would have taken place during the first 0.2 billion years, and <99.4% would have occurred during the first 2 billion years.

  20. Hairpin-bisulfite PCR: Assessing epigenetic methylation patterns on complementary strands of individual DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Charles D.; Pleasant, Nicole D.; Clark, Aaron D.; Sneeden, Jessica L.; Hassan, K. M. Anwarul; Manley, Nathan C.; Vary, Jay C.; Morgan, Todd; Hansen, R. Scott; Stöger, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Epigenetic inheritance, the transmission of gene expression states from parent to daughter cells, often involves methylation of DNA. In eukaryotes, cytosine methylation is a frequent component of epigenetic mechanisms. Failure to transmit faithfully a methylated or an unmethylated state of cytosine can lead to altered phenotypes in plants and animals. A central unresolved question in epigenetics concerns the mechanisms by which a locus maintains, or changes, its state of cytosine methylation. We developed “hairpin-bisulfite PCR” to analyze these mechanisms. This method reveals the extent of methylation symmetry between the complementary strands of individual DNA molecules. Using hairpin-bisulfite PCR, we determined the fidelity of methylation transmission in the CpG island of the FMR1 gene in human lymphocytes. For the hypermethylated CpG island of this gene, characteristic of inactive-X alleles, we estimate a maintenance methylation efficiency of ≈0.96 per site per cell division. For de novo methylation efficiency (Ed), remarkably different estimates were obtained for the hypermethylated CpG island (Ed = 0.17), compared with the hypomethylated island on the active-X chromosome (Ed < 0.01). These results clarify the mechanisms by which the alternative hypomethylated and hypermethylated states of CpG islands are stably maintained through many cell divisions. We also analyzed a region of human L1 transposable elements. These L1 data provide accurate methylation patterns for the complementary strand of each repeat sequence analyzed. Hairpin-bisulfite PCR will be a powerful tool in studying other processes for which genetic or epigenetic information differs on the two complementary strands of DNA. PMID:14673087

  1. Ultrafast internal conversion of excited cytosine via the lowest pipi electronic singlet state.

    PubMed

    Merchán, Manuela; Serrano-Andrés, Luis

    2003-07-09

    Computational evidence at the CASPT2 level supports that the lowest excited state pipi* contributes to the S1/S0 crossing responsible for the ultrafast decay of singlet excited cytosine. The computed radiative lifetime, 33 ns, is consistent with the experimentally derived value, 40 ns. The nOpi* state does not play a direct role in the rapid repopulation of the ground state; it is involved in a S2/S1 crossing. Alternative mechanisms through excited states pisigma* or nNpi* are not competitive in cytosine.

  2. Comparative study of spontaneous deamination of adenine and cytosine in unbuffered aqueous solution at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiliang; Hu, Anguang

    2016-06-01

    Adenine in unbuffered nanopure water at a concentration of 2 mM is completely deaminated (>99%) to hypoxanthine at room temperature in ca. 10 weeks, with an estimated half-life (t1/2) less than 10 days, about six orders of magnitude faster than previously reported. Cytosine is not deaminated under the same condition, even after 3 years. This is in contrast to previous observations that cytosine deaminates 20-40 times faster than adenine free base, in nucleoside, in nucleotide and in single-stranded DNA in buffered neutral aqueous solutions.

  3. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced single strand breaks is attributed to slower rejoining processes by DNA polymerase inhibitor, cytosine arabinoside in CHO-K1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jongkun ); Lee, Jungsup; Lee, Hyungho; Choi, Insoon; Park, Sangdai )

    1991-01-01

    The authors demonstrate a successful induction of DNA single breaks in CHO-K1 cells by cocultivation with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) during exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BP) or 3-methylcholanthrene (MC). When compared to those induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), the DNA single strand breaks induced by BP and MC were markedly accumulated by post-incubation with cytosine arabinoside (araC) and were much more delayed in their rejoining. These results suggest that the active metabolites of BP or MC produced by cocultivation with MEF or microsomal fraction (S-15) result in the formation of large DNA adducts which require an active participation of DNA polymerase {alpha}({delta}) in the polymerization step of excision repair for their removal.

  4. Aberrant Promoter Hypomethylation in CLL: Does It Matter for Disease Development?

    PubMed Central

    Upchurch, Garland Michael; Haney, Staci L.; Opavsky, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, studies of aberrant DNA methylation in hematologic malignancies have been dominated by the primary focus of understanding promoter hypermethylation. These efforts not only resulted in a better understanding of the basis of epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes but also resulted in approval of hypomethylating agents for the treatment of several malignancies, such as myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. Recent advances in global methylation profiling coupled with the use of mouse models suggest that aberrant promoter hypomethylation is also a frequent event in hematologic malignancies, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Promoter hypomethylation affects gene expression and, therefore, may play an important role in disease pathogenesis. Here, we review recent findings and discuss the potential involvement of aberrant promoter hypomethylation in CLL. PMID:27563627

  5. Aberrant CpG Islands Hypermethylation Profiles in Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Ryeol; Kim, Ealmaan

    2014-01-01

    Background The authors analyzed whether the promoter hypermethylation of cancer-related genes was involved in the tumorigenesis of malignant gliomas. Methods A total of 29 patients received surgery and histologically confirmed to have malignant gliomas from January 2000 to December 2006. The promoter methylation status of several genes, which were reported to be frequently methylated in malignant gliomas, was investigated using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Results All cases of malignant gliomas represented the promoter hypermethylation in at least 2 or more genes tested. Of 29 tumors, 28 (96.55%) showed concurrent hypermethylation of 3 or more genes. Ras association domain family member 1, epithelial cadherin, O-6 methyl guanine DNA methyltransferase, thrombospondin 1, p14 and adenomatous polyposis coli were frequently methylated in high grade gliomas including glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Conclusion Aberrant hypermethylation profile was closely related with malignant gliomas suggesting that epigenetic change may play a role in the development of malignant gliomas. Two or three target genes may provide useful clues to the development of the useful prognostic as well as diagnostic assays for malignant gliomas. PMID:24926469

  6. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level. PMID:28045988

  7. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Vera; Barros, Pedro M; Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level.

  8. Targeting histone methylation for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Lin, Chengyuan; Zhong, Linda L. D.; Zhao, Ling; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Aiping; Wu, Jiang; Bian, Zhaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    As a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) results from accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Disruption of epigenetic regulation in CRC, particularly aberrant histone methylation mediated by histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and demethylases (HDMs), have drawn increasing interest in recent years. In this paper, we aim to review the roles of histone methylation and associated enzymes in the pathogenesis of CRC, and the development of small-molecule modulators to regulate histone methylation for treating CRC. Multiple levels of evidence suggest that aberrant histone methylations play important roles in CRC. More than 20 histone-methylation enzymes are found to be clinically relevant to CRC, including 17 oncoproteins and 8 tumor suppressors. Inhibitors of EZH2 and DOT1L have demonstrated promising therapeutic effects in preclinical CRC treatment. Potent and selective chemical probes of histone-methylation enzymes are required for validation of their functional roles in carcinogenesis and clinical translations as CRC therapies. With EZH2 inhibitor EPZ-6438 entering into phase I/II trials for advanced solid tumors, histone methylation is emerging as a promising target for CRC. PMID:28286564

  9. DNA methylation, a hand behind neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haoyang; Liu, Xinzhou; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations represent a sort of functional modifications related to the genome that are not responsible for changes in the nucleotide sequence. DNA methylation is one of such epigenetic modifications that have been studied intensively for the past several decades. The transfer of a methyl group to the 5 position of a cytosine is the key feature of DNA methylation. A simple change as such can be caused by a variety of factors, which can be the cause of many serious diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we have reviewed and summarized recent progress regarding DNA methylation in four major neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The studies of these four major neurodegenerative diseases conclude the strong suggestion of the important role DNA methylation plays in these diseases. However, each of these diseases has not yet been understood completely as details in some areas remain unclear, and will be investigated in future studies. We hope this review can provide new insights into the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases from the epigenetic perspective. PMID:24367332

  10. Role of DNA methylation and the DNA methyltransferases in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2014-09-01

    Dynamic regulation of chromatin structure in postmitotic neurons plays an important role in learning and memory. Methylation of cytosine nucleotides has historically been considered the strongest and least modifiable of epigenetic marks. Accumulating recent data suggest that rapid and dynamic methylation and demethylation of specific genes in the brain may play a fundamental role in learning, memory formation, and behavioral plasticity. The current review focuses on the emergence of data that support the role of DNA methylation and demethylation, and its molecular mediators in memory formation.

  11. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H

    2013-07-08

    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat.

  12. MORPHEUS' MOLECULE1 is required to prevent aberrant RNA transcriptional read-through in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Jun; Lin, Huixin; Guo, Guangqin; Guo, Yan

    2010-11-01

    Several pathways function to remove aberrant mRNA in eukaryotic cells; however, the exact mechanisms underlying the restriction of aberrant mRNA transcription are poorly understood. In this study, we found that MORPHEUS' MOLECULE1 (MOM1) is a key component of this regulatory machinery. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mom1-44 mutation was identified by luciferase imaging in transgenic plants harboring a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter-LUCIFERASE transgene lacking the 3'-untranslated region. In the mom1-44 mutant, transcriptional read-though occurred in genes with an aberrant RNA structure. Analysis of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase2 mom1 double mutant revealed that the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway is not involved in this regulatory process. Moreover, the prevention of aberrant mRNA transcriptional read-through by MOM1 is gene locus and transgene copy number independent.

  13. DNA methylation on N6-adenine in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Eric Lieberman; Blanco, Mario Andres; Gu, Lei; Sendinc, Erdem; Liu, Jianzhao; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Aravind, L.; He, Chuan; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Summary In mammalian cells, DNA methylation on the 5th position of cytosine (5mC) plays an important role as an epigenetic mark. However, DNA methylation was considered to be absent in C. elegans because of the lack of detectable 5mC as well as homologs of the cytosine DNA methyltransferases. Here, using multiple approaches, we demonstrate the presence of adenine N6-methylation (6mA) in C. elegans DNA. We further demonstrate that this modification increases trans-generationally in a paradigm of epigenetic inheritance. Importantly, we identify a DNA demethylase, NMAD-1, and a potential DNA methyltransferase, DAMT-1, which regulate 6mA levels and crosstalk between methylation of histone H3K4me2 and 6mA, and control the epigenetic inheritance of phenotypes associated with the loss of the H3K4me2 demethylase spr-5. Together, these data identify a DNA modification in C. elegans and raise the exciting possibility that 6mA may be a carrier of heritable epigenetic information in eukaryotes. PMID:25936839

  14. SNP-based prediction of the human germ cell methylation landscape.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hehuang; Wang, Min; Bischof, Jared; Bonaldo, Maria de Fatima; Soares, Marcelo Bento

    2009-05-01

    Base substitution occurs at a high rate at CpG dinucleotides due to the frequent methylation of CpG and the deamination of methylated cytosine to thymine. If these substitutions occur in germ cells, they constitute a heritable mutation that may eventually rise to polymorphic frequencies, hence resulting in a SNP that is methylation associated. In this study, we sought to identify clusters of methylation associated SNPs as a basis for prediction of methylation landscapes of germ cell genomes. Genomic regions enriched with methylation associated SNPs, namely "methylation associated SNP clusters", were identified with an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm. Repetitive elements, segmental duplications, and syntenic tandem DNA repeats were enriched in methylation associated SNP clusters. The frequency of methylation associated SNPs in Alu Y/S elements exhibited a gradient pattern suggestive of linear spreading, being higher in proximity to methylation associated SNP clusters and lower closer to CpG islands. Interestingly, methylation associated SNP clusters were over-represented near the transcriptional initiation sites of immune response genes. We propose a de novo DNA methylation model during germ cell development whereby a pattern is established by long-range chromatic interactions through syntenic repeats combined with regional methylation spreading from methylation associated SNP clusters.

  15. Wave aberration function and its definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, V. A.; Rytova, E. S.; Timoshchuk, I. N.

    2011-06-01

    A definition of a wave aberration as a phase shift upon composition of light waves in the image of a point is given using the concept of point eikonal. An expression that determines the total differential of a wave aberration function is obtained and the condition of its integrability is determined. The sequence of the wave aberration function definition at the known functions of the meridional and sagittal components of lateral aberration is presented.

  16. Insights into the role of DNA methylation in diatoms by genome-wide profiling in Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Lin, Xin; Maumus, Florian; Rivarola, Maximo; Bhavsar, Jaysheel; Creasy, Todd; O'Brien, Kimberly; Sengamalay, Naomi A; Tallon, Luke J; Smith, Andrew D; Rayko, Edda; Ahmed, Ikhlak; Le Crom, Stéphane; Farrant, Gregory K; Sgro, Jean-Yves; Olson, Sue A; Bondurant, Sandra Splinter; Allen, Andrew E; Allen, Andrew; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Sussman, Michael R; Bowler, Chris; Tirichine, Leïla

    2013-01-01

    DNA cytosine methylation is a widely conserved epigenetic mark in eukaryotes that appears to have critical roles in the regulation of genome structure and transcription. Genome-wide methylation maps have so far only been established from the supergroups Archaeplastida and Unikont. Here we report the first whole-genome methylome from a stramenopile, the marine model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Around 6% of the genome is intermittently methylated in a mosaic pattern. We find extensive methylation in transposable elements. We also detect methylation in over 320 genes. Extensive gene methylation correlates strongly with transcriptional silencing and differential expression under specific conditions. By contrast, we find that genes with partial methylation tend to be constitutively expressed. These patterns contrast with those found previously in other eukaryotes. By going beyond plants, animals and fungi, this stramenopile methylome adds significantly to our understanding of the evolution of DNA methylation in eukaryotes.

  17. Use of MSAP Markers to Analyse the Effects of Salt Stress on DNA Methylation in Rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera)

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Gianpiero; Pace, Roberta; Traini, Alessandra; Raggi, Lorenzo; Lutts, Stanley; Chiusano, Marialuisa; Guiducci, Marcello; Falcinelli, Mario; Benincasa, Paolo; Albertini, Emidio

    2013-01-01

    Excessive soil salinity is a major ecological and agronomical problem, the adverse effects of which are becoming a serious issue in regions where saline water is used for irrigation. Plants can employ regulatory strategies, such as DNA methylation, to enable relatively rapid adaptation to new conditions. In this regard, cytosine methylation might play an integral role in the regulation of gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Rapeseed, which is the most important oilseed crop in Europe, is classified as being tolerant of salinity, although cultivars can vary substantially in their levels of tolerance. In this study, the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) approach was used to assess the extent of cytosine methylation under salinity stress in salinity-tolerant (Exagone) and salinity-sensitive (Toccata) rapeseed cultivars. Our data show that salinity affected the level of DNA methylation. In particular methylation decreased in Exagone and increased in Toccata. Nineteen DNA fragments showing polymorphisms related to differences in methylation were sequenced. In particular, two of these were highly similar to genes involved in stress responses (Lacerata and trehalose-6-phosphatase synthase S4) and were chosen to further characterization. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of selected MSAP loci showed that cytosine methylation changes under salinity as well as gene expression varied. In particular, our data show that salinity stress influences the expression of the two stress-related genes. Moreover, we quantified the level of trehalose in Exagone shoots and found that it was correlated to TPS4 expression and, therefore, to DNA methylation. In conclusion, we found that salinity could induce genome-wide changes in DNA methylation status, and that these changes, when averaged across different genotypes and developmental stages, accounted for 16.8% of the total site-specific methylation differences

  18. The role of DNA methylation on Octopus vulgaris development and their perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Freije, Eva; Gestal, Camino; Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Morán, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a common regulator of gene expression and development in mammalian and other vertebrate genomes. DNA methylation has been studied so far in a few bivalve mollusk species, finding a wide spectrum of levels. We focused our study in the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, an important organism for neuroscience, physiology and ethology research as well as for human consumption. We aim to confirm the existence of DNA methylation in O. vulgaris and ultimately, if methylation plays a role in gene regulation during octopus development. We used a genome-wide approach, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP), firstly in four different tissues from the same specimens from adult benthonic individuals to test whether gene expression is regulated by methylation. Secondly, we tested the hypothesis that methylation underlies development by assessing MSAP patters from paralarvae to adult developmental stages. Our data indicate that octopus genome is widely methylated since clear differences can be observed, and the methylation pattern changes with the development. The statistical analyses showed significant differences in methylation pattern between paralarvae, where higher internal cytosine methylation is observed, and the three other post-hatching stages. This suggests an important role of cytosine methylation during the first step of development, when major morphological changes take place. However, methylation seems to have little effect on gene expression during the benthonic phase, since no significant effect was revealed in the analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) performed. Our observations highlight the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in the first developmental steps of the common octopus and opens new perspectives to overcome high mortality rate during paralarvae growth. Thus, better understanding the molecular regulation patterns could lead to new approaches that increase the efficiency of husbandry of this emergent species for

  19. Using geometric algebra to study optical aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, J.; Ziock, H.

    1997-05-01

    This paper uses Geometric Algebra (GA) to study vector aberrations in optical systems with square and round pupils. GA is a new way to produce the classical optical aberration spot diagrams on the Gaussian image plane and surfaces near the Gaussian image plane. Spot diagrams of the third, fifth and seventh order aberrations for square and round pupils are developed to illustrate the theory.

  20. Improved cytotoxic effects of Salmonella-producing cytosine deaminase in tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Pereira, Beatriz; Medina, Carlos; Camacho, Eva María; Flores, Amando; Santero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the cytotoxic activity of a Salmonella strain carrying a salicylate-inducible expression system that controls cytosine deaminase production, we have modified both, the vector and the producer bacterium. First, the translation rates of the expression module containing the Escherichia coli codA gene cloned under the control of the Pm promoter have been improved by using the T7 phage gene 10 ribosome binding site sequence and replacing the original GUG start codon by AUG. Second, to increase the time span in which cytosine deaminase may be produced by the bacteria in the presence of 5-fluorocytosine, a 5-fluorouracyl resistant Salmonella strain has been constructed by deleting its upp gene sequence. This new Salmonella strain shows increased cytosine deaminase activity and, after infecting tumour cell cultures, increased cytotoxic and bystander effects under standard induction conditions. In addition, we have generated a purD mutation in the producer strain to control its intracellular proliferation by the presence of adenine and avoid the intrinsic Salmonella cell death induction. This strategy allows the analysis and comparison of the cytotoxic effects of cytosine deaminase produced by different Salmonella strains in tumour cell cultures.

  1. A molecular dynamics study of the ligand release path in yeast cytosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lishan; Yan, Honggao; Cukier, Robert I

    2007-04-01

    Yeast cytosine deaminase, a zinc metalloenzyme, catalyzes the deamination of cytosine to uracil. Experimental and computational evidence indicates that the rate-limiting step is product release, instead of the chemical reaction step. In this work, we use molecular dynamics to suggest ligand exit paths. Simulation at 300 K shows that the active site is well protected by the C-terminal helix (residues 150-158) and F-114 loop (residues 111-117) and that on the molecular dynamics timescale water does not flow in or out of the active site. In contrast, simulation at 320 K shows a significant increase in flexibility of the C-terminal helix and F-114 loop. The motions of these two regions at 320 K open the active site and permit water molecules to diffuse into and out of the active site through two paths with one much more favored than the other. Cytosine is pushed out of the active site by a restraint method in two directions specified by these two paths. In path 1 the required motion of the protein is local-involving only the C-terminal helix and F-114 loop-and two residues, F-114 and I-156, are identified that have to be moved away to let cytosine out; whereas in path 2, the protein has to rearrange itself much more extensively, and the changes are also much larger compared to the path 1 simulation.

  2. A molecular dynamics exploration of the catalytic mechanism of yeast cytosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lishan; Sklenak, Stepan; Yan, Honggao; Cukier, Robert I

    2005-04-21

    Yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD), a zinc metalloenzyme of significant biomedical interest, is investigated by a series of molecular dynamics simulations in its free form and complexed with its reactant (cytosine), product (uracil), several reaction intermediates, and an intermediate analogue. Quantum chemical calculations, used to construct a model for the catalytic Zn ion with its ligands (two cysteines, a histidine, and one water) show, by comparison with crystal structure data, that the cysteines are deprotonated and the histidine is monoprotonated. The simulations suggest that Glu64 plays a critical role in the catalysis by yCD. The rotation of the Glu64 side-chain carboxyl group that can be protonated or deprotonated permits it to act as a proton shuttle between the Zn-bound water and cytosine and subsequent reaction intermediates. Free energy methods are used to obtain the barriers for these rotations, and they are sufficiently small to permit rotation on a nanosecond time scale. In the course of the reaction, cytosine reorients to a geometry to favor nucleophilic attack by a Zn-bound hydroxide. A stable position for a reaction product, ammonia, was located in the active site, and the free energy of exchange with a water molecule was evaluated. The simulations also reveal small motions of the C-terminus and the loop that contains Phe114 that may be important for reactant binding and product release.

  3. Phase Aberrations in Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Marchesini, S; Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Howells, M R; Spence, J H; Cui, C; Weierstall, U; Minor, A M

    2005-09-29

    In coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy the diffraction pattern generated by a sample illuminated with coherent x-rays is recorded, and a computer algorithm recovers the unmeasured phases to synthesize an image. By avoiding the use of a lens the resolution is limited, in principle, only by the largest scattering angles recorded. However, the imaging task is shifted from the experiment to the computer, and the algorithm's ability to recover meaningful images in the presence of noise and limited prior knowledge may produce aberrations in the reconstructed image. We analyze the low order aberrations produced by our phase retrieval algorithms. We present two methods to improve the accuracy and stability of reconstructions.

  4. Pathophysiology of MDS: genomic aberrations.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Motoshi

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and their apoptosis, and show a propensity to progress to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Although MDS are recognized as neoplastic diseases caused by genomic aberrations of hematopoietic cells, the details of the genetic abnormalities underlying disease development have not as yet been fully elucidated due to difficulties in analyzing chromosomal abnormalities. Recent advances in comprehensive analyses of disease genomes including whole-genome sequencing technologies have revealed the genomic abnormalities in MDS. Surprisingly, gene mutations were found in approximately 80-90% of cases with MDS, and the novel mutations discovered with these technologies included previously unknown, MDS-specific, mutations such as those of the genes in the RNA-splicing machinery. It is anticipated that these recent studies will shed new light on the pathophysiology of MDS due to genomic aberrations.

  5. DNA methylation errors in cloned mice disappear with advancement of aging.

    PubMed

    Senda, Sho; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Arai, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Ohgane, Jun; Tanaka, Satoshi; Hattori, Naka; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Shiota, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    Cloned animals have various health problems. Aberrant DNA methylation is a possible cause of the problems. Restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) that enabled us to analyze more than 1,000 CpG islands simultaneously demonstrated that all cloned newborns had aberrant DNA methylation. To study whether this aberration persists throughout the life of cloned individuals, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation status of newborn (19.5 dpc, n=2), adult (8-11 months old, n=3), and aged (23-27 months old, n=4) cloned mice using kidney cells as representatives. In the adult and aged groups, cloning was repeated using cumulus cells of the adult founder clone of each group as nucleus donor. Two newborn clones had three with aberrantly methylated loci, which is consistent with previous reports that all cloned newborns had DNA methylation aberrations. Interestingly, we could detect only one aberrantly methylated locus in two of the three adult clones in mid-age and none of four senescent clones, indicating that errors in DNA methylation disappear with advancement of animals' aging.

  6. Base-Pairing Energies of Proton-Bound Dimers and Proton Affinities of 1-Methyl-5-Halocytosines: Implications for the Effects of Halogenation on the Stability of the DNA i-Motif.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Wu, R R; Rodgers, M T

    2015-09-01

    (CCG)(n)•(CGG)(n) trinucleotide repeats have been found to be associated with fragile X syndrome, the most widespread inherited cause of mental retardation in humans. The (CCG)(n)•(CGG)(n) repeats adopt i-motif conformations that are preferentially stabilized by base-pairing interactions of noncanonical proton-bound dimers of cytosine (C(+)•C). Halogenated cytosine residues are one form of DNA damage that may be important in altering the structure and stability of DNA or DNA-protein interactions and, hence, regulate gene expression. Previously, we investigated the effects of 5-halogenation and 1-methylation of cytosine on the base-pairing energies (BPEs) using threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) techniques. In the present study, we extend our work to include proton-bound homo- and heterodimers of cytosine, 1-methyl-5-fluorocytosine, and 1-methyl-5-bromocytosine. All modifications examined here are found to produce a decrease in the BPEs. However, the BPEs of all of the proton-bound dimers examined significantly exceed those of Watson-Crick G•C, neutral C•C base pairs, and various methylated variants such that DNA i-motif conformations should still be preserved in the presence of these modifications. The proton affinities (PAs) of the halogenated cytosines are also obtained from the experimental data by competitive analysis of the primary dissociation pathways that occur in parallel for the proton-bound heterodimers. 5-Halogenation leads to a decrease in the N3 PA of cytosine, whereas 1-methylation leads to an increase in the N3 PA. Thus, the 1-methyl-5-halocytosines exhibit PAs that are intermediate.

  7. Base-Pairing Energies of Proton-Bound Dimers and Proton Affinities of 1-Methyl-5-Halocytosines: Implications for the Effects of Halogenation on the Stability of the DNA i-Motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Wu, R. R.; Rodgers, M. T.

    2015-09-01

    (CCG)n•(CGG)n trinucleotide repeats have been found to be associated with fragile X syndrome, the most widespread inherited cause of mental retardation in humans. The (CCG)n•(CGG)n repeats adopt i-motif conformations that are preferentially stabilized by base-pairing interactions of noncanonical proton-bound dimers of cytosine (C+•C). Halogenated cytosine residues are one form of DNA damage that may be important in altering the structure and stability of DNA or DNA-protein interactions and, hence, regulate gene expression. Previously, we investigated the effects of 5-halogenation and 1-methylation of cytosine on the base-pairing energies (BPEs) using threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) techniques. In the present study, we extend our work to include proton-bound homo- and heterodimers of cytosine, 1-methyl-5-fluorocytosine, and 1-methyl-5-bromocytosine. All modifications examined here are found to produce a decrease in the BPEs. However, the BPEs of all of the proton-bound dimers examined significantly exceed those of Watson-Crick G•C, neutral C•C base pairs, and various methylated variants such that DNA i-motif conformations should still be preserved in the presence of these modifications. The proton affinities (PAs) of the halogenated cytosines are also obtained from the experimental data by competitive analysis of the primary dissociation pathways that occur in parallel for the proton-bound heterodimers. 5-Halogenation leads to a decrease in the N3 PA of cytosine, whereas 1-methylation leads to an increase in the N3 PA. Thus, the 1-methyl-5-halocytosines exhibit PAs that are intermediate.

  8. Intraindividual dynamics of transcriptome and genome-wide stability of DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Ryohei; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Ohmomo, Hideki; Shiwa, Yuh; Ono, Kanako; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Satoh, Mamoru; Hitomi, Jiro; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine methylation at CpG dinucleotides is an epigenetic mechanism that affects the gene expression profiles responsible for the functional differences in various cells and tissues. Although gene expression patterns are dynamically altered in response to various stimuli, the intraindividual dynamics of DNA methylation in human cells are yet to be fully understood. Here, we investigated the extent to which DNA methylation contributes to the dynamics of gene expression by collecting 24 blood samples from two individuals over a period of 3 months. Transcriptome and methylome association analyses revealed that only ~2% of dynamic changes in gene expression could be explained by the intraindividual variation of DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and purified monocytes. These results showed that DNA methylation levels remain stable for at least several months, suggesting that disease-associated DNA methylation markers are useful for estimating the risk of disease manifestation. PMID:27192970

  9. Seidel aberrations of the Gabor superlens.

    PubMed

    Hamilton Shepard, R

    2014-02-10

    Equations are presented for the third-order Seidel aberrations of the Gabor superlens (GSL) as a function of microtelescope channel position within the aperture array. To reveal the origin and form of increasing aberration with channel height, Seidel coefficients are derived as a function of the accumulating pitch difference between the lens arrays and the aberrations present in the centered channel. Two- and three-element Gabor lenses are investigated and their aberrations are expressed as a function of first-order design parameters. The derived theory is then compared to a real ray trace simulation to demonstrate the accuracy of third-order aberration theory to predict GSL image quality.

  10. Yeast Cytosine Deaminase Mutants with Increased Thermostability Impart Sensitivity to 5-Fluorocytosine

    PubMed Central

    Stolworthy, Tiffany S.; Korkegian, Aaron M.; Willmon, Candice L.; Ardiani, Andressa; Cundiff, Jennifer; Stoddard, Barry L.; Black, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Prodrug gene therapy (PGT) is a treatment strategy in which tumor cells are transfected with a 'suicide' gene that encodes a metabolic enzyme capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into a potent cytotoxin. One of the most promising PGT enzymes is cytosine deaminase (CD), a microbial salvage enzyme that converts cytosine to uracil. CD also converts 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5FU), an inhibitor of DNA synthesis and RNA function. Over 150 studies of cytosine deaminase-mediated PGT applications have been reported since 2000, all using wild-type enzymes. However, various forms of cytosine deaminase are limited by inefficient turnover of 5FC and/or limited thermostability. In a previous study we stabilized and extended the half-life of yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) by repacking of its hydrophobic core at several positions distant from the active site. Here we report that random mutagenesis of residues selected based on alignment with similar enzymes, followed by selection for enhanced sensitization to 5FC, also produces an enzyme variant (yCD-D92E) with elevated Tm values and increased activity half-life. The new mutation is located at the enzyme's dimer interface, indicating that independent mutational pathways can lead to an increase in the temperature that induces protein unfolding and aggregation in thermal denaturation experiments measured by circular dichroism spectroscopy, and an increase in the half-life of enzyme activity at physiological temperature, as well as more subtle effect on enzyme kinetics. Each independently derived set of mutations significantly improves the enzyme's performance in PGT assays both in cell culture and in animal models. PMID:18291415

  11. DNA methylation directs genomic localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hainer, Sarah J; McCannell, Kurtis N; Yu, Jun; Ee, Ly-Sha; Zhu, Lihua J; Rando, Oliver J; Fazzio, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic and regulatory mark that functions in part through recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes containing methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. Two MBD proteins, Mbd2 and Mbd3, were previously shown to bind methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA, respectively; however, both of these findings have been disputed. Here, we investigated this controversy using experimental approaches and re-analysis of published data and find no evidence for methylation-independent functions of Mbd2 or Mbd3. We show that chromatin localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 is highly overlapping and, unexpectedly, we find Mbd2 and Mbd3 are interdependent for chromatin association. Further investigation reveals that both proteins are required for normal levels of cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation in murine embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, Mbd2 and Mbd3 regulate overlapping sets of genes that are also regulated by DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation factors. These findings reveal an interdependent regulatory mechanism mediated by the DNA methylation machinery and its readers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21964.001 PMID:27849519

  12. DNA methylation directs genomic localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hainer, Sarah J; McCannell, Kurtis N; Yu, Jun; Ee, Ly-Sha; Zhu, Lihua J; Rando, Oliver J; Fazzio, Thomas G

    2016-11-16

    Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic and regulatory mark that functions in part through recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes containing methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. Two MBD proteins, Mbd2 and Mbd3, were previously shown to bind methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA, respectively; however, both of these findings have been disputed. Here, we investigated this controversy using experimental approaches and re-analysis of published data and find no evidence for methylation-independent functions of Mbd2 or Mbd3. We show that chromatin localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 is highly overlapping and, unexpectedly, we find Mbd2 and Mbd3 are interdependent for chromatin association. Further investigation reveals that both proteins are required for normal levels of cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation in murine embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, Mbd2 and Mbd3 regulate overlapping sets of genes that are also regulated by DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation factors. These findings reveal an interdependent regulatory mechanism mediated by the DNA methylation machinery and its readers.

  13. Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations.

    PubMed

    Artal, Pablo; Chen, Li; Fernández, Enrique J; Singer, Ben; Manzanera, Silvestre; Williams, David R

    2004-04-16

    A fundamental problem facing sensory systems is to recover useful information about the external world from signals that are corrupted by the sensory process itself. Retinal images in the human eye are affected by optical aberrations that cannot be corrected with ordinary spectacles or contact lenses, and the specific pattern of these aberrations is different in every eye. Though these aberrations always blur the retinal image, our subjective impression is that the visual world is sharp and clear, suggesting that the brain might compensate for their subjective influence. The recent introduction of adaptive optics to control the eye's aberrations now makes it possible to directly test this idea. If the brain compensates for the eye's aberrations, vision should be clearest with the eye's own aberrations rather than with unfamiliar ones. We asked subjects to view a stimulus through an adaptive optics system that either recreated their own aberrations or a rotated version of them. For all five subjects tested, the stimulus seen with the subject's own aberrations was always sharper than when seen through the rotated version. This supports the hypothesis that the neural visual system is adapted to the eye's aberrations, thereby removing somehow the effects of blur generated by the sensory apparatus from visual experience. This result could have important implications for methods to correct higher order aberrations with customized refractive surgery because some benefits of optimizing the correction optically might be undone by the nervous system's compensation for the old aberrations.

  14. DNA methylation of SPARC and chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The extracellular matrix protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic, Rich in Cysteine) has been linked to degeneration of the intervertebral discs and chronic low back pain (LBP). In humans, SPARC protein expression is decreased as a function of age and disc degeneration. In mice, inactivation of the SPARC gene results in the development of accelerated age-dependent disc degeneration concurrent with age-dependent behavioral signs of chronic LBP. DNA methylation is the covalent modification of DNA by addition of methyl moieties to cytosines in DNA. DNA methylation plays an important role in programming of gene expression, including in the dynamic regulation of changes in gene expression in response to aging and environmental signals. We tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation down-regulates SPARC expression in chronic LBP in pre-clinical models and in patients with chronic LBP. Results Our data shows that aging mice develop anatomical and behavioral signs of disc degeneration and back pain, decreased SPARC expression and increased methylation of the SPARC promoter. In parallel, we show that human subjects with back pain exhibit signs of disc degeneration and increased methylation of the SPARC promoter. Methylation of either the human or mouse SPARC promoter silences its activity in transient transfection assays. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that DNA methylation of a single gene plays a role in chronic pain in humans and animal models. This has important implications for understanding the mechanisms involved in chronic pain and for pain therapy. PMID:21867537

  15. Human body epigenome maps reveal noncanonical DNA methylation variation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Matthew D; He, Yupeng; Whitaker, John W; Hariharan, Manoj; Mukamel, Eran A; Leung, Danny; Rajagopal, Nisha; Nery, Joseph R; Urich, Mark A; Chen, Huaming; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jung, Inkyung; Schmitt, Anthony D; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Ren, Bing; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Wang, Wei; Ecker, Joseph R

    2015-07-09

    Understanding the diversity of human tissues is fundamental to disease and requires linking genetic information, which is identical in most of an individual's cells, with epigenetic mechanisms that could have tissue-specific roles. Surveys of DNA methylation in human tissues have established a complex landscape including both tissue-specific and invariant methylation patterns. Here we report high coverage methylomes that catalogue cytosine methylation in all contexts for the major human organ systems, integrated with matched transcriptomes and genomic sequence. By combining these diverse data types with each individuals' phased genome, we identified widespread tissue-specific differential CG methylation (mCG), partially methylated domains, allele-specific methylation and transcription, and the unexpected presence of non-CG methylation (mCH) in almost all human tissues. mCH correlated with tissue-specific functions, and using this mark, we made novel predictions of genes that escape X-chromosome inactivation in specific tissues. Overall, DNA methylation in several genomic contexts varies substantially among human tissues.

  16. Human Body Epigenome Maps Reveal Noncanonical DNA Methylation Variation

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Matthew D.; He, Yupeng; Whitaker, John W.; Hariharan, Manoj; Mukamel, Eran A.; Leung, Danny; Rajagopal, Nisha; Nery, Joseph R.; Urich, Mark A.; Chen, Huaming; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jung, Inkyung; Schmitt, Anthony D.; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Ren, Bing; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Wang, Wei; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the diversity of human tissues is fundamental to disease and requires linking genetic information, which is identical in most of an individual’s cells, with epigenetic mechanisms that could play tissue-specific roles. Surveys of DNA methylation in human tissues have established a complex landscape including both tissue-specific and invariant methylation patterns1,2. Here we report high coverage methylomes that catalogue cytosine methylation in all contexts for the major human organ systems, integrated with matched transcriptomes and genomic sequence. By combining these diverse data types with each individuals’ phased genome3, we identified widespread tissue-specific differential CG methylation (mCG), partially methylated domains, allele-specific methylation and transcription, and the unexpected presence of non-CG methylation (mCH) in almost all human tissues. mCH correlated with tissue-specific functions, and using this mark, we made novel predictions of genes that escape X-chromosome inactivation in specific tissues. Overall, DNA methylation in multiple genomic contexts varies substantially among human tissues. PMID:26030523

  17. DNA methylation in human epigenomes depends on local topology of CpG sites.

    PubMed

    Lövkvist, Cecilia; Dodd, Ian B; Sneppen, Kim; Haerter, Jan O

    2016-06-20

    In vertebrates, methylation of cytosine at CpG sequences is implicated in stable and heritable patterns of gene expression. The classical model for inheritance, in which individual CpG sites are independent, provides no explanation for the observed non-random patterns of methylation. We first investigate the exact topology of CpG clustering in the human genome associated to CpG islands. Then, by pooling genomic CpG clusters on the basis of short distances between CpGs within and long distances outside clusters, we show a strong dependence of methylation on the number and density of CpG organization. CpG clusters with fewer, or less densely spaced, CpGs are predominantly hyper-methylated, while larger clusters are predominantly hypo-methylated. Intermediate clusters, however, are either hyper- or hypo-methylated but are rarely found in intermediate methylation states. We develop a model for spatially-dependent collaboration between CpGs, where methylated CpGs recruit methylation enzymes that can act on CpGs over an extended local region, while unmethylated CpGs recruit demethylation enzymes that act more strongly on nearby CpGs. This model can reproduce the effects of CpG clustering on methylation and produces stable and heritable alternative methylation states of CpG clusters, thus providing a coherent model for methylation inheritance and methylation patterning.

  18. DNA methylation in human epigenomes depends on local topology of CpG sites

    PubMed Central

    Lövkvist, Cecilia; Dodd, Ian B.; Sneppen, Kim; Haerter, Jan O.

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, methylation of cytosine at CpG sequences is implicated in stable and heritable patterns of gene expression. The classical model for inheritance, in which individual CpG sites are independent, provides no explanation for the observed non-random patterns of methylation. We first investigate the exact topology of CpG clustering in the human genome associated to CpG islands. Then, by pooling genomic CpG clusters on the basis of short distances between CpGs within and long distances outside clusters, we show a strong dependence of methylation on the number and density of CpG organization. CpG clusters with fewer, or less densely spaced, CpGs are predominantly hyper-methylated, while larger clusters are predominantly hypo-methylated. Intermediate clusters, however, are either hyper- or hypo-methylated but are rarely found in intermediate methylation states. We develop a model for spatially-dependent collaboration between CpGs, where methylated CpGs recruit methylation enzymes that can act on CpGs over an extended local region, while unmethylated CpGs recruit demethylation enzymes that act more strongly on nearby CpGs. This model can reproduce the effects of CpG clustering on methylation and produces stable and heritable alternative methylation states of CpG clusters, thus providing a coherent model for methylation inheritance and methylation patterning. PMID:26932361

  19. Alcohol, DNA Methylation, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Rey, Marta; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Martinez-Chantar, Maria-Luz; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most significant diseases associated with chronic alcohol consumption, and chronic drinking is a strong risk factor for cancer, particularly of the upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectum, and breast. Several factors contribute to alcohol-induced cancer development (i.e., carcinogenesis), including the actions of acetaldehyde, the first and primary metabolite of ethanol, and oxidative stress. However, increasing evidence suggests that aberrant patterns of DNA methylation, an important epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional control, also could be part of the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to alcohol-induced cancer development. The effects of alcohol on global and local DNA methylation patterns likely are mediated by its ability to interfere with the availability of the principal biological methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), as well as pathways related to it. Several mechanisms may mediate the effects of alcohol on DNA methylation, including reduced folate levels and inhibition of key enzymes in one-carbon metabolism that ultimately lead to lower SAMe levels, as well as inhibition of activity and expression of enzymes involved in DNA methylation (i.e., DNA methyltransferases). Finally, variations (i.e., polymorphisms) of several genes involved in one-carbon metabolism also modulate the risk of alcohol-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:24313162

  20. Promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16, and RAR-beta(2) genes in breast tumors and dietary intake of nutrients important in one-carbon metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis, and the availability of dietary factors involved in 1-carbon metabolism may contribute to aberrant DNA methylation. We investigated the association of intake of folate, vitamins B(2), B(6), B(12), and methionine with promoter methylat...

  1. DNA methylation of retrotransposons, DNA transposons and genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Falk; Schmidt, Martin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2017-03-03

    The methylation of cytosines shapes the epigenetic landscape of plant genomes, coordinates transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, represses activity of transposable elements (TEs), affects gene expression, and, hence, can influence the phenotype. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris), an important crop that accounts for 30% of the worldwide sugar needs, has a relatively small genome size (758 Mbp) consisting of approximately 485 Mbp repetitive DNA (64%) in particular, satellite DNA, retrotransposons, and DNA transposons. Genome-wide cytosine methylation in the sugar beet genome was studied in leaves and leaf-derived callus with a focus on repetitive sequences, including retrotransposons and DNA transposons, the major groups of repetitive DNA sequences and compared with gene methylation. Genes showed a specific methylation pattern for CG, CHG (H=A, C, and T), and CHH sites, whereas the TE pattern differed, depending on the classes 1 (retrotransposons) and 2 (DNA transposons), respectively. Along genes and TEs, the CG and CHG methylation was higher than that of adjacent genomic regions. In contrast to the relatively low CHH methylation in retrotransposons and genes, the level of CHH methylation in DNA transposons was strongly increased, pointing toward a functional role of asymmetric methylation in DNA transposon silencing. Comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation between sugar beet leaves and callus revealed a differential methylation upon tissue culture. Potential epialleles were hypomethylated (lower methylation) at CG and CHG sites in retrotransposons and genes and hypermethylated (higher methylation) at CHH sites in DNA transposons of callus when compared to leaves. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (1) The apparent displacement of a star from its mean position on the celestial sphere due to the velocity of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun. The phenomenon was discovered in 1729 by James Bradley (1693-1762) who was, in fact, trying to measure stellar parallax. The displacement is caused by the combination of the velocity of the Earth and the velocity of light approaching from the source. ...

  3. Methylation changes of H{sub 19} gene in sperms of X-irradiated mouse and maintenance in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Bin; Huang Xinghua; Chen Jindong; Lu Yachao; Chen Ying; Zhao Jingyong . E-mail: sudazhaojy@hotmail.com

    2006-02-03

    The nature of imprinting is just differential methylation of imprinted genes. Unlike the non-imprinted genes, the methylation pattern of imprinted genes established during the period of gametogenesis remains unchangeable after fertilization and during embryo development. It implies that gametogenesis is the key stage for methylation pattern of imprinted genes. The imprinting interfered by exogenous factors during this stage could be inherited to offspring and cause genetic effect. Now many studies have proved that ionizing irradiation could disturb DNA methylation. Here we choose BALB/c mice as a research model and X-ray as interfering source to further clarify it. We discovered that the whole-body irradiation of X-ray to male BALB/c mice could influence the methylation pattern of H{sub 19} gene in sperms, which resulted in some cytosines of partial CpG islands in the imprinting control region could not transform to methylated cytosines. Furthermore, by copulating the interfered male mice with normal female, we analyzed the promoter methylation pattern of H{sub 19} in offspring fetal liver and compared the same to the pattern of male parent in sperms. We found that the majority of methylation changes in offspring liver were related to the ones in their parent sperms. Our data proved that the changes of the H{sub 19} gene methylation pattern interfered by X-ray irradiation could be transmitted and maintained in First-generation offspring.

  4. Comparison of the heat stress induced variations in DNA methylation between heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive rapeseed seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guizhen; Li, Jun; Li, Hao; Li, Feng; Xu, Kun; Yan, Guixin; Chen, Biyun; Qiao, Jiangwei; Wu, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is responsive to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Heat stress is a serious threat to crop growth and development worldwide. Heat stress results in an array of morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in plants. The relationship between DNA methylation and heat stress in crops is relatively unknown. We investigated the differences in methylation levels and changes in the cytosine methylation patterns in seedlings of two rapeseed genotypes (heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant) under heat stress. Our results revealed that the methylation levels were different between a heat-tolerant genotype and a heat-sensitive one under control conditions. Under heat treatment, methylation increased more in the heat-sensitive genotype than in the heat-tolerant genotype. More DNA demethylation events occurred in the heat-tolerant genotype, while more DNA methylation occurred in the heat-sensitive genotype. A large and diverse set of genes were affected by heat stress via cytosine methylation changes, suggesting that these genes likely play important roles in the response and adaption to heat stress in Brassica napus L. This study indicated that the changes in DNA methylation differed between heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive genotypes of B. napus in response to heat stress, which further illuminates the molecular mechanisms of the adaption to heat stress in B. napus. PMID:24987298

  5. Locus-specific dependency of endogenous silent loci on MOM1 and non-CG methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Habu, Yoshiki; Yoshikawa, Manabu

    2010-06-01

    RNA-directed modification of histones is essential for maintenance of heterochromatin in higher eukaryotes. In plants, cytosine methylation, especially in non-CG sequence contexts, is tightly related to inactive chromatin, but the mechanisms regulating the coexistence of cytosine methylation and repressive histone modification remain obscure. We recently revealed that MORPHEUS' MOLECULE1 (MOM1) of Arabidopsis thaliana silences endogenous loci related to transposons and homologous to the 24-nt siRNAs accumulated in wild type plants, and suggested that MOM1 transduces RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) signals to repressive histone modification. In this addendum, we focus on the involvement of MOM1 in multiple transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) pathways.

  6. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  7. CG methylation.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Charles; Chatterjee, Raghunath

    2012-12-01

    A striking feature of mammalian genomes is the paucity of the CG dinucleotide. There are approximately 20,000 regions termed CpG islands where CGs cluster. This represents 5% of all CGs and 1% of the genome. CpG islands are typically unmethylated and are often promoters for housekeeping genes. The remaining 95% of CG dinucleotides are disposed throughout 99% of the genome and are typically methylated and found in half of all promoters. CG methylation facilitates binding of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, proteins critical for differentiation of many tissues. This allows these proteins to localize in the methylated CG poor regions of the genome where they may produce advantageous changes in gene expression at nearby or more distant regions of the genome. In this review, our growing understanding of the consequences of CG methylation will be surveyed.

  8. Methyl methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW of METHYL METHACRYLATE ( CAS No . 80 - 62 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) January 1998 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC TABLE OF CONTENTS DISCLAIMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  9. An endoparasitoid wasp influences host DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Kim, Yonggyun

    2017-01-01

    Parasitism by endoparasitoid wasps changes the expression of various host genes, and alters host immune and developmental processes. However, it is not clearly understood how parasitism changes host gene expression in a whole genome scale. This study focused on an epigenetic control of Cotesia plutellae, an endoparasitoid wasp, against its host, Plutella xylostella. Two DNA methyltransferases (DNMT-1 and DNMT-2) are encoded in the genome of P. xylostella. In addition, methyl-binding domain proteins (MBDs) and DNA demethylation factor, ten-eleven translation protein (TET) are encoded. DNA methylation of P. xylostella genomic DNA was confirmed by restriction digestion with Gla I specific to 5-methylcytosine. DNA methylation intensity in parasitized (P) larvae was decreased compared to that in nonparasitized (NP) larvae, especially at late parasitic stage, at which expression levels of both DNMT-1 and DNMT-2 were also decreased. DNA demethylation of P. xylostella was confirmed in both NP and P larvae by restriction digestion with PvuRts1I recognizing 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine. Parasitism also suppressed expression levels of TET and MBDs. Treatment of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (AZA) reduced DNA methylation intensity of NP larvae, causing suppression of hemocyte-spreading behavior and delay of immature development. RNA interference of DNMT-1 or DNMT-2 mimicked the adverse effects of AZA. PMID:28230192

  10. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2013-12-01

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning.

  11. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  12. HMM-Fisher: identifying differential methylation using a hidden Markov model and Fisher's exact test.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuying; Yu, Xiaoqing

    2016-03-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic event that plays an important role in regulating gene expression. It is important to study DNA methylation, especially differential methylation patterns between two groups of samples (e.g. patients vs. normal individuals). With next generation sequencing technologies, it is now possible to identify differential methylation patterns by considering methylation at the single CG site level in an entire genome. However, it is challenging to analyze large and complex NGS data. In order to address this difficult question, we have developed a new statistical method using a hidden Markov model and Fisher's exact test (HMM-Fisher) to identify differentially methylated cytosines and regions. We first use a hidden Markov chain to model the methylation signals to infer the methylation state as Not methylated (N), Partly methylated (P), and Fully methylated (F) for each individual sample. We then use Fisher's exact test to identify differentially methylated CG sites. We show the HMM-Fisher method and compare it with commonly cited methods using both simulated data and real sequencing data. The results show that HMM-Fisher outperforms the current available methods to which we have compared. HMM-Fisher is efficient and robust in identifying heterogeneous DM regions.

  13. De novo DNA methylation of the paternal genome in 2-cell mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Ma, X S; Wang, X G; Qin, L; Song, C L; Lin, F; Song, J M; Zhu, C C; Liu, H L

    2014-10-27

    The developmental dynamics of DNA methylation events have been well studied. Active demethylation of the paternal genome occurs in the zygote, passive demethylation occurs during cleavage stages, and de novo methylation occurs by the blastocyst stage. It is believed that the paternal genome has lower levels of methylation during early development than the maternal genome. However, in this study, we provide direct and indirect evidence of genome-wide de novo DNA methylation of the paternal genome after the first cell cycle in mouse embryos. Although very little methylation was detected within the male pronucleus in zygotes, an intense methylation signal was clearly visible within the androgenetic 2-cell embryos. Moreover, the DNA methylation level of the paternal genome in the post-zygotic metaphase embryos was similar to that of the maternal genome. Using indirect immunofluorescence with an antibody to methylated lysine 9 in histone H3, we provided new evidence to support the concept of spatial compartmentalization of parental genomes in 2-cell mouse embryos. Nevertheless, the transient segregation of parental genomes was not observed by determining the DNA methylation distribution in the 2-cell embryos even though DNA methylation asymmetry between the maternal and paternal pronucleus existed in the 1-cell stage. The disappearance of separate immunofluorescence signals of 5-methyl cytosine in the 2-cell embryos might be attributed to the de novo methylation of the paternal genome during the first mitotic cycle.

  14. The clinical value of aberrant epigenetic changes of DNA damage repair genes in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dan; Herman, James G.; Guo, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The stability and integrity of the human genome are maintained by the DNA damage repair (DDR) system. Unrepaired DNA damage is a major source of potentially mutagenic lesions that drive carcinogenesis. In addition to gene mutation, DNA methylation occurs more frequently in DDR genes in human cancer. Thus, DNA methylation may play more important roles in DNA damage repair genes to drive carcinogenesis. Aberrant methylation patterns in DNA damage repair genes may serve as predictive, diagnostic, prognostic and chemosensitive markers of human cancer. MGMT methylation is a marker for poor prognosis in human glioma, while, MGMT methylation is a sensitive marker of glioma cells to alkylating agents. Aberrant epigenetic changes in DNA damage repair genes may serve as therapeutic targets. Treatment of MLH1-methylated colon cancer cell lines with the demethylating agent 5′-aza-2′-deoxycytidine induces the expression of MLH1 and sensitizes cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil. Synthetic lethality is a more exciting approach in patients with DDR defects. PARP inhibitors are the most effective anticancer reagents in BRCA-deficient cancer cells. PMID:26967246

  15. DNA Methylation Biomarkers for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Diagnostic and Prognostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Cai, Rui; Chen, Qiu-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common tumor in southern China and south-eastern Asia. Effective strategies for the prevention or screening of NPC are limited. Exploring effective biomarkers for the early diagnosis and prognosis of NPC continues to be a rigorous challenge. Evidence is accumulating that DNA methylation alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of NPC. Over the past few decades, aberrant DNA methylation in single or multiple tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in various biologic samples have been described in NPC, which potentially represents useful biomarkers. Recently, large-scale DNA methylation analysis by genome-wide methylation platform provides a new way to identify candidate DNA methylated markers of NPC. This review summarizes the published research on the diagnostic and prognostic potential biomarkers of DNA methylation for NPC and discusses the current knowledge on DNA methylation as a biomarker for the early detection and monitoring of progression of NPC.

  16. The misalignment induced aberrations of TMA telescopes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kevin P; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P

    2008-12-08

    The next major space-borne observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, will be a 6.6M field-biased, obscured, three-mirror anastigmat (TMA). Over the used field of view, the performance of TMA telescopes is dominated by 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations. Here it is shown that two dominant 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations arise for any TMA telescope. One aberration, field constant 3(rd) order coma is a well known misalignment aberration commonly seen in two-mirror Ritchey Chretien telescopes. The second aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear, 3(rd) order astigmatism is a new and unique image orientation dependence with field derived here for the first time using nodal aberration theory.

  17. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  18. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  19. Comprehensive DNA methylation analysis of the Aedes aegypti genome

    PubMed Central

    Falckenhayn, Cassandra; Carneiro, Vitor Coutinho; de Mendonça Amarante, Anderson; Schmid, Katharina; Hanna, Katharina; Kang, Seokyoung; Helm, Mark; Dimopoulos, George; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado; Lyko, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are important vectors of viral diseases. Mosquito host factors play key roles in virus control and it has been suggested that dengue virus replication is regulated by Dnmt2-mediated DNA methylation. However, recent studies have shown that Dnmt2 is a tRNA methyltransferase and that Dnmt2-dependent methylomes lack defined DNA methylation patterns, thus necessitating a systematic re-evaluation of the mosquito genome methylation status. We have now searched the Ae. aegypti genome for candidate DNA modification enzymes. This failed to reveal any known (cytosine-5) DNA methyltransferases, but identified homologues for the Dnmt2 tRNA methyltransferase, the Mettl4 (adenine-6) DNA methyltransferase, and the Tet DNA demethylase. All genes were expressed at variable levels throughout mosquito development. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that DNA methylation levels were several orders of magnitude below the levels that are usually detected in organisms with DNA methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation. Furthermore, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing failed to reveal any evidence of defined DNA methylation patterns. These results suggest that the Ae. aegypti genome is unmethylated. Interestingly, additional RNA bisulfite sequencing provided first evidence for Dnmt2-mediated tRNA methylation in mosquitoes. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism of Dnmt2-dependent virus regulation. PMID:27805064

  20. Comprehensive DNA methylation analysis of the Aedes aegypti genome.

    PubMed

    Falckenhayn, Cassandra; Carneiro, Vitor Coutinho; de Mendonça Amarante, Anderson; Schmid, Katharina; Hanna, Katharina; Kang, Seokyoung; Helm, Mark; Dimopoulos, George; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado; Lyko, Frank

    2016-11-02

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are important vectors of viral diseases. Mosquito host factors play key roles in virus control and it has been suggested that dengue virus replication is regulated by Dnmt2-mediated DNA methylation. However, recent studies have shown that Dnmt2 is a tRNA methyltransferase and that Dnmt2-dependent methylomes lack defined DNA methylation patterns, thus necessitating a systematic re-evaluation of the mosquito genome methylation status. We have now searched the Ae. aegypti genome for candidate DNA modification enzymes. This failed to reveal any known (cytosine-5) DNA methyltransferases, but identified homologues for the Dnmt2 tRNA methyltransferase, the Mettl4 (adenine-6) DNA methyltransferase, and the Tet DNA demethylase. All genes were expressed at variable levels throughout mosquito development. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that DNA methylation levels were several orders of magnitude below the levels that are usually detected in organisms with DNA methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation. Furthermore, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing failed to reveal any evidence of defined DNA methylation patterns. These results suggest that the Ae. aegypti genome is unmethylated. Interestingly, additional RNA bisulfite sequencing provided first evidence for Dnmt2-mediated tRNA methylation in mosquitoes. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism of Dnmt2-dependent virus regulation.

  1. Epigenetics in Alzheimer's Disease: Perspective of DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Talal Jamil; Quan, Zhenzhen; Mir, Asif; Qing, Hong

    2017-01-14

    Research over the years has shown that causes of Alzheimer's disease are not well understood, but over the past years, the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the developing memory formation either under pathological or physiological conditions has become clear. The term epigenetics represents the heredity of changes in phenotype that are independent of altered DNA sequences. Different studies validated that cytosine methylation of genomic DNA decreases with age in different tissues of mammals, and therefore, the role of epigenetic factors in developing neurological disorders in aging has been under focus. In this review, we summarized and reviewed the involvement of different epigenetic mechanisms especially the DNA methylation in Alzheimer's disease (AD), late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), and autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD). Down to the minutest of details, we tried to discuss the methylation patterns like mitochondrial DNA methylation and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) methylation. Additionally, we mentioned some therapeutic approaches related to epigenetics, which could provide a potential cure for AD. Moreover, we reviewed some recent studies that validate DNA methylation as a potential biomarker and its role in AD. We hope that this review will provide new insights into the understanding of AD pathogenesis from the epigenetic perspective especially from the perspective of DNA methylation.

  2. Designing DNA interstrand lock for locus-specific methylation detection in a nanopore

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Insoon; Wang, Yong; Reagan, Corbin; Fu, Yumei; Wang, Michael X.; Gu, Li-Qun

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Locus-specific DNA methylation can be used as biomarkers in various diseases including cancer. Many methods have been developed for genome-wide methylation analysis, but molecular diagnotics needs simple tools to determine methylation states at individual CpG sites in a gene fragment. In this report, we utilized the nanopore single-molecule sensor to investigate a base-pair specific metal ion/nucleic acids interaction, and explored its potential application in locus-specific DNA methylation analysis. We identified that divalent Mercury ion (Hg2+) can selectively bind a uracil-thymine mismatch (U-T) in a dsDNA. The Hg2+ binding creates a reversible interstrand lock, called MercuLock, which enhances the hybridization strength by two orders of magnitude. Such MercuLock cannot be formed in a 5-methylcytosine-thymine mismatch (mC-T). By nanopore detection of dsDNA stability, single bases of uracil and 5-methylcytosine can be distinguished. Since uracil is converted from cytosine by bisulfite treatment, cytosine and 5′-methylcytosine can be discriminated. We have demonstrated the methylation analysis of multiple CpGs in a p16 gene CpG island. This single-molecule assay may have potential in detection of epigenetic cancer biomarkers in biofluids, with an ultimate goal for early diagnosis of cancer. PMID:24135881

  3. Designing DNA interstrand lock for locus-specific methylation detection in a nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Insoon; Wang, Yong; Reagan, Corbin; Fu, Yumei; Wang, Michael X.; Gu, Li-Qun

    2013-10-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Locus-specific DNA methylation can be used as biomarkers in various diseases including cancer. Many methods have been developed for genome-wide methylation analysis, but molecular diagnotics needs simple tools to determine methylation states at individual CpG sites in a gene fragment. In this report, we utilized the nanopore single-molecule sensor to investigate a base-pair specific metal ion/nucleic acids interaction, and explored its potential application in locus-specific DNA methylation analysis. We identified that divalent Mercury ion (Hg2+) can selectively bind a uracil-thymine mismatch (U-T) in a dsDNA. The Hg2+ binding creates a reversible interstrand lock, called MercuLock, which enhances the hybridization strength by two orders of magnitude. Such MercuLock cannot be formed in a 5-methylcytosine-thymine mismatch (mC-T). By nanopore detection of dsDNA stability, single bases of uracil and 5-methylcytosine can be distinguished. Since uracil is converted from cytosine by bisulfite treatment, cytosine and 5'-methylcytosine can be discriminated. We have demonstrated the methylation analysis of multiple CpGs in a p16 gene CpG island. This single-molecule assay may have potential in detection of epigenetic cancer biomarkers in biofluids, with an ultimate goal for early diagnosis of cancer.

  4. TNF-alpha promoter methylation as a predictive biomarker for weight-loss response.

    PubMed

    Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermin I; Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2009-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine which is commonly elevated in obese subjects and whose promoter is susceptible to be regulated by cytosine methylation. The aim of this research was to analyze whether epigenetic regulation of human TNF-alpha promoter by cytosine methylation could be involved in the predisposition to lose body weight after following a balanced hypocaloric diet. Twenty-four patients (12 women/12 men) with excessive body weight-for-height (BMI: 30.5+/-0.32 kg/m2; age: 34+/-4 years old) followed an 8-week energy-restricted diet. Blood mononuclear cell DNA, isolated before the nutritional intervention, was treated with bisulfite and a region of TNF-alpha gene promoter (from -360 to +50 bp) was sequenced. Obese men with successful weight loss (>or=5% of initial body weight) showed lower levels of total TNF-alpha promoter methylation (r=0.74; P=0.021), especially in the positions -170 bp (r=0.75, P=0.005) and -120 bp (r=0.70, P=0.011). Baseline TNF-alpha circulating levels were positively associated with total promoter methylation (r=0.84, P=0.005) and methylation at position -245 bp (r=0.75, P=0.020). TNF-alpha promoter methylation could be a good inflammation marker predicting the hypocaloric diet-induced weight-loss, and constitutes a first step toward personalized nutrition based on epigenetic criteria.

  5. Stable loop in the crystal structure of the intercalated four-stranded cytosine-rich metazoan telomere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C.; Berger, I.; Lockshin, C.; Ratliff, R.; Moyzis, R.; Rich, A.

    1995-01-01

    In most metazoans, the telomeric cytosine-rich strand repeating sequence is d(TAACCC). The crystal structure of this sequence was solved to 1.9-A resolution. Four strands associate via the cytosine-containing parts to form a four-stranded intercalated structure held together by C.C+ hydrogen bonds. The base-paired strands are parallel to each other, and the two duplexes are intercalated into each other in opposite orientations. One TAA end forms a highly stabilized loop with the 5' thymine Hoogsteen-base-paired to the third adenine. The 5' end of this loop is in close proximity to the 3' end of one of the other intercalated cytosine strands. Instead of being entirely in a DNA duplex, this structure suggests the possibility of an alternative conformation for the cytosine-rich telomere strands.

  6. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine hypomethylated leafless inflorescence, evergreen dwarf and irregular leaf lamina mutants of Catharanthus roseus possessing Mendelian inheritance.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Renu; Sharma, Vishakha; Sharma, Vinay; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    In Catharanthus roseus, three morphological cum salt-tolerant chemically induced mutants of Mendelian inheritance and their wild-type parent cv Nirmal were characterized for overall cytosine methylation at DNA repeats, expression of 119 protein coding and seven miRNA-coding genes and 50 quantitative traits. The mutants, named after their principal morphological feature(s), were leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill). The Southern-blot analysis of MspI digested DNAs of mutants probed with centromeric and 5S and 18S rDNA probes indicated that, in comparison to wild type, the mutants were extensively demethylated at cytosine sites. Among the 126 genes investigated for transcriptional expression, 85 were upregulated and 41 were downregulated in mutants. All of the five genes known to be stress responsive had increased expression in mutants. Several miRNA genes showed either increased or decreased expression in mutants. The C. roseus counterparts of CMT3, DRM2 and RDR2 were downregulated in mutants. Among the cell, organ and plant size, photosynthesis and metabolism related traits studied, 28 traits were similarly affected in mutants as compared to wild type. Each of the mutants also expressed some traits distinctively. The egd mutant possessed superior photosynthesis and water retention abilities. Biomass was hyperaccumulated in roots, stems, leaves and seeds of the lli mutant. The ill mutant was richest in the pharmaceutical alkaloids catharanthine, vindoline, vincristine and vinblastine. The nature of mutations, origins of mutant phenotypes and evolutionary importance of these mutants are discussed.

  7. Aberrations of ellipsoidal reflectors for unit magnification.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, K D

    1974-12-01

    Ellipsoidal reflectors are useful for the 1:1 imaging of small objects without spherical and chromatic aberration. The magnitude of the off-axis aberrations of such reflectors is computed by application of Fermat's principle to the Hamiltonian point characteristic. The limiting form of the mirror aperture for which these aberrations do not exceed a set tolerance is an ellipse whose semiaxes depend on object size and angle of incidence.

  8. Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies novel methylated genes in neuroblastoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Maja; Beck, Stephan; Kogner, Per; Martinsson, Tommy; Carén, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a very heterogeneous tumor of childhood. The clinical spectra range from very aggressive metastatic disease to spontaneous regression, even without therapy. Aberrant DNA methylation pattern is a common feature of most cancers. For neuroblastoma, it has been demonstrated both for single genes as well as genome-wide, where a so-called methylator phenotype has been described. Here, we present a study using Illumina 450K methylation arrays on 60 neuroblastoma tumors. We show that aggressive tumors, characterized by International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) as stage M, are hypermethylated compared to low-grade tumors. On the contrary, INRG stage L tumors display more non-CpG methylation. The genes with the highest number of hypermethylated CpG sites in INRG M tumors are TERT, PCDHGA4, DLX5, and DLX6-AS1. Gene ontology analysis showed a representation of neuronal tumor relevant gene functions among the differentially methylated genes. For validation, we used a set of independent tumors previously analyzed with the Illumina 27K methylation arrays, which confirmed the differentially methylated sites. Top candidate genes with aberrant methylation were analyzed for altered gene expression through the R2 platform ( http://r2.amc.nl), and for correlations between methylation and gene expression in a public dataset. Altered expression in nonsurvivors was found for the genes B3GALT4 and KIAA1949, CLIC5, DLX6-AS, TERT, and PIRT, and strongest correlations were found for TRIM36, KIAA0513, and PIRT. Our data indicate that methylation profiling can be used for patient stratification and informs on epigenetically deregulated genes with the potential of increasing our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of tumor development.

  9. Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies novel methylated genes in neuroblastoma tumors

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Maja; Beck, Stephan; Kogner, Per; Martinsson, Tommy; Carén, Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neuroblastoma is a very heterogeneous tumor of childhood. The clinical spectra range from very aggressive metastatic disease to spontaneous regression, even without therapy. Aberrant DNA methylation pattern is a common feature of most cancers. For neuroblastoma, it has been demonstrated both for single genes as well as genome-wide, where a so-called methylator phenotype has been described. Here, we present a study using Illumina 450K methylation arrays on 60 neuroblastoma tumors. We show that aggressive tumors, characterized by International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) as stage M, are hypermethylated compared to low-grade tumors. On the contrary, INRG stage L tumors display more non-CpG methylation. The genes with the highest number of hypermethylated CpG sites in INRG M tumors are TERT, PCDHGA4, DLX5, and DLX6-AS1. Gene ontology analysis showed a representation of neuronal tumor relevant gene functions among the differentially methylated genes. For validation, we used a set of independent tumors previously analyzed with the Illumina 27K methylation arrays, which confirmed the differentially methylated sites. Top candidate genes with aberrant methylation were analyzed for altered gene expression through the R2 platform (http://r2.amc.nl), and for correlations between methylation and gene expression in a public dataset. Altered expression in nonsurvivors was found for the genes B3GALT4 and KIAA1949, CLIC5, DLX6-AS, TERT, and PIRT, and strongest correlations were found for TRIM36, KIAA0513, and PIRT. Our data indicate that methylation profiling can be used for patient stratification and informs on epigenetically deregulated genes with the potential of increasing our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of tumor development. PMID:26786290

  10. Reaction mechanism of zinc-dependent cytosine deaminase from Escherichia coli: a quantum-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Manta, Bianca; Raushel, Frank M; Himo, Fahmi

    2014-05-29

    The reaction mechanism of cytosine deaminase from Escherichia coli is studied using density functional theory. This zinc-dependent enzyme catalyzes the deamination of cytosine to form uracil and ammonia. The calculations give a detailed description of the catalytic mechanism and establish the role of important active-site residues. It is shown that Glu217 is essential for the initial deprotonation of the metal-bound water nucleophile and the subsequent protonation of the substrate. It is also demonstrated that His246 is unlikely to function as a proton shuttle in the nucleophile activation step, as previously proposed. The steps that follow are nucleophilic attack by the metal-bound hydroxide, protonation of the leaving group assisted by Asp313, and C-N bond cleavage. The calculated overall barrier is in good agreement with the experimental findings. Finally, the calculations reproduce the experimentally determined inverse solvent deuterium isotope effect, which further corroborates the suggested reaction mechanism.

  11. Stabilization of Aspergillus parasiticus cytosine deaminase by immobilization on calcium alginate beads improved enzyme operational stability.

    PubMed

    Zanna, H; Nok, A J; Ibrahim, S; Inuwa, H M

    2013-12-01

    Cytosine deaminase (CD) from Aspergillus parasiticus, which has half-life of 1.10 h at 37°C, was stabilized by immobilization on calcium alginate beads. The immobilized CD had pH and temperature optimum of 5 and 50°C respectively. The immobilized enzyme also stoichiometrically deaminated Cytosine and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) with the apparent K(M) values of 0.60 mM and 0.65 mM respectively, displaying activation energy of 10.72 KJ/mol. The immobilization of native CD on calcium alginate beads gave the highest yield of apparent enzymatic activity of 51.60% of the original activity and the enzymatic activity was lost exponentially at 37°C over 12 h with a half-life of 5.80 h. Hence, the operational stability of native CD can be improved by immobilization on calcium alginate beads.

  12. Quantitative DNA Methylation Analysis of Candidate Genes in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erin M.; Riggs, Bridget M.; Delmas, Amber L.; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97–1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  13. Chromatic aberration measurement for transmission interferometric testing.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kibyung; Greivenkamp, John E

    2008-12-10

    A method of chromatic aberration measurement is described based on the transmitted wavefront of an optical element obtained from a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The chromatic aberration is derived from transmitted wavefronts measured at five different wavelengths. Reverse ray tracing is used to remove induced aberrations associated with the interferometer from the measurement. In the interferometer, the wavefront transmitted through the sample is tested against a plano reference, allowing for the absolute determination of the wavefront radius of curvature. The chromatic aberrations of a singlet and a doublet have been measured.

  14. Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    High-order monochromatic aberrations could potentially influence vision-dependent refractive development in a variety of ways. As a first step in understanding the effects of wave aberration on refractive development, we characterized the maturational changes that take place in the high-order aberrations of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations of infant and adolescent animals and measured the longitudinal changes in the high-order aberrations of infant monkeys during the early period when emmetropization takes place. Our main findings were that (1) adolescent monkey eyes have excellent optical quality, exhibiting total RMS errors that were slightly better than those for adult human eyes that have the same numerical aperture and (2) shortly after birth, infant rhesus monkeys exhibited relatively larger magnitudes of high-order aberrations predominately spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil, which decreased rapidly to assume adolescent values by about 200 days of age. The results demonstrate that rhesus monkey eyes are a good model for studying the contribution of individual ocular components to the eye’s overall aberration structure, the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in optical quality that occur during early ocular development, and the effects of high-order aberrations on ocular growth and emmetropization. PMID:16750549

  15. Molecular energetics of cytosine revisited: a joint computational and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, José R B; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D M C; Freitas, Vera L S; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A V

    2007-08-02

    A static bomb calorimeter has been used to measure the standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, of a commercial sample of cytosine. From this energy, the standard (p degrees = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation in the crystalline state was derived as -(221.9 +/- 1.7) kJ.mol(-1). This value confirms one experimental value already published in the literature but differs from another literature value by 13.5 kJ.mol(-1). Using the present standard molar enthalpy of formation in the condensed phase and the enthalpy of sublimation due to Burkinshaw and Mortimer [J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1984, 75], (155.0 +/- 3.0) kJ.mol(-1), results in a value for the gas-phase standard molar enthalpy of formation for cytosine of -66.9 kJ.mol(-1). A similar value, -65.1 kJ.mol(-1), has been estimated after G3MP2B3 calculations combined with the reaction of atomization on three different tautomers of cytosine. In agreement with experimental evidence, the hydroxy-amino tautomer is the most stable form of cytosine in the gas phase. The enthalpies of formation of the other two tautomers were also estimated as -60.7 kJ.mol(-1) and -57.2 kJ.mol(-1) for the oxo-amino and oxo-imino tautomers, respectively. The same composite approach was also used to compute other thermochemical data, which is difficult to be measured experimentally, such as C-H, N-H, and O-H bond dissociation enthalpies, gas-phase acidities, and ionization enthalpies.

  16. Activation induced deaminase mutational signature overlaps with CpG methylation sites in follicular lymphoma and other cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rogozin, Igor B.; Lada, Artem G.; Goncearenco, Alexander; Green, Michael R.; De, Subhajyoti; Nudelman, German; Panchenko, Anna R.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Pavlov, Youri I.

    2016-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an uncurable cancer characterized by progressive severity of relapses. We analyzed sequence context specificity of mutations in the B cells from a large cohort of FL patients. We revealed substantial excess of mutations within a novel hybrid nucleotide motif: the signature of somatic hypermutation (SHM) enzyme, Activation Induced Deaminase (AID), which overlaps the CpG methylation site. This finding implies that in FL the SHM machinery acts at genomic sites containing methylated cytosine. We identified the prevalence of this hybrid mutational signature in many other types of human cancer, suggesting that AID-mediated, CpG-methylation dependent mutagenesis is a common feature of tumorigenesis. PMID:27924834

  17. Effects of cytosine modifications on DNA flexibility and nucleosome mechanical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Thuy T. M.; Yoo, Jejoong; Dai, Qing; Zhang, Qiucen; He, Chuan; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Ha, Taekjip

    2016-02-01

    Cytosine can undergo modifications, forming 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and its oxidized products 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC). Despite their importance as epigenetic markers and as central players in cellular processes, it is not well understood how these modifications influence physical properties of DNA and chromatin. Here we report a comprehensive survey of the effect of cytosine modifications on DNA flexibility. We find that even a single copy of 5-fC increases DNA flexibility markedly. 5-mC reduces and 5-hmC enhances flexibility, and 5-caC does not have a measurable effect. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these modifications promote or dampen structural fluctuations, likely through competing effects of base polarity and steric hindrance, without changing the average structure. The increase in DNA flexibility increases the mechanical stability of the nucleosome and vice versa, suggesting a gene regulation mechanism where cytosine modifications change the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA through their effects on DNA flexibility.

  18. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia induced cytosine deaminase expression in microencapsulated E. coli for enzyme-prodrug therapy.

    PubMed

    Nemani, Krishnamurthy V; Ennis, Riley C; Griswold, Karl E; Gimi, Barjor

    2015-06-10

    Engineered bacterial cells that are designed to express therapeutic enzymes under the transcriptional control of remotely inducible promoters can mediate the de novo conversion of non-toxic prodrugs to their cytotoxic forms. In situ cellular expression of enzymes provides increased stability and control of enzyme activity as compared to isolated enzymes. We have engineered Escherichia coli (E. coli), designed to express cytosine deaminase at elevated temperatures, under the transcriptional control of thermo-regulatory λpL-cI857 promoter cassette which provides a thermal switch to trigger enzyme synthesis. Enhanced cytosine deaminase expression was observed in cultures incubated at 42°C as compared to 30°C, and enzyme expression was further substantiated by spectrophotometric assays indicating enhanced conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil. The engineered cells were subsequently co-encapsulated with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in immunoprotective alginate microcapsules, and cytosine deaminase expression was triggered remotely by alternating magnetic field-induced hyperthermia. The combination of 5-fluorocytosine with AMF-activated microcapsules demonstrated tumor cell cytotoxicity comparable to direct treatment with 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Such enzyme-prodrug therapy, based on engineered and immunoisolated E. coli, may ultimately yield an improved therapeutic index relative to monotherapy, as AMF mediated hyperthermia might be expected to pre-sensitize tumors to chemotherapy under appropriate conditions.

  19. Spontaneous tunneling and near-infrared-induced interconversion between the amino-hydroxy conformers of cytosine

    SciTech Connect

    Reva, Igor; Fausto, Rui; Nowak, Maciej J.; Lapinski, Leszek

    2012-02-14

    Spontaneous and near-infrared/infrared (NIR/IR)-induced interconversions between two amino-hydroxy conformers of monomeric cytosine have been investigated for the compound isolated in a low-temperature argon matrix. Combined use of a laser source (which provides narrowband NIR radiation) and a broadband NIR/IR source of excitation light allowed a detailed investigation of mutual conversions of the two conformers in question. The experiments carried out within the current work demonstrated that upon broadband NIR/IR irradiation (with the IR source of FTIR spectrometer) the population ratio of the two amino-hydroxy conformers changes towards a ratio corresponding to a photostationary state. Evolution of the conformer population ratio towards the photostationary ratio occurred independent of the initial ratio of conformers, which could be prepared by a population shift (in favor of one of the forms) induced by narrowband NIR excitation. Moreover, spontaneous tunneling conversion of the higher-energy conformer into a lower-energy form was observed for cytosine isolated in a low-temperature argon matrix kept in the dark. This process is slow and occurs on a time scale of days. The tunneling process, studied for matrix-isolated cytosine, clearly follows a dispersive type of kinetics rather than the classical monoexponential kinetics.

  20. The Three-Dimensional Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Cytosine Deaminase†

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Richard S.; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Xu, Chengfu; Fedorov, Elena V.; Almo, Steven C.; Raushel, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Cytosine deaminase (CDA) from E. coli is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily. The structure of the zinc-activated enzyme was determined in the presence of phosphonocytosine, a mimic of the tetrahedral reaction intermediate. This compound inhibits the deamination of cytosine with a Ki of 52 nM. The zinc and iron containing enzymes were characterized to determine the effect of the divalent cations on activation of the hydrolytic water. Fe-CDA loses activity at low pH with a kinetic pKa of 6.0 and Zn-CDA has a kinetic pKa of 7.3. Mutation of Gln-156 decreased the catalytic activity by more than 5 orders of magnitude, supporting its role in substrate binding. Mutation of Glu-217, Asp-313, and His-246 significantly decreased catalytic activity supporting the role of these three residues in activation of the hydrolytic water molecule and facilitation of proton transfer reactions. A library of potential substrates was used to probe the structural determinants responsible for catalytic activity. CDA was able to catalyze the deamination of isocytosine and the hydrolysis of 3-oxauracil. Large inverse solvent isotope effects were obtained on kcat and kcat/Km, consistent with the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond during the conversion of cytosine to uracil. A chemical mechanism for substrate deamination by CDA was proposed. PMID:21545144

  1. Isolation and identification by sequence homology of a putative cytosine methyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Finnegan, E J; Dennis, E S

    1993-01-01

    A plant cytosine methyltransferase cDNA was isolated using degenerate oligonucleotides, based on homology between prokaryote and mouse methyltransferases, and PCR to amplify a short fragment of a methyltransferase gene. A fragment of the predicted size was amplified from genomic DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana. Overlapping cDNA clones, some with homology to the PCR amplified fragment, were identified and sequenced. The assembled nucleic acid sequence is 4720 bp and encodes a protein of 1534 amino acids which has significant homology to prokaryote and mammalian cytosine methyltransferases. Like mammalian methylases, this enzyme has a C terminal methyltransferase domain linked to a second larger domain. The Arabidopsis methylase has eight of the ten conserved sequence motifs found in prokaryote cytosine-5 methyltransferases and shows 50% homology to the murine enzyme in the methyltransferase domain. The amino terminal domain is only 24% homologous to the murine enzyme and lacks the zinc binding region that has been found in methyltransferases from both mouse and man. In contrast to mouse where a single methyltransferase gene has been identified, a small multigene family with homology to the region amplified in PCR has been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Images PMID:8389441

  2. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

  3. Solution structures of oligonucleotides containing either a guanine or a cytosine in front of a gap of one nucleotide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulard, Y.; Faibis, V.; Fazakerley, G. V.

    1999-10-01

    We report NMR and molecular modelling studies on two DNA duplexes containing a gap of one nucleotides. The difference between the two oligonucleotides lies in the central base face to the gap, a guanine or a cytosine. For the gapG, we observed in solution a B-form conformation where the guanine stacks in the helix. For the gapC, we reveal the existence of two species, one majority where the cytosine is inside the helix and a second for which the cytosine is extrahelical. Nous présentons une étude par RMN et modélisation moléculaire sur deux duplexes d'ADN contenant une lacune de un nucléotide. La différence entre les deux oligonucléotides réside dans la base centrale en face de la lacune, une guanine ou une cytosine. Pour le duplex appelé gapG, nous observons en solution une hélice de type B dans laquelle la guanine est empilée à l'intérieur de l'hélice. Dans le cas du duplex gapC, nous montrons l'existence de deux formes, l'une où la cytosine est à l'intérieur de l'hélice; la seconde où la cytosine est extra hélicale.

  4. Cross-species analysis of genic GC3 content and DNA methylation patterns.

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Elhaik, Eran; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The GC content in the third codon position (GC(3)) exhibits a unimodal distribution in many plant and animal genomes. Interestingly, grasses and homeotherm vertebrates exhibit a unique bimodal distribution. High GC(3) was previously found to be associated with variable expression, higher frequency of upstream TATA boxes, and an increase of GC(3) from 5' to 3'. Moreover, GC(3)-rich genes are predominant in certain gene classes and are enriched in CpG dinucleotides that are potential targets for methylation. Based on the GC(3) bimodal distribution we hypothesize that GC(3) has a regulatory role involving methylation and gene expression. To test that hypothesis, we selected diverse taxa (rice, thale cress, bee, and human) that varied in the modality of their GC(3) distribution and tested the association between GC(3), DNA methylation, and gene expression. We examine the relationship between cytosine methylation levels and GC(3), gene expression, genome signature, gene length, and other gene compositional features. We find a strong negative correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = -0.67, P value < 0.0001) between GC(3) and genic CpG methylation. The comparison between 5'-3' gradients of CG(3)-skew and genic methylation for the taxa in the study suggests interplay between gene-body methylation and transcription-coupled cytosine deamination effect. Compositional features are correlated with methylation levels of genes in rice, thale cress, human, bee, and fruit fly (which acts as an unmethylated control). These patterns allow us to generate evolutionary hypotheses about the relationships between GC(3) and methylation and how these affect expression patterns. Specifically, we propose that the opposite effects of methylation and compositional gradients along coding regions of GC(3)-poor and GC(3)-rich genes are the products of several competing processes.

  5. Cross-Species Analysis of Genic GC3 Content and DNA Methylation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Elhaik, Eran; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The GC content in the third codon position (GC3) exhibits a unimodal distribution in many plant and animal genomes. Interestingly, grasses and homeotherm vertebrates exhibit a unique bimodal distribution. High GC3 was previously found to be associated with variable expression, higher frequency of upstream TATA boxes, and an increase of GC3 from 5′ to 3′. Moreover, GC3-rich genes are predominant in certain gene classes and are enriched in CpG dinucleotides that are potential targets for methylation. Based on the GC3 bimodal distribution we hypothesize that GC3 has a regulatory role involving methylation and gene expression. To test that hypothesis, we selected diverse taxa (rice, thale cress, bee, and human) that varied in the modality of their GC3 distribution and tested the association between GC3, DNA methylation, and gene expression. We examine the relationship between cytosine methylation levels and GC3, gene expression, genome signature, gene length, and other gene compositional features. We find a strong negative correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = −0.67, P value < 0.0001) between GC3 and genic CpG methylation. The comparison between 5′-3′ gradients of CG3-skew and genic methylation for the taxa in the study suggests interplay between gene-body methylation and transcription-coupled cytosine deamination effect. Compositional features are correlated with methylation levels of genes in rice, thale cress, human, bee, and fruit fly (which acts as an unmethylated control). These patterns allow us to generate evolutionary hypotheses about the relationships between GC3 and methylation and how these affect expression patterns. Specifically, we propose that the opposite effects of methylation and compositional gradients along coding regions of GC3-poor and GC3-rich genes are the products of several competing processes. PMID:23833164

  6. Comparison of Methods for Quantification of Global DNA Methylation in Human Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Bartłomiej; De Prins, Sofie; Jacobs, Griet; Koppen, Gudrun; Mathers, John C.; Langie, Sabine A. S.

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification which, in mammals, occurs mainly at CpG dinucleotides. Most of the CpG methylation in the genome is found in repetitive regions, rich in dormant transposons and endogenous retroviruses. Global DNA hypomethylation, which is a common feature of several conditions such as ageing and cancer, can cause the undesirable activation of dormant repeat elements and lead to altered expression of associated genes. DNA hypomethylation can cause genomic instability and may contribute to mutations and chromosomal recombinations. Various approaches for quantification of global DNA methylation are widely used. Several of these approaches measure a surrogate for total genomic methyl cytosine and there is uncertainty about the comparability of these methods. Here we have applied 3 different approaches (luminometric methylation assay, pyrosequencing of the methylation status of the Alu repeat element and of the LINE1 repeat element) for estimating global DNA methylation in the same human cell and tissue samples and have compared these estimates with the “gold standard” of methyl cytosine quantification by HPLC. Next to HPLC, the LINE1 approach shows the smallest variation between samples, followed by Alu. Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman analyses confirmed that global DNA methylation estimates obtained via the LINE1 approach corresponded best with HPLC-based measurements. Although, we did not find compelling evidence that the gold standard measurement by HPLC could be substituted with confidence by any of the surrogate assays for detecting global DNA methylation investigated here, the LINE1 assay seems likely to be an acceptable surrogate in many cases. PMID:24260150

  7. Crystal structure of human nucleosome core particle containing enzymatically introduced CpG methylation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshifumi; Wakamori, Masatoshi; Umehara, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2016-06-01

    Cytosine methylation, predominantly of the CpG sequence in vertebrates, is one of the major epigenetic modifications crucially involved in the control of gene expression. Due to the difficulty of reconstituting site-specifically methylated nucleosomal DNA at crystallization quality, most structural analyses of CpG methylation have been performed using chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, There has been just one recent study of nucleosome core particles (NCPs) reconstituted with nonpalindromic human satellite 2-derived DNAs. Through the preparation of a 146-bp palindromic α-satellite-based nucleosomal DNA containing four CpG dinucleotide sequences and its enzymatic methylation and restriction, we reconstituted a 'symmetric' human CpG-methylated nucleosome core particle (NCP). We solved the crystal structures of the CpG-methylated and unmodified NCPs at 2.6 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. We observed the electron densities of two methyl groups, among the eight 5-methylcytosines introduced in the CpG-fully methylated NCP. There were no obvious structural differences between the CpG-methylated 'symmetric NCP' and the unmodified NCP. The preparation of a crystallization-grade CpG-methylated NCP provides a platform for the analysis of CpG-methyl reader and eraser proteins.

  8. Methyl isocyanate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl isocyanate ; CASRN 624 - 83 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  9. Methyl chlorocarbonate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chlorocarbonate ; CASRN 79 - 22 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  10. Methyl iodide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl iodide ; CASRN 74 - 88 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  11. Methyl parathion

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl parathion ; CASRN 298 - 00 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  12. Methyl acrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl acrylate ; CASRN 96 - 33 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  13. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R01 / 003 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 74 - 87 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2001 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.

  14. Development and validation of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the assessment of genomic DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Rossella, Federica; Polledri, Elisa; Bollati, Valentina; Baccarelli, Andrea; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2009-09-01

    A method for the determination of DNA global methylation, taken as the ratio (%) of 5-methylcytosine (5mCyt) versus the sum of cytosine (Cyt) and 5mCyt, via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was developed and validated. DNA (2.5 microg) was hydrolyzed with aqueous formic acid 88%, spiked with cytosine-2,4-(13)C(2),(15)N(3) and 5-methyl-(2)H(3)-cytosine-6-(2)H(1) as internal standards, and derivatized with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and 1% tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane, in the presence of acetonitrile and pyridine. GC/MS, operating in single ion monitoring mode, separated and specifically detected all nucleobases as tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives, without interferences, with the exception of guanosine. The method was linear throughout the range of clinical interest and had good sensitivity, with a limit of quantification of 3.2 pmol for Cyt and 0.056 pmol for 5mCyt, the latter corresponding to a methylation level of 0.41%. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were below 4.0% for both analytes and methylation. The matrix absolute effect, process efficiency and coefficient of variation ranged from 96.5 to 101.2%. The matrix relative effect was below 1%. The method was applied to the analysis of different human DNAs, including: nonmethylated DNA from PCR (methylation 0.00%), hypermethylated DNA prepared using M.SssI CpG methyltransferase (methylation 18.05%), DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of healthy subjects (N = 6, median methylation 5.45%), DNA from bone marrow of leukemia patients (N = 5, 3.58%) and DNA from myeloma cell lines (N = 4, 2.74%).

  15. Sequence variation and methylation of the flax 5S RNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Goldsbrough, P B; Ellis, T H; Lomonossoff, G P

    1982-01-01

    The complete sequence of the flax 5S DNA repeat is presented. Length heterogeneity is the consequence of the presence or absence of a single direct repeat and the majority of single base changes are transition mutations. No sequence variation has been found in the coding sequence. The extent of methylation of cytosines has been measured at one location in the gene and one in the spacer. The relationship between the observed sequence heterogeneity and the level of methylation is discussed in the context of the operation of a correction mechanism. Images PMID:6290983

  16. Learning Disorders and Sex Chromosome Aberrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hier, D. B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In a prospective study of 20 adult dyslexic men, no sex chromosome aberrations were detected. A retrospective study of 89 Ss with known sex chromosome aberrations revealed 20 of them to be mentally retarded. Among the 69 Ss of normal intelligence, learning, speech, and attention disorders were frequent. (Author/DLS)

  17. Targeting DNA methylation with green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia C

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic alterations in the genome such as DNA methylation play a significant role in cancer development. Green tea catechins have been reported to modulate epigenetic processes. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the modulation of DNA methylation by green tea catechins. Green tea catechins have been reported to reverse DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and increase transcription of these genes. Green tea catechins and especially epigallocatechin gallate modulate DNA methylation by attenuating the effect of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). However, the exact mechanism of DNMT1 inhibition is not delineated. Suggested mechanisms include direct enzymatic inhibition, indirect enzymatic inhibition, reduced DNMT1 expression and translation. The possible effect of green tea catechins on other pathways of DNA methylation, i.e. methyl-CpG binding domain proteins, has not been investigated. Furthermore, the link between redox properties and epigenetic modulation by green tea catechins has not been defined either. Since green tea catechins are natural compounds with a rather acceptable safety profile, further research on their action as inhibitors of DNA methylation seems worthwhile.

  18. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Cindy M.; Ralph, Jody L.; Wright, Michelle L.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Ohm, Joyce E.

    2014-10-01

    Background: Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. Method: A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-wide DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Results: Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae.

  19. Epigenetic regulations through DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation: clues for early pregnancy in decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation at cytosines is an important epigenetic modification that participates in gene expression regulation without changing the original DNA sequence. With the rapid progress of high-throughput sequencing techniques, whole-genome distribution of methylated cytosines and their regulatory mechanism have been revealed gradually. This has allowed the uncovering of the critical roles played by DNA methylation in the maintenance of cell pluripotency, determination of cell fate during development, and in diverse diseases. Recently, rediscovery of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, and other types of modification on DNA, have uncovered more dynamic aspects of cell methylome regulation. The interaction of DNA methylation and other epigenetic changes remodel the chromatin structure and determine the state of gene transcription, not only permanently, but also transiently under certain stimuli. The uterus is a reproductive organ that experiences dramatic hormone stimulated changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and thus provides us with a unique model for studying the dynamic regulation of epigenetic modifications. In this article, we review the current findings on the roles of genomic DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in the regulation of gene expression, and discuss the progress of studies for these epigenetic changes in the uterus during implantation and decidualization. PMID:25372745

  20. Region-specific DNA methylation in the preimplantation embryo as a target for genomic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Thurston, A; Lucas, E S; Allegrucci, C; Steele, W; Young, L E

    2007-09-01

    It has been long known that the unique genetic sequence each embryo inherits is not the sole determinant of phenotype. However, only recently have epigenetic modifications to DNA been implicated in providing potential developmental plasticity to the embryonic and fetal genome, with environmental influences directly altering the epigenetic modifications that contribute to tissue-specific gene regulation. Most is known about the potential environmental regulation of DNA methylation, epigenetic addition of methyl groups to cytosine residues in DNA that acts in the long-term silencing of affected sequences. While most attention has been paid to the methylation of imprinted gene sequences, in terms of developmental plasticity there are many more parts of the genome that are methylated and that could be affected. This review explores the distribution of cytosine methylation in the genome and discusses the potential effects of regional plasticity on subsequent development. Widening our consideration of potentially plastic regions is likely to greatly enhance our understanding of how individuals are shaped not only by DNA sequence, but by the environment in which pluripotent embryonic cells are transformed into the many cell types of the body.

  1. Deficient methylation and formylation of mt-tRNAMet wobble cytosine in a patient carrying mutations in NSUN3

    PubMed Central

    Van Haute, Lindsey; Dietmann, Sabine; Kremer, Laura; Hussain, Shobbir; Pearce, Sarah F.; Powell, Christopher A.; Rorbach, Joanna; Lantaff, Rebecca; Blanco, Sandra; Sauer, Sascha; Kotzaeridou, Urania; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Memari, Yasin; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Durbin, Richard; Mayr, Johannes A.; Frye, Michaela; Prokisch, Holger; Minczuk, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Epitranscriptome modifications are required for structure and function of RNA and defects in these pathways have been associated with human disease. Here we identify the RNA target for the previously uncharacterized 5-methylcytosine (m5C) methyltransferase NSun3 and link m5C RNA modifications with energy metabolism. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified loss-of-function mutations in NSUN3 in a patient presenting with combined mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiency. Patient-derived fibroblasts exhibit severe defects in mitochondrial translation that can be rescued by exogenous expression of NSun3. We show that NSun3 is required for deposition of m5C at the anticodon loop in the mitochondrially encoded transfer RNA methionine (mt-tRNAMet). Further, we demonstrate that m5C deficiency in mt-tRNAMet results in the lack of 5-formylcytosine (f5C) at the same tRNA position. Our findings demonstrate that NSUN3 is necessary for efficient mitochondrial translation and reveal that f5C in human mitochondrial RNA is generated by oxidative processing of m5C. PMID:27356879

  2. Foci of aberrant crypts in the colons of mice and rats exposed to carcinogens associated with foods

    SciTech Connect

    Tudek, B.; Bird, R.P.; Bruce, W.R.

    1989-03-01

    Aberrant crypt foci can be identified in the colons of rodents treated 3 wk earlier with azoxymethane, a known colon carcinogen. These crypts can easily be visualized in the unsectioned methylene blue-stained colons under light microscopy, where they are distinguished by their increased size, more prominent epithelial cells, and pericryptal space. They occur as single aberrant crypts or as two, three, or four aberrant crypts in a cluster. We compared the reported ability of carcinogens associated with the human diet to induce colon cancer with the measured rate of induction of aberrant crypts in female CF1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. The carcinogens used were 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, methyl nitrosourea, N-nitrosodimethylamine, benzo(a)pyrene, aflatoxin B1, 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido(1,2-alpha:3',2'-d)imidazole, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline, and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole. Graded doses of these compounds were given to the animals by gavage twice with a 4-day interval, and the animals were terminated 3 wk later. All colon carcinogens induced aberrant crypts in a dose-related fashion. N-Nitrosodimethylamine and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole, carcinogenic compounds that do not induce colon cancer, did not induce them. The ability of the studied compounds to induce aberrant crypts was species specific; e.g., aflatoxin B1 and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline induce about 20 times more in rats than mice. This relationship was consistent with their reported ability to induce colon cancer in these species. Results of the present study support the use of the aberrant crypt assays to screen colon-specific carcinogens and to study the process of colon carcinogenesis.

  3. Methyl eucomate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linglin; Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: methyl 3-carboxy-3-hydr­oxy-3-(4-hydroxy­benz­yl)propanoate], C12H14O6, is stabilized by inter­molecular O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The mol­ecules are arranged in layers, parallel to (001), which are inter­connected by the O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21202973

  4. A systematic comparison of quantitative high-resolution DNA methylation analysis and methylation-specific PCR

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Rainer; Wilop, Stefan; Hielscher, Thomas; Sonnet, Miriam; Dahl, Edgar; Galm, Oliver; Jost, Edgar; Plass, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of DNA methylation has become a critical factor for the identification, development and application of methylation based biomarkers. Here we describe a systematic comparison of a quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach (MassARRAY), pyrosequencing and the broadly used methylation-specific PCR (MSP) technique analyzing clinically relevant epigenetically silenced genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). By MassARRAY and pyrosequencing, we identified significant DNA methylation differences at the ID4 gene promoter and in the 5′ region of members of the SFRP gene family in 62 AML patients compared with healthy controls. We found a good correlation between data obtained by MassARRAY and pyrosequencing (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.88). MSP-based assessment of the identical samples showed less pronounced differences between AML patients and controls. By direct comparison of MSP-derived and MassARRAY-based methylation data as well as pyrosequencing, we could determine overestimation of DNA methylation data by MSP. We found sequence-context dependent highly variable cut-off values of quantitative DNA methylation values serving as discriminator for the two MSP methylation categories. Moreover, good agreements between quantitative methods and MSP could not be achieved for all investigated loci. Significant correlation of the quantitative assessment but not of MSP-derived methylation data with clinically important characteristics in our patient cohort demonstrated clinical relevance of quantitative DNA methylation assessment. Taken together, while MSP is still the most commonly applied technique for DNA methylation assessment, our data highlight advantages of quantitative approaches for precise characterization and reliable biomarker use of aberrant DNA methylation in primary patient samples, particularly. PMID:22647397

  5. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns.

    PubMed

    Zee, Barry M; Dibona, Amy B; Alekseyenko, Artyom A; French, Christopher A; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2016-01-01

    Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC), which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N) covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state.

  6. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zee, Barry M.; Dibona, Amy B.; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; French, Christopher A.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC), which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N) covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state. PMID:27698495

  7. Transgenerational maintenance of transgene body CG but not CHG and CHH methylation.

    PubMed

    Dalakouras, Athanasios; Dadami, Elena; Zwiebel, Michele; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2012-09-01

    In plants, RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) can target both transgene promoters and coding regions/gene bodies. RdDM leads to methylation of cytosines in all sequence contexts: CG, CHG and CHH. Upon segregation of the RdDM trigger, at least CG methylation can be maintained at promoter regions in the progeny. So far, it is not clear whether coding region methylation can be also maintained. We showed that the body of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) transgene constructs became densely de novo methylated at CG, CHG and CHH sites upon PSTVd infection. In this study, we demonstrate that in viroid-free progeny plants, asymmetric CHH and CHG methylation was completely lost. However, symmetric CG methylation was stably maintained for at least two generations. Importantly, the presence of transgene body methylation did not lead to an increase of dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 or a decrease of acetylation of H3. Our data supports the view that CG methylation can be maintained not only in promoters but also in the body of transgenes. They further suggest that maintenance of methylation may occur independently of tested chromatin modifications.

  8. Gene body methylation is conserved between plant orthologs and is of evolutionary consequence

    PubMed Central

    Takuno, Shohei; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes and is especially common in noncoding regions of plants. Protein coding regions of plants are often methylated also, but the extent, function, and evolutionary consequences of gene body methylation remain unclear. Here we investigate gene body methylation using an explicit comparative evolutionary approach. We generated bisulfite sequencing data from two tissues of Brachypodium distachyon and compared genic methylation patterns to those of rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica). Gene body methylation was strongly conserved between orthologs of the two species and affected a biased subset of long, slowly evolving genes. Because gene body methylation is conserved over evolutionary time, it shapes important features of plant genome evolution, such as the bimodality of G+C content among grass genes. Our results superficially contradict previous observations of high cytosine methylation polymorphism within Arabidopsis thaliana genes, but reanalyses of these data are consistent with conservation of methylation within gene regions. Overall, our results indicate that the methylation level is a long-term property of individual genes and therefore of evolutionary consequence. PMID:23319627

  9. On the role of steric clashes in methylation control of restriction endonuclease activity

    PubMed Central

    Mierzejewska, Karolina; Bochtler, Matthias; Czapinska, Honorata

    2016-01-01

    Restriction-modification systems digest non-methylated invading DNA, while protecting host DNA against the endonuclease activity by methylation. It is widely believed that the methylated DNA would not ‘fit’ into the binding site of the endonuclease in the productive orientation, and thus steric clashes should account for most of the protection. We test this concept statistically by grafting methyl groups in silico onto non-methylated DNA in co-crystal structures with restriction endonucleases. Clash scores are significantly higher for protective than non-protective methylation (P < 0.05% according to the Wilcoxon rank sum test). Structural data alone are sufficient to distinguish between protective and non-protective DNA methylation with 90% confidence and decision thresholds of 1.1 Å and 48 Å3 for the most severe distance-based and cumulative volume-based clash with the protein, respectively (0.1 Å was deducted from each interatomic distance to allow for coordinate errors). The most severe clashes are more pronounced for protective methyl groups attached to the nitrogen atoms (N6-methyladenines and N4-methylcytosines) than for C5-methyl groups on cytosines. Cumulative clashes are comparable for all three types of protective methylation. PMID:26635397

  10. Iteration of ultrasound aberration correction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maasoey, Svein-Erik; Angelsen, Bjoern; Varslot, Trond

    2004-05-01

    Aberration in ultrasound medical imaging is usually modeled by time-delay and amplitude variations concentrated on the transmitting/receiving array. This filter process is here denoted a TDA filter. The TDA filter is an approximation to the physical aberration process, which occurs over an extended part of the human body wall. Estimation of the TDA filter, and performing correction on transmit and receive, has proven difficult. It has yet to be shown that this method works adequately for severe aberration. Estimation of the TDA filter can be iterated by retransmitting a corrected signal and re-estimate until a convergence criterion is fulfilled (adaptive imaging). Two methods for estimating time-delay and amplitude variations in receive signals from random scatterers have been developed. One method correlates each element signal with a reference signal. The other method use eigenvalue decomposition of the receive cross-spectrum matrix, based upon a receive energy-maximizing criterion. Simulations of iterating aberration correction with a TDA filter have been investigated to study its convergence properties. A weak and strong human-body wall model generated aberration. Both emulated the human abdominal wall. Results after iteration improve aberration correction substantially, and both estimation methods converge, even for the case of strong aberration.

  11. GSH2 promoter methylation in pancreatic cancer analyzed by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    GAO, FEI; HUANG, HAO-JIE; GAO, JUN; LI, ZHAO-SHEN; MA, SHU-REN

    2015-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene silencing via promoter hypermethylation is an important event in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. Aberrant DNA hypermethylation events are highly tumor specific, and may provide a diagnostic tool for pancreatic cancer patients. The objective of the current study was to identify novel methylation-related genes that may potentially be used to establish novel therapeutic and diagnostic strategies against pancreatic cancer. The methylation status of the GS homeobox 2 (GSH2) gene was analyzed using the sodium bisulfite sequencing method. The GSH2 methylation ratio was examined in primary carcinomas and corresponding normal tissues derived from 47 patients with pancreatic cancer, using quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Methylation ratios were found to be associated with the patient's clinicopathological features. GSH2 gene methylation was detected in 26 (55.3%) of the 47 pancreatic cancer patients, indicating that it occurs frequently in pancreatic cancer. A significant association with methylation was observed for tumor-node-metastasis stage (P=0.031). GSH2 may be a novel methylation-sensitive tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic cancer and may be a tumor-specific biomarker of the disease. PMID:26171036

  12. High-Throughput Analysis of Global DNA Methylation Using Methyl-Sensitive Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Feinweber, Carmen; Knothe, Claudia; Lötsch, Jörn; Thomas, Dominique; Geisslinger, Gerd; Parnham, Michael J.; Resch, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major regulatory process of gene transcription, and aberrant DNA methylation is associated with various diseases including cancer. Many compounds have been reported to modify DNA methylation states. Despite increasing interest in the clinical application of drugs with epigenetic effects, and the use of diagnostic markers for genome-wide hypomethylation in cancer, large-scale screening systems to measure the effects of drugs on DNA methylation are limited. In this study, we improved the previously established fluorescence polarization-based global DNA methylation assay so that it is more suitable for application to human genomic DNA. Our methyl-sensitive fluorescence polarization (MSFP) assay was highly repeatable (inter-assay coefficient of variation = 1.5%) and accurate (r2 = 0.99). According to signal linearity, only 50–80 ng human genomic DNA per reaction was necessary for the 384-well format. MSFP is a simple, rapid approach as all biochemical reactions and final detection can be performed in one well in a 384-well plate without purification steps in less than 3.5 hours. Furthermore, we demonstrated a significant correlation between MSFP and the LINE-1 pyrosequencing assay, a widely used global DNA methylation assay. MSFP can be applied for the pre-screening of compounds that influence global DNA methylation states and also for the diagnosis of certain types of cancer. PMID:27749902

  13. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Groves B.; Bay, Line K.; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  14. Polarization aberrations of crossed folding mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, David G.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1995-08-01

    Polarization aberrations due to varying polarization state across the field of view (FOV) are investigated for crossed folding mirrors. We define crossed mirrors as oriented in space such that s-polarized light incident on the first mirror is p-polarized at the second mirror. This completely compensates for polarization state changes at one point in the field of view. The resulting polarization aberrations are explored across the FOV using the example of aluminum mirrors overcoated with a 12 layer, highly reflective, dielectric stack. The polarization aberration is very low along a band across the field of view. For arbitrary points in the FOV, the retardance and diattenuation are slightly elliptical.

  15. DNA methylation in repetitive elements and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Bollati, V; Galimberti, D; Pergoli, L; Dalla Valle, E; Barretta, F; Cortini, F; Scarpini, E; Bertazzi, P A; Baccarelli, A

    2011-08-01

    Epigenetics is believed to play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). DNA methylation, the most investigated epigenetic hallmark, is a reversible mechanism that modifies genome function and chromosomal stability through the addition of methyl groups to cytosine located in CpG dinucleotides to form 5 methylcytosine (5mC). Methylation status of repetitive elements (i.e. Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α) is a major contributor of global DNA methylation patterns and has been investigated in relation to a variety of human diseases. However, the role of methylation of repetitive elements in blood of AD patients has never been investigated so far. In the present study, a quantitative bisulfite-PCR pyrosequencing method was used to evaluate methylation of Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α sequences in 43 AD patients and 38 healthy donors. In multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender, LINE-1 was increased in AD patients compared with healthy volunteers (ADs: 83.6%5mC, volunteers: 83.1%5mC, p-value: 0.05). The group with best performances in mini mental state examination (MMSE) showed higher levels of LINE-1 methylation compared to the group with worst performances (MMSE>22: 83.9%5mC; MMSE≤22: 83.2%5mC; p=0.05). Our data suggest that LINE-1 methylation may lead to a better understanding of AD pathogenesis and course, and may contribute to identify novel markers useful to assess risk stratification. Further prospective investigations are warranted to evaluate the dynamics of DNA methylation from early-stage AD to advanced phases of the disease.

  16. Specific and modular binding code for cytosine recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R; Li, Chunhua; Hall, Traci M Tanaka; Wang, Zefeng

    2011-07-29

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

  17. Specific and Modular Binding Code for Cytosine Recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R.; Li, Chunhua; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.; Wang, Zefeng

    2011-10-28

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

  18. Annexin V-targeted enzyme prodrug therapy using cytosine deaminase in combination with 5-fluorocytosine.

    PubMed

    Van Rite, Brent D; Harrison, Roger G

    2011-08-01

    A fusion protein, consisting of cytosine deaminase (CD) linked to human annexin V, was created for use in an enzyme prodrug therapy targeted to the tumor vasculature and associated cancer cells in the primary tumor and distant metastases. The major finding of this study is that the CD-annexin V fusion protein in combination with the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine has significant cytotoxic activity against endothelial cells and two breast cancer cells lines in vitro that expose phosphatidylserine on their surface. The cytotoxicity experiments verified this novel enzyme prodrug system has the ability to produce therapeutic levels of 5-fluorouracil and thus appears promising.

  19. Solvent effect on the anharmonic vibrational frequencies in guanine-cytosine base pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bende, A.; Muntean, C. M.

    2012-02-01

    We present an ab initio study of the vibrational properties of cytosine and guanine in the Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pair configurations. The results are obtained by considering the DFT method together with the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) using PBE and B3PW91 exchange-correlation functionals and triple-ζ valence basis set. We investigate the importance of anharmonic corrections for the vibrational modes taking into account the solvent effect of the water environment. In particular, the unusual anharmonic effect of the H+ vibration in the case of the Hoogsteen base pair configuration is discussed.

  20. DNA Methylation Dynamics of Germinal Center B Cells Are Mediated by AID.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Pilar M; Teater, Matt; Chambwe, Nyasha; Kormaksson, Matthias; Redmond, David; Ishii, Jennifer; Vuong, Bao; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Melnick, Ari; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Godley, Lucy A; Papavasiliou, F Nina; Elemento, Olivier; Shaknovich, Rita

    2015-09-29

    Changes in DNA methylation are required for the formation of germinal centers (GCs), but the mechanisms of such changes are poorly understood. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) has been recently implicated in DNA demethylation through its deaminase activity coupled with DNA repair. We investigated the epigenetic function of AID in vivo in germinal center B cells (GCBs) isolated from wild-type (WT) and AID-deficient (Aicda(-/-)) mice. We determined that the transit of B cells through the GC is associated with marked locus-specific loss of methylation and increased methylation diversity, both of which are lost in Aicda(-/-) animals. Differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) between GCBs and naive B cells (NBs) are enriched in genes that are targeted for somatic hypermutation (SHM) by AID, and these genes form networks required for B cell development and proliferation. Finally, we observed significant conservation of AID-dependent epigenetic reprogramming between mouse and human B cells.

  1. Comparative epigenomics: a powerful tool to understand the evolution of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xuehua

    2016-04-01

    Understanding how developmental and functional complexity of organisms evolves is a longstanding challenge in biology. Genetic mutation has long been thought to be the cause of biological complexity. However, increasing evidence indicates that epigenetic variation provides a parallel path for the evolution of biological complexity. Cytosine DNA methylation, the addition of a chemical mark on DNA, is a conserved and essential gene regulatory mechanism. Recent studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the DNA methylation landscapes and key regulatory components across many species. In this review, I summarize recent advances in understanding DNA methylation from an evolutionary perspective. Using comparative approaches, I highlight the conservation and divergence of DNA methylation patterns and regulatory machinery in plants and other eukaryotic organisms.

  2. Characterisation of DNA methylation status using spectroscopy (mid-IR versus Raman) with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jemma G; Najand, Ghazal M; Martin, Francis L

    2011-05-01

    Methylation status plays important roles in the regulation of gene expression and significantly influences the dynamics, bending and flexibility of DNA. The aim of this study was to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) or Raman spectroscopy with subsequent multivariate analysis could determine methylation patterning in oligonucleotides variously containing 5-methylcytosine, cytosine and guanine bases. Applied to Low-E reflective glass slides, 10 independent spectral acquisitions were acquired per oligonucleotide sample. Resultant spectra were baseline-corrected and vector normalised over the 1750 cm(-1) -760 cm(-1) (for ATR-FTIR spectroscopy) or the 1750 cm(-1) -600 cm(-1) (for Raman spectroscopy) regions. Data were then analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Exploiting this approach, biomolecular signatures enabling sensitive and specific discrimination of methylation patterning were derived. For DNA sequence and methylation analysis, this approach has the potential to be an important tool, especially when material is scarce.

  3. Image Ellipticity from Atmospheric Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W H; Olivier, S S; Asztalos, S J; Rosenberg, L J; Baker, K L

    2007-03-06

    We investigate the ellipticity of the point-spread function (PSF) produced by imaging an unresolved source with a telescope, subject to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. It is important to quantify these effects in order to understand the errors in shape measurements of astronomical objects, such as those used to study weak gravitational lensing of field galaxies. The PSF modeling involves either a Fourier transform of the phase information in the pupil plane or a ray-tracing approach, which has the advantage of requiring fewer computations than the Fourier transform. Using a standard method, involving the Gaussian weighted second moments of intensity, we then calculate the ellipticity of the PSF patterns. We find significant ellipticity for the instantaneous patterns (up to more than 10%). Longer exposures, which we approximate by combining multiple (N) images from uncorrelated atmospheric realizations, yield progressively lower ellipticity (as 1/{radical}N). We also verify that the measured ellipticity does not depend on the sampling interval in the pupil plane using the Fourier method. However, we find that the results using the ray-tracing technique do depend on the pupil sampling interval, representing a gradual breakdown of the geometric approximation at high spatial frequencies. Therefore, ray tracing is generally not an accurate method of modeling PSF ellipticity induced by atmospheric turbulence unless some additional procedure is implemented to correctly account for the effects of high spatial frequency aberrations. The Fourier method, however, can be used directly to accurately model PSF ellipticity, which can give insights into errors in the statistics of field galaxy shapes used in studies of weak gravitational lensing.

  4. A genetic sensor for strong methylating compounds

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Felix; Horwitz, Andrew; Chen, Jacinto; Lim, Wendell A.; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Methylating chemicals are common in industry and agriculture and are often toxic, partly due to their propensity to methylate DNA. The Escherichia coli Ada protein detects methylating compounds by sensing aberrant methyl adducts on the phosphoester backbone of DNA. We characterize this system as a genetic sensor and engineer it to lower the detection threshold. By overexpressing Ada from a plasmid, we improve the sensor’s dynamic range to 350-fold induction and lower its detection threshold to 40 µM for methyl iodide. In eukaryotes, there is no known sensor of methyl adducts on the phosphoester backbone of DNA. By fusing the N-terminal domain of Ada to the Gal4 transcriptional activation domain, we built a functional sensor for methyl phosphotriester adducts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This sensor can be tuned to variable specifications by altering the expression level of the chimeric sensor and changing the number of Ada operators upstream of the Gal4-sensitive reporter promoter. These changes result in a detection threshold of 28 µM and 5.2-fold induction in response to methyl iodide. When the yeast sensor is exposed to different SN1 and SN2 alkylating compounds, its response profile is similar to that observed for the native Ada protein in E. coli, indicating that its native function is retained in yeast. Finally, we demonstrate that the specifications achieved for the yeast sensor are suitable for detecting methylating compounds at relevant concentrations in environmental samples. This work demonstrates the movement of a sensor from a prokaryotic to eukaryotic system and its rational tuning to achieve desired specifications. PMID:24032656

  5. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  6. Sensing Phase Aberrations behind Lyot Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Direct detection of young extrasolar planets orbiting nearby stars can be accomplished from the ground with extreme adaptive optics and coronagraphy in the near-infrared, as long as this combination can provide an image with a dynamic range of 107 after the data are processed. Slowly varying speckles due to residual phase aberrations that are not measured by the primary wave-front sensor are the primary obstacle to achieving such a dynamic range. In particular, non-common optical path aberrations occurring between the wave-front sensor and the coronagraphic occulting spot degrade performance the most. We analyze the passage of both low and high spatial frequency phase ripples, as well as low-order Zernike aberrations, through an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph in order to demonstrate the way coronagraphic filtering affects various aberrations. We derive the coronagraphically induced cutoff frequency of the filtering and estimate coronagraphic contrast losses due to low-order Zernike aberrations: tilt, astigmatism, defocus, coma, and spherical aberration. Such slowly varying path errors can be measured behind a coronagraph and corrected by a slowly updated optical path delay precompensation or offset asserted on the wave front by the adaptive optics (AO) system. We suggest ways of measuring and correcting all but the lowest spatial frequency aberrations using Lyot plane wave-front data, in spite of the complex interaction between the coronagraph and those mid-spatial frequency aberrations that cause image plane speckles near the coronagraphic focal plane mask occulter's edge. This investigation provides guidance for next-generation coronagraphic instruments currently under construction.

  7. Prediction of Visual Acuity from Wavefront Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for generating a visual acuity metric, based on wavefront aberrations (WFAs), associated with a test subject and representing classes of imperfections, such as defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberrations, of the subject's visual system. The metric allows choices of different image template, can predict acuity for different target probabilities, can incorporate different and possibly subject-specific neural transfer functions, can predict acuity for different subject templates, and incorporates a model of the optotype identification task.

  8. Chromosome aberrations in decondensed sperm DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Factors that could influence the chromosomal aberration frequency observed at first cleavage following in vivo exposure of germ cells to chemical mutagens are discussed. The techniques of chromosome aberration analysis following sperm DNA condensation by in vitro fertilization or fusion seem to be viable research areas for providing information of human germ cell exposures. However, the potential sensitivity of the assay needs to be better understood, and factors that can influence this sensitivity require a great deal of further study using animal models.

  9. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    DOEpatents

    Belinsky, Steven A.; Palmisano, William A.

    2007-05-08

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  10. Adaptation of the targeted capture Methyl-Seq platform for the mouse genome identifies novel tissue-specific DNA methylation patterns of genes involved in neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Hing, Benjamin; Ramos, Enrique; Braun, Patricia; McKane, Melissa; Jancic, Dubravka; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Lee, Richard S; Michaelson, Jacob J; Druley, Todd E; Potash, James B

    2015-01-01

    Methyl-Seq was recently developed as a targeted approach to assess DNA methylation (DNAm) at a genome-wide level in human. We adapted it for mouse and sought to examine DNAm differences across liver and 2 brain regions: cortex and hippocampus. A custom hybridization array was designed to isolate 99 Mb of CpG islands, shores, shelves, and regulatory elements in the mouse genome. This was followed by bisulfite conversion and sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq2000. The majority of differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) were present at greater than expected frequency in introns, intergenic regions, near CpG islands, and transcriptional enhancers. Liver-specific enhancers were observed to be methylated in cortex, while cortex specific enhancers were methylated in the liver. Interestingly, commonly shared enhancers were differentially methylated between the liver and cortex. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that genes that were hypomethylated in the cortex and hippocampus were enriched for neuronal components and neuronal function. In contrast, genes that were hypomethylated in the liver were enriched for cellular components important for liver function. Bisulfite-pyrosequencing validation of 75 DMCs from 19 different loci showed a correlation of r = 0.87 with Methyl-Seq data. We also identified genes involved in neurodevelopment that were not previously reported to be differentially methylated across brain regions. This platform constitutes a valuable tool for future genome-wide studies involving mouse models of disease. PMID:25985232

  11. NGSmethDB 2017: enhanced methylomes and differential methylation

    PubMed Central

    Lebrón, Ricardo; Gómez-Martín, Cristina; Carpena, Pedro; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Barturen, Guillermo; Hackenberg, Michael; Oliver, José L.

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 update of NGSmethDB stores whole genome methylomes generated from short-read data sets obtained by bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) technology. To generate high-quality methylomes, stringent quality controls were integrated with third-part software, adding also a two-step mapping process to exploit the advantages of the new genome assembly models. The samples were all profiled under constant parameter settings, thus enabling comparative downstream analyses. Besides a significant increase in the number of samples, NGSmethDB now includes two additional data-types, which are a valuable resource for the discovery of methylation epigenetic biomarkers: (i) differentially methylated single-cytosines; and (ii) methylation segments (i.e. genome regions of homogeneous methylation). The NGSmethDB back-end is now based on MongoDB, a NoSQL hierarchical database using JSON-formatted documents and dynamic schemas, thus accelerating sample comparative analyses. Besides conventional database dumps, track hubs were implemented, which improved database access, visualization in genome browsers and comparative analyses to third-part annotations. In addition, the database can be also accessed through a RESTful API. Lastly, a Python client and a multiplatform virtual machine allow for program-driven access from user desktop. This way, private methylation data can be compared to NGSmethDB without the need to upload them to public servers. Database website: http://bioinfo2.ugr.es/NGSmethDB. PMID:27794041

  12. NGSmethDB 2017: enhanced methylomes and differential methylation.

    PubMed

    Lebrón, Ricardo; Gómez-Martín, Cristina; Carpena, Pedro; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Barturen, Guillermo; Hackenberg, Michael; Oliver, José L

    2017-01-04

    The 2017 update of NGSmethDB stores whole genome methylomes generated from short-read data sets obtained by bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) technology. To generate high-quality methylomes, stringent quality controls were integrated with third-part software, adding also a two-step mapping process to exploit the advantages of the new genome assembly models. The samples were all profiled under constant parameter settings, thus enabling comparative downstream analyses. Besides a significant increase in the number of samples, NGSmethDB now includes two additional data-types, which are a valuable resource for the discovery of methylation epigenetic biomarkers: (i) differentially methylated single-cytosines; and (ii) methylation segments (i.e. genome regions of homogeneous methylation). The NGSmethDB back-end is now based on MongoDB, a NoSQL hierarchical database using JSON-formatted documents and dynamic schemas, thus accelerating sample comparative analyses. Besides conventional database dumps, track hubs were implemented, which improved database access, visualization in genome browsers and comparative analyses to third-part annotations. In addition, the database can be also accessed through a RESTful API. Lastly, a Python client and a multiplatform virtual machine allow for program-driven access from user desktop. This way, private methylation data can be compared to NGSmethDB without the need to upload them to public servers. Database website: http://bioinfo2.ugr.es/NGSmethDB.

  13. Intragenic DNA methylation in transcriptional regulation, normal differentiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Marta; Queirós, Ana C; Beekman, Renée; Martín-Subero, José I

    2013-11-01

    Ever since the discovery of DNA methylation at cytosine residues, the role of this so called fifth base has been extensively studied and debated. Until recently, the majority of DNA methylation studies focused on the analysis of CpG islands associated to promoter regions. However, with the upcoming possibilities to study DNA methylation in a genome-wide context, this epigenetic mark can now be studied in an unbiased manner. As a result, recent studies have shown that not only promoters but also intragenic and intergenic regions are widely modulated during physiological processes and disease. In particular, it is becoming increasingly clear that DNA methylation in the gene body is not just a passive witness of gene transcription but it seems to be actively involved in multiple gene regulation processes. In this review we discuss the potential role of intragenic DNA methylation in alternative promoter usage, regulation of short and long non-coding RNAs, alternative RNA processing, as well as enhancer activity. Furthermore, we summarize how the intragenic DNA methylome is modified both during normal cell differentiation and neoplastic transformation.

  14. Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huanqing; Wang, Zhaoqi; Zhao, Qiuling; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yan

    2005-03-01

    Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore, the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There are four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high-order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software-ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

  15. Gene expression and nucleotide composition are associated with genic methylation level in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The methylation of cytosines at CpG dinucleotides, which plays an important role in gene expression regulation, is one of the most studied epigenetic modifications. Thus far, the detection of DNA methylation has been determined mostly by experimental methods, which are not only prone to bench effects and artifacts but are also time-consuming, expensive, and cannot be easily scaled up to many samples. It is therefore useful to develop computational prediction methods for DNA methylation. Our previous studies highlighted the existence of correlations between the GC content of the third codon position (GC3), methylation, and gene expression. We thus designed a model to predict methylation in Oryza sativa based on genomic sequence features and gene expression data. Results We first derive equations to describe the relationship between gene methylation levels, GC3, expression, length, and other gene compositional features. We next assess gene compositional features involving sixmers and their association with methylation levels and other gene level properties. By applying our sixmer-based approach on rice gene expression data we show that it can accurately predict methylation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = 0.79) for the majority (79%) of the genes. Matlab code with our model is included. Conclusions Gene expression variation can be used as predictors of gene methylation levels. PMID:24447369

  16. Non-CG methylation patterns shape the epigenetic landscape in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Hume; Do, Truman; Du, Jiamu; Zhong, Xuehua; Feng, Suhua; Johnson, Lianna; Patel, Dinshaw J; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation occurs in CG and non-CG sequence contexts. Non-CG methylation is abundant in plants and is mediated by CHROMOMETHYLASE (CMT) and DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE (DRM) proteins; however, its roles remain poorly understood. Here we characterize the roles of non-CG methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that a poorly characterized methyltransferase, CMT2, is a functional methyltransferase in vitro and in vivo. CMT2 preferentially binds histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9) dimethylation and methylates non-CG cytosines that are regulated by H3K9 methylation. We revealed the contributions and redundancies between each non-CG methyltransferase in DNA methylation patterning and in regulating transcription. We also demonstrate extensive dependencies of small-RNA accumulation and H3K9 methylation patterning on non-CG methylation, suggesting self-reinforcing mechanisms between these epigenetic factors. The results suggest that non-CG methylation patterns are critical in shaping the landscapes of histone modification and small noncoding RNA.

  17. Strict de novo methylation of the 35S enhancer sequence in gentian.

    PubMed

    Mishiba, Kei-ichiro; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Oda, Masayuki; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2010-03-23

    A novel transgene silencing phenomenon was found in the ornamental plant, gentian (Gentiana triflora x G. scabra), in which the introduced Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter region was strictly methylated, irrespective of the transgene copy number and integrated loci. Transgenic tobacco having the same vector did not show the silencing behavior. Not only unmodified, but also modified 35S promoters containing a 35S enhancer sequence were found to be highly methylated in the single copy transgenic gentian lines. The 35S core promoter (-90)-introduced transgenic lines showed a small degree of methylation, implying that the 35S enhancer sequence was involved in the methylation machinery. The rigorous silencing phenomenon enabled us to analyze methylation in a number of the transgenic lines in parallel, which led to the discovery of a consensus target region for de novo methylation, which comprised an asymmetric cytosine (CpHpH; H is A, C or T) sequence. Consequently, distinct footprints of de novo methylation were detected in each (modified) 35S promoter sequence, and the enhancer region (-148 to -85) was identified as a crucial target for de novo methylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that complexes formed in gentian nuclear extract with the -149 to -124 and -107 to -83 region probes were distinct from those of tobacco nuclear extracts, suggesting that the complexes might contribute to de novo methylation. Our results provide insights into the phenomenon of sequence- and species- specific gene silencing in higher plants.

  18. The potential role of DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Toghill, Bradley J; Saratzis, Athanasios; Harrison, Seamus C; Verissimo, Ana R; Mallon, Eamonn B; Bown, Matthew J

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterised by the chronic degradation and gradual, irreversible dilation of the abdominal aorta. Smoking, genetics, male sex and increased age are major factors associated with developing AAA. Rupture contributes to around 2% of deaths in all Caucasians over 65, and there is no pharmaco-therapeutic treatment. Methylation is an epigenetic modification to DNA, where a methyl group is added to a cytosine base 5' to a guanine (CpG dinucleotide). Methylation patterns are long term, inherited signatures that can induce changes in gene transcription, and can be affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Methylation changes are involved in hypertension and atherosclerosis, both of which are risk factors of, and often coexist with AAA. Extra-cellular matrix degradation and inflammation, both important pathological hallmarks of AAA, are also promoted by changes in CpG methylation in other diseases. Additionally, the adverse effects of smoking and ageing take place largely through epigenetic manipulation of the genome. Every factor associated with AAA appears to be associated with DNA methylation, yet no direct evidence confirms this. Future work to identify a link between global methylation and AAA, and differentially methylated regions may reveal valuable insight. The identification of a common epigenetic switching process may also signify a promising future for AAA pharmaco-therapeutic strategies. Epigenetic therapies are being designed to target pathogenic CpG methylation changes in other diseases, and it is feasible that these therapies may also be applicable to AAA in the future.

  19. A view of an elemental naturalist at the DNA world (base composition, sequences, methylation).

    PubMed

    Vanyushin, B F

    2007-12-01

    The pioneering data on base composition and pyrimidine sequences in DNA of pro- and eukaryotes are considered, and their significance for the origin of genosystematics is discussed. The modern views on specificity and functional role of enzymatic DNA methylation in eukaryotes are described. DNA methylation controls all genetic functions and is a mechanism of cellular differentiation and gene silencing. A model of regulation of DNA replication by methylation is suggested. Adenine DNA methylation in higher eukaryotes (higher plants) was first observed, and it was established that one and the same gene can be methylated at both cytosine and adenine moieties. Thus, there are at least two different and seemingly interdependent DNA methylation systems present in eukaryotic cells. The first eukaryotic adenine DNA-methyltransferase is isolated from wheat seedlings and described: the enzyme methylates DNA with formation of N6-methyladenine in the sequence TGATCA-->TGm6ATCA. It is found that higher plants have endonucleases that are dependent on S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and sensitive to DNA methylation status. Therefore, as in bacteria, plants seem to have a restriction-modification (R-M) system. A system of conjugated up- and down-regulation of SAM-dependent endonucleases by SAM modulations is found in plants. Revelation of an essential role of DNA methylation in regulation of genetic processes is a fundament of materialization of epigenetics and epigenomics.

  20. Deciphering causal and statistical relations of molecular aberrations and gene expressions in NCI-60 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer cells harbor a large number of molecular alterations such as mutations, amplifications and deletions on DNA sequences and epigenetic changes on DNA methylations. These aberrations may dysregulate gene expressions, which in turn drive the malignancy of tumors. Deciphering the causal and statistical relations of molecular aberrations and gene expressions is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms of clinical phenotypes. Results In this work, we proposed a computational method to reconstruct association modules containing driver aberrations, passenger mRNA or microRNA expressions, and putative regulators that mediate the effects from drivers to passengers. By applying the module-finding algorithm to the integrated datasets of NCI-60 cancer cell lines, we found that gene expressions were driven by diverse molecular aberrations including chromosomal segments' copy number variations, gene mutations and DNA methylations, microRNA expressions, and the expressions of transcription factors. In-silico validation indicated that passenger genes were enriched with the regulator binding motifs, functional categories or pathways where the drivers were involved, and co-citations with the driver/regulator genes. Moreover, 6 of 11 predicted MYB targets were down-regulated in an MYB-siRNA treated leukemia cell line. In addition, microRNA expressions were driven by distinct mechanisms from mRNA expressions. Conclusions The results provide rich mechanistic information regarding molecular aberrations and gene expressions in cancer genomes. This kind of integrative analysis will become an important tool for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in the era of personalized medicine. PMID:22051105

  1. The Role of Hydrogen Bonds in the Stabilization of Silver-Mediated Cytosine Tetramers.

    PubMed

    Espinosa Leal, Leonardo Andrés; Karpenko, Alexander; Swasey, Steven; Gwinn, Elisabeth G; Rojas-Cervellera, Victor; Rovira, Carme; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga

    2015-10-15

    DNA oligomers can form silver-mediated duplexes, stable in gas phase and solution, with potential for novel biomedical and technological applications. The nucleobase-metal bond primarily drives duplex formation, but hydrogen (H-) bonds may also be important for structure selection and stability. To elucidate the role of H-bonding, we conducted theoretical and experimental studies of a duplex formed by silver-mediated cytosine homopobase DNA strands, two bases long. This silver-mediated cytosine tetramer is small enough to permit accurate, realistic modeling by DFT-based quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods. In gas phase, our calculations found two energetically favorable configurations distinguished by H-bonding, one with a novel interplane H-bond, and the other with planar H-bonding of silver-bridged bases. Adding solvent favored silver-mediated tetramers with interplane H-bonding. Overall agreement of electronic circular dichroism spectra for the final calculated structure and experiment validates these findings. Our results can guide use of these stabilization mechanisms for devising novel metal-mediated DNA structures.

  2. Increased proliferation and chemosensitivity of human mesenchymal stromal cells expressing fusion yeast cytosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Kucerova, Lucia; Poturnajova, Martina; Tyciakova, Silvia; Matuskova, Miroslava

    2012-03-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be suitable vehicles for cellular therapy in various conditions. The expression of reporter and/or effector protein(s) enabled both the identification of MSCs within the organism and the exploitation in targeted tumor therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate cellular changes induced by retrovirus-mediated transgene expression in MSCs in vitro. Human Adipose Tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) were transduced to express (i) the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter transgene, (ii) the fusion yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CDy::UPRT) enzyme along with the expression of dominant positive selection gene NeoR or (iii) the selection marker NeoR alone (MOCK). CDy::UPRT expression resulted in increased proliferation of CDy::UPRT-MSCs versus naïve AT-MSCs, MOCK-MSCs or EGFP-MSCs. Furthermore, CDy::UPRT-MSCs were significantly more sensitive to 5-fluorouracil (5FU), cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and cytosine arabinoside as determined by increased Caspase 3/7 activation and/or decreased relative proliferation. CDy::UPRT-MSCs in direct cocultures with breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 increased tumor cell killing induced by low concentrations of 5FU. Our data demonstrated the changes in proliferation and chemoresistance in engineered MSCs expressing transgene with enzymatic function and suggested the possibilities for further augmentation of targeted MSC-mediated antitumor therapy.

  3. Yeast cytosine deaminase mutants with increased thermostability impart sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine.

    PubMed

    Stolworthy, Tiffany S; Korkegian, Aaron M; Willmon, Candice L; Ardiani, Andressa; Cundiff, Jennifer; Stoddard, Barry L; Black, Margaret E

    2008-03-28

    Prodrug gene therapy (PGT) is a treatment strategy in which tumor cells are transfected with a 'suicide' gene that encodes a metabolic enzyme capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into a potent cytotoxin. One of the most promising PGT enzymes is cytosine deaminase (CD), a microbial salvage enzyme that converts cytosine to uracil. CD also converts 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) to 5-fluorouracil, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis and RNA function. Over 150 studies of CD-mediated PGT applications have been reported since 2000, all using wild-type enzymes. However, various forms of CD are limited by inefficient turnover of 5FC and/or limited thermostability. In a previous study, we stabilized and extended the half-life of yeast CD (yCD) by repacking of its hydrophobic core at several positions distant from the active site. Here we report that random mutagenesis of residues selected based on alignment with similar enzymes, followed by selection for enhanced sensitization to 5FC, also produces an enzyme variant (yCD-D92E) with elevated T(m) values and increased activity half-life. The new mutation is located at the enzyme's dimer interface, indicating that independent mutational pathways can lead to an increase in stability, as well as a more subtle effect on enzyme kinetics. Each independently derived set of mutations significantly improves the enzyme's performance in PGT assays both in cell culture and in animal models.

  4. Stability and isomerization of complexes formed by metal ions and cytosine isomers in aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hongqi; Liu, Jingjing; Chan, Kwaichow

    2013-08-01

    We present a systematic study of the stability of the formation of complexes produced by four metal ions (M(+/2+)) and 14 cytosine isomers (Cn). This work predicts theoretically that predominant product complexes are associated with higher-energy C4M(+/2+) and C5M(+/2+) rather than the most stable C1M(+/2+). The prediction resolves successfully several experimental facts puzzling two research groups. Meanwhile, in-depth studies further reveal that direct isomerization of C1↔C4 is almost impossible, and also that the isomerization induced by either metalation or hydration, or by a combination of the two unfavorable. It is the single water molecule locating between the H1(-N1) and O2 of the cytosine that plays the dual roles of being a bridge and an activator that consequently improves the isomerization greatly. Moreover, the cooperation of divalent metal ion and such a monohydration actually leads to an energy-free C1←C4 isomerization in the gas phase. Henceforth, we are able to propose schemes inhibiting the free C1←C4 isomerization, based purely on extended hydration at the divalent metal ion.

  5. Dynamic DNA Methylation Regulates Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Figge, David A.; Eskow Jaunarajs, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a persistent behavioral sensitization that develops after repeated levodopa (l-DOPA) exposure in Parkinson disease patients. LID is a consequence of sustained changes in the transcriptional behavior of striatal neurons following dopaminergic stimulation. In neurons, transcriptional regulation through dynamic DNA methylation has been shown pivotal to many long-term behavioral modifications; however, its role in LID has not yet been explored. Using a rodent model, we show LID development leads to the aberrant expression of DNA demethylating enzymes and locus-specific changes to DNA methylation at the promoter regions of genes aberrantly transcribed following l-DOPA treatment. Looking for dynamic DNA methylation in LID genome-wide, we used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and found an extensive reorganization of the dorsal striatal methylome. LID development led to significant demethylation at many important regulatory areas of aberrantly transcribed genes. We used pharmacologic treatments that alter DNA methylation bidirectionally and found them able to modulate dyskinetic behaviors. Together, these findings demonstrate that l-DOPA induces widespread changes to striatal DNA methylation and that these modifications are required for the development and maintenance of LID. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) develops after repeated levodopa (l-DOPA) exposure in Parkinson disease patients and remains one of the primary obstacles to effective treatment. LID behaviors are a consequence of striatal neuron sensitization due to sustained changes in transcriptional behavior; however, the mechanisms responsible for the long-term maintenance of this cellular priming remain uncertain. Regulation of dynamic DNA methylation has been shown pivotal to the maintenance of several long-term behavioral modifications, yet its role in LID has not yet been explored. In this work, we report a pivotal role for the

  6. M.(phi)BssHII, a novel cytosine-C5-DNA-methyltransferase with target-recognizing domains at separated locations of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Sethmann, S; Ceglowski, P; Willert, J; Iwanicka-Nowicka, R; Trautner, T A; Walter, J

    1999-01-01

    In all cytosine-C5-DNA-methyltransferases (MTases) from prokaryotes and eukaryotes, remarkably conserved amino acid sequence elements responsible for general enzymatic functions are arranged in the same canonical order. In addition, one variable region, which includes the target-recognizing domain(s) (TRDs) characteristic for each enzyme, has been localized in one region between the same blocks of these conserved elements. This conservation in the order of conserved and variable sequences suggests stringent structural constraints in the primary structure to obtain the correct folding of the enzymes. Here we report the characterization of a new type of a multispecific MTase, M.(phiphi)BssHII, which is expressed as two isoforms. Isoform I is an entirely novel type of MTase which has, in addition to the TRDs at the conventional location, one TRD located at a non-canonical position at its N-terminus. Isoform II is represented by the same MTase, but without the N-terminal TRD. The N-terminal TRD provides HaeII methylation specificity to isoform I. The TRD is fully functional when engineered into either the conventional variable region of M.(phiphi)BssHII or the related monospecific M.phi3TII MTase. The implications of this structural plasticity with respect to the evolution of MTases are discussed. PMID:10369689

  7. Gene silencing by DNA methylation and dual inheritance in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Paulin, R P; Ho, T; Balzer, H J; Holliday, R

    1998-06-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells