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Sample records for aberrant drug-related behaviors

  1. Preventing and managing aberrant drug-related behavior in primary care: systematic review of outcomes evidence.

    PubMed

    Argoff, Charles E; Kahan, Meldon; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-01-01

    Several strategies for preventing, identifying, and responding to aberrant opioid-related behaviors are recommended in pain management guidelines. This systematic review evaluated data supporting basic strategies for addressing aberrant opioid-related behaviors. Risk reduction strategies were identified via a review of available guidelines. Systematic literature searches of PubMed (May 1, 2007-January 18, 2013) identified articles with evidence relevant to nine basic strategies. Reference lists from relevant articles were reviewed for additional references of interest. Levels of evidence for articles identified were graded on a four-point scale (strongest evidence = level 1; weakest evidence = level 4) using Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence criteria. Weak to moderate evidence supports the value of thorough patient assessment, risk-screening tools, controlled-substance agreements, careful dose titration, opioid dose ceilings, compliance monitoring, and adherence to practice guidelines. Moderate to strong evidence suggests that prescribing tamper-resistant opioids may help prevent misuse but may also have the unintended consequence of prompting a migration of users to other marketed opioids, heroin, or other substances. Similarly, preliminary evidence suggests that although recent regulatory and legal efforts may reduce misuse, they also impose barriers to the legitimate treatment of pain. Despite an absence of consistent, strong supporting evidence, clinicians are advised to use each of the available risk-mitigation strategies in combination in an attempt to minimize the risk of abuse in opioid treatment patients. Physicians must critically evaluate their opioid prescribing and not only increase their efforts to prevent substance abuse but also not compromise pain management in patients who benefit from it.

  2. Psychometric Characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Information is presented on the psychometric characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, a measure of psychotropic drug effects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the checklist appeared very good. Interrater reliability was generally in the moderate range. In general, validity was established for most Aberrant Behavior…

  3. Psychometric characteristics of the aberrant behavior checklist.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Singh, N N; Stewart, A W; Field, C J

    1985-03-01

    Information was presented on the psychometric characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Checklist appeared to be very good. Interrater reliability tended to vary across raters and subscales and ranged from mediocre to good but was generally in the moderate range and acceptable for research purposes. Validity was assessed by comparing Checklist scores for residents presenting with attributes thought to reflect varying degrees of social adaptation. Validity was also evaluated by comparing Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores with ratings on adaptive behavior scales and with objective observations of behavior. In general, validity was established for most Aberrant Behavior Checklist subscales. Preliminary data from drug investigations suggested that the Checklist may provide a useful adjunct for the assessment of psychotropic drug effects.

  4. Drug-Related HIV Risk Behaviors and Cocaine Preference among Injection Drug Users in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared drug-related risk behavior of drug users whose preferred injection drug was cocaine and users with preference for heroin or no preference between the two drugs (total n=422). Found cocaine preference unrelated to likelihood of needle sharing overall, needle sharing with strangers, needle sharing at shooting galleries, and failure to use…

  5. Using Brief Assessments to Evaluate Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; King, Lisa; Lally, Grainne; Dhomhnaill, Orla Nic

    2000-01-01

    Functional assessments were conducted for two Irish individuals with severe disabilities and aberrant behavior. A modified attention condition was introduced, which involved both parents interacting with a third person. Aberrant behavior occurred only in the modified attention condition. Successful treatment consisted of delivery of attention on a…

  6. Using aberrant behaviors as reinforcers for autistic children.

    PubMed Central

    Charlop, M H; Kurtz, P F; Casey, F G

    1990-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we assessed the efficacy of using autistic children's aberrant behaviors as reinforcers to increase their correct task responding. In Experiment 1, reinforcer conditions of stereotypy, food, and varied (food or stereotypy) were compared. In Experiment 2, the conditions were delayed echolalia, food, and varied (food or delayed echolalia), and in Experiment 3, perseverative behavior was compared with stereotypy and food as potential reinforcers. A multielement design was used for all comparisons, and side-effect measures were recorded during and after teaching sessions as well as at home. Results indicated that, in general, task performance was highest when brief opportunities to engage in aberrant behaviors were provided as reinforcers. Edibles were associated with the lowest performance. Furthermore, no negative side effects (e.g., an increase in aberrant behaviors) occurred. The results are discussed in terms of suggesting a more pragmatic treatment approach by addressing the contingent use of autistic children's aberrant behaviors as reinforcers. PMID:2373653

  7. Using aberrant behaviors as reinforcers for autistic children.

    PubMed

    Charlop, M H; Kurtz, P F; Casey, F G

    1990-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we assessed the efficacy of using autistic children's aberrant behaviors as reinforcers to increase their correct task responding. In Experiment 1, reinforcer conditions of stereotypy, food, and varied (food or stereotypy) were compared. In Experiment 2, the conditions were delayed echolalia, food, and varied (food or delayed echolalia), and in Experiment 3, perseverative behavior was compared with stereotypy and food as potential reinforcers. A multielement design was used for all comparisons, and side-effect measures were recorded during and after teaching sessions as well as at home. Results indicated that, in general, task performance was highest when brief opportunities to engage in aberrant behaviors were provided as reinforcers. Edibles were associated with the lowest performance. Furthermore, no negative side effects (e.g., an increase in aberrant behaviors) occurred. The results are discussed in terms of suggesting a more pragmatic treatment approach by addressing the contingent use of autistic children's aberrant behaviors as reinforcers.

  8. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Drug-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…

  9. Persistence of Early Emerging Aberrant Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). "Aberrant Behavior…

  10. Relationship between Locus of Control and Alcohol and Drug-Related Behaviors in Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, William F., Jr.; Luhrs, Joyce A.

    1978-01-01

    Teenagers, classified according to Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, indicated whether or not and why they engaged in alcohol consumption or marijuana smoking. A higher proportion of externals drank but the groups did not generally differ in marijuana smoking behaviors. (Author/BEF)

  11. Persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Green, Vanessa A; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). Aberrant Behavior Checklist: Manual. East Aurora, NY: Slosson Educational Publications; (1994). Aberrant Behavior Checklist--Community. East Aurora, NY: Slosson Educational Publications]. Problem behaviors were present in all children at the beginning of the study. Nine of the 13 children entered the study with relatively high levels of aberrant behaviors that showed little change over the 3 years. These data suggest that aberrant behaviors often emerge early and can be highly persistent during the preschool years. Prevention would, therefore, seem to require home-based interventions that begin before 4 years of age.

  12. Convergent Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Behavior Problems Inventory with People with Complex Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). "The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity." "Research in Developmental Disabilities", 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems…

  13. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Problems Inventory: Convergent and Divergent Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Aman, Michael G.; Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI) for assessing the maladaptive behavior of 226 adults, mostly with severe or profound mental retardation. Individuals with elevated BPI scores generally had higher ABC scores, however, the extent of covariation differed across subscales. (Contains…

  14. Longitudinal trajectories of aberrant behavior in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Hall, Scott S; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-11-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C; Aman et al., 1995) has been increasingly adopted as a primary tool for measuring behavioral change in clinical trials for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). To our knowledge, however, no study has documented the longitudinal trajectory of aberrant behaviors in individuals with FXS using the ABC-C. As part of a larger longitudinal study, we examined scores obtained on the ABC-C subscales for 124 children and adolescents (64 males, 60 females) with FXS who had two or more assessments (average interval between assessments was approximately 4 years). Concomitant changes in age-equivalent scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were also examined. As expected for an X-linked genetic disorder, males with FXS obtained significantly higher scores on all subscales of the ABC-C and significantly lower age-equivalent scores on the VABS than females with FXS. In both males and females with FXS, scores on the Irritability/Agitation and Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscales of the ABC-C decreased significantly with age, with little to no change occurring over time on the Lethargy/Social Withdrawal, Stereotypic Behavior, and Inappropriate Speech subscales. The decrease in scores on the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance domain was significantly greater for males than for females. In both males and females, age-equivalent scores on the VABS increased significantly over this developmental period. These results establish a basis upon which to evaluate long-term outcomes from intervention-based research. However, longitudinal direct observational studies are needed to establish whether the severity of problem behavior actually decreases over time in this population.

  15. Correlations among the Reiss Screen, the Adaptive Behavior Scale Part II, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kevin K.; Shenouda, Nivine

    1999-01-01

    Relations among instruments used in community mental-health services for people with developmental disabilities were explored with 284 individuals. Correlation coefficients were evaluated for statistical significance and effect size for subtests of the Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and the Adaptive…

  16. Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal…

  17. Combining Noncontingent Reinforcement and Differential Reinforcement Schedules as Treatment for Aberrant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bethany A.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    1996-01-01

    In this study with three children (ages four and five) with severe developmental disabilities and aberrant behavior maintained by tangible positive reinforcement, noncontingent reinforcement, and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior were found to decrease the frequency of aberrant behavior while strengthening mands. (Author/DB)

  18. Convergent validity of the aberrant behavior checklist and behavior problems inventory with people with complex needs.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems inventory (BPI) and the aberrant behavior checklist (ABC) for individuals presenting with multiple complex behavior problems. Data were collected from 69 children and adults with severe intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior living in residential establishments. MANCOVA analyses showed that individuals with elevated BPI stereotyped behavior subscale scores had higher scores on ABC lethargy and stereotypy subscales, while those with elevated BPI aggressive/destructive behavior subscale scores obtained higher scores on ABC irritability, stereotypy and hyperactivity subscales. Multiple regression analyses showed a corresponding pattern of results in the prediction of ABC subscale scores by BPI subscale scores. Exploratory factor analysis of the BPI data suggested a six-factor solution with an aggressive/destructive behavior factor, four factors relating to stereotypy, and one related to stereotypy and self-injury. These results, discussed with reference to Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 391-404], support the existence of relationships between specific subscales of the two instruments in addition to an overall association between total scores related to general severity of behavioral disturbance.

  19. Early initiation of sex, drug-related risk behaviors, and sensation-seeking among urban, low-income African-American adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, B.; Li, X.; Cottrell, L.; Kaljee, L.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of early initiation of sex, drug-use, drug-trafficking, and sensation-seeking among urban, African-American adolescents. A longitudinal follow-up of 383 youth ages 9 to 15 years at baseline over four years with serial risk-assessments was used. Sexual experience and several drug-related risk behaviors increased significantly during the four-year study interval. Sensation-seeking scores were higher after the baseline assessment among youth reporting tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and were higher, both at baseline and through several follow-up assessments, among youth reporting drug-selling and sexual activity. At baseline, the correlations among drug-related risk behaviors were all strong, except those between initiation of sex and drug-related risk behaviors. However, over time, early initiators of sex were significantly more likely to report involvement in substance use and drug-delivery/sales than were late initiators. Youth reporting repeated involvement in drug-related activities were more likely to report intensive sexual involvement than they were to report experimental sex or no sex. Sensation-seeking scores were lower among youth reporting no involvement in risk behaviors. However, scores did not differ between youth exhibiting experimental behavior compared to youth demonstrating repeated risk involvement. These results support the need for alternative experiences for youth exhibiting high levels of sensation-seeking and the need for early drug/sexual risk prevention programs. PMID:12653400

  20. Early initiation of sex, drug-related risk behaviors, and sensation-seeking among urban, low-income African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stanton, B; Li, X; Cottrell, L; Kaljee, L

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of early initiation of sex, drug-use, drug-trafficking, and sensation-seeking among urban, African-American adolescents. A longitudinal follow-up of 383 youth ages 9 to 15 years at baseline over four years with serial risk-assessments was used. Sexual experience and several drug-related risk behaviors increased significantly during the four-year study interval. Sensation-seeking scores were higher after the baseline assessment among youth reporting tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and were higher, both at baseline and through several follow-up assessments, among youth reporting drug-selling and sexual activity. At baseline, the correlations among drug-related risk behaviors were all strong, except those between initiation of sex and drug-related risk behaviors. However, over time, early initiators of sex were significantly more likely to report involvement in substance use and drug-delivery/sales than were late initiators. Youth reporting repeated involvement in drug-related activities were more likely to report intensive sexual involvement than they were to report experimental sex or no sex. Sensation-seeking scores were lower among youth reporting no involvement in risk behaviors. However, scores did not differ between youth exhibiting experimental behavior compared to youth demonstrating repeated risk involvement. These results support the need for alternative experiences for youth exhibiting high levels of sensation-seeking and the need for early drug/sexual risk prevention programs. PMID:12653400

  1. Aberrant driving behaviors: a study of drivers in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Bai, Yun; Ying, Xiwen; Atchley, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The addition of massive numbers of new drivers with varied driving experience to roads in China suggests it is important to understand the nature of aberrant driving behaviors for this new set of drivers. A paper-based and an Internet survey were administered. Factor analysis produced a five-factor structure for each survey. The distinction between violations and errors indicated in previous studies was confirmed. The violations included emotional violations, risky violations and self-willed violations, and the errors included inexperience errors and distraction errors. In contrast to previous work, age was not found to be a good predictor of violations though driving experience was. Contrary to expectations, non-automotive (bicycle) roadway experience or level of driving training failed to predict poor driving behavior. On-road experience is the key to risk for China's drivers. Good agreement between the paper-based and Internet surveys indicate online surveys to be a feasible way to conduct research of driving behavior at low cost. PMID:20441810

  2. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    PubMed Central

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  3. Rating Problem Behaviors in Outpatients with Mental Retardation: Use of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    1991-01-01

    Parent and teacher ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist with an outpatient sample of 110 children, adolescents, and young adults with mental retardation found that the 5-factor structure of both parent and teacher data corresponded very well with the 5 factors originally obtained from staff ratings of mentally retarded inpatients. (Author/DB)

  4. Combining noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement schedules as treatment for aberrant behavior.

    PubMed

    Marcus, B A; Vollmer, T R

    1996-01-01

    Research has shown that noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) can be an effective behavior-reduction procedure when based on a functional analysis. The effects of NCR may be a result of elimination of the contingency between aberrant behavior and reinforcing consequences (extinction) or frequent and free access to reinforcers that may reduce the participant's motivation to engage in aberrant behaviors or mands. If motivation is momentarily reduced, behavior such as mands may not be sensitive to positive reinforcement. In this study, for 3 children with aberrant behavior maintained by tangible positive reinforcement, differential-reinforcement-of-alternative-behavior schedules were superimposed on NCR schedules to determine if mands could be strengthened. Results for the participants indicated that NCR did not preclude reinforcement of mands.

  5. Correlations among the Reiss Screen, the Adaptive Behavior Scale Part II, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    PubMed

    Walsh, K K; Shenouda, N

    1999-05-01

    Relations among instruments used in community mental health services for people with developmental disabilities were explored with 284 individuals. Correlation coefficients among the instrument subscales were interpreted in terms of statistical significance and effect size. Of the 157 coefficients, 44% were significant, p < .001, and 35% represented large effects, r > .50. Reiss Screen subscale scores correlated with Irritability, Lethargy, and Hyperactivity on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and with Social Behavior and Disturbing Interpersonal Behavior on the ABS Part II. Stepwise regression analyses predicting Reiss Screen scores from the ABS and ABC resulted in a significant regression, with an overall adjusted R2 of .67. Variance was largely accounted for by two ABS domains and two ABC subscales.

  6. The aberrant behavior checklist: a behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Singh, N N; Stewart, A W; Field, C J

    1985-03-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals was described. In the first stage of the project, an initial scale encompassing a large number of behavior problems was used to rate 418 residents. The scale was then reduced to an intermediate version, and in the second stage, 509 moderately to profoundly retarded individuals were rated. Separate factor analyses of the data from the two samples resulted in a five-factor scale comprising 58 items. The factors of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist have been labeled as follows: (I) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (II) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (III) Stereotypic Behavior; (IV) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and (V) Inappropriate Speech. Average subscale scores were presented for the instrument, and the results were compared with empirically derived rating scales of childhood psychopathology and with factor analytic work in the field of mental retardation.

  7. The aberrant behavior checklist: a behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Singh, N N; Stewart, A W; Field, C J

    1985-03-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals was described. In the first stage of the project, an initial scale encompassing a large number of behavior problems was used to rate 418 residents. The scale was then reduced to an intermediate version, and in the second stage, 509 moderately to profoundly retarded individuals were rated. Separate factor analyses of the data from the two samples resulted in a five-factor scale comprising 58 items. The factors of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist have been labeled as follows: (I) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (II) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (III) Stereotypic Behavior; (IV) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and (V) Inappropriate Speech. Average subscale scores were presented for the instrument, and the results were compared with empirically derived rating scales of childhood psychopathology and with factor analytic work in the field of mental retardation. PMID:3993694

  8. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Problems Inventory: convergent and divergent validity.

    PubMed

    Rojahn, Johannes; Aman, Michael G; Matson, Johnny L; Mayville, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to compare and cross-validate two rating instruments [the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI)] for assessing maladaptive behavior. The BPI assesses three types of behavior problems: Self-Injurious Behavior (SIB), Stereotyped Behavior and Aggressive/Destructive Behavior. The ABC assesses five domains including these three. We collected data on 226 adults, mostly with severe or profound mental retardation, from a medium-sized developmental center. Individuals with elevated BPI scores generally had higher ABC scores; however, the extent of covariation differed across subscales. Similarly, multiple regression analyses showed that BPI subscales significantly but selectively predicted ABC subscale scores. Measures of differential diagnostic value (positive and negative predictive power, sensitivity, specificity and overall correct diagnostic efficiency) confirmed the anticipated partial overlap between instruments. Both instruments were used to rate participants with and without a Diagnosis of Stereotyped Movement Disorder. BPI, SIB and Stereotypy subscale composite had stronger positive predictive power than the ABC Stereotypy scale, while the ABC had higher negative predictive power and greater overall diagnostic efficiency. Thus, the ABC and the BPI cross-validated one another where expected, and they diverged for subscales thought to have little relationship.

  9. Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in a Clinical Sample of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabekiroglu, Koray; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the congruent and criterion validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) in a clinical sample of toddlers seen over 1 year in Turkey. All consecutive patients (N = 93), 14-43 months old (mean, 30.6 mos.), in a child psychiatry outpatient clinic were included. The ABC, Autism Behavior Checklist (AuBC), and Child Behavior…

  10. Rating problem behaviors in outpatients with mental retardation: use of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    PubMed

    Freund, L S; Reiss, A L

    1991-01-01

    Parent and teacher ratings of behavior problems of an outpatient sample of 110 children, adolescents, and young adults with IQs ranging from severe mental retardation to borderline were obtained using a modified version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Using factor analytic techniques, the five-factor structure of the parent data corresponded extremely well with the five factors originally obtained from staff ratings of mentally retarded inpatients (i.e., Irritability, Withdrawal, Hyperactivity, Stereotypies, and Inappropriate Speech). Factor content was virtually identical between the parent and original ABC data with differences involving only one or two items per scale. The teacher data also revealed a factor structure that corresponded to the same five factors as the parent and original data. Although the teacher and parent factors showed a high degree of similarity, the teacher data suggested that the Stereotypies and Inappropriate Speech factors of the parent and original analyses were not the same constructs for teacher respondents. Age was related to the withdrawal factor for parent data; level of intellectual functioning was the only subject characteristic related to factor scale scores in both parent and teacher data. Test-retest reliabilities were adequate to excellent for all factors for both parent and teacher data. Parent-teacher cross-informant reliabilities were adequate for at least four of the factors. The results of the report indicate that the ABC is a useful, reliable instrument for assessing maladaptive behaviors in young, developmentally disabled outpatients.

  11. Factor Analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Jason; Nations, Laura; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hall, Alicia; Wright, Harry H.; Gabriels, Robin; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A. O.; Cuccaro, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (varimax and promax rotations) of the aberrant behavior checklist-community version (ABC) in 275 individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified four- and five-factor solutions which accounted for greater than 70% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.7) revealed indices of moderate fit for…

  12. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist with Children and Adolescents with Dual Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Heisel, William J.

    1991-01-01

    The appropriateness of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) was investigated with 199 youngsters with dual diagnosis of mental retardation and psychiatric disturbance. With some cautions, the ABC is recommended, based on the robustness of its factor structure, clinically meaningfulness of the subscale scores, and internal consistency of the…

  13. Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaat, Aaron J.; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) is a widely used measure in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treatment studies. We conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the ABC in 1,893 children evaluated as part of the Autism Treatment Network. The root mean square error of approximation was .086 for the standard item assignment, and in…

  14. Effects of Risperidone on Aberrant Behavior in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: II. Social Validity Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, David B.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Hellings, Jessica; Napolitano, Deborah A.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction and social validity were measured during a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of risperidone in treating aberrant behaviors of persons with developmental disabilities. A survey showed all 17 caregivers felt participation was positive. Community members (n=52) also indicated that when on medication, the 5 participants…

  15. Psychometric Study of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Fragile X Syndrome and Implications for Targeted Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansone, Stephanie M.; Widaman, Keith F.; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Lightbody, Amy; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Lachiewicz, Ave; Brown, Elaine C.; Hessl, David

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies elucidating the neurobiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have led to multiple controlled trials in humans, with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) commonly adopted as a primary outcome measure. A multi-site collaboration examined the psychometric properties of the ABC-C in 630 individuals (ages 3-25) with FXS using…

  16. Reduction of multiple aberrant behaviors and concurrent development of self-care skills with differential reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A; Smith, R G; Rodgers, T A

    1992-01-01

    A modified functional analysis was used to assess the behavioral function of a profoundly retarded man's self-injurious behavior (SIB). Results of that analysis showed that the behavior was most likely to occur in a demand context (self-care instructions) but was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention and physical contact. The results of the functional analysis also prescribed a treatment involving differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). Further investigation showed that other aberrant behaviors, such as aggression and disruption, were members of the same functional response class as SIB. The differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) procedure effectively reduced those behaviors while compliance to a self-care acquisition task increased markedly. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of determining behavioral function prior to treatment.

  17. Use of buspirone and enrichment to manage aberrant behavior in an American badger (Taxidea taxus).

    PubMed

    Gage, Laurie J

    2005-09-01

    A captive adult female American badger (Taxidea taxus) suffered periodic episodes of agitation and self-mutilation over the course of its lifetime. Initially environmental enrichment curtailed the aberrant behavior; however, intensifying clinical signs periodically required the use of diazepam for amelioration of the problem. When diazepam treatment failed to effectively manage a series of escalating behavioral problems, alternative therapy with buspirone, an azaperone anxiolytic, was initiated. The badger was treated with 10 mg buspirone p.o. b.i.d. for over 18 mo, during which time no undesirable behaviors or noticeable side effects were observed.

  18. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport.

  19. Validity of the aberrant behavior checklist in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaat, Aaron J; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G

    2014-05-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) is a widely used measure in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treatment studies. We conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the ABC in 1,893 children evaluated as part of the Autism Treatment Network. The root mean square error of approximation was .086 for the standard item assignment, and in exploratory factor analysis, the large majority of items continued to load on the originally assigned factors. Correlations between the ABC subscales and multiple external variables including the Child Behavior Checklist and demographic variables supported the convergent and divergent validity of the ABC as a measure of behavior problems in ASD. Finally, we examined the impact of participant characteristics on subscale scores and present normative data.

  20. Anxiety, attention problems, hyperactivity, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Anne; Raspa, Melissa; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen; Hessl, David; Sacco, Pat; Bailey, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Behavior problems are a common challenge for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and constitute the primary clinical outcome domain in trials testing new FXS medications. However, little is known about the relationship between caregiver-reported behavior problems and co-occurring conditions such as anxiety and attention problems. In this study, 350 caregivers, each with at least one son or daughter with full-mutation FXS, rated one of their children with FXS using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Version (ABC-C); the Anxiety subscale of the Anxiety, Depression, and Mood Scale; and the Attention/Hyperactivity Items from the Symptom Inventories. In addition to examining family consequences of these behaviors, this study also sought to replicate psychometric findings for the ABC-C in FXS, to provide greater confidence for its use in clinical trials with this population. Psychometric properties and baseline ratings of problem behavior were consistent with other recent studies, further establishing the profile of problem behavior in FXS. Cross-sectional analyses suggest that selected dimensions of problem behavior, anxiety, and hyperactivity are age related; thus, age should serve as an important control in any studies of problem behavior in FXS. Measures of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity were highly associated with behavior problems, suggesting that these factors at least coincide with problem behavior. However, these problems generally did not add substantially to variance in caregiver burden predicted by elevated behavior problems. The results provide further evidence of the incidence of problem behaviors and co-occurring conditions in FXS and the impact of these behaviors on the family.

  1. An evaluation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for children under age 5.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Huete, John M; Fodstad, Jill C; Chin, Michelle D; Kurtz, Patricia F

    2013-04-01

    Severe problem behaviors such as self-injury and aggression are frequently observed in young children under age 5 with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although early identification of problem behavior is critical to effective intervention, there are few standardized measures available that identify severe problem behavior in this population. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C; Aman & Singh, 1994) is a rating scale that measures the severity of a range of problem behaviors commonly observed in individuals with IDD. While it has been used with children under 5, investigations into the fit of the ABC-C for this population are sparse. The purpose of the present study was to report on ABC-C scores in a sample of 97 children under age 5 with problem behavior. Analyses included evaluating differences in scores between age groups, comparing sample norms to established norms for older children, and conducting a confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated differences in mean scores based on age with younger children generally scoring higher on some subscales of the ABC-C. Furthermore, the original 5-factor structure of the ABC-C was not fully supported. In general, the ABC-C may over- or underestimate behavior problems in younger children; therefore more extensive investigation into the utility of the ABC-C for children under age 5 is warranted.

  2. Telephone Administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Pilot Study of Feasibility in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew; Milligan, Briana; Stein, Hannah; Teer, Olivia; Smith, Kahsi A.

    2013-01-01

    To advance clinical care and research in children with intellectual disability and autism there is a growing need for efficient means to measure behavioral severity and response to treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of telephone administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability Subscale (ABC-I). The…

  3. Cross-Validation of the Factor Structure of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bihm, Elson M.; Poindexter, Ann R.

    1991-01-01

    The original factor structure of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist was cross-validated with a U.S. sample of 470 persons with moderate to profound mental retardation (27 percent nonambulatory). Results replicated previous findings, suggesting that the original five factors (irritability, lethargy, stereotypic behavior, hyperactivity, and…

  4. Validity of the aberrant behavior checklist in a clinical sample of toddlers.

    PubMed

    Karabekiroglu, Koray; Aman, Michael G

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the congruent and criterion validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) in a clinical sample of toddlers seen over 1 year in Turkey. All consecutive patients (N=93), 14-43 months old (mean, 30.6 mos.), in a child psychiatry outpatient clinic were included. The ABC, Autism Behavior Checklist (AuBC), and Child Behavior Checklist 2/3 (CBCL) were completed by the children's parents. Internal consistency for ABC subscales was moderate to high. The total ABC score, which is interdependent with subscales (e.g., Irritability, Social Withdrawal) of the ABC, was significantly correlated with the CBCL-total (r= .73) and AuBC-total (r= .71) scores. Subscales of the ABC revealed significant differences between diagnostic groups. ABC Total, and the Irritability and Hyperactivity subscale scores, were significantly higher in children with externalizing disorders; the Lethargy/Social Withdrawal and Stereotypic Behavior subscale scores were significantly higher in toddlers with autism. The ABC appears to be capable of discriminating several syndromes, such as disruptive behavior disorders and autism in early childhood.

  5. Assessing influence of stimulation on mood and aberrant behavior of persons with multiple disabilities during brief treadmill sessions.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, G E; O'Reilly, M F; Singh, N N; Oliva, D; Piazzolla, G; Groeneweg, J

    2004-12-01

    This study assessed the influence of favorite stimuli on indices of happiness, e.g., smiling or excited vocalizations, and aberrant behavior, e.g., cantilena-like vocalizations or hand waving, of two young adults with multiple disabilities during 5-min. treadmill sessions. Several favorite stimuli, e.g., music and vibratory events, were available for the participants. The stimuli were presented in a rotation fashion during the sessions. To control for the effects of the stimuli, treadmill sessions without stimuli were also conducted. Analysis showed that the treadmill sessions with stimuli led to higher indices of happiness and lower aberrant behavior for both participants, compared to the treadmill sessions without stimuli.

  6. Psychometric study of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Fragile X Syndrome and implications for targeted treatment.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Stephanie M; Widaman, Keith F; Hall, Scott S; Reiss, Allan L; Lightbody, Amy; Kaufmann, Walter E; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Lachiewicz, Ave; Brown, Elaine C; Hessl, David

    2012-07-01

    Animal studies elucidating the neurobiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have led to multiple controlled trials in humans, with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) commonly adopted as a primary outcome measure. A multi-site collaboration examined the psychometric properties of the ABC-C in 630 individuals (ages 3-25) with FXS using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results support a six-factor structure, with one factor unchanged (Inappropriate Speech), four modified (Irritability, Hyperactivity, Lethargy/Withdrawal, and Stereotypy), and a new Social Avoidance factor. A comparison with ABC-C data from individuals with general intellectual disability and a list of commonly endorsed items are also reported. Reformulated ABC-C scores based on this FXS-specific factor structure may provide added outcome measure specificity and sensitivity in FXS clinical trials.

  7. Reliability of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the effect of variations in instructions.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Singh, N N; Turbott, S H

    1987-09-01

    Interrater and test-retest reliabilities of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist were compared on the basis of type of instructions to raters. Three nurses in each of three residential units twice rated 28 mentally retarded residents, using one type of rating system, and the ratings were repeated 4 weeks later. The frequency-based instructions resulted in both higher interrater and test-retest reliability coefficients than did the other instructional types. Frequency-based ratings were performed again in another residential unit, but the higher reliabilities were not replicated. Interrater and test-retest reliability correlations varied markedly both across subscales and raters but were comparable to levels derived with other symptom checklists. We concluded that rater characteristics (e.g., motivation) are more powerful variables than are scoring systems.

  8. Factor analysis of the aberrant behavior checklist in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Jason; Nations, Laura; Abramson, Ruth K; Hall, Alicia; Wright, Harry H; Gabriels, Robin; Gilbert, John R; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A O; Cuccaro, Michael L

    2007-11-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (varimax and promax rotations) of the aberrant behavior checklist-community version (ABC) in 275 individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified four- and five-factor solutions which accounted for >70% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.7) revealed indices of moderate fit for the five-factor solution. Our results suggest that the factor structure of the ABC is robust within an ASD sample. Both solutions yielded a three items self-injury factor. Stratifying on this factor, we identified significant differences between the high- and low-self injury groups on ABC subscales. The emergence of a self-injury factor, while not suggestive of a new subscale, warrants further exploration as a tool that could help dissect relevant neurobiobehavioral groups in ASD.

  9. Clinical Presentation and Microarray Analysis of Peruvian Children with Atypical Development and/or Aberrant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Merlin G.; Usrey, Kelly; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience with high resolution microarray analysis in infants and young children with developmental disability and/or aberrant behavior enrolled at the Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru in Lima, Peru, a low income country. Buccal cells were collected with cotton swabs from 233 participants for later DNA isolation and identification of copy number variation (deletions/duplications) and regions of homozygosity (ROH) for estimating consanguinity status in 15 infants and young children (12 males, 3 females; mean age ± SD = 28.1 m ±  7.9 m; age range 14 m–41 m) randomly selected for microarray analysis. An adequate DNA yield was found in about one-half of the enrolled participants. Ten participants showed deletions or duplications containing candidate genes reported to impact behavior or cognitive development. Five children had ROHs which could have harbored recessive gene alleles contributing to their clinical presentation. The coefficient of inbreeding was calculated and three participants showed first-second cousin relationships, indicating consanguinity. Our preliminary study showed that DNA isolated from buccal cells using cotton swabs was suboptimal, but yet in a subset of participants the yield was adequate for high resolution microarray analysis and several genes were found that impact development and behavior and ROHs identified to determine consanguinity status. PMID:25400949

  10. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community: Factor Validity and Effect of Subject Variables for Adults in Group Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The factor validity of the new Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) was determined with 1,040 adults, ages 18-89, who were mentally retarded and living in group homes. The original ABC factor structure appeared valid for scoring the ABC-C with this population. Variables studied included age, gender, level of mental retardation,…

  11. Factor Validity and Reliability for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community in a Japanese Population with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Yoshiro

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation of the factor validity and reliability of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (Japanese version) with 322 subjects (mean age 30) with moderate to profound mental retardation found most items loading on the same factors as in the original factor solution, high coefficient alphas across 5 subscales, high test-retest reliability, and…

  12. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist: Factor Structure and the Effect of Subject Variables in American and New Zealand Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    For comparison with ratings previously obtained in New Zealand, the study analyzed subscales of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist using 531 moderately and severely retarded subjects from a residential institution in the United States. Sex failed to influence subscale scores, whereas age, country, and severity of retardation significantly affected…

  13. Factor Analysis and Norms for Parent Ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community for Young People in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elaine C.; Aman, Michael G.; Havercamp, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    Parents of 601 children and adolescents with mental retardation rated their children on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC). Factor analysis revealed a factor structure similar to the original ABC but without the inappropriate speech factor. Analysis of subject variables revealed main effects for gender, age, and classroom assignment…

  14. Factor Validity and Norms for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in a Community Sample of Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshburn, Elaine C.; Aman, Michael G.

    1992-01-01

    Teacher ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist were collected on 666 students with mental retardation attending special classes. Classroom placement and age had significant effects on subscale scores, whereas sex failed to affect ratings. The study concludes that the original scoring method, developed for individuals in residential facilities,…

  15. Differentiated Effects of Sensory Activities as Abolishing Operations via Non-Contingent Reinforcement on Academic and Aberrant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Haydon, Todd; Boman, Marty

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sensory activities used as antecedent interventions on the percentage correct on academic tasks and rate of aberrant behavior in three elementary aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Study activities were conducted in an after school program for children with ASD where…

  16. Aberrant IgG isotype generation in mice with abnormal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Nam; Jo, Gwang-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice were recently cited as a suitable animal model for the study of autism because of their behavioral characteristics and immunological changes similar to those reported from autistic subjects. The BTBR mouse was reported to have significantly higher levels of serum IgG, brain IgG deposits and anti-brain IgG than highly social C57BL/6 mice, suggesting involvement of aberrant immune responses in the occurrence of autism. Up-regulation of IgG production was investigated here, with a focus on the pattern of IgG isotype distribution compared with that in FVB/NJ (FVB) mice, another highly social control strain. The results indicated that levels of serum IgG1, IgG2b and IgG3 in post-natal day 21 BTBR mice was significantly higher than FVB mice, regardless of sex, resulting in higher IgG1:IgG2a ratios in BTBR mice than in FVB mice (statistical significance in males). A similar outcome regarding the IgG1:IgG2a ratio was observed in culture supernatants of bone marrow cells from these hosts. A presence of brain-reactive IgG in the sera of BTBR was higher than in FVB mice; levels of brain-reactive IgG against whole brain homogenates were higher in BTBR than in FVB mice, with significant differences seen in the striatum and substantia nigra regions. Levels of IgG1 deposited in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus or striatum of both BTBR male and female mice were significantly higher than in FVB counterparts. Overall, these results suggest that alterations in IgG isotype production or deposition in the brain could be implicated in the aberrant immune reactivities of BTBR mice.

  17. Down syndrome and comorbid autism-spectrum disorder: characterization using the aberrant behavior checklist.

    PubMed

    Capone, George T; Grados, Marco A; Kaufmann, Walter E; Bernad-Ripoll, Susana; Jewell, Amy

    2005-05-01

    To report on the cognitive and behavioral attributes of 61 children with Down syndrome (DS) and autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) according to DSM-IV criteria; to determine the utility of the aberrant behavior checklist (ABC) to characterize these subjects for research purposes; and to test the hypothesis that subjects with DS + ASD could be distinguished from their typical DS peers using the ABC. Cross-sectional design. Cases with DS + ASD (N = 61), comparison group of DS + stereotypy movement disorder (SMD) (N = 26) and typical DS controls without behavior problems (N = 44) were ascertained and enrolled sequentially upon presentation to a DS clinic at an academic medical center over a 10-year period from 1991 to 2001. All subjects underwent neurodevelopmental and medical evaluation, and standardized cognitive testing. The parents provided responses to standardized behavioral questionnaires. Cognitive function (IQ) differed markedly across the three groups. The Lethary and Stereotypy subscales of the ABC were highly significant (P < 0.001) in distinguishing the three groups from one another. Within the ASD group differences were apparent by DSM-IV type on the Lethargy subscale, which reached significance, ANOVA (F = 0.002) and t-test (Autism > PDD, P = 0.005; PDD < CDD, P = 0.002). Using a multivariate regression model, the ABC scales alone explained 62% of variance of ASD outcome; addition of demographic variables explained up to 68% of the variance. There is good correlation between DSM-IV criteria for autism and subscales scores on the ABC in subjects with DS. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using the ABC to characterize the neurobehavioral phenotype of a cohort of children with trisomy 21 and ASD for ongoing research purposes.

  18. Deletion of Glutamate Delta-1 Receptor in Mouse Leads to Aberrant Emotional and Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Roopali; Gupta, Subhash C.; Hillman, Brandon G.; Bhatt, Jay M.; Stairs, Dustin J.; Dravid, Shashank M.

    2012-01-01

    The delta family of ionotropic glutamate receptors consists of glutamate δ1 (GluD1) and glutamate δ2 (GluD2) receptors. While the role of GluD2 in the regulation of cerebellar physiology is well understood, the function of GluD1 in the central nervous system remains elusive. We demonstrate for the first time that deletion of GluD1 leads to abnormal emotional and social behaviors. We found that GluD1 knockout mice (GluD1 KO) were hyperactive, manifested lower anxiety-like behavior, depression-like behavior in a forced swim test and robust aggression in the resident-intruder test. Chronic lithium rescued the depression-like behavior in GluD1 KO. GluD1 KO mice also manifested deficits in social interaction. In the sociability test, GluD1 KO mice spent more time interacting with an inanimate object compared to a conspecific mouse. D-Cycloserine (DCS) administration was able to rescue social interaction deficits observed in GluD1 KO mice. At a molecular level synaptoneurosome preparations revealed lower GluA1 and GluA2 subunit expression in the prefrontal cortex and higher GluA1, GluK2 and PSD95 expression in the amygdala of GluD1 KO. Moreover, DCS normalized the lower GluA1 expression in prefrontal cortex of GluD1 KO. We propose that deletion of GluD1 leads to aberrant circuitry in prefrontal cortex and amygdala owing to its potential role in presynaptic differentiation and synapse formation. Furthermore, these findings are in agreement with the human genetic studies suggesting a strong association of GRID1 gene with several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders and major depressive disorder. PMID:22412961

  19. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Behavior Rating Scale for the Assessment of Treatment Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals is described. Separate factor analyses of the data from two samples resulted in a five-factor scale: (1) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (2) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (3) Stereotypic Behavior; (4) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and…

  20. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist with children and adolescents with dual diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rojahn, J; Helsel, W J

    1991-03-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC; Aman, Singh, Stewart, & Field, 1985a, 1985b) is a 58-item third-party informant rating scale originally developed for institutionalized, low-functioning adolescents and adults. The present study investigated the appropriateness of the scale for youngsters with dual diagnosis of mental retardation and psychiatric disturbance. Over a period of 2 1/2 years, 204 patients (199 after data reduction) from a child psychiatry unit were rated twice daily by direct care staff. Data analysis addressed internal consistency, interrater reliability, criterion validity, and robustness of the factor structure. Internal consistency was satisfactory with alpha coefficients ranging from .82 to .94. Interrater reliability varied between subscales but was relatively low (Pearson correlations between .39 to .61). In terms of its criterion validity, the ABC was sensitive to psychiatric diagnoses and age and the original 5-factor structure was robust (congruence coefficients ranged between .80 to .89). Yet, only a relatively small proportion of the variance (31.5%) was explained by factor analysis indicating possible limitations of the ABC for this population. Given the paucity of assessment instruments for this particular population and the difficulty involved in developing new population-specific instruments, the ABC can be recommended for children and adolescents with dual diagnosis.

  1. [Partial cross-cultural adaptation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) scale for analysis of patients with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Losapio, Mirella Fiuza; Silva, Lis Gomes; Pondé, Milena Pereira; Novaes, Camila Marinho; Santos, Darci Neves dos; Argollo, Nayara; Oliveira, Ivete Maria Santos; Brasil, Heloisa Helena Alves

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the ABC (Aberrant Behavior Checklist) is to evaluate the treatment response for aberrant behavior in patients with mental retardation. The aim of this study was to describe the partial cross-cultural adaptation of the ABC scale to Brazilian Portuguese. The process included conceptual and item equivalence, two translations (T1, T2) and their back-translations (R1, R2), evaluation of referential and general equivalence, expert evaluations, a pre-test, and elaboration of the final version. Conceptual and item equivalences of the ABC were considered pertinent to Brazilian culture. Semantic equivalence showed good correspondence between R1 items and ABC. Reasonable correspondence was obtained between ABC items and R2. All of the professors understood 94.8% of the items in the scale, while relatives understood 87.9%. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the ABC scale thus is available for use, with the appropriate conceptual, item, and semantic equivalence.

  2. Drug-Related Behaviors Independently Associated with Syphilis Infection among Female Sex Workers in two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Loza, O.; Patterson, T.L.; Rusch, M.; Martínez, G.A.; Lozada, R.; Staines-Orozco, H.; Magis-Rodríguez, C.; Strathdee, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To identify correlates of active syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez. DESIGN Cross-sectional analyses of baseline interview data. Correlates of active syphilis (antibody titers >1:8) were identified by logistic regression. SETTING Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two Mexican cities on the U.S. border that are situated on major drug trafficking routes and where prostitution is quasi-legal. PARTICIPANTS 914 FSWs aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection who had recent unprotected sex with clients. MEASUREMENTS Baseline interviews and testing for syphilis antibody using Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. FINDINGS Median age and duration in sex work were 32 and 4 years, respectively. Overall, 18.0% had ever injected drugs, 14.2% often or always used illegal drugs before or during sex in the past month, 37.7% had clients who injected drugs in the last 6 months, and 68.6% reported having clients from the U.S. Prevalence of HIV and active syphilis were 5.9% and 10.3%, respectively. Factors independently associated with active syphilis included injecting drugs (AOR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.40, 4.80), using illegal drugs before or during sex (AOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.16, 3.65), and having any U.S. clients (AOR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.43, 5.70). CONCLUSIONS Among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, drug-using behaviors were more closely associated with active syphilis than were sexual behaviors, suggesting the possibility of parenteral transmission of T. pallidum. Syphilis eradication programs should consider distributing sterile syringes to drug injectors and assisting FSWs with safer-sex negotiation in the context of drug use. PMID:20456292

  3. Cross-validation of the factor structure of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for persons with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Bihm, E M; Poindexter, A R

    1991-09-01

    The original factor structure of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist was cross-validated with an American sample of 470 persons with moderate to profound mental retardation, including nonambulatory individuals. The results of the factor analysis with varimax rotation essentially replicated previous findings, suggesting that the original five factors (Irritability, Lethargy, Stereotypic Behavior, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate Speech) could be cross-validated by factor loadings of individual items. The original five scales continue to show high internal consistency. These factors are easily interpretable and should continue to provide valuable research and clinical information.

  4. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  5. A comparison of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the GAF among adults with mental retardation and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shedlack, Karen J; Hennen, John; Magee, Christine; Cheron, Daniel M

    2005-04-01

    Psychiatric assessment among individuals with a diagnosis of both mental retardation and mental illness presents a clinical challenge. This retrospective study compared two rating scales--the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)--to determine the scales' utility in a partial hospital setting. Although ABC and GAF ratings were weakly correlated, the ABC revealed symptom patterns consistent with recognizable features of psychiatric syndromes and differential improvement in symptoms within and between diagnostic subgroups. The ABC provided a more useful measure of treatment response than the GAF in this patient population.

  6. Telephone administration of the aberrant behavior checklist: a pilot study of feasibility in children with intellectual disability and autism.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Matthew; Milligan, Briana; Stein, Hannah; Teer, Olivia; Smith, Kahsi A

    2013-09-01

    To advance clinical care and research in children with intellectual disability and autism there is a growing need for efficient means to measure behavioral severity and response to treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of telephone administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability Subscale (ABC-I). The ABC-I was administered by telephone to the primary caregivers of 39 subjects with intellectual disability and/or autism. The same primary caregiver of each subject was also mailed a written copy of the ABC-I with a self-addressed, stamped envelope. Scores obtained by telephone and written administration were highly correlated (r = 0.827, p < 0.001). Telephone administration of the ABC-I may be a feasible and efficient means of determining response to treatment in children with intellectual disability and/or autism, though these pilot findings need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  7. Reduction of Multiple Aberrant Behaviors and Concurrent Development of Self-Care Skills with Differential Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A modified functional analysis was used to assess the behavioral function of a profoundly retarded man's self-injurious behavior (SIB). Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior effectively reduced SIB and related behavior problems, while compliance of a self-care acquisition task increased markedly. (Author/DB)

  8. The connection between the hassles-burnout relationship, as moderated by coping, and aberrant behaviors and health problems among bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Kao, Ya-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Driving a bus is a stressful job, and may result in aberrant behaviors or health problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of bus driver burnout on aberrant behaviors and health problems, as well as the role of self-criticism and confrontive and reappraisal coping as moderator variables in the hassle-burnout relationship. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to collect empirical data from bus drivers working at a Taiwanese motor transport company. The results confirm that burnout has a significantly positive relationship with both health problems and aberrant driving behaviors. In addition, although self-criticism positively moderates the relationship between job hassles and burnout, confrontive and reappraisal coping negatively moderate it.

  9. An Evaluation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for Children under Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Huete, John M.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Chin, Michelle D.; Kurtz, Patricia F.

    2013-01-01

    Severe problem behaviors such as self-injury and aggression are frequently observed in young children under age 5 with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although early identification of problem behavior is critical to effective intervention, there are few standardized measures available that identify severe problem behavior in…

  10. The aberrant behavior checklist: factor structure and the effect of subject variables in American and New Zealand facilities.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Richmond, G; Stewart, A W; Bell, J C; Kissel, R C

    1987-05-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist was used to collect data from a large United States institution for comparison with ratings previously obtained in New Zealand. A total of 531 subjects within the American facility and 937 residents of New Zealand institutions were studied. The United States data were factor analyzed using the same procedures that were employed to develop the scale in New Zealand. In addition, subscales of the Checklist were analyzed as a function of sex, age, country, and level of mental retardation. Finally, the effects of various medical conditions were analyzed. The original factor structure of the Checklist was validated for the United States sample, with a mean coefficient of congruence of .93 averaged across the five factors. Sex failed to influence subscale scores, whereas age, country, and severity of retardation significantly affected ratings. Deafness was unrelated to Checklist scores whereas cerebral palsy, epilepsy, psychosis, and psychoactive drug treatment were related.

  11. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community: factor validity and effect of subject variables for adults in group homes.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Burrow, W H; Wolford, P L

    1995-11-01

    The factor validity of the new Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) was determined with 1,040 group home residents. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure derived from the original ABC appears to be valid for the ABC-C when used with this population. Coefficients of congruence showed a high level of concordance with the original factor structure, and internal consistency continued to be high for each of the five subscales. Analyses for the effects of age, gender, and level of mental retardation indicated that some correction is appropriate for each of these variables when scoring the ABC-C. Further analyses explored the effects of subjects variables such as visual and auditory handicaps and the presence of epilepsy or Down syndrome. Psychotropic medication use was often associated with subscale score differences. The original ABC factor structure appears valid for scoring the ABC-C with community-based adults, at least those living in group homes.

  12. Behavior of Aberrant Chromosome Configurations in Drosophila melanogaster Female Meiosis I

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, William D.; Colwell, Eileen M.; Lane, Fiona M.; Snouffer, Ashley A.

    2014-01-01

    One essential role of the first meiotic division is to reduce chromosome number by half. Although this is normally accomplished by segregating homologous chromosomes from each other, it is possible for a genome to have one or more chromosomes that lack a homolog (such as compound chromosomes), or have chromosomes with multiple potential homologs (such as in XXY females). These configurations complete meiosis but engage in unusual segregation patterns. In Drosophila melanogaster females carrying two compound chromosomes, the compounds can accurately segregate from each other, a process known as heterologous segregation. Similarly, in XXY females, when the X chromosomes fail to cross over, they often undergo secondary nondisjunction, where both Xs segregate away from the Y. Although both of these processes have been known for decades, the orientation mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Taking advantage of the recent discovery of chromosome congression in female meiosis I, we have examined a number of different aberrant chromosome configurations. We show that these genotypes complete congression normally, with their chromosomes bioriented at metaphase I arrest at the same rates that they segregate, indicating that orientation must be established during prometaphase I before congression. We also show that monovalent chromosomes can move out on the prometaphase I spindle, but the dot 4 chromosomes appear required for this movement. Finally, we show that, similar to achiasmate chromosomes, heterologous chromosomes can be connected by chromatin threads, suggesting a mechanism for how heterochromatic homology establishes these unusual biorientation patterns. PMID:25491942

  13. Behavior of aberrant chromosome configurations in Drosophila melanogaster female meiosis I.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, William D; Colwell, Eileen M; Lane, Fiona M; Snouffer, Ashley A

    2014-12-09

    One essential role of the first meiotic division is to reduce chromosome number by half. Although this is normally accomplished by segregating homologous chromosomes from each other, it is possible for a genome to have one or more chromosomes that lack a homolog (such as compound chromosomes), or have chromosomes with multiple potential homologs (such as in XXY females). These configurations complete meiosis but engage in unusual segregation patterns. In Drosophila melanogaster females carrying two compound chromosomes, the compounds can accurately segregate from each other, a process known as heterologous segregation. Similarly, in XXY females, when the X chromosomes fail to cross over, they often undergo secondary nondisjunction, where both Xs segregate away from the Y. Although both of these processes have been known for decades, the orientation mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Taking advantage of the recent discovery of chromosome congression in female meiosis I, we have examined a number of different aberrant chromosome configurations. We show that these genotypes complete congression normally, with their chromosomes bioriented at metaphase I arrest at the same rates that they segregate, indicating that orientation must be established during prometaphase I before congression. We also show that monovalent chromosomes can move out on the prometaphase I spindle, but the dot 4 chromosomes appear required for this movement. Finally, we show that, similar to achiasmate chromosomes, heterologous chromosomes can be connected by chromatin threads, suggesting a mechanism for how heterochromatic homology establishes these unusual biorientation patterns.

  14. Behavior of aberrant chromosome configurations in Drosophila melanogaster female meiosis I.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, William D; Colwell, Eileen M; Lane, Fiona M; Snouffer, Ashley A

    2015-02-01

    One essential role of the first meiotic division is to reduce chromosome number by half. Although this is normally accomplished by segregating homologous chromosomes from each other, it is possible for a genome to have one or more chromosomes that lack a homolog (such as compound chromosomes), or have chromosomes with multiple potential homologs (such as in XXY females). These configurations complete meiosis but engage in unusual segregation patterns. In Drosophila melanogaster females carrying two compound chromosomes, the compounds can accurately segregate from each other, a process known as heterologous segregation. Similarly, in XXY females, when the X chromosomes fail to cross over, they often undergo secondary nondisjunction, where both Xs segregate away from the Y. Although both of these processes have been known for decades, the orientation mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Taking advantage of the recent discovery of chromosome congression in female meiosis I, we have examined a number of different aberrant chromosome configurations. We show that these genotypes complete congression normally, with their chromosomes bioriented at metaphase I arrest at the same rates that they segregate, indicating that orientation must be established during prometaphase I before congression. We also show that monovalent chromosomes can move out on the prometaphase I spindle, but the dot 4 chromosomes appear required for this movement. Finally, we show that, similar to achiasmate chromosomes, heterologous chromosomes can be connected by chromatin threads, suggesting a mechanism for how heterochromatic homology establishes these unusual biorientation patterns. PMID:25491942

  15. Fixed-Time Schedules Attenuate Extinction-Induced Phenomena in the Treatment of Severe Aberrant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Progar, Patrick R.; Lalli, Joseph S.; Van Camp, Carole M.; Sierp, Barbara J.; Wright, Carrie S.; Natasi, Julia; Eisenschink, Kevin J.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the effects of extinction (EXT) and fixed-time (FT) schedules as treatment for the severe problem behaviors of three individuals with developmental disabilities. During EXT, the reinforcer maintaining problem behavior was withheld. During FT, the reinforcers were presented response independently at preset intervals. FT schedules…

  16. A Comparison of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II) and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jerald W.; Baglio, Christopher S.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 233 individuals with severe mental retardation examined the validity of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II) through correlation with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). DASH-II as a whole was found to have a high degree of convergent validity with the ABC total score. (CR)

  17. Effects of Risperidone on Aberrant Behavior of Persons with Developmental Disabilities: I. A Double-Blind Crossover Study Using Multiple Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Hellings, Jessica A.; Crandall, Kurt; Reese, R. Matthew; Marquis, Janet; Fleming, Kandace; Shores, Richard; Williams, Dean; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone was evaluated in the treatment of aberrant behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury) in 20 individuals with developmental disabilities. The study, a double-blind crossover design, identified 50 percent of participants as responders. Naturalistic observations of five participants showed that…

  18. Drug-Related Hospital Emergency Room Visits

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements. Highlights from the 2009 Drug Abuse Warning Network In 2009, there were nearly 4.6 million ... Report: Highlights of the 2009 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) Findings on Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits . ...

  19. Assessment of Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Wheelchair Movement in a Child with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Kahng, SungWoo; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Sveinsdottir, Ingibjorg; Sadler, Christine

    2003-01-01

    An adolescent with developmental disabilities who used a wheelchair was anecdotally observed to display little aggressive behavior when being pushed, but higher rates when movement was terminated. A functional analysis confirmed the elevated aggression and the child was taught to request movement through appropriate means. Aggression decreased…

  20. Factor validity and reliability for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community in a Japanese population with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Ono, Y

    1996-01-01

    To assess the factor validity and reliability for the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-Community), 322 subjects with moderate to profound mental retardation (188 males and 134 females, mean age 29.79 +/- 12.45) were rated by the staff at the residential facilities in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Rating data were analyzed by factor analysis using the principal factoring method with iteration, followed by oblique rotation. The internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach's alpha. Of these subjects, 43 were rated twice with an interval of 4 weeks to confirm the test-retest reliability and 33 were rated by pairs of raters for interrater reliability. Forty-eight of 58 items loaded most heavily on the same factors as in the original factor solution. Coefficient alpha raged from .85 to .95 across five subscales. The test-retest reliability was high with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ranging from .84 to .90. Although the correlation coefficients for interrater reliability tests were somewhat lower (.58 to .78), they were all statistically significant (p < .001). The Japanese version of ABC Community was comparative to the original and was useful for assessing behavior problems in Japanese persons with mental retardation.

  1. Factor analysis and norms for parent ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community for young people in special education.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elaine C; Aman, Michael G; Havercamp, Susan M

    2002-01-01

    The parents of 601 children and adolescents, responding to a mail survey, rated their children on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C). Factor analysis of ABC-C ratings revealed a factor structure that was similar to the original ABC but without the fifth factor (Inappropriate Speech). Coefficients of congruence were moderate to large for the four-factor model, and alpha coefficients were moderate to high when the original item assignment was imposed. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a modest level of fit with the traditional method of scoring the ABC and acceptable fit when the items were coded for occurrence (0 or 1). Analysis of subject variables revealed main effects for gender on one subscale (Hyperactivity), main effects for age on two subscales (Irritability; Hyperactivity), and one main effect for classroom assignment on the Stereotypic Behavior subscale. Normative data for parent ratings were presented by age and gender combined, gender alone, and age alone. With some qualifications, the ABC-C appears to be valid for assessing children in special educational settings, although further research is needed on the ABC's factor structure in this population.

  2. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  3. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  4. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of aberrant behaviors in bipolar disorder from patients to models

    PubMed Central

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A.; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Henry, Brook L.; Young, Jared W.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder suffer from states of depression and mania, during which a variety of symptoms are present. Current treatments are limited and neurocognitive deficits in particular often remain untreated. Targeted therapies based on the biological mechanisms of bipolar disorder could fill this gap and benefit patients and their families. Developing targeted therapies would benefit from appropriate animal models which are challenging to establish, but remain a vital tool. In this review, we summarize approaches to create a valid model relevant to bipolar disorder. We focus on studies that use translational tests of multivariate exploratory behavior, sensorimotor gating, decision-making under risk, and attentional functioning to discover profiles that are consistent between patients and rodent models. Using this battery of translational tests, similar behavior profiles in bipolar mania patients and mice with reduced dopamine transporter activity have been identified. Future investigations should combine other animal models that are biologically relevant to the neuropsychiatric disorder with translational behavioral assessment as outlined here. This methodology can be utilized to develop novel targeted therapies that relieve symptoms for more patients without common side effects caused by current treatments. PMID:26297513

  5. Aberrant hippocampal Atp8a1 levels are associated with altered synaptic strength, electrical activity, and autistic-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Daniel J; Marsillo, Alexandra; Guariglia, Sara R; Budylin, Tatyana; Sadek, Rodina; Menkes, Silvia; Chauhan, Abha; Wen, Guang Y; McCloskey, Daniel P; Wieraszko, Andrzej; Banerjee, Probal

    2016-09-01

    Type IV ATPases are putative aminophospholipid translocases (APLTs), more commonly known as flippases. A pronounced induction of the flippase Atp8a1 was observed in post-mortem tissue homogenates from the hippocampus and temporal lobe of juvenile autistic subjects compared to age-matched controls. In order to simulate the human data, C57BL/6 mice were allowed to develop after intra-hippocampal injection of recombinant lentivirus expressing Atp8a1 at the early developmental stage of postnatal day 6 (P6). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the lentivirus-Atp8a1 treated (Atp8a1+) mice in adulthood revealed fewer and weaker excitatory synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region compared to mice injected with empty virus. Significant inhibition of the Schaffer collateral pathway was observed in the Atp8a1+ mice in paired-pulse recording (PPR) at 20-ms inter-stimulus interval. In the three-chambered sociability test, the Atp8a1+ mice displayed no preference for an encaged stranger mouse over a novel object, which is a characteristic autistic-like behavior. In sharp contrast, Atp8a1 (-/-) mice displayed a preference for a stranger mouse over the novel object, which is characteristic of neurotypical mouse behavior. However, similar to the Atp8a1+ mice, the Atp8a1 (-/-) mice harbored fewer and weaker excitatory synapses in CA1 compared to wild-type controls, and displayed inhibition at 20-ms inter-stimulus interval in PPR. These findings suggest that both elevated and diminished levels of Atp8a1 during early development are detrimental to brain connectivity, but only elevated Atp8a1 is associated with aberrant social behavior. Mice with augmented levels of Atp8a1 may therefore serve as a potential model in autism research. PMID:27287255

  6. Factor validity and norms for the aberrant behavior checklist in a community sample of children with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Marshburn, E C; Aman, M G

    1992-09-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) is a 58-item rating scale that was developed primarily to measure the effects of pharmacological intervention in individuals living in residential facilities. This study investigated the use of the ABC in a sample of community children with mental retardation. Teacher ratings on the ABC were collected on 666 students attending special classes. The data were factor analyzed and compared with other studies using the ABC. In addition, subscales were analyzed as a function of age, sex, and classroom placement, and preliminary norms were derived. A four-factor solution of the ABC was obtained. Congruence between the four derived factors and corresponding factors from the original ABC was high (congruence coefficients ranged between .87 and .96). Classroom placement and age had significant effects on subscale scores, whereas sex failed to affect ratings. The current results are sufficiently close to the original factor solution that the original scoring method can be used with community samples, although further studies are needed to look at this in more detail.

  7. Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths

    PubMed Central

    Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

  8. Validity and reliability of the Behavior Problems Inventory, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised among infants and toddlers at risk for intellectual or developmental disabilities: a multi-method assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for individuals with IDD that have been proven psychometrically sound in older populations: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale - Revised (RBS-R). Data were analyzed for 180 between six and 36 months old children at risk for IDD. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) across the subscales of the three instruments was variable. Test-retest reliability of the three BPI-01 subscales ranged from .68 to .77 for frequency ratings and from .65 to .80 for severity ratings (intraclass correlation coefficients). Using a multitrait-multimethod matrix approach high levels of convergent and discriminant validity across the three instruments was found. As anticipated, there was considerable overlap in the information produced by the three instruments; however, each behavior-rating instrument also contributed unique information. Our findings support using all three scales in conjunction if possible.

  9. Illegal drugs-related fatalities in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Karlovsek, M Zorec

    2004-12-01

    The study includes 122 medico-legally examined fatal poisonings with illegal drugs in Slovenia (1.96 million inhabitants) in years 1997-2003. The highest death rate expressed per 10(5) inhabitants per year was observed in the year 2002 with 1.17, the average value over 1997-2003 was 0.89; the trend line shows a stabilisation. Heroine/morphine dominated as the cause of death and were responsible for 71.3% of the fatal poisonings. Methadone was found to cause or contributed to death in 28 cases (22.9%). One death by cocaine and two by MDMA were caused in the time observed. Males represent 98.4% of the direct illegal drug-related deaths. The main ages of heroine/morphine group, heroine/morphine only and methadone group were 27.6, 24.1 and 26.8, respectively. Between 1997 and 2003, there was a downward trend in the average age in the group heroine/morphine only. Since 2001, we are the part of the national working group on key indicator "drug-related mortality" applying EMCDDA methodology.

  10. [The teenager who finds it difficult to wake up in the morning: aberrant behavior, misperception or an underlying sleep disorder?].

    PubMed

    van den Bossche, R A; Peeters, E A; de Weerd, A W

    2004-02-14

    Three teenagers, two girls aged 14 years and one boy aged 10 years, had had difficulty with getting to sleep in the evening and waking up in the morning from a very early age. These difficulties led to underperformance at school and/or tension in the household. The anamneses and a sleep study led to the following conclusions: 'delayed sleep phase syndrome', 'sleep state misperception' and 'aberrant interaction between the child and its parents'. Treatment with phototherapy and regulation of the bedtimes, information and regulation of the bedtimes, and pedagogic advice, respectively, was successful within a few months. Teenagers often complain about problems with sleeping, in particular about late onset of sleep and difficulties with awakening. These problems are self-limiting in most cases, but can have a disastrous influence on social life and education. PMID:15015243

  11. Patient vs provider reports of aberrant medication-taking behavior among opioid-treated patients with chronic pain who report misusing opioid medication.

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Valentina; Guarino, Honoria; Acosta, Michelle C; Marsch, Lisa A; Syckes, Cassandra; Moore, Sarah K; Portenoy, Russell K; Cruciani, Ricardo A; Turk, Dennis C; Rosenblum, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    During long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain, monitoring medication adherence of patients with a history of aberrant opioid medication-taking behaviors (AMTB) is an essential practice. There is limited research, however, into the concordance among existing monitoring tools of self-report, physician report, and biofluid screening. This study examined associations among patient and provider assessments of AMTB and urine drug screening using data from a randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to improve medication adherence and pain-related outcomes among 110 opioid-treated patients with chronic pain who screened positive for AMTB and were enrolled in a pain program. Providers completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and patients completed the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) and the Chemical Coping Inventory (CCI). In multivariate analyses, ABC scores were compared with COMM and CCI scores, while controlling for demographics and established risk factors for AMTB, such as pain severity. Based on clinical cutoffs, 84% of patients reported clinically significant levels of AMTB and providers rated 36% of patients at elevated levels. Provider reports of AMTB were not correlated with COMM or CCI scores. However, the ABC ratings of experienced providers (nurse practitioners/attending physicians) were higher than those of less experienced providers (fellows) and were correlated with CCI scores and risk factors for AMTB. Associations between patient- and provider-reported AMTB and urine drug screening results were low and largely nonsignificant. In conclusion, concordance between patient and provider reports of AMTB among patients with chronic pain prescribed opioid medication varied by provider level of training.

  12. A pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone as adjunctive treatment to risperidone: Effects on aberrant behavior in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Rasa, Soudeh Mohebbi; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2015-09-30

    To assess the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone added to risperidone in the treatment of irritability in autistic disorder (AD), we conducted this study. In a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 44 outpatients of both genders aged 4-12 years with a diagnosis of AD and a score of ≥12 on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) irritability subscale were included. Mean change of ABC-C irritability subscale score as primary outcome, change in other ABC-C subscale scores and partial and complete responses were compared between two groups. Twenty patients completed the trial in each group. Level of reduction and effect of time×treatment interaction in the treatment group were significant for irritability (P=0.03), lethargy/social withdrawal (P=0.04) and hyperactivity/non-compliance (P=0.03) but not for stereotypic behavior and inappropriate speech subscales compared with the placebo group. Vomiting and headache were the most frequent reported side-effects. Results of this preliminary study indicate positive effects of pioglitazone compared with placebo in improving the behavioral symptoms of AD.

  13. Effects of task size on work-related and aberrant behaviors of youths with autism and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, H M; LeBlanc, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of task size on rate of responding and on-task behavior as well as on nontask-related behaviors of students with autism and mental retardation on a repetitive task under conditions of no reinforcement for responding was analyzed. Task size, defined as the presence of either 36 or 250 beads in a container at the onset of the session, was compared in an alternating treatment design. The small-task condition resulted in higher on-task behavior for all participants and in higher work rate for four of the five participants. For the four participants who engaged in inappropriate use of task materials, higher levels of this behavior occurred in the large-task conditions. Other nontask-related behaviors were higher in the large-task condition for all participants with the exception of stereotypy, which was higher in the small-task condition for one participant. Better work-related behavior occurred for these participants in small- than in large-task conditions even though no tangible reinforcement was provided for task responding. Implications of these results are discussed in the context of arranging workplace environments to maximize productivity of persons with developmental disabilities.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," the "Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale," the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" and the "Social Performance Survey Schedule" in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W.; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist" (ABC), the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" (ADD), the…

  15. The effects of fixed-time and contingent schedules of negative reinforcement on compliance and aberrant behavior.

    PubMed

    Reed, Gregory K; Ringdahl, Joel E; Wacker, David P; Barretto, Anjali; Andelman, Marc S

    2005-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement do not necessarily preclude the acquisition of appropriate behavior (e.g., mands) when combined with differential reinforcement (DRA). These studies also note that dense FT schedules are more likely to interfere with DRA packages than lean FT schedules. In the current investigation, we examined whether similar findings would occur with FT schedules of negative reinforcement. Schedule analyses were conducted with two participants following functional analyses that identified escape from task demands as the maintaining variable for problem behavior. Differential negative reinforcement of alternative behavior (DNRA) was implemented first to establish behavioral control (decreased problem behavior and increased compliance). Breaks (negative reinforcement) were then concurrently delivered on a FT basis under either dense (at a greater rate than that obtained during DNRA alone) or lean (at a lower rate than that obtained during DNRA) reinforcement schedules. In general, results showed that FT escape did not preclude compliance when the FT schedule was lean, but treatment gains were significantly disrupted when dense FT schedules were superimposed.

  16. Impairment of Oligodendroglia Maturation Leads to Aberrantly Increased Cortical Glutamate and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Juvenile Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianjun; Zhang, Weiguo; Li, Tao; Guo, Yu; Tian, Yanping; Wang, Fei; Liu, Shubao; Shen, Hai-Ying; Feng, Yue; Xiao, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is the critical time for developing proper oligodendrocyte (OL)-neuron interaction and the peak of onset for many cognitive diseases, among which anxiety disorders display the highest prevalence. However, whether impairment of de novo OL development causes neuronal abnormalities and contributes to the early onset of anxiety phenotype in childhood still remains unexplored. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that defects in OL maturation manifests cortical neuron function and leads to anxiety-like behaviors in juvenile mice. We report here that conditional knockout of the Olig2 gene (Olig2 cKO) specifically in differentiating OLs in the mouse brain preferentially impaired OL maturation in the gray matter of cerebral cortex. Interestingly, localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that Olig2 cKO mice displayed abnormally elevated cortical glutamate levels. In addition, transmission electron microscopy demonstrated increased vesicle density in excitatory glutamatergic synapses in the cortex of the Olig2 cKO mice. Moreover, juvenile Olig2 cKO mice exhibited anxiety-like behaviors and impairment in behavioral inhibition. Taken together, our results suggest that impaired OL development affects glutamatergic neuron function in the cortex and causes anxiety-related behaviors in juvenile mice. These discoveries raise an intriguing possibility that OL defects may be a contributing mechanism for the onset of anxiety in childhood. PMID:26696827

  17. The Effects of Fixed-Time and Contingent Schedules of Negative Reinforcement on Compliance and Aberrant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gregory K.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Wacker, David P.; Barretto, Anjali; Andelman, Marc S.

    2005-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement do not necessarily preclude the acquisition of appropriate behavior (e.g., mands) when combined with differential reinforcement (DRA). These studies also note that dense FT schedules are more likely to interfere with DRA packages than lean FT schedules. In the current…

  18. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of aberrant behaviors in bipolar disorder from patients to models: Rodent and human studies.

    PubMed

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Henry, Brook L; Young, Jared W

    2015-11-01

    Psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder suffer from states of depression and mania, during which a variety of symptoms are present. Current treatments are limited and neurocognitive deficits in particular often remain untreated. Targeted therapies based on the biological mechanisms of bipolar disorder could fill this gap and benefit patients and their families. Developing targeted therapies would benefit from appropriate animal models which are challenging to establish, but remain a vital tool. In this review, we summarize approaches to create a valid model relevant to bipolar disorder. We focus on studies that use translational tests of multivariate exploratory behavior, sensorimotor gating, decision-making under risk, and attentional functioning to discover profiles that are consistent between patients and rodent models. Using this battery of translational tests, similar behavior profiles in bipolar mania patients and mice with reduced dopamine transporter activity have been identified. Future investigations should combine other animal models that are biologically relevant to the neuropsychiatric disorder with translational behavioral assessment as outlined here. This methodology can be utilized to develop novel targeted therapies that relieve symptoms for more patients without common side effects caused by current treatments.

  19. Drosophila mutants of the autism candidate gene neurobeachin (rugose) exhibit neuro-developmental disorders, aberrant synaptic properties, altered locomotion, impaired adult social behavior and activity patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Alexandra; Tenezaca, Luis; Fernandez, Robert W.; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Ueda, Atsushi; Zhong, Xiaotian; Wu, Chun-Fang; Simon, Anne F.; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans characterized by complex behavioral deficits, including intellectual disability, impaired social interactions and hyperactivity. ASD exhibits a strong genetic component with underlying multi-gene interactions. Candidate gene studies have shown that the neurobeachin gene is disrupted in human patients with idiopathic autism (Castermans et al., 2003). The gene for neurobeachin (NBEA) spans the common fragile site FRA 13A and encodes a signal scaffold protein (Savelyeva et al., 2006). In mice, NBEA has been shown to be involved in the trafficking and function of a specific subset of synaptic vesicles. (Medrihan et al., 2009; Savelyeva, Sagulenko, Schmitt, & Schwab, 2006). rugose (rg) is the Drosophila homologue of the mammalian and human neurobeachin. Our previous genetic and molecular analyses have shown that rg encodes an A kinase anchor protein (DAKAP 550), which interacts with components of the EGFR and Notch mediated signaling pathways, facilitating cross-talk between these and other pathways (Shamloula et al., 2002). We now present functional data from studies on the larval neuromuscular junction that reveal abnormal synaptic architecture and physiology. In addition, adult rg loss-of-function mutants exhibit defective social interactions, impaired habituation, aberrant locomotion and hyperactivity. These results demonstrate that Drosophila neurobeachin (rugose) mutants exhibit phenotypic characteristics reminiscent of human ASD and thus could serve as a genetic model for studying autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26100104

  20. Defective pigment granule biogenesis and aberrant behavior caused by mutations in the Drosophila AP-3beta adaptin gene ruby.

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, D; Poeck, B; Roth, H; Ernst, R; Keller, A; Porsch, M; Strauss, R; Pflugfelder, G O

    2000-01-01

    Lysosomal protein trafficking is a fundamental process conserved from yeast to humans. This conservation extends to lysosome-like organelles such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. Recently, eye and coat color mutations in mouse (mocha and pearl) and Drosophila (garnet and carmine) were shown to affect subunits of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP-3 involved in vesicle trafficking. Here we demonstrate that the Drosophila eye color mutant ruby is defective in the AP-3beta subunit gene. ruby expression was found in retinal pigment and photoreceptor cells and in the developing central nervous system. ruby mutations lead to a decreased number and altered size of pigment granules in various cell types in and adjacent to the retina. Humans with lesions in the related AP-3betaA gene suffer from Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, which is caused by defects in a number of lysosome-related organelles. Hermansky-Pudlak patients have a reduced skin pigmentation and suffer from internal bleeding, pulmonary fibrosis, and visual system malfunction. The Drosophila AP-3beta adaptin also appears to be involved in processes other than eye pigment granule biogenesis because all ruby allele combinations tested exhibited defective behavior in a visual fixation paradigm. PMID:10790396

  1. Defective quorum sensing of acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells: evidence of collective behavior of leukemic populations as semi-autonomous aberrant ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sapan J; Dao, Su; Darie, Costel C; Clarkson, Bayard D

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a generic term used to describe cell-cell communication and collective decision making by bacterial and social insects to regulate the expression of specific genes in controlling cell density and other properties of the populations in response to nutrient supply or changes in the environment. QS mechanisms also have a role in higher organisms in maintaining homeostasis, regulation of the immune system and collective behavior of cancer cell populations. In the present study, we used a p190(BCR-ABL) driven pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL3) cell line derived from the pleural fluid of a terminally ill patient with ALL to test the QS hypothesis in leukemia. ALL3 cells don't grow at low density (LD) in liquid media but grow progressively faster at increasingly high cell densities (HD) in contrast to other established leukemic cell lines that grow well at very low starting cell densities. The ALL3 cells at LD are poised to grow but shortly die without additional stimulation. Supernates of ALL3 cells (HDSN) and some other primary cells grown at HD stimulate the growth of the LD ALL3 cells without which they won't survive. To get further insight into the activation processes we performed microarray analysis of the LD ALL3 cells after stimulation with ALL3 HDSN at days 1, 3, and 6. This screen identified several candidate genes, and we linked them to signaling networks and their functions. We observed that genes involved in lipid, cholesterol, fatty acid metabolism, and B cell activation are most up- or down-regulated upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells using HDSN. We also discuss other pathways that are differentially expressed upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells. Our findings suggest that the Ph+ ALL population achieves dominance by functioning as a collective aberrant ecosystem subject to defective quorum-sensing regulatory mechanisms. PMID:27429840

  2. Defective quorum sensing of acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells: evidence of collective behavior of leukemic populations as semi-autonomous aberrant ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapan J; Dao, Su; Darie, Costel C; Clarkson, Bayard D

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a generic term used to describe cell-cell communication and collective decision making by bacterial and social insects to regulate the expression of specific genes in controlling cell density and other properties of the populations in response to nutrient supply or changes in the environment. QS mechanisms also have a role in higher organisms in maintaining homeostasis, regulation of the immune system and collective behavior of cancer cell populations. In the present study, we used a p190BCR-ABL driven pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL3) cell line derived from the pleural fluid of a terminally ill patient with ALL to test the QS hypothesis in leukemia. ALL3 cells don’t grow at low density (LD) in liquid media but grow progressively faster at increasingly high cell densities (HD) in contrast to other established leukemic cell lines that grow well at very low starting cell densities. The ALL3 cells at LD are poised to grow but shortly die without additional stimulation. Supernates of ALL3 cells (HDSN) and some other primary cells grown at HD stimulate the growth of the LD ALL3 cells without which they won’t survive. To get further insight into the activation processes we performed microarray analysis of the LD ALL3 cells after stimulation with ALL3 HDSN at days 1, 3, and 6. This screen identified several candidate genes, and we linked them to signaling networks and their functions. We observed that genes involved in lipid, cholesterol, fatty acid metabolism, and B cell activation are most up- or down-regulated upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells using HDSN. We also discuss other pathways that are differentially expressed upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells. Our findings suggest that the Ph+ ALL population achieves dominance by functioning as a collective aberrant ecosystem subject to defective quorum-sensing regulatory mechanisms. PMID:27429840

  3. The Relationship Between Drug Use, Drug-related Arrests, and Chronic Pain Among Adults on Probation.

    PubMed

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Walters, Scott T; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S

    2015-06-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=-1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89-1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03-9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety.

  4. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  5. Aberration corrected emittance exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanni, E. A.; Graves, W. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (rf) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by multiple orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dogleg emittance exchange setup with a five cell rf deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of an EEX line with emittances differing by four orders of magnitude, i.e., an initial transverse emittance of 1 pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of 10 nm-rad.

  6. A Prototype Mouse-Based Interface to Drug Related Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, R. G.; Edwards, Mary-Ellen

    1985-01-01

    The Drug-Interface, prototype system built to facilitate retrieval of drug related information, automatically connects to DIALOG Information Retrieval Service via available networks, aids user in formulating and/or revising search strategy, sends query to DIALOG, displays results of search, and downloads relevant pieces into Macintosh data file.…

  7. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

  8. Mirror movement-like defects in startle behavior of zebrafish dcc mutants are caused by aberrant midline guidance of identified descending hindbrain neurons.

    PubMed

    Jain, Roshan A; Bell, Hannah; Lim, Amy; Chien, Chi-Bin; Granato, Michael

    2014-02-19

    Mirror movements are involuntary movements on one side of the body that occur simultaneously with intentional movements on the contralateral side. Humans with heterozygous mutations in the axon guidance receptor DCC display such mirror movements, where unilateral stimulation results in inappropriate bilateral motor output. Currently, it is unclear whether mirror movements are caused by incomplete midline crossing and reduced commissural connectivity of DCC-dependent descending pathways or by aberrant ectopic ipsilateral axonal projections of normally commissural neurons. Here, we show that in response to unilateral tactile stimuli, zebrafish dcc mutant larvae perform involuntary turns on the inappropriate body side. We show that these mirror movement-like deficits are associated with axonal guidance defects of two identified groups of commissural reticulospinal hindbrain neurons. Moreover, we demonstrate that in dcc mutants, axons of these identified neurons frequently fail to cross the midline and instead project ipsilaterally. Whereas laser ablation of these neurons in wild-type animals does not affect turning movements, their ablation in dcc mutants restores turning movements. Thus, our results demonstrate that in dcc mutants, turns on the inappropriate side of the body are caused by aberrant ipsilateral axonal projections, and suggest that aberrant ipsilateral connectivity of a very small number of descending axons is sufficient to induce incorrect movement patterns.

  9. The relationship between drug use, drug-related arrests, and chronic pain among adults on probation

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Scott T.; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S.

    2014-01-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=−1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89–1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03–9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety. PMID:25595302

  10. A Case Study of the Reduction of Aberrant, Repetitive Responses of an Adolescent with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Philip L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In this case study, music was applied noncontingently and contingently across four settings with an adolescent male with autism, to reduce aberrant, repetitive vocalizations. The intervention was associated with dramatic reductions in the primary aberrant behavior and reductions in two other aberrant behaviors. Task performance was differentially…

  11. Behavior of Au species in Au/Fe2O3 catalysts characterized by novel in situ heating techniques and aberration-corrected STEM imaging.

    PubMed

    Allard, Lawrence F; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Overbury, Steven H

    2010-08-01

    The recent advent of a novel design of in situ heating technology for electron microscopes has permitted unprecedented control of elevated temperature studies of catalytic materials, particularly when coupled with the sub-Angström imaging performance of a modern aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Using micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS)-based Aduro heating chips from Protochips, Inc. (Raleigh, NC, USA) allows nearly instantaneous heating and cooling of catalyst powders, avoiding effects of temperature ramping as experienced with standard heating stages. The heating technology also provides stable operation limited only by the inherent drift in the microscope stage, thus allowing full image resolution to be achieved even at elevated temperatures. The present study details the use of both the high X-Y spatial resolution in both dark-field and simultaneous bright-field imaging, along with the high resolution in Z (depth sectioning) provided by the large probe incidence semiangle in the aberration-corrected instrument, to characterize the evolution of microstructure in a commercial Au/Fe2O3 water-gas shift catalyst during elevated temperature treatment. The phenomenon of Au diffusion to the surface of hematite support particles to form discrete crystalline Au nanoparticles in the 1-2 nm size range, after a prior leaching treatment to remove surface Au species has been characterized.

  12. Orbitofrontal response to drug-related stimuli after heroin administration.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Denier, Niklaus; Gerber, Hana; Schmid, Otto; Lanz, Christian; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Scheffler, Klaus; Seifritz, Erich; McGuire, Philip; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    The compulsion to seek and use heroin is frequently driven by stress and craving during drug-cue exposure. Although previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that craving is mediated by increased prefrontal cortex activity, it remains unknown how heroin administration modulates the prefrontal cortex response. This study examines the acute effects of heroin on brain function in heroin-maintained patients. Using a crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 27 heroin-maintained patients performed functional magnetic resonance imaging 20 minutes after the administration of heroin or placebo (saline) while drug-related and neutral stimuli were presented. Images were processed and analysed with statistical parametric mapping. Plasma concentrations of heroin and its main metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Region of interest analyses showed a drug-related cue-associated blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in heroin-dependent patients during both treatment conditions (heroin and placebo). This activation of the OFC was significantly higher after heroin than after placebo administration. These findings may indicate the importance of OFC activity for impulse control and decision-making after regular heroin administration and may emphasize the benefit of the heroin-assisted treatment in heroin dependence.

  13. An aberrant precision account of autism

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Rebecca P.; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems with social-communication, restricted interests and repetitive behavior. A recent and thought-provoking article presented a normative explanation for the perceptual symptoms of autism in terms of a failure of Bayesian inference (Pellicano and Burr, 2012). In response, we suggested that when Bayesian inference is grounded in its neural instantiation—namely, predictive coding—many features of autistic perception can be attributed to aberrant precision (or beliefs about precision) within the context of hierarchical message passing in the brain (Friston et al., 2013). Here, we unpack the aberrant precision account of autism. Specifically, we consider how empirical findings—that speak directly or indirectly to neurobiological mechanisms—are consistent with the aberrant encoding of precision in autism; in particular, an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior beliefs. PMID:24860482

  14. Drug-related hospital admissions in a generic pharmaceutical system.

    PubMed

    Zargarzadeh, A H; Emami, M H; Hosseini, F

    2007-01-01

    1. Generically based pharmaceutical systems exist in a few countries of the world, such as Iran. Most developed countries have free market pharmaceutical systems. Drug-related problems (DRP) have been reported mostly in the Western world but few data are available for generic systems. In this study, we tried to measure the prevalence of drug-related problems leading to hospital admissions in Isfahan, Iran. 2. One thousand consecutive hospital admissions in three major teaching hospitals were studied for a period of 6 months for the presence of DRP as a cause of hospital admissions. Two subcategories of DRP were considered: (i) drug therapy failure; and (ii) adverse drug reactions. Preventability and outcome measures were also assessed. Medications responsible for DRP were classified according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification of the World Health Organization. 3. Of the 1000 admissions studied, 115 (11.5%) were owing to DRP, 81% as a result of drug therapy failure and 19% as adverse drug reactions. A total of 106 out of the 115 DRP cases (92%) were either preventable or probably preventable, most of which had to do with either prescriber or patient error. An overview of DRP showed that 58.3% resulted in complete recovery, 33.9% in relative recovery and 7.8% in death. Close to 1% of hospital admissions resulted in DRP-related deaths. 4. The overall prevalence of hospital admissions caused by DRP is similar to that in free market pharmaceutical systems. The high preventability rate of these problems should alert clinicians and policy makers to design strategies to curtail this. Also, reasons for differences in subtypes of DRP between the results of this study and those of the literature from free market systems needs to be investigated further.

  15. Phase from chromatic aberrations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Laura; Kou, Shan Shan; Sheppard, Colin J R; Barbastathis, George

    2010-10-25

    We show that phase objects may be computed accurately from a single color image in a brightfield microscope, with no hardware modification. Our technique uses the chromatic aberration that is inherent to every lens-based imaging system as a phase contrast mechanism. This leads to a simple and inexpensive way of achieving single-shot quantitative phase recovery by a modified Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE) solution, allowing real-time phase imaging in a traditional microscope. PMID:21164620

  16. Knockdown of the Drosophila FIG4 induces deficient locomotive behavior, shortening of motor neuron, axonal targeting aberration, reduction of life span and defects in eye development.

    PubMed

    Kyotani, Akane; Azuma, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Itaru; Yoshida, Hideki; Mizuta, Ikuko; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tokuda, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in Factor-Induced-Gene 4 (FIG4) gene have been identified in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J (CMT4J), Yunis-Varon syndrome and epilepsy with polymicrogyria. FIG4 protein regulates a cellular abundance of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2), a signaling lipid on the cytosolic surface of membranes of the late endosomal compartment. PI(3,5)P2 is required for retrograde membrane trafficking from lysosomal and late endosomal compartments to the Golgi. However, it is still unknown how the neurodegeneration that occurs in these diseases is related to the loss of FIG4 function. Drosophila has CG17840 (dFIG4) as a human FIG4 homolog. Here we specifically knocked down dFIG4 in various tissues, and investigated their phenotypes. Neuron-specific knockdown of dFIG4 resulted in axonal targeting aberrations of photoreceptor neurons, shortened presynaptic terminals of motor neurons in 3rd instar larvae and reduced climbing ability in adulthood and life span. Fat body-specific knockdown of dFIG4 resulted in enlarged lysosomes in cells that were detected by staining with LysoTracker. In addition, eye imaginal disk-specific knockdown of dFIG4 disrupted differentiation of pupal ommatidial cell types, such as cone cells and pigment cells, suggesting an additional role of dFIG4 during eye development.

  17. Knockdown of the Drosophila FIG4 induces deficient locomotive behavior, shortening of motor neuron, axonal targeting aberration, reduction of life span and defects in eye development.

    PubMed

    Kyotani, Akane; Azuma, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Itaru; Yoshida, Hideki; Mizuta, Ikuko; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tokuda, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in Factor-Induced-Gene 4 (FIG4) gene have been identified in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J (CMT4J), Yunis-Varon syndrome and epilepsy with polymicrogyria. FIG4 protein regulates a cellular abundance of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2), a signaling lipid on the cytosolic surface of membranes of the late endosomal compartment. PI(3,5)P2 is required for retrograde membrane trafficking from lysosomal and late endosomal compartments to the Golgi. However, it is still unknown how the neurodegeneration that occurs in these diseases is related to the loss of FIG4 function. Drosophila has CG17840 (dFIG4) as a human FIG4 homolog. Here we specifically knocked down dFIG4 in various tissues, and investigated their phenotypes. Neuron-specific knockdown of dFIG4 resulted in axonal targeting aberrations of photoreceptor neurons, shortened presynaptic terminals of motor neurons in 3rd instar larvae and reduced climbing ability in adulthood and life span. Fat body-specific knockdown of dFIG4 resulted in enlarged lysosomes in cells that were detected by staining with LysoTracker. In addition, eye imaginal disk-specific knockdown of dFIG4 disrupted differentiation of pupal ommatidial cell types, such as cone cells and pigment cells, suggesting an additional role of dFIG4 during eye development. PMID:26708557

  18. Criminal justice responses to drug related crime in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Malloch, Margaret; McIvor, Gill

    2013-01-01

    This article examines contemporary developments in criminal justice responses to drug related crime. Drawing on evaluations of initiatives which have been introduced in Scotland along with published statistical data, it considers the expansion of drug treatment through the criminal justice system and the implications this has for increasing access to services. Importantly, it considers the potential consequences of implementing 'treatment' requirements, underpinned by potential sanctions for non-compliance, at different stages of the criminal justice process. It is argued that the introduction of interventions at different points in the criminal justice process may have increased access to treatment services, though the extent of engagement with services is called into question, especially where treatment is voluntary or less obviously 'coerced'. Moreover, there is evidence that extending treatment through the criminal justice system may have had the effect of drawing some individuals further into the criminal justice process than would previously have been the case, despite limited evidence of the effectiveness of many such interventions on drug use, associated offending and wider aspects of individuals' lives.

  19. Drug related admissions to a cardiology department; frequency and avoidability.

    PubMed

    Hallas, J; Haghfelt, T; Gram, L F; Grodum, E; Damsbo, N

    1990-10-01

    Three hundred and sixty-six consecutive patients admitted to a department of cardiology were evaluated for drug events as a cause of admission. The drug events considered were adverse drug reactions (ADR) and dose-related therapeutic failures (DTF). 'Definite' or 'probable' drug events accounted for 15 admissions (4.1%, 95% confidence limits 2.3-6.7%), of which eleven were ADR and four were DTF. With the inclusion of six 'possible' drug events, the rate of drug-related hospitalizations (DRH) was 5.7%. DRHs were characterized by a preponderance of acute admissions and elderly patients. Hypokalaemia (less than 3.5 mM) was observed in 27 (16%) patients receiving diuretics, and could be related to four cases of arrhythmias (two 'probable' and two 'possible' ADR). The average serum potassium level was similar in diuretic treated patients with or without drugs to counteract hypokalaemia, irrespective of the drugs chosen. Among the 15 'definite'/'probable' DRHs, five were considered to be due to an error in prescription, and a further five cases were judged to have been avoidable had appropriate measures been taken by prescribing physicians. A DRH educational intervention programme should primarily deal with non-compliance or with prescription of diuretics or digoxin, since these problems constitute the majority of cases of DRH. No specific group of doctors could be targeted as responsible for DRH, avoidable or not. PMID:2266347

  20. Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome Presenting to a Medical Clinic with Depression: Phenomenology and Characterization Using the Reiss Scales and Aberrant Behavior Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, George T.; Aidikoff, Jenna M.; Goyal, Parag

    2011-01-01

    Caretakers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) may report the onset of a depressive illness in previously mentally well individuals. However, the behavioral phenomenology of these conditions has not been well characterized. We ascertained a cohort of DS patient-subjects presenting to a specialty clinic with medical and/or…

  1. Aberration correction of unstable resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Construction of aspheric reflectors for unstable resonator lasers to provide an arbitrary laser mode inside the resonator to correct aberrations of an output beam by the construction of the shape of an end reflector opposite the output reflector of the resonator cavity, such as aberrations resulting from refraction of a beam exiting the solid of the resonator having an index of refraction greater than 1 or to produce an aberration in the output beam that will precisely compensate for the aberration of an optical train into which the resonator beam is coupled.

  2. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected. PMID:25163060

  3. Drug related hospital admissions in subspecialities of internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Hallas, J

    1996-04-01

    It is well established in the literature that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug non-compliance contribute substantially to the admissions at medical wards. Some important questions, however, remain unanswered. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise the drug-related hospital admissions (DRH) and to assess the magnitude of the problem seen in relation to the demographic parameters and drug use of the background population. In addition, an attempt was made to reduce the DRH incidence by an intervention program. The scope of the study program was adverse drug reactions, intended self-poisoning, non-compliance, underdosing and interactions. The material included 1999 admissions to six departments of internal medicine at Odense University Hospital. The patients were reviewed prospectively, while they were still in the wards, but use of standardised criteria fOR assessment of drug-ADR causality. With inclusion of a definite, probable and possible causal relationship, ADRs and toxic reactions were found as an important factor in 8.4% of all admissions. The incidense of ADR related admissions was 400 per 100,000 per year for the background population as a whole, but showing a strong increase with age. The drug-specific ADR incidences were generally small compared to the drug sales figures. Non-compliance contributed to 2.0% of admissions with diuretics and anti-asthmatics as the drugs most frequently involved. Two departments were re-investigated after an intervention program, primarily targetting general practitioners. The over-all incidence of DRHs was unaffected by the intervention, but the subset classified as avoidable DRHs showed a significant decline. The case material was subject to a blinded evaluation by an external peer group using the same criteria as the investigators. There was no indication that the observed decline in avoidable DRHs should be explained by a shift in the investigators' assessment of cases. It was concluded that the intervention

  4. Psychometric properties of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale, the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis and the Social Performance Survey Schedule in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD), the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS), and the Social Performance Survey Schedule (SPSS). Data were collected in two community-based groups of adults with mild to profound ID (n = 263). Subscale reliability (internal consistency) ranged from fair to excellent for the ABC, the ADAMS, and the SPSS (mean coefficient α across ABC subscales was .87 (ranging from fair to excellent), the ADAMS subscales .83 (ranging from fair to good), and the SPSS subscales .91 (range from good to excellent). The ADD subscales had generally lower reliability scores with a mean of .59 (ranging from unacceptable to good). Convergent and discriminant validity was determined by bivariate Spearman ρ correlations between subscales of one instrument and the subscales of the other three instruments. For the most part, all four instruments showed solid convergent and discriminant validity. To examine the factorial validity, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were attempted with the inter-item covariance matrix of each instrument. Generally, the data did not show good fits with the measurement models for the SPSS, ABC, or the ADAMS (CFA analyses with the ADD would not converge). However, most of the items on these three instruments had significant loadings on their respective factors.

  5. Electrophysiological evidence of early attentional bias to drug-related pictures in chronic cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Asmaro, Deyar; Carolan, Patrick L; Liotti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of attentional bias to cannabis-related cues were investigated in a marijuana dependent group and a non-user group employing a drug Stroop task in which cannabis-related, negative and neutral images were presented. Behaviorally, cannabis users were less accurate during drug-containing blocks than non-users. Electrophysiologically, in chronic marijuana-users, an early positive ERP enhancement over left frontal scalp (EAP, 200-350ms) was present in response to drug-containing blocks relative to negative blocks. This effect was absent in the non-user group. Furthermore, drug-containing blocks gave rise to enhanced voltage of a posterior P300 (300-400ms), and a posterior sustained slow wave (LPP, 400-700ms) relative to negative blocks. However, such effects were similar between cannabis users and non-users. Brain source imaging in cannabis users revealed a generator for the EAP effect to drug stimuli in left ventromedial prefrontal cortex/medial orbitofrontal cortex, a region active in fMRI studies of drug cue-reactivity and a target of the core dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway involved in the processing of substances of abuse. This study identifies the timing and brain localization of an ERP correlate of early attentional capture to drug-related pictures in chronic marijuana users. The EAP to drug cues may identify a new electrophysiological marker with clinical implications for predicting abstinence versus relapse or to evaluate treatment interventions.

  6. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  7. Correction of Distributed Optical Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Olivier, S; Carrano, C; Phillion, D

    2006-02-12

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of multiple distributed deformable mirrors (DMs) to improve the performance of optical systems with distributed aberrations. This concept is expected to provide dramatic improvement in the optical performance of systems in applications where the aberrations are distributed along the optical path or within the instrument itself. Our approach used multiple actuated DMs distributed to match the aberration distribution. The project developed the algorithms necessary to determine the required corrections and simulate the performance of these multiple DM systems.

  8. Phase aberration effects in elastography.

    PubMed

    Varghese, T; Bilgen, M; Ophir, J

    2001-06-01

    In sonography, phase aberration plays a role in the corruption of sonograms. Phase aberration does not have a significant impact on elastography, if statistically similar phase errors are present in both the pre- and postcompression signals. However, if the phase errors are present in only one of the pre- or postcompression signal pairs, the precision of the strain estimation process will be reduced. In some cases, increased phase errors may occur only in the postcompression signal due to changes in the tissue structure with the applied compression. Phase-aberration effects increase with applied strain and may be viewed as an image quality derating factor, much like frequency-dependent attenuation or undesired lateral tissue motion. In this paper, we present a theoretical and simulation study of the effects of phase aberration on the elastographic strain-estimation process, using the strain filter approach.

  9. Aberrations in Fresnel Lenses and Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don

    1999-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Shooting Star program revealed a number of technical problems that must be solved before solar thermal propulsion can become a reality. The fundamental problem of interest here is the collection of solar energy. This is the first step in the propulsion process and indeed the most important. Everything else depends on the efficiency and focusing ability of the collection lens or mirror. An initial model of Fresnel lens behavior using a wave optics approach has been completed and the results were encouraging enough to warrant an experimental investigation. This experimental investigation confirmed some of the effects predicted and produced invaluable photographic evidence of coherence based diffraction and aberration.

  10. Ventral Tegmental Area Afferents and Drug-Dependent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Idaira; Wanat, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-related behaviors in both humans and rodents are commonly thought to arise from aberrant learning processes. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the acquisition and expression of many drug-dependent behaviors involves the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a midbrain structure comprised of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons. Drug experience alters the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input onto VTA dopamine neurons, suggesting a critical role for VTA afferents in mediating the effects of drugs. In this review, we present evidence implicating the VTA in drug-related behaviors, highlight the diversity of neuronal populations in the VTA, and discuss the behavioral effects of selectively manipulating VTA afferents. Future experiments are needed to determine which VTA afferents and what neuronal populations in the VTA mediate specific drug-dependent behaviors. Further studies are also necessary for identifying the afferent-specific synaptic alterations onto dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the VTA following drug administration. The identification of neural circuits and adaptations involved with drug-dependent behaviors can highlight potential neural targets for pharmacological and deep brain stimulation interventions to treat substance abuse disorders. PMID:27014097

  11. Sexual aberration or instinctual vicissitude? Revisiting freud's "the sexual aberrations".

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sidney H

    2014-04-01

    The author reconsiders Freud's "The Sexual Aberrations," the first of his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), in light of contemporary psychoanalytic theory. Are the concepts of sexual aberration and norm still viable? The author argues that they are necessary but insufficient elements in current theory. He then presents a competing model in which sexuality can be reduced to a more elemental level of disturbance and wish, where it is an expression of a nonsexual wish--for example, to possess or control the object to eliminate separateness. The author presents clinical material to demonstrate this alternative model. PMID:24777366

  12. [Identifying and solving drug-related problems in terms of the community pharmacist].

    PubMed

    Masaryková, Lucia; Fulmeková, Magdaléna; Lehocká, Lubica; Fazekaš, Tomáš

    2014-02-01

    The issue of drug related problems (DRPs) has been known and dealt with in many studies for a long time. It is primarily due to the fact that drug-related problems have the potential to increase patients morbidity and mortality in particular. The issue of identifying and solving drug-related problems in the area of pharmacotherapy by community pharmacists in the Slovak Republic, unlike in other European countries such as the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, is still at the beginning and gradually developing. The aim of the survey was to obtain information from pharmacy practice concerning the current state and possible solutions of potential risks of medicines in the form of drug-related problems of patients from community pharmacists point of view as well as to find out the role and status of community pharmacists in identifying and solving drug-related problems. A questionnaire survey using a sample of 237 respondents, its statistical processing and evaluation revealed the drug-related problems frequency met at their patients (the most common types of DRPs, their causes and subsequent intervention), as well as the opinions of community pharmacists on their current possibilities of (legislative, material, personnel, time) solving and risk-rating therapies for patients.

  13. Three traps in stellar aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebscher, Dierck-E.; Brosche, Peter

    The effect of aberration seems to be one of the simplest in astronomical observations. Nevertheless, it has a long and pertaining history of misunderstanding and wrong interpretation. In the time just before the advent of the theory of relativity, aberration and drag of the aether (as found in Michelson's experiment) are interpreted as contradiction. This contradiction vanishes with the theory of relativity. More obstinate is the misunderstanding that the aberration depends on the relative velocity of source and observer. In the twenties, some physicists and astronomers believed that the consequences of such a relativity, wrongly supposed but never found, would constitute a firm argument against Einstein's theory (Hayn, Tomaschek, Osten, v. Brunn, Courvoisier, Mohorovicic). History forgot their argument, but it is difficult to find a correct explanation of their error (Emden). Instead, the subject is forgotten, and one can conjecture it because of the political side of the argument. This attitude takes its revenge: Misunderstandings are still handed down from textbook to textbook.

  14. Overcoming Polarization Aberrations In Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Eric W.

    1988-06-01

    A long-standing problem in polarized light microscopy has been the inability, due to polarization aberrations, to achieve simultaneously high spatial resolution and high contrast. The rotation of the plane of polarization at oblique interfaces between crossed polars causes the pupil function to resemble a dark cross rather than being uniformly dark. Likewise, the point spread function has the visual appearance of a four-leaf clover rather than the ideal Airy disk, and is also space-variant. Images formed with these systems are severely degraded. In this paper the theory of polarization aberrations is applied to the analysis of three solutions to this problem: Reducing the system aperture to block troublesome high-aperture rays; the AVEC-POL method, in which high bias compensation introduces counterbalancing aberrations; and the polarization rectifier, an optical element designed to introduce equal and opposite rotations of the electric vector.

  15. Aberrant DNA Methylation in Keratoacanthoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    Background Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a self-limiting epidermal tumor for which histopathological examination sometimes suggests malignancy. Based on inconsistent clinical views, KA can be regarded as both a benign tumor and a variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Aberrant DNA methylation frequently occurs in malignant tumors but it scarcely occurs in benign tumors. Whether aberrant methylation occurs in KA has not been previously examined. Objective The aim is to elucidate whether aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGI) containing a high density of cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites occurs in KA. Methods Five SCC cell lines, two cultured samples of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs), 18 clinical SCC samples, and 21 clinical KA samples were analyzed with Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips, quantitative real-time methylation-specific PCR (RT-MSP) and/or bisulfite sequencing. Results Genome-wide analyses of NHEK, KA, and SCC indicated that there was a greater number of aberrantly hypermethylated CGIs in SCC than in KA and there were aberrantly hypermethylated CGIs which are common in both. Among the common hypermethylated CGIs, RT-MSP and bisulfite sequencing targeting CGIs located on CCDC17, PVR, and MAP3K11 gene bodies also showed that methylation levels were significantly higher in KA than in normal epidermis. Statistical analyses suggested that the methylation level of CGI located on PVR in SCC might be correlated to lymph node metastasis (P = 0.013, Mann-Whitney U test) and that the methylation level of CGI in MAP3K11 in KA might be correlated to age (P = 0.031, linear regression analysis). Conclusion Aberrant DNA methylation occurs in KA. PMID:27788211

  16. How To Measure Gravitational Aberration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizek, M.; Solcova, A.

    2007-08-01

    In 1905, Henri Poincaré predicted the existence of gravitational waves and assumed that their speed c[g] would be that of the speed of light c. If the gravitational aberration would also have the same magnitude as the aberration of light, we would observe several paradoxical phenomena. For instance, the orbit of two bodies of equal mass would be unstable, since two attractive forces arise that are not in line and hence form a couple. This tends to increase the angular momentum, period, and total energy of the system. This can be modelled by a system of ordinary differential equations with delay. A big advantage of computer simulation is that we can easily perform many test for various possible values of the speed of gravity [1]. In [2], Carlip showed that gravitational aberration in general relativity is almost cancelled out by velocity-dependent interactions. This means that rays of sunlight are not parallel to the attractive gravitational force of the Sun, i.e., we do not see the Sun in the direction of its attractive force, but slightly shifted about an angle less than 20``. We show how the actual value of the gravitational aberration can be obtained by measurement of a single angle at a suitable time instant T corresponding to the perihelion of an elliptic orbit. We also derive an a priori error estimate that expresses how acurately T has to be determined to attain the gravitational aberration to a prescribed tolerance. [1] M. Křížek: Numerical experience with the finite speed of gravitational interaction, Math. Comput. Simulation 50 (1999), 237-245. [2] S. Carlip: Aberration and the speed of gravity, Phys. Lett. A 267 (2000), 81-87.

  17. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  18. Examples of the topographies of the wavefront-variance merit function at different aberration orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Steve C.

    1991-01-01

    The wavefront variance merit function is constructed with aberration orders identified and partitioned. The partitioned merit function topographies of three optical systems are examined. 1. INTRODUCFION The study of the behavior of individual wavefront aberration coefficients with respect to optical system parameters has long been successfully employed to gain insight into the properties of optical systems. However for many optical systems it is more appropriate to examine the wavefront aberrations collectively rather than individually. New insight into the imaging characteristics of optical systems may be obtained by using the individual wavefront aberration coefficients to construct the average wavefront variance function. This can be done in such a way that the merit function may be separated into partitions which are associated with a single aberration order. The partitions are a small number of image quality indicators that may be examined individually. Each indicator ifiustrates the behavior of the optical system at a particular aberration order. 2. FORMULATION OF THE MERIT FUNCTION The wavefront variance merit function is defined by K w2 )ftuld '' (1) where the angle brackets denote averaging over the pupil or field as indicated in the equation and W is the wavefront aberration function as a function of pupil position p. and field position H. For axially symmetric optical systems the aberration coefficients are introduced by writing the wavefront aberration function as a Taylor series expansion in p and

  19. Chromosome aberrations in workers exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Beckman, G; Beckman, L; Nordenson, I

    1977-08-01

    The occurrence of chromosome aberrations was studied in short-term cultured lymphocytes from nine workers exposed to arsenic at the Rönnskär smeltery in northern Sweden. In the smelter workers, 87 aberrations were found in 819 mitoses. The number of aberrations varied individually from 0 to 25 aberrations per 100 cells. In a control material 13 aberrations were found in 1012 mitoses. The frequency of chromosome aberrations was significantly increased among the smelter workers, but due to the simultaneous exposure to other agents the effect of arsenic per se can not be assessed with certainty.

  20. The impact of drug-related deaths on mortality among young adults in Madrid.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, L; Barrio, G; Vicente, J; Bravo, M J; Santacreu, J

    1995-01-01

    The trend from 1983 to 1990 of drug-related mortality (defined as the sum of deaths from acute drug reactions and the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome [AIDS] in drug users) among the population 15 to 39 years of age in Madrid, Spain, was studied and compared with mortality from all causes. All of the mortality rates increased from 1983 to 1990: all causes, from 101/100,000 to 148/100,000; acute drug reactions, from 3/100,000 to 15/100,000; and AIDS, from 0 to 20/100,000. Drug-related mortality represented 60% of the increase in the rate from all causes in males and 170% of the increase in females. The increases in drug-related mortality are likely to continue in the future.

  1. The impact of drug-related deaths on mortality among young adults in Madrid.

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, L; Barrio, G; Vicente, J; Bravo, M J; Santacreu, J

    1995-01-01

    The trend from 1983 to 1990 of drug-related mortality (defined as the sum of deaths from acute drug reactions and the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome [AIDS] in drug users) among the population 15 to 39 years of age in Madrid, Spain, was studied and compared with mortality from all causes. All of the mortality rates increased from 1983 to 1990: all causes, from 101/100,000 to 148/100,000; acute drug reactions, from 3/100,000 to 15/100,000; and AIDS, from 0 to 20/100,000. Drug-related mortality represented 60% of the increase in the rate from all causes in males and 170% of the increase in females. The increases in drug-related mortality are likely to continue in the future. PMID:7832243

  2. Phase Aberrations in Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Marchesini, S; Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Howells, M R; Spence, J H; Cui, C; Weierstall, U; Minor, A M

    2005-09-29

    In coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy the diffraction pattern generated by a sample illuminated with coherent x-rays is recorded, and a computer algorithm recovers the unmeasured phases to synthesize an image. By avoiding the use of a lens the resolution is limited, in principle, only by the largest scattering angles recorded. However, the imaging task is shifted from the experiment to the computer, and the algorithm's ability to recover meaningful images in the presence of noise and limited prior knowledge may produce aberrations in the reconstructed image. We analyze the low order aberrations produced by our phase retrieval algorithms. We present two methods to improve the accuracy and stability of reconstructions.

  3. New formulations between spherical aberration and spherical aberration coefficient using the Abbe sine condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Songgao; Lu, Kaichang; Zhu, Yafei

    1991-12-01

    The relationship between aberration and the aberration coefficient is the basic formulation in the field of aberration theory. The Seidel's formulations can only be used in the case of low performance (small aperture and small field), so that a set of correct relations between spherical aberration (SA) and spherical aberration coefficient (SAC) must be derived for the application of large aperture and small viewing field.

  4. Interaction in the Research Interview and Drug-Related Disclosures among Respondents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Interviewers and respondents judged interview interactions during a survey of drug-related sentiments. Pronounced variability in interviewer-respondent judgements occurred in unanticipated ways related to gender, role, and ethnicity of participants. Positive interaction yielded different respondent cognitions and reports of illicit drug ingestion…

  5. Adaptive and aberrant reward prediction signals in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Roiser, Jonathan P; Stephan, Klaas E; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Friston, Karl J; Joyce, Eileen M

    2010-04-01

    Theories of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia hypothesize a role for aberrant reinforcement signaling driven by dysregulated dopamine transmission. Recently, we provided evidence of aberrant reward learning in symptomatic, but not asymptomatic patients with schizophrenia, using a novel paradigm, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT). The SAT is a probabilistic reward learning game that employs cues that vary across task-relevant and task-irrelevant dimensions; it provides behavioral indices of adaptive and aberrant reward learning. As an initial step prior to future clinical studies, here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural basis of adaptive and aberrant reward learning during the SAT in healthy volunteers. As expected, cues associated with high relative to low reward probabilities elicited robust hemodynamic responses in a network of structures previously implicated in motivational salience; the midbrain, in the vicinity of the ventral tegmental area, and regions targeted by its dopaminergic projections, i.e. medial dorsal thalamus, ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Responses in the medial dorsal thalamus and polar PFC were strongly correlated with the degree of adaptive reward learning across participants. Finally, and most importantly, differential dorsolateral PFC and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) responses to cues with identical reward probabilities were very strongly correlated with the degree of aberrant reward learning. Participants who showed greater aberrant learning exhibited greater dorsolateral PFC responses, and reduced MTG responses, to cues erroneously inferred to be less strongly associated with reward. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for different theories of associative learning. PMID:19969090

  6. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2013-12-01

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning.

  7. Chromosome aberrations induced by zebularine in triticale.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuhui; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yanzhi; Ma, Jieyun; Wu, Nan; Ni, Shuang; Luo, Tengxiao; Zhuang, Lifang; Chu, Chenggen; Cho, Seong-Woo; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Qi, Zengjun

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome engineering is an important approach for generating wheat germplasm. Efficient development of chromosome aberrations will facilitate the introgression and application of alien genes in wheat. In this study, zebularine, a DNA methylation transferase inhibitor, was successfully used to induce chromosome aberrations in the octoploid triticale cultivar Jinghui#1. Dry seeds were soaked in zebularine solutions (250, 500, and 750 μmol/L) for 24 h, and the 500 μmol/L treatment was tested in three additional treatment times, i.e., 12, 36, and 48 h. All treatments induced aberrations involving wheat and rye chromosomes. Of the 920 cells observed in 67 M1 plants, 340 (37.0%) carried 817 aberrations with an average of 0.89 aberrations per cell (range: 0-12). The aberrations included probable deletions, telosomes and acentric fragments (49.0%), large segmental translocations (28.9%), small segmental translocations (17.1%), intercalary translocations (2.6%), long chromosomes that could carry more than one centromere (2.0%), and ring chromosomes (0.5%). Of 510 M2 plants analyzed, 110 (21.6%) were found to carry stable aberrations. Such aberrations included 79 with varied rye chromosome numbers, 7 with wheat and rye chromosome translocations, 15 with possible rye telosomes/deletions, and 9 with complex aberrations involving variation in rye chromosome number and wheat-rye translocations. These indicated that aberrations induced by zebularine can be steadily transmitted, suggesting that zebularine is a new efficient agent for chromosome manipulation. PMID:27334255

  8. The misalignment induced aberrations of TMA telescopes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kevin P; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P

    2008-12-01

    The next major space-borne observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, will be a 6.6M field-biased, obscured, three-mirror anastigmat (TMA). Over the used field of view, the performance of TMA telescopes is dominated by 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations. Here it is shown that two dominant 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations arise for any TMA telescope. One aberration, field constant 3(rd) order coma is a well known misalignment aberration commonly seen in two-mirror Ritchey Chretien telescopes. The second aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear, 3(rd) order astigmatism is a new and unique image orientation dependence with field derived here for the first time using nodal aberration theory.

  9. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  10. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  11. Aberrations of ellipsoidal reflectors for unit magnification.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, K D

    1974-12-01

    Ellipsoidal reflectors are useful for the 1:1 imaging of small objects without spherical and chromatic aberration. The magnitude of the off-axis aberrations of such reflectors is computed by application of Fermat's principle to the Hamiltonian point characteristic. The limiting form of the mirror aperture for which these aberrations do not exceed a set tolerance is an ellipse whose semiaxes depend on object size and angle of incidence. PMID:20134811

  12. Influence of aberrations in microholographic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    The influence of various types of aberrations (spherical, coma, and astigmatic) of recording and readout beams on the readout signal in a microholographic recording was investigated through a numerical simulation. The simulation conditions were that the wavelength of the laser was 405 nm and the numerical aperture of the objective lenses was 0.85. The tolerance of the root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront aberrations was defined as the aberration when the normalized signal level decreased to 0.8. Among the three types of aberrations, the influence of the spherical aberration was the most significant. When both the recording and readout beams were aberrated and the signs of the aberrations were in the worst case, the tolerance of the RMS wavefront aberrations was less than half of the Maréchal's criterion. Moreover, when the RMS wavefront aberrations of the recording and readout beams were within the above tolerance, the bit intervals of 0.13 and 0.65 μm in the inplane and vertical directions, respectively, which correspond to the recording density of 91 bit/μm3 (recording capacity of 16 TB for a 120-mm-diameter optical disk having a 300-μm-thick recording layer), were shown to be feasible for confocal detection with an allowable signal-to-noise ratio.

  13. A TYPOLOGY OF DRUG-RELATED OFFENDING AMONG YOUNG HOMELESS INJECTION DRUG USERS

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 16–29 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21423855

  14. Using multiple cause-of-death data to improve surveillance of drug-related mortality

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, David L.; Yokoi-Shelton, Mieko L.; Zosel, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Context Many state and local areas are affected by the national epidemic of drug-related mortality, which recently has shown signs of a rising licit-to-illicit drug death ratio. Appropriate local public health surveillance can help to monitor and control this epidemic. Objective Using our state as an example, we sought to illustrate how to describe the changes in drug death rates, causes, and circumstances. In contrast to most other surveillance reports, our approach includes both drug-induced and drug-related deaths and both demographic and socioeconomic decedent characteristics. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All residents of the State of Wisconsin. Participants Decedents from 1999–2008. Main outcome measure Annual numbers and population-based rates of deaths due to drugs, including both identified and unidentified drugs. Information was obtained from death certificates with any of approximately 270 underlying, immediate, or contributing cause of death codes from the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision. Results Drug-related death rates increased during much of the 10-year study period, and the ratio of male to female deaths rose. The median age at death from drug-related causes was 43 years. Opioid analgesic poisoning surpassed cocaine and heroin poisoning as the most frequent type of fatal drug poisoning. Of all 4828 deaths from drug-related causes--virtually all of which were certified by a county medical examiner or coroner--3,410 (71%) were unintentional, and 1,053 (22%) were suicide. The unintentional-to-suicide death rate ratio grew from 1.6 to 3.5 during the study period. Methadone-related deaths increased from 10 in 1999 to 118 in 2008 (1080%), while benzodiazepine-related deaths rose from 23 to 106 (361%). Conclusions Although premature deaths from drug use and abuse continue to rise, in some states even surpassing motor vehicle crash deaths, multiple cause of death information from death certificates is available to monitor

  15. Harmonic oscillator states in aberration optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    The states of the three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator classify optical aberrations of axis-symmetric systems due to the isomorphism between the two mathematical structures. Cartesian quanta and angular momentum classifications have their corresponding aberration classifications. The operation of concatenation of optical elements introduces a new operation between harmonic oscillator states.

  16. Aberrant Radial Artery Causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kokkalis, Zinon T.; Tolis, Konstantinos E.; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D.; Panagopoulos, Georgios N.; Igoumenou, Vasilios G.; Mavrogenis, Andreas F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical vascular variations are rare causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. An aberrant medial artery is the most common vascular variation, while an aberrant radial artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome is even more rare, with an incidence ranging less than 3%. This article reports a patient with compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery. An 80- year- old man presented with a 5-year history of right hand carpal tunnel syndrome; Tinel sign, Phalen test and neurophysiological studies were positive. Open carpal tunnel release showed an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery with its accompanying veins running from radially to medially, almost parallel to the median nerve, ending at the superficial palmar arterial arch. The median nerve was decompressed without ligating the aberrant artery. At the last follow-up, 2 years after diagnosis and treatment the patient is asymptomatic. PMID:27517078

  17. Aberrant Radial Artery Causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kokkalis, Zinon T; Tolis, Konstantinos E; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Panagopoulos, Georgios N; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Mavrogenis, Andreas F

    2016-06-01

    Anatomical vascular variations are rare causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. An aberrant medial artery is the most common vascular variation, while an aberrant radial artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome is even more rare, with an incidence ranging less than 3%. This article reports a patient with compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery. An 80- year- old man presented with a 5-year history of right hand carpal tunnel syndrome; Tinel sign, Phalen test and neurophysiological studies were positive. Open carpal tunnel release showed an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery with its accompanying veins running from radially to medially, almost parallel to the median nerve, ending at the superficial palmar arterial arch. The median nerve was decompressed without ligating the aberrant artery. At the last follow-up, 2 years after diagnosis and treatment the patient is asymptomatic.

  18. Aberrant Radial Artery Causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kokkalis, Zinon T; Tolis, Konstantinos E; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Panagopoulos, Georgios N; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Mavrogenis, Andreas F

    2016-06-01

    Anatomical vascular variations are rare causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. An aberrant medial artery is the most common vascular variation, while an aberrant radial artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome is even more rare, with an incidence ranging less than 3%. This article reports a patient with compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery. An 80- year- old man presented with a 5-year history of right hand carpal tunnel syndrome; Tinel sign, Phalen test and neurophysiological studies were positive. Open carpal tunnel release showed an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery with its accompanying veins running from radially to medially, almost parallel to the median nerve, ending at the superficial palmar arterial arch. The median nerve was decompressed without ligating the aberrant artery. At the last follow-up, 2 years after diagnosis and treatment the patient is asymptomatic. PMID:27517078

  19. Drug-related harm among people who inject drugs in Thailand: summary findings from the Mitsampan Community Research Project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For decades, Thailand has experienced high rates of illicit drug use and related harms. In response, the Thai government has relied on drug law enforcement to address this problem. Despite these efforts, high rates of drug use persist, and Thailand has been contending with an enduring epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among people who inject drugs (IDU). Methods In response to concerns regarding drug-related harm in Thailand and a lack of research focused on the experiences and needs of Thai IDU, the Mitsampan Community Research Project was launched in 2008. The project involved administering surveys capturing a range of behavioral and other data to community-recruited IDU in Bangkok in 2008 and 2009. Results In total, 468 IDU in Bangkok were enrolled in the project. Results revealed high rates of midazolam injection, non-fatal overdose and incarceration. Syringe sharing remained widespread among this population, driven primarily by problems with access to syringes and methamphetamine injection. As well, reports of police abuse were common and found to be associated with high-risk behavior. Problems with access to evidence-based drug treatment and HIV prevention programs were also documented. Although compulsory drug detention centers are widely used in Thailand, data suggested that these centers have little impact on drug use behaviors among IDU in Bangkok. Conclusions The findings from this project highlight many ongoing health and social problems related to illicit drug use and drug policies in Bangkok. They also suggest that the emphasis on criminal justice approaches has resulted in human rights violations at the hands of police, and harms associated with compulsory drug detention and incarceration. Collectively, the findings indicate the urgent need for the implementation of evidence-based policies and programs in this setting. PMID:24099081

  20. Drug related webpages classification using images and text information based on multi-kernel learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ruiguang; Xiao, Liping; Zheng, Wenjuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, multi-kernel learning(MKL) is used for drug-related webpages classification. First, body text and image-label text are extracted through HTML parsing, and valid images are chosen by the FOCARSS algorithm. Second, text based BOW model is used to generate text representation, and image-based BOW model is used to generate images representation. Last, text and images representation are fused with a few methods. Experimental results demonstrate that the classification accuracy of MKL is higher than those of all other fusion methods in decision level and feature level, and much higher than the accuracy of single-modal classification.

  1. Analysis of reference sources used in drug-related Wikipedia articles*

    PubMed Central

    Koppen, Laura; Phillips, Jennifer; Papageorgiou, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Objective References from drug-related Wikipedia articles and a drug information database were compared. Methods Drugs in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) MedWatch alerts from January–July 2013 were searched in Wikipedia and Lexicomp to compare reference types and to assess the time for drug safety information to be incorporated into Wikipedia articles. Results Wikipedia most commonly cited peer-reviewed journal articles (49.2%) and news articles (12.0%). MedWatch citations were incorporated into Wikipedia on average in 5.9 days. Conclusions Wikipedia cited various sources but may not be a reliable, up-to-date resource for drug safety information. PMID:26213506

  2. The Mechanisms of Aberrant Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Samuel; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chris; Knowles, Tuomas

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a kinetic theory for understanding the aberrant loss of solubility of proteins. The failure to maintain protein solubility results often in the assembly of organized linear structures, commonly known as amyloid fibrils, the formation of which is associated with over 50 clinical disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A true microscopic understanding of the mechanisms that drive these aggregation processes has proved difficult to achieve. To address this challenge, we apply the methodologies of chemical kinetics to the biomolecular self-assembly pathways related to protein aggregation. We discuss the relevant master equation and analytical approaches to studying it. In particular, we derive the underlying rate laws in closed-form using a self-consistent solution scheme; the solutions that we obtain reveal scaling behaviors that are very generally present in systems of growing linear aggregates, and, moreover, provide a general route through which to relate experimental measurements to mechanistic information. We conclude by outlining a study of the aggregation of the Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide. The study identifies the dominant microscopic mechanism of aggregation and reveals previously unidentified therapeutic strategies.

  3. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations.

    PubMed

    Sachs, R K; Levy, D; Hahnfeldt, P; Hlatky, L

    2004-01-01

    We review chromosome aberration modeling and its applications, especially to biodosimetry and to characterizing chromosome geometry. Standard results on aberration formation pathways, randomness, dose-response, proximity effects, transmissibility, kinetics, and relations to other radiobiological endpoints are summarized. We also outline recent work on graph-theoretical descriptions of aberrations, Monte-Carlo computer simulations of aberration spectra, software for quantifying aberration complexity, and systematic links of apparently incomplete with complete or truly incomplete aberrations. PMID:15162028

  4. Image-based EUVL aberration metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Germain Louis

    A significant factor in the degradation of nanolithographic image fidelity is optical wavefront aberration. As resolution of nanolithography systems increases, effects of wavefront aberrations on aerial image become more influential. The tolerance of such aberrations is governed by the requirements of features that are being imaged, often requiring lenses that can be corrected with a high degree of accuracy and precision. Resolution of lithographic systems is driven by scaling wavelength down and numerical aperture (NA) up. However, aberrations are also affected from the changes in wavelength and NA. Reduction in wavelength or increase in NA result in greater impact of aberrations, where the latter shows a quadratic dependence. Current demands in semiconductor manufacturing are constantly pushing lithographic systems to operate at the diffraction limit; hence, prompting a need to reduce all degrading effects on image properties to achieve maximum performance. Therefore, the need for highly accurate in-situ aberration measurement and correction is paramount. In this work, an approach has been developed in which several targets including phase wheel, phase disk, phase edges, and binary structures are used to generate optical images to detect and monitor aberrations in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic systems. The benefit of using printed patterns as opposed to other techniques is that the lithography system is tested under standard operating conditions. Mathematical models in conjunction with iterative lithographic simulations are used to determine pupil phase wavefront errors and describe them as combinations of Zernike polynomials.

  5. Aberration correction past and present.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, P W

    2009-09-28

    Electron lenses are extremely poor: if glass lenses were as bad, we should see as well with the naked eye as with a microscope! The demonstration by Otto Scherzer in 1936 that skillful lens design could never eliminate the spherical and chromatic aberrations of rotationally symmetric electron lenses was therefore most unwelcome and the other great electron optician of those years, Walter Glaser, never ceased striving to find a loophole in Scherzer's proof. In the wartime and early post-war years, the first proposals for correcting C(s) were made and in 1947, in a second milestone paper, Scherzer listed these and other ways of correcting lenses; soon after, Dennis Gabor invented holography for the same purpose. These approaches will be briefly summarized and the work that led to the successful implementation of quadupole-octopole and sextupole correctors in the 1990 s will be analysed. In conclusion, the elegant role of image algebra in describing image formation and processing and, above all, in developing new methods will be mentioned. PMID:19687058

  6. Psychosocial stress enhances non-drug-related positive memory retrieval in male abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Lu, Lin

    2010-11-12

    Stress exposure in addicted individuals is known to provoke drug craving, presumably through a memory-like process, but less is known about the effects of stress on non-drug-related affective memory retrieval per se in such individuals, which is likely to provide important insights into therapy for relapse. In present study, we explored the effect of stress on retrieval of neutral and emotionally valenced (positive and negative) words in abstinent heroin addicts. In present study, 28 male inpatient abstinent heroin addicts and 20 sex-, age-, education- and economic status-matched healthy control participants were assessed for 24h delayed recall of valenced and neutral word lists on two occasions 4 weeks apart-once in a nonstress control condition, once after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test in a counterbalanced design. In addition, attention, working memory, blood pressure, heart rate and salivary cortisol were assessed. We found acute stress at the time of word list recall enhanced retrieval of positively valenced words, but no effect on negative and neutral word retrieval in abstinent heroin addicts was observed. No changes were detected for attention and working memory. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol, blood pressure and heart rate. Stress can enhance non-drug-related positive memory in abstinent heroin addicts. Our findings will provide richer information in understanding dysregulation of their emotional memory processing under stress and hopefully provide insight into designing improved treatments for drug addiction.

  7. Patterns and correlates of drug-related emergency department visits: Results from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Brian E.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Monsell, Sarah E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Epperson, Matthew; Howard, Matthew O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Drug treatment can be effective in community-based settings, but drug users tend to under-utilize these treatment options and instead seek services in emergency departments (ED) and other acute care settings. The goals of this study were to describe prevalence and correlates of drug-related ED visits. Basic procedures This study used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), which is a nationally representative survey of 43,093 U.S. residents. Main findings The overall prevalence of drug-related ED visits among lifetime drug users was 1.8%; for those with a lifetime drug use disorder, 3.7%. Persons with heroin dependence and inhalant dependence had the highest rates of ED visits, and marijuana dependence was associated with the lowest rates. Multivariate analyses revealed that being socially connected (i.e., marital status) were protective factors against ED visits, whereas psychopathology (i.e., personality or mood disorders) were risk factors. Conclusions Significant variability exists for risk of ED use for different types of drugs. These findings can help inform where links between EDs with local treatment programs can be formed to provide preventative care and injury-prevention interventions to reduce the risk of subsequent ED visits. PMID:20627209

  8. Drug history taking and the identification of drug related problems in an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Akwagyriam, I; Goodyer, L I; Harding, L; Khakoo, S; Millington, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of drug related problems that fail to be noted on casualty cards in patients subsequently admitted, and to compare medication histories as recorded by accident and emergency (A&E) senior house officers (SHOs) and a pharmacist. METHODS--An initial retrospective survey of 1459 acute inpatient admissions through A&E over a three month period was followed by a prospective study of 33 elderly patients. RESULTS--In the retrospective survey, 52 medication related problems were confirmed after examination of the medical records, of which only 16 were identified in A&E. In the prospective study, 125 currently prescribed items were identified by the pharmacist compared to 77 by A&E SHOs; 66% of the missed information was clinically relevant. Of 17 previous adverse drug reactions identified by the pharmacist only six were also recorded by the A&E officer. Only four over the counter medicines were identified by the A&E SHOs compared to 30 by the pharmacist. CONCLUSIONS--More accurate recording of drug history on casualty cards should be undertaken, particularly in respect of over the counter medication and the identification of drug related problems. PMID:8733649

  9. Image Ellipticity from Atmospheric Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W H; Olivier, S S; Asztalos, S J; Rosenberg, L J; Baker, K L

    2007-03-06

    We investigate the ellipticity of the point-spread function (PSF) produced by imaging an unresolved source with a telescope, subject to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. It is important to quantify these effects in order to understand the errors in shape measurements of astronomical objects, such as those used to study weak gravitational lensing of field galaxies. The PSF modeling involves either a Fourier transform of the phase information in the pupil plane or a ray-tracing approach, which has the advantage of requiring fewer computations than the Fourier transform. Using a standard method, involving the Gaussian weighted second moments of intensity, we then calculate the ellipticity of the PSF patterns. We find significant ellipticity for the instantaneous patterns (up to more than 10%). Longer exposures, which we approximate by combining multiple (N) images from uncorrelated atmospheric realizations, yield progressively lower ellipticity (as 1/{radical}N). We also verify that the measured ellipticity does not depend on the sampling interval in the pupil plane using the Fourier method. However, we find that the results using the ray-tracing technique do depend on the pupil sampling interval, representing a gradual breakdown of the geometric approximation at high spatial frequencies. Therefore, ray tracing is generally not an accurate method of modeling PSF ellipticity induced by atmospheric turbulence unless some additional procedure is implemented to correctly account for the effects of high spatial frequency aberrations. The Fourier method, however, can be used directly to accurately model PSF ellipticity, which can give insights into errors in the statistics of field galaxy shapes used in studies of weak gravitational lensing.

  10. Transverse chromatic aberration after corneal refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anera, R. G.; Jiménez, J. R.; Jiménez del Barco, L.; Hita, E.

    2005-05-01

    An expression has been deduced theoretically from a schematic-eye model, for the transverse or lateral chromatic aberration (TCA) after refractive surgery. The aim was to investigate analytically how chromatic aberration varies after the emmetropization process. These changes in the TCA have been characterized from changes in corneal asphericity. The results indicate that TCA after refractive surgery diminishes as the degree of myopia increases, a trend contrary to that occurring with monochromatic aberrations, such as spherical or coma. These results can explain the fact that the real deterioration of the visual function under photopic conditions detected in those operated on for myopia is less than expected when only monochromatic aberrations are taken into account.

  11. Spherical aberration in electrically thin flat lenses.

    PubMed

    Ruphuy, Miguel; Ramahi, Omar M

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the spherical aberration of a new generation of lenses made of flat electrically thin inhomogeneous media. For such lenses, spherical aberration is analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, and comparison is made to the classical gradient index rod. Both flat thin and thick lenses are made of gradient index materials, but the physical mechanisms and design equations are different. Using full-wave three-dimensional numerical simulation, we evaluate the spherical aberrations using the Maréchal criterion and show that the thin lens gives significantly better performance than the thick lens (rod). Additionally, based on ray tracing formulation, third-order analysis for longitudinal aberration and optical path difference are presented, showing strong overall performance of thin lenses in comparison to classical rod lenses. PMID:27505651

  12. Chromosome aberrations in decondensed sperm DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Factors that could influence the chromosomal aberration frequency observed at first cleavage following in vivo exposure of germ cells to chemical mutagens are discussed. The techniques of chromosome aberration analysis following sperm DNA condensation by in vitro fertilization or fusion seem to be viable research areas for providing information of human germ cell exposures. However, the potential sensitivity of the assay needs to be better understood, and factors that can influence this sensitivity require a great deal of further study using animal models.

  13. Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration.

    PubMed

    Hofer, H; Artal, P; Singer, B; Aragón, J L; Williams, D R

    2001-03-01

    It is well known that the eye's optics exhibit temporal instability in the form of microfluctuations in focus; however, almost nothing is known of the temporal properties of the eye's other aberrations. We constructed a real-time Hartmann-Shack (HS) wave-front sensor to measure these dynamics at frequencies as high as 60 Hz. To reduce spatial inhomogeneities in the short-exposure HS images, we used a low-coherence source and a scanning system. HS images were collected on three normal subjects with natural and paralyzed accommodation. Average temporal power spectra were computed for the wave-front rms, the Seidel aberrations, and each of 32 Zernike coefficients. The results indicate the presence of fluctuations in all of the eye's aberration, not just defocus. Fluctuations in higher-order aberrations share similar spectra and bandwidths both within and between subjects, dropping at a rate of approximately 4 dB per octave in temporal frequency. The spectrum shape for higher-order aberrations is generally different from that for microfluctuations of accommodation. The origin of these measured fluctuations is not known, and both corneal/lenticular and retinal causes are considered. Under the assumption that they are purely corneal or lenticular, calculations suggest that a perfect adaptive optics system with a closed-loop bandwidth of 1-2 Hz could correct these aberrations well enough to achieve diffraction-limited imaging over a dilated pupil. PMID:11265680

  14. Drug-related Myopathies of Which the Clinician Should Be Aware

    PubMed Central

    Valiyil, Ritu

    2011-01-01

    Many drugs used for therapeutic interventions can cause unanticipated toxicity in muscle tissue, often leading to considerable morbidity. A drug-induced, or toxic, myopathy is defined as the acute or subacute manifestation of myopathic symptoms such as muscle weakness, myalgia, creatine kinase elevation, or myoglobinuria that can occur in patients without muscle disease when they are exposed to certain drugs. A brief review of agents with a known association with myotoxicity and the proposed mechanisms linked to that toxicity is outlined; however, the purpose of this review is to highlight recent discoveries and advances in the field of toxic myopathies that have practical implications for practicing physicians. Because many drug-related myopathies are potentially reversible at early stages, it is important for clinicians to recognize toxic myopathies early in their course to determine when to discontinue therapy and potentially prevent irreversible muscle damage. PMID:20425521

  15. Drug-related problems in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug-Related Problems (DRPs) commonly occur among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, few studies have been performed on T2DM patients with dyslipidemia. This purpose of this study was to assess drug-related problems (DRPs) and factors associated with its occurrence. Methods The retrospective study involved 208 T2DM in-patients and out-patients with dyslipidemia, and was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from January 2009 to December 2011. The identification and assessment of DRPs were based on the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) tool version 5.01. The potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults was assessed based on the American Geriatrics Society updated Beers Criteria. Results A total of 406 DRPs were identified. Among these patients, 91.8% had at least one DRP, averaging 1.94 ± 1.10 problems per patient. The majority of T2DM patients with dyslipidemia (91.8%) had at least one DRP. The most frequent types of DRP were potential drug-drug interaction (18.0%), drug not taken or administered (14.3%) and insufficient awareness of health and diseases (11.8%). Anti-hypertensive, lipid-modifying and anti-diabetic agents were the drug classes that were most likely to be associated with DRPs. Male gender, renal impairment, polypharmacy and poor lipid control were factors that were significantly associated with DRP in diabetic dyslipidemia patients. Conclusion Early identification of DRPs and factors associated with them are essential to prevent and resolve DRPs in T2DM patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:24341672

  16. Drug-related deaths and the sales of needles through pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Peter J.; Martinez, Alexis; Lutnick, Alexandra; Kral, Alex H.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing needles to people who inject drugs is a well-proven public health response to the transmission of HIV and other blood borne viruses. Despite over a quarter of a century of research, new concerns about potential unintended negative consequences of needle distribution continue to emerge. Specifically, a claim was recently made that the introduction of pharmacy sales of needles was followed by an increase in overdoses in pharmacy parking lots. If true, this would have serious implications for the design of needle access programs, particularly those involving pharmacy sales of needles. Methods We examine spatial relationships between drug-related deaths and pharmacies in Los Angeles County (population 9·8 million) before and after the 2007 enactment of a California law allowing pharmacy sales of needles without a prescription. 7,049 drug related deaths occurred in Los Angeles county from 2000-2009 inclusive. 4,275 of these deaths could be geocoded, and were found to be clustered at the census tract level. Results We used three methods to examine spatial relationships between overdose death locations and pharmacy locations for two years on either side of the enactment of the pharmacy sales law, and found no statistically significant changes. Among the 711 geocodable deaths occurring in the two years following the change in law, no death was found to occur within 50 meters of a pharmacy which sold needles. Conclusion These results are consistent with prior studies which suggest pharmacy sales of needles improve access to needles without causing increased harms to the surrounding community. PMID:25499730

  17. Relationship between drug interactions and drug-related negative clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cremades, Javier; Gonzalo, Mario; Arrebola, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Drug interactions may represent an iatrogenic risk that should be controlled in community pharmacies at the dispensing level. Aim We analyzed the association between potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and negative clinical outcomes. Methods We used dispensing data from two community pharmacies: instances where drug dispensing was associated with a potential DDI and a comparison group of randomized dispensing operations with no potential DDI. In cases where potential DDIs were detected, we analyzed the underlying negative clinical outcomes. Age and gender data were included in the analysis. Results During the study period, we registered 417 potential DDIs. The proportion of women and age were higher in the study group than in the comparison group. The average potential DDIs per patient was 1.31 (SD=0.72). The Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Farmacéuticos (CGCOF) database did not produce an alert in 2.4% of the cases. Over-the-counter medication use was observed in 5% of the potential DDI cases. The drugs most frequently involved in potential DDIs were acenocoumarol, calcium salts, hydrochlorothiazide, and alendronic acid, whereas the most predominant potential DDIs were calcium salts and bisphosphonates, oral antidiabetics and thiazide diuretics, antidiabetics and glucose, and oral anticoagulant and paracetamol. The existence of a drug-related negative clinical outcome was observed only in 0.96% of the potential DDI cases (50% safety cases and 50% effectiveness cases). Conclusions Only a small proportion of the detected potential DDIs lead to medication negative outcomes. Considering the drug-related negative clinical outcomes encountered, tighter control would be recommended in potential DDIs with NSAIDs or benzodiazepines. PMID:25147590

  18. Drug-related problems among medical ward patients in Jimma university specialized hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tigabu, Bereket Molla; Daba, Daniel; Habte, Belete

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The increasing number of available drugs and drug users, as well as more complex drug regimens led to more side effects and drug interactions and complicates follow-up. The objective of this study was to assess drug-related problems (DRPs) and associated factors in hospitalized patients. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The study was conducted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, located in the south west of Addis Ababa. All patients who were admitted to the medical ward from February 2011 to March 2011 were included in the study. Data on sociodemographic variables, past medical history, drug history, current diagnosis, current medications, vital signs, and relevant laboratory data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and data collection forms which were filling through patient interview and card review. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 for windows. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, Chi-square, and logistic regression were utilized. Findings: Out of 257 study participants, 189 (73.5%) had DRPs and a total of 316 DRPs were identified. From the six classes of DRPs studied, 103 (32.6%) cases related to untreated indication or need additional drug therapy, and 49 (15.5%) cases related to high medication dosage. Unnecessary drug therapy in 49 (15.5%) cases, low medication dosage in 44 (13.9%) cases, and ineffective drug therapy in 42 (13.3%) cases were the other classes of problems identified. Noncompliance in 31 (9.8%) cases was the least prevalent DRP. Independent factors which predicted the occurrence of DRPs in the study population were sex, age, polypharmacy, and clinically significant potential drug-drug interactions. The prevalence of DRPs was substantially high (73.5%). Conclusion: Drug-related problems are common among medical ward patients. Indication-related problems, untreated indication and unnecessary drug therapy were the most common types of DRPs among patients of our

  19. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian

    2015-11-30

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separator to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were folded

  20. Focusing Diffraction Grating Element with Aberration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.; Greiner, Christoph M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are optical components with regular patterns of grooves, which angularly disperse incoming light by wavelength in a single plane, called dispersion plane. Traditional gratings on flat substrates do not perform wavefront transformation in the plane perpendicular to the dispersion plane. The device proposed here exhibits regular diffraction grating behavior, dispersing light. In addition, it performs wavelength transformation (focusing or defocusing) of diffracted light in a direction perpendicular to the dispersion plane (called sagittal plane). The device is composed of a diffraction grating with the grooves in the form of equidistant arcs. It may be formed by defining a single arc or an arc approximation, then translating it along a certain direction by a distance equal to a multiple of a fixed distance ("grating period") to obtain other groove positions. Such groove layout is nearly impossible to obtain using traditional ruling methods, such as mechanical ruling or holographic scribing, but is trivial for lithographically scribed gratings. Lithographic scribing is the newly developed method first commercially introduced by LightSmyth Technologies, which produces gratings with the highest performance and arbitrary groove shape/spacing for advanced aberration control. Unlike other types of focusing gratings, the grating is formed on a flat substrate. In a plane perpendicular to the substrate and parallel to the translation direction, the period of the grating and, therefore, the projection of its k-vector onto the plane is the same for any location on the grating surface. In that plane, no waveform transformation by the grating k-vector occurs, except of simple redirection.

  1. Adaptive optics full-field OCT: a resolution almost insensitive to aberrations (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peng; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A. Claude

    2016-03-01

    A Full-Field OCT (FFOCT) setup coupled to a compact transmissive liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM) is used to induce or correct aberrations and simulate eye examinations. To reduce the system complexity, strict pupil conjugation was abandoned. During our work on quantifying the effect of geometrical aberrations on FFOCT images, we found that the image resolution is almost insensitive to aberrations. Indeed if the object channel PSF is distorted, its interference with the reference channel conserves the main feature of an unperturbed PSF with only a reduction of the signal level. This unique behavior is specific to the use of a spatially incoherent illumination. Based on this, the FFOCT image intensity was used as the metric for our wavefront sensorless correction. Aberration correction was first conducted on an USAF resolution target with the LSCLM as both aberration generator and corrector. A random aberration mask was induced, and the low-order Zernike Modes were corrected sequentially according to the intensity metric function optimization. A Ficus leaf and a fixed mouse brain tissue slice were also imaged to demonstrate the correction of sample self-induced wavefront distortions. After optimization, more structured information appears for the leaf imaging. And the high-signal fiber-like myelin fiber structures were resolved much more clearly after the whole correction process for mouse brain imaging. Our experiment shows the potential of this compact AO-FFOCT system for aberration correction imaging. This preliminary approach that simulates eyes aberrations correction also opens the path to a simple implementation of FFOCT adaptive optics for retinal examinations.

  2. Zonal spherical aberration correction utilizing axial electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Liang C.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical aberration is important in focused ion beam applications where large aperture angles are needed to obtain high beam currents because it results in large tails on the current density distribution. Merwe has shown that for coaxial lenses, negative spherical aberration can be found for rays pass through zonal regions. Merwe"s calculation is valid only for periodic or quasi-periodic lenses and requires a constant axial potential distribution. We have calculated zonal focusing properties of lenses with axial electrodes using nine-point finite difference method and direct ray tracing. Our calculation results indicate that an axial electrode protruding partially into the lens can correct the spherical aberration. When a three-element electrostatic lens is operated at deceleration mode, the introduction of an axial electrode creates zonal regions where the spherical aberration is negative. At deceleration mode, the induced surface charges on the axial electrode have an opposite sign relative to the primary beam. This is in agreement with our previous findings on the study of the correction of spherical aberration utilizing space charges. Same phenomenon was found when an axial electrode is used in conjunction with a cathode lens.

  3. Aberration in proper motions for Galactic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-C.; Xie, Y.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Accelerations of both the solar system barycenter (SSB) and stars in the MilkyWay cause a systematic observational effect on the stellar proper motions, which was first studied by J. Kovalevsky (2003). This paper intends to extend that work and aims to estimate the magnitude and significance of the aberration in proper motions of stars, especially in the region near the Galactic center (GC). We adopt two models for the Galactic rotation curve to evaluate the aberrational effect on the Galactic plane. We show that the effect of aberration in proper motions depends on the galactocentric distance of stars; it is dominated by the acceleration of stars in the central region of the Galaxy. Then we investigate the applicability of the theoretical expressions: if the orbital period of stars is only a fraction of the light time from the star to the SSB, the expression with approximation proposed by Kovalevsky is not appropriate. With a more suitable formulation, we found that the aberration has no effect on the determination of the stellar orbits on the celestial sphere. In the future this aberrational effect under consideration should be considered with high-accurate astrometry, particularly in constructing the Gaia celestial reference system realized by Galactic stars.

  4. Chromosome aberrations as bioindicators of environmental genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ibrulj, Slavica; Haverić, Sanin; Haverić, Anja

    2007-11-01

    Due to the exposure to various potentially genotoxic xenobiotics, derived from recent war activities such as NATO air strikes with antitank ammunition containing depleted uranium, we have evaluated chromosome aberrations in 84 peripheral blood samples from three local populations. One population sample included 30 individuals who lived in the Sarajevo area during and after the war (exposed to potential genotoxins), second population was presented with 26 employees of the tank repair facility in Hadzići (target of NATO air strikes), and 28 inhabitants of Posusje (not exposed to war-related activities) were treated as sample of control population. The mean of chromosome aberration frequencies for the population from Hadzići was significantly higher than the frequencies for the two other populations. Point bi-serial coefficient analysis did not reveal any relationship between the frequencies of chromosome aberrations and smoking habits or gender. Results suggest that depleted uranium could be a risk factor for human health.

  5. Your brain on drugs: imaging of drug-related changes in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Tamrazi, Benita; Almast, Jeevak

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse is a substantial problem in society today and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Various drugs are associated with serious complications affecting the brain, and it is critical to recognize the imaging findings of these complications to provide prompt medical management. The central nervous system (CNS) is a target organ for drugs of abuse as well as specific prescribed medications. Drugs of abuse affecting the CNS include cocaine, heroin, alcohol, amphetamines, toluene, and cannabis. Prescribed medications or medical therapies that can affect the CNS include immunosuppressants, antiepileptics, nitrous oxide, and total parenteral nutrition. The CNS complications of these drugs include neurovascular complications, encephalopathy, atrophy, infection, changes in the corpus callosum, and other miscellaneous changes. Imaging abnormalities indicative of these complications can be appreciated at both magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT). It is critical for radiologists to recognize complications related to drugs of abuse as well as iatrogenic effects of various medications. Therefore, diagnostic imaging modalities such as MR imaging and CT can play a pivotal role in the recognition and timely management of drug-related complications in the CNS. PMID:22582355

  6. Transitionality in addiction: A "temporal continuum" hypotheses involving the aberrant motivation, the hedonic dysregulation, and the aberrant learning.

    PubMed

    Patrono, Enrico; Gasbarri, Antonella; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a chronic compulsion and relapsing disorder. It involves several brain areas and circuits, which encode vary functions such as reward, motivation, and memory. Drug addiction is defined as a "pathological pattern of use of a substance", characterized by the loss of control on drug-taking-related behaviors, the pursuance of those behaviors even in the presence of negative consequences, and a strong motivated activity to assume substances. Three different theories guide experimental research on drug addiction. Each of these theories consider singles features, such as an aberrant motivation, a hedonic dysregulation, and an aberrant habit learning as the main actor to explain the entire process of the addictive behaviors. The major goal of this study is to present a new hypotheses of transitionality from a controlled use to abuse of addictive substances trough the overview of the three different theories, considering all the single features of each single theory together on the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances. Recently, it has been suggested that common neural systems may be activated by natural and pharmacological stimuli, raising the hypotheses that binge-eating disorders could be considered as addictive behaviors. The second goal of this study is to present evidences in order to highlight a possible psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction". Finally, interesting questions are brought up starting from last findings about a theoretical/psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction" and their possibly same transitionality along the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances in order to investigate new therapeutic strategies based on new therapeutic strategies based on the individual moments characterizing the transition from the voluntary intake of substances to the maladaptive addictive behavior.

  7. Transitionality in addiction: A "temporal continuum" hypotheses involving the aberrant motivation, the hedonic dysregulation, and the aberrant learning.

    PubMed

    Patrono, Enrico; Gasbarri, Antonella; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a chronic compulsion and relapsing disorder. It involves several brain areas and circuits, which encode vary functions such as reward, motivation, and memory. Drug addiction is defined as a "pathological pattern of use of a substance", characterized by the loss of control on drug-taking-related behaviors, the pursuance of those behaviors even in the presence of negative consequences, and a strong motivated activity to assume substances. Three different theories guide experimental research on drug addiction. Each of these theories consider singles features, such as an aberrant motivation, a hedonic dysregulation, and an aberrant habit learning as the main actor to explain the entire process of the addictive behaviors. The major goal of this study is to present a new hypotheses of transitionality from a controlled use to abuse of addictive substances trough the overview of the three different theories, considering all the single features of each single theory together on the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances. Recently, it has been suggested that common neural systems may be activated by natural and pharmacological stimuli, raising the hypotheses that binge-eating disorders could be considered as addictive behaviors. The second goal of this study is to present evidences in order to highlight a possible psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction". Finally, interesting questions are brought up starting from last findings about a theoretical/psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction" and their possibly same transitionality along the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances in order to investigate new therapeutic strategies based on new therapeutic strategies based on the individual moments characterizing the transition from the voluntary intake of substances to the maladaptive addictive behavior. PMID:27372858

  8. Designing Aberration-Corrected Solid Unstable Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    In improved method of designing solid unstable resonator of laser diode, shapes of mirrors calculated to yield specified mode. Ray tracing used to compute shape of initially unspecified end mirror, given shape of initially specified end mirror and specified output mode. No need to accept aberrations or suboptimal circular shapes, to make iterative design computations in effort to converge on desired mode, or to assume paraxiality of rays: Angles between rays and optical axis large, cross sections of surfaces noncircular, and computed shape of end mirror exact. End mirror corrects for all aberrations.

  9. Seidel aberrations of an inflated membrane.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, H

    1980-09-15

    The Seidel aberrations of a shallow reflecting bowl are examined. In particular the bowl is formed by pressurizing a prestretched polymer membrane over the end of a cylindrical pressure vessel. Precise values for each of the five aberrations are given in terms of the bowl depth, radius, and amount of prestretch in the membrane for the case of an object at infinity and aperture stop in contact with the mirror. The analysis neglects terms of order (4)compared to unity where = bowl depth/bowl radius.

  10. Aberration corrected Lorentz scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    McVitie, S; McGrouther, D; McFadzean, S; MacLaren, D A; O'Shea, K J; Benitez, M J

    2015-05-01

    We present results from an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope which has been customised for high resolution quantitative Lorentz microscopy with the sample located in a magnetic field free or low field environment. We discuss the innovations in microscope instrumentation and additional hardware that underpin the imaging improvements in resolution and detection with a focus on developments in differential phase contrast microscopy. Examples from materials possessing nanometre scale variations in magnetisation illustrate the potential for aberration corrected Lorentz imaging as a tool to further our understanding of magnetism on this lengthscale.

  11. [Corneal higher order aberrations and their changes with aging].

    PubMed

    Cermáková, S; Skorkovská, S

    2010-12-01

    Cornea is the most important refractive medium of the eye and affects its total aberration state. This paper deals with corneal higher order aberrations in healthy humans and evaluates their changes with aging and corneal curvature. The influence of the corneal anterior and posterior surfaces on aberrations of the whole cornea was also investigated. The examination was performed with a Scheimpflug camera which enables to examine the anterior and posterior corneal surface separately. The results show that higher order aberrations of the whole cornea are influenced mainly by the anterior surface aberrations. The main corneal higher order aberration is the Z (4,0) spherical aberration which has a positive value and increases with age. Also, 3rd order aberration values are of importance, especially coma which also increases with age. As a consequence, the root-mean-square of the 3rd and 4th order aberrations in elderly people has a higher value.

  12. Vulnerability to drug-related infections and co-infections among injecting drug users in Budapest, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Neaigus, Alan; Ujhelyi, Eszter

    2009-01-01

    Background: Drug-related infectious diseases are among the major health consequences of drug use, and any existing drug-related infection may predispose injecting drug users (IDUs) to other infections. Methods: We assessed among IDUs in Budapest, Hungary the prevalence of and vulnerability to selected drug-related infections and co-infections. The sample consisted of 186 participants recruited between October 2005 and December 2006. Results: We found 0% HIV, 37% HCV, 24% HAV, and 14% past HBV infection. Infections with Herpes 1 or 2, tuberculosis, Chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhoea were 79%, 12%, 7%, 4%, and 0%, respectively. Co-infection with HAV/HCV was 12%, HBV/HCV 9%, HAV/HBV 7%, and HAV/HBV/HCV 4%. Those over age 30, the ethnic Roma, and the homeless were more likely to have any hepatitis and a higher number of drug-related infections. Amphetamine injectors were more likely to have a higher number of drug-related infections and those who travelled within Hungary were more likely to have any STI. However, those who worked at least part time and those who were in treatment were less likely to have drug-related infections. Conclusions: These results highlight the need of interventions in Hungary to reach and focus on marginalized (Roma or homeless) IDUs and address not only injecting and sex risk, but also hygienic living and injecting conditions. Furthermore, structural interventions to increase social integration (working or being in treatment) may improve welfare and decrease drug use and infection risk tied to drug use/injection among disadvantaged, marginalized, mostly minority populations. PMID:19224936

  13. Multinodal fifth-order optical aberrations of optical systems without rotational symmetry: spherical aberration.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kevin P

    2009-05-01

    Building off an earlier work on multinodal third-order aberrations [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A22, 1389 (2005)], this is the first in a series of papers that derives and illustrates the characteristic multinodal geometry for each of the fifth-order aberrations. Part I (as this paper will be referred to) will present the spherical aberration family: specifically, W(060), W(240M) and W(242), and W(080) (fifth-order spherical, oblique spherical, and seventh-order spherical). Nodal aberration theory is proving to be very effective as both an optical design tool for fully unobscured off-axis telescopes and as an analysis method, particularly in the context of the response of any imaging optical systems to misalignment. It is important to recognize that this multinodal approach to aberration theory is not restricted to small perturbations. The remaining papers in this series will result in a complete presentation of the intrinsic characteristic multinodal properties of each of the fifth-order aberrations. As such, this series provides a definitive theory of the optical aberrations of (nonanamorphic) imaging systems with a circular aperture stop. PMID:19412225

  14. Aberrations of diffracted wave fields. II. Diffraction gratings.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, V N

    2000-12-01

    The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld theory is applied to diffraction of a spherical wave by a grating. The grating equation is obtained from the aberration-free diffraction pattern, and its aberrations are shown to be the same as the conventional aberrations obtained by using Fermat's principle. These aberrations are shown to be not associated with the diffraction process. Moreover, it is shown that the irradiance distribution of a certain diffraction order is the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of the grating aperture as a whole aberrated by the aberration of that order. PMID:11140481

  15. Aberration averaging using point spread function for scanning projection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, Hiroshi; Noda, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2000-07-01

    Scanning projection system plays a leading part in current DUV optical lithography. It is frequently pointed out that the mechanically induced distortion and field curvature degrade image quality after scanning. On the other hand, the aberration of the projection lens is averaged along the scanning direction. This averaging effect reduces the residual aberration significantly. The aberration averaging based on the point spread function and phase retrieval technique in order to estimate the effective wavefront aberration after scanning is described in this paper. Our averaging method is tested using specified wavefront aberration, and its accuracy is discussed based on the measured wavefront aberration of recent Nikon projection lens.

  16. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es

    2013-04-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles a{sub lm}'s via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation.

  17. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu

    2012-08-01

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over Galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, resulting in Galactic Hemisphere Annual Modulations (GHAM) with amplitudes larger than the usual non-directional annual modulation.

  18. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  19. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  20. Designing refractive beam shapers via aberration theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Shealy, David

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we use aberration theory to design a refractive laser beam shaper in the configuration of two-aspheric lenses, whose analytical equations are known, but rather complicated. Specifically, we use results from third order aberration theory to obtain the parameters of the refracting laser beam shaper from the transverse aberration, which are then used as a starting point for further optimization by using optical design software. This approach was developed during the beginning of the twentieth century, works well for systems with a low numerical aperture, and allows one to define the following parameters of an optical system: radii of curvature, indices of refraction, thicknesses or air gaps, and conic constants of second order aspheric surfaces. We shall consider surfaces of the second-order spherical and conic sections and shall consider the example of designing of a two-lens beam shaper of the Keplerian 1-to-1 telescopic design providing a theoretical flat phase front and a flat-top irradiance profile of the output beam, where the ray mapping function from the input aperture to the output aperture is known from the literature. Explicit expression for third order longitudinal aberration and the Seidel coefficients are expressed in terms beam waist and input beam geometrical parameter, indices, lens radii and conic constants.

  1. Stress enhances retrieval of drug-related memories in abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Epstein, David H; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Yu; Kosten, Thomas R; Lu, Lin

    2010-02-01

    Stress is associated with relapse to drugs after abstinence, but the mechanisms for this association are unclear. One mechanism may be that stress enhances abstinent addicts' recall of memories of drugs as stress relievers. This study assessed the effects of stress on free recall and cued recall of 10 heroin-related and 10 neutral words learned 24 h earlier by 102 abstinent heroin addicts. These participants were randomly assigned to three experiments that also assessed attention and working memory. Experiment 1 used a psychosocial stressor (Trier social stress test (TSST)) before testing for recall of heroin-related words. Experiment 2 added administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol 1 h before the psychosocial stressor. Experiment 3 added administration of either cortisol with propranolol, cortisol alone, or propranolol alone 1 h before word recall to determine whether stress enhancement of heroin-related word recall required noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interactions. We found that free recall of heroin-related words in abstinent addicts was enhanced after stress or cortisol administration when compared with a non-stress condition or placebo, respectively, whereas these interventions had no effect on neutral word recall. beta-adrenergic blockade blocked the enhancing effect of stress or cortisol on free recall of heroin-related words. Neither stress nor cortisol affected cued recall, attention, or working memory. The potential of beta-adrenergic blockade to reduce or block stress-induced enhancement of drug-related memory retrieval may be relevant to preventing stress-induced relapse in abstinent heroin addicts. PMID:19890257

  2. Personalized Risk Assessment of Drug-Related Harm Is Associated with Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrea A.; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Panenka, William J.; Leonova, Olga; Strehlau, Verena; Lang, Donna J.; Thornton, Allen E.; Wong, Hubert; Barr, Alasdair M.; Procyshyn, Ric M.; Smith, Geoffrey N.; Buchanan, Tari; Krajden, Mel; Krausz, Michael; Montaner, Julio S.; MacEwan, G. William; Nutt, David J.; Honer, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs (ISCD) assigned quantitative scores for harm to 20 drugs. We hypothesized that a personalized, ISCD-based Composite Harm Score (CHS) would be associated with poor health outcomes in polysubstance users. Methods A prospective community sample (n=293) of adults living in marginal housing was assessed for substance use. The CHS was calculated based on the ISCD index, and the personal substance use characteristics over four weeks. Regression models estimated the association between CHS and physical, psychological, and social health outcomes. Results Polysubstance use was pervasive (95.8%), as was multimorbid illness (median 3, possible range 0–12). The median CHS was 2845 (interquartile range 1865–3977). Adjusting for age and sex, every 1000-unit CHS increase was associated with greater mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–2.01, p = 0.02), and persistent hepatitis C infection (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02–1.67, p = 0.04). The likelihood of substance-induced psychosis increased 1.39-fold (95% CI 1.13–1.67, p = 0.001). The amount spent on drugs increased 1.51-fold (1.40–1.62, p < 0.001) and the odds of having committed a crime increased 1.74-fold (1.46–2.10, p < 0.001). Multimorbid illness increased 1.43-fold (95% CI 1.26–1.63, p < 0.001). Conclusions Greater CHS predicts poorer physical, psychological, and social health, and may be a useful quantitative, personalized measure of risk for drug-related harm. PMID:24223192

  3. Drug-Related Hyponatremic Encephalopathy: Rapid Clinical Response Averts Life-Threatening Acute Cerebral Edema

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Arthur J.; Forte, Sophie S.; Bhatti, Nasir A.; Gelda, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 63 Final Diagnosis: Drug-induced hyponatremic encephalopathy Symptoms: Seizures • coma Medication: Hypertonic 3% saline infusion Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Drug-induced hyponatremia characteristically presents with subtle psychomotor symptoms due to its slow onset, which permits compensatory volume adjustment to hypo-osmolality in the central nervous system. Due mainly to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), this condition readily resolves following discontinuation of the responsible pharmacological agent. Here, we present an unusual case of life-threatening encephalopathy due to adverse drug-related effects, in which a rapid clinical response facilitated emergent treatment to avert life-threatening acute cerebral edema. Case Report: A 63-year-old woman with refractory depression was admitted for inpatient psychiatric care with a normal physical examination and laboratory values, including a serum sodium [Na+] of 144 mEq/L. She had a grand mal seizure and became unresponsive on the fourth day of treatment with the dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor [SNRI] duloxetine while being continued on a thiazide-containing diuretic for a hypertensive disorder. Emergent infusion of intravenous hypertonic (3%) saline was initiated after determination of a serum sodium [Na+] of 103 mEq/L with a urine osmolality of 314 mOsm/kg H20 and urine [Na+] of 12 mEq/L. Correction of hyposmolality in accordance with current guidelines resulted in progressive improvement over several days, and she returned to her baseline mental status. Conclusions: Seizures with life-threatening hyponatremic encephalopathy in this case likely resulted from co-occurring SIADH and sodium depletion due to duloxetine and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. A rapid clinical response expedited diagnosis and emergent treatment to reverse life-threatening acute cerebral edema

  4. Determination of risk factors for drug-related problems: a multidisciplinary triangulation process

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Carole P; Stämpfli, Dominik; Hersberger, Kurt E; Lampert, Markus L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Drug-related problems (DRPs) constitute a frequent safety issue among hospitalised patients leading to patient harm and increased healthcare costs. Because many DRPs are preventable, the specific risk factors that facilitate their occurrence are of considerable interest. The objective of our study was to assess risk factors for the occurrence of DRPs with the intention to identify patients at risk for DRPs to guide and target preventive measures where they are needed most in patients. Design Triangulation process using a mixed methods approach. Methods We conducted an expert panel, using the nominal group technique (NGT) and a qualitative analysis, to gather risk factors for DRPs. The expert panel consisted of two consultant hospital physicians (internal medicine and geriatrics), one emergency physician, one independent general practitioner, one clinical pharmacologist, one clinical pharmacist, one registered nurse, one home care nurse and two independent community pharmacists. The literature was searched for additional risk factors. Gathered factors from the literature search and the NGT were assembled and validated in a two-round Delphi questionnaire. Results The NGT resulted in the identification of 33 items with 13 additional risk factors from the qualitative analysis of the discussion. The literature search delivered another 39 risk factors. The 85 risk factors were refined to produce 42 statements for the Delphi online questionnaire. Of these, 27 risk factors were judged to be ‘important’ or ‘rather important’. Conclusions The gathered risk factors may help to characterise and identify patients at risk for DRPs and may enable clinical pharmacists to guide and target preventive measures in order to limit the occurrence of DRPs. As a further step, these risk factors will serve as the basis for a screening tool to identify patients at risk for DRPs. PMID:25795686

  5. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 8--Crisis Intervention, Drug-Related Problems. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, covers crisis intervention and drug related problems. Objectives stated for the two chapters are for the student to be able to describe: treating common mental disturbances, relating to those suffering a crisis in a…

  6. Implicit and Explicit Drug-Related Cognitions during Detoxification Treatment Are Associated with Drug Relapse: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marhe, Reshmi; Waters, Andrew J.; van de Wetering, Ben J. M.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relapse is a major problem in drug addiction treatment. Both drug craving and drug-related cognitions (e.g., attentional bias and implicit attitudes to drugs) may contribute to relapse. Using ecological momentary assessments, we examined whether craving and cognitions assessed during drug detoxification treatment were associated with…

  7. Computation of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments for two-mirror telescopes using nodal-aberration theory.

    PubMed

    Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang; Gu, Zhiyuan; Ma, Hongcai

    2016-05-01

    In active optics systems, one concern is how to quantitatively separate the effects of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments that couple together in determining the total aberration fields when wavefront measurements are available at only a few field points. In this paper, we first quantitatively describe the impact of mount-induced trefoil deformation on the net aberration fields by proposing a modified theoretical formulation for the field-dependent aberration behavior of freeform surfaces based on the framework of nodal aberration theory. This formulation explicitly expresses the quantitative relationships between the magnitude of freeform surfaces and the induced aberration components where the freeform surfaces can be located away from the aperture stop and decentered from the optical axis. On this basis, and in combination with the mathematical presentation of nodal aberration theory for the effects of misalignments, we present the analytic expressions for the aberration fields of two-mirror telescopes in the presence of astigmatic primary mirror figure errors, mount-induced trefoil deformations on both mirrors, and misalignments. We quantitatively separate these effects using the analytical expressions with wavefront measurements at a few field points and pointing errors. Valuable insights are provided on how to separate these coupled effects in the computation process. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to demonstrate the correctness and accuracy of the analytic method presented in this paper. PMID:27140345

  8. Computation of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments for two-mirror telescopes using nodal-aberration theory.

    PubMed

    Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang; Gu, Zhiyuan; Ma, Hongcai

    2016-05-01

    In active optics systems, one concern is how to quantitatively separate the effects of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments that couple together in determining the total aberration fields when wavefront measurements are available at only a few field points. In this paper, we first quantitatively describe the impact of mount-induced trefoil deformation on the net aberration fields by proposing a modified theoretical formulation for the field-dependent aberration behavior of freeform surfaces based on the framework of nodal aberration theory. This formulation explicitly expresses the quantitative relationships between the magnitude of freeform surfaces and the induced aberration components where the freeform surfaces can be located away from the aperture stop and decentered from the optical axis. On this basis, and in combination with the mathematical presentation of nodal aberration theory for the effects of misalignments, we present the analytic expressions for the aberration fields of two-mirror telescopes in the presence of astigmatic primary mirror figure errors, mount-induced trefoil deformations on both mirrors, and misalignments. We quantitatively separate these effects using the analytical expressions with wavefront measurements at a few field points and pointing errors. Valuable insights are provided on how to separate these coupled effects in the computation process. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to demonstrate the correctness and accuracy of the analytic method presented in this paper.

  9. Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

    2008-04-01

    The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative electron

  10. Harm reduction and knowledge exchange—a qualitative analysis of drug-related Internet discussion forums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    cumulative amount of knowledge about NPS and how to use them safely. Although this publicly available knowledge could entail an increase in drug use, the main characteristics of the discussions in general were a concern for safety and harm reduction, not for recruiting new users. Drug-related Internet forums could be used as a location for drug prevention, as well as a source of information for further research about NPS. PMID:25200686

  11. Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated.

    PubMed

    Gambra, Enrique; Sawides, Lucie; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Marcos, Susana

    2009-06-09

    We evaluated the accommodative response to a stimulus moving from 0 to 6 D following a staircase function under natural, corrected, and induced optical aberrations, using an adaptive-optics (AO) electromagnetic deformable mirror. The accommodative response of the eye (through the mirror) and the change of aberrations were measured on 5 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor operating at 12.8 Hz. Five conditions were tested: (1) natural aberrations, (2) AO correction of the unaccommodated state and induction (over 6-mm pupils) of (3) +1 microm and (4) -1 microm of spherical aberration and (5) -2 microm of vertical coma. Four subjects showed a better accommodative response with AO correction than with their natural aberrations. The induction of negative spherical aberration also produced a better accommodative response in the same subjects. Accommodative lag increased in all subjects when positive spherical aberration and coma were induced. Fluctuations of the accommodative response (computed during each 1-D period of steady accommodation) increased with accommodative response when high-order aberrations were induced. The largest fluctuations occurred for induced negative spherical aberration and the smallest for natural and corrected aberrations. The study demonstrates that aberrations influence accommodative lag and fluctuations of accommodation and that correcting aberrations improves rather than compromises the accommodative response.

  12. Recent partner violence and sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk among adolescent and young adult women attending family planning clinics

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072

  13. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors. PMID:22570777

  14. A challenging case due to uncommon aberrancies.

    PubMed

    Waleed, Mohammad; Raza, Ali; Minhaj, Tariq; Houghton, Timothy

    2015-09-24

    A 71-year-old man was referred to a rapid access chest pain clinic by his general practitioner. He presented with a 6-month history of twice weekly central chest pain lasting 2-3 min with walking and exertion, relieved with rest or co-codamol tablets. After initial investigations and a positive myoview scan, he was listed for an elective coronary angiogram. Unfortunately, the procedure was abandoned due to unclear course of the guide wire and a possible aberrant aortic course. Further non-invasive tests were arranged to clarify the anatomy of the vessels. After getting a clear idea of the aberrancies, coronary angiogram was replanned, and the patient underwent successful angiography with angioplasty to one of the coronary arteries, without any complications.

  15. Chromosome aberrations among the Yanomamma Indians.

    PubMed

    Bloom, A D; Neel, J V; Choi, K W; Iida, S; Chagnon, N

    1970-07-01

    The chromosomes of leucocytes cultured from the peripheral blood of 49 primitive Yanomama Indians of Venezuela were studied to determine the types and frequencies of aberrations in a human population not exposed to the same exogenous agents as civilized man. In all but one instance, 100 cells per individual were scored. In 13 cases, we found one or more cells with multiple complex breaks and rearrangements, represented by tetracentric, tricentric, and numerous dicentric chromosomes. From the standpoint of chromosomal damage, these cells are among the most abnormal cells yet described in vivo in man, and were not seen in the controls. There was also a higher than expected frequency of cells with an isolated structural aberration in both Indians and controls. This may be the result of a 24- to 48-hour delay in the initiation of culture. The cause of the more extensive damage to some cells remains to be determined.

  16. All-cause, drug-related, and HIV-related mortality risk by trajectories of jail incarceration and homelessness among adults in New York City.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Harris, Tiffany G; Nash, Denis; Lennon, Mary Clare; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2015-02-15

    We studied a cohort of 15,620 adults who had experienced at least 1 jail incarceration and 1 homeless shelter stay in 2001-2003 in New York City to identify trajectories of these events and tested whether a particular trajectory was associated with all-cause, drug-related, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related mortality risk in 2004-2005. Using matched data on jail time, homeless shelter stays, and vital statistics, we performed sequence analysis and assessed mortality risk using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and marginal structural modeling. We identified 6 trajectories. Sixty percent of the cohort members had a temporary pattern, which was characterized by sporadic experiences of brief incarceration and homelessness, whereas the rest had the other 5 patterns, which reflected experiences of increasing, decreasing, or persistent jail or shelter stays. Mortality risk among individuals with a temporary pattern was significantly higher than those of adults who had not been incarcerated or stayed in a homeless shelter during the study period (all-cause SMR: 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.59; drug-related SMR: 4.60, 95% CI: 3.17, 6.46; HIV-related SMR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.21); all-cause and HIV-related SMRs in other patterns were not statistically significantly different. When we compared all 6 trajectories, the temporary pattern was more strongly associated with higher mortality risk than was the continuously homelessness pattern. Institutional interventions to reduce recurrent cycles of incarceration and homelessness are needed to augment behavioral interventions to reduce mortality risk.

  17. Chromosomal aberrations in oral solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Manor, Esther; Bodner, Lipa

    2007-04-15

    The results of cytogenetic analysis of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the oral cavity in a 43-year-old man is reported. The abnormal cells carried a complex translocation with the karyotype 46,XY [15 cells]/46,XYt(1;17;18)(p13;q11.2;q21)[5 cells]. This is the first case reporting chromosomal aberrations in an oral SFT.

  18. Compact, holographic correction of aberrated telescopes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, G; Munch, J; Veitch, P

    1997-03-01

    We demonstrate a compact reflector telescope design that incorporates the holographic correction of a large, low-quality primary spherical mirror by using a laser beacon located at the center of curvature. The simple design makes use of conventional optics and is easily scalable to much larger apertures. Experimental results indicate diffraction-limited performance from a heavily aberrated 0.5-m-diameter spherical mirror.

  19. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  20. Aberrant phenotypes in Kikuchi’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xue-Jing; Zhou, Xiao-Ge; Xie, Jian-Lan; Zheng, Xiao-Dan; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Initial reports emphasized the immunophenotypic similarities between benign and malignant T cell populations, while some previous studies indicating that aberrant T-cell antigen loss is a good marker for detecting malignant T-cell proliferation. Recently, we found a very interesting and thought-provoking phenomenon: In benign disease-28 of 38 (73.7%) cases of Kikuchi’s disease also showed aberrant phenotypes with loss of pan-T cell antigens, which makes the differential diagnosis between Kikuchi’s disease and T cell lymphoma more challenging. In our study, 38 cases of Kikuchi’s disease and 30 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) were studied by EliVision immunohistochemical staining. As well as TCR gene rearrangement using PCR was negative in 10 tested cases of the Kikuchi’s disease. Among these cases, the most common antigen deficiency was CD5 (22 cases), then CD7 (11 cases), CD2 (8 cases) and CD3 (2 cases). Compared with proliferative and xanthomatous types of Kikuchi’s disease, antigens tended to be lost in necrotizing type. Based on follow-up data, a correlation was not found between the occurrence of aberrant phenotypes and prognosis. In RLH, obvious pan-T cell antigen loss was also not found. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate distinct patterns of antigen loss in Kikuchi’s disease, suggesting that T cell antigen loss is not reliable as an auxiliary diagnostic standard for T cell lymphoma. PMID:25337197

  1. Associations of Religiousness with 12-Month Prevalence of Drug Use and Drug-Related Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Loren

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that religious affiliation, attendance at religious services, and religious importance would be negatively associated with substance use and sexual behavior related to substance use. An additional hypothesis was tested to determine if age-related differences in the magnitude of these…

  2. Using Technology-Based Strategies to Change Drug-Related Attitudes and First-Time Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Ben; Roblyer, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing that a solid pre-trial drug intervention program is a vital first step in educating first-time offenders about the seriousness of drug abuse and criminal behavior, staff at the Intervention Program for Substance Abusers in Montgomery County, Maryland's Department of Correction and Rehabilitation decided that better strategies were…

  3. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  4. Chromatic variation of aberration: the role of induced aberrations and raytrace direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A.; Nobis, T.; Shafer, D.; Gross, H.

    2015-09-01

    The design and optimization process of an optical system contains several first order steps. The definition of the appropriate lens type and the fixation of the raytrace direction are some of them. The latter can be understood as a hidden assumption rather than an aware design step. This is usually followed by the determination of the paraxial lens layout calculated for the primary wavelength. It is obvious, that for this primary wavelength the paraxial calculations are independent of raytrace direction. Today, most of the lens designs are specified not to work only for one wavelength, but in a certain wavelength range. Considering such rays of other wavelengths, one can observe that depending on the direction there will already occur differences in the first order chromatic aberrations and additionally in the chromatic variation of the third-order aberrations. The reason for this effect are induced aberrations emerging from one surface to the following surfaces by perturbed ray heights and ray angles. It can be shown, that the total amount of surface-resolved first order chromatic aberrations and the chromatic variation of the five primary aberrations can be split into an intrinsic part and an induced part. The intrinsic part is independent of the raytrace direction whereas the induced part is not.

  5. Testing for Aberrant Behavior in Response Time Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marianti, Sukaesi; Fox, Jean-Paul; Avetisyan, Marianna; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Tijmstra, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Many standardized tests are now administered via computer rather than paper-and-pencil format. In a computer-based testing environment, it is possible to record not only the test taker's response to each question (item) but also the amount of time spent by the test taker in considering and answering each item. Response times (RTs) provide…

  6. Probable Drug-Related Meningioma Detected During the Course of Medication Review Services.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Christopher P

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence to support a link between treatment with high-dose cyproterone acetate and the development of meningioma. This report describes a case where an elderly man with intellectual disability who was treated with cyproterone for problematic sexual behavior developed a meningioma. The case was the subject of a residential medication management review provided under the auspices of a program funded by the Commonwealth Government of Australia. A discussion of clinical and ethical implications of the case is provided. PMID:27636874

  7. Anticonvulsant effects of phencyclidine-like drugs: relation to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonism.

    PubMed

    Leander, J D; Rathbun, R C; Zimmerman, D M

    1988-06-28

    Various compounds that have been identified in the literature as binding to the [3H]phencyclidine receptor site and as producing behavioral effects similar to phencyclidine (phencyclidine-like) protected mice from maximal electric shock-induced tonic-extensor seizures. These anticonvulsant effects appear to be due to blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor, as recently reported for phencyclidine-like compounds. Phencyclidine-like compounds produced their anticonvulsant effects at doses that were also neurologically impairing.

  8. 24 CFR 5.854 - When must I prohibit admission of individuals who have engaged in drug-related criminal activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has successfully completed an approved supervised drug rehabilitation program; or (2) The... individuals who have engaged in drug-related criminal activity? 5.854 Section 5.854 Housing and Urban... individuals who have engaged in drug-related criminal activity? (a) You must prohibit admission to...

  9. Wavefront aberrations of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams.

    PubMed

    Liao, Keliang; Hong, Youli; Sheng, Weifan

    2014-10-01

    The effects of dynamical diffraction in x-ray diffractive optics with large numerical aperture render the wavefront aberrations difficult to describe using the aberration polynomials, yet knowledge of them plays an important role in a vast variety of scientific problems ranging from optical testing to adaptive optics. Although the diffraction theory of optical aberrations was established decades ago, its application in the area of x-ray dynamical diffraction theory (DDT) is still lacking. Here, we conduct a theoretical study on the aberration properties of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams. By treating the modulus of the complex envelope as the amplitude weight function in the orthogonalization procedure, we generalize the nonrecursive matrix method for the determination of orthonormal aberration polynomials, wherein Zernike DDT and Legendre DDT polynomials are proposed. As an example, we investigate the aberration evolution inside a tilted multilayer Laue lens. The corresponding Legendre DDT polynomials are obtained numerically, which represent balanced aberrations yielding minimum variance of the classical aberrations of an anamorphic optical system. The balancing of classical aberrations and their standard deviations are discussed. We also present the Strehl ratio of the primary and secondary balanced aberrations.

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  11. Predicting aberrant CpG island methylation

    PubMed Central

    Feltus, F. A.; Lee, E. K.; Costello, J. F.; Plass, C.; Vertino, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one mechanism leading to loss of tumor suppressor function in human cancer. Profiling of CpG island methylation indicates that some genes are more frequently methylated than others, and that each tumor type is associated with a unique set of methylated genes. However, little is known about why certain genes succumb to this aberrant event. To address this question, we used Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning to analyze the susceptibility of 1,749 unselected CpG islands to de novo methylation driven by overexpression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We found that although the overall incidence of CpG island methylation was increased in cells overexpressing DNMT1, not all loci were equally affected. The majority of CpG islands (69.9%) were resistant to de novo methylation, regardless of DNMT1 overexpression. In contrast, we identified a subset of methylation-prone CpG islands (3.8%) that were consistently hypermethylated in multiple DNMT1 overexpressing clones. Methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG islands were not significantly different with respect to size, C+G content, CpG frequency, chromosomal location, or promoter association. We used DNA pattern recognition and supervised learning techniques to derive a classification function based on the frequency of seven novel sequence patterns that was capable of discriminating methylation-prone from methylation-resistant CpG islands with 82% accuracy. The data indicate that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to de novo methylation, and suggest that the propensity for a CpG island to become aberrantly methylated can be predicted based on its sequence context. PMID:14519846

  12. Peripheral Aberrations and Image Quality for Contact Lens Correction

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Thibos, Larry N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Contact lenses reduced the degree of hyperopic field curvature present in myopic eyes and rigid contact lenses reduced sphero-cylindrical image blur on the peripheral retina, but their effect on higher order aberrations and overall optical quality of the eye in the peripheral visual field is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to evaluate peripheral wavefront aberrations and image quality across the visual field before and after contact lens correction. Methods A commercial Hartmann-Shack aberrometer was used to measure ocular wavefront errors in 5° steps out to 30° of eccentricity along the horizontal meridian in uncorrected eyes and when the same eyes are corrected with soft or rigid contact lenses. Wavefront aberrations and image quality were determined for the full elliptical pupil encountered in off-axis measurements. Results Ocular higher-order aberrations increase away from fovea in the uncorrected eye. Third-order aberrations are larger and increase faster with eccentricity compared to the other higher-order aberrations. Contact lenses increase all higher-order aberrations except 3rd-order Zernike terms. Nevertheless, a net increase in image quality across the horizontal visual field for objects located at the foveal far point is achieved with rigid lenses, whereas soft contact lenses reduce image quality. Conclusions Second order aberrations limit image quality more than higher-order aberrations in the periphery. Although second-order aberrations are reduced by contact lenses, the resulting gain in image quality is partially offset by increased amounts of higher-order aberrations. To fully realize the benefits of correcting higher-order aberrations in the peripheral field requires improved correction of second-order aberrations as well. PMID:21873925

  13. Aberrant splicing and drug resistance in AML.

    PubMed

    de Necochea-Campion, Rosalia; Shouse, Geoffrey P; Zhou, Qi; Mirshahidi, Saied; Chen, Chien-Shing

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has unveiled a new window into the heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In particular, recurrent mutations in spliceosome machinery and genome-wide aberrant splicing events have been recognized as a prominent component of this disease. This review will focus on how these factors influence drug resistance through altered splicing of tumor suppressor and oncogenes and dysregulation of the apoptotic signaling network. A better understanding of these factors in disease progression is necessary to design appropriate therapeutic strategies recognizing specific alternatively spliced or mutated oncogenic targets. PMID:27613060

  14. Variable zoom system with aberration correction capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Stockbridge, Christopher R.; Hoffman, Samuel M.; Bifano, Thomas G.

    2012-07-01

    We describe experiments conducted with two deformable mirrors (DMs) at fixed locations in an optical microscope imaging system. In this configuration, the DM shapes are controlled to provide 2.5× zoom capability, to allow dynamic focus control and to compensate for aberrations of the fixed optical components. Zoom is achieved by simultaneously adjusting focal lengths of the two DMs, which are inserted between an infinity-corrected microscope objective and a tube lens. Image quality is measured using contrast modulation, and performance of the system is quantified, demonstrating an improved point spread function in the adaptively compensated system.

  15. Drug-related deaths with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment at autopsy: five case reports.

    PubMed

    Wilcher, Glenn

    2011-12-01

    Intracorporeal concealment of illicit drugs is a rare observation at coronial autopsy examinations. The article reports 5 cases of accidental drug overdoses at the Westmead Coronial Morgue, Sydney New South Wales, over a 6-year period with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment known as body packing or body stuffing. Three different forms of anatomic concealment of drugs are illustrated, Case 2 involving therapeutic medication in the form of glass ampoules for parenteral injection not previously reported. Three deaths were the result of acute toxicity due to polydrug abuse rather than as a consequence of the body packing behavior and rupture of the drug packaging, with the intracorporeal drug concealments an adjunct finding at the autopsy examinations. The cause of death in Case 3 was the direct result of acute cocaine intoxication due to rupture of drug packages in the rectum and mucosal absorption. The article details forensic sociological aspects of drug concealment and subcultural group human behavior that can assist in providing information for the initiation of investigations.

  16. Aberration measurement from specific photolithographic images: a different approach.

    PubMed

    Nomura, H; Tawarayama, K; Kohno, T

    2000-03-01

    Techniques for measurement of higher-order aberrations of a projection optical system in photolithographic exposure tools have been established. Even-type and odd-type aberrations are independently obtained from printed grating patterns on a wafer by three-beam interference under highly coherent illumination. Even-type aberrations, i.e., spherical aberration and astigmatism, are derived from the best focus positions of vertical, horizontal, and oblique grating patterns by an optical microscope. Odd-type aberrations, i.e., coma and three-foil, are obtained by detection of relative shifts of a fine grating pattern to a large pattern by an overlay inspection tool. Quantitative diagnosis of lens aberrations with a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser scanner is demonstrated.

  17. Lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay in radiation biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawala, Paban K.; Adhikari, J. S.; Chaudhury, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations, whether medical, occupational or accidental, leads to deleterious biological consequences like mortality or carcinogenesis. It is considered that no dose of ionizing radiation exposure is safe. However, once the accurate absorbed dose is estimated, one can be given appropriate medical care and the severe consequences can be minimized. Though several accurate physical dose estimation modalities exist, it is essential to estimate the absorbed dose in biological system taking into account the individual variation in radiation response, so as to plan suitable medical care. Over the last several decades, lots of efforts have been taken to design a rapid and easy biological dosimeter requiring minimum invasive procedures. The metaphase chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes, though is labor intensive and requires skilled individuals, still remains the gold standard for radiation biodosimetry. The current review aims at discussing the human lymphocyte metaphase chromosomal aberration assay and recent developments involving the application of molecular cytogenetic approaches and other technological advancements to make the assay more authentic and simple to use even in the events of mass radiation casualties. PMID:21829315

  18. Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1998-06-01

    New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.

  19. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  20. Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

    2011-03-01

    Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

  1. Aberration influenced generation of rotating two-lobe light fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, S. P.; Losevsky, N. N.; Prokopova, D. V.; Samagin, S. A.; Volostnikov, V. G.; Vorontsov, E. N.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of aberrations on light fields with a rotating intensity distribution is considered. Light fields were generated with the phase masks developed using the theory of spiral beam optics. The effects of basic aberrations, such as spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma are studied. The experimental implementation of the fields was achieved with the assistance of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator HOLOEYE HEO-1080P, operating in reflection mode. The results of mathematical modelling and experiments have been qualitatively compared.

  2. Drug-Related Hospital Visits and Admissions Associated with Laboratory or Physiologic Abnormalities—A Systematic-Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, Kerry; Hazi, Huda; El-Bedawi, Aya

    2013-01-01

    Countless studies have demonstrated that many emergency-room visits and hospital admissions are drug-related and that a significant proportion of these drug-related visits (DRVs) are preventable. It has not been previously studied which DRVs could be prevented through enhanced monitoring of therapy. The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of DRVs attributed to laboratory or physiologic abnormalities. Three authors independently performed comprehensive searches in relevant health care databases using pre-determined search terms. Articles discussing DRV associated with poisoning, substance abuse, or studied among existing in-patient populations were excluded. Study country, year, sample, design, duration, DRV identification method, proportion of DRVs associated with laboratory or physiologic abnormalities and associated medications were extracted. The three authors independently assessed selected relevant articles according to the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) as applicable according to the studies' methodology. The initial literature search yielded a total of 1,524 articles of which 30 articles meeting inclusion criteria and reporting sufficient laboratory or physiologic data were included in the overall analysis. Half employed prospective methodologies, which included both chart review and patient interview; however, the overwhelming majority of identified studies assessed only adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as a drug-related cause for DRV. The mean (range) prevalence of DRVs found in all studies was 15.4% (0.44%–66.7%) of which an association with laboratory or physiologic abnormalities could be attributed to a mean (range) of 29.4% (4.3%–78.1%) of cases. Most laboratory-associated DRVs could be linked to immunosuppressant, antineoplastic, anticoagulant and diabetes therapy, while physiologic-associated DRVs were attributed to cardiovascular therapies and NSAIDs. Significant proportions of

  3. Proportion of drug-related serious rare blood dyscrasias: estimates from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Andersohn, Frank; Bronder, Elisabeth; Klimpel, Andreas; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2004-11-01

    Drugs are an important cause of serious rare blood dyscrasias. To estimate the proportion of drug-related cases, we used data from the ongoing Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The analysis included a total of 171 cases. The number of cases in which a drug etiology was assessed as at least "possible" was n = 29 (97%) for acute agranulocytosis, n = 4 (0.21%) for aplastic anemia, n = 8 (26%) for immune hemolytic anemia, n = 20 (25%) for immune thrombocytopenia, and n = 2 (20%) for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome. Our analysis suggests that a substantial fraction of blood dyscrasias may be attributable to drug therapy. PMID:15495238

  4. Comparison of Aberrations After Standard and Customized Refractive Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; He, X.; Wang, Y.

    2013-09-01

    To detect possible differences in residual wavefront aberrations between standard and customized laser refractive surgery based onmathematical modeling, the residual optical aberrations after conventional and customized laser refractive surgery were compared accordingto the ablation profile with transition zone. The results indicated that ablation profile has a significant impact on the residual aberrations.The amount of residual aberrations for conventional correction is higher than that for customized correction. Additionally, the residualaberrations for high myopia eyes are markedly larger than those for moderate myopia eyes. For a 5 mm pupil, the main residual aberrationterm is coma and yet it is spherical aberration for a 7 mm pupil. When the pupil diameter is the same as optical zone or greater, themagnitudes of residual aberrations is obviously larger than that for a smaller pupil. In addition, the magnitudes of the residual fifth orsixth order aberrations are relatively large, especially secondary coma in a 6 mm pupil and secondary spherical aberration in a 7 mm pupil.Therefore, the customized ablation profile may be superior to the conventional correction even though the transition zone and treatmentdecentration are taken into account. However, the customized ablation profile will still induce significant amount of residual aberrations.

  5. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  6. Transverse ray aberrations of Wolter type 1 telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    1986-01-01

    Transverse ray aberration expansions are derived for Wolter type 1 telescopes. The analysis gives third order aberration terms, most of the fifth order terms and two seventh order terms as functions of system parameters and entrance aperture coordinates. The third order distortion is negligible and, therefore, this term is omitted in the expansions. The spot diagrams derived from exact ray tracing and aberration expansions agree well. The importance of fifth and seventh order terms is discussed. The derived aberration expansions are also valid for Wolter type 2 telescopes.

  7. Aberrant glycosylation associated with enzymes as cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the new roles for enzymes in personalized medicine builds on a rational approach to cancer biomarker discovery using enzyme-associated aberrant glycosylation. A hallmark of cancer, aberrant glycosylation is associated with differential expressions of enzymes such as glycosyltransferase and glycosidases. The aberrant expressions of the enzymes in turn cause cancer cells to produce glycoproteins with specific cancer-associated aberrations in glycan structures. Content In this review we provide examples of cancer biomarker discovery using aberrant glycosylation in three areas. First, changes in glycosylation machinery such as glycosyltransferases/glycosidases could be used as cancer biomarkers. Second, most of the clinically useful cancer biomarkers are glycoproteins. Discovery of specific cancer-associated aberrations in glycan structures of these existing biomarkers could improve their cancer specificity, such as the discovery of AFP-L3, fucosylated glycoforms of AFP. Third, cancer-associated aberrations in glycan structures provide a compelling rationale for discovering new biomarkers using glycomic and glycoproteomic technologies. Summary As a hallmark of cancer, aberrant glycosylation allows for the rational design of biomarker discovery efforts. But more important, we need to translate these biomarkers from discovery to clinical diagnostics using good strategies, such as the lessons learned from translating the biomarkers discovered using proteomic technologies to OVA 1, the first FDA-cleared In Vitro Diagnostic Multivariate Index Assay (IVDMIA). These lessons, providing important guidance in current efforts in biomarker discovery and translation, are applicable to the discovery of aberrant glycosylation associated with enzymes as cancer biomarkers as well. PMID:21906357

  8. D-cycloserine effects on extinction of conditioned responses to drug-related cues.

    PubMed

    Myers, Karyn M; Carlezon, William A

    2012-06-01

    D-cycloserine (DCS) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor partial agonist that facilitates extinction of conditioned fear in animals and cue exposure therapy (CET) for fear and anxiety disorders in people. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have examined the effect of DCS on extinction of conditioned responses elicited by cues paired with administration of or withdrawal from drugs of abuse, including physiological responses, craving, withdrawal, and drug-seeking behavior. DCS facilitates extinction and blunts postextinction recovery of these responses in animal models, including place conditioning and drug self-administration, but DCS effects on CET in substance users/abusers are less robust. Some of the null effects in the clinical literature might be attributable to issues related to sample size, data characteristics, DCS administration, and participant characteristics, among others. In this review we describe the preclinical and clinical literatures on DCS modulation of extinction of addiction-related conditioned responses, consider possible limitations of the clinical studies that have been published to date, and propose ways of designing future clinical studies so as to maximize the probability of detecting a DCS effect. We also discuss concerns with regard to potential harmful effects of DCS-coupled CET in addicts and describe how these concerns might be mitigated. We conclude that it is as yet unclear whether DCS-coupled CET might be a useful approach in the treatment of addiction.

  9. D-Cycloserine Effects on Extinction of Conditioned Responses to Drug-Related Cues

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Karyn M.; Carlezon, William A.

    2012-01-01

    D-cycloserine (DCS) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor partial agonist that facilitates extinction of conditioned fear in animals and cue exposure therapy (CET) for fear and anxiety disorders in people. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have examined the effect of DCS on extinction of conditioned responses elicited by cues paired with administration of or withdrawal from drugs of abuse, including physiological responses, craving, withdrawal, and drug-seeking behavior. DCS facilitates extinction and blunts postextinction recovery of these responses in animal models, including place conditioning and drug self-administration, but DCS effects on CET in substance users/abusers are less robust. Some of the null effects in the clinical literature might be attributable to issues related to sample size, data characteristics, DCS administration, and participant characteristics, among others. In this review we describe the preclinical and clinical literatures on DCS modulation of extinction of addiction-related conditioned responses, consider possible limitations of the clinical studies that have been published to date, and propose ways of designing future clinical studies so as to maximize the probability of detecting a DCS effect. We also discuss concerns with regard to potential harmful effects of DCS-coupled CET in addicts and describe how these concerns might be mitigated. We conclude that it is as yet unclear whether DCS-coupled CET might be a useful approach in the treatment of addiction. PMID:22579305

  10. Therapeutic potential of histaminergic compounds in the treatment of addiction and drug-related cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Alleva, Livia; Tirelli, Ezio; Brabant, Christian

    2013-01-15

    Addiction is a behavioral disorder characterized by the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs despite serious negative consequences. In particular, the chronic use of drugs impairs memory and cognitive functions, which aggravates the loss of control over drug use and complicates treatment outcome. Therefore, cognitive enhancers targeting acetylcholine have been proposed to treat addiction. Interestingly, histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R) antagonists/inverse agonists stimulate acetylcholine transmission in different brain areas, facilitate memory in animal models and can reverse learning deficits induced by drugs such as scopolamine, dizocilpine and alcohol. Moreover, several studies found that compounds capable of activating the histaminergic system generally decrease the reinforcing effects of drugs, namely alcohol and opioids, in preclinical models of addiction. Finally, several H(3)R antagonists/inverse agonists increase histamine in the brain and have proven to be safe in humans. However, no studies have yet investigated the therapeutic potential of cognitive enhancing H(3)R antagonists/inverse agonists in the treatment of addiction in humans. The present review first describes the impact of addictive drugs on learning processes and cognitive functions that play an important role for addicts to remain abstinent. Second, our work briefly summarizes the relevant literature describing the function of histamine in learning, memory and drug addiction. Finally, the potential therapeutic use of histaminergic agents in the treatment of addiction is discussed. Our review suggests that histaminergic compounds like H(3)R antagonists/inverse agonists may improve the treatment outcome of addiction by reversing drug-induced cognitive deficits and/or diminishing the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs, especially opioids and alcohol.

  11. Magnetically optimized SERS assay for rapid detection of trace drug-related biomarkers in saliva and fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianxi; Guo, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hui; Fu, Shuyue; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-06-15

    New developments in the fields of human healthcare and social security call for the exploration of an easy and on-field method to detect drug-related biomarkers. In this paper, Au nanoparticles dotted magnetic nanocomposites (AMN) modified with inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) were used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to quickly monitor trace drug-related biomarkers in saliva and to on-site screen a trace drug biomarker in fingerprints. Due to inducing with an external magnet, such substrate presented a huge SERS activity, which has met the sensitivity requirement for assay to detect the drug biomarkers in saliva from the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and also the limit of detection for drug biomarker in fingerprint reached 100 nM. In addition, this AMN-based SERS assay was successfully conducted using a portable Raman spectrometer, which could be used to on-site and accurately differentiate between the smokers and drug addicts in near future.

  12. Aberration correction by maximizing generalized sharpness metrics.

    PubMed

    Fienup, J R; Miller, J J

    2003-04-01

    The technique of maximizing sharpness metrics has been used to estimate and compensate for aberrations with adaptive optics, to correct phase errors in synthetic-aperture radar, and to restore images. The largest class of sharpness metrics is the sum over a nonlinear point transformation of the image intensity. How the second derivative of the point nonlinearity varies with image intensity determines the effects of various metrics on the imagery. Some metrics emphasize making shadows darker, and other emphasize making bright points brighter. One can determine the image content needed to pick the best metric by computing the statistics of the image autocorrelation or of the Fourier magnitude, either of which is independent of the phase error. Computationally efficient, closed-form expressions for the gradient make possible efficient search algorithms to maximize sharpness.

  13. Overlapped Fourier coding for optical aberration removal

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We present an imaging procedure that simultaneously optimizes a camera’s resolution and retrieves a sample’s phase over a sequence of snapshots. The technique, termed overlapped Fourier coding (OFC), first digitally pans a small aperture across a camera’s pupil plane with a spatial light modulator. At each aperture location, a unique image is acquired. The OFC algorithm then fuses these low-resolution images into a full-resolution estimate of the complex optical field incident upon the detector. Simultaneously, the algorithm utilizes redundancies within the acquired dataset to computationally estimate and remove unknown optical aberrations and system misalignments via simulated annealing. The result is an imaging system that can computationally overcome its optical imperfections to offer enhanced resolution, at the expense of taking multiple snapshots over time. PMID:25321982

  14. Patterns of Chromosomal Aberrations in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Grade, Marian; Difilippantonio, Michael J; Camps, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a defining feature of solid tumors. Such cytogenetic alterations are mainly classified into structural chromosomal aberrations and copy number alterations, giving rise to aneuploid karyotypes. The increasing detection of these genetic changes allowed the description of specific tumor entities and the associated patterns of gene expression. In fact, tumor-specific landscapes of gross genomic copy number changes, including aneuploidies of entire chromosome arms and chromosomes result in a global deregulation of the transcriptome of cancer cells. Furthermore, the molecular characterization of cytogenetic abnormalities has provided insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and has, in a few instances, led to the clinical implementation of effective diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as treatment strategies that target a specific genetic abnormality. PMID:26376875

  15. Aberrant pancreatic ductal organisation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Goel, Shivi; Rustagi, Shaifaly Madan; Saha, Susmita; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar; Rath, Gayatri

    2015-07-01

    Anomalous pancreatic ductal system has always enthralled the anatomists, surgeons, gastroenterologists and radiologists alike. With the growing use of MRCP, ERCP and endoscopic and surgical procedures, the knowledge of anatomical aberrations of pancreaticobiliary tract becomes extremely important. Moreover, the anomalous pancreatic duct morphology may be responsible for atypical gastrointestinal complains. We report an exceptionally rare case of two accessory ventral pancreatic ducts opening separately into the common bile duct proximal to the hepato pancreatic ampulla. Concomitant occurrence of an ectopic major duodenal papilla, 3.8 cm distal to the pyloric end of stomach was also seen. Moreover, the accessory pancreatic duct and the minor duodenal papilla were absent. Clinical implications and embryological description of these rare anomalies are discussed. Awareness of such rare morphological variants can go a long way in assisting effective patient management.

  16. Patterns of Chromosomal Aberrations in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Grade, Marian; Difilippantonio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a defining feature of solid tumors. Such cytogenetic alterations are mainly classified into structural chromosomal aberrations and copy number alterations, giving rise to aneuploid karyotypes. The increasing detection of these genetic changes allowed the description of specific tumor entities and the associated patterns of gene expression. In fact, tumor-specific landscapes of gross genomic copy number changes, including aneuploidies of entire chromosome arms and chromosomes result in a global deregulation of the transcriptome of cancer cells. Furthermore, the molecular characterization of cytogenetic abnormalities has provided insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and has, in a few instances, led to the clinical implementation of effective diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as treatment strategies that target a specific genetic abnormality. PMID:26376875

  17. Structural aberrations in group A Staphylococcus bacteriophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, H W; Berthiaume, L; Sonea, S; Kasatiya, S S

    1976-01-01

    Six related Staphylococcus phages spontaneously produced various abnormal head and tail structures: (i) giant capsids which were tailed and apparently contained nucleic acid; (ii) regular and irregular smooth polyheads; (iii) heads and polyheads with wavy outlines; (iv) mottled heads and polyheads; (v) abnormally long and short tails; and (vi) "double capsids" connected by a small bridge. Some of these structures are rare, or have not yet been reported. The frequency os specific aberrant particles varied from one phage to another. Length distribution of smooth irregular polyheads and of abnormal tails indicated that these structures assemble at random from protein synthesized in excess. These phages represent an interesting model for genetic and morphogentic studies. Images PMID:131865

  18. Aberrant diagnoses by individual surgical pathologists.

    PubMed

    Wakely, S L; Baxendine-Jones, J A; Gallagher, P J; Mullee, M; Pickering, R

    1998-01-01

    Methods of auditing the performance of histopathologists, such as external and internal quality assurance, clinicopathological conferences, and "double-reporting" of microscopic slides, show significant diagnostic errors in at least 1.2% of reports. Although some of these are in well-recognized areas of difficulty, such as melanoma or lymphoma, most errors are in common biopsy specimens. We have developed a method that compares diagnostic patterns of individual histopathologists. This aims to identify specific diagnoses that a pathologist makes more or less frequently than other colleagues and enables the individual to reflect on his or her own histologic expertise in reporting on specific biopsy results. The bottom line diagnoses of transurethral resection of prostate specimens; rectal, gastric, and bladder biopsy samples; and endometrial curettages were analyzed retrospectively. Analyses were performed on diagnoses made by at least 15 pathologists on each specimen type and expressed as a standardized ratio (SR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). An SR of 1.0 indicated a pattern of diagnosis matching the combined pattern of other colleagues. An SR <1.0 indicated relative "underdiagnosis" and an SR >1.0 indicated relative "overdiagnosis." Diagnostic rates of individual pathologists whose CIs did not straddle the value of 1.0 were considered aberrant, although not necessarily incorrect. The 47 of 226 (20.8%) aberrant SRs included four pathologists' diagnoses of prostatic carcinoma, three each of endometrial, rectal, and bladder carcinoma, and one of gastric malignancy. This method, which could easily be automated and used regionally or nationally, should provide pathologists with a profile of their diagnostic patterns in comparison with their peers.

  19. Congenital Aberrant Tearing: A Re-Look

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marilyn T.; Strömland, Kerstin; Ventura, Liana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Congenital aberrant tearing is characterized by tearing when eating (“crocodile tears”), lack of emotional tearing, or both. Most reported cases are associated with Duane syndrome. In our previous studies we observed aberrant tearing in individuals with thalidomide embryopathy and Möbius sequence. This report summarizes the literature on the subject and adds 3 new studies that give information on this unusual condition. Methods Twenty-eight individuals with Möbius sequence were interviewed about tearing symptoms at a support group meeting in Italy. In Sweden 30 adults primarily from the original thalidomide series were reexamined. In this latter study, a Schirmer test was done at baseline and repeated 5 minutes after eating. Twenty families in Brazil who have children with Möbius sequence were questioned about tearing symptoms and exposure to misoprostol during pregnancy. Results In the 28 Italian individuals, either “crocodile tears” or lack of emotional tearing was noted in 7 cases. In the thalidomide study, 10 of 30 patients had tearing when eating and 7 had no emotional tearing. Low Schirmer scores or increased tearing after eating was noted in a few asymptomatic individuals. Among the 20 Brazilian children with Möbius sequence, 10 had some tearing abnormality. Conclusion Congenital anomalous lacrimation is rare but usually associated with Duane syndrome or abduction deficits, as in Möbius sequence and, less frequently, facial nerve palsy. Studies implicate an early insult in development at 4 to 6 weeks. At that time the facial nerve, sixth nerve, and lacrimal nucleus are in close proximity in the embryo. PMID:19277226

  20. Optical aberrations measurement with a low cost optometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Walter D.; Muñoz-Escrivá, L.; Pons, A.; Martínez-Corral, M.

    2002-08-01

    A simple experimental method for measuring optical aberrations of a single lens is proposed. The technique is based on the use of an optometric instrument employed for the assessment of the refractive state of the eye: the retinoscope. Experimental results for spherical aberration and astigmatism are obtained.

  1. Aberration analysis calculations for synchrotron radiation beamline design

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Howells, M.; Padmore, H.A.

    1997-09-01

    The application of ray deviation calculations based on aberration coefficients for a single optical surface for the design of beamline optical systems is reviewed. A systematic development is presented which allows insight into which aberration may be causing the rays to deviate from perfect focus. A new development allowing analytical calculation of line shape is presented.

  2. Sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, A.V.; Kopf, D.A.

    In an electron beam device in which an electron beam is developed and then focused by a lens to a particular spot, there is provided a means for eliminating spherical aberration. A sextupole electromagnetic lens is positioned between two focusing lenses. The interaction of the sextupole with the beam compensates for spherical aberration. (GHT)

  3. Modified Matching Ronchi Test to Visualize Lens Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Kh; Ziafi, H. Hooshmand

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work…

  4. Enhanced midbrain response at 6-month follow-up in cocaine addiction, association with reduced drug-related choice: Midbrain in drug choice

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Woicik, Patricia A.; Maloney, Thomas; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Honorio, Jean; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Sinha, Rajita; Carise, Deni; Astone-Twerell, Janetta; Bolger, Joy; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-03-28

    Drug addiction is characterized by dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Although dopamine functioning appears to partially recover with abstinence, the specific regions that recover and potential impact on drug seeking remain to be determined. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study an ecologically valid sample of 15 treatment-seeking cocaine addicted individuals at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At both study sessions, we collected fMRI scans during performance of a drug Stroop task, clinical self-report measures of addiction severity and behavioral measures of cocaine seeking (simulated cocaine choice); actual drug use in between the two study sessions was also monitored. At 6-month follow-up (compared with baseline), we predicted functional enhancement of dopaminergically innervated brain regions, relevant to the behavioral responsiveness toward salient stimuli. Consistent with predictions, whole-brain analyses revealed responses in the midbrain (encompassing the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra complex) and thalamus (encompassing the mediodorsal nucleus) that were higher (and more positively correlated) at follow-up than baseline. Increased midbrain activity from baseline to follow-up correlated with reduced simulated cocaine choice, indicating that heightened midbrain activations in this context may be marking lower approach motivation for cocaine. Normalization of midbrain function at follow-up was also suggested by exploratory comparisons with active cocaine users and healthy controls (who were assessed only at baseline). Enhanced self-control at follow-up was suggested by a trend for the commonly hypoactive dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to increase response during a drug-related context. Together, these results suggest that fMRI could be useful in sensitively tracking follow-up outcomes in drug addiction.

  5. Aberrations of the cathode objective lens up to fifth order.

    PubMed

    Tromp, R M; Wan, W; Schramm, S M

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we discuss a topic that was close to Prof. Gertrude Rempfer s interests for many years. On this occasion of her 100th birthday, we remember and honor Gertrude for her many outstanding contributions, and for the inspiring example that she set. We derive theoretical expressions for the aberration coefficients of the uniform electrostatic field up to 5th order and compare these with raytracing calculations for the cathode lens used in Low Energy Electron Microscopy and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy experiments. These higher order aberration coefficients are of interest for aberration corrected experiments in which chromatic (C(c)) and spherical (C₃) aberrations of the microscope are set to zero. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the results of raytracing. Calculations of image resolution using the Contrast Transfer Function method show that sub-nanometer resolution is achievable in an aberration corrected LEEM system. PMID:22188906

  6. Chaos in ocular aberration dynamics of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Karen M.; Mallen, Edward A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Since the characterization of the eye’s monochromatic aberration fluctuations in 2001, the power spectrum has remained the most widely used method for analyzing their dynamics. However, the power spectrum does not capture the complexities of the fluctuations. We measured the monochromatic aberration dynamics of six subjects using a Shack-Hartmann sensor sampling at 21 Hz. We characterized the dynamics using techniques from chaos theory. We found that the attractor embedding dimension for all aberrations, for all subjects, was equal to three. The embedding lag averaged across aberrations and subjects was 0.31 ± 0.07 s. The Lyapunov exponent of the rms wavefront error was positive for each subject, with an average value of 0.44 ± 0.15 µm/s. This indicates that the aberration dynamics are chaotic. Implications for future modeling are discussed. PMID:22567581

  7. Correction of spherochromatic aberration by system of thin layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miks, A.; Novak, J.

    2005-08-01

    It is well-known from the theory of optical imaging that optical systems generally show a presence of a chromatic aberration, which originates from a variation of the refraction index of glass on the wavelength of light. The chromatic aberration must be well corrected in order to obtain a good quality of optical image. In practice, it is used a proper combination of optical elements manufactured from different types of optical glass with a different dispersion in order to suppress the chromatic aberration. Our work shows a way how to correct spherochromatic aberration using a system of thin aspherical layers. The equations are derived for determination of parameters of thin layers with respect to a required spherochromatic aberration.

  8. Minimum change in spherical aberration that can be perceived

    PubMed Central

    Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    It is important to know the visual sensitivity to optical blur from both a basic science perspective and a practical point of view. Of particular interest is the sensitivity to blur induced by spherical aberration because it is being used to increase depth of focus as a component of a presbyopic solution. Using a flicker detection-based procedure implemented on an adaptive optics visual simulator, we measured the spherical aberration thresholds that produce just-noticeable differences in perceived image quality. The thresholds were measured for positive and negative values of spherical aberration, for best focus and + 0.5 D and + 1.0 D of defocus. At best focus, the SA thresholds were 0.20 ± 0.01 µm and −0.17 ± 0.03 µm for positive and negative spherical aberration respectively (referred to a 6-mm pupil). These experimental values may be useful in setting spherical aberration permissible levels in different ophthalmic techniques.

  9. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography of aberrant subclavian arteries.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Büyükbayraktar, Fatma Gül; Olçer, Tülay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of 16-slice multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography for identifying anatomic features of aberrant subclavian arteries. Seventeen patients with aberrant subclavian arteries were assessed by MDCT angiography. The aortic arch position, the presence of a Kommerell's diverticulum, aneurysm, vascular compression of trachea and oesophagus and associated cardiovascular abnormalities were evaluated. MDCT findings were confirmed by surgery in eight patients but in the other nine patients no further evaluation or management was warranted as the aberrant subclavian artery had no significant clinical consequence. Eleven patients had an aberrant right subclavian artery arising from the left aortic arch and six patients had an aberrant left subclavian artery arising from the right aortic arch. Kommerell's diverticulum was identified in three patients with an aberrant right subclavian artery and in five patients with an aberrant left subclavian artery. In two patients it was aneurysmal. Oesophageal compression was detected in eight patients, and tracheal compression was identified in only one paediatric patient. An aberrant subclavian artery was associated with complex congenital heart disease in one patient, intracardiac defects in two patients, aortic coarctation in two patients, patent ductus arteriosus in two patients and an aberrant vertebral artery in one patient. In conclusion, MDCT angiography is superior to digital subtraction angiography for the assessment of aberrant subclavian arteries since digital subtraction angiography has only a poor ability to visualize adjacent structures completely and is invasive in nature. MDCT angiography or magnetic resonance angiography are the current standard in the initial evaluation of thoracic vascular anomalies.

  10. Aberrant Salience Is Related to Reduced Reinforcement Learning Signals and Elevated Dopamine Synthesis Capacity in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Rebecca; Deserno, Lorenz; Gleich, Tobias; Katthagen, Teresa; Pankow, Anne; Behr, Joachim; Buchert, Ralph; Roiser, Jonathan P; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2015-07-15

    The striatum is known to play a key role in reinforcement learning, specifically in the encoding of teaching signals such as reward prediction errors (RPEs). It has been proposed that aberrant salience attribution is associated with impaired coding of RPE and heightened dopamine turnover in the striatum, and might be linked to the development of psychotic symptoms. However, the relationship of aberrant salience attribution, RPE coding, and dopamine synthesis capacity has not been directly investigated. Here we assessed the association between a behavioral measure of aberrant salience attribution, the salience attribution test, to neural correlates of RPEs measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants (n = 58) performed an instrumental learning task. A subset of participants (n = 27) also underwent positron emission tomography with the radiotracer [(18)F]fluoro-l-DOPA to quantify striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity. Individual variability in aberrant salience measures related negatively to ventral striatal and prefrontal RPE signals and in an exploratory analysis was found to be positively associated with ventral striatal presynaptic dopamine levels. These data provide the first evidence for a specific link between the constructs of aberrant salience attribution, reduced RPE processing, and potentially increased presynaptic dopamine function. PMID:26180188

  11. LSST Telescope Alignment Plan Based on Nodal Aberration Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebag, J.; Gressler, W.; Schmid, T.; Rolland, J. P.; Thompson, K. P.

    2012-04-01

    The optical alignment of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is potentially challenging, due to its fast three-mirror optical design and its large 3.5° field of view (FOV). It is highly advantageous to align the three-mirror optical system prior to the integration of the complex science camera on the telescope, which corrects the FOV via three refractive elements and includes the operational wavefront sensors. A telescope alignment method based on nodal aberration theory (NAT) is presented here to address this challenge. Without the science camera installed on the telescope, the on-axis imaging performance of the telescope is diffraction-limited, but the field of view is not corrected. The nodal properties of the three-mirror telescope design have been analyzed and an alignment approach has been developed using the intrinsically linear nodal behavior, which is linked via sensitivities to the misalignment parameters. Since mirror figure errors will exist in any real application, a methodology to introduce primary-mirror figure errors into the analysis has been developed and is also presented.

  12. Aberrant Effective Connectivity in Schizophrenia Patients during Appetitive Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Diaconescu, Andreea Oliviana; Jensen, Jimmy; Wang, Hongye; Willeit, Matthäus; Menon, Mahesh; Kapur, Shitij; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that schizophrenia involves dysfunction in brain connectivity at a neural level, and a dysfunction in reward processing at a behavioral level. The purpose of the present study was to link these two levels of analyses by examining effective connectivity patterns between brain regions mediating reward learning in patients with schizophrenia and healthy, age-matched controls. To this aim, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and galvanic skin recordings (GSR) while patients and controls performed an appetitive conditioning experiment with visual cues as the conditioned (CS) stimuli, and monetary reward as the appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US). Based on explicit stimulus contingency ratings, conditioning occurred in both groups; however, based on implicit, physiological GSR measures, patients failed to show differences between CS+ and CS− conditions. Healthy controls exhibited increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity across striatal, hippocampal, and prefrontal regions and increased effective connectivity from the ventral striatum to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC BA 11) in the CS+ compared to the CS− condition. Compared to controls, patients showed increased BOLD activity across a similar network of brain regions, and increased effective connectivity from the striatum to hippocampus and prefrontal regions in the CS− compared to the CS+ condition. The findings of increased BOLD activity and effective connectivity in response to the CS− in patients with schizophrenia offer insight into the aberrant assignment of motivational salience to non-reinforced stimuli during conditioning that is thought to accompany schizophrenia. PMID:21267430

  13. Drug-related death following release from prison: a brief review of the literature with recommendations for practice.

    PubMed

    Leach, D; Oliver, P

    2011-12-01

    Mortality from drug-related death is a significant contributor to the loss of life of young people in the UK. Despite attention, the high death rate from this cause continues to persist. One of the most frequently cited factors involved in drug-related death (DRD) is release from prison. This review aims to examine the published literature with a view to quantifying the risk associated with recent prison release and identifying risk factors and prevention strategies. Most deaths following release from prison are caused by overdose, usually from opioid use. The risk of death is greatest within the first week of release but, when compared with the general population, continues to be elevated for several weeks. Relative risk estimates suggest that those released from prison are up to 40 times more likely to die than similar individuals from the general population. Other than gender and an association with poor mental health, there is little in the way of robust risk factors for post-release death that could be identified from the literature. In-prison pharmacological maintenance treatment with methadone and buprenorphine has been shown to reduce the rate of heroin use, in the period immediately following release, in a small number of randomised controlled trials. It is widely recognised that continuity of care, of any form, is critical in avoiding DRDs. For problem drug users, packages of education, including information on the associated risks, treatments, and recognition of DRD after release from prison, are seen as a basic minimum requirement of the prison services. However, special protocols may be required for those drug-using prisoners who have a possibility of being released at short notice.

  14. Using graph theory to describe and model chromosome aberrations.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Rainer K; Arsuaga, Javier; Vázquez, Mariel; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip

    2002-11-01

    A comprehensive description of chromosome aberrations is introduced that is suitable for all cytogenetic protocols (e.g. solid staining, banding, FISH, mFISH, SKY, bar coding) and for mathematical analyses. "Aberration multigraphs" systematically characterize and interrelate three basic aberration elements: (1) the initial configuration of chromosome breaks; (2) the exchange process, whose cycle structure helps to describe aberration complexity; and (3) the final configuration of rearranged chromosomes, which determines the observed pattern but may contain cryptic misrejoinings in addition. New aberration classification methods and a far-reaching generalization of mPAINT descriptors, applicable to any protocol, emerge. The difficult problem of trying to infer actual exchange processes from cytogenetically observed final patterns is analyzed using computer algorithms, adaptations of known theorems on cubic graphs, and some new graph-theoretical constructs. Results include the following: (1) For a painting protocol, unambiguously inferring the occurrence of a high-order cycle requires a corresponding number of different colors; (2) cycle structure can be computed by a simple trick directly from mPAINT descriptors if the initial configuration has no more than one break per homologue pair; and (3) higher-order cycles are more frequent than the obligate cycle structure specifies. Aberration multigraphs are a powerful new way to describe, classify and quantitatively analyze radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. They pinpoint (but do not eliminate) the problem that, with present cytogenetic techniques, one observed pattern corresponds to many possible initial configurations and exchange processes. PMID:12385633

  15. Epigenetic aberrations and therapeutic implications in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Atsushi; Kondo, Yutaka; Ito, Motokazu; Motomura, Kazuya; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Jun

    2010-06-01

    Almost all cancer cells have multiple epigenetic abnormalities, which combine with genetic changes to affect many cellular processes, including cell proliferation and invasion, by silencing tumor-suppressor genes. In this review, we focus on the epigenetic mechanisms of DNA hypomethylation and CpG island hypermethylation in gliomas. Aberrant hypermethylation in promoter CpG islands has been recognized as a key mechanism involved in the silencing of cancer-associated genes and occurs at genes with diverse functions related to tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Such promoter hypermethylation can modulate the sensitivity of glioblastomas to drugs and radiotherapy. As an example, the methylation of the O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is a specific predictive biomarker of tumor responsiveness to chemotherapy with alkylating agents. Further, we reviewed reports on pyrosequencing - a simple technique for the accurate and quantitative analysis of DNA methylation. We believe that the quantification of MGMT methylation by pyrosequencing might enable the selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from chemotherapy. Finally, we also evaluated the potential of de novo NY-ESO-1, the most immunogenic cancer/testis antigen (CTA) discovered thus far, as an immunotherapy target. The use of potent epigenetics-based therapy for cancer cells might restore the abnormally regulated epigenomes to a more normal state through epigenetic reprogramming. Thus, epigenetic therapy may be a promising and potent treatment for human neoplasia.

  16. Aneurysm of an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Gordini, Veliano; Collice, Massimo; Fedriga, Emanuele; Moreo, Antonella; Morello, Marco; Porrini, Annamaria; Donatelli, Francesco

    1991-01-01

    A 53-year-old man was admitted for treatment of an aberrant right subclavian artery aneurysm that had been diagnosed 5 years earlier and had recently begun to enlarge. The aneurysm, which involved the right subclavian artery from its origin, measured 47 mm in diameter and about 10 cm in length. Because of the lesion's size and friability, a 2-stage operation was performed. In the 1st stage, the right subclavian and right vertebral arteries were revascularized with double bypass grafts via a right cervical approach. In the 2nd stage, the patient was repositioned and a left thoracotomy incision was made. With the aid of left-heart bypass, the aorta was cross-clamped proximal and distal to the lesion, and the aneurysmal orifice was closed with a Dacron patch. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 17th postoperative day and remains asymptomatic 24 months later. We recommend the 2-stage technique for similar cases because it prevents limb ischemia and reduces the risk of hemorrhagic and embolic complications. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:76-9) Images PMID:15227513

  17. The Lunacy of It All: Lunar Phases and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotton, James; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between aberrant human behavior and phases of the moon. Reviews media influence, myth, superstition and pseudoscience. Examines studies purporting to have found relationships between moon phases and behavior. (JM)

  18. [Right aortic arch, Kommerell's diverticulum and aberrant left subclavian artery].

    PubMed

    Simón-Yarza, I; Viteri-Ramírez, G; Etxano, J; Roblero, P Slon; Ferreira, M; Alemañ, G Bastarrika

    2011-01-01

    The right aberrant subclavian artery or "arteria lusoria" is the most common anatomical variant of the embryonic development of the aorta and its branches, with a presence in 0.5-2% of the population. Less frequently, a right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery may be present. These anatomical variations should be included in the differential diagnosis of superior mediastinal widening seen on chest radiographs. In this report, we present a right aortic arch with left aberrant subclavian artery dilated at its origin (Kommerell's diverticulum) as a cause of superior mediastinal widening detected incidentally on a chest radiograph.

  19. Electrostatic mirror objective with eliminated spherical and axial chromatic aberrations.

    PubMed

    Bimurzaev, Seitkerim B; Serikbaeva, Gulnur S; Yakushev, Evgeniy M

    2003-01-01

    Computational formulae for the coefficients of the third-order spherical aberration and the second-order axial chromatic aberration are presented for an axially symmetric electrostatic electron mirror. A technique for eliminating the high-order derivatives of the potential axial distribution in mirror systems from the integrands is described. Conditions for elimination of spherical and axial chromatic aberrations, either separately or simultaneously, are found for a three-electrode axially symmetric mirror composed of coaxial cylinders of the same diameter. A principal scheme of the transmission electron microscope, where an electrostatic electron mirror serves as its objective, is presented. PMID:14599097

  20. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Florian T A; Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd U

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting, monofocal intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS Twenty-one patients (34 eyes) aged 50 to 83y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity (CS) under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations (HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight (C-Quant). RESULTS Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27 (primary coma components) and -0.04±0.16 (spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed (P≥0.28). CONCLUSION The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataract surgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration (HOA) and normal straylight. PMID:26309872

  1. OncoScape: Exploring the cancer aberration landscape by genomic data fusion.

    PubMed

    Schlicker, Andreas; Michaut, Magali; Rahman, Rubayte; Wessels, Lodewyk F A

    2016-01-01

    Although large-scale efforts for molecular profiling of cancer samples provide multiple data types for many samples, most approaches for finding candidate cancer genes rely on somatic mutations and DNA copy number only. We present a new method, OncoScape, which exploits five complementary data types across 11 cancer types to identify new candidate cancer genes. We find many rarely mutated genes that are strongly affected by other aberrations. We retrieve the majority of known cancer genes but also new candidates such as STK31 and MSRA with very high confidence. Several genes show a dual oncogene- and tumor suppressor-like behavior depending on the tumor type. Most notably, the well-known tumor suppressor RB1 shows strong oncogene-like signal in colon cancer. We applied OncoScape to cell lines representing ten cancer types, providing the most comprehensive comparison of aberrations in cell lines and tumor samples to date. This revealed that glioblastoma, breast and colon cancer show strong similarity between cell lines and tumors, while head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and bladder cancer, exhibit very little similarity between cell lines and tumors. To facilitate exploration of the cancer aberration landscape, we created a web portal enabling interactive analysis of OncoScape results (http://ccb.nki.nl/software/oncoscape). PMID:27321817

  2. OncoScape: Exploring the cancer aberration landscape by genomic data fusion

    PubMed Central

    Schlicker, Andreas; Michaut, Magali; Rahman, Rubayte; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Although large-scale efforts for molecular profiling of cancer samples provide multiple data types for many samples, most approaches for finding candidate cancer genes rely on somatic mutations and DNA copy number only. We present a new method, OncoScape, which exploits five complementary data types across 11 cancer types to identify new candidate cancer genes. We find many rarely mutated genes that are strongly affected by other aberrations. We retrieve the majority of known cancer genes but also new candidates such as STK31 and MSRA with very high confidence. Several genes show a dual oncogene- and tumor suppressor-like behavior depending on the tumor type. Most notably, the well-known tumor suppressor RB1 shows strong oncogene-like signal in colon cancer. We applied OncoScape to cell lines representing ten cancer types, providing the most comprehensive comparison of aberrations in cell lines and tumor samples to date. This revealed that glioblastoma, breast and colon cancer show strong similarity between cell lines and tumors, while head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and bladder cancer, exhibit very little similarity between cell lines and tumors. To facilitate exploration of the cancer aberration landscape, we created a web portal enabling interactive analysis of OncoScape results (http://ccb.nki.nl/software/oncoscape). PMID:27321817

  3. VLBI measurement of the secular aberration drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Lambert, S. B.; Gontier, A.-M.

    2011-05-01

    Aims: While analyzing decades of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data, we detected the secular aberration drift of the extragalatic radio source proper motions caused by the rotation of the Solar System barycenter around the Galactic center. Our results agree with the predicted estimate to be 4-6 micro arcseconds per year (μas/yr) towards α = 266° and δ = -29°. In addition, we tried to detect the quadrupole systematics of the velocity field. Methods: The analysis method consisted of three steps. First, we analyzed geodetic and astrometric VLBI data to produce radio source coordinate time series. Second, we fitted proper motions of 555 sources with long observational histories over the period 1990-2010 to their respective coordinate time series. Finally, we fitted vector spherical harmonic components of degrees 1 and 2 to the proper motion field. Results: Within the error bars, the magnitude and the direction of the dipole component agree with predictions. The dipole vector has an amplitude of 6.4 ± 1.5 μas/yr and is directed towards equatorial coordinates α = 263° and δ = -20°. The quadrupole component has not been detected. The primordial gravitational wave density, integrated over a range of frequencies less than 10-9 Hz, has a limit of 0.0042h-2 where h is the normalized Hubble constant is H0/(100 km s-1). We dedicate this work to the memory of Anne-Marie Gontier, our colleague and personal friend, and a widely recognized specialist of VLBI. She passed away shortly after this paper was submitted.Proper motion data is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/529/A91

  4. Electron Optics for Biologists: Physical Origins of Spherical Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geissler, Peter; Zadunaisky, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Reports on the physical origins of spherical aberrations in axially symmetric electrostatic lenses to convey the essentials of electon optics to those who must think critically about the resolution of the electron microscope. (GS)

  5. Objective shearing digital holography for removing aberration from optical system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weiqing; Tian, Kehan; Zhang, Chuhang

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new digital holography based on the lateral shearing interference concept to remove the total aberrations from the reference wave, illumination wave, and the optical elements. It uses three mutually shifted image holograms of the object that are divided from each other to obtain phase differences. The phase aberration can be removed and the original sample phase can be reconstructed by the phase differences. Then, the influence of the stage moving imprecision on the reconstruction quality is analyzed. Optical experiments verified that the proposed method can totally remove the phase aberrations. As a result, the proposed method could be used for ultra-precise optical measurement through eliminating optical phase aberration to increase the measurement accuracy. PMID:26368865

  6. Optical aberration coefficients: FORTRAN subroutines for symmetrical systems.

    PubMed

    Andersen, T B

    1981-09-15

    FORTRAN computer subroutines for the automatic computation of the optical aberration functions S, T, V, W, and K to the 15th order for rotationally symmetric systems are presented. The routines may be conveniently extended toward higher orders.

  7. Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B

    2005-08-01

    Adaptive optics systems typically include an optical relay that simultaneously images the science field to be corrected and also a set of pupil planes conjugate to the deformable mirror of the system. Often, in the optical spaces where DM's are placed, the pupils are aberrated, leading to a displacement and/or distortion of the pupil that varies according to field position--producing a type of anisoplanatism, i.e., a degradation of the AO correction with field angle. The pupil aberration phenomenon is described and expressed in terms of Seidel aberrations. An expression for anisoplanatism as a function of pupil distortion is derived, an example of an off-axis parabola is given, and a convenient method for controlling pupil-aberration-generated anisoplanatism is proposed.

  8. Aberrant lacrimal gland and pleomorphic adenoma within the muscle cone.

    PubMed

    Mueller, E C; Borit, A

    1979-04-01

    Aberrant lacrimal gland tissue within the muscle cone formed a pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor). Histopathologically, the lesion was identical to similar neoplasms originating from lacrimal and other salivary glands as well as from other serous glands of the body.

  9. Micromorphological changes in cardiac tissue of drug-related deaths with emphasis on chronic illicit opioid abuse

    PubMed Central

    Seltenhammer, Monika H; Marchart, Katharina; Paula, Pia; Kordina, Nicole; Klupp, Nikolaus; Schneider, Barbara; Fitzl, Christine; Risser, Daniele U

    2013-01-01

    Aims The main intention of this retrospective study was to investigate whether chronic illicit drug abuse, especially the intravenous use of opioids (heroin), could potentially trigger the development of myocardial fibrosis in drug addicts. Design A retrospective case–control study was performed using myocardial tissue samples from both drug-related deaths (DRD) with verifiable opioid abuse and non-drug-related deaths in the same age group. Setting Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Austria (1993–94). Participants Myocardial specimens were retrieved from 76 deceased intravenous opioid users and compared to those of 23 deceased non-drug users. Measurements Drug quantification was carried out using the enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT), followed by [gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), MAT 112®], and analysed using the Integrator 3390A by Hewlett Packard® and LABCOM.1 computer (MSS-G.G.). The amount of fibrous connective tissue (FCT) in the myocardium was determined by using the morphometric software LUCIA Net version 1.16.2©, Laboratory Imaging, with NIS Elements 3.0®. Findings Drug analysis revealed that 67.11% were polydrug users and the same proportion was classified as heroin addicts (6-monoacetylmorphine, 6-MAM)—32.89% were users of pure heroin. In 76.32% of DRD cases, codeine was detected. Only 2.63% consumed cocaine. The mean morphine concentrations were 389.03 ng/g in the cerebellum and 275.52 ng/g in the medulla oblongata, respectively. Morphometric analysis exhibited a strong correlation between DRD and myocardial fibrosis. The mean proportion of FCT content in the drug group was 7.6 ± 2.9% (females: 6.30 ± 2.19%; males: 7.91 ± 3.01%) in contrast to 5.2 ± 1.7% (females: 4.45 ± 1.23%; males: 5.50 ± 1.78%) in the control group, indicating a significant difference (P = 0.0012), and a significant difference in the amount of FCT between females and males (P = 0.0383). There was no significant

  10. Modified matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Kh; Hooshmand Ziafi, H.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work by comparing a single lens with a doublet, we can clearly demonstrate the superior quality of the doublet over the single lens, and estimate their conic constants.

  11. Pattern of Chromosomal Aberrations in Patients from North East Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghazaey, Saeedeh; Mirzaei, Farzaneh; Ahadian, Mitra; Keifi, Fatemeh; Semiramis, Tootian; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of multiple anomaly syndromes. Recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been identified by conventional cytogenetic methods used widely as one of the most important clinical diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the incidences of chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in a six year period from 2005 to 2011 in Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory on patients referred to from Mashhad and other cities in Khorasan province. Karyotyping was performed on 3728 patients suspected of having chromosomal abnormalities. Results: The frequencies of the different types of chromosomal abnormalities were determined, and the relative frequencies were calculated in each group. Among these patients, 83.3% had normal karyotypes with no aberrations. The overall incidences of chromosomal abnormalities were 16.7% including sex and autosomal chromosomal anomalies. Of those, 75.1 % showed autosomal chromosomal aberrations. Down syndrome (DS) was the most prevalent autosomal aberration in the patients (77.1%). Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 was seen in 5% of patients. This inversion was prevalent in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Sex chromosomal aberrations were observed in 24.9% of abnormal patients of which 61% had Turner’s syndrome and 33.5% had Klinefelter’s syndrome. Conclusion: According to the current study, the pattern of chromosomal aberrations in North East of Iran demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic evaluation in patients who show clinical abnormalities. These findings provide a reason for preparing a local cytogenetic data bank to enhance genetic counseling of families who require this service. PMID:24027668

  12. Aberration in proper motions for stars in our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-C.; Xie, Y.; Zhu, Z.

    2013-08-01

    Accelerations of both the Solar system barycentre (SSB) and stars in the Milky Way cause a systematic observational effect on the stellar proper motions, which was first studied in the early 1990s and developed by Kovalevsky (aberration in proper motions). This paper intends to extend that work and aims to estimate the magnitude and significance of the aberration in proper motions of stars, especially in the region near the Galactic Centre. We adopt two models for the Galactic rotation curve to evaluate the aberrational effect on the Galactic plane. Based on the theoretical developments, we show that the effect of aberration in proper motions depends on the Galactocentric distance of stars; it is dominated by the acceleration of stars in the central region of the Galaxy. Within 200 pc from the Galactic Centre, the systematic proper motion can reach an amplitude larger than 1000 μas yr- 1 by applying a flat rotation curve. With a more realistic rotation curve which is linearly rising in the core region of the Galaxy, the aberrational proper motions are limited up to about 150 μas yr- 1. Then we investigate the applicability of the theoretical expressions concerning the aberrational proper motions, especially for those stars with short period orbits. If the orbital period of stars is only a fraction of the light time from the star to the SSB, the expression proposed by Kovalevsky is not appropriate. With a more suitable formulation, we found that the aberration has no effect on the determination of the stellar orbits on the celestial sphere. The aberrational effect under consideration is small but not negligible with high-accurate astrometry in the future, particularly in constructing the Gaia celestial reference system realized by Galactic stars.

  13. Lesion generation through ribs using histotripsy therapy without aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction.

  14. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles.

  15. Induction of chromosome aberrations in human cells by charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations induced by high-energy charged particles in normal human lymphocytes and human fibroblasts have been investigated. The charged particles included 250 MeV/nucleon protons, 290 MeV/nucleon carbon ions and 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. The energies of the charged particles were higher than in most of the studies reported in the literature. Lymphocytes were stimulated to grow immediately after irradiation, while fibroblasts were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h for repair. Chromosomes were collected at the first mitosis after irradiation and chromosome aberrations were scored using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with a whole-chromosome 4 probe. Chromosome aberrations were classified as reciprocal exchanges, incomplete exchanges, deletions and complex exchanges. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for each type of aberration was calculated by dividing a dose of 4 Gy by the dose of the charged particles producing the same effect as 4 Gy of gamma rays. Results of this study showed that complex aberrations have the highest RBE for radiation of high linear energy transfer (LET) for human lymphocytes, but for fibroblasts, the greatest effect was for incomplete exchanges. For both lymphocytes and fibroblasts, iron ions induced a similar fraction of aberrant cells.

  16. Profile of bacteria colonizing the exposed bone of patients with anti-osteoclastic drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Zaher; do Nascimento, Cássio; El-Hakim, Michel; Henderson, Janet E; de Albuquerque, Rubens F

    2016-09-01

    Microbial etiology for anti-osteoclastic drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) was suggested. This study investigates any link between bacteria colonizing ARONJ sites and other oral cavity sites. Microbiota samples of 10 ARONJ patients were collected from the exposed bone, adjacent teeth, contralateral teeth, and tongue. DNA checkerboard hybridization was used for microbiota analysis with 43 genomic DNA probes prepared from human oral bacterial (38) and candida (5) species, using Socransky's bacterial complexes as a guide. The frequency and the mean proportion of each bacterial species were used. Eikenella corrodens, Streptococcus constellatus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were dominant in the ARONJ sites and detected in most teeth samples. Staphylococcus aureus was also dominant in the ARONJ sites and tongue. Significant correlations were found between the mean proportions of bacterial species colonizing adjacent teeth, contralateral teeth, and tongue (p < 0.001, R(2) > 0.69). No significant correlation (p > 0.05, R(2) < 0.025) was found between bacteria colonizing ARONJ sites and other evaluated sites. Within the study limitations, it was concluded that the primary sources of microorganisms colonizing ARONJ sites could be other sites such as teeth and tongue. The microbial profile of the necrotic bone is predominantly colonized with bacteria from Socransky's green and orange complexes, as well as with species associated with bone infections. PMID:27419922

  17. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse event co-occurrences. Methods: We analyzed the similarity of adverse event profiles of 2347 patients extracted from EMRs from a mental health center in Denmark. The patients were clustered based on their adverse event profiles and the similarities were presented as a network. The set of adverse events in each main patient cluster was evaluated. Co-occurrences of adverse events in patients (p-value < 0.01) were identified and presented as well. Results: We found that each cluster of patients typically had a most distinguishing adverse event. Examination of the co-occurrences of adverse events in patients led to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles, which also makes it possible to identify adverse event correlations. Used on larger data sets, this data-driven method has the potential to reveal unknown patterns concerning adverse event occurrences. PMID:25249979

  18. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Urvi Kaye, Elena; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focused ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus.

  19. Angelman syndrome: A review highlighting musculoskeletal and anatomical aberrations.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Donkers, Sarah J; Kim, Soo Y

    2016-07-01

    Angelman's syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopment disorder. The cause is a known abnormality involving the maternal inherited ubiquitin-protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. Clinical characteristics universal to the disorder are well documented in the literature and include developmental delay, seizures, ataxia, altered tone, severely impaired speech and intellect, as well as an overall happy demeanor, frequent bouts of laughter, and hypermotoric behavior. Associated with this disorder are several musculoskeletal aberrations. To date, a review of case studies reporting on these musculoskeletal changes has not been carried out. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the musculoskeletal changes present in individuals with AS. In our review of 21 case reports from 1965-2013, the most consistently reported anatomical changes were of the craniofacial region. These include microcephaly, brachycephaly, a palpable occipital groove, prognathism, and wide spaced teeth. Other musculoskeletal abnormalities less frequently reported in the literature include scoliosis, excessive lumbar lordosis, and pes planus. Given that the majority of the case reports reviewed was of young children, the possibility of underreporting musculoskeletal changes which may manifest in the later years of life may be present. Early diagnosis and interventions to minimize secondary complications are crucial to maintain quality of life. An overall multidisciplinary approach is emphasized to maximize developmental potential for these individuals. Future prospective studies that follow patients into adulthood are needed to better understand the prevalence and development of secondary musculoskeletal changes, which in turn can inform intervention techniques and preventative measures. Clin. Anat. 29:561-567, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Angelman syndrome: A review highlighting musculoskeletal and anatomical aberrations.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Donkers, Sarah J; Kim, Soo Y

    2016-07-01

    Angelman's syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopment disorder. The cause is a known abnormality involving the maternal inherited ubiquitin-protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. Clinical characteristics universal to the disorder are well documented in the literature and include developmental delay, seizures, ataxia, altered tone, severely impaired speech and intellect, as well as an overall happy demeanor, frequent bouts of laughter, and hypermotoric behavior. Associated with this disorder are several musculoskeletal aberrations. To date, a review of case studies reporting on these musculoskeletal changes has not been carried out. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the musculoskeletal changes present in individuals with AS. In our review of 21 case reports from 1965-2013, the most consistently reported anatomical changes were of the craniofacial region. These include microcephaly, brachycephaly, a palpable occipital groove, prognathism, and wide spaced teeth. Other musculoskeletal abnormalities less frequently reported in the literature include scoliosis, excessive lumbar lordosis, and pes planus. Given that the majority of the case reports reviewed was of young children, the possibility of underreporting musculoskeletal changes which may manifest in the later years of life may be present. Early diagnosis and interventions to minimize secondary complications are crucial to maintain quality of life. An overall multidisciplinary approach is emphasized to maximize developmental potential for these individuals. Future prospective studies that follow patients into adulthood are needed to better understand the prevalence and development of secondary musculoskeletal changes, which in turn can inform intervention techniques and preventative measures. Clin. Anat. 29:561-567, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26480021

  1. Optical aberrations of intraocular lenses measured in vivo and in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Sergio; Marcos, Susana; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio

    2003-10-01

    Corneal and ocular aberrations were measured in a group of eyes before and after cataract surgery with spherical intraocular lens (IOL) implantation by use of well-tested techniques developed in our laboratory. By subtraction of corneal from total aberration maps, we also estimated the optical quality of the intraocular lens in vivo. We found that aberrations in pseudophakic eyes are not significantly different from aberrations in eyes before cataract surgery or from previously reported aberrations in healthy eyes of the same age. However, aberrations in pseudophakic eyes are significantly higher than in young eyes. We found a slight increase of corneal aberrations after surgery. The aberrations of the IOL and the lack of balance of the corneal spherical aberrations by the spherical aberrations of the intraocular lens also degraded the optical quality in pseudophakic eyes. We also measured the aberrations of the IOL in vitro, using an eye cell model, and simulated the aberrations of the IOL on the basis of the IOL's physical parameters. We found a good agreement among in vivo, in vitro, and simulated measures of spherical aberration: Unlike the spherical aberration of the young crystalline lens, which tends to be negative, the spherical aberration of the IOL is positive and increases with lens power. Computer simulations and in vitro measurements show that tilts and decentrations might be contributors to the increased third-order aberrations in vivo in comparison with in vitro measurements.

  2. Tuning fifth-order aberrations in a Quadrupole-Octupole Corrector

    SciTech Connect

    Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of conventional electron microscopes is usually limited by spherical aberration. Microscopes equipped with aberration-correctors are then primarily limited by higher-order, chromatic, and misalignment aberrations. In particular the Nion third-order aberration correctors installed on machines with a low energy spread and possessing sophisticated alignment software were limited by the uncorrected fifth-order aberrations. Here we show how the Nion fifth-order aberration corrector can be used to adjust and reduce some of the fourth and fifth-order aberrations in a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope.

  3. Aberrant Origin of Vertebral Artery and its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant origin of vertebral artery is rare. The anatomical features and clinical significance of this lesion remain to be clarified. A comprehensive collection of the pertinent literature resulted in a cohort of 1286 cases involving 955 patients and 331 cadavers. There were more left than right and more unilateral than bilateral aberrant vertebral arteries. Patients with aberrant origin of vertebral artery were often asymptomatic and in only 5.5% of the patients their symptoms were probably related to the aberrant origin of vertebral artery. The acquired cardiovascular lesions were present in 9.5% of the patients, 20.9% of which were vertebral artery-associated lesions. Eight (0.8%) patients had a vertebral artery dissection. Logistic regression analysis showed significant regressions between bovine trunk and left vertebral artery (P=0.000), between the dual origins of vertebral artery and cerebral infarct/thrombus (P=0.041), between associated alternative congenital vascular variants and cervical/aortic dissection/atherosclerosis (P=0.008). Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that side of the aberrant origin of vertebral artery (left vertebral artery) (P=0.014), arch branch pattern (direct arch origin) (P=0.019), presence of the common trunk (P=0.019), associated acquired vascular disorder (P=0.034) and the patients who warranted management (P=0.000) were significant risk predictors for neurological sequelea. The patients with neurological symptoms and those for neck and chest operations/ interventions should be carefully screened for the possibility of an aberrant origin of vertebral artery. The results from the cadaver metrology study are very helpful in the design of the aortic stent. The arch branch pattern has to be taken into consideration before any maneuver in the local region so as to avoid unexpected events in relation to aberrant vertebral artery. PMID:27074275

  4. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of train engine drivers.

    PubMed

    Nordenson, I; Mild, K H; Järventaus, H; Hirvonen, A; Sandström, M; Wilén, J; Blix, N; Norppa, H

    2001-07-01

    Studies of Swedish railway employees have indicated that railroad engine drivers have an increased cancer morbidity and incidence of chronic lymphatic leukemia. The drivers are exposed to relatively high magnetic fields (MF), ranging from a few to over a hundred microT. Although the possible genotoxic potential of MF is unclear, some earlier studies have indicated that occupational exposure to MF may increase chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Since an increased level of chromosomal aberrations has been suggested to predict elevated cancer risk, we performed a cytogenetic analysis on cultured (48 h) peripheral lymphocytes of Swedish train engine drivers. A pilot study of 18 engine drivers indicated a significant difference in the frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations (gaps included or excluded) in comparison with seven concurrent referents (train dispatchers) and a control group of 16 office workers. The engine drivers had about four times higher frequency of cells with chromosome-type aberrations (excluding gaps) than the office workers (P < 0.01) and the dispatchers (P < 0.05). Seventy-eight percent of the engine drivers showed at least one cell per 100 with chromosome-type aberrations compared with 29% among the dispatchers and 31% among the office workers. In a follow-up study, another 30 engine drivers showed an increase (P < 0.05) in the frequency of cells with chromosome-type aberrations (gaps excluded) as compared with 30 referent policemen. Sixty percent of the engine drivers had one or more cells (per 100 cells) with chromosome-type aberrations compared with 30% among the policemen. In conclusion, the results of the two studies support the hypothesis that exposure to MF at mean intensities of 2-15 microT can induce chromosomal damage.

  5. Drug-related problems associated with self-medication and medication guided by prescription: A pharmacy-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Abinash; Pradhan, Supriya; Mohapatra, Gurukrushna; Mohapatra, Jigyansa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to identify and compare the nature of the drug-related problems (DRPs) associated with self-medication and non-self-medication (drug use guided by a prescription). Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on 1100 adult participants at a convenience sample of six retail private pharmacy counters. The data collection form was based on the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe version 6.2 classification for DRPs. Descriptive statistics was used to represent the prevalence of DRPs. Chi-square test was used to find out the association between the type of medication and DRPs. Odds ratio (OR) with confidence interval (CI) was computed to find the factors determining the occurrence of DRPs. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 18.72%. The prevalence of DRPs was 17.36%. In the self-medication group, the prevalence of DRPs was high (40.78%) as compared to the non-self-medication group (11.97%). DRP related to inappropriate drug dosing was observed in 44.83% and 40.45% subjects in self-medication and non-self-medication group, respectively (P < 0.001). The subjects in the self-medication group were about 5 times likely to have a DRP (OR: 5.06, CI: 3.59-7.14, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Self-medication is associated with a higher risk of various DRPs. Since retail pharmacy outlet is often the first point of contact between the patient and the health care system in a developing country, interventions like drug information activities at the retail pharmacy is likely to bring down the DRPs associated with self-medication. PMID:27721536

  6. Chromosome aberrations as biomarkers of radiation exposure: Modelling basic mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, F.; Ottolenghi, A.

    The space radiation environment is a mixed field consisting of different particles having different energies, including high charge and energy (HZE) ions. Conventional measurements of absorbed doses may not be sufficient to completely characterise the radiation field and perform reliable estimates of health risks. Biological dosimetry, based on the observation of specific radiation-induced endpoints (typically chromosome aberrations), can be a helpful approach in case of monitored exposure to space radiation or other mixed fields, as well as in case of accidental exposure. Furthermore, various ratios of aberrations (e.g. dicentric chromosomes to centric rings and complex exchanges to simple exchanges) have been suggested as possible fingerprints of radiation quality, although all of them have been subjected to some criticisms. In this context a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of chromosome aberration induction were developed. The model, able to provide dose-responses for different aberrations (e.g. dicentrics, rings, fragments, translocations, insertions and other complex exchanges), was further developed to assess the dependence of various ratios of aberrations on radiation quality. The predictions of the model were compared with available data, whose experimental conditions were faithfully reproduced. Particular attention was devoted to the scoring criteria adopted in different laboratories and to possible biases introduced by interphase death and mitotic delay. This latter aspect was investigated by taking into account both metaphase data and data obtained with Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC).

  7. Risk estimation based on chromosomal aberrations induced by radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Bonassi, S.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a causal association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes and the risk of cancer has been substantiated recently by epidemiological studies. Cytogenetic analyses of crew members of the Mir Space Station have shown that a significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations can be detected after flight, and that such an increase is likely to be attributed to the radiation exposure. The risk of cancer can be estimated directly from the yields of chromosomal aberrations, taking into account some aspects of individual susceptibility and other factors unrelated to radiation. However, the use of an appropriate technique for the collection and analysis of chromosomes and the choice of the structural aberrations to be measured are crucial in providing sound results. Based on the fraction of aberrant lymphocytes detected before and after flight, the relative risk after a long-term Mir mission is estimated to be about 1.2-1.3. The new technique of mFISH can provide useful insights into the quantification of risk on an individual basis.

  8. Chromosome aberrations as biomarkers of radiation exposure: modelling basic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, F; Ottolenghi, A

    2003-01-01

    The space radiation environment is a mixed field consisting of different particles having different energies, including high charge and energy (HZE) ions. Conventional measurements of absorbed doses may not be sufficient to completely characterise the radiation field and perform reliable estimates of health risks. Biological dosimetry, based on the observation of specific radiation-induced endpoints (typically chromosome aberrations), can be a helpful approach in case of monitored exposure to space radiation or other mixed fields, as well as in case of accidental exposure. Furthermore, various ratios of aberrations (e.g. dicentric chromosomes to centric rings and complex exchanges to simple exchanges) have been suggested as possible fingerprints of radiation quality, although all of them have been subjected to some criticisms. In this context a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of chromosome aberration induction were developed. The model, able to provide dose-responses for different aberrations (e.g. dicentrics, rings, fragments, translocations, insertions and other complex exchanges), was further developed to assess the dependence of various ratios of aberrations on radiation quality. The predictions of the model were compared with available data, whose experimental conditions were faithfully reproduced. Particular attention was devoted to the scoring criteria adopted in different laboratories and to possible biases introduced by interphase death and mitotic delay. This latter aspect was investigated by taking into account both metaphase data and data obtained with Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC). PMID:12971411

  9. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ``paints`` to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with {sup 144}Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to {sup 60}Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  10. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with [sup 144]Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to [sup 60]Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  11. Towards aberration correction of transcranial ultrasound using acoustic droplet vaporization.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Kevin J; Fowlkes, J Brian; Carson, Paul L; Kripfgans, Oliver D

    2008-03-01

    We report on the first experiments demonstrating the transcranial acoustic formation of stable gas bubbles that can be used for transcranial ultrasound aberration correction. It is demonstrated that the gas bubbles can be formed transcranially by phase-transitioning single, superheated, micron-size, liquid dodecafluoropentane droplets with ultrasound, a process known as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). ADV was performed at 550 kHz, where the skull is less attenuating and aberrating, allowing for higher-amplitudes to be reached at the focus. Additionally, it is demonstrated that time-reversal focusing at 1 MHz can be used to correct for transcranial aberrations with a single gas bubble acting as a point beacon. Aberration correction was performed using a synthetic aperture approach and verified by the realignment of the scattered waveforms. Under the conditions described below, time-reversal aberration correction using gas bubbles resulted in a gain of 1.9 +/- 0.3 in an introduced focusing factor. This is a small fraction of the gain anticipated from complete transmit-receive of a fully-populated two-dimensional array with sub-wavelength elements. (E-mail: khaworth@umich.edu).

  12. Minimum change in spherical aberration that can be perceived

    PubMed Central

    Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    It is important to know the visual sensitivity to optical blur from both a basic science perspective and a practical point of view. Of particular interest is the sensitivity to blur induced by spherical aberration because it is being used to increase depth of focus as a component of a presbyopic solution. Using a flicker detection-based procedure implemented on an adaptive optics visual simulator, we measured the spherical aberration thresholds that produce just-noticeable differences in perceived image quality. The thresholds were measured for positive and negative values of spherical aberration, for best focus and + 0.5 D and + 1.0 D of defocus. At best focus, the SA thresholds were 0.20 ± 0.01 µm and −0.17 ± 0.03 µm for positive and negative spherical aberration respectively (referred to a 6-mm pupil). These experimental values may be useful in setting spherical aberration permissible levels in different ophthalmic techniques. PMID:27699113

  13. Emergency Department Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Involving Antidepressants by Adolescents and Young Adults: 2004 to 2008. The DAWN Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, adolescents made 23,124 visits to the emergency department (ED) for drug-related suicide attempts, and young adults made 38,036 such visits; of these visits, 23.0 percent (5,312 visits) among adolescents and 17.6 percent (6,700 visits) among young adults involved antidepressants. Among ED visits for suicide attempts involving…

  14. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  15. Electroacupuncture Treatment Alleviates Central Poststroke Pain by Inhibiting Brain Neuronal Apoptosis and Aberrant Astrocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Gui-Hua; Tao, Shan-Shan; Chen, Man-Tang; Li, Yu-Sang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Tang, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is reported to effectively relieve the central poststroke pain (CPSP). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the detailed mechanisms of action of EA treatment at different frequencies for CPSP. A CPSP model was established with a single collagenase injection to the left ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus. The EA-treated groups then received EA treatment at frequency of 2, 2/15, or 15 Hz for 30 min daily for five days. The pain-related behavioral responses, neuronal apoptosis, glial activation, and the expression of pain signal transmission-related factors (β-catenin, COX-2, and NK-1R) were assessed using behavioral tests, Nissl staining, TUNEL staining, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The low-frequency EA treatment significantly (1) reduced brain tissue damage and hematoma sizes and (2) inhibited neuronal apoptosis, thereby exerting abirritative effects. Meanwhile, the high-frequency EA treatment induced a greater inhibition of the aberrant astrocyte activation, accompanied by the downregulation of the expressions of COX-2, β-catenin, and subsequently NK-1R, thereby alleviating inflammation and producing strong analgesic effects. Together, these findings suggest that CPSP is closely related to pathological changes of the neocortex and hippocampus. EA treatments at different frequencies may exert abirritative effects by inhibiting brain neuronal apoptosis and aberrant astrocyte activation in the brain. PMID:27774321

  16. Spectral discrimination in color blind animals via chromatic aberration and pupil shape

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Alexander L.; Stubbs, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a mechanism by which organisms with only a single photoreceptor, which have a monochromatic view of the world, can achieve color discrimination. An off-axis pupil and the principle of chromatic aberration (where different wavelengths come to focus at different distances behind a lens) can combine to provide “color-blind” animals with a way to distinguish colors. As a specific example, we constructed a computer model of the visual system of cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) that have a single unfiltered photoreceptor type. We compute a quantitative image quality budget for this visual system and show how chromatic blurring dominates the visual acuity in these animals in shallow water. We quantitatively show, through numerical simulations, how chromatic aberration can be exploited to obtain spectral information, especially through nonaxial pupils that are characteristic of coleoid cephalopods. We have also assessed the inherent ambiguity between range and color that is a consequence of the chromatic variation of best focus with wavelength. This proposed mechanism is consistent with the extensive suite of visual/behavioral and physiological data that has been obtained from cephalopod studies and offers a possible solution to the apparent paradox of vivid chromatic behaviors in color blind animals. Moreover, this proposed mechanism has potential applicability in organisms with limited photoreceptor complements, such as spiders and dolphins. PMID:27382180

  17. Spectral discrimination in color blind animals via chromatic aberration and pupil shape.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Alexander L; Stubbs, Christopher W

    2016-07-19

    We present a mechanism by which organisms with only a single photoreceptor, which have a monochromatic view of the world, can achieve color discrimination. An off-axis pupil and the principle of chromatic aberration (where different wavelengths come to focus at different distances behind a lens) can combine to provide "color-blind" animals with a way to distinguish colors. As a specific example, we constructed a computer model of the visual system of cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) that have a single unfiltered photoreceptor type. We compute a quantitative image quality budget for this visual system and show how chromatic blurring dominates the visual acuity in these animals in shallow water. We quantitatively show, through numerical simulations, how chromatic aberration can be exploited to obtain spectral information, especially through nonaxial pupils that are characteristic of coleoid cephalopods. We have also assessed the inherent ambiguity between range and color that is a consequence of the chromatic variation of best focus with wavelength. This proposed mechanism is consistent with the extensive suite of visual/behavioral and physiological data that has been obtained from cephalopod studies and offers a possible solution to the apparent paradox of vivid chromatic behaviors in color blind animals. Moreover, this proposed mechanism has potential applicability in organisms with limited photoreceptor complements, such as spiders and dolphins. PMID:27382180

  18. Expressing freedom and taking liberties: the paradoxes of aberrant science.

    PubMed

    Little, M

    2006-06-01

    Complete freedom does not exist, despite people's preparedness to die for it. Scientific freedom is much defended and yet much misunderstood. Scientists have limits imposed on their freedom by the disciplines and discourse communities in which they place themselves. Freedom within these socially constructed constraints needs to be distinguished from taking liberties with the rules and practices that make up these constraints, and validate the activities of special groups within society. Scientists (and the public) perceive taking liberties with science's rules and practices as aberrant science, and they often react punitively. Aberrant science can be broadly examined under four headings: wicked science, naughty science, dysfunctional science, and ideologically unacceptable science. When we examine examples of perceived aberrant science, we find that these categories of "misconduct" are connected and often confused. Scientific freedom needs to be redefined with due regard to current understandings of scientists as human beings facing powerful social pressures to deliver results of a particular kind.

  19. Spherical aberration of aspheric contact lenses on eye.

    PubMed

    Hammer, R M; Holden, B A

    1994-08-01

    It is important to assess aspheric rigid contact lenses not only for fit, but also for optical performance. Using ray tracing techniques, on-eye total longitudinal aberration induced by aspheric contact lenses and the variation of the tangential focus with ray height were determined. Both the contact lens and tear lens were taken into account. The front and back surface profiles of the contact lens and the corneal profile were modeled as conic sections. On-eye aberration was found to become strongly more positive as the p-value of the contact lens front surface increased. It became more negative as the back surface p-value increased, but the tendency was weaker. These calculations indicate that selection of a contact lens back surface p-value according to fitting considerations without choosing a front surface p-value to minimize aberrations could, in some circumstances, lead to a reduction in visual performance.

  20. Conformal dome aberration correction by designing the inner surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wang; Chen, Shouqian; Fan, Zhigang

    2016-12-01

    The ray transmission models of optical domes were established, and the characteristics of the rays while passing through a hemispherical dome and a conformal dome were comparatively analysed. Acquiring the minimum deviated angles from the inner surface of the conformal dome was then determined to be the designing goal for reducing the dynamic aberrations. Based on this, the inner surface of the conformal dome was optimized and thus, the dynamic aberrations were reduced. Finally, a completely cooled conformal optical system was designed. The results show that the optical system have produced good imaging quality within all the fields of regard, which further illustrates that designing the inner surface of a conformal dome is an effective method for aberration correction.

  1. Ischemic stroke injury is mediated by aberrant Cdk5.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Douglas A; Torres-Altoro, Melissa I; Tan, Zhenjun; Tozzi, Alessandro; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; DiNapoli, Vincent; Plattner, Florian; Kansy, Janice W; Benkovic, Stanley A; Huber, Jason D; Miller, Diane B; Greengard, Paul; Calabresi, Paolo; Rosen, Charles L; Bibb, James A

    2014-06-11

    Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Treatment options are limited and only a minority of patients receive acute interventions. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate neuronal injury and death may identify targets for neuroprotective treatments. Here we show that the aberrant activity of the protein kinase Cdk5 is a principal cause of neuronal death in rodents during stroke. Ischemia induced either by embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo or by oxygen and glucose deprivation in brain slices caused calpain-dependent conversion of the Cdk5-activating cofactor p35 to p25. Inhibition of aberrant Cdk5 during ischemia protected dopamine neurotransmission, maintained field potentials, and blocked excitotoxicity. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or conditional knock-out (CKO) of Cdk5 prevented neuronal death in response to ischemia. Moreover, Cdk5 CKO dramatically reduced infarctions following MCAO. Thus, targeting aberrant Cdk5 activity may serve as an effective treatment for stroke.

  2. Drug scene, drug use and drug-related health consequences and responses in Kulob and Khorog, Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    Latypov, Alisher; Otiashvili, David; Zule, William

    2014-01-01

    Background Tajikistan and other Central Asian republics are facing intertwined epidemics of injecting drug use and HIV. This paper aims to examine drug scene, drug use, drug-related infectious diseases, drug treatment and other responses to health consequences of drug injecting in two Tajik cities of Kulob (Khatlon Region) and Khorog (Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast). Methods We conducted twelve focus group discussions in Kulob and Khorog and analysed peer-reviewed literature, published and unpublished programme and country reports and other publications that focused on substance use and/or HIV/AIDS in Tajikistan and included the Khatlon and Gorno-Badakhshan regions. Results In both Kulob and Khorog, heroin is used by the overwhelming majority of people who inject drugs (PWID), with one dose of heroin in Khorog costing less than a bottle of vodka. Opioid overdose among PWID in Tajikistan is a serious issue that appears to be substantially underestimated and inadequately addressed at the policy and practice levels. In integrated bio-behavioural surveys (IBBS), HIV and HCV prevalence in both Kulob and Khorog varied widely over a short period of time, raising questions over the quality and reliability of these data. Access to opioid substitution therapy (OST) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) by PWID is either lacking or inadequate. Very few women who inject drugs access needle and syringe programmes in Kulob and Khorog. HCV treatment cannot be afforded by the overwhelming majority of PWID due to high costs. Conclusion Tajikistan IBBS data point to the potential problems in using composite national prevalence as an adequate reflection of the HIV epidemic among PWID in the country and highlight the importance of examining site-specific prevalence rates for better understanding of the dynamics of the epidemic over time as well as potential problems related to the reliability of data. Furthermore, our analysis highlights that in a country where almost all PWID inject

  3. Theorizing "Big Events" as a potential risk environment for drug use, drug-related harm and HIV epidemic outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Rossi, Diana; Braine, Naomi

    2009-05-01

    transitions. We thus posit that research on whether and how these interacting causal pathways and autonomous actions are followed by drug-related harm and/or HIV or other epidemics can help us understand how to intervene to prevent or mitigate such harms. PMID:19101131

  4. Theorizing "Big Events" as a potential risk environment for drug use, drug-related harm and HIV epidemic outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Rossi, Diana; Braine, Naomi

    2009-05-01

    transitions. We thus posit that research on whether and how these interacting causal pathways and autonomous actions are followed by drug-related harm and/or HIV or other epidemics can help us understand how to intervene to prevent or mitigate such harms.

  5. Increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in railroad car painters.

    PubMed

    Piña-Calva, A; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Fuentes, M V; Neria, P; Pérez-Lucio, C; Vélez-Zamora, N M

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to paints and solvents contributes to chromosomal alterations in occupationally exposed individuals. A total of 25 male railroad and underground railroad car painters were studied. This group had a mean age of 32.7 y and a mean exposure time of 5.2 y. The results were compared with those obtained for 25 healthy (unexposed) males. The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations clearly revealed an increase in the number of all types of aberrations considered in the population of painters. This suggests that exposure to a combination of chemicals may increase genotoxicity in industrial workers. PMID:1772257

  6. Aberration-Free Imaging for Light and Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Fluegel, B.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2008-01-01

    The equations for refraction of either the extraordinary wave of light or the wavefunction of an electron at a planar boundary between two misoriented uniaxially anisotropic materials are shown via raytracing to yield a transverse displacement of the object point. The displacement is independent of ray incidence angle and is thus free from spherical aberration, yielding a perfect virtual image which can have applications in birefringent optics. The general conditions for this aberration-free imaging are found to be identical to those required for amphoteric total refraction.

  7. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    SciTech Connect

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I

    2001-12-31

    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  8. Dysphagia Lusoria Caused by an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Carrizo, Gonzalo J.; Marjani, Massoud A.

    2004-01-01

    A 36-year-old, otherwise-healthy woman with a 6-year history of progressive dysphagia underwent an esophagogram that revealed an oblique extrinsic defect with an inferior-to-superior (left-to-right) course consistent with an aberrant right subclavian artery. An aortogram confirmed the diagnosis of aberrant right subclavian artery. She underwent surgical repair, tolerated the procedure well, and was discharged home, symptom free, on postoperative day 3. We found that the right supraclavicular approach provides good exposure and avoids the morbidity of the classically described approach via a median sternotomy or thoracotomy. PMID:15212130

  9. Measurement of wavefront aberrations of diffractive imaging elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajac, Marek; Dubik, Boguslawa

    1998-01-01

    Diffractive optics is more and more widely used nowadays. One of its most important applications is diffractive imaging element (DIE). The DIE can be a lens (Holo-lens, diffractive lens, hybrid lens) or a part of complex imaging system (e.g. an aberration corrector). Apart of such problems occurring when dealing with DIE as its design, manufacture or copying the problem of its control is important. By this we mean the measurement of wavefront generated by DIE, i.e. the evaluation of wavefront aberrations. To this aim we propose two different experimental methods: one of them employs diffraction interferometer, the other one holographic shearing interferometer.

  10. Aberration Theory - A Spectrum Of Design Techniques For The Perplexed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, David

    1986-10-01

    The early medieval scholar Maimonides wrote a famous book called "Guide for the Perplexed", which explained various thorny philosophical and religious questions for the benefit of the puzzled novice. I wish I had had such a person to guide me when I first started a career in lens design. There the novice is often struck by how much of an "art" this endeavor is. The best bet, for a beginner with no experience, should be to turn to optical aberration theory - which, in principle, should explain much of what goes into designing an optical system. Unfortunately, this subject is usually presented in the form of proofs and derivations, with little time spent on the practical implications of aberration theory. Furthermore, a new generation of lens designers, who grew up with the computer, often consider aberration theory as an unnecessary relic from the past. My career, by contrast, is based on the conviction that using the results of aberration theory is the only intelligent way to design optical systems. Computers are an invaluable aide, but we must, ultimately, bite the bullet and think. Along these lines, I have given several papers over the last few years which deal directly with the philosophy of lens design; the kind of guides for the perplexed that I wished I had had from the start. These papers include: "Lens design on a desert island - A simple method of optical design", "A modular method of optical design", "Optical design with air lenses", "Optical design with 'phantom' aspherics", "Optical design methods: your head as a personal computer", "Aberration theory and the meaning of life", and a paper at Innsbruck - "Some interesting correspondences in aberration theory". In all cases, the emphasis is on using your head to think, and the computer to help you out with the numerical work and the "fine-tuning" of a design. To hope that the computer will do the thinking for you is folly. Solutions gained by this route rarely equal the results of an experienced and

  11. Aberration of a negative ion beam caused by space charge effect.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Wada, S; Hatayama, A

    2010-02-01

    Aberrations are inevitable when the charged particle beams are extracted, accelerated, transmitted, and focused with electrostatic and magnetic fields. In this study, we investigate the aberration of a negative ion accelerator for a neutral beam injector theoretically, especially the spherical aberration caused by the negative ion beam expansion due to the space charge effect. The negative ion current density profiles with the spherical aberration are compared with those without the spherical aberration. It is found that the negative ion current density profiles in a log scale are tailed due to the spherical aberration.

  12. Aberrant Pattern of Scanning in Prosopagnosia Reflects Impaired Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Blossom Christa Maree; Caine, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Visual scanpath recording was used to investigate the information processing strategies used by a prosopagnosic patient, SC, when viewing faces. Compared to controls, SC showed an aberrant pattern of scanning, directing attention away from the internal configuration of facial features (eyes, nose) towards peripheral regions (hair, forehead) of the…

  13. Chromosome aberrations in plants as a monitoring system.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, W F

    1978-01-01

    The potential of higher plants as a first-tier assay system for detecting chemical mutagens is evaluated. The use of plant tissue (primarily root tips and pollen mother cells) for studying the induction of chromosomal aberrations is one of the oldest, simplest, most reliable, and inexpensive methods available. Specific types of abnormalities have been induced by different classes of pesticides. Chromosome clumping, contraction, stickiness, paling, fragmentation, dissolution, chromosome and chromatid bridges, C-mitosis, and endoploidy have been reported in the literature. Examples of cytogenetic studies with pesticides demonstrating the usefulness of higher plants as a monitoring system are reviewed. Pesticides which cause chromosome aberrations in plant cells also produce chromosome aberrations in cultured animal cells. Frequently, the aberrations are identical. For example, studies have shown that compounds which have a C-mitotic effect on plant cells have the same effect on animal cells. It is recommended that plant systems be accepted as a first-tier assay system for the detection of possible genetic damage by environmental chemicals. PMID:367773

  14. Corneal primary aberrations compensation by oblique light incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David; Kasprzak, Henryk T.

    2009-07-01

    The eye is not a centered system. The line of sight connects the fovea with the center of the pupil and is usually tilted in the temporal direction. Thus, off-axis optical aberrations, mainly coma and oblique astigmatism, are introduced at the fovea. Tabernero et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(10), 3274-3283 (2007)] showed that a horizontal tilt of the crystalline lens generates a horizontal coma aberration that is compensated by the oblique light incidence on the eye. Here we suggest that corneal astigmatism may also play a role in compensation of oblique aberrations, and we propose a simple model to analyze such a possibility. A theoretical Kooijman eye model with a slight (~0.6 D) with-the-rule astigmatism is analyzed. Light rays at different incidence angles to the optical axis are considered, and the corresponding point spread functions (PSFs) at the retina are calculated. A quality criterion is used to determine the incidence angle that provides the narrowest and highest PSF energy peak. We show that the best image is obtained for a tilted incidence angle compatible with mean values of the angle kappa. This suggests that angle kappa, lens tilt, and corneal astigmatism may combine to provide a passive compensation mechanism to minimize aberrations on the fovea.

  15. Mapping magnetism with atomic resolution using aberrated electron probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, Juan; Rusz, Ján; McGuire, Michael A.; Symons, Christopher T.; Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Lupini, Andrew R.

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, we report a direct experimental real-space mapping of magnetic circular dichroism with atomic resolution in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Using an aberrated electron probe with customized phase distribution, we reveal with electron energy-loss (EEL) spectroscopy the checkerboard antiferromagnetic ordering of Mn moments in LaMnAsO by observing a dichroic signal in the Mn L-edge. The aberrated probes allow the collection of EEL spectra using the transmitted beam, which results in a magnetic circular dichroic signal with intrinsically larger signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained via nanodiffraction techniques (where most of the transmitted electrons are discarded). The novel experimental setup presented here, which can easily be implemented in aberration-corrected STEM, opens new paths for probing dichroic signals in materials with unprecedented spatial resolution. This research was supported by DOE SUFD MSED, by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US DOE, and by the Swedish Research Council and Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (NSC center)

  16. Nanowire growth kinetics in aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Chou, Yi -Chia; Panciera, Federico; Reuter, Mark C.; Stach, Eric A.; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-03-15

    Here, we visualize atomic level dynamics during Si nanowire growth using aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy, and compare with lower pressure results from ultra-high vacuum microscopy. We discuss the importance of higher pressure observations for understanding growth mechanisms and describe protocols to minimize effects of the higher pressure background gas.

  17. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Using Negative Spherical Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chun-Lin; Lentzen, Markus

    2004-04-01

    A novel imaging mode for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is described. It is based on the adjustment of a negative value of the spherical aberration CS of the objective lens of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a multipole aberration corrector system. Negative spherical aberration applied together with an overfocus yields high-resolution images with bright-atom contrast. Compared to all kinds of images taken in conventional transmission electron microscopes, where the then unavoidable positive spherical aberration is combined with an underfocus, the contrast is dramatically increased. This effect can only be understood on the basis of a full nonlinear imaging theory. Calculations show that the nonlinear contrast contributions diminish the image contrast relative to the linear image for a positive-CS setting whereas they reinforce the image contrast relative to the linear image for a negative-CS setting. The application of the new mode to the imaging of oxygen in SrTiO3 and YBa2Cu3O7 demonstrates the benefit to materials science investigations. It allows us to image directly, without further image processing, strongly scattering heavy-atom columns together with weakly scattering light-atom columns.

  18. Chromosomal aberrations analysis in a Brazilian population exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, G A; de Syllos Cólus, I M

    2000-01-01

    In spite of being harmful, pesticides are widely used in Brazil. Their genotoxic effects might be studied through population monitoring by means of the analysis of chromosomal aberrations in occupationally exposed individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chromosomal aberration frequencies in temporary cultures of lymphocytes from periferic blood of 23 workers professionally exposed to a mixture of pesticides. The workers were employed by the Agronomic Institute of Parana (Brazil) and used all of the prevention measures provided. A detailed history of pesticide use, as well as personal data, smoking habits, and history of recent illnesses and medical treatment were collected through a standardized questionnaire administered to each subject. Nonexposed subjects, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, served as the negative control. A total of 100 cells were analyzed from each individual. A significant increase in chromosomal aberration frequencies was observed in exposed individuals when compared to the control group. Some individual characteristics such as age, sex, time of exposure to the pesticides, and smoking habits showed no correlation with chromosomal aberrations. Therefore, the positive results may be considered true effects of pesticides on human somatic cells. PMID:10992273

  19. The Aberrant Salience Inventory: A New Measure of Psychosis Proneness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant salience is the unusual or incorrect assignment of salience, significance, or importance to otherwise innocuous stimuli and has been hypothesized to be important for psychosis and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Despite the importance of this concept in psychosis research, no questionnaire measures are available to assess…

  20. The Geometrical Optics PSF with Third Order Aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Uribe, Rufino; Campos-García, Manuel

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the calculation of the GPSF from the Geometrical Optics Irradiance Law (GOIL) is recalled, including some details not found in other references. Also it is explored an alternative solution based on the Irradiance Transport Equation (ITE). Some simulations of images of an extended object produced by an image forming instrument affected by spherical aberration are shown.

  1. Membrane-based deformable mirror: intrinsic aberrations and alignment issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Bayanna, A.; Louis, Rohan E.; Chatterjee, S.; Mathew, Shibu K.; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2015-03-01

    A Deformable Mirror (DM) is an important component of an Adaptive Optics system. It is known that an on-axis spherical/parabolic optical component, placed at an angle to the incident beam introduces defocus as well as astigmatism in the image plane. Although the former can be compensated by changing the focal plane position, the latter cannot be removed by mere optical re-alignment. Since the DM is to be used to compensate a turbulence-induced curvature term in addition to other aberrations, it is necessary to determine the aberrations induced by such (curved DM surface) an optical element when placed at an angle (other than 0 degree) of incidence in the optical path. To this effect, we estimate to a first order, the aberrations introduced by a DM as a function of the incidence angle and deformation of the DM surface. We record images using a simple setup in which the incident beam is reflected by a 37 channel Micro-machined Membrane Deformable Mirror for various angles of incidence. It is observed that astigmatism is a dominant aberration which was determined by measuring the difference between the tangential and sagital focal planes. We justify our results on the basis of theoretical simulations and discuss the feasibility of using such a system for adaptive optics considering a trade-off between wavefront correction and astigmatism due to deformation.

  2. The Missing Psychological Behaviorism Chapter in "A History of the Behavioral Therapies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    "A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…

  3. Canine urothelial carcinoma: genomically aberrant and comparatively relevant

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, S. G.; Raghunath, S.; Williams, C.; Motsinger-Reif, A. A.; Cullen, J. M.; Liu, T.; Albertson, D.; Ruvolo, M.; Lucas, A. Bergstrom; Jin, J.; Knapp, D. W.; Schiffman, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC), also referred to as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), is the most common bladder malignancy in both human and canine populations. In human UC, numerous studies have demonstrated the prevalence of chromosomal imbalances. Although the histopathology of the disease is similar in both species, studies evaluating the genomic profile of canine UC are lacking, limiting the discovery of key comparative molecular markers associated with driving UC pathogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated 31 primary canine UC biopsies by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH). Results highlighted the presence of three highly recurrent numerical aberrations: gain of dog chromosome (CFA) 13 and 36 and loss of CFA 19. Regional gains of CFA 13 and 36 were present in 97% and 84% of cases, respectively, and losses on CFA 19 were present in 77% of cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and custom Agilent SureFISH probes, was performed to detect and quantify these regions in paraffin-embedded biopsy sections and urine-derived urothelial cells. The data indicate that these three aberrations are potentially diagnostic of UC. Comparison of our canine oaCGH data with that of 285 human cases identified a series of shared copy number aberrations. Using an informatics approach to interrogate the frequency of copy number aberrations across both species, we identified those that had the highest joint probability of association with UC. The most significant joint region contained the gene PABPC1, which should be considered further for its role in UC progression. In addition, cross-species filtering of genome-wide copy number data highlighted several genes as high-profile candidates for further analysis, including CDKN2A, S100A8/9, and LRP1B. We propose that these common aberrations are indicative of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of pathogenesis and harbor genes key to

  4. Non-Gaussianity and CMB aberration and Doppler

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Notari, Alessio E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it E-mail: arenzi@pd.infn.it

    2013-09-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces a deflection in the arrival direction of the observed photons (also known as CMB aberration) and a Doppler shift in the measured photon frequencies. As a consequence, aberration and Doppler effects induce non trivial correlations between the harmonic coefficients of the observed CMB temperature maps. In this paper we investigate whether these correlations generate a bias on non-Gaussianity estimators f{sub NL}. We perform this analysis simulating a large number of temperature maps with Planck-like resolution (lmax = 2000) as different realizations of the same cosmological fiducial model (WMAP7yr). We then add to these maps aberration and Doppler effects employing a modified version of the HEALPix code. We finally evaluate a generalization of the Komatsu, Spergel and Wandelt non-Gaussianity estimator for all the simulated maps, both when peculiar velocity effects have been considered and when these phenomena have been neglected. Using the value v/c = 1.23 × 10{sup −3} for our peculiar velocity, we found that the aberration/Doppler induced non-Gaussian signal is at most of about half of the cosmic variance σ for f{sub NL} both in a full-sky and in a cut-sky experimental configuration, for local, equilateral and orthogonal estimators. We conclude therefore that when estimating f{sub NL} it is safe to ignore aberration and Doppler effects if the primordial map is already Gaussian. More work is necessary however to assess whether a map which contains non-Gaussianity can be significantly distorted by a peculiar velocity.

  5. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlmann-Diaz, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 10[sup 5] copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G[sub 0], the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes.

  6. Aberrant Learning and Memory in Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Torregrossa, Mary M.; Corlett, Philip R.; Taylor, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, drug addiction has increasingly been accepted to be a disease of the brain as opposed to simply being due to a lack of willpower or personality flaw. Exposure to addictive substances has been shown to create enduring changes in brain structure and function that are thought to underlie the transition to addiction. Specific genetic and environmental vulnerability factors also influence the impact of drugs of abuse on the brain and can enhance the likelihood of becoming an addict. Long-lasting alterations in brain function have been found in neural circuits that are known to be responsible for normal appetitive learning and memory processes and it has been hypothesized that drugs of abuse enhance positive learning and memory about the drug while inhibiting learning about the negative consequences of drug use. Therefore, the addict's behavior becomes increasingly directed towards obtaining and using drugs of abuse, while at the same time developing a poorer ability to stop using, even when the drug is less rewarding or interferes with functioning in other facets of life. In this review we will discuss the clinical evidence that addicted individuals have altered learning and memory and describe the possible neural substrates of this dysfunction. In addition, we will explore the preclinical evidence that drugs of abuse cause a progressive disorder of learning and memory, review the molecular and neurobiological changes that may underlie this disorder, determine the genetic and environmental factors that may increase vulnerability to addiction, and suggest potential strategies for treating addiction through manipulations of learning and memory. PMID:21376820

  7. Aberrant learning and memory in addiction.

    PubMed

    Torregrossa, Mary M; Corlett, Philip R; Taylor, Jane R

    2011-11-01

    Over the past several years, drug addiction has increasingly been accepted to be a disease of the brain as opposed to simply being due to a lack of willpower or personality flaw. Exposure to addictive substances has been shown to create enduring changes in brain structure and function that are thought to underlie the transition to addiction. Specific genetic and environmental vulnerability factors also influence the impact of drugs of abuse on the brain and can enhance the likelihood of becoming an addict. Long-lasting alterations in brain function have been found in neural circuits that are known to be responsible for normal appetitive learning and memory processes and it has been hypothesized that drugs of abuse enhance positive learning and memory about the drug while inhibiting learning about the negative consequences of drug use. Therefore, the addict's behavior becomes increasingly directed towards obtaining and using drugs of abuse, while at the same time developing a poorer ability to stop using, even when the drug is less rewarding or interferes with functioning in other facets of life. In this review we will discuss the clinical evidence that addicted individuals have altered learning and memory and describe the possible neural substrates of this dysfunction. In addition, we will explore the pre-clinical evidence that drugs of abuse cause a progressive disorder of learning and memory, review the molecular and neurobiological changes that may underlie this disorder, determine the genetic and environmental factors that may increase vulnerability to addiction, and suggest potential strategies for treating addiction through manipulations of learning and memory. PMID:21376820

  8. Aberrations measurement of freeform spectacle lenses based on Hartmann wavefront technology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Fang, Fengzhou; Qiu, Zhongjun

    2015-02-10

    Freeform spectacle lenses have been popularized in the past few years. Traditional evaluation methods only focused on the refractive power parameters. The inspection technology of wavefront aberration has been introduced to optometry. In this paper, the wavefront aberration is used to evaluate the freeform spectacle lenses. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront technology is used to measure the same zones on the lenses with different designed forms. It shows that the aberration distributions are different from each other. The design with the freeform surface on the back can obtain the smallest aberrations in the entire surface. The aberrations on different zones for the same lens are analyzed. The blending zones show the greatest aberrations. The aberration on the progressive corridor is greater than the other zones. The Hartmann wavefront technology can be used to measure the wavefront aberration of freeform spectacle lenses. PMID:25968012

  9. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2016-08-01

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field's components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field's derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope.

  10. [Social networks, risk dyads, and their role in the epidemiology and prevention of drug related infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Gyarmathy, V Anna; Rácz, József

    2010-08-01

    In the case of risk behaviors where infection transmission occurs through social relationships (e.g. via sharing drugs and injecting equipment, or through sexual relations), prevention should follow (among others) the path of the social network. Previous studies have shown that sharing of injecting equipment is more likely to occur in larger and denser networks and that more popular individuals are more likely to engage in risk behaviors, become infected or transmit infection. Primary targets of social network interventions are central individuals, and information diffuses from them to the more peripheral members of the network. The most effective preventions are those where social network interventions targeting high-risk, central individuals are complemented by concurrent individual counseling and/or dyad interventions. Injecting drug users in Hungary would also benefit from such a multifaceted prevention approach aiming to reduce risky injecting behavior. This population needs prevention, in whatever form available, to prevent the deterioration of the current HCV and HIV epidemiological situation in Hungary and the development of an HIV epidemic that will eventually spread over to the general population. PMID:20656668

  11. [Aberrations of the alarm call of the steppe marmot, Marmota bobak (Rodentia, Sciuridae)].

    PubMed

    Nikol'skiĭ, A A

    2008-01-01

    Aberrations, or deviations from the normal type of alarm call have been studied in the steppe marmot. One regular and several rare aberrations have been identified. The regular aberration manifests itself in all six populations studied, from the Kharkov Region in the west to the eastern border of the Orenburg Region in the east, with its frequency in the populations varying in different years from 10 to 66%. Rare aberrations occur sporadically and not in all populations.

  12. Aberrant left subclavian artery associated with a Kommerell's diverticulum and a left-sided aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pey-Jen; Balsam, Leora B; Mussa, Firas F; DeAnda, Abe

    2012-09-01

    Kommerell's diverticulum is most commonly associated with either an aberrant left subclavian artery from a right-sided aortic arch or an aberrant right subclavian artery from a left-sided aortic arch. We describe an exceedingly rare case of an aberrant left subclavian artery arising from a Kommerell's diverticulum in a patient with a left-sided aortic arch, the "nonaberrant aberrant left subclavian artery."

  13. The BHVI-EyeMapper: Peripheral Refraction and Aberration Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Bakaraju, Ravi C.; Holden, Brien A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this article was to present the optical design of a new instrument (BHVI-EyeMapper, EM), which is dedicated to rapid peripheral wavefront measurements across the visual field for distance and near, and to compare the peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles obtained in myopic eyes with and without accommodation. Methods Central and peripheral refractive errors (M, J180, and J45) and higher-order aberrations (C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0]) were measured in 26 myopic participants (mean [±SD] age, 20.9 [±2.0] years; mean [±SD] spherical equivalent, −3.00 [±0.90] diopters [D]) corrected for distance. Measurements were performed along the horizontal visual field with (−2.00 to −5.00 D) and without (+1.00 D fogging) accommodation. Changes as a function of accommodation were compared using tilt and curvature coefficients of peripheral refraction and aberration profiles. Results As accommodation increased, the relative peripheral refraction profiles of M and J180 became significantly (p < 0.05) more negative and the profile of M became significantly (p < 0.05) more asymmetric. No significant differences were found for the J45 profiles (p > 0.05). The peripheral aberration profiles of C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0] became significantly (p < 0.05) less asymmetric as accommodation increased, but no differences were found in the curvature. Conclusions The current study showed that significant changes in peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles occurred during accommodation in myopic eyes. With its extended measurement capabilities, that is, permitting rapid peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration measurements up to visual field angles of ±50 degrees for distance and near (up to −5.00 D), the EM is a new advanced instrument that may provide additional insights in the ongoing quest to understand and monitor myopia development. PMID:25105690

  14. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas

    2015-08-01

    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy - or rather nanoscopy - to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem.

  15. Aberrant expression and function of gap junctions during carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, H

    1991-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication plays a key role in the maintenance of homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Reflecting deranged homeostasis in cancer cells, most transformed or cancerous cells show aberrant gap junctional intercellular communication; they have decreased junctional communication between each other and/or with surrounding normal cells. Studies with in vitro cell transformation and animal carcinogenesis models suggest an involvement of blocked intercellular communication in later stages of carcinogenesis. Analysis of expression of gap junction proteins (connexins) and corresponding mRNA indicates that a number of regulation sites are involved in aberrant function of gap junctions during carcinogenesis. Suppression of transformed phenotypes is often seen when transformed cells are physically in contact with their normal counterparts. Some studies suggest that gap junctional intercellular communication is involved in such tumor suppression. PMID:1663449

  16. Electromagnetic Induction Aberration: The Possible Mechanism of Tic Douloureux.

    PubMed

    Rish, Berkley

    2015-03-01

    A theory based on the principles of electromagnetic induction aberration is presented as the possible mechanism of classic trigeminal neuralgia, tic douloureux. The anatomy of the dorsal root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve at the pons in the proximity of the superior cerebellar artery presents a scenario conducive to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. When the action potentials traversing the axons in this zone of the compromised myelin come into juxtaposition with the vascular structure, the criteria for electromagnetic induction are satisfied. The laws of physics governing the phenomenon indicate that a new current, an aberration, would be produced. This could be responsible for the clinical symptoms of tic douloureux. Other clinical situations with similar features could share this mechanism. This proposed theory, a merger of anatomy, neurophysiology, and the physics of electromagnetic induction, extends the established concept of vascular compression as the etiology of tic douloureux.

  17. Evaluation of an automated karyotyping system for chromosome aberration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prichard, Howard M.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome aberration analysis is a promising complement to conventional radiation dosimetry, particularly in the complex radiation fields encountered in the space environment. The capabilities of a recently developed automated karyotyping system were evaluated both to determine current capabilities and limitations and to suggest areas where future development should be emphasized. Cells exposed to radiometric chemicals and to photon and particulate radiation were evaluated by manual inspection and by automated karyotyping. It was demonstrated that the evaluated programs were appropriate for image digitization, storage, and transmission. However, automated and semi-automated scoring techniques must be advanced significantly if in-flight chromosome aberration analysis is to be practical. A degree of artificial intelligence may be necessary to realize this goal.

  18. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to epilepsy and associated cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Ok; Lybrand, Zane R; Ito, Naoki; Brulet, Rebecca; Tafacory, Farrah; Zhang, Ling; Good, Levi; Ure, Kerstin; Kernie, Steven G; Birnbaum, Shari G; Scharfman, Helen E; Eisch, Amelia J; Hsieh, Jenny

    2015-03-26

    Acute seizures after a severe brain insult can often lead to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis follows the insult but the role of adult-generated neurons in the development of chronic seizures or associated cognitive deficits remains to be determined. Here we show that the ablation of adult neurogenesis before pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in mice leads to a reduction in chronic seizure frequency. We also show that ablation of neurogenesis normalizes epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits. Remarkably, the effect of ablating adult neurogenesis before acute seizures is long lasting as it suppresses chronic seizure frequency for nearly 1 year. These findings establish a key role of neurogenesis in chronic seizure development and associated memory impairment and suggest that targeting aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis may reduce recurrent seizures and restore cognitive function following a pro-epileptic brain insult.

  19. Detection of epigenetic aberrations in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujing

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex, multistep process. It is now recognized that HCC is a both genetic and epigenetic disease; genetic and epigenetic components cooperate at all stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. Epigenetic changes involve aberrant DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications and aberrant expression of microRNAs all of which can affect the expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other tumor-related genes and alter the pathways in cancer development. Several risk factors for HCC, including hepatitis B and C virus infections and exposure to the chemical carcinogen aflatoxin B1 have been found to influence epigenetic changes. Their interactions could play an important role in the initiation and progression of HCC. Discovery and detection of biomarkers for epigenetic changes is a promising area for early diagnosis and risk prediction of HCC.

  20. Functional annotation of rare gene aberration drivers of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Yiu Huen; Dogruluk, Turgut; Tedeschi, Philip M; Wardwell-Ozgo, Joanna; Lu, Hengyu; Espitia, Maribel; Nair, Nikitha; Minelli, Rosalba; Chong, Zechen; Chen, Fengju; Chang, Qing Edward; Dennison, Jennifer B; Dogruluk, Armel; Li, Min; Ying, Haoqiang; Bertino, Joseph R; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Ittmann, Michael; Kerrigan, John; Chen, Ken; Creighton, Chad J; Eterovic, Karina; Mills, Gordon B; Scott, Kenneth L

    2016-01-01

    As we enter the era of precision medicine, characterization of cancer genomes will directly influence therapeutic decisions in the clinic. Here we describe a platform enabling functionalization of rare gene mutations through their high-throughput construction, molecular barcoding and delivery to cancer models for in vivo tumour driver screens. We apply these technologies to identify oncogenic drivers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This approach reveals oncogenic activity for rare gene aberrations in genes including NAD Kinase (NADK), which regulates NADP(H) homeostasis and cellular redox state. We further validate mutant NADK, whose expression provides gain-of-function enzymatic activity leading to a reduction in cellular reactive oxygen species and tumorigenesis, and show that depletion of wild-type NADK in PDAC cell lines attenuates cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that annotating rare aberrations can reveal important cancer signalling pathways representing additional therapeutic targets. PMID:26806015

  1. The effect of wavefront aberrations in atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schkolnik, V.; Leykauf, B.; Hauth, M.; Freier, C.; Peters, A.

    2015-08-01

    Wavefront aberrations are one of the largest uncertainty factors in present atom interferometers. We present a detailed numerical and experimental analysis of this effect based on measured aberrations from optical windows. By placing windows into the Raman beam path of our atomic gravimeter, we verify for the first time the induced bias in very good agreement with theory. Our method can be used to reduce the uncertainty in atomic gravimeters by one order of magnitude, resulting in an error of <3 × 10-10g, and it is suitable in a wide variety of atom interferometers with thermal or ultracold atoms. We discuss the limitations of our method, potential improvements, and its role in future generation experiments.

  2. [239Pu and chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Okladnikova, N D; Osovets, S V; Kudriavtseva, T I

    2009-01-01

    The genome status in somatic cells was assessed using the chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 194 plutonium workers exposed to occupational radiation mainly from low-transportable compounds of airborne 230Pu. Pu body burden at the time of cytogenetic study varied from values close to the method sensitivity to values multiply exceeding the permissible level. Standard (routine) methods of peripheral blood lymphocytes cultivation were applied. Chromatid- and chromosomal-type structural changes were estimated. Aberrations were estimated per 100 examined metaphase cells. The quantitative relationship between the CA frequency and Pu body burden and the absorbed dose to the lung was found. Mathematical processing of results was carried out based on the phenomenological model. The results were shown as theoretical and experimental curves. The threshold of the CA yield was 0.43 +/- 0.03 kBq (Pu body burden) and 6.12 +/- 1.20 cGy (absorbed dose to the lung).

  3. EUV phase-shifting masks and aberration monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yunfei; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2002-07-01

    Rigorous electromagnetic simulation with TEMPEST is used to examine the use of phase-shifting masks in EUV lithography. The effects of oblique incident illumination and mask patterning by ion-mixing of multilayers are analyzed. Oblique incident illumination causes streamers at absorber edges and causes position shifting in aerial images. The diffraction waves between ion-mixed and pristine multilayers are observed. The phase-shifting caused by stepped substrates is simulated and images show that it succeeds in creation of phase-shifting effects. The diffraction process at the phase boundary is also analyzed. As an example of EUV phase-shifting masks, a coma pattern and probe based aberration monitor is simulated and aerial images are formed under different levels of coma aberration. The probe signal rises quickly as coma increases as designed.

  4. Application of pupil spherical aberration in tuning zoom lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen-Hung; Chang, Horng; Lin, Hoang Yan

    2012-06-01

    Fine tuning the performance of a zoom lens, at the final design stage, is still a challenging problem for lens designers. This is mainly due to the difficulties in setting up a reliable criterion as the discriminator. In this paper, following some previous studies on pupil spherical aberration (PSA, denoted as SVI) (Wynne 1952 Proc. Phys. Soc. 65 429-37, Kidger 1996 Proc. SPIE 2774 722-7) where the conditions for invariance of Seidel aberration during conjugate changes were given, a simple method was derived to analyze the steady zone of a zoom lens variator. A previously designed zoom system (Laikin 2006 Lens Design 3rd edn (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press) pp 393-5) was selected as an example and it was shown how its image quality can be balanced and improved computationally. The potential application of our method was also addressed in the conclusion.

  5. Spherical Aberration Corrections for the Electrostatic Gridded Lens

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin,A.

    2008-05-01

    Two methods of spherical aberration corrections of an electrostatic gridded lens have been studied with ray tracing simulations. Both methods are based on modifying electrostatic field on the periphery of the lens. In a simplest case such modification is done by extending the part of the grid support on its radial periphery in axial direction. In alternative method the electric field on the radial periphery of the lens is modified by applying an optimum voltage on an electrically isolated correcting electrode. It was demonstrated, that for a given focal length the voltage on this lens can be optimized for minimum aberration The performance of lenses is presented as a lens contribution to the beam RMS normalized emittance.

  6. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to epilepsy and associated cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Ok; Lybrand, Zane R; Ito, Naoki; Brulet, Rebecca; Tafacory, Farrah; Zhang, Ling; Good, Levi; Ure, Kerstin; Kernie, Steven G; Birnbaum, Shari G; Scharfman, Helen E; Eisch, Amelia J; Hsieh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Acute seizures after a severe brain insult can often lead to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis follows the insult but the role of adult-generated neurons in the development of chronic seizures or associated cognitive deficits remains to be determined. Here we show that the ablation of adult neurogenesis before pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in mice leads to a reduction in chronic seizure frequency. We also show that ablation of neurogenesis normalizes epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits. Remarkably, the effect of ablating adult neurogenesis before acute seizures is long lasting as it suppresses chronic seizure frequency for nearly 1 year. These findings establish a key role of neurogenesis in chronic seizure development and associated memory impairment and suggest that targeting aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis may reduce recurrent seizures and restore cognitive function following a pro-epileptic brain insult. PMID:25808087

  7. Functional annotation of rare gene aberration drivers of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Yiu Huen; Dogruluk, Turgut; Tedeschi, Philip M.; Wardwell-Ozgo, Joanna; Lu, Hengyu; Espitia, Maribel; Nair, Nikitha; Minelli, Rosalba; Chong, Zechen; Chen, Fengju; Chang, Qing Edward; Dennison, Jennifer B.; Dogruluk, Armel; Li, Min; Ying, Haoqiang; Bertino, Joseph R.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Ittmann, Michael; Kerrigan, John; Chen, Ken; Creighton, Chad J.; Eterovic, Karina; Mills, Gordon B.; Scott, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    As we enter the era of precision medicine, characterization of cancer genomes will directly influence therapeutic decisions in the clinic. Here we describe a platform enabling functionalization of rare gene mutations through their high-throughput construction, molecular barcoding and delivery to cancer models for in vivo tumour driver screens. We apply these technologies to identify oncogenic drivers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This approach reveals oncogenic activity for rare gene aberrations in genes including NAD Kinase (NADK), which regulates NADP(H) homeostasis and cellular redox state. We further validate mutant NADK, whose expression provides gain-of-function enzymatic activity leading to a reduction in cellular reactive oxygen species and tumorigenesis, and show that depletion of wild-type NADK in PDAC cell lines attenuates cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that annotating rare aberrations can reveal important cancer signalling pathways representing additional therapeutic targets. PMID:26806015

  8. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method is disclosed for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe. 11 figs.

  9. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1998-01-01

    A method for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe.

  10. Holographic optical system for aberration corrections in laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, R. C.; Case, S. K.; Schock, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical system containing multifaceted holographic optical elements (HOEs) has been developed to correct for aberrations introduced by nonflat windows in laser Doppler velocimetry. The multifacet aberration correction approach makes it possible to record on one plate many sets of adjacent HOEs that address different measurement volume locations. By using 5-mm-diameter facets, it is practical to place 10-20 sets of holograms on one 10 x 12.5-cm plate, so that the procedure of moving the entire optical system to examine different locations may not be necessary. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin and therefore are nonabsorptive and suitable for use with high-power argon laser beams. Low f-number optics coupled with a 90-percent efficient distortion-correcting hologram in the collection side of the system yield high optical efficiency.

  11. Automated spherical aberration correction in scanning confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H. W.; van Royen, M. E.; van Cappellen, W. A.; Houtsmuller, A. B.; Verhaegen, M.; Schitter, G.

    2014-12-01

    Mismatch between the refractive indexes of immersion media and glass coverslips introduces spherical aberrations in microscopes especially for high numerical aperture objectives. This contribution demonstrates an automated adjustment of the coverslip correction collar in scanning confocal microscopy to compensate for spherical aberrations due to coverslip thickness mismatch. With a motorized coverslip correction collar, the adjustment procedure consists of xz image scans, image processing, correction quality evaluation, the mismatch estimation, and eventually the optimal adjustment of the correction collar. For fast correction with less photodamage, coarse-fine Gaussian fitting algorithms are proposed and evaluated with various specimen for their estimation accuracy. The benefits of the proposed automated correction are demonstrated for various coverslips with biological specimens, showing the optimized resolution of the confocal microscope.

  12. Thoracic Kidney: Extremely Rare State of Aberrant Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Khoshchehreh, Mahdi; Paknejad, Omalbanin; Bakhshayesh-Karam, Mehrdad; Pazoki, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    The thorax is the rarest place among all forms of renal ectopia. We report a rare case of an unacquired thoracic kidney. Only about 200 cases of the thoracic kidney have ever been reported in medical literature worldwide. In this paper we present the rarest form of nontraumatic nonhernia associated, truly ectopic thoracic kidney. The differential diagnosis and management options and classification of this rare form of aberrant kidney are discussed. PMID:26301113

  13. An adaptive optic for correcting low-order wavefront aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C A; Wilhelmsen, J

    1999-09-02

    Adaptive Optics used for correcting low-order wavefront aberrations were tested and compared using interferometry, beam propagation, and a far-field test. Results confirm that the design and manufacturing specifications were met. Experimental data also confirms theoretical performance expectations, indicating the usefulness of these optics (especially in a laser-beam processing system), and identifying the resulting differences between the two fabrication methods used to make the optics.

  14. Aberrations and spherocylindrical powers within subapertures of freeform surfaces.

    PubMed

    Raasch, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    A method is described for the derivation of refractive properties and aberration structure of subapertures of freeform surfaces. Surface shapes are described in terms of Zernike polynomials. The method utilizes matrices to transform between Zernike and Taylor coefficients. Expression as a Taylor series facilitates the translation and size rescaling of subapertures of the surface. An example operation using a progressive addition lens surface illustrates the method. PMID:22193277

  15. Influence of chromatic aberrations on space charge ion optics.

    PubMed

    Whealton, J H; Tsai, C C

    1978-04-01

    By solution to the Poisson-Vlasov equation the influence of fluctuations (chromatic aberrations) on ion optics is shown for various accelerator designs : (1) cylindrical bore triode with various aspect ratios, (2) pseudo-Pierce shaped electrode triode at various aspect ratios, (3) insulated coating emission electrode triode for various preacceleration potentials, and (4) cylindrical bore tetrodes for various field distributions. Fluctuation levels of 20% can be very important in limiting the ion optics in certain cases.

  16. Aberrant Phenotype in Iranian Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jahedi, Mehdi; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Sanaat, Zohreh; Aliparasti, MohammadReza; Almasi, Shohreh; Mohamadian, Mozhdeh; Nejati, Babak; Kamalifar, Amir; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of aberrant phenotypes and possible prognostic value in peripheral and bone marrow blood mononuclear cells of Iranian patients with AML. Methods: 56 cases of de novo AML (2010-2012) diagnosed by using an acute panel of monoclonal antibodies by multiparametric flowcytometry. Immunophenotyping was done on fresh bone marrow aspirate and/or peripheral blood samples using the acute panel of MoAbs is stained with Phycoerythrin (PE) /fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), Allophycocyanin (APC) and Peridinin-chlorophyll protein complex (perCP). We investigated Co-expression of lymphoid-associated markers CD2, CD3, CD7, CD 10, CD19, CD20 and CD22 in myeloblasts. Results: Out of the 56 cases, 32 (57.1%) showed AP. CD7 was positive in 72.7% of cases in M1 and 28.5% in M2 but M3 and M4 cases lacked this marker. We detected CD2 in 58.35 of M1cases, 21.40% of M2 cases, 33.3 of M3 and 20% of M5; but M4 patients lacked this marker. The CBC analysis demonstrated a wide range of haemoglobin concentration, Platelet and WBC count which varied from normal to anaemia, thrombocytopenia to thrombocytosis and leukopenia to hyper leukocytosis. Conclusions: Our findings showed that CD7 and CD2 were the most common aberrant marker in Iranian patients with AML. However, we are not find any significant correlation between aberrant phenotype changing and MRD in our population. Taken together, this findings help to provide new insights in to the investigation of other aberrant phenotypes that may play roles in diagnosis and therapeutic of AML. PMID:24409408

  17. Aberrant epigenetic regulators control expansion of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, Farnaz; Ponnusamy, Kanagaraju; Quagliano-Lo Coco, Isabell; Chen-Wichmann, Linping; Grez, Manuel; Henschler, Reinhard; Wichmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Transcription is a tightly regulated process ensuring the proper expression of numerous genes regulating all aspects of cellular behavior. Transcription factors regulate multiple genes including other transcription factors that together control a highly complex gene network. The transcriptional machinery can be “hijacked” by oncogenic transcription factors, thereby leading to malignant cell transformation. Oncogenic transcription factors manipulate a variety of epigenetic control mechanisms to fulfill gene regulatory and cell transforming functions. These factors assemble epigenetic regulators at target gene promoter sequences, thereby disturbing physiological gene expression patterns. Retroviral vector technology and the availability of “healthy” human hematopoietic CD34+ progenitor cells enable the generation of pre-leukemic cell models for the analysis of aberrant human hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion mediated by leukemogenic transcription factors. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the mechanism by which leukemogenic gene products control human hematopoietic CD34+ progenitor cell expansion by disrupting the normal epigenetic program. PMID:24348510

  18. Filamentation and Forward Brillouin Scatter of Entire Smoothed and Aberrated Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Still, C.H.; Berger, R.L.; Langdon, A.B.; Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.

    1999-10-29

    Laser-plasma interactions are sensitive to both the fine-scale speckle and the larger scale envelope intensity of the beam. For some time, simulations have been done on volumes taken from part of the laser beam cross-section, and the results from multiple simulations extrapolated to predict the behavior of the entire beam. However, extrapolation could very well miss effects of the larger scale structure on the fine-scale. The only definitive method is to simulate the entire beam. These very large calculations have been infeasible until recently, but they are now possible on massively parallel computers. Whole beam simulations show the dramatic difference in the propagation and break up of smoothed and aberrated beams.

  19. Chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia cells exposed to heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, T.; Cucinotta, F.; George, K.; Wu, H.; Shigematsu, N.; Furusawa, Y.; Uno, T.; Isobe, K.; Ito, H.

    Understanding of biological effects of heavy ions is important to assess healt h risk in space. One of the most important issues may be to take into account individual susceptibility. Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) cells are known to exhibit abnormal responses to radiations but the mechanism of hyper radiosensitivity of A-T still remains unknown. We report chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts and AT fibroblasts exposed to low- and high-LET radiations. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique combined with chromosome- painting technique was applied to score chromosome aberrations in G2/M-phase cells. Following gamma irradiation, GM02052 cells were approximately 5 times more sensitive to g-rays than AG1522 cells. GM02052 cells had a much higher frequency of deletions and misrejoining than AG1522 cells. When the frequency of complex type aberrations was compared, GM02052 cells showed more than 10 times higher frequency than AG1522 cells. The results will be compared with those obtained from high-LET irradiations.

  20. Polarization Aberrations in Astronomical Telescopes: The Point Spread Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckinridge, James B.; Lam, Wai Sze T.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of the image of the point spread function (PSF) is necessary to optimize astronomical coronagraph masks and to understand potential sources of errors in astrometric measurements. The PSF for astronomical telescopes and instruments depends not only on geometric aberrations and scalar wave diffraction but also on those wavefront errors introduced by the physical optics and the polarization properties of reflecting and transmitting surfaces within the optical system. These vector wave aberrations, called polarization aberrations, result from two sources: (1) the mirror coatings necessary to make the highly reflecting mirror surfaces, and (2) the optical prescription with its inevitable non-normal incidence of rays on reflecting surfaces. The purpose of this article is to characterize the importance of polarization aberrations, to describe the analytical tools to calculate the PSF image, and to provide the background to understand how astronomical image data may be affected. To show the order of magnitude of the effects of polarization aberrations on astronomical images, a generic astronomical telescope configuration is analyzed here by modeling a fast Cassegrain telescope followed by a single 90° deviation fold mirror. All mirrors in this example use bare aluminum reflective coatings and the illumination wavelength is 800 nm. Our findings for this example telescope are: (1) The image plane irradiance distribution is the linear superposition of four PSF images: one for each of the two orthogonal polarizations and one for each of two cross-coupled polarization terms. (2) The PSF image is brighter by 9% for one polarization component compared to its orthogonal state. (3) The PSF images for two orthogonal linearly polarization components are shifted with respect to each other, causing the PSF image for unpolarized point sources to become slightly elongated (elliptical) with a centroid separation of about 0.6 mas. This is important for both astrometry

  1. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.

    PubMed

    Biankin, Andrew V; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B; Johns, Amber L; Miller, David K; Wilson, Peter J; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K; Cowley, Mark J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J; Gill, Anthony J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D; Colvin, Emily K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Humphrey, Emily S; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Lovell, Jessica A; Daly, Roger J; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles; Hodges, Sally E; Reid, Jeffrey G; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E; Yung, Christina K; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A; Petersen, Gloria M; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Mann, Karen M; Jenkins, Nancy A; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Adams, David J; Largaespada, David A; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Rust, Alistair G; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuveson, David A; Copeland, Neal G; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R; Hudson, Thomas J; Sutherland, Robert L; Wheeler, David A; Pearson, John V; McPherson, John D; Gibbs, Richard A; Grimmond, Sean M

    2012-11-15

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  2. Measurements of Pupillary Diameter and Wavefront Aberrations in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Mehmet Metin; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To show whether pregnancy affects the measurements of pupillary diameter and wavefront (WF) aberrations. Methods. This was a case-control study including 34 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and age-matched 34 nonpregnant women. Only women who had no ocular abnormalities and no refractive error were included. We measured photopic and mesopic pupil diameter and WF aberrations at the third trimester and at the second postpartum month. Measurements of the right eyes were used in this study. The differences between groups were analysed by paired t-test and t-test. Results. Pregnant women's mean photopic pupil size in the third trimester was significantly higher than in postpartum period and in control group (3.74 ± 0.77, 3.45 ± 0.53, and 3.49 ± 0.15 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). Mesopic pupil size in the third trimester was also higher than in postpartum period and in control group (6.77 ± 0.52, 6.42 ± 0.55, and 6.38 ± 0.21 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). RMS-3 and RMS-5 values were higher in pregnancy but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pregnancy increased photopic and mesopic pupil size significantly but did not increase wavefront aberrations notably. Increased pupil size may be due to increased sympathetic activity during pregnancy. And this activity can be noninvasively determined by measuring pupil size. PMID:26998383

  3. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Biankin, Andrew V.; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Johns, Amber L.; Miller, David K.; Wilson, Peter J.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K.; Cowley, Mark J.; Gardiner, Brooke B.; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Gill, Anthony J.; Pinho, Andreia V.; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J. Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R. Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L.; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D.; Colvin, Emily K.; Nagrial, Adnan M.; Humphrey, Emily S.; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T.; Chantrill, Lorraine A.; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Kench, James G.; Lovell, Jessica A.; Daly, Roger J.; Merrett, Neil D.; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q.; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M.; Fisher, William E.; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Hodges, Sally E.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R.; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J.; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E.; Yung, Christina K.; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Morgan, Richard A.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A.; Mann, Karen M.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Adams, David J.; Largaespada, David A.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Rust, Alistair G.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Tuveson, David A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Wheeler, David A.; Pearson, John V.; McPherson, John D.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:23103869

  4. Phase aberration correction by correlation in digital holographic adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a phase aberration correction method based on the correlation between the complex full-field and guide-star holograms in the context of digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO). Removal of a global quadratic phase term before the correlation operation plays an important role in the correction. Correlation operation can remove the phase aberration at the entrance pupil plane and automatically refocus the corrected optical field. Except for the assumption that most aberrations lie at or close to the entrance pupil, the presented method does not impose any other constraints on the optical systems. Thus, it greatly enhances the flexibility of the optical design for DHAO systems in vision science and microscopy. Theoretical studies show that the previously proposed Fourier transform DHAO (FTDHAO) is just a special case of this general correction method, where the global quadratic phase term and a defocus term disappear. Hence, this correction method realizes the generalization of FTDHAO into arbitrary DHAO systems. The effectiveness and robustness of this method are demonstrated by simulations and experiments. PMID:23669707

  5. The association of wavefront aberration and accommodative lag in myopes.

    PubMed

    He, Ji C; Gwiazda, Jane; Thorn, Frank; Held, Richard; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A

    2005-02-01

    Accommodative lags, induced by a target at 33 cm (distance-induced condition) and by a -3.0 D lens (lens-induced condition), and wavefront aberrations were measured in 27 young myopic eyes. The accommodative lags and Strehl ratios derived from the wavefront aberrations in myopes were compared with those from 57 emmetropes. Accommodation was measured using a Canon R-1 autorefractor, while aberrations were measured using a psychophysical ray-tracing technique. In accord with previous results, larger accommodative lags were found for the myopes than the emmetropes in both the lens-induced and distance-induced conditions. The mean Strehl ratio was smaller in the myopes (0.079) than the emmetropes (0.091); this difference approached significance (p = 0.055). In addition, for myopes the accommodative lag was significantly correlated with the Strehl ratio in the lens-induced condition (r = -0.45, p < 0.02) and approached significance in the distance-induced condition (r = -0.35, p = 0.07). No significant correlations were found for emmetropes. Possible reasons to account for these results are discussed.

  6. Estimation of phase wave-front aberration distribution function using wavelet transform profilometry.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Kambiz; Faez, Karim; Attaran-Kakhki, Ebrahim

    2012-06-01

    Reduction of image quality under the effects of wavefront aberration of the optical system has a direct impact on the vision system's performance. This paper tries to estimate the amount of aberration with the use of wavelet transform profilometry. The basic idea is based on the principle that under aberration effects, the position of the fringes' image on the image plane will change, and this change correlates with the amount of aberration. So the distribution of aberration function can directly be extracted through measuring the amount of changes in the fringes' image on the image plane. Experimental results and the empirical validity of this idea are evaluated.

  7. Vagal nerve stimulation reverses aberrant dopamine system function in the methylazoxymethanol acetate rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Stephanie M; Carreno, Flavia R; Frazer, Alan; Lodge, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is an alternative therapy for epilepsy and treatment refractory depression. Here we examine VNS as a potential therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia in the methylozoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent model of the disease. We have previously demonstrated that hyperactivity within ventral regions of the hippocampus (vHipp) drives the dopamine system dysregulation in this model. Moreover, by targeting the vHipp directly, we can reverse aberrant dopamine system function and associated behaviors in the MAM model. Although the central effects of VNS have not been completely delineated, positron emission topographic measurements of cerebral blood flow in humans have consistently reported that VNS stimulation induces bilateral decreases in hippocampal activity. Based on our previous observations, we performed in vivo extracellular electrophysiological recordings in MAM- and saline-treated rats to evaluate the effect of chronic (2 week) VNS treatment on the activity of putative vHipp pyramidal neurons, as well as downstream dopamine neuron activity in the ventral tegmental area. Here we demonstrate that chronic VNS was able to reverse both vHipp hyperactivity and aberrant mesolimbic dopamine neuron function in the MAM model of schizophrenia. Additionally, VNS reversed a behavioral correlate of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Because current therapies for schizophrenia are far from adequate, with a large number of patients discontinuing treatment due to low efficacy or intolerable side effects, it is important to explore alternative nonpharmacological treatments. These data provide the first preclinical evidence that VNS may be a possible alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of schizophrenia.

  8. Autistic-spectrum disorders in Down syndrome: further delineation and distinction from other behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Carter, John C; Capone, George T; Gray, Robert M; Cox, Christiane S; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    The present study extends our previous work characterizing the behavioral features of autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Autism Behavior Checklist (AutBehav). We examined which specific behaviors distinguished the behavioral phenotype of DS + ASD from other aberrant behavior disorders in DS, by determining the relative contribution of ABC and AutBehav subscales and items to the diagnosis of ASD. A total of 127 subjects (aged 2-24 years; mean age: 8.4 years; approximately 70% male), comprising: a cohort of 64 children and adolescents with DS and co-morbid ASD (DS + ASD), 19 with DS and stereotypic movement disorder (DS + SMD), 18 with DS and disruptive behaviors (DS + DB), and 26 with DS and no co-morbid behavior disorders (DS + none) were examined using the aforementioned measures of aberrant behavior. We found that subjects with DS + ASD showed the most severe aberrant behavior, especially stereotypy compared to DS + none and lethargy/social withdrawal and relating problems compared to DS + SMD. Specifically, relatively simple stereotypic behavior differentiated DS + ASD from DS + DB, whereas odd/bizarre stereotypic and anxious behavior characterized DS + ASD relative to DS + SMD and DS + none. Additionally, in a subset of subjects with DS + ASD and anxiety, social withdrawal was particularly pronounced. Overall, our findings indicate that a diagnosis of DS + ASD represents a distinctive set of aberrant behaviors marked by characteristic odd/bizarre stereotypic behavior, anxiety, and social withdrawal.

  9. The Effects of Meal Schedule and Quantity on Problematic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two case examples (a toddler with severe developmental delays and a 7-year old with severe mental retardation) illustrating effects of meal schedule and food quantity on displays of problematic behavior are offered. Brief functional analyses of aberrant behavior provided useful information for interpreting distinct patterns of behavior. (DB)

  10. Examining the relationship between ethnicity and the use of drug-related services: an ethnographic study of Nepali drug users in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wai-Man

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has shown that Nepali drug users in Hong Kong tend to have a low rate of usage of day-care and residential rehabilitation services, but a high rate of usage of methadone services. Little is known about the reasons behind such a pattern. Therefore, in this study, a 12-month ethnographic examination has been implemented in three sites, including a day-care center, residential rehabilitation center, and methadone clinic, to explore the experiences of 20 Nepali drug users in their use of drug-related services in Hong Kong and to examine the relationship between ethnicity and the use of drug-related services. The result shows that the reason for this pattern of service use is related to the approach of the services and the cultural perception of the service providers about the service users. The day-care and residential rehabilitation services emphasize an integrated approach, but the staff tend to overlook the heterogeneity of their clients, for example, the differences in caste and sex, and fail to provide suitable services to them, whereas the methadone service follows a biomedical model, which seldom addresses the social characteristics of the service users, which in turn minimizes the opportunity for misunderstandings between the staff and the clients. This research shows that ethnicity is a significant factor in drug treatment and that culture-specific treatment that takes into consideration the treatment approach and the heterogeneity of the clients is strongly needed. PMID:25114609

  11. Idiosyncratic Functions: Severe Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Ritualistic Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Nicole; Kahng, SungWoo; Farrell, Ellen; Mongeon, Camille

    2009-01-01

    The development of functional analysis technology has been an important tool in the assessment and treatment of aberrant behaviors among individuals with developmental disabilities. In some cases, the function of problem behavior may be idiosyncratic in nature, making modifications to functional analyses necessary. In the current study, a…

  12. Acute Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Pupil Size and Ocular Aberrations: A Pre- and Postsmoking Study

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Uzeyir; Gundogan, Fatih C.; Dinc, Umut Aslı; Yolcu, Umit; Ilhan, Abdullah; Altun, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the acute effects of cigarette smoking on photopic and mesopic pupil sizes and wavefront aberrations. Methods. Cigarette smoker volunteers were recruited in the study. Photopic and mesopic pupil sizes and total ocular aberrations were measured before smoking and immediately after smoking. All volunteers were asked to smoke a single cigarette containing 1.0 mg nicotine. Pupil sizes and total ocular aberrations were assessed by optical path difference scanning system (OPD-Scan II ARK-10000, NIDEK). Only the right eyes were considered for statistical analysis. The changes of pupil size and total ocular aberrations after smoking were tested for significance by Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results. Mean photopic pupil size decreased from 3.52 ± 0.73 mm to 3.29 ± 0.58 mm (P = 0.001) after smoking. Mean mesopic pupil size was also decreased from 6.42 ± 0.75 mm to 6.14 ± 0.75 mm after smoking (P = 0.001). There was a decrease in all the measured components of aberrations (total wavefront aberration, higher-order aberration, total coma, total trefoil, total tetrafoil, total spherical aberration and total higher-order aberration) after smoking; however the differences were insignificant for all (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Our results indicate that pupil constricts after smoking. On the other hand, smoking does not alter ocular aberrations. PMID:25699189

  13. Wide-field aberration corrector for spherical gossamer primary mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, David A.

    2000-10-01

    If gossamer primary mirrors were to be constructed in a spherical form, it would be possible to arrange a simple null- test in situ. However, spherical mirrors would require correction of the large amount of spherical aberration created in pupils that generally will be greater than 2 m diameter. The design requirement is for diffraction-limited performance over a useful angular field. The otherwise excellent wide- field design solutions of the classical Schmidt and Maksutov are inapplicable in gossamer structures because of the mass and size penalty of large refractive components. However, it is possible for this mode of correction to be achieved near the prime focus by means of pupil transfer optics that minify the large entrance pupil down to more acceptable dimensions. A problem with these solutions is constraint of field coverage due to pupil aberrations created by the large spherical aberration of the primary mirror. This leads the designer towards slower primaries and the penalty of larger, heavier structures. A solution is presented here for spherical primaries with speeds up to f/4. This is based on the 'KiwiStar' principle presented here in 1997, in which a large spherical catoptric is combined by pupil-transfer with a smaller spherical catadioptric to give well corrected wide field images of high speed. This system is well suited to correction at the prime focus of large spherical mirrors, and has only one relatively small weak aspheric surface to provide zonal correction, all other surfaces being spherical. An example is presented of a 4 m diameter, f/2.5 system that is diffraction-limited over the whole of a 0.25 degree field (43 mm diameter), for a bandpass of 486 - 850 nm.

  14. Aberration-free short focal length x-ray lenses.

    PubMed

    Alianelli, Lucia; del Rio, Manuel Sánchez; Fox, Oliver J L; Korwin-Mikke, Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    We treat the problem of defining the ideal x-ray refractive lens design for point focusing of low emittance x-ray beams at third- and fourth-generation synchrotron sources. The task is accomplished by using Fermat's principle to define a lens shape that is completely free from geometrical aberrations. Current microfabrication resolution limits are identified, and a design that tolerates the inherent fabrication imperfections is proposed. The refractive lens design delivers nanometer-sized focused x-ray beams and is compatible with current microfabrication techniques. PMID:26625057

  15. [The aberrant parasitism of horse botflies (Diptera: Gasterophilidae)].

    PubMed

    Rastegaev, Iu M

    1990-01-01

    Alongside with a high intensity of infection of horses with botfly larvae there was observed mass aberrant parasitism of horse botflies in farms of Astrakhan, Guryev and Uralsk Provinces, and in the Kalmyk ASSR in 1980-1981 and 1987. As a result of extremely high aggregation of horse botfly larvae in their usual localization places, Gasterophilus pecorum larvae remained, due to interspecific competition, in nonspecific places (oral cavity, pharynx), adapted to new habitats and normally developed. Their number varied from 260 to 750 specimens. Localization of G. pecorum larvae in the mentioned departments of the alimentary canal results in serious morbidity of horses.

  16. 3-D stimulated emission depletion microscopy with programmable aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Martin O; Sinclair, Hugo G; Savell, Alexander; Clegg, James H; Brown, Alice C N; Davis, Daniel M; Dunsby, Chris; Neil, Mark A A; French, Paul M W

    2014-01-01

    We present a stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope that provides 3-D super resolution by simultaneous depletion using beams with both a helical phase profile for enhanced lateral resolution and an annular phase profile to enhance axial resolution. The 3-D depletion point spread function is realised using a single spatial light modulator that can also be programmed to compensate for aberrations in the microscope and the sample. We apply it to demonstrate the first 3-D super-resolved imaging of an immunological synapse between a Natural Killer cell and its target cell.

  17. Intrinsic instability of aberration-corrected electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, S M; van der Molen, S J; Tromp, R M

    2012-10-19

    Aberration-corrected microscopes with subatomic resolution will impact broad areas of science and technology. However, the experimentally observed lifetime of the corrected state is just a few minutes. Here we show that the corrected state is intrinsically unstable; the higher its quality, the more unstable it is. Analyzing the contrast transfer function near optimum correction, we define an "instability budget" which allows a rational trade-off between resolution and stability. Unless control systems are developed to overcome these challenges, intrinsic instability poses a fundamental limit to the resolution practically achievable in the electron microscope.

  18. Propagation of aberrated wavefronts using a ray transfer matrix.

    PubMed

    Raasch, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    A ray transfer matrix is used to calculate the propagation of aberrated wavefronts across a homogeneous refractive index. The wavefront is represented by local surface normals, i.e., by a ray bundle, and the propagation is accomplished by transferring those rays across the space. Wavefront shape is generated from the slopes and positions of the collection of rays. Calculation methods are developed for the paraxial case, for higher-order expansions, and for the exact tangent case. A numerical example is used to compare results between an analytical method and the methods developed here.

  19. Aberrant retinal projections to midbrain targets mediate spared visual orienting function in hamsters with neonatal lesions of superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Carman, L S; Schneider, G E

    1992-01-01

    Rodents, cats, and most nonmammalian vertebrates with bilateral tectal deafferentation or ablation in adulthood are extremely deficient at orienting to visual stimuli; yet animals with neonatal lesions of superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SC) show partial sparing of this response, particularly for targets in the central visual field. In this study, we sought to determine whether these spared orienting abilities are mediated by aberrant retinal projections to the remaining intermediate layers of the SC, or whether visual cortex (VC) mechanisms or alternative behavioral strategies are responsible. Neonatal golden hamsters received either bilateral heat lesions of the SC (rlSC), or a heat lesion of the right SC and enucleation of the right eye (rSCrE). This latter procedure causes axons from the left eye to recross the tectal midline and terminate in the "wrong" (left) SC (Schneider 1973). As adults, both groups of hamsters were extremely deficient in visually guided approach to stationary targets, although rlSC-lesioned hamsters showed some sparing for central field targets and rSCrE-lesioned hamsters often made wrong-direction turns for targets in the left peripheral field. We then subjected both groups of neonatally lesioned hamsters to bilateral aspiration lesions of the VC. Retesting showed no change in visual orienting behavior as a result of the cortical lesions. Labeling of the optic tract with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) revealed abundant aberrant retinal projections to remaining intermediate layers of the SC and thalamic nucleus lateralis posterior (LP), as well as supernormal innervation of pretectal nuclei, the dorsal terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract, and the ventral nucleus of the lateral geniculate body (LGv). We conclude that the spared visual orienting capabilities of hamsters with rlSC and rSCrE lesions are mediated by the aberrant midbrain projections, and that cortical mechanisms are not involved in spared visual orienting

  20. An experimental study of aero-optical aberration and dithering of supersonic mixing layer via BOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuxin; Yi, Shihe; Tian, Lifeng; He, Lin; Cheng, Zhongyu

    2010-01-01

    The optical performance of supersonic mixing layer is heavily deteriorated by the aero-optical aberration and dithering of coherent structures, but current measuring methods limit the spatiotemporal resolution in relevant studies. A high resolution whole-field aero-optical aberration and dithering measuring method based on the Background Orient Schlieren (BOS) technique was studied. The systematic structure, sensitivity and resolution of BOS are analyzed in this paper. The aero-optical aberration and dithering of streamwise structures in supersonic mixing layers were quantificationally studied with BOS. The aberration field of spanwise structures revealed the ribbon-like aberration structures, which heavily restrict the optical performance of a mixing layer. The quantifications of aero-optical aberration and dithering are very important in studying aero-optical performance of supersonic mixing layer.

  1. [In vitro chromosome aberration test and in vivo micronucleus test of Ca-type Garcinia extract].

    PubMed

    Ono, Hiromi; Tamura, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Kouichi; Iwakura, Keiko

    2006-04-01

    The induction of chromosome aberration of Ca-type Garcinia cambogia extract containing about 65% (-)-hydroxycitric acid was investigated by use of the chromosome aberration test in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/IU) and the micronucleus test in mice. In the chromosome aberration test, Ca-type Garcinia cambogia extract did not increase the number of cells with structural aberration and/or numerical aberrations. The micronucleus test was carried out with bone marrow cells of Slc : ddY male mice after single oral administration of up to 2,000 microg/kg. There was no significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. These results indicate that Ca-type Garcinia cambogia extract does not induce chromosome aberration. PMID:16729669

  2. Ray and wave aberrations revisited: a Huygens-like construction yields exact relations.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, John; Stoerck, Pawel J; Ihrke, Ivo

    2016-02-01

    The aberrations of an optical system can be described in terms of the wave aberrations, defined as the departure from the ideal spherical wavefront; or the ray aberrations, which are in turn the deviations from the paraxial ray intersections measured in the image plane. The classical connection between the two descriptions is an approximation, the error of which has, to our knowledge, so far not been quantified analytically. We derive exact analytical equations for computing the wavefront surface, the aberrated ray directions, and the transverse ray aberrations in terms of the wave aberrations (OPD) and the reference sphere. We introduce precise conditions for a function to be an OPD function, show that every such function has an associated wavefront, and study the error arising from the classical approximation. We establish strict conditions for the error to be small. We illustrate our results with numerical simulations. Our results show that large numerical apertures and OPD functions with strong gradients yield larger approximation errors.

  3. Tunable liquid crystal cylindrical micro-optical array for aberration compensation.

    PubMed

    Algorri, J F; Urruchi, V; Bennis, N; Sánchez-Pena, J M; Otón, J M

    2015-06-01

    A tunable aberration compensation device for rectangular micro-optical systems is proposed and demonstrated. This device, which is based in nematic liquid crystal and a micro-electrode structure, forms gradients in the index of refraction as a function of voltage. We have developed a fringe skeletonizing application in order to extract the 3D wavefront from an interference pattern. This software tool obtains the optical aberrations using Chebyshev polynomials. By using phase shifted electrical signals the aberrations can be controlled independently. A complete independent control over the spherical and coma aberration has been demonstrated. Also, an independent control over the astigmatism aberration has been demonstrated in a broad range. This device has promising applications where aberration compensation is required. The independent compensation achieved for some coefficients, such as astigmatism for example, is more than 2.4 waves. PMID:26072760

  4. Wavefront aberrations in eyes of emmetropic and moderately myopic school children and young adults.

    PubMed

    He, Ji C; Sun, Pei; Held, Richard; Thorn, Frank; Sun, Xiuru; Gwiazda, Jane E

    2002-04-01

    Wavefront aberrations were measured using a psychophysical ray-tracing technique in both eyes of 316 emmetropic and moderately myopic school children and young adults. Myopic subjects were found to have greater mean root mean square (RMS) value of wavefront aberrations than emmetropic subjects. Emmetropic adults had the smallest mean RMS, which remained smaller than the values for myopic adults and children and for emmetropic children both when second order Zernike aberrations (astigmatism) and third order Zernike aberrations were removed. Twenty percent of myopic adults had RMS values greater than values for all of the emmetropic adults, with significantly greater values for Zernike aberrations from second to seventh orders. High amounts of wavefront aberrations, which degrade the retinal image, may play a role in the development of myopia.

  5. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016-0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD.

  6. Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Juan; Xie, Shui-Xiang; Chen, Ya-Tang; Xue, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Chuan-Jie; Zhu, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies in the world. Several signaling pathways, including the wingless/int-1 (Wnt) signaling pathway, have been shown to be commonly activated in HCC. The Wnt signaling pathway can be triggered via both catenin β1 (CTNNB1)-dependent (also known as “canonical”) and CTNNB1-independent (often referred to as “non-canonical”) pathways. Specifically, the canonical Wnt pathway is one of those most frequently reported in HCC. Aberrant regulation from three complexes (the cell-surface receptor complex, the cytoplasmic destruction complex and the nuclear CTNNB1/T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor transcriptional complex) are all involved in HCC. Although the non-canonical Wnt pathway is rarely reported, two main non-canonical pathways, Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway and Wnt/Ca2+ pathway, participate in the regulation of hepatocarcinogenesis. Interestingly, the canonical Wnt pathway is antagonized by non-canonical Wnt signaling in HCC. Moreover, other signaling cascades have also been demonstrated to regulate the Wnt pathway through crosstalk in HCC pathogenesis. This review provides a perspective on the emerging evidence that the aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a critical mechanism for the development of HCC. Furthermore, crosstalk between different signaling pathways might be conducive to the development of novel molecular targets of HCC. PMID:27672271

  7. Mechanistic modeling of aberrant energy metabolism in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Sangar, Vineet; Eddy, James A.; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Price, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction in energy metabolism—including in pathways localized to the mitochondria—has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide array of disorders, ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases to type II diabetes. The inherent complexities of energy and mitochondrial metabolism present a significant obstacle in the effort to understand the role that these molecular processes play in the development of disease. To help unravel these complexities, systems biology methods have been applied to develop an array of computational metabolic models, ranging from mitochondria-specific processes to genome-scale cellular networks. These constraint-based (CB) models can efficiently simulate aspects of normal and aberrant metabolism in various genetic and environmental conditions. Development of these models leverages—and also provides a powerful means to integrate and interpret—information from a wide range of sources including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and enzyme kinetics. Here, we review a variety of mechanistic modeling studies that explore metabolic functions, deficiency disorders, and aberrant biochemical pathways in mitochondria and related regions in the cell. PMID:23112774

  8. Enhanced Deletion Formation by Aberrant DNA Replication in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Saveson, C. J.; Lovett, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    Repeated genes and sequences are prone to genetic rearrangements including deletions. We have investigated deletion formation in Escherichia coli strains mutant for various replication functions. Deletion was selected between 787 base pair tandem repeats carried either on a ColE1-derived plasmid or on the E. coli chromosome. Only mutations in functions associated with DNA Polymerase III elevated deletion rates in our assays. Especially large increases were observed in strains mutant in dnaQ, the ε editing subunit of Pol III, and dnaB, the replication fork helicase. Mutations in several other functions also altered deletion formation: the α polymerase (dnaE), the γ clamp loader complex (holC, dnaX), and the β clamp (dnaN) subunits of Pol III and the primosomal proteins, dnaC and priA. Aberrant replication stimulated deletions through several pathways. Whereas the elevation in dnaB strains was mostly recA- and lexA-dependent, that in dnaQ strains was mostly recA- and lexA-independent. Deletion product analysis suggested that slipped mispairing, producing monomeric replicon products, may be preferentially increased in a dnaQ mutant and sister-strand exchange, producing dimeric replicon products, may be elevated in dnaE mutants. We conclude that aberrant Polymerase III replication can stimulate deletion events through several mechanisms of deletion and via both recA-dependent and independent pathways. PMID:9177997

  9. Consistent numerical chromosome aberrations in thecofibromas of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Micci, Francesca; Haugom, Lisbeth; Abeler, Vera M; Tropé, Claes G; Danielsen, Håvard E; Heim, Sverre

    2008-03-01

    Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary comprise 8% of all ovarian neoplasms. Because they consist of cells that resemble embryonic sex cord and/or specialized ovarian stroma cells, their cytologic and histologic features can be viewed as reflecting a continuum from fibromas to thecomas with thecofibromas in between. Existing cytogenetic knowledge about ovarian thecomas-thecofibromas-fibromas is restricted to 44 cases with chromosomal abnormalities. The most common aberration has been trisomy 12, identified either by karyotyping or using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We wanted to obtain more information about the genomic composition of these tumors, and, therefore, examined 29 new thecoma-thecofibroma-fibroma tumors of the ovary using karyotyping, comparative genomic hybridization, interphase FISH, and DNA ploidy analysis. We detected aneuploidy in 21 tumors. Trisomy and/or tetrasomy 12 was the most common chromosomal aberration, found in 15 tumors (71.5% of the aneuploid tumors or 51.5% of all analyzed tumors), followed by trisomy for chromosomes 10, 18, 4, and 9. Some monosomies (for chromosomes 4, 9, 10, and 18) were also identified, either as the sole change or in combination with trisomies. The nonrandom occurrence of these aneuploidies in these benign tumors strongly indicates that they play a major pathogenetic role, but how trisomies and other aneuploidies contribute to tumorigenesis remains unknown. PMID:18188592

  10. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016–0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD. PMID:27257047

  11. Aberration-Corrected TEM Imaging of Oxygen Occupancy in YSZ.

    PubMed

    An, Jihwan; Koh, Ai Leen; Park, Joong Sun; Sinclair, Robert; Gür, Turgut M; Prinz, Fritz B

    2013-04-01

    We present atomic-scale imaging of oxygen columns and show quantitative analysis on the occupancy of the columns in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) using aberration-corrected TEM operated under the negative Cs condition. Also, individual contributions both from oxygen column occupancy and the static displacement of oxygen atoms due to occupancy change to the observed column intensities of TEM images were systematically investigated using HRTEM simulation. We found that oxygen column intensity is governed primarily by column occupancy rather than by static displacement of oxygen atoms. Utilizing the aberration-corrected TEM capability and HRTEM simulation results, we experimentally verified that oxygen vacancies segregate near the single grain boundary of a YSZ bicrystal. The methodology and the high spatial resolution characterization tool employed in the present study provide insights into the distribution of oxygen vacancies in the bulk as well as near grain boundaries and pave the way for further investigation and atomic-scale analysis in other important oxide materials.

  12. Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Juan; Xie, Shui-Xiang; Chen, Ya-Tang; Xue, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Chuan-Jie; Zhu, Fan

    2016-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies in the world. Several signaling pathways, including the wingless/int-1 (Wnt) signaling pathway, have been shown to be commonly activated in HCC. The Wnt signaling pathway can be triggered via both catenin β1 (CTNNB1)-dependent (also known as "canonical") and CTNNB1-independent (often referred to as "non-canonical") pathways. Specifically, the canonical Wnt pathway is one of those most frequently reported in HCC. Aberrant regulation from three complexes (the cell-surface receptor complex, the cytoplasmic destruction complex and the nuclear CTNNB1/T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor transcriptional complex) are all involved in HCC. Although the non-canonical Wnt pathway is rarely reported, two main non-canonical pathways, Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway and Wnt/Ca(2+) pathway, participate in the regulation of hepatocarcinogenesis. Interestingly, the canonical Wnt pathway is antagonized by non-canonical Wnt signaling in HCC. Moreover, other signaling cascades have also been demonstrated to regulate the Wnt pathway through crosstalk in HCC pathogenesis. This review provides a perspective on the emerging evidence that the aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a critical mechanism for the development of HCC. Furthermore, crosstalk between different signaling pathways might be conducive to the development of novel molecular targets of HCC. PMID:27672271

  13. Seeing Inside Materials by Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    The recent successful correction of lens aberrations in the electron microscope has improved resolution by more than a factor of two in just a few years, bringing many benefits for the study of materials. These benefits extend significantly beyond enhanced resolution alone. Aberration correction gives higher resolution by allowing the objective lens to have a wider aperture, which also results in a reduced depth of field. This effect can be used to only focus specific sections inside materials for the first time. In this contribution we describe recent results exploiting this capability. Additionally, we show how combining the microscopy data with first-principles theory gives new insights into materials properties. We cover two applications, both involving heavy atoms in a lighter host. The first shows how single Hf atoms can be mapped in three dimensions inside the 1 nm-wide SiO2 region of a high dielectric constant device structure, and how a link to macroscopic device properties results through theoretical calculations. The second example is from the field of nanoscience, where individual Au atoms are imaged inside Si nanowires grown by a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. The majority of Au atoms are probably injected by the highly energetic electron beam. However, their observed sites and atomic configurations represent at least meta-stable configurations and match well to results from density functional calculations.

  14. Diverticula of Kommerell and Aberrant Subclavian Arteries Complicated by Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. G. Whigham, C. J.; Trinh, C.

    2005-06-15

    This is a retrospective evaluation of the incidence of aberrant subclavian arteries (ASAs) and diverticula of Kommerell, as well as the occurrence and significance of associated aneurysms. Thoracic aortograms obtained during a 12.5-year period were reviewed, seeking the presence of aberrant right and left subclavian arteries (ARSAs/ALSAs), diverticula of Kommerell, and the incidence of associated aortic aneurysms. Several cases were evaluated with computed tomography concomitantly. Results were correlated with a literature review. Twenty-two ASAs were identified. Nineteen were on the right (ARSAs) and three were on the left (ALSAs). A diverticulum of Kommerell (DOK) was also present on the right in seven and on the left in three. Five of these patients had complicating aneurysms. Four of these were associated with ARSAs and their diverticula. Two were atherosclerotic; one was a limited dissection and one of uncertain etiology was ruptured. One additional aneurysm (atherosclerotic) involved an ALSA/DOK. The patient with the ruptured aneurysm died in surgery; three were managed conservatively because of concomitant disease; and one is being followed because of the small size (2.5 cm) of the aneurysm. ARSAs are relatively uncommon and ALSAs are rare. Both ARSA and ALSA are frequently associated with a DOK. Aneurysms rarely involve ASAs (with or without a DOK), but they are associated with a high mortality rate if they are not discovered before rupture. Early diagnosis plus surgical and/or endovascular management can be lifesaving.

  15. Stable chromosome aberration frequencies in men occupationally exposed to radiation.

    PubMed

    Tawn, E Janet; Whitehouse, Caroline A

    2003-09-01

    The introduction of fluorescence in situ hybridisation techniques to cytogenetic biodosimetry has enabled the detection of stable aberrations, e.g. translocations, which can provide an integrated measure of radiation exposure. The opportunity to study stable aberration frequencies in lymphocyte cultures from occupationally exposed workers with well-documented dosimetry records enables the establishment of dose-response relationships which can be compared with those obtained from studies of populations with high acute exposures. Since there is good mechanistic evidence for the role of translocations in oncogenesis, this provides an insight into the risks associated with low-dose exposure for which no direct epidemiological evidence is available. This paper provides preliminary data on a group of 98 individuals with cumulative occupational doses > 500 mSv and 96 controls with doses < 50 mSv. An increased frequency of translocations was found for the high-dose group (20.50 +/- 0.78 x 10(-3) per genome equivalent) in comparison with the control group (11.71 +/- 0.59 x 10(-3) per genome equivalent). Further analysis of the control group revealed increasing frequencies of translocations with increasing age. An increase associated with ever-smoking status was found for the control group which appeared to be driven by the lower age groups but no overall effect of smoking was seen in the > 500 mSv group.

  16. Maternal age, reproduction and chromosomal aberrations in Wistar derived rats.

    PubMed

    Niggeschulze, A; Kast, A

    1994-01-01

    The fertility of rats ranges from one to 18 months. In standard teratogenicity testing young, mature females are used which may not reflect the situation in women above 35 years old. Reproduction among different age groups of Wistar ats (strain Chbb: THOM) was compared at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. At least 20 virgin females were inseminated per age group. The copulation rate did not differ between the groups. From the maternal age of 12 months, the pregnancy rate was significantly decreased, from the age of 9 months, the litter values were significantly lowered and the resorption rates were increased. Maternal age did not influence the incidence of fetal variations and malformations. Additionally, the chromosomal aberration rate in the bone marrow was evaluated in male and female rats. Twelve animals of each sex were scheduled per group, and studied at the age of 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21 or 24 months. In males, the aberration rate increased continuously from 0.18 through 3%, while in females the increase continued from 0.33 to 2.29% at 15 months old when a plateau was reached. When testing new compounds for embryotoxicity or genotoxicity in female rats, the animals should be of comparable age to man in order to avoid a misinterpretation of spontaneous abnormalities. From these studies, however, it was concluded that the use of higher age groups of female rats in teratogenicity studies would not improve the risk assessment.

  17. Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Juan; Xie, Shui-Xiang; Chen, Ya-Tang; Xue, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Chuan-Jie; Zhu, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies in the world. Several signaling pathways, including the wingless/int-1 (Wnt) signaling pathway, have been shown to be commonly activated in HCC. The Wnt signaling pathway can be triggered via both catenin β1 (CTNNB1)-dependent (also known as “canonical”) and CTNNB1-independent (often referred to as “non-canonical”) pathways. Specifically, the canonical Wnt pathway is one of those most frequently reported in HCC. Aberrant regulation from three complexes (the cell-surface receptor complex, the cytoplasmic destruction complex and the nuclear CTNNB1/T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor transcriptional complex) are all involved in HCC. Although the non-canonical Wnt pathway is rarely reported, two main non-canonical pathways, Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway and Wnt/Ca2+ pathway, participate in the regulation of hepatocarcinogenesis. Interestingly, the canonical Wnt pathway is antagonized by non-canonical Wnt signaling in HCC. Moreover, other signaling cascades have also been demonstrated to regulate the Wnt pathway through crosstalk in HCC pathogenesis. This review provides a perspective on the emerging evidence that the aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a critical mechanism for the development of HCC. Furthermore, crosstalk between different signaling pathways might be conducive to the development of novel molecular targets of HCC.

  18. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016-0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD. PMID:27257047

  19. Exercise protects against methamphetamine-induced aberrant neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minseon; Levine, Harry; Toborek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    While no effective therapy is available for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity, aerobic exercise is being proposed to improve depressive symptoms and substance abuse outcomes. The present study focuses on the effect of exercise on METH-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the context of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology. Mice were administered with METH or saline by i.p. injections for 5 days with an escalating dose regimen. One set of mice was sacrificed 24 h post last injection of METH, and the remaining animals were either subjected to voluntary wheel running (exercised mice) or remained in sedentary housing (sedentary mice). METH administration decreased expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus. These changes were preserved post METH administration in sedentary mice and were associated with the development of significant aberrations of neural differentiation. Exercise protected against these effects by enhancing the protein expression of TJ proteins, stabilizing the BBB integrity, and enhancing the neural differentiation. In addition, exercise protected against METH-induced systemic increase in inflammatory cytokine levels. These results suggest that exercise can attenuate METH-induced neurotoxicity by protecting against the BBB disruption and related microenvironmental changes in the hippocampus. PMID:27677455

  20. The Distribution of Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Cells Predicted by a Generalized Time-Dependent Model of Radiation-Induced Formation of Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    New experimental data show how chromosomal aberrations for low- and high-LET radiation are dependent on DSB repair deficiencies in wild-type, AT and NBS cells. We simulated the development of chromosomal aberrations in these cells lines in a stochastic track-structure-dependent model, in which different cells have different kinetics of DSB repair. We updated a previously formulated model of chromosomal aberrations, which was based on a stochastic Monte Carlo approach, to consider the time-dependence of DSB rejoining. The previous version of the model had an assumption that all DSBs would rejoin, and therefore we called it a time-independent model. The chromosomal-aberrations model takes into account the DNA and track structure for low- and high-LET radiations, and provides an explanation and prediction of the statistics of rare and more complex aberrations. We compared the program-simulated kinetics of DSB rejoining to the experimentally-derived bimodal exponential curves of the DSB kinetics. We scored the formation of translocations, dicentrics, acentric and centric rings, deletions, and inversions. The fraction of DSBs participating in aberrations was studied in relation to the rejoining time. Comparisons of simulated dose dependence for simple aberrations to the experimental dose-dependence for HF19, AT and NBS cells will be made.

  1. Polarization aberrations in the solar activity measurements experiments (SAMEX) solar vector magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1989-01-01

    An optical design and polarization analysis of the Air Force/NASA Solar Activity Measurements Experiments solar vector magnetograph optical system is performed. Polarization aberration theory demonstrates that conventional telescope coating designs introduce unacceptably high levels of polarization aberrations into the optical system. Several ultralow polarization mirror and lens coatings designs for this instrument are discussed. Balancing of polarization aberrations at different surfaces is demonstrated.

  2. Method for measuring ocular aberrations induced by thermal lensing in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincelette, Rebecca; Oliver, Jeff; Noojin, Gary; Schuster, Kurt; Shingledecker, Aurora; Welch, Ashley J.

    2010-02-01

    An adaptive optics imaging system was used to qualitatively observe the types of aberrations induced by an infrared laser in a rhesus eye. Thermal lensing was induced with an infrared laser radiation wavelength of 1150-nm. The adaptive optics system tracked the temporal response of the aberrations at a frequency of 30 Hz for continuous-wave exposures. Results are compared against thermal lensing aberrations induced in an artificial eye.

  3. Optimization of holographic data storage system based on Seidel aberrations reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Chung; Lin, Shiuan-Huei; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we investigate the influence of Seidel aberrations on the point spread function and the probability density function of holographic data storage systems, and thus the storage capacity and bit error rate of storage system can be obtained. The aberrations tolerances of storage systems with different numerical aperture are obtained. Optimization on BER and SC of holographic data storage systems by reducing Seidel aberrations will be demonstrated numerically.

  4. Reduced intercellular coupling leads to paradoxical propagation across the Purkinje-ventricular junction and aberrant myocardial activation

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Gregory E.; Danik, Stephan B.; Bernstein, Scott; Sun, Yanjie; Rosner, Gregg; Gutstein, David E.; Fishman, Glenn I.

    2005-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia is a common heart rhythm disorder and a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Aberrant cell–cell coupling through gap junction channels, a process termed gap junction remodeling, is observed in many of the major forms of human heart disease and is associated with increased arrhythmic risk in both humans and in animal models. Genetically engineered mice with cardiac-restricted knockout of Connexin43, the major cardiac gap junctional protein, uniformly develop sudden cardiac death, although a detailed electrophysiological understanding of their profound arrhythmic propensity is unclear. Using voltage-sensitive dyes and high resolution optical mapping techniques, we found that uncoupling of the ventricular myocardium results in ectopic sites of ventricular activation. Our data indicate that this behavior reflects alterations in source-sink relationships and paradoxical conduction across normally quiescent Purkinje-ventricular muscle junctions. The aberrant activation profiles are associated with wavefront collisions, which in the setting of slow conduction may account for the highly arrhythmogenic behavior of Connexin43-deficient hearts. Thus, the extent of gap junction remodeling in diseased myocardium is a critical determinant of cardiac excitation patterns and arrhythmia susceptibility. PMID:15753312

  5. Reduced intercellular coupling leads to paradoxical propagation across the Purkinje-ventricular junction and aberrant myocardial activation.

    PubMed

    Morley, Gregory E; Danik, Stephan B; Bernstein, Scott; Sun, Yanjie; Rosner, Gregg; Gutstein, David E; Fishman, Glenn I

    2005-03-15

    Ventricular tachycardia is a common heart rhythm disorder and a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Aberrant cell-cell coupling through gap junction channels, a process termed gap junction remodeling, is observed in many of the major forms of human heart disease and is associated with increased arrhythmic risk in both humans and in animal models. Genetically engineered mice with cardiac-restricted knockout of Connexin43, the major cardiac gap junctional protein, uniformly develop sudden cardiac death, although a detailed electrophysiological understanding of their profound arrhythmic propensity is unclear. Using voltage-sensitive dyes and high resolution optical mapping techniques, we found that uncoupling of the ventricular myocardium results in ectopic sites of ventricular activation. Our data indicate that this behavior reflects alterations in source-sink relationships and paradoxical conduction across normally quiescent Purkinje-ventricular muscle junctions. The aberrant activation profiles are associated with wavefront collisions, which in the setting of slow conduction may account for the highly arrhythmogenic behavior of Connexin43-deficient hearts. Thus, the extent of gap junction remodeling in diseased myocardium is a critical determinant of cardiac excitation patterns and arrhythmia susceptibility. PMID:15753312

  6. FBI DRUGFIRE program: the development and deployment of an automated firearms identification system to support serial, gang, and drug-related shooting investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, Robert W.

    1994-03-01

    The FBI DRUGFIRE Program entails the continuing phased development and deployment of a scalable automated firearms identification system. The first phase of this system, a networked, database-driven firearms evidence imaging system, has been operational for approximately one year and has demonstrated its effectiveness in facilitating the sharing and linking of firearms evidence collected in serial, gang, and drug-related shooting investigations. However, there is a pressing need for development of enhancements which will more fully automate the system so that it is capable of processing very large volumes of firearms evidence. These enhancements would provide automated image analysis and pattern matching functionalities. Existing `spin off' technologies need to be integrated into the present DRUGFIRE system to automate the 3-D mensuration, registration, feature extraction, and matching of the microtopographical surface features imprinted on the primers of fired casings during firing.

  7. Influences of reference plane and direction of measurement on eye aberration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, David A.; Charman, W. Neil

    2005-12-01

    We explored effects of measurement conditions on wave aberration estimates for uncorrected, axially myopic model eyes. Wave aberrations were initially referenced to either the anterior corneal pole or the natural entrance pupil of symmetrical eye models, with rays traced into the eye from infinity (into the eye) to simulate normal vision, into the eye from infinity and then back out of the eye from the retinal intercepts (into/out of the eye), or out of the eye from the retinal fovea (out of the eye). The into-the-eye and out-of-the-eye ray traces gave increases in spherical aberration as myopia increased, but the into/out-of-the-eye ray trace showed little variation in spherical aberration. Reference plane choice also affected spherical aberration. Corresponding residual aberrations were calculated after the models had been optically corrected, either by placing the object or image plane at the paraxial far point or by modifying corneas to simulate laser ablation corrections. Correcting aberrations by ablation was more complete if the original aberrations were referenced to the cornea rather than to the entrance pupil. For eyes corrected by spectacle lenses, failure to allow for effects of pupil magnification on apparent entrance pupil diameter produced larger changes in measured aberrations. The general findings regarding choice of reference plane and direction of measurement were found to be equally applicable to eyes that lacked rotational symmetry.

  8. Development of optical design algorithms on the base of the exact (all orders) geometrical aberration theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Boian A.

    2011-10-01

    The process of optical design today is both an art and a science mainly due to the lack of exact and suitable aberration theory. In this paper we propose an exact (without any approximations) analytical aberration theory. It describes exactly the relations between the on-axis image aberrations and on-axis object aberrations via so called relative parameters, real aperture incidence angles, real aperture slope angles, refraction indexes and object distance. The image field aberrations (distortion, astigmatism, tangential curvature, sagittal curvature and field curvature) are described in a mathematically exact way by means of relative parameters, real incidence angles and slope angles of the chief rays, refraction indexes, object distance and corresponding object aberrations. For the image tangential coma and image sagittal coma we propose differential formulae. To verify the correction of every single aberration we use the commercial program OSLO. The differences between our and OSLO results for each aberration (except for the tangential and sagittal coma) are less than 1x10-8 mm. In addition we propose some exact aberration's correction algorithms for a very distant object and variety of constructive design solutions which confirm the truth of the proposed theory.

  9. Effects of aberrations in vortex-beams generated with amplitude diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuartas-Vélez, Carlos; Echeverri-Chacón, Santiago; Restrepo, René

    2016-03-01

    We present a mathematical model for the generation of vortex-beams by using a square profile amplitude fork diffraction grating with arbitrary topological charge. The mathematical framework of aberrations in the forked-shape diffraction grating is analysed, and the resulting diffracted pattern is simulated. Three cases of desired distortions (aberrations) in the diffraction grating are considered, obtaining phase modulation from the amplitude grating. Experimental optical vortices are generated by using a transmission spatial light modulator, which is used as a dynamic diffraction grating, allowing us to aberrate it. We show the effect of aberrations in the experimental diffracted vortex-beams and compare it with the numerical simulation.

  10. Aberration correction for direct laser written waveguides in a transverse geometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Salter, P S; Payne, F; Booth, M J

    2016-05-16

    The depth dependent spherical aberration is investigated for ultrafast laser written waveguides fabricated in a transverse writing geometry using the slit beam shaping technique in the low pulse repetition rate regime. The axial elongation of the focus caused by the aberration leads to a distortion of the refractive index change, and waveguides designed as single mode become multimode. We theoretically estimate a depth range over which the aberration effects can be compensated simply by adjusting the incident laser power. If deeper fabrication is required, it is demonstrated experimentally that the aberration can be successfully removed using adaptive optics to fabricate single mode optical waveguides over a depth range > 1 mm. PMID:27409879

  11. The Gaussian formula and spherical aberrations of static and relativistic curved mirrors from Fermat's principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanto, Sylvia H.; Tjiang, Paulus C.

    2011-10-01

    The Gaussian formula and spherical aberrations of static and relativistic curved mirrors are analyzed using the optical path length (OPL) and Fermat's principle. The geometrical figures generated by the rotation of conic sections about their symmetry axes are considered for the shapes of the mirrors. By comparing the results in static and relativistic cases, it is shown that the focal lengths and the spherical aberration relations of the relativistic mirrors obey the Lorentz contraction. Further analysis of the spherical aberrations for both static and relativistic cases have resulted in information about the limits for the paraxial approximation, as well as for the minimum speed of the systems to reduce the spherical aberrations.

  12. Efficient estimation and large-scale evaluation of lateral chromatic aberration for digital image forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloe, Thomas; Borowka, Karsten; Winkler, Antje

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of lateral chromatic aberration forms another ingredient for a well equipped toolbox of an image forensic investigator. Previous work proposed its application to forgery detection1 and image source identification.2 This paper takes a closer look on the current state-of-the-art method to analyse lateral chromatic aberration and presents a new approach to estimate lateral chromatic aberration in a runtime-efficient way. Employing a set of 11 different camera models including 43 devices, the characteristic of lateral chromatic aberration is investigated in a large-scale. The reported results point to general difficulties that have to be considered in real world investigations.

  13. A right-sided aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery with proximal segment hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Justin; Bilfinger, Thomas; Labropoulos, Nicos

    2012-03-01

    The right-sided thoracic aortic arch is a rare congenital malformation occurring during embryologic development. A majority of the cases present with two anatomic variations, one of which is an aberrant left subclavian artery (LSA) originating off the distal descending aortic arch. This aberrant LSA courses across and compresses thoracic structures on its way to the left thoracic outlet. While this aberrant vessel causes mostly benign symptoms, patients may first present with rupture of a thoracic aneurysm. This thoracic aneurysm is commonly known as Kommerell's diverticulum. This paper presents a case of an aberrant LSA originating off Kommerell's diverticulum with a proximal long-segment hypoplasia, a very rare anatomic variation.

  14. Tumor-derived endothelial cells exhibit aberrant Rho-mediated mechanosensing and abnormal angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kaustabh; Thodeti, Charles K; Dudley, Andrew C; Mammoto, Akiko; Klagsbrun, Michael; Ingber, Donald E

    2008-08-12

    Tumor blood vessels exhibit abnormal structure and function that cause disturbed blood flow and high interstitial pressure, which impair delivery of anti-cancer agents. Past efforts to normalize the tumor vasculature have focused on inhibition of soluble angiogenic factors, such as VEGF; however, capillary endothelial (CE) cell growth and differentiation during angiogenesis are also influenced by mechanical forces conveyed by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we explored the possibility that tumor CE cells form abnormal vessels because they lose their ability to sense and respond to these physical cues. These studies reveal that, in contrast to normal CE cells, tumor-derived CE cells fail to reorient their actin cytoskeleton when exposed to uniaxial cyclic strain, exhibit distinct shape sensitivity to variations in ECM elasticity, exert greater traction force, and display an enhanced ability to retract flexible ECM substrates and reorganize into tubular networks in vitro. These behaviors correlate with a constitutively high level of baseline activity of the small GTPase Rho and its downstream effector, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). Moreover, decreasing Rho-mediated tension by using the ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, can reprogram the tumor CE cells so that they normalize their reorientation response to uniaxial cyclic strain and their ability to form tubular networks on ECM gels. Abnormal Rho-mediated sensing of mechanical cues in the tumor microenvironment may therefore contribute to the aberrant behaviors of tumor CE cells that result in the development of structural abnormalities in the cancer microvasculature.

  15. Aberrant dendritic excitability: a common pathophysiology in CNS disorders affecting memory?

    PubMed Central

    Nestor, Michael W.; Hoffman, Dax A.

    2012-01-01

    Discovering the etiology of pathophysiologies and aberrant behavior in many central nervous system (CNS) disorders has proven elusive because susceptibility to these diseases can be a product of multiple factors such as genetics, epigenetics, and environment. Advances in molecular biology and wide-scale genomics have shown that a large heterogeneity of genetic mutations are potentially responsible for the neuronal pathologies and dysfunctional behaviors seen in CNS disorders. (Need to distinguish between pure genetic forms which are rare, and what most people get which is probable combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental insults). Despite this seemingly complex array of genetic and physiological factors, many disorders of the CNS converge on common dysfunctions in memory. In this review, we propose that mechanisms underlying the development of many CNS diseases may share an underlying cause involving abnormal dendritic integration of synaptic signals. Through understanding the relationship between molecular genetics and dendritic computation, future research may uncover important links between neuronal physiology at the cellular level and higher-order circuit and network abnormalities observed in CNS diseases, and their subsequent affect on memory. PMID:22528602

  16. Total ocular, anterior corneal and lenticular higher order aberrations in hyperopic, myopic and emmetropic eyes.

    PubMed

    Philip, Krupa; Martinez, Aldo; Ho, Arthur; Conrad, Fabian; Ale, Jit; Mitchell, Paul; Sankaridurg, Padmaja

    2012-01-01

    Total ocular higher order aberrations and corneal topography of myopic, emmetropic and hyperopic eyes of 675 adolescents (16.9 ± 0.7 years) were measured after cycloplegia using COAS aberrometer and Medmont videokeratoscope. Corneal higher order aberrations were computed from the corneal topography maps and lenticular (internal) higher order aberrations derived by subtraction of corneal aberrations from total ocular aberrations. Aberrations were measured for a pupil diameter of 5mm. Multivariate analysis of variance followed by multiple regression analysis found significant difference in the fourth order aberrations (SA RMS, primary spherical aberration coefficient) between the refractive error groups. Hyperopic eyes (+0.083 ± 0.05 μm) had more positive total ocular primary spherical aberration compared to emmetropic (+0.036 ± 0.04 μm) and myopic eyes (low myopia=+0.038 ± 0.05 μm, moderate myopia=+0.026 ± 0.06 μm) (p<0.05). No difference was observed for the anterior corneal spherical aberration. Significantly less negative lenticular spherical aberration was observed for the hyperopic eyes (-0.038 ± 0.05 μm) than myopic (low myopia=-0.088 ± 0.04 μm, moderate myopia=-0.095 ± 0.05 μm) and emmetropic eyes (-0.081 ± 0.04 μm) (p<0.05). These findings suggest the existence of differences in the characteristics of the crystalline lens (asphericity, curvature and gradient refractive index) of hyperopic eyes versus other eyes.

  17. The nature of chromosomal aberrations detected in humans exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luoping; Eastmond, David A; Smith, Martyn T

    2002-01-01

    Benzene is an established cause of human leukemia that is thought to act by producing chromosomal aberrations and altered in cell differentiation. In several recent studies increased levels of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were correlated with a heightened risk of cancer, especially hematological malignancies. Thus, chromosomal aberrations may be a predictor of future leukemia risk. Previous studies exploring whether benzene exposure induces chromosomal aberrations have yielded mostly positive results. However, it remains unclear whether the chromosomal aberrations induced by benzene occur in a distinct pattern. Here, we thoroughly review the major chromosome studies published to date in benzene-exposed workers, benzene-poisoned and preleukemia patients, and leukemia cases associated with benzene expose. Although three cytogenetic markers (chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and micronuclei) are commonly examined, our primary focus is on studies of chromosomal aberrations, because only this marker has so far been correlated with increased cancer risk. This review surveys the published literature, analyzes the study results, and discusses the characteristics of effects reported. In most studies of currently exposed workers, increases in chromosomal aberrations were observed. However, due to the relatively small number of affected individuals and variability in the reported aberrations, firm conclusions cannot be made about the involvement of specific chromosomes or chromosome regions. Further, in leukemia cases associated with benzene exposure, there is no evidence of a unique pattern of benzene-induced chromosomal aberrations in humans. Leukemia cases associated with benzene exposure are, however, more likely to contain clonal chromosome aberrations then those arising de novo in the general population.

  18. The Effect of Optical Aberrations on Laser-Induced Gas Breakdown.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Daniel Joseph

    Over the past twenty years, much work has gone into developing a theoretical model for laser-induced gas breakdown. Out of all this work evolved the theories of multiphoton absorption and inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption. These two theories together provide a reasonable explanation of the processes of laser-induced gas breakdown. There are, however, many experimental results which are not in agreement with the theoretical results. One of the reasons for this is that aberrations in the focusing optics have, for the most part, been ignored in the studies of gas breakdown. The work presented in this dissertation examines the effects of aberrations on the imaging quality of lenses and on the energy distribution at the focal plane. Experimental results are shown comparing gas breakdown threshold for near diffraction limited lenses and for lenses having many wavelengths of aberrations. The results of the calculations on imaging performance and breakdown thresholds are then used to generate the aberration calibration curve. The calibration curve is a plot of the relationship between the number of wavelengths of aberrations and the percent of the total energy entering the aperture of the lens which is actually within the diffraction limited spot. Knowing the aberration characteristics of a lens, a corrected breakdown threshold intensity can be determined. A breakdown model which includes the effects of aberrations employs the aberration calibration curve to determine the intensity, assumes a diffraction limited spot size, and models the focal volume as an oblate spheroid. Presently accepted solutions to the continuity equation are then adaptable to include the effects of aberrations using these definitions of intensity, spot size and focal volume. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the aberration calibration curve in accounting for the contribution of aberrations in gas breakdown. The curve was successfully applied to previously published results

  19. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zee, Barry M.; Dibona, Amy B.; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; French, Christopher A.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC), which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N) covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state. PMID:27698495

  20. Studying Atomic Structures by Aberration-Corrected Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Knut W.

    2008-07-01

    Seventy-five years after its invention, transmission electron microscopy has taken a great step forward with the introduction of aberration-corrected electron optics. An entirely new generation of instruments enables studies in condensed-matter physics and materials science to be performed at atomic-scale resolution. These new possibilities are meeting the growing demand of nanosciences and nanotechnology for the atomic-scale characterization of materials, nanosynthesized products and devices, and the validation of expected functions. Equipped with electron-energy filters and electron-energy loss spectrometers, the new instruments allow studies not only of structure but also of elemental composition and chemical bonding. The energy resolution is about 100 milli electron volts, and the accuracy of spatial measurements has reached a few picometers. However, understanding the results is generally not straightforward and only possible with extensive quantum-mechanical computer calculations.

  1. Studying atomic structures by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Urban, Knut W

    2008-07-25

    Seventy-five years after its invention, transmission electron microscopy has taken a great step forward with the introduction of aberration-corrected electron optics. An entirely new generation of instruments enables studies in condensed-matter physics and materials science to be performed at atomic-scale resolution. These new possibilities are meeting the growing demand of nanosciences and nanotechnology for the atomic-scale characterization of materials, nanosynthesized products and devices, and the validation of expected functions. Equipped with electron-energy filters and electron-energy-loss spectrometers, the new instruments allow studies not only of structure but also of elemental composition and chemical bonding. The energy resolution is about 100 milli-electron volts, and the accuracy of spatial measurements has reached a few picometers. However, understanding the results is generally not straightforward and only possible with extensive quantum-mechanical computer calculations. PMID:18653874

  2. Catadioptric lens with aberrations balanced by aspherizing one surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystricky, K. M.; Yoder, P. R., Jr.

    1985-04-01

    In this paper a description is provided of an optical system with one surface aspherized to give a specific level of performance and to equalize the intensity profiles of star images over the field. The system was a 25.4-cm EFL, 5.8 deg field, f/1.53 catadioptric Cassegrain. It was designed to determine the attitude of a space platform by detecting and mapping the geometric pattern of stars observed to ninth visual magnitude. Aberrations were controlled over a 0.5-1.1-micron spectral region. A comparison is conducted of the polychromatic performance of the design to one conventionally optimized. How the spherical substrate base radius was chosen to minimize glass removal is also described.

  3. Dissecting the role of aberrant DNA methylation in human leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Amabile, Giovanni; Di Ruscio, Annalisa; Müller, Fabian; Welner, Robert S; Yang, Henry; Ebralidze, Alexander K; Zhang, Hong; Levantini, Elena; Qi, Lihua; Martinelli, Giovanni; Brummelkamp, Thijn; Le Beau, Michelle M; Figueroa, Maria E; Bock, Christoph; Tenen, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the genetic translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) encoding for the BCR-ABL fusion oncogene. However, many molecular mechanisms of the disease progression still remain poorly understood. A growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic abnormalities are involved in tyrosine kinase resistance in CML, leading to leukemic clone escape and disease propagation. Here we show that, by applying cellular reprogramming to primary CML cells, aberrant DNA methylation contributes to the disease evolution. Importantly, using a BCR-ABL inducible murine model, we demonstrate that a single oncogenic lesion triggers DNA methylation changes which in turn act as a precipitating event in leukemia progression. PMID:25997600

  4. Aberrant expression of a chemokinetic glycoprotein in psoriatic skin.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, S; Schmalsteig, F C; Brysk, M M; Hendrick, S J; Solomon, A R

    1987-05-01

    Clinically involved and uninvolved skin samples of 6 psoriatic patients, 4 samples each of normal skin specimens, basal cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma were studied by an indirect immunofluorescence technique. The monospecific antibody used in this study was directed against a 30 kD glycoprotein, normally expressed by the terminally differentiated corneocytes. Functional characterization of this glycoprotein was evaluated by neutrophil cell movement assays. The involved and uninvolved skin of psoriatic patients expressed the 30 kD glycoprotein not only in the stratum corneum but in all the viable epidermal layers as well. Functional studies revealed this glycoprotein to be a potent chemokinetic molecule. These results suggest that the 30 kD glycoprotein is an intrinsic chemokinetic molecule of the terminally differentiated corneocytes, and its precocious and aberrant expression in psoriatic epidermis is potentially responsible for some of the pathophysiologic aspects of psoriasis. PMID:3302266

  5. Sphere-cone-polynomial special window with good aberration characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xin; Qu, He-Meng; Wang, Ling-Jie; Wang, Yu

    2013-07-01

    Optical windows with external surfaces shaped to satisfy operational environment needs are known as special windows. A novel special window, a sphere-cone-polynomial (SCP) window, is proposed. The formulas of this window shape are given. An SCP MgF2 window with a fineness ratio of 1.33 is designed as an example. The field-of-regard (FOR) angle is ±75°. From the window system simulation results obtained with the calculated fluid dynamics (CFD) and optical design software, we find that compared to the conventional window forms, the SCP shape can not only introduce relatively less drag in the airflow, but also have the minimal effect on imaging. So the SCP window optical system can achieve a high image quality across a super wide FOR without adding extra aberration correctors. The tolerance analysis results show that the optical performance can be maintained with a reasonable fabricating tolerance to manufacturing errors.

  6. Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.; Fochs, Scott N.

    1999-09-28

    An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

  7. The prevalence of chromosomal aberrations in Argentine air crew members.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Julio César; Picco, Sebastián Julio; Macintyre, Carlos; Dulout, Fernando Noel; Lopez-Larraza, Daniel Mario

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyzed the effects of chronic exposure of Argentine air crew members to low doses of ionizing radiations. Genetic damage induced by either low doses or low rates of ionizing radiation was higher than expected. Seventy-one heparinized blood samples were obtained from technical ground workers (group A; n = 10), pilots of domestic flights (group B; n = 14), pilots of transequatorial flights (group C; n = 17;), pilots of transpolar flights (group D; n = 17) and retired pilots (group E; n = 10) The frequency of dicentric chromosomes was higher in groups B and C compared with groups D and E. These observations suggest that the exposure of the aircraft to ionizing radiations may induce chromosomal aberrations. However, dicentric chromosomes in both domestic and retired pilots are still high compared with dicentric control participants. PMID:19395340

  8. [B0 aberrant genotype of AB0 blood group system].

    PubMed

    Zachová, M; Pexa, T; Zelený, M; Mazura, I; Hirt, M

    2004-07-01

    The AB0 blood group system typing remains one of the basic laboratory tasks in a forensic practice. However, problems arise when the analysed samples are seriously degraded. The DNA analysis promised to solve this but an unexpected complication was encountered. For the AB0 blood group system typing a Polymerase Chain Reaction method was used to amplify glycosyltransferase gene, when DNA had been isolated from artificially created blood stains, followed by their subsequent artificial thermal degradation. In the B0 genotype an aberrant genotype was suprisingly found and its structure was confirmed by sequencing. This meant that a newly formed B00 (not the original BO) genotype was present. Such a finding, to our best knowledge, had not been observed yet and we were unable to find any references in the professional literature. The explanation of this result thus remains unclear. PMID:15493712

  9. Gene expression analysis of aberrant signaling pathways in meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    TORRES-MARTÍN, MIGUEL; MARTINEZ-GLEZ, VICTOR; PEÑA-GRANERO, CAROLINA; ISLA, ALBERTO; LASSALETTA, LUIS; DE CAMPOS, JOSE M.; PINTO, GIOVANNY R.; BURBANO, ROMMEL R.; MELÉNDEZ, BÁRBARA; CASTRESANA, JAVIER S.; REY, JUAN A.

    2013-01-01

    Examining aberrant pathway alterations is one method for understanding the abnormal signals that are involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In the present study, expression arrays were performed on tumor-related genes in meningiomas. The GE Array Q Series HS-006 was used to determine the expression levels of 96 genes that corresponded to six primary biological regulatory pathways in a series of 42 meningiomas, including 32 grade I, four recurrent grade I and six grade II tumors, in addition to three normal tissue controls. Results showed that 25 genes that were primarily associated with apoptosis and angiogenesis functions were downregulated and 13 genes frequently involving DNA damage repair functions were upregulated. In addition to the inactivation of the neurofibromin gene, NF2, which is considered to be an early step in tumorigenesis, variations of other biological regulatory pathways may play a significant role in the development of meningioma. PMID:23946817

  10. Gene expression analysis of aberrant signaling pathways in meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Torres-Martín, Miguel; Martinez-Glez, Victor; Peña-Granero, Carolina; Isla, Alberto; Lassaletta, Luis; DE Campos, Jose M; Pinto, Giovanny R; Burbano, Rommel R; Meléndez, Bárbara; Castresana, Javier S; Rey, Juan A

    2013-07-01

    Examining aberrant pathway alterations is one method for understanding the abnormal signals that are involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In the present study, expression arrays were performed on tumor-related genes in meningiomas. The GE Array Q Series HS-006 was used to determine the expression levels of 96 genes that corresponded to six primary biological regulatory pathways in a series of 42 meningiomas, including 32 grade I, four recurrent grade I and six grade II tumors, in addition to three normal tissue controls. Results showed that 25 genes that were primarily associated with apoptosis and angiogenesis functions were downregulated and 13 genes frequently involving DNA damage repair functions were upregulated. In addition to the inactivation of the neurofibromin gene, NF2, which is considered to be an early step in tumorigenesis, variations of other biological regulatory pathways may play a significant role in the development of meningioma. PMID:23946817

  11. Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human infant eye

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T. Rowan; Teel, Danielle F. W.; Jacobs, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Although the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the adult eye has been studied, there are no data collected from the human infant eye. A chromatic retinoscope was used to measure cyclopleged infant and adult refractions with four pseudomonochromatic sources (centered at 472, 538, 589, and 652 nm) and with polychromatic light. The LCA of the infant eyes between 472 and 652 nm was a factor of 1.7 greater than the LCA found in the adult group: infant mean=1.62 D, SD±0.14 D; adult mean=0.96 D, SD±0.17 D. The elevated level of LCA in infant eyes is consistent with the greater optical power of the immature eye and indicates similar chromatic dispersion in infant and adult eyes. The implications for visual performance, defocus detection, and measurement of refraction are discussed. PMID:18758552

  12. Spherical aberration standards and measurement system stability over time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compertore, David; Ignatovich, Filipp; Marcus, Michael

    2015-10-01

    A Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor system has been used to measure a set of plano-convex lenses at two different times, separated by almost 2 years. The plano-convex lenses were selected to cover a range of powers and apertures relevant to intraocular lenses, and were measured at two different orientations. The results demonstrate the high temporal stability of the measurement system, as well as of the glass standard. In addition, both times the effective focal lengths of the standards were measured using a NIST traceable nodal slide bench, and the center thicknesses were measured using low-coherence interferometer. The spherical aberration and the effective focal length results are analyzed for statistically significant changes. The results are also compared to the Zemax models of the standards.

  13. Genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes in chordoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-07-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ∼8 Mb segment at 3p21.1-p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (∼23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (∼40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Genomic Aberrations Frequently Alter Chromatin Regulatory Genes in Chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F.; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C. David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ~8 Mb segment at 3p21.1–p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (~23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (~40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. PMID:27072194

  15. Measuring Low-Order Aberrations in a Segmented Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang; Green, Joseph; Dumont, Philip; Basinger, Scott; Lowman, Andrew; Burns, Laura; Petrone, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The in-focus PSF optimizer (IPO) is an algorithm for use in monitoring and controlling the alignment of the segments of a segmented-mirror astronomical telescope. IPO is so named because it computes wave-front aberrations of the telescope from digitized pointspread functions (PSFs) measured in infocus images. Inasmuch as distant astronomical objects that behave optically as point sources can typically be seen in almost any astronomical image, the main benefit afforded by IPO may be to enable maintenance of mirror-segment alignments without detracting from valuable scientific-observation time. IPO evolved from prescription-retrieval type algorithms. Prescription retrieval uses in-focus and out-of-focus PSFs to infer the state of an imaging optical system. The state, in this context, refers to the positions, orientations, and low-order figure errors of the optical elements in the system. Both prescription- retrieval and IPO use an iterative, nonlinear, least-squares optimizer to compute the optimal state parameters such that a digital computer-generated model image matches the digitized image acquired from the real system. The difference between IPO and prescription- retrieval algorithms is that IPO is specifically designed to utilize infocus images only. Although the restriction to in-focus images limits IPO to calculating only the lowest-order wave front aberrations, it also causes the resulting computation to take much less time because fewer degrees of freedom are included in the optimization process. In the prescription retrieval software developed at JPL, the model images are generated using the ray-trace/physical optics program, MACOS. IPO, on the other hand, uses a linear sensitivity matrix to compute the exit-pupil wave front from the system parameters; the wave front is then converted into a complex pupil field, which is then propagated to the image plane via a fast Fourier transform. This approach is computationally faster and requires less computer memory

  16. DNA repair and chromosome aberrations: the effect of cytosine arabinoside on the frequency of chromosome aberrations induced by radiation and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of x-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in G0 human lymphocytes was greatly increased when cells were incubated with cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) after irradiation. The frequency of dicentrics increased with increasing ara-C incubation times (one, two, and three hours). Lymphocytes from Down syndrome individuals were more sensitive to aberration induction by x-rays in G0, and the increase in dicentric frequency with ara-C incubation was much more rapid than with normal cells. When G2 normal lymphocytes were x-irradiated and incubated for two or three hours with ara-C until fixation, there was a large increase in deletion frequency compared to cells x-irradiated and incubated in the absence of ara-C. However, no exchanges were observed in the presence of ara-C, compared to 0.29 per cell as when x-rays alone were given. These results form the basis for a discussion of the mechanism of aberration induction by x-rays. Experiments with two chemicals, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and methyl methanesulfonate, show that chromosome-type aberrations can be induced in G1 treated lymphocytes incubated with ara-C. However, these chemicals, in the absence of ara-C incubation, induced no aberrations in G1 at the concentrations used. The mechanism of aberration induction is discussed, particularly in terms of whether or not chemicals can be defined as S-phase dependent.

  17. Aberrant Parietal Cortex Developmental Trajectories in Girls With Turner Syndrome and Related Visual–Spatial Cognitive Development: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Tamar; Chromik, Lindsay C.; Mazaika, Paul K.; Fierro, Kyle; Raman, Mira M.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Hong, David S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) arises from partial or complete absence of the X-chromosome in females. Girls with TS show deficits in visual–spatial skills as well as reduced brain volume and surface area in the parietal cortex which supports these cognitive functions. Thus, measuring the developmental trajectory of the parietal cortex and the associated visual–spatial cognition in TS may provide novel insights into critical brain-behavior associations. In this longitudinal study, we acquired structural MRI data and assessed visual–spatial skills in 16 (age: 8.23 ±2.5) girls with TS and 13 age-matched controls over two time-points. Gray and white matter volume, surface area and cortical thickness were calculated from surfaced based segmentation of bilateral parietal cortices, and the NEPSY Arrows subtest was used to assess visual–spatial ability. Volumetric and cognitive scalars were modeled to obtain estimates of age-related change. The results show aberrant growth of white matter volume (P =0.011, corrected) and surface area (P =0.036, corrected) of the left superior parietal regions during childhood in girls with TS. Other parietal sub-regions were significantly smaller in girls with TS at both time-points but did not show different growth trajectories relative to controls. Furthermore, we found that visual–spatial skills showed a widening deficit for girls with TS relative to controls (P =0.003). Young girls with TS demonstrate an aberrant trajectory of parietal cortical and cognitive development during childhood. Elucidating aberrant neurodevelopmental trajectories in this population is critical for determining specific stages of brain maturation that are particularly dependent on TS-related genetic and hormonal factor. PMID:25044604

  18. Study on the modification of measured wavefront aberration data for customized visual correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Zhidong; Quan, Wei; An, Li

    2008-12-01

    Wavefront aberration of human eye is an important foundation for customized vision correction. In most current aberrometers, near infrared light is used to measure ocular wavefront aberration, whereas for customized visual correction, wavefront aberration data in visible range are required. With the measured wavefront aberration, corneal topography and eye's axial lengths data, individual eye models for twenty normal human eyes are constructed with the optical design software ZEMAX. Changing the incidence light wavelength and the refractive indexes of eye models, the values of defocus, astigmatism, higher-order aberrations in the measuring wavelength (833nm) and at the most sensitive wavelength of human eye (555nm) are obtained. Average focus shift between 833nm and 555nm is found to be about 0.94D, and different slightly for different individuals; the differences of astigmatism and higher-order aberrations between 833nm and 555nm are quite slight. For customized visual correction, the measured defocus value should be modified, whereas the measured astigmatism and higher-order aberrations could be used directly for the current correction precision. Individual eye model is a useful tool for accurate transformation of the measured wavefront aberration data into the data for visible spectrum.

  19. Accuracy of Person-Fit Statistics: A Monte Carlo Study of the Influence of Aberrance Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Onge, Christina; Valois, Pierre; Abdous, Belkacem; Germain, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Using a Monte Carlo experimental design, this research examined the relationship between answer patterns' aberrance rates and person-fit statistics (PFS) accuracy. It was observed that as the aberrance rate increased, the detection rates of PFS also increased until, in some situations, a peak was reached and then the detection rates of PFS…

  20. A case of valvular pulmonic stenosis and an aberrant coronary artery in a Brittany spaniel.

    PubMed

    Estey, Chelsie

    2011-05-01

    Valvular pulmonic stenosis and aberrancy of the right coronary artery with subsequent subvalvular stenosis was found on echocardiographic evaluation of a 9-month-old Brittany spaniel. Previous echocardiography at 4 mo of age revealed the pulmonic stenosis; however, the aberrant coronary artery only became apparent during the second evaluation.

  1. Patterns of Aberrant Eating among Pre-Adolescent Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarren-Sweeney, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports epidemiological and phenomenological investigations of aberrant eating among 347 pre-adolescent children in court-ordered foster and kinship care, in New South Wales, Australia. A quarter of children displayed clinically significant aberrant eating problems, with no evidence of gender or age effects. Two distinct patterns were…

  2. Criteria for admissible values of smooth aberrations for nondiffractive laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Malashko, Ya I; Khabibulin, V M

    2014-04-28

    We have derived analytical expressions, verified by the methods of numerical simulation, to evaluate the angular divergence of nondiffractive laser beams containing smooth aberrations, i.e., spherical defocusing, astigmatism and toroid. Using these expressions we have formulated the criteria for admissible values of smooth aberrations. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  3. Aberrance Detection Powers of the BW and Person-Fit Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tsai-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the aberrance detection powers of the BW person-fit indices with other group-based indices (SCI, MCI, NCI, and Wc&Bs) and item response theory based (IRT-based) indices (OUTFITz, INFITz, ECI2z, ECI4z, and lz). Four kinds of comparative conditions, including content category (CC), types of aberrance (AT), severity of aberrance…

  4. Bayesian Procedures for Identifying Aberrant Response-Time Patterns in Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Guo, Fanmin

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify aberrant response-time patterns on educational and psychological tests, it is important to be able to separate the speed at which the test taker operates from the time the items require. A lognormal model for response times with this feature was used to derive a Bayesian procedure for detecting aberrant response times.…

  5. Simultaneous visualization of spatial and chromatic aberrations by two-dimensional Fourier transform spectral interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, W.; Planchon, T. A.; Durfee, C. G.; Squier, J. A.; Gabolde, P.; Trebino, R.; Müller, M.

    2006-10-01

    We demonstrate the use of a simple tool to simultaneously visualize and characterize chromatic and spherical aberrations that are present in multiphoton microscopy. Using two-dimensional Fourier transform spectral interferometry, we measured these aberrations, deducing in a single shot spatiotemporal effects in high-numerical-aperture objectives.

  6. Simple Demonstration of the Impact of Spherical Aberration on Optical Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Isabel; Saavedra, Genaro; Pons, Amparo; Martinez-Corral, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We present an experiment, well adapted for students of introductory optics courses, for the visualization of the impact of spherical aberration in the point spread function of imaging systems. The demonstrations are based on the analogy between the point-spread function of spherically aberrated systems, and the defocused patterns of 1D slit-like…

  7. 40 CFR 799.9538 - TSCA mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as a dose-related increase in the relative number of cells with chromosome aberrations or a clear increase in the number of cells with aberrations in a single dose group at a single sampling time... study. (D) Stability of the test substance, if known. (ii) Solvent/vehicle: (A) Justification for...

  8. The role of aberrant salience and self-concept clarity in psychotic-like experiences.

    PubMed

    Cicero, David C; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Docherty, Anna R; Kerns, John G

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of psychotic-like experiences posit the involvement of cognitive mechanisms. The current research examined the relations between psychotic-like experiences and two cognitive mechanisms, high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity. In particular, we examined whether aberrant salience, or the incorrect assignment of importance to neutral stimuli, and low self-concept clarity interacted to predict psychotic-like experiences. The current research included three large samples (n = 667, 724, 744) of participants and oversampled for increased schizotypal personality traits. In all three studies, an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found such that participants with high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity had the highest levels of psychotic-like experiences. In addition, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity interacted to predict a supplemental measure of delusions in Study 2. In Study 3, in contrast to low self-concept clarity, neuroticism did not interact with aberrant salience to predict psychotic-like experiences, suggesting that the relation between low self-concept clarity and psychosis may not be a result of neuroticism. Additionally, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity did not interact to predict two other SPD criteria, social anhedonia or trait paranoia, which suggests the interaction is specific to psychotic-like experiences. Overall, our results are consistent with several cognitive models of psychosis suggesting that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity might be important mechanisms in the occurrence of psychotic-like symptoms.

  9. Measuring ocular aberrations in the peripheral visual field using Hartmann-Shack aberrometry.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Scott, Dion H; Charman, W Neil

    2007-09-01

    We have used the Hartmann-Shack technique previously to measure ocular aberrations along the horizontal meridian of the visual field. This requires considerable modifications from the technique for measuring the aberrations corresponding to the fovea. We now further develop the technique so that it can be used for any meridian of the visual field. Allowance is made for any auxiliary optics placed in front of the eye to compensate for the limited range of the Hartmann-Shack technique and for the case where aberrations are estimated at a wavelength other than the measuring wavelength. Zernike wave aberrations are converted to peripheral refractions. Examples are presented showing the developments, and we discuss change in wave aberrations when converting from a circular to an elliptical pupil. PMID:17767268

  10. Four-zone varifocus mirrors with adaptive control of primary and higher-order spherical aberration.

    PubMed

    Lukes, Sarah J; Downey, Ryan D; Kreitinger, Seth T; Dickensheets, David L

    2016-07-01

    Electrostatically actuated deformable mirrors with four concentric annular electrodes can exert independent control over defocus as well as primary, secondary, and tertiary spherical aberration. In this paper we use both numerical modeling and physical measurements to characterize recently developed deformable mirrors with respect to the amount of spherical aberration each can impart, and the dependence of that aberration control on the amount of defocus the mirror is providing. We find that a four-zone, 4 mm diameter mirror can generate surface shapes with arbitrary primary, secondary, and tertiary spherical aberration over ranges of ±0.4, ±0.2, and ±0.15  μm, respectively, referred to a non-normalized Zernike polynomial basis. We demonstrate the utility of this mirror for aberration-compensated focusing of a high NA optical system. PMID:27409212

  11. Four-zone varifocus mirrors with adaptive control of primary and higher-order spherical aberration.

    PubMed

    Lukes, Sarah J; Downey, Ryan D; Kreitinger, Seth T; Dickensheets, David L

    2016-07-01

    Electrostatically actuated deformable mirrors with four concentric annular electrodes can exert independent control over defocus as well as primary, secondary, and tertiary spherical aberration. In this paper we use both numerical modeling and physical measurements to characterize recently developed deformable mirrors with respect to the amount of spherical aberration each can impart, and the dependence of that aberration control on the amount of defocus the mirror is providing. We find that a four-zone, 4 mm diameter mirror can generate surface shapes with arbitrary primary, secondary, and tertiary spherical aberration over ranges of ±0.4, ±0.2, and ±0.15  μm, respectively, referred to a non-normalized Zernike polynomial basis. We demonstrate the utility of this mirror for aberration-compensated focusing of a high NA optical system.

  12. Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabesan, Ramkumar; Jeong, Tae Moon; Carvalho, Luis; Cox, Ian G.; Williams, David R.; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2007-04-01

    Higher-order aberration correction in abnormal eyes can result in significant vision improvement, especially in eyes with abnormal corneas. Customized optics such as phase plates and customized contact lenses are one of the most practical, nonsurgical ways to correct these ocular higher-order aberrations. We demonstrate the feasibility of correcting higher-order aberrations and improving visual performance with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes while compensating for the static decentration and rotation of the lens. A reduction of higher-order aberrations by a factor of 3 on average was obtained in these eyes. The higher-order aberration correction resulted in an average improvement of 2.1 lines in visual acuity over the conventional correction of defocus and astigmatism alone.

  13. The Visual Impact of Zernike and Seidel Forms of Monochromatic Aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xu; Bradley, Arthur; Ravikumar, Sowmya; Thibos, Larry N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact on visual acuity of different aberrations modes (e.g. coma, astigmatism, spherical aberration (SA)) and different aberration basis functions (Zernike or Seidel). Methods Computational optics was used to generate retinal images degraded by either the Zernike or Seidel forms of 2nd through 4th order aberrations for an eye with a 5mm pupil diameter. High contrast, photopic visual acuity was measured using method of constant stimuli for letters displayed on a computer-controlled, linearized, quasi-monochromatic (λ=556 nm) display. Results Minimum angle of resolution (MAR) varied linearly with the magnitude (root mean square error, RMS) of all modes of aberration. The impact of individual Zernike lower and higher order aberrations (HOAs) varied significantly with mode, e.g. arc minutes of MAR/micron of RMS slopes varied from 7 (spherical defocus) to 0.5 (quadrafoil). Seidel forms of these aberrations always had a smaller visual impact. Notably, Seidel spherical aberration (SA) had 1/17th the impact of Zernike SA with the same wavefront variance, and about 1/4th the impact of Zernike SA with matching levels of r4 wavefront error. With lower order components removed, HOAs near the center of the Zernike pyramid do not have a large visual impact. Conclusions The majority of the visual impact of high levels of 4th order Zernike aberrations can be attributed to the 2nd order terms within these polynomials. Therefore, the impact of SA can be minimized by balancing it with a defocus term that flattens the central wavefront (paraxial focus) or maximizes the area of the pupil with a flat wavefront. Over this wide range of aberration types and levels, image quality metrics based upon the PSF and OTF can predict VA as reliably as VA measures can predict retests of VA, and thus such metrics may become valuable predictors of both VA and, via optimization, refractions. PMID:20351600

  14. Problem Behaviors Associated with 15q- Angelman Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David J.; Marston, Geoff

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-three caregivers of persons with Angelman syndrome completed the Aberrant Behavior checklist and Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior. Responses indicate that 15q- Angelman syndrome is associated with problems such as lack of speech, over activity, restlessness, and eating and sleeping problems. Inappropriate laughter was only reported…

  15. Validity of the Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter; Bertman, Lisa J.

    1994-01-01

    The validity of the subscales of the Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior in an institutional population was examined by correlating these scores with the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and programmatic measures. Results support previous research on Reiss total score validity, though…

  16. Evolution of gold structure during thermal treatment of Au/FeOx catalysts revealed by aberration-corrected electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Allard, Lawrence F; Borisevich, Albina; Deng, Weiling; Si, Rui; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Overbury, Steven H

    2009-06-01

    High-resolution aberration-corrected electron microscopy was performed on a series of catalysts derived from a parent material, 2 at.% Au/Fe(2)O(3) (WGC ref. no. 60C), prepared by co-precipitation and calcined in air at 400 degrees C, and a catalyst prepared by leaching surface gold from the parent catalyst and exposed to various treatments, including use in the water-gas shift reaction at 250 degrees C. Aberration-corrected JEOL 2200FS (JEOL USA, Peabody, MA) and Vacuum Generators HB-603U STEM instruments were used to image fresh, reduced, leached, used and re-oxidized catalyst samples. A new in situ heating technology (Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA), which permits full sub-Angström imaging resolution in the JEOL 2200FS was used to study the effects of temperature on the behavior of gold species. A remarkable stability of gold to redox treatments up to 400 degrees C, with atomic gold decorating step surfaces of iron oxide was identified. On heating the samples in vacuum to 700 degrees C, it was found that monodispersed gold began to sinter to form nanoparticles above 500 degrees C. Gold species internal to the iron oxide support material was shown to diffuse to the surface at elevated temperature, coalescing into discrete nanocrystals. The results demonstrate the value of in situ heating for understanding morphological changes in the catalyst with elevated temperature treatments.

  17. Prediction of drug-related cardiac adverse effects in humans--B: use of QSAR programs for early detection of drug-induced cardiac toxicities.

    PubMed

    Frid, Anna A; Matthews, Edwin J

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the use of three quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) programs to predict drug-related cardiac adverse effects (AEs), BioEpisteme, MC4PC, and Leadscope Predictive Data Miner. QSAR models were constructed for 9 cardiac AE clusters affecting Purkinje nerve fibers (arrhythmia, bradycardia, conduction disorder, electrocardiogram, palpitations, QT prolongation, rate rhythm composite, tachycardia, and Torsades de pointes) and 5 clusters affecting the heart muscle (coronary artery disorders, heart failure, myocardial disorders, myocardial infarction, and valve disorders). The models were based on a database of post-marketing AEs linked to 1632 chemical structures, and identical training data sets were configured for three QSAR programs. Model performance was optimized and shown to be affected by the ratio of the number of active to inactive drugs. Results revealed that the three programs were complementary and predictive performances using any single positive, consensus two positives, or consensus three positives were as follows, respectively: 70.7%, 91.7%, and 98.0% specificity; 74.7%, 47.2%, and 21.0% sensitivity; and 138.2, 206.3, and 144.2 chi(2). In addition, a prospective study using AE data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch Program showed 82.4% specificity and 94.3% sensitivity. Furthermore, an external validation study of 18 drugs with serious cardiotoxicity not considered in the models had 88.9% sensitivity. PMID:19941924

  18. Postmortem detection of hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency virus genomes in blood samples from drug-related deaths in Denmark*.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Kringsholm, Birgitte; Banner, Jytte; Thomsen, Jørgen L; Georgsen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Court; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2009-09-01

    Blood-borne viral infections are widespread among injecting drug users; however, it is difficult to include these patients in serological surveys. Therefore, we developed a national surveillance program based on postmortem testing of persons whose deaths were drug related. Blood collected at autopsy was tested for anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), or anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies using commercial kits. Subsets of seropositive samples were screened for viral genomes using sensitive in-house and commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was detected in 20% (3/15) of anti-HBc-positive/anti-HBs-negative samples, HCV RNA was found in 64% (16/25) of anti-HCV-positive samples, and HIV RNA was detected in 40% (6/15) of anti-HIV-positive samples. The postmortem and antemortem prevalences of HBV DNA and HCV RNA were similar. Postmortem HIV RNA testing was less sensitive than antemortem testing. Thus, postmortem PCR analysis for HBV and HBC infection is feasible and relevant for demonstrating ongoing infections at death or for transmission analysis during outbreaks. PMID:19627416

  19. Selective clearance of aberrant tau proteins and rescue of neurotoxicity by transcription factor EB

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Vinicia A; Li, Hongmei; Martini-Stoica, Heidi; Wang, Baiping; Yang, Li; Xu, Yin; Swartzlander, Daniel B; Palmieri, Michela; di Ronza, Alberto; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Sardiello, Marco; Ballabio, Andrea; Zheng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates impairment of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently discovered, transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a molecule shown to play central roles in cellular degradative processes. Here we investigate the role of TFEB in AD mouse models. In this study, we demonstrate that TFEB effectively reduces neurofibrillary tangle pathology and rescues behavioral and synaptic deficits and neurodegeneration in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy with no detectable adverse effects when expressed in wild-type mice. TFEB specifically targets hyperphosphorylated and misfolded Tau species present in both soluble and aggregated fractions while leaving normal Tau intact. We provide in vitro evidence that this effect requires lysosomal activity and we identify phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) as a direct target of TFEB that is required for TFEB-dependent aberrant Tau clearance. The specificity and efficacy of TFEB in mediating the clearance of toxic Tau species makes it an attractive therapeutic target for treating diseases of tauopathy including AD. PMID:25069841

  20. Aberrant Interference of Auditory Negative Words on Attention in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Iwashiro, Norichika; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawamuro, Yu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that deficits in attention-emotion interaction are implicated in schizophrenia symptoms. Although disruption in auditory processing is crucial in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, deficits in interaction between emotional processing of auditorily presented language stimuli and auditory attention have not yet been clarified. To address this issue, the current study used a dichotic listening task to examine 22 patients with schizophrenia and 24 age-, sex-, parental socioeconomic background-, handedness-, dexterous ear-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a word recognition task on the attended side in which a word with emotionally valenced content (negative/positive/neutral) was presented to one ear and a different neutral word was presented to the other ear. Participants selectively attended to either ear. In the control subjects, presentation of negative but not positive word stimuli provoked a significantly prolonged reaction time compared with presentation of neutral word stimuli. This interference effect for negative words existed whether or not subjects directed attention to the negative words. This interference effect was significantly smaller in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls. Furthermore, the smaller interference effect was significantly correlated with severe positive symptoms and delusional behavior in the patients with schizophrenia. The present findings suggest that aberrant interaction between semantic processing of negative emotional content and auditory attention plays a role in production of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. (224 words) PMID:24376662

  1. Interferometric control of contact line, shape, and aberrations of liquid lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitenko, Igor; Storm, Ronald; Westfall, Raymond; Rogers, Stanley

    2007-09-01

    An optical system consisting of an aqueous electrolyte resting on a polymer/gold/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) layer deposited onto a glass substrate is analyzed to acquire contact angle - focal distance data as a function of applied voltage. The shape factor of a liquid lens and its dependence on the perimeter of contact line and contact angle was analyzed in the presence of an electrical field applied between the electrolyte and planar electrode system. The contact angle of a liquid on a thin, transparent film of gold (20 nm thick) - on ITO under electrolyte solution could be varied from 110 +/- 3° when the gold was held at -2.4 V to 41 +/- 3° without voltage. The behavior of a water-based electrolyte and water-soluble polymer blend and its influence on the shape of contact line and profile of the lens were investigated by employing a holographic setup at wavelengths of 632.8 and 543.5 nm. Optical micrographs showing the profile of the lens, aberration-less aperture, deformation of contact line, and shape of the liquid lens, respectively, were analyzed in reflection and transmission. Both the advancing and receding contact angles were measured directly from digitized images of the profile of the lens. The dynamic range of linear beam steering and dependence of the focal length of the liquid lens on the applied voltage are discussed.

  2. Resting-State Time-Varying Analysis Reveals Aberrant Variations of Functional Connectivity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Xie, Yuanwei; Zheng, Fang; Liu, Guangyao; Chen, Xuejiao; Zheng, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies based on time-varying functional connectivity have unveiled brain states diversity in some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. However, time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have been rarely performed on the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Hence, we performed time-varying connectivity analysis on resting-state fMRI data to investigate brain states mutation in ASD children. ASD showed an imbalance of connectivity state and aberrant ratio of connectivity with different strengths in the whole brain network, and decreased connectivity associated precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus with medial prefrontal gyrus in default mode network. As compared to typical development children, weak relevance condition (the strength of a large number of connectivities in the state was less than means minus standard deviation of all connection strength) was maintained for a longer time between brain areas of ASD children, and ratios of weak connectivity in brain states varied dramatically in the ASD. In the ASD, the abnormal brain state might be related to repetitive behaviors and stereotypical interests, and macroscopically reflect disruption of gamma-aminobutyric acid at the cellular level. The detection of brain states based on time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI might be conducive for diagnosis and early intervention of ASD before obvious clinical symptoms.

  3. Resting-State Time-Varying Analysis Reveals Aberrant Variations of Functional Connectivity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Xie, Yuanwei; Zheng, Fang; Liu, Guangyao; Chen, Xuejiao; Zheng, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies based on time-varying functional connectivity have unveiled brain states diversity in some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. However, time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have been rarely performed on the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Hence, we performed time-varying connectivity analysis on resting-state fMRI data to investigate brain states mutation in ASD children. ASD showed an imbalance of connectivity state and aberrant ratio of connectivity with different strengths in the whole brain network, and decreased connectivity associated precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus with medial prefrontal gyrus in default mode network. As compared to typical development children, weak relevance condition (the strength of a large number of connectivities in the state was less than means minus standard deviation of all connection strength) was maintained for a longer time between brain areas of ASD children, and ratios of weak connectivity in brain states varied dramatically in the ASD. In the ASD, the abnormal brain state might be related to repetitive behaviors and stereotypical interests, and macroscopically reflect disruption of gamma-aminobutyric acid at the cellular level. The detection of brain states based on time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI might be conducive for diagnosis and early intervention of ASD before obvious clinical symptoms. PMID:27695408

  4. Experience with the "good" limb induces aberrant synaptic plasticity in the perilesion cortex after stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Allred, Rachel P; Adkins, DeAnna L; Tennant, Kelly A; Donlan, Nicole A; Kleim, Jeffrey A; Jones, Theresa A

    2015-06-01

    Following unilateral stroke, the contralateral (paretic) body side is often severely impaired, and individuals naturally learn to rely more on the nonparetic body side, which involves learning new skills with it. Such compensatory hyper-reliance on the "good" body side, however, can limit functional improvements of the paretic side. In rats, motor skill training with the nonparetic forelimb (NPT) following a unilateral infarct lessens the efficacy of rehabilitative training, and reduces neuronal activation in perilesion motor cortex. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated how forelimb movement representations and synaptic restructuring in perilesion motor cortex respond to NPT and their relationship with behavioral outcomes. Forelimb representations were diminished as a result of NPT, as revealed with intracortical microstimulation mapping. Using transmission electron microscopy and stereological analyses, we found that densities of axodendritic synapses, especially axo-spinous synapses, as well as multiple synaptic boutons were increased in the perilesion cortex by NPT. The synaptic density was negatively correlated with the functional outcome of the paretic limb, as revealed in reaching performance. Furthermore, in animals with NPT, there was dissociation between astrocytic morphological features and axo-spinous synaptic density in perilesion motor cortex, compared with controls. These findings demonstrate that skill learning with the nonparetic limb following unilateral brain damage results in aberrant synaptogenesis, potentially of transcallosal projections, and this seems to hamper the functionality of the perilesion motor cortex and the paretic forelimb. PMID:26041926

  5. Aberrant expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene DAL-1 due to hypermethylation in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Xu, Man; Cui, Xiaobo; Liu, Yixin; Zhang, Yi; Sui, Yu; Wang, Dong; Peng, Lei; Wang, Dexu; Yu, Jingcui

    2016-01-01

    By allelotyping for loss of heterozygosity (LOH), we previously identified a deletion region that harbors the candidate tumor suppressor gene DAL-1 at 18p11.3 in sporadic gastric cancers (GCs). The expression and function of DAL-1 in GCs remained unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the absence of or notable decreases in the expression of DAL-1 mRNA and protein was highly correlated with CpG hypermethylation of the DAL-1 promoter in primary GC tissues and in GC cell lines. Furthermore, abnormal DAL-1 subcellular localization was also observed in GC cells. Exogenous DAL-1 effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); exogenous DAL-1 also promoted apoptosis in GC AGS cells. When endogenous DAL-1 was knocked down in GC HGC-27 cells, the cells appeared highly aggressive. Taken together, these findings provide solid evidence that aberrant expression of DAL-1 by hypermethylation in the promoter region results in tumor suppressor gene behavior that plays important roles in the malignancy of GCs. Understanding the role of it played in the molecular pathogenesis of GC, DAL-1 might be a potential biomarker for molecular diagnosis and evaluation of the GC. PMID:26923709

  6. Phase-contrast imaging in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krumeich, F; Müller, E; Wepf, R A

    2013-06-01

    Although the presence of phase-contrast information in bright field images recorded with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has been known for a long time, its systematic exploitation for the structural characterization of materials began only with the availability of aberration-corrected microscopes that allow sufficiently large illumination angles. Today, phase-contrast STEM (PC-STEM) imaging represents an increasingly important alternative to the well-established HRTEM method. In both methods, the image contrast is coherently generated and thus depends not only on illumination and collection angles but on defocus and specimen thickness as well. By PC-STEM, a projection of the crystal potential is obtained in thin areas, with the scattering sites being represented either with dark or bright contrast at two different defocus values which are both close to Gaussian defocus. This imaging behavior can be further investigated by image simulations performed with standard HRTEM simulation software based on the principle of reciprocity. As examples for the application of this method, PC-STEM results obtained on metal nanoparticles and dodecagonal quasicrystals dd-(Ta,V)₁.₆Te are discussed.

  7. Aberrant neurocognitive processing of fear in young girls with Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Signe; Haas, Brian W.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    Appraisal of fearful stimuli is an integral aspect of social cognition. Neural circuitry underlying this phenomenon has been well-described and encompasses a distributed network of affective and cognitive nodes. Interestingly, this ability to process fearful faces is impaired in Turner syndrome (TS), a genetic disorder of females in which all or part of an X chromosome is missing. However, neurofunctional correlates for this impairment have not been well-studied, particularly in young girls. Given that the core features of TS include X chromosome gene haploinsufficiency and secondary sex hormone deficiencies, investigation of fearful face processing may provide insights into the influence of X chromosome gene expression on this network. Therefore, we examined behavioral and neural responses during an explicit emotional face labeling task in 14 prepubertal girls with TS and 16 typically developing age-matched controls (6–13 years). We demonstrate that girls with TS have a specific impairment in the identification of fearful faces and show decreased activation in several cognitive control regions, including the anterior dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus. Our results indicate that aberrant functional activation in dorsal cognitive regions plays an integral role in appraisal of, and regulation of response to fear in TS. PMID:23171616

  8. Optical aberrations, retinal image quality and eye growth: Experimentation and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yibin

    2007-12-01

    Retinal image quality is important for normal eye growth. Optical aberrations are of interest for two reasons: first, they degrade retinal images; second, they might provide some cues to defocus. Higher than normal ocular aberrations have been previously associated with human myopia. However, these studies were cross-sectional in design, and only reported aberrations in terms of root mean square (RMS) errors of Zernike coefficients, a poor metric of optical quality. This dissertation presents results from investigations of ocular optical aberrations, retinal image quality and eye growth in chicks and humans. A number of techniques were utilized, including Shack-Hartmann aberrometry, high-frequency A-scan ultrasonography, ciliary nerve section (CNX), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) as well as computer simulations and modeling. A technique to extract light scatter information from Shack-Hartmann images was also developed. The main findings of the dissertation are summarized below. In young chicks, most ocular aberrations decreased with growth in both normal and CNX eyes, and there were diurnal fluctuations in some aberrations. Modeling suggested active reduction in higher order aberrations (HOAs) during early development. Although CNX eyes manifested greater than normal HOAs, they showed near normal growth. Retinal image degradation varied greatly among individual eyes post-PRK in young chicks. Including light scatter information into analyses of retinal image quality better estimated the latter. Albino eyes showed more severe retinal image degradation than normal eyes, due to increased optical aberrations and light scatter, but their growth was similar to those of normal eyes, implying that they are relatively insensitive to retina image quality. Although the above results questioned the influence of optical aberrations on early ocular growth, some optical quality metrics, derived from optical aberrations data, could predict how much the eyes of young chicks

  9. Using Rapidly Alternating Multiple Schedules To Assess and Treat Aberrant Behavior in Natural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolli, Kathleen; Daggett, Julie; Ortiz, Kristi; Mullins, Jo

    1999-01-01

    The validity of using rapidly alternating multiple schedules (RAMS) as a method for assessing and treating aggression was demonstrated by using the naturally occurring reinforcers identified in the RAMS to develop treatments that were experimentally tested. All treatments using the reinforcers identified in the RAMS were effective. Possible uses…

  10. Analysis of nodal aberration properties in off-axis freeform system design.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haodong; Jiang, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Freeform surfaces have the advantage of balancing off-axis aberration. In this paper, based on the framework of nodal aberration theory (NAT) applied to the coaxial system, the third-order astigmatism and coma wave aberration expressions of an off-axis system with Zernike polynomial surfaces are derived. The relationship between the off-axis and surface shape acting on the nodal distributions is revealed. The nodal aberration properties of the off-axis freeform system are analyzed and validated by using full-field displays (FFDs). It has been demonstrated that adding Zernike terms, up to nine, to the off-axis system modifies the nodal locations, but the field dependence of the third-order aberration does not change. On this basis, an off-axis two-mirror freeform system with 500 mm effective focal length (EFL) and 300 mm entrance pupil diameter (EPD) working in long-wave infrared is designed. The field constant aberrations induced by surface tilting are corrected by selecting specific Zernike terms. The design results show that the nodes of third-order astigmatism and coma move back into the field of view (FOV). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves are above 0.4 at 20 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) which meets the infrared reconnaissance requirement. This work provides essential insight and guidance for aberration correction in off-axis freeform system design. PMID:27557003

  11. Wave aberration of human eyes and new descriptors of image optical quality and visual performance.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Marco; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2010-02-01

    The expansion of wavefront-sensing techniques redefined the meaning of refractive error in clinical ophthalmology. Clinical aberrometers provide detailed measurements of the eye's wavefront aberration. The distribution and contribution of each higher-order aberration to the overall wavefront aberration in the individual eye can now be accurately determined and predicted. Using corneal or ocular wavefront sensors, studies have measured the interindividual and age-related changes in the wavefront aberration in the normal population with the goal of optimizing refractive surgery outcomes for the individual. New objective optical-quality metrics would lead to better use and interpretation of newly available information on aberrations in the eye. However, the first metrics introduced, based on sets of Zernike polynomials, is not completely suitable to depict visual quality because they do not directly relate to the quality of the retinal image. Thus, several approaches to describe the real, complex optical performance of human eyes have been implemented. These include objective metrics that quantify the quality of the optical wavefront in the plane of the pupil (ie, pupil-plane metrics) and others that quantify the quality of the retinal image (ie, image-plane metrics). These metrics are derived by wavefront aberration information from the individual eye. This paper reviews the more recent knowledge of the wavefront aberration in human eyes and discusses the image-quality and optical-quality metrics and predictors that are now routinely calculated by wavefront-sensor software to describe the optical and image quality in the individual eye.

  12. Aberrant DNA methylation is a dominant mechanism in MDS progression to AML

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ying; Dunbar, Andrew; Gondek, Lukasz P.; Mohan, Sanjay; Rataul, Manjot; O'Keefe, Christine; Sekeres, Mikkael

    2009-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are clonal hematologic disorders that frequently represent an intermediate disease stage before progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). As such, study of MDS/AML can provide insight into the mechanisms of neoplastic evolution. In 184 patients with MDS and AML, DNA methylation microarray and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A) karyotyping were used to assess the relative contributions of aberrant DNA methylation and chromosomal deletions to tumor-suppressor gene (TSG) silencing during disease progression. Aberrant methylation was seen in every sample, on average affecting 91 of 1505 CpG loci in early MDS and 179 of 1505 loci after blast transformation (refractory anemia with excess blasts [RAEB]/AML). In contrast, chromosome aberrations were seen in 79% of early MDS samples and 90% of RAEB/AML samples, and were not as widely distributed over the genome. Analysis of the most frequently aberrantly methylated genes identified FZD9 as a candidate TSG on chromosome 7. In patients with chromosome deletion at the FZD9 locus, aberrant methylation of the remaining allele was associated with the poorest clinical outcome. These results indicate that aberrant methylation can cooperate with chromosome deletions to silence TSG. However, the ubiquity, extent, and correlation with disease progression suggest that aberrant DNA methylation is the dominant mechanism for TSG silencing and clonal variation in MDS evolution to AML. PMID:18832655

  13. Study on intra-ocular lens aberration measurement in-air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jiaojie; Fen, Haihua; Hu, Chuan; Li, Yiyi

    2010-10-01

    In clinical ophthalmology, the wavefront aberration of human eyes is expressed by Zernike polynomial after cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation, the human eyes aberration will change. The problem of objective evaluation of wavefront aberration introduced by the Intra-ocular (IOL) in-vivo remains unsolved. This paper introduced the measurement principal of IOL wavefront aberration with expression by Zernike polynominal in air. A Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor system was constructed to measure the wavefront of IOL and to get the corresponding grid patterns. After a series of computer image processing steps, 7th order with 35 items Zernike coefficients was obtained. The IOL of 20.0D power was measured 5 times by this system to get the spherical aberration about 6.73+/-0.02μm, demonstrating the good repeatability of the system. Ten IOLs with the same 20.0D power but difference in surface curvature were chosen for measurement. The spherical aberration observed were in the range of 2.74μm-11.26μm. These results are valuable for the optical design of IOLs and the aberration analysis of human eyes post-operation.

  14. Clinical importance of spherical and chromatic aberration on the accommodative response in contact lens wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlberg, M.; Lindskoog Pettersson, A.; Rosén, R.; Nilsson, M.; Unsbo, P.; Brautaset, R.

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accommodation response under both mono- and polychromatic light while varying the amount of spherical aberration. It is thought that chromatic and spherical aberrations are directional cues for the accommodative system and could affect response time, velocity or lag. Spherical aberration is often eliminated in modern contact lenses in order to enhance image quality in the unaccommodated eye. This study was divided into two parts. The first part was done to evaluate the amount of spherical and other Zernike aberrations in the unaccommodated eye when uncorrected and with two types of correction (trial lens and spherical-aberration controlled contact lens) and the second part evaluated the dynamic accommodation responses obtained when wearing each of the corrections under polychromatic and monochromatic conditions. Measurements of accommodation showed no significant differences in time, velocity and lag of accommodation after decreasing the spherical aberration with a contact lens, neither in monochromatic nor polychromatic light. It is unlikely that small to normal changes of spherical aberration in white light or monochromatic mid-spectral light affect directional cues for the accommodative system, not in white light or mid-spectral monochromatic light, since the accommodative response did not show any change.

  15. Analysis of nodal aberration properties in off-axis freeform system design.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haodong; Jiang, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Freeform surfaces have the advantage of balancing off-axis aberration. In this paper, based on the framework of nodal aberration theory (NAT) applied to the coaxial system, the third-order astigmatism and coma wave aberration expressions of an off-axis system with Zernike polynomial surfaces are derived. The relationship between the off-axis and surface shape acting on the nodal distributions is revealed. The nodal aberration properties of the off-axis freeform system are analyzed and validated by using full-field displays (FFDs). It has been demonstrated that adding Zernike terms, up to nine, to the off-axis system modifies the nodal locations, but the field dependence of the third-order aberration does not change. On this basis, an off-axis two-mirror freeform system with 500 mm effective focal length (EFL) and 300 mm entrance pupil diameter (EPD) working in long-wave infrared is designed. The field constant aberrations induced by surface tilting are corrected by selecting specific Zernike terms. The design results show that the nodes of third-order astigmatism and coma move back into the field of view (FOV). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves are above 0.4 at 20 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) which meets the infrared reconnaissance requirement. This work provides essential insight and guidance for aberration correction in off-axis freeform system design.

  16. Eigenfunction analysis of stochastic backscatter for characterization of acoustic aberration in medical ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varslot, Trond; Krogstad, Harald; Mo, Eirik; Angelsen, Bjørn A.

    2004-06-01

    Presented here is a characterization of aberration in medical ultrasound imaging. The characterization is optimal in the sense of maximizing the expected energy in a modified beamformer output of the received acoustic backscatter. Aberration correction based on this characterization takes the form of an aberration correction filter. The situation considered is frequently found in applications when imaging organs through a body wall: aberration is introduced in a layer close to the transducer, and acoustic backscatter from a scattering region behind the body wall is measured at the transducer surface. The scattering region consists of scatterers randomly distributed with very short correlation length compared to the acoustic wavelength of the transmit pulse. The scatterer distribution is therefore assumed to be δ correlated. This paper shows how maximizing the expected energy in a modified beamformer output signal naturally leads to eigenfunctions of a Fredholm integral operator, where the associated kernel function is a spatial correlation function of the received stochastic signal. Aberration characterization and aberration correction are presented for simulated data constructed to mimic aberration introduced by the abdominal wall. The results compare well with what is obtainable using data from a simulated point source.

  17. Impact of astigmatism and high-order aberrations on subjective best focus.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Susana; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Sawides, Lucie; Hernandez, Martha; Marin, Gildas

    2015-08-01

    We studied the role of native astigmatism and ocular aberrations on best-focus setting and its shift upon induction of astigmatism in 42 subjects (emmetropes, myopes, hyperopes, with-the-rule [WTR] and against-the-rule [ATR] myopic astigmats). Stimuli were presented in a custom-developed adaptive optics simulator, allowing correction for native aberrations and astigmatism induction (+1 D; 6-mm pupil). Best-focus search consisted on randomized-step interleaved staircase method. Each subject searched best focus for four different images, and four different conditions (with/without aberration correction, with/without astigmatism induction). The presence of aberrations induced a significant shift in subjective best focus (0.4 D; p < 0.01), significantly correlated (p = 0.005) with the best-focus shift predicted from optical simulations. The induction of astigmatism produced a statistically significant shift of the best-focus setting in all groups under natural aberrations (p = 0.001), and in emmetropes and in WTR astigmats under corrected aberrations (p < 0.0001). Best-focus shift upon induced astigmatism was significantly different across groups, both for natural aberrations and AO-correction (p < 0.0001). Best focus shifted in opposite directions in WTR and ATR astigmats upon induction of astigmatism, symmetrically with respect to the best-focus shift in nonastigmatic myopes. The shifts are consistent with a bias towards vertical and horizontal retinal blur in WTR and ATR astigmats, respectively, indicating adaptation to native astigmatism.

  18. Depth aberrations characterization in linear and nonlinear microscopy schemes using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviles-Espinosa, Rodrigo; Andilla, Jordi; Porcar-Guezenec, Rafael; Levecq, Xavier; Artigas, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2012-03-01

    The performance of imaging devices such as linear and nonlinear microscopes (NLM) can be limited by the optical properties of the imaged sample. Such an important aspect has already been described using theoretical models due to the difficulties of implementing a direct wavefront sensing scheme. However, these only stand for simple interfaces and cannot be generalized to biological samples given its structural complexity. This has leaded to the development of sensor-less adaptive optics (AO) implementations. In this approach, aberrations are iteratively corrected trough an image related parameter (aberrations are not measured), being prone of causing sample damage. In this work, we perform a practical implementation of a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor to compensate for sample induced aberrations, demonstrating its applicability in linear and NLM. We perform an extensive analysis of wavefront distortion effects through different depths employing phantom samples. Aberration effects originated by the refractive index mismatch and depth are quantified using the linear and nonlinear guide-star concept. More over we analyze offaxis aberrations in NLM, an important aspect that is commonly overlooked. In this case spherical aberration behaves similarly to the wavefront error compared with the on-axis case. Finally we give examples of aberration compensation using epi-fluorescence and nonlinear microscopy.

  19. Adaptive Optics Analysis of Visual Benefit with Higher-order Aberrations Correction of Human Eye - Poster Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lixia; Dai, Yun; Rao, Xuejun; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Yiyun; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Wenhan

    2008-01-01

    Higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye to some extent. To evaluate how much visual benefit can be obtained with higher-order aberrations correction we developed an adaptive optics vision simulator (AOVS). Dynamic real time optimized modal compensation was used to implement various customized higher-order ocular aberrations correction strategies. The experimental results indicate that higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye comparing with only lower-order aberration correction but the improvement degree and higher-order aberration correction strategy are different from each individual. Some subjects can acquire great visual benefit when higher-order aberrations were corrected but some subjects acquire little visual benefit even though all higher-order aberrations were corrected. Therefore, relative to general lower-order aberrations correction strategy, customized higher-order aberrations correction strategy is needed to obtain optimal visual improvement for each individual. AOVS provides an effective tool for higher-order ocular aberrations optometry for customized ocular aberrations correction.

  20. Review: Aberrant EVI1 expression in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Hinai, Adil A; Valk, Peter J M

    2016-03-01

    Deregulated expression of the ecotropic virus integration site 1 (EVI1) gene is the molecular hallmark of therapy-resistant myeloid malignancies bearing chromosomal inv(3)(q21q26·2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26·2) [hereafter referred to as inv(3)/t(3;3)] abnormalities. EVI1 is a haematopoietic stemness and transcription factor with chromatin remodelling activity. Interestingly, the EVI1 gene also shows overexpression in 6-11% of adult acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases that do not carry any 3q aberrations. Deregulated expression of EVI1 is strongly associated with monosomy 7 and 11q23 abnormalities, which are known to be associated with poor response to treatment. However, EVI1 overexpression has been revealed as an important independent adverse prognostic marker in adult AML and defines distinct risk categories in 11q23-rearranged AML. Recently, important progress has been made in the delineation of the mechanism by which EVI1 becomes deregulated in inv(3)/t(3;3) as well as the cooperating mutations in this specific subset of AML with dismal prognosis.