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Sample records for aberrant drug-related behaviors

  1. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Aberrant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews general classes of variables which help to maintain aberrant behavior including attention seeking, sensory and perceptual consequences, and access to materials or activities. Suggestions for a methodology providing a comprehensive functional analysis are offered which include descriptive analysis, hypothesis forming,…

  2. Drug-Related HIV Risk Behaviors and Cocaine Preference among Injection Drug Users in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared drug-related risk behavior of drug users whose preferred injection drug was cocaine and users with preference for heroin or no preference between the two drugs (total n=422). Found cocaine preference unrelated to likelihood of needle sharing overall, needle sharing with strangers, needle sharing at shooting galleries, and failure to use…

  3. Using Brief Assessments to Evaluate Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; King, Lisa; Lally, Grainne; Dhomhnaill, Orla Nic

    2000-01-01

    Functional assessments were conducted for two Irish individuals with severe disabilities and aberrant behavior. A modified attention condition was introduced, which involved both parents interacting with a third person. Aberrant behavior occurred only in the modified attention condition. Successful treatment consisted of delivery of attention on a…

  4. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches. PMID:7328069

  5. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches.

  6. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Drug-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…

  7. Using Aberrant Behaviors as Reinforcers for Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlop, Marjorie H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the efficacy of various reinforcers to increase correct task responding in a total of 10 autistic children, aged 6-9. Of the reinforcers used (stereotypy, delayed echolalia, perseverative behavior, and food), task performance was highest with opportunities to engage in aberrant behaviors, and lowest with edible…

  8. Persistence of Early Emerging Aberrant Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). "Aberrant…

  9. Convergent Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Behavior Problems Inventory with People with Complex Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). "The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity." "Research in Developmental Disabilities", 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems…

  10. Longitudinal Trajectories of Aberrant Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Hall, Scott S.; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist—Community (ABC-C; Aman, Burrow, & Wolford, 1995) has been increasingly adopted as a primary tool for measuring behavioral change in clinical trials for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). To our knowledge, however, no study has documented the longitudinal trajectory of aberrant behaviors in individuals with FXS using the ABC-C. As part of a larger longitudinal study, we examined scores obtained on the ABC-C subscales for 124 children and adolescents (64 males, 60 females) with FXS who had two or more assessments (average interval between assessments was approximately 4 years). Concomitant changes in age-equivalent scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were also examined. As expected for an X-linked genetic disorder, males with FXS obtained significantly higher scores on all subscales of the ABC-C and significantly lower age-equivalent scores on the VABS than females with FXS. In both males and females with FXS, scores on the Irritability/Agitation and Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscales of the ABC-C decreased significantly with age, with little to no change occurring over time on the Lethargy/Social Withdrawal, Stereotypic Behavior, and Inappropriate Speech subscales. The decrease in scores on the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance domain was significantly greater for males than for females. In both males and females, age-equivalent scores on the VABS increased significantly over this developmental period. These results establish a basis upon which to evaluate long-term outcomes from intervention-based research. However, longitudinal direct observational studies are needed to establish whether the severity of problem behavior actually decreases over time in this population. PMID:25129200

  11. Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal…

  12. Convergent validity of the aberrant behavior checklist and behavior problems inventory with people with complex needs.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems inventory (BPI) and the aberrant behavior checklist (ABC) for individuals presenting with multiple complex behavior problems. Data were collected from 69 children and adults with severe intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior living in residential establishments. MANCOVA analyses showed that individuals with elevated BPI stereotyped behavior subscale scores had higher scores on ABC lethargy and stereotypy subscales, while those with elevated BPI aggressive/destructive behavior subscale scores obtained higher scores on ABC irritability, stereotypy and hyperactivity subscales. Multiple regression analyses showed a corresponding pattern of results in the prediction of ABC subscale scores by BPI subscale scores. Exploratory factor analysis of the BPI data suggested a six-factor solution with an aggressive/destructive behavior factor, four factors relating to stereotypy, and one related to stereotypy and self-injury. These results, discussed with reference to Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 391-404], support the existence of relationships between specific subscales of the two instruments in addition to an overall association between total scores related to general severity of behavioral disturbance.

  13. Effects of escape to alone versus escape to enriched environments on adaptive and aberrant behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Golonka, Z; Wacker, D; Berg, W; Derby, K M; Harding, J; Peck, S

    2000-01-01

    Escape-maintained aberrant behavior may be influenced by two outcomes: (a) a break from the activity and (b) subsequent access to preferred activities. To assess this hypothesis, a treatment was developed that analyzed response allocation across two break options: break alone and break with access to preferred social activities. The break with preferred activities decreased aberrant behavior and increased appropriate behavior. PMID:10885532

  14. Aberrant driving behaviors: a study of drivers in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Bai, Yun; Ying, Xiwen; Atchley, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The addition of massive numbers of new drivers with varied driving experience to roads in China suggests it is important to understand the nature of aberrant driving behaviors for this new set of drivers. A paper-based and an Internet survey were administered. Factor analysis produced a five-factor structure for each survey. The distinction between violations and errors indicated in previous studies was confirmed. The violations included emotional violations, risky violations and self-willed violations, and the errors included inexperience errors and distraction errors. In contrast to previous work, age was not found to be a good predictor of violations though driving experience was. Contrary to expectations, non-automotive (bicycle) roadway experience or level of driving training failed to predict poor driving behavior. On-road experience is the key to risk for China's drivers. Good agreement between the paper-based and Internet surveys indicate online surveys to be a feasible way to conduct research of driving behavior at low cost.

  15. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    PubMed Central

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  16. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ketabi, Damon; Barkhordari, Abalfazl; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Road accidents are a social phenomenon in different communities that its infra­structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech­nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving. Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv­ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips. Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious. PMID:24688909

  17. Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in a Clinical Sample of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabekiroglu, Koray; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the congruent and criterion validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) in a clinical sample of toddlers seen over 1 year in Turkey. All consecutive patients (N = 93), 14-43 months old (mean, 30.6 mos.), in a child psychiatry outpatient clinic were included. The ABC, Autism Behavior Checklist (AuBC), and Child Behavior…

  18. Effects of Risperidone on Aberrant Behavior in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: II. Social Validity Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, David B.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Hellings, Jessica; Napolitano, Deborah A.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction and social validity were measured during a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of risperidone in treating aberrant behaviors of persons with developmental disabilities. A survey showed all 17 caregivers felt participation was positive. Community members (n=52) also indicated that when on medication, the 5 participants…

  19. Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaat, Aaron J.; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) is a widely used measure in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treatment studies. We conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the ABC in 1,893 children evaluated as part of the Autism Treatment Network. The root mean square error of approximation was .086 for the standard item assignment, and in…

  20. Psychometric Study of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Fragile X Syndrome and Implications for Targeted Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansone, Stephanie M.; Widaman, Keith F.; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Lightbody, Amy; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Lachiewicz, Ave; Brown, Elaine C.; Hessl, David

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies elucidating the neurobiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have led to multiple controlled trials in humans, with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) commonly adopted as a primary outcome measure. A multi-site collaboration examined the psychometric properties of the ABC-C in 630 individuals (ages 3-25) with FXS using…

  1. Factor Analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Jason; Nations, Laura; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hall, Alicia; Wright, Harry H.; Gabriels, Robin; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A. O.; Cuccaro, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (varimax and promax rotations) of the aberrant behavior checklist-community version (ABC) in 275 individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified four- and five-factor solutions which accounted for greater than 70% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.7) revealed indices of moderate fit for…

  2. Schizotypal perceptual aberrations of time: correlation between score, behavior and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Arzy, Shahar; Mohr, Christine; Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-18

    A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances--including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS) similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum.

  3. Schizotypal Perceptual Aberrations of Time: Correlation between Score, Behavior and Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Arzy, Shahar; Mohr, Christine; Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances – including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS) similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:21267456

  4. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport.

  5. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Aberrant Salience in Individuals at Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Roiser, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    The “aberrant salience” model proposes that psychotic symptoms first emerge when chaotic brain dopamine transmission leads to the attribution of significance to stimuli that would normally be considered irrelevant. This is thought to occur during the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders, but this prediction has not been tested previously. In the present study, we tested this model in 18 healthy volunteers and 18 unmedicated individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Subjects performed the Salience Attribution Test, which provides behavioral measures of adaptive and aberrant motivational salience, during functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses to relevant and irrelevant stimulus features. On a separate occasion, the same subjects were also studied with [18F]fluorodopa positron emission tomography to measure dopamine synthesis capacity. Individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis were more likely to attribute motivational salience to irrelevant stimulus features (t(26.7) = 2.8, P = .008), and this bias was related to the severity of their delusion-like symptoms (r = .62, P = .008). Ventral striatal responses to irrelevant stimulus features were also correlated with delusion-like symptoms in the ultra-high risk group (r = .59, P = .017). Striatal dopamine synthesis capacity correlated negatively with hippocampal responses to irrelevant stimulus features in ultra-high risk individuals, but this relationship was positive in controls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that aberrant salience processing underlies psychotic symptoms and involves functional alterations in the striatum, hippocampus, and the subcortical dopamine system. PMID:23236077

  6. A variation of noncontingent reinforcement in the treatment of aberrant behavior.

    PubMed

    Britton, L N; Carr, J E; Kellum, K K; Dozier, C L; Weil, T M

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a variation of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) that incorporated a stimulus-delay procedure in the reduction of aberrant behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Functional analyses for three individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities indicated that their behaviors were maintained by positive reinforcement: one in the form of access to a tangible item, another by attention, and the third by physical contact. We implemented NCR with the delay procedure with two participants using reversal designs to evaluate effects. We also compared this NCR variation and DRO with the third participant to evaluate reinforcer-delivery rates. The variation of NCR was successful in reducing all aberrant behavior to near-zero levels. A comparison of reinforcer delivery between NCR with the stimulus-delay procedure and DRO demonstrated that the participant accessed more reinforcement with NCR. Results are discussed in the context of enhancing decelerative interventions with emphases on minimizing response effort for caregivers and maximizing access to reinforcement for the individuals.

  7. Reader Response to Zarcone et al. (2001), "Effects of Risperidone on Aberrant Behavior in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: I. A Double-Blind Crossover Study Using Multiple Measures."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitas, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    In response to a paper on effects of risperidone on behavior in people with developmental disabilities, this paper raises the issue of how clinicians determine whether treatment should target the psychiatric disorder underlying the aberrant behavior (diagnosis-based treatment) or should target the aberrant behavior directly (behavior-based…

  8. Telephone Administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Pilot Study of Feasibility in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew; Milligan, Briana; Stein, Hannah; Teer, Olivia; Smith, Kahsi A.

    2013-01-01

    To advance clinical care and research in children with intellectual disability and autism there is a growing need for efficient means to measure behavioral severity and response to treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of telephone administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability Subscale (ABC-I). The…

  9. Assessing influence of stimulation on mood and aberrant behavior of persons with multiple disabilities during brief treadmill sessions.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, G E; O'Reilly, M F; Singh, N N; Oliva, D; Piazzolla, G; Groeneweg, J

    2004-12-01

    This study assessed the influence of favorite stimuli on indices of happiness, e.g., smiling or excited vocalizations, and aberrant behavior, e.g., cantilena-like vocalizations or hand waving, of two young adults with multiple disabilities during 5-min. treadmill sessions. Several favorite stimuli, e.g., music and vibratory events, were available for the participants. The stimuli were presented in a rotation fashion during the sessions. To control for the effects of the stimuli, treadmill sessions without stimuli were also conducted. Analysis showed that the treadmill sessions with stimuli led to higher indices of happiness and lower aberrant behavior for both participants, compared to the treadmill sessions without stimuli.

  10. Clinical Presentation and Microarray Analysis of Peruvian Children with Atypical Development and/or Aberrant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Merlin G.; Usrey, Kelly; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience with high resolution microarray analysis in infants and young children with developmental disability and/or aberrant behavior enrolled at the Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru in Lima, Peru, a low income country. Buccal cells were collected with cotton swabs from 233 participants for later DNA isolation and identification of copy number variation (deletions/duplications) and regions of homozygosity (ROH) for estimating consanguinity status in 15 infants and young children (12 males, 3 females; mean age ± SD = 28.1 m ±  7.9 m; age range 14 m–41 m) randomly selected for microarray analysis. An adequate DNA yield was found in about one-half of the enrolled participants. Ten participants showed deletions or duplications containing candidate genes reported to impact behavior or cognitive development. Five children had ROHs which could have harbored recessive gene alleles contributing to their clinical presentation. The coefficient of inbreeding was calculated and three participants showed first-second cousin relationships, indicating consanguinity. Our preliminary study showed that DNA isolated from buccal cells using cotton swabs was suboptimal, but yet in a subset of participants the yield was adequate for high resolution microarray analysis and several genes were found that impact development and behavior and ROHs identified to determine consanguinity status. PMID:25400949

  11. Differentiated Effects of Sensory Activities as Abolishing Operations via Non-Contingent Reinforcement on Academic and Aberrant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Haydon, Todd; Boman, Marty

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sensory activities used as antecedent interventions on the percentage correct on academic tasks and rate of aberrant behavior in three elementary aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Study activities were conducted in an after school program for children with ASD where…

  12. Deletion of glutamate delta-1 receptor in mouse leads to aberrant emotional and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Roopali; Gupta, Subhash C; Hillman, Brandon G; Bhatt, Jay M; Stairs, Dustin J; Dravid, Shashank M

    2012-01-01

    The delta family of ionotropic glutamate receptors consists of glutamate δ1 (GluD1) and glutamate δ2 (GluD2) receptors. While the role of GluD2 in the regulation of cerebellar physiology is well understood, the function of GluD1 in the central nervous system remains elusive. We demonstrate for the first time that deletion of GluD1 leads to abnormal emotional and social behaviors. We found that GluD1 knockout mice (GluD1 KO) were hyperactive, manifested lower anxiety-like behavior, depression-like behavior in a forced swim test and robust aggression in the resident-intruder test. Chronic lithium rescued the depression-like behavior in GluD1 KO. GluD1 KO mice also manifested deficits in social interaction. In the sociability test, GluD1 KO mice spent more time interacting with an inanimate object compared to a conspecific mouse. D-Cycloserine (DCS) administration was able to rescue social interaction deficits observed in GluD1 KO mice. At a molecular level synaptoneurosome preparations revealed lower GluA1 and GluA2 subunit expression in the prefrontal cortex and higher GluA1, GluK2 and PSD95 expression in the amygdala of GluD1 KO. Moreover, DCS normalized the lower GluA1 expression in prefrontal cortex of GluD1 KO. We propose that deletion of GluD1 leads to aberrant circuitry in prefrontal cortex and amygdala owing to its potential role in presynaptic differentiation and synapse formation. Furthermore, these findings are in agreement with the human genetic studies suggesting a strong association of GRID1 gene with several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders and major depressive disorder.

  13. Drug-Related Behaviors Independently Associated with Syphilis Infection among Female Sex Workers in two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Loza, O.; Patterson, T.L.; Rusch, M.; Martínez, G.A.; Lozada, R.; Staines-Orozco, H.; Magis-Rodríguez, C.; Strathdee, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To identify correlates of active syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez. DESIGN Cross-sectional analyses of baseline interview data. Correlates of active syphilis (antibody titers >1:8) were identified by logistic regression. SETTING Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two Mexican cities on the U.S. border that are situated on major drug trafficking routes and where prostitution is quasi-legal. PARTICIPANTS 914 FSWs aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection who had recent unprotected sex with clients. MEASUREMENTS Baseline interviews and testing for syphilis antibody using Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. FINDINGS Median age and duration in sex work were 32 and 4 years, respectively. Overall, 18.0% had ever injected drugs, 14.2% often or always used illegal drugs before or during sex in the past month, 37.7% had clients who injected drugs in the last 6 months, and 68.6% reported having clients from the U.S. Prevalence of HIV and active syphilis were 5.9% and 10.3%, respectively. Factors independently associated with active syphilis included injecting drugs (AOR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.40, 4.80), using illegal drugs before or during sex (AOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.16, 3.65), and having any U.S. clients (AOR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.43, 5.70). CONCLUSIONS Among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, drug-using behaviors were more closely associated with active syphilis than were sexual behaviors, suggesting the possibility of parenteral transmission of T. pallidum. Syphilis eradication programs should consider distributing sterile syringes to drug injectors and assisting FSWs with safer-sex negotiation in the context of drug use. PMID:20456292

  14. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  15. An Evaluation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for Children under Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Huete, John M.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Chin, Michelle D.; Kurtz, Patricia F.

    2013-01-01

    Severe problem behaviors such as self-injury and aggression are frequently observed in young children under age 5 with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although early identification of problem behavior is critical to effective intervention, there are few standardized measures available that identify severe problem behavior in…

  16. Behavior of Aberrant Chromosome Configurations in Drosophila melanogaster Female Meiosis I

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, William D.; Colwell, Eileen M.; Lane, Fiona M.; Snouffer, Ashley A.

    2014-01-01

    One essential role of the first meiotic division is to reduce chromosome number by half. Although this is normally accomplished by segregating homologous chromosomes from each other, it is possible for a genome to have one or more chromosomes that lack a homolog (such as compound chromosomes), or have chromosomes with multiple potential homologs (such as in XXY females). These configurations complete meiosis but engage in unusual segregation patterns. In Drosophila melanogaster females carrying two compound chromosomes, the compounds can accurately segregate from each other, a process known as heterologous segregation. Similarly, in XXY females, when the X chromosomes fail to cross over, they often undergo secondary nondisjunction, where both Xs segregate away from the Y. Although both of these processes have been known for decades, the orientation mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Taking advantage of the recent discovery of chromosome congression in female meiosis I, we have examined a number of different aberrant chromosome configurations. We show that these genotypes complete congression normally, with their chromosomes bioriented at metaphase I arrest at the same rates that they segregate, indicating that orientation must be established during prometaphase I before congression. We also show that monovalent chromosomes can move out on the prometaphase I spindle, but the dot 4 chromosomes appear required for this movement. Finally, we show that, similar to achiasmate chromosomes, heterologous chromosomes can be connected by chromatin threads, suggesting a mechanism for how heterochromatic homology establishes these unusual biorientation patterns. PMID:25491942

  17. Effects of Risperidone on Aberrant Behavior of Persons with Developmental Disabilities: I. A Double-Blind Crossover Study Using Multiple Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Hellings, Jessica A.; Crandall, Kurt; Reese, R. Matthew; Marquis, Janet; Fleming, Kandace; Shores, Richard; Williams, Dean; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone was evaluated in the treatment of aberrant behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury) in 20 individuals with developmental disabilities. The study, a double-blind crossover design, identified 50 percent of participants as responders. Naturalistic observations of five participants showed that…

  18. Assessment of Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Wheelchair Movement in a Child with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Kahng, SungWoo; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Sveinsdottir, Ingibjorg; Sadler, Christine

    2003-01-01

    An adolescent with developmental disabilities who used a wheelchair was anecdotally observed to display little aggressive behavior when being pushed, but higher rates when movement was terminated. A functional analysis confirmed the elevated aggression and the child was taught to request movement through appropriate means. Aggression decreased…

  19. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-03

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  20. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of aberrant behaviors in bipolar disorder from patients to models

    PubMed Central

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A.; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Henry, Brook L.; Young, Jared W.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder suffer from states of depression and mania, during which a variety of symptoms are present. Current treatments are limited and neurocognitive deficits in particular often remain untreated. Targeted therapies based on the biological mechanisms of bipolar disorder could fill this gap and benefit patients and their families. Developing targeted therapies would benefit from appropriate animal models which are challenging to establish, but remain a vital tool. In this review, we summarize approaches to create a valid model relevant to bipolar disorder. We focus on studies that use translational tests of multivariate exploratory behavior, sensorimotor gating, decision-making under risk, and attentional functioning to discover profiles that are consistent between patients and rodent models. Using this battery of translational tests, similar behavior profiles in bipolar mania patients and mice with reduced dopamine transporter activity have been identified. Future investigations should combine other animal models that are biologically relevant to the neuropsychiatric disorder with translational behavioral assessment as outlined here. This methodology can be utilized to develop novel targeted therapies that relieve symptoms for more patients without common side effects caused by current treatments. PMID:26297513

  1. Childhood obesity: behavioral aberration or biochemical drive? Reinterpreting the First Law of Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Robert H

    2006-08-01

    Childhood obesity has become epidemic over the past 30 years. The First Law of Thermodynamics is routinely interpreted to imply that weight gain is secondary to increased caloric intake and/or decreased energy expenditure, two behaviors that have been documented during this interval; nonetheless, lifestyle interventions are notoriously ineffective at promoting weight loss. Obesity is characterized by hyperinsulinemia. Although hyperinsulinemia is usually thought to be secondary to obesity, it can instead be primary, due to autonomic dysfunction. Obesity is also a state of leptin resistance, in which defective leptin signal transduction promotes excess energy intake, to maintain normal energy expenditure. Insulin and leptin share a common central signaling pathway, and it seems that insulin functions as an endogenous leptin antagonist. Suppressing insulin ameliorates leptin resistance, with ensuing reduction of caloric intake, increased spontaneous activity, and improved quality of life. Hyperinsulinemia also interferes with dopamine clearance in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens, promoting increased food reward. Accordingly, the First Law of Thermodynamics can be reinterpreted, such that the behaviors of increased caloric intake and decreased energy expenditure are secondary to obligate weight gain. This weight gain is driven by the hyperinsulinemic state, through three mechanisms: energy partitioning into adipose tissue; interference with leptin signal transduction; and interference with extinction of the hedonic response to food.

  2. Hippocampal interneuron transplants reverse aberrant dopamine system function and behavior in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, S M; Lodge, D J

    2013-11-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit increased hippocampal activity that is correlated with positive symptoms. Although the cause of this hippocampal hyperactivity has not been demonstrated, it likely involves a decrease in GABAergic signaling. Thus, we posit that restoring GABAergic function may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. It has been demonstrated that transplanted GABAergic precursor cells from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) can migrate and differentiate into mature interneurons. Here, we demonstrate that ventral hippocampal MGE transplants can restore hippocampal function and normalize downstream dopamine neuron activity in a rodent model of schizophrenia. Furthermore, MGE transplants also reverse the hyper-responsive locomotor response to amphetamine. Taken together, these data demonstrate that restoring interneuron function reverses neurophysiological and behavioral deficits in a rodent model of schizophrenia and moreover, demonstrate the feasibility of a neuronal transplant procedure as a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of schizophrenia.

  3. Bacterial Peptidoglycan Transverses the Placenta to Induce Fetal Neuroproliferation and Aberrant Postnatal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Humann, Jessica; Mann, Beth; Gao, Geli; Moresco, Philip; Ramahi, Joseph; Loh, Lip Nam; Farr, Arden; Hu, Yunming; Durick-Eder, Kelly; Fillon, Sophie A.; Smeyne, Richard J.; Tuomanen, Elaine I.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for the fetus, including postnatal cognitive disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are obscure. We find that bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (CW), a universal PAMP for TLR2, traverses across the murine placenta into the developing fetal brain. In contrast to adults, CW-exposed fetal brains did not show any signs of inflammation or neuronal death. Instead, the neuronal transcription factor FoxG1 was induced and neuroproliferation leading to a 50% greater density of neurons in the cortical plate was observed. Bacterial infection of pregnant dams followed by antibiotic treatment, which releases CW, yielded the same result. Neuroproliferation required TLR2 and was recapitulated in vitro with fetal neuronal precursor cells and TLR2/6, but not TLR2/1 ligands. The fetal neuroproliferative response correlated with abnormal cognitive behavior in CW-exposed pups following birth. Thus, the bacterial CW-TLR2 signaling axis affects fetal neurodevelopment and may underlie postnatal cognitive disorders. PMID:26962947

  4. Aberrant Behaviors and Co-occurring Conditions as Predictors of Psychotropic Polypharmacy among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Laura; Leslie, R. Scott; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Hunt, Kelly J.; Charles, Jane; Nicholas, Joyce S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify rates and predictors of psychotropic medication polypharmacy among Medicaid-eligible children in South Carolina with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from 2000 to 2008. Methods: Population-based surveillance data were linked with state Medicaid records to obtain a detailed demographic, behavioral, educational, clinical, and diagnostic data set for all Medicaid-eligible 8-year-old children (n=629) who were identified and diagnosed with ASD using standardized criteria. Polypharmacy was defined as having interclass psychotropic medication claims overlapping for ≥30 consecutive days at any time during the 2-year study period. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model predictors of any polypharmacy, and for the three most common combinations. Results: Overall, 60% (n=377) used any psychotropic medication, and 41% (n=153) of those had interclass polypharmacy. Common combinations were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications with an antidepressant (A/AD), antipsychotic (A/AP) or a mood stabilizer (A/MS). Black children had lower odds of any polypharmacy, as did those eligible for Medicaid because of income or being foster care versus those eligible because of disability. There were no significant associations between polypharmacy and social deficits in ASD for any combination, although children with communication deficits diagnostic of ASD had lower odds of any polypharmacy and A/AP polypharmacy. Children with argumentative, aggressive, hyperactive/impulsive, or self-injurious aberrant behaviors had higher odds of polypharmacy, as did children with diagnosed co-occurring ADHD, anxiety or mood disorders, or conduct/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in Medicaid records. Conclusions: Future research is warranted to investigate how child-level factors impact combination psychotropic medication prescribing practices and outcomes in ASD. PMID:25919445

  5. Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths

    PubMed Central

    Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

  6. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  7. Ethnic Differences in Analgesic Drug Related Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Franklyn L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated ethnic differences among 121 analgesic drug-related deaths. Data from the medical examiner's office and interviews with survivors indicated greater codeine involvement for non-Whites and greater propoxyphene involvement for Whites, higher incidences of illicit drug abuse among non-Whites, and more abuse of prescribed drugs among…

  8. [Psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths].

    PubMed

    Kraus, L; Müller-Kalthoff, T

    2002-10-01

    This article analyses drug-related deaths in the German Federal States of Bavaria (Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg counties) during 1999 and Baden-Wurttemberg (Stuttgart and Mannheim counties) during 1999 and in the first half of 2000. The persons who had been in contact with drug care services were studied for psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths. Epidemiological data from different sources (police, relatives, counselling centres, detoxification clinics, therapy and substitution treatment) were collated to estimate factors of psychosocial stress preceding drug deaths. The results in both Laender indicate high prevalence rates of a history of at least one non-fatal overdose (approx. 50%) or a suicide attempt (approx. 35%). More than 40% of the deceased had been suffering from at least one additional mental disorder, in most cases from depression. At least one critical life event (in most cases, a relapse) or a period of abstinence (i.e., due to imprisonment, therapy or detoxification) during the past three months before death was reported for more than half of the addicts. The results were discussed in the light of data on opiate users and the general population. Improved specialist training of therapeutic and medical workers as well as of any other co-operating professionals is considered a necessary prerequisite for an early detection of risk factors.

  9. Patient vs provider reports of aberrant medication-taking behavior among opioid-treated patients with chronic pain who report misusing opioid medication.

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Valentina; Guarino, Honoria; Acosta, Michelle C; Marsch, Lisa A; Syckes, Cassandra; Moore, Sarah K; Portenoy, Russell K; Cruciani, Ricardo A; Turk, Dennis C; Rosenblum, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    During long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain, monitoring medication adherence of patients with a history of aberrant opioid medication-taking behaviors (AMTB) is an essential practice. There is limited research, however, into the concordance among existing monitoring tools of self-report, physician report, and biofluid screening. This study examined associations among patient and provider assessments of AMTB and urine drug screening using data from a randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to improve medication adherence and pain-related outcomes among 110 opioid-treated patients with chronic pain who screened positive for AMTB and were enrolled in a pain program. Providers completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and patients completed the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) and the Chemical Coping Inventory (CCI). In multivariate analyses, ABC scores were compared with COMM and CCI scores, while controlling for demographics and established risk factors for AMTB, such as pain severity. Based on clinical cutoffs, 84% of patients reported clinically significant levels of AMTB and providers rated 36% of patients at elevated levels. Provider reports of AMTB were not correlated with COMM or CCI scores. However, the ABC ratings of experienced providers (nurse practitioners/attending physicians) were higher than those of less experienced providers (fellows) and were correlated with CCI scores and risk factors for AMTB. Associations between patient- and provider-reported AMTB and urine drug screening results were low and largely nonsignificant. In conclusion, concordance between patient and provider reports of AMTB among patients with chronic pain prescribed opioid medication varied by provider level of training.

  10. Skew aberration: a form of polarization aberration.

    PubMed

    Yun, Garam; Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A

    2011-10-15

    We define a new class of aberration, skew aberration, which is a component of polarization aberration. Skew aberration is an intrinsic rotation of polarization states due to the geometric transformation of local coordinates, independent of coatings and interface polarization. Skew aberration in a radially symmetric system has the form of a circular retardance tilt plus coma aberration. Skew aberration causes undesired polarization distribution in the exit pupil. We demonstrate statistics on skew aberration of 2383 optical systems described in Code V's U.S. patent library [Code V Version 10.3 (Synopsys, 2011), pp. 22-24]; the mean skew aberration is 0.89° and the standard deviation is 1.37°. The maximum skew aberration found is 17.45° and the minimum is -11.33°. U.S. patent 2,896,506, which has ±7.01° of skew aberration, is analyzed in detail. Skew aberration should be of concern in microlithography optics and other high NA and large field of view optical systems.

  11. A pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone as adjunctive treatment to risperidone: Effects on aberrant behavior in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Rasa, Soudeh Mohebbi; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2015-09-30

    To assess the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone added to risperidone in the treatment of irritability in autistic disorder (AD), we conducted this study. In a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 44 outpatients of both genders aged 4-12 years with a diagnosis of AD and a score of ≥12 on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) irritability subscale were included. Mean change of ABC-C irritability subscale score as primary outcome, change in other ABC-C subscale scores and partial and complete responses were compared between two groups. Twenty patients completed the trial in each group. Level of reduction and effect of time×treatment interaction in the treatment group were significant for irritability (P=0.03), lethargy/social withdrawal (P=0.04) and hyperactivity/non-compliance (P=0.03) but not for stereotypic behavior and inappropriate speech subscales compared with the placebo group. Vomiting and headache were the most frequent reported side-effects. Results of this preliminary study indicate positive effects of pioglitazone compared with placebo in improving the behavioral symptoms of AD.

  12. Effects of task size on work-related and aberrant behaviors of youths with autism and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, H M; LeBlanc, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of task size on rate of responding and on-task behavior as well as on nontask-related behaviors of students with autism and mental retardation on a repetitive task under conditions of no reinforcement for responding was analyzed. Task size, defined as the presence of either 36 or 250 beads in a container at the onset of the session, was compared in an alternating treatment design. The small-task condition resulted in higher on-task behavior for all participants and in higher work rate for four of the five participants. For the four participants who engaged in inappropriate use of task materials, higher levels of this behavior occurred in the large-task conditions. Other nontask-related behaviors were higher in the large-task condition for all participants with the exception of stereotypy, which was higher in the small-task condition for one participant. Better work-related behavior occurred for these participants in small- than in large-task conditions even though no tangible reinforcement was provided for task responding. Implications of these results are discussed in the context of arranging workplace environments to maximize productivity of persons with developmental disabilities.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," the "Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale," the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" and the "Social Performance Survey Schedule" in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W.; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist" (ABC), the "Assessment of Dual…

  14. The effects of fixed-time and contingent schedules of negative reinforcement on compliance and aberrant behavior.

    PubMed

    Reed, Gregory K; Ringdahl, Joel E; Wacker, David P; Barretto, Anjali; Andelman, Marc S

    2005-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement do not necessarily preclude the acquisition of appropriate behavior (e.g., mands) when combined with differential reinforcement (DRA). These studies also note that dense FT schedules are more likely to interfere with DRA packages than lean FT schedules. In the current investigation, we examined whether similar findings would occur with FT schedules of negative reinforcement. Schedule analyses were conducted with two participants following functional analyses that identified escape from task demands as the maintaining variable for problem behavior. Differential negative reinforcement of alternative behavior (DNRA) was implemented first to establish behavioral control (decreased problem behavior and increased compliance). Breaks (negative reinforcement) were then concurrently delivered on a FT basis under either dense (at a greater rate than that obtained during DNRA alone) or lean (at a lower rate than that obtained during DNRA) reinforcement schedules. In general, results showed that FT escape did not preclude compliance when the FT schedule was lean, but treatment gains were significantly disrupted when dense FT schedules were superimposed.

  15. The Effects of Fixed-Time and Contingent Schedules of Negative Reinforcement on Compliance and Aberrant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gregory K.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Wacker, David P.; Barretto, Anjali; Andelman, Marc S.

    2005-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement do not necessarily preclude the acquisition of appropriate behavior (e.g., mands) when combined with differential reinforcement (DRA). These studies also note that dense FT schedules are more likely to interfere with DRA packages than lean FT schedules. In the current…

  16. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of aberrant behaviors in bipolar disorder from patients to models: Rodent and human studies.

    PubMed

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Henry, Brook L; Young, Jared W

    2015-11-01

    Psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder suffer from states of depression and mania, during which a variety of symptoms are present. Current treatments are limited and neurocognitive deficits in particular often remain untreated. Targeted therapies based on the biological mechanisms of bipolar disorder could fill this gap and benefit patients and their families. Developing targeted therapies would benefit from appropriate animal models which are challenging to establish, but remain a vital tool. In this review, we summarize approaches to create a valid model relevant to bipolar disorder. We focus on studies that use translational tests of multivariate exploratory behavior, sensorimotor gating, decision-making under risk, and attentional functioning to discover profiles that are consistent between patients and rodent models. Using this battery of translational tests, similar behavior profiles in bipolar mania patients and mice with reduced dopamine transporter activity have been identified. Future investigations should combine other animal models that are biologically relevant to the neuropsychiatric disorder with translational behavioral assessment as outlined here. This methodology can be utilized to develop novel targeted therapies that relieve symptoms for more patients without common side effects caused by current treatments.

  17. Chicago aberration correction work.

    PubMed

    Beck, V D

    2012-12-01

    The author describes from his personal involvement the many improvements to electron microscopy Albert Crewe and his group brought by minimizing the effects of aberrations. The Butler gun was developed to minimize aperture aberrations in a field emission electron gun. In the 1960s, Crewe anticipated using a spherical aberration corrector based on Scherzer's design. Since the tolerances could not be met mechanically, a method of moving the center of the octopoles electrically was developed by adding lower order multipole fields. Because the corrector was located about 15 cm ahead of the objective lens, combination aberrations would arise with the objective lens. This fifth order aberration would then limit the aperture of the microscope. The transformation of the off axis aberration coefficients of a round lens was developed and a means to cancel anisotropic coma was developed. A new method of generating negative spherical aberration was invented using the combination aberrations of hexapoles. Extensions of this technique to higher order aberrations were developed. An electrostatic electron mirror was invented, which allows the cancellation of primary spherical aberration and first order chromatic aberration. A reduction of chromatic aberration by two orders of magnitude was demonstrated using such a system.

  18. Defective quorum sensing of acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells: evidence of collective behavior of leukemic populations as semi-autonomous aberrant ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapan J; Dao, Su; Darie, Costel C; Clarkson, Bayard D

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a generic term used to describe cell-cell communication and collective decision making by bacterial and social insects to regulate the expression of specific genes in controlling cell density and other properties of the populations in response to nutrient supply or changes in the environment. QS mechanisms also have a role in higher organisms in maintaining homeostasis, regulation of the immune system and collective behavior of cancer cell populations. In the present study, we used a p190BCR-ABL driven pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL3) cell line derived from the pleural fluid of a terminally ill patient with ALL to test the QS hypothesis in leukemia. ALL3 cells don’t grow at low density (LD) in liquid media but grow progressively faster at increasingly high cell densities (HD) in contrast to other established leukemic cell lines that grow well at very low starting cell densities. The ALL3 cells at LD are poised to grow but shortly die without additional stimulation. Supernates of ALL3 cells (HDSN) and some other primary cells grown at HD stimulate the growth of the LD ALL3 cells without which they won’t survive. To get further insight into the activation processes we performed microarray analysis of the LD ALL3 cells after stimulation with ALL3 HDSN at days 1, 3, and 6. This screen identified several candidate genes, and we linked them to signaling networks and their functions. We observed that genes involved in lipid, cholesterol, fatty acid metabolism, and B cell activation are most up- or down-regulated upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells using HDSN. We also discuss other pathways that are differentially expressed upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells. Our findings suggest that the Ph+ ALL population achieves dominance by functioning as a collective aberrant ecosystem subject to defective quorum-sensing regulatory mechanisms. PMID:27429840

  19. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  20. The Relationship Between Drug Use, Drug-related Arrests, and Chronic Pain Among Adults on Probation.

    PubMed

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Walters, Scott T; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S

    2015-06-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=-1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89-1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03-9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety.

  1. Increased Lung Weights in Drug-related Fatalities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heather I-Hsuan; deJong, Joyce

    2017-03-20

    This study is of autopsy data for potential validation as to whether increased weights of the lungs support toxic effects of drugs as the cause of death. This retrospective study compared data from 133 deaths resulting from the toxic effects of drugs with previously reported normal lung weights (Toxicol Mech Methods, 22, 2012, 159; Am J Forensic Med Pathol 33, 2012, 368). The lung weights and their standard errors were used in a two-sample independent t-test comparing the average drug-related death weight to the average control weights. To account for multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni-adjusted alpha level of 0.0125 was used. We are 98.75% confident that the mean right lung weight for female drug-related deaths is between 227 and 377 g greater than the mean right lung weight for female non-drug-related deaths. We are 98.75% confident that the mean right lung weight for male drug-related deaths is between 245 and 378 g greater than the mean right lung weight for male non-drug-related deaths.

  2. [Photodegradation of chlorpromazine, a drug-related adverse event].

    PubMed

    Chabi, Yossounon; Brahim, Kheira; Da Costa, Maryline; Caffin, Anne-Gaëlle; Camus, Gisèle; Paillet, Michel; Bohand, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The photodegradation of an active substance during treatment is a rare drug-related adverse event which can sometimes have serious consequences. Health professionals must be aware of the specific storage and administration instructions with regard to chlorpromazine and ensure that they are respected.

  3. Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.

  4. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

  5. Nutrigenomic targeting of carbohydrate craving behavior: can we manage obesity and aberrant craving behaviors with neurochemical pathway manipulation by Immunological Compatible Substances (nutrients) using a Genetic Positioning System (GPS) Map?

    PubMed

    Downs, B William; Chen, Amanda L C; Chen, Thomas J H; Waite, Roger L; Braverman, Eric R; Kerner, Mallory; Braverman, Dasha; Rhoades, Patrick; Prihoda, Thomas J; Palomo, Tomas; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Reinking, Jeffrey; Blum, Seth H; DiNubile, Nicholas A; Liu, H H; Blum, Kenneth

    2009-09-01

    Genetic mediated physiological processes that rely on both pharmacological and nutritional principles hold great promise for the successful therapeutic targeting of reduced carbohydrate craving, body-friendly fat loss, healthy body recomposition, and overall wellness. By integrating an assembly of scientific knowledge on inheritable characteristics and environmental mediators of gene expression, we review the relationship of genes, hormones, neurotransmitters, and nutrients as they correct unwanted weight gain coupled with unhappiness. In contrast to a simple one-locus, one-mechanism focus on pharmaceuticals alone, we hypothesize that the use of nutrigenomic treatment targeting multi-physiological neurological, immunological, and metabolic pathways will enable clinicians to intercede in the process of lipogenesis by promoting lipolysis while attenuating aberrant glucose cravings. In turn, this approach will enhance wellness in a safe and predictable manner through the use of a Genetic Positioning System (GPS) Map. The GPS Map, while presently incomplete, ultimately will serve not only as a blueprint for personalized medicine in the treatment of obesity, but also for the development of strategies for reducing many harmful addictive behaviors and promoting optimal health by using substances compatible with the body's immune system.

  6. Nutrigenomic targeting of carbohydrate craving behavior: Can we manage obesity and aberrant craving behaviors with neurochemical pathway manipulation by Immunological Compatible Substances (nutrients) using a Genetic Positioning System (GPS) Map?

    PubMed Central

    Downs, B. William; Chen, Amanda L.C.; Chen, Thomas J.H.; Waite, Roger L.; Braverman, Eric R.; Kerner, Mallory; Braverman, Dasha; Rhoades, Patrick; Prihoda, Thomas J.; Palomo, Tomas; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Reinking, Jeffrey; Blum, Seth H.; DiNubile, Nicholas A.; Liu, H.H.; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Genetic mediated physiological processes that rely on both pharmacological and nutritional principles hold great promise for the successful therapeutic targeting of reduced carbohydrate craving, body-friendly fat loss, healthy body recomposition, and overall wellness. By integrating an assembly of scientific knowledge on inheritable characteristics and environmental mediators of gene expression, we review the relationship of genes, hormones, neurotransmitters, and nutrients as they correct unwanted weight gain coupled with unhappiness. In contrast to a simple one-locus, one-mechanism focus on pharmaceuticals alone, we hypothesize that the use of nutrigenomic treatment targeting multi-physiological neurological, immunological, and metabolic pathways will enable clinicians to intercede in the process of lipogenesis by promoting lipolysis while attenuating aberrant glucose cravings. In turn, this approach will enhance wellness in a safe and predictable manner through the use of a Genetic Positioning System (GPS) Map. The GPS Map, while presently incomplete, ultimately will serve not only as a blueprint for personalized medicine in the treatment of obesity, but also for the development of strategies for reducing many harmful addictive behaviors and promoting optimal health by using substances compatible with the body’s immune system. PMID:19450935

  7. Mirror Movement-Like Defects in Startle Behavior of Zebrafish dcc Mutants Are Caused by Aberrant Midline Guidance of Identified Descending Hindbrain Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Roshan A.; Bell, Hannah; Lim, Amy; Chien, Chi-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Mirror movements are involuntary movements on one side of the body that occur simultaneously with intentional movements on the contralateral side. Humans with heterozygous mutations in the axon guidance receptor DCC display such mirror movements, where unilateral stimulation results in inappropriate bilateral motor output. Currently, it is unclear whether mirror movements are caused by incomplete midline crossing and reduced commissural connectivity of DCC-dependent descending pathways or by aberrant ectopic ipsilateral axonal projections of normally commissural neurons. Here, we show that in response to unilateral tactile stimuli, zebrafish dcc mutant larvae perform involuntary turns on the inappropriate body side. We show that these mirror movement-like deficits are associated with axonal guidance defects of two identified groups of commissural reticulospinal hindbrain neurons. Moreover, we demonstrate that in dcc mutants, axons of these identified neurons frequently fail to cross the midline and instead project ipsilaterally. Whereas laser ablation of these neurons in wild-type animals does not affect turning movements, their ablation in dcc mutants restores turning movements. Thus, our results demonstrate that in dcc mutants, turns on the inappropriate side of the body are caused by aberrant ipsilateral axonal projections, and suggest that aberrant ipsilateral connectivity of a very small number of descending axons is sufficient to induce incorrect movement patterns. PMID:24553931

  8. The relationship between drug use, drug-related arrests, and chronic pain among adults on probation

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Scott T.; Lerch, Jennifer; Taxman, Faye S.

    2014-01-01

    The intersection between chronic health conditions, drug use, and treatment seeking behavior among adults in the criminal justice system has been largely understudied. This study examined whether chronic pain was associated with opiate use, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. We expected that probationers with chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. This study used baseline data from 250 adults on probation in Baltimore, Maryland and Dallas, Texas who were participating in a larger clinical trial. Eighteen percent of probationers in this sample reported suffering from chronic pain. In bivariate analyses, probationers with chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests (t=−1.81; p<0.05) than those without chronic pain. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that probationers who reported chronic pain were marginally more likely to use opiates (OR=2.37; 95% CI .89–1.05) and non-opiate illicit drugs (OR=3.11; 95% CI 1.03–9.39) compared to offenders without chronic pain. In summary, these findings suggest that adults under probation supervision who suffer from chronic pain may be involved in criminal activity (specifically, drug-related criminal activity) in an effort to self-medicate their physical health condition(s). Screening probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and referring these adults to pain management treatment may be an important step in advancing public safety. PMID:25595302

  9. Antiresorptive drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

    PubMed

    Uyanne, Jettie; Calhoun, Colonya C; Le, Anh D

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen-containing and non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates have been implicated in the development of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), a condition termed bisphosphonate-related OHJ. Other antiresorptive drugs have been implicated in the development of OHJ, hence the new term antiresorptive drug-related ONJ. The underlying pathogenesis remains unclear, and no definite diagnosis or cure has been established for this debilitating condition. This article reviews some of the most common antiresorptive drugs with their associated risks of ONJ and the current understanding of the pathogenesis ONJ, and summarizes current clinical guidelines.

  10. Orbitofrontal response to drug-related stimuli after heroin administration.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Denier, Niklaus; Gerber, Hana; Schmid, Otto; Lanz, Christian; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Scheffler, Klaus; Seifritz, Erich; McGuire, Philip; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    The compulsion to seek and use heroin is frequently driven by stress and craving during drug-cue exposure. Although previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that craving is mediated by increased prefrontal cortex activity, it remains unknown how heroin administration modulates the prefrontal cortex response. This study examines the acute effects of heroin on brain function in heroin-maintained patients. Using a crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 27 heroin-maintained patients performed functional magnetic resonance imaging 20 minutes after the administration of heroin or placebo (saline) while drug-related and neutral stimuli were presented. Images were processed and analysed with statistical parametric mapping. Plasma concentrations of heroin and its main metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Region of interest analyses showed a drug-related cue-associated blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in heroin-dependent patients during both treatment conditions (heroin and placebo). This activation of the OFC was significantly higher after heroin than after placebo administration. These findings may indicate the importance of OFC activity for impulse control and decision-making after regular heroin administration and may emphasize the benefit of the heroin-assisted treatment in heroin dependence.

  11. Systemic drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE).

    PubMed

    Elmariah, Sarina B; Cheung, Wang; Wang, Nadia; Kamino, Hideko; Pomeranz, Miriam K

    2009-08-15

    A 72-year-old man with a history of metastatic melanoma presented with a two-day history of erythematous and edematous plaques, with scattered bullae on the neck, chest, axillae, and inguinal and gluteal folds, which began five days after infusion of an experimental drug. The clinical and histopathologic findings were consistent with systemic drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE), which is an uncommon drug reaction that results in symmetric erythema that affects the buttocks, groin, and/or thighs as well other flexural folds. The clinical manifestations of SDRIFE are highly characteristic and include distinctive primary cutaneous lesions with a specific distribution and course; however, heterogeneity exists with respect to histopathologic features, skin test results, and in vitro investigations. The exact mechanism of SDRIFE remains unknown but is thought to result from a type IV delayed hypersensitivity immune response. Treatment is symptomatic and includes topical or oral glucocorticoids.

  12. Knockdown of the Drosophila FIG4 induces deficient locomotive behavior, shortening of motor neuron, axonal targeting aberration, reduction of life span and defects in eye development.

    PubMed

    Kyotani, Akane; Azuma, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Itaru; Yoshida, Hideki; Mizuta, Ikuko; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tokuda, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in Factor-Induced-Gene 4 (FIG4) gene have been identified in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J (CMT4J), Yunis-Varon syndrome and epilepsy with polymicrogyria. FIG4 protein regulates a cellular abundance of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2), a signaling lipid on the cytosolic surface of membranes of the late endosomal compartment. PI(3,5)P2 is required for retrograde membrane trafficking from lysosomal and late endosomal compartments to the Golgi. However, it is still unknown how the neurodegeneration that occurs in these diseases is related to the loss of FIG4 function. Drosophila has CG17840 (dFIG4) as a human FIG4 homolog. Here we specifically knocked down dFIG4 in various tissues, and investigated their phenotypes. Neuron-specific knockdown of dFIG4 resulted in axonal targeting aberrations of photoreceptor neurons, shortened presynaptic terminals of motor neurons in 3rd instar larvae and reduced climbing ability in adulthood and life span. Fat body-specific knockdown of dFIG4 resulted in enlarged lysosomes in cells that were detected by staining with LysoTracker. In addition, eye imaginal disk-specific knockdown of dFIG4 disrupted differentiation of pupal ommatidial cell types, such as cone cells and pigment cells, suggesting an additional role of dFIG4 during eye development.

  13. Criminal justice responses to drug related crime in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Malloch, Margaret; McIvor, Gill

    2013-01-01

    This article examines contemporary developments in criminal justice responses to drug related crime. Drawing on evaluations of initiatives which have been introduced in Scotland along with published statistical data, it considers the expansion of drug treatment through the criminal justice system and the implications this has for increasing access to services. Importantly, it considers the potential consequences of implementing 'treatment' requirements, underpinned by potential sanctions for non-compliance, at different stages of the criminal justice process. It is argued that the introduction of interventions at different points in the criminal justice process may have increased access to treatment services, though the extent of engagement with services is called into question, especially where treatment is voluntary or less obviously 'coerced'. Moreover, there is evidence that extending treatment through the criminal justice system may have had the effect of drawing some individuals further into the criminal justice process than would previously have been the case, despite limited evidence of the effectiveness of many such interventions on drug use, associated offending and wider aspects of individuals' lives.

  14. Evaluation of drug-related hypersensitivity reactions in children.

    PubMed

    Martín-Muñoz, F; Moreno-Ancillo, A; Domínguez-Noche, C; Díaz-Pena, J M; García-Ara, C; Boyano, T; Ojeda, J A

    1999-01-01

    Patients with drug reactions are often referred to allergists for "allergy". Skin testing and clinical history seem to have a good negative predictive value, however, although drug challenge could be dangerous, it is the only way to confirm the diagnosis. We aimed to demonstrate that most children with a history of non-life-threatening drug reactions do not have a true drug allergy and examined the use of drug challenge in childhood. Patients with reactions were referred to our clinic by pediatricians. In 1 year, 354 reactions were studied in 239 children. Patients were classified according to their positive or negative history of drug allergy. Skin prick testing was done in all cases. Exclusion criteria for challenge included drug anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, systemic reactions with severe concomitant illness, beta-inhibitor drug therapy or positive skin test to the implicated drug with a positive history. It was found that the beta-lactam antibiotics were involved in 50% of suspected reactions, aspirin in 10% and sulfonamides in 9%. Histories were considered positive only in 25%. Drug challenges confirmed only 4% of all reactions. It was concluded that drug challenge may be the gold standard for most childhood reactions that are considered to be allergic, non-life-threatening and drug-related. Only 4% of these suspected reactions were exclusively caused by drug allergy.

  15. Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome Presenting to a Medical Clinic with Depression: Phenomenology and Characterization Using the Reiss Scales and Aberrant Behavior Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, George T.; Aidikoff, Jenna M.; Goyal, Parag

    2011-01-01

    Caretakers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) may report the onset of a depressive illness in previously mentally well individuals. However, the behavioral phenomenology of these conditions has not been well characterized. We ascertained a cohort of DS patient-subjects presenting to a specialty clinic with medical and/or…

  16. Aberration correction of unstable resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Construction of aspheric reflectors for unstable resonator lasers to provide an arbitrary laser mode inside the resonator to correct aberrations of an output beam by the construction of the shape of an end reflector opposite the output reflector of the resonator cavity, such as aberrations resulting from refraction of a beam exiting the solid of the resonator having an index of refraction greater than 1 or to produce an aberration in the output beam that will precisely compensate for the aberration of an optical train into which the resonator beam is coupled.

  17. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  18. Aberrations of diffracted wave fields: distortion.

    PubMed

    Harvey, James E; Bogunovic, Dijana; Krywonos, Andrey

    2003-03-01

    Near-field diffraction patterns are merely aberrated Fraunhofer diffraction patterns. These aberrations, inherent to the diffraction process, provide insight and understanding into wide-angle diffraction phenomena. Nonparaxial patterns of diffracted orders produced by a laser beam passing through a grating and projected upon a plane screen exhibit severe distortion (W311). This distortion is an artifact of the configuration chosen to observe diffraction patterns. Grating behavior expressed in terms of the direction cosines of the propagation vectors of the incident and diffracted orders exhibits no distortion. Use of a simple direction cosine diagram provides an elegant way to deal with nonparaxial diffraction patterns, particularly when large obliquely incident beams produce conical diffraction.

  19. Drug related hospital admissions in subspecialities of internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Hallas, J

    1996-04-01

    It is well established in the literature that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug non-compliance contribute substantially to the admissions at medical wards. Some important questions, however, remain unanswered. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise the drug-related hospital admissions (DRH) and to assess the magnitude of the problem seen in relation to the demographic parameters and drug use of the background population. In addition, an attempt was made to reduce the DRH incidence by an intervention program. The scope of the study program was adverse drug reactions, intended self-poisoning, non-compliance, underdosing and interactions. The material included 1999 admissions to six departments of internal medicine at Odense University Hospital. The patients were reviewed prospectively, while they were still in the wards, but use of standardised criteria fOR assessment of drug-ADR causality. With inclusion of a definite, probable and possible causal relationship, ADRs and toxic reactions were found as an important factor in 8.4% of all admissions. The incidense of ADR related admissions was 400 per 100,000 per year for the background population as a whole, but showing a strong increase with age. The drug-specific ADR incidences were generally small compared to the drug sales figures. Non-compliance contributed to 2.0% of admissions with diuretics and anti-asthmatics as the drugs most frequently involved. Two departments were re-investigated after an intervention program, primarily targetting general practitioners. The over-all incidence of DRHs was unaffected by the intervention, but the subset classified as avoidable DRHs showed a significant decline. The case material was subject to a blinded evaluation by an external peer group using the same criteria as the investigators. There was no indication that the observed decline in avoidable DRHs should be explained by a shift in the investigators' assessment of cases. It was concluded that the intervention

  20. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  1. Correction of Distributed Optical Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Olivier, S; Carrano, C; Phillion, D

    2006-02-12

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of multiple distributed deformable mirrors (DMs) to improve the performance of optical systems with distributed aberrations. This concept is expected to provide dramatic improvement in the optical performance of systems in applications where the aberrations are distributed along the optical path or within the instrument itself. Our approach used multiple actuated DMs distributed to match the aberration distribution. The project developed the algorithms necessary to determine the required corrections and simulate the performance of these multiple DM systems.

  2. Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (baboon syndrome) induced by amoxicillin-clavulanate.

    PubMed

    Dogru, Mahmut; Ozmen, Serap; Ginis, Tayfur; Duman, Handan; Bostanci, Ilknur

    2012-01-01

    Systemic drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE), also known as Baboon syndrome, is an uncommon, cutaneous reaction that occurs after the systemic administration of drug-related allergens. We report the case of a 5-year-old boy with SDRIFE after systemic administration of amoxicillin-clavulanate.

  3. Aberrations in Fresnel Lenses and Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don

    1999-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Shooting Star program revealed a number of technical problems that must be solved before solar thermal propulsion can become a reality. The fundamental problem of interest here is the collection of solar energy. This is the first step in the propulsion process and indeed the most important. Everything else depends on the efficiency and focusing ability of the collection lens or mirror. An initial model of Fresnel lens behavior using a wave optics approach has been completed and the results were encouraging enough to warrant an experimental investigation. This experimental investigation confirmed some of the effects predicted and produced invaluable photographic evidence of coherence based diffraction and aberration.

  4. Ventral Tegmental Area Afferents and Drug-Dependent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Idaira; Wanat, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-related behaviors in both humans and rodents are commonly thought to arise from aberrant learning processes. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the acquisition and expression of many drug-dependent behaviors involves the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a midbrain structure comprised of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons. Drug experience alters the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input onto VTA dopamine neurons, suggesting a critical role for VTA afferents in mediating the effects of drugs. In this review, we present evidence implicating the VTA in drug-related behaviors, highlight the diversity of neuronal populations in the VTA, and discuss the behavioral effects of selectively manipulating VTA afferents. Future experiments are needed to determine which VTA afferents and what neuronal populations in the VTA mediate specific drug-dependent behaviors. Further studies are also necessary for identifying the afferent-specific synaptic alterations onto dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the VTA following drug administration. The identification of neural circuits and adaptations involved with drug-dependent behaviors can highlight potential neural targets for pharmacological and deep brain stimulation interventions to treat substance abuse disorders. PMID:27014097

  5. Aberrant Behaviour of Persons with Developmental Disabilities as a Function of the Characteristics of Training Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vause, Tricia; Martin, Garry L.; Yu, Dickie

    1999-01-01

    A study used the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities to assess the abilities of three adults with mental retardation in order to reduce aberrant behavior. There was a higher frequency of aberrant responses during training sessions with training tasks above or below a participant's assessment level on the test. (Contains references.) (CR)

  6. Angular cheilitis, part 2: nutritional, systemic, and drug-related causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Kelly K; Brodell, Robert T; Helms, Stephen E

    2011-07-01

    Angular cheilitis (AC) is associated with a variety of nutritional, systemic, and drug-related factors that may act exclusively or in combination with local factors. Establishing the underlying etiology of AC is required to appropriately focus treatment efforts.

  7. How To Measure Gravitational Aberration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizek, M.; Solcova, A.

    2007-08-01

    In 1905, Henri Poincaré predicted the existence of gravitational waves and assumed that their speed c[g] would be that of the speed of light c. If the gravitational aberration would also have the same magnitude as the aberration of light, we would observe several paradoxical phenomena. For instance, the orbit of two bodies of equal mass would be unstable, since two attractive forces arise that are not in line and hence form a couple. This tends to increase the angular momentum, period, and total energy of the system. This can be modelled by a system of ordinary differential equations with delay. A big advantage of computer simulation is that we can easily perform many test for various possible values of the speed of gravity [1]. In [2], Carlip showed that gravitational aberration in general relativity is almost cancelled out by velocity-dependent interactions. This means that rays of sunlight are not parallel to the attractive gravitational force of the Sun, i.e., we do not see the Sun in the direction of its attractive force, but slightly shifted about an angle less than 20``. We show how the actual value of the gravitational aberration can be obtained by measurement of a single angle at a suitable time instant T corresponding to the perihelion of an elliptic orbit. We also derive an a priori error estimate that expresses how acurately T has to be determined to attain the gravitational aberration to a prescribed tolerance. [1] M. Křížek: Numerical experience with the finite speed of gravitational interaction, Math. Comput. Simulation 50 (1999), 237-245. [2] S. Carlip: Aberration and the speed of gravity, Phys. Lett. A 267 (2000), 81-87.

  8. Investigation into the reasons for preventable drug related admissions to a medical admissions unit: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R; Avery, A; Howard, P; Partridge, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the drugs and types of medicine management problems most frequently associated with preventable drug related admissions to an acute medical admissions unit. Design: Observation study. Setting: Medical admissions unit in a teaching hospital in Nottingham, UK. Participants: 4093 patients seen by pharmacists on the medical admissions unit between 1 January and 30 June 2001. Main outcome measures: Proportion of admissions that were drug related and preventable, classification of the underlying causes of preventable drug related admissions, and identification of drugs most commonly associated with preventable drug related admissions. Results: Of the admissions seen by pharmacists, 265 (6.5%) were judged to be drug related and 178 (67%) of these were judged to be preventable. Preventable admissions were mainly due to problems with prescribing (63 cases (35%)), monitoring (46 cases (26%)), and adherence to medication (53 cases (30%)). The drugs most commonly implicated were NSAIDs, antiplatelets, antiepileptics, hypoglycaemics, diuretics, inhaled corticosteroids, cardiac glycosides, and beta-blockers. Conclusions: Potentially preventable drug related morbidity was associated with 4.3% of admissions to a medical admissions unit. In 91% of cases these admissions were related to problems with either prescribing, monitoring, or adherence. PMID:12897361

  9. Wave aberration function and its definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, V. A.; Rytova, E. S.; Timoshchuk, I. N.

    2011-06-01

    A definition of a wave aberration as a phase shift upon composition of light waves in the image of a point is given using the concept of point eikonal. An expression that determines the total differential of a wave aberration function is obtained and the condition of its integrability is determined. The sequence of the wave aberration function definition at the known functions of the meridional and sagittal components of lateral aberration is presented.

  10. Using geometric algebra to study optical aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, J.; Ziock, H.

    1997-05-01

    This paper uses Geometric Algebra (GA) to study vector aberrations in optical systems with square and round pupils. GA is a new way to produce the classical optical aberration spot diagrams on the Gaussian image plane and surfaces near the Gaussian image plane. Spot diagrams of the third, fifth and seventh order aberrations for square and round pupils are developed to illustrate the theory.

  11. Characterization of misfit dislocations in Si quantum well structures enabled by STEM based aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Batson, Philip E; Lagos, Maureen J

    2017-03-02

    The success of aberration correction techniques at the end of the 20th century came at a time of increasing need for atomic resolution imaging to better understand known structural defects that influence semiconductor device operation, and to advance the search for new structures and behavior that will form the basis for devices in the future. With this in mind, it is a pleasure to recognize the contributions of Ondrej Krivanek to the success of aberration correction techniques, and his extension of aberration techniques to EELS equipment that further promises to unite structural studies with characterization of behavior from meV to keV energies in the STEM.

  12. The impact of drug-related deaths on mortality among young adults in Madrid.

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, L; Barrio, G; Vicente, J; Bravo, M J; Santacreu, J

    1995-01-01

    The trend from 1983 to 1990 of drug-related mortality (defined as the sum of deaths from acute drug reactions and the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome [AIDS] in drug users) among the population 15 to 39 years of age in Madrid, Spain, was studied and compared with mortality from all causes. All of the mortality rates increased from 1983 to 1990: all causes, from 101/100,000 to 148/100,000; acute drug reactions, from 3/100,000 to 15/100,000; and AIDS, from 0 to 20/100,000. Drug-related mortality represented 60% of the increase in the rate from all causes in males and 170% of the increase in females. The increases in drug-related mortality are likely to continue in the future. PMID:7832243

  13. Phase Aberrations in Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Marchesini, S; Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Howells, M R; Spence, J H; Cui, C; Weierstall, U; Minor, A M

    2005-09-29

    In coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy the diffraction pattern generated by a sample illuminated with coherent x-rays is recorded, and a computer algorithm recovers the unmeasured phases to synthesize an image. By avoiding the use of a lens the resolution is limited, in principle, only by the largest scattering angles recorded. However, the imaging task is shifted from the experiment to the computer, and the algorithm's ability to recover meaningful images in the presence of noise and limited prior knowledge may produce aberrations in the reconstructed image. We analyze the low order aberrations produced by our phase retrieval algorithms. We present two methods to improve the accuracy and stability of reconstructions.

  14. Pathophysiology of MDS: genomic aberrations.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Motoshi

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and their apoptosis, and show a propensity to progress to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Although MDS are recognized as neoplastic diseases caused by genomic aberrations of hematopoietic cells, the details of the genetic abnormalities underlying disease development have not as yet been fully elucidated due to difficulties in analyzing chromosomal abnormalities. Recent advances in comprehensive analyses of disease genomes including whole-genome sequencing technologies have revealed the genomic abnormalities in MDS. Surprisingly, gene mutations were found in approximately 80-90% of cases with MDS, and the novel mutations discovered with these technologies included previously unknown, MDS-specific, mutations such as those of the genes in the RNA-splicing machinery. It is anticipated that these recent studies will shed new light on the pathophysiology of MDS due to genomic aberrations.

  15. Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) induced by oral metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Şikar Aktürk, Aysun; Bayramgürler, Dilek; Salman, Selma; Yıldız, Kürşat Demir; Odyakmaz Demirsoy, Evren

    2014-12-01

    Baboon syndrome is a special form of systemic contact dermatitis to systemic or local administration of contact allergens. Baboon syndrome without known previous cutaneous sensitisation was also described as drug-related baboon syndrome or symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE). The major drugs causing SDRIFE was beta-lactam antibiotic such as amoxicillin and ampicillin. We report a case of 16-year-old woman who developed pruritic eruptions after oral metronidazole treatment for diarrhea. She was diagnosed SDRIFE according to her clinical and histopathological findings. To our knowledge, our patient is the first case who developed SDRIFE due to metronidazole in the literature.

  16. Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema caused by valacyclovir.

    PubMed

    Daito, Junko; Hanada, Keiji; Katoh, Norito; Katoh, Sayoko; Sakamoto, Kakei; Asai, Jun; Takenaka, Hideya; Kishimoto, Saburo

    2009-01-01

    Drug-related eruptions that appear only on intertriginous or flexural folds and in gluteal areas have recently been termed symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE). We report a case of a 56-year-old woman with acute erythematous rash in the intertriginous areas after treatment with the L-valine ester of acyclovir, valacyclovir. Oral-challenge tests resulted in erythematous pruritic rash in the intertriginous area by valacyclovir. The patient was diagnosed as having SDRIFE due to valacyclovir.

  17. Seidel aberrations of the Gabor superlens.

    PubMed

    Hamilton Shepard, R

    2014-02-10

    Equations are presented for the third-order Seidel aberrations of the Gabor superlens (GSL) as a function of microtelescope channel position within the aperture array. To reveal the origin and form of increasing aberration with channel height, Seidel coefficients are derived as a function of the accumulating pitch difference between the lens arrays and the aberrations present in the centered channel. Two- and three-element Gabor lenses are investigated and their aberrations are expressed as a function of first-order design parameters. The derived theory is then compared to a real ray trace simulation to demonstrate the accuracy of third-order aberration theory to predict GSL image quality.

  18. Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations.

    PubMed

    Artal, Pablo; Chen, Li; Fernández, Enrique J; Singer, Ben; Manzanera, Silvestre; Williams, David R

    2004-04-16

    A fundamental problem facing sensory systems is to recover useful information about the external world from signals that are corrupted by the sensory process itself. Retinal images in the human eye are affected by optical aberrations that cannot be corrected with ordinary spectacles or contact lenses, and the specific pattern of these aberrations is different in every eye. Though these aberrations always blur the retinal image, our subjective impression is that the visual world is sharp and clear, suggesting that the brain might compensate for their subjective influence. The recent introduction of adaptive optics to control the eye's aberrations now makes it possible to directly test this idea. If the brain compensates for the eye's aberrations, vision should be clearest with the eye's own aberrations rather than with unfamiliar ones. We asked subjects to view a stimulus through an adaptive optics system that either recreated their own aberrations or a rotated version of them. For all five subjects tested, the stimulus seen with the subject's own aberrations was always sharper than when seen through the rotated version. This supports the hypothesis that the neural visual system is adapted to the eye's aberrations, thereby removing somehow the effects of blur generated by the sensory apparatus from visual experience. This result could have important implications for methods to correct higher order aberrations with customized refractive surgery because some benefits of optimizing the correction optically might be undone by the nervous system's compensation for the old aberrations.

  19. Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (1) The apparent displacement of a star from its mean position on the celestial sphere due to the velocity of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun. The phenomenon was discovered in 1729 by James Bradley (1693-1762) who was, in fact, trying to measure stellar parallax. The displacement is caused by the combination of the velocity of the Earth and the velocity of light approaching from the source. ...

  20. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  1. [Pneumonia or drug-related exogenic allergic alveolitis? Key role of anamnesis in differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Skipskiĭ, I M; Efimov, N V; Dantsig, I I; Matiukhina, L M; Kostina, O Ia

    2011-01-01

    A case is reported of an old female patient with exogenic allergic alveolitis which was first diagnosed as pneumonia progressing in the presence of long-term and intensive antibiotic treatment. Detailed analysis of the case history gave grounds for suspected drug-related exogenic allergic alveolitis. Discontinuation of antibiotics, administration of glucocorticoids and antiplatelet drugs led to recovery.

  2. Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema due to ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Binitha, Manikoth Payyanadan; Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; John, Rajiv; Sherjeena, Pentam V Beegum

    2014-01-01

    Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) is an adverse drug reaction which has been reported to be caused by various drugs. In this report, we describe a case induced by ranitidine, a drug which has not been previously reported to cause SDRIFE.

  3. Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema secondary to topical 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Powers, Roxann; Gordon, Rachel; Roberts, Kenrick; Kovach, Rodney

    2012-05-01

    We report the case of a 56-year-old man who developed a distinctive skin eruption after treating actinic keratoses on the dorsal aspects of his right and left hands with topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The distribution of his rash was characteristic of symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE), also known as baboon syndrome.

  4. Is there a relationship between street heroin purity and drug-related emergencies and/or drug-related deaths? An analysis from Vienna, Austria.

    PubMed

    Risser, Daniele; Uhl, Alfred; Oberndorfer, Felicitas; Hönigschnabl, Selma; Stichenwirth, Martin; Hirz, Robert; Sebald, Dieter

    2007-09-01

    This study examines the quality of street heroin seized in Vienna in 1999 and whether there was a relationship between the purity of street heroin and the number of heroin-related emergencies as well as the number of heroin-related deaths. Street heroin confiscated by the Viennese police, run-sheets of drug-related emergencies, and postmortem reports of drug-related deaths in Vienna in 1999 were analyzed. A total of 415 retail samples with a total weight of 128.02 g contained a median percentage of 6.5% diacetylmorphine (range: 0.0-47.0%). All the samples contained a diluent, mainly lactose, as well as adulterants, such as caffeine and/or paracetamol. During the study period, 75 heroin-related deaths and 387 heroin-related emergencies were registered in Vienna. Time-series analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the rate of heroin-related incidents and the diacetylmorphine concentration of street heroin samples confiscated in Vienna in 1999. The widely held belief that the number of heroin-related deaths could be explained simply through fluctuations in the purity of street heroin could not be substantiated, even though the results of this study do not rule out an association between the purity of heroin and heroin-related deaths/emergencies.

  5. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2013-12-01

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning.

  6. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  7. The misalignment induced aberrations of TMA telescopes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kevin P; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P

    2008-12-08

    The next major space-borne observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, will be a 6.6M field-biased, obscured, three-mirror anastigmat (TMA). Over the used field of view, the performance of TMA telescopes is dominated by 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations. Here it is shown that two dominant 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations arise for any TMA telescope. One aberration, field constant 3(rd) order coma is a well known misalignment aberration commonly seen in two-mirror Ritchey Chretien telescopes. The second aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear, 3(rd) order astigmatism is a new and unique image orientation dependence with field derived here for the first time using nodal aberration theory.

  8. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  9. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  10. Aberrations of ellipsoidal reflectors for unit magnification.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, K D

    1974-12-01

    Ellipsoidal reflectors are useful for the 1:1 imaging of small objects without spherical and chromatic aberration. The magnitude of the off-axis aberrations of such reflectors is computed by application of Fermat's principle to the Hamiltonian point characteristic. The limiting form of the mirror aperture for which these aberrations do not exceed a set tolerance is an ellipse whose semiaxes depend on object size and angle of incidence.

  11. Chromatic aberration measurement for transmission interferometric testing.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kibyung; Greivenkamp, John E

    2008-12-10

    A method of chromatic aberration measurement is described based on the transmitted wavefront of an optical element obtained from a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The chromatic aberration is derived from transmitted wavefronts measured at five different wavelengths. Reverse ray tracing is used to remove induced aberrations associated with the interferometer from the measurement. In the interferometer, the wavefront transmitted through the sample is tested against a plano reference, allowing for the absolute determination of the wavefront radius of curvature. The chromatic aberrations of a singlet and a doublet have been measured.

  12. Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    High-order monochromatic aberrations could potentially influence vision-dependent refractive development in a variety of ways. As a first step in understanding the effects of wave aberration on refractive development, we characterized the maturational changes that take place in the high-order aberrations of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations of infant and adolescent animals and measured the longitudinal changes in the high-order aberrations of infant monkeys during the early period when emmetropization takes place. Our main findings were that (1) adolescent monkey eyes have excellent optical quality, exhibiting total RMS errors that were slightly better than those for adult human eyes that have the same numerical aperture and (2) shortly after birth, infant rhesus monkeys exhibited relatively larger magnitudes of high-order aberrations predominately spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil, which decreased rapidly to assume adolescent values by about 200 days of age. The results demonstrate that rhesus monkey eyes are a good model for studying the contribution of individual ocular components to the eye’s overall aberration structure, the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in optical quality that occur during early ocular development, and the effects of high-order aberrations on ocular growth and emmetropization. PMID:16750549

  13. A challenging case: Symmetrical drug related intertriginous and flexural exanthem, fixed drug eruption, or both?

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Esen; Babuna, Goncagül

    2011-01-01

    We herein report a 12-year-old boy with amoxicillin-induced, recurrent, site-specific, symmetrical, sharply demarcated reddish plaques on the buttocks and the major flexural and intertriginous areas. The lesions resolved with topical corticosteroids, leaving hyperpigmentation. Histopathology showed nonspecific features of inflammation and dermal melanophages. Amoxicillin was the probable inducer based on oral provocation test with Amoksina(®) tablet, however patch testing with amoxicillin on previously affected and unaffected skin remained negative. The diagnosis was challenging because of the overlapping features of symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema and fixed drug eruption. This one represents a unique and challenging one with overlapping clinical features of symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthem (SDRIFE) and fixed drug eruption (FDE). We discuss the possible immunopathogenetic mechanisms leading to the simultaneous occurrence of different phenotypes of drug eruption in the same patient.

  14. Using multiple cause-of-death data to improve surveillance of drug-related mortality

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, David L.; Yokoi-Shelton, Mieko L.; Zosel, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Context Many state and local areas are affected by the national epidemic of drug-related mortality, which recently has shown signs of a rising licit-to-illicit drug death ratio. Appropriate local public health surveillance can help to monitor and control this epidemic. Objective Using our state as an example, we sought to illustrate how to describe the changes in drug death rates, causes, and circumstances. In contrast to most other surveillance reports, our approach includes both drug-induced and drug-related deaths and both demographic and socioeconomic decedent characteristics. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All residents of the State of Wisconsin. Participants Decedents from 1999–2008. Main outcome measure Annual numbers and population-based rates of deaths due to drugs, including both identified and unidentified drugs. Information was obtained from death certificates with any of approximately 270 underlying, immediate, or contributing cause of death codes from the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision. Results Drug-related death rates increased during much of the 10-year study period, and the ratio of male to female deaths rose. The median age at death from drug-related causes was 43 years. Opioid analgesic poisoning surpassed cocaine and heroin poisoning as the most frequent type of fatal drug poisoning. Of all 4828 deaths from drug-related causes--virtually all of which were certified by a county medical examiner or coroner--3,410 (71%) were unintentional, and 1,053 (22%) were suicide. The unintentional-to-suicide death rate ratio grew from 1.6 to 3.5 during the study period. Methadone-related deaths increased from 10 in 1999 to 118 in 2008 (1080%), while benzodiazepine-related deaths rose from 23 to 106 (361%). Conclusions Although premature deaths from drug use and abuse continue to rise, in some states even surpassing motor vehicle crash deaths, multiple cause of death information from death certificates is available to monitor

  15. 75 FR 26160 - Drug and Drug-Related Supply Promotion by Pharmaceutical Company Sales Representatives at VA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 1 RIN 2900-AN42 Drug and Drug-Related Supply Promotion by Pharmaceutical Company Sales... eliminate any potential for disruption in the patient care environment, manage activities and promotions at... response to ``RIN 2900-AN42--Drug and Drug-Related Supply Promotion by Pharmaceutical Company...

  16. Learning Disorders and Sex Chromosome Aberrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hier, D. B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In a prospective study of 20 adult dyslexic men, no sex chromosome aberrations were detected. A retrospective study of 89 Ss with known sex chromosome aberrations revealed 20 of them to be mentally retarded. Among the 69 Ss of normal intelligence, learning, speech, and attention disorders were frequent. (Author/DLS)

  17. Chromatic aberration control for tunable all-silicone membrane microlenses.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Philipp; Mader, Daniel; Liebetraut, Peter; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2011-09-12

    Tunable multi-chamber microfluidic membrane microlenses with achromaticity over a given focal length range are demonstrated. In analogy to a fixed-focus achromatic doublet lens, the multi-lens system is based on a stack of microfluidic cavities filled with optically optimized liquids with precisely defined refractive index and Abbe number, and these are independently pneumatically actuated. The membranes separating the cavities form the refractive optical surfaces, and the curvatures as a function of pressure are calculated using a mechanical model for deformation of flexible plates. The results are combined with optical ray tracing simulations of the multi-lens system to yield chromatic aberration behavior, which is verified experimentally. A focal length tuning range of 5-40 mm and reduction in chromatic aberration of over 30% is demonstrated, limited by the availability of optical fluids.

  18. The Mechanisms of Aberrant Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Samuel; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chris; Knowles, Tuomas

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a kinetic theory for understanding the aberrant loss of solubility of proteins. The failure to maintain protein solubility results often in the assembly of organized linear structures, commonly known as amyloid fibrils, the formation of which is associated with over 50 clinical disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A true microscopic understanding of the mechanisms that drive these aggregation processes has proved difficult to achieve. To address this challenge, we apply the methodologies of chemical kinetics to the biomolecular self-assembly pathways related to protein aggregation. We discuss the relevant master equation and analytical approaches to studying it. In particular, we derive the underlying rate laws in closed-form using a self-consistent solution scheme; the solutions that we obtain reveal scaling behaviors that are very generally present in systems of growing linear aggregates, and, moreover, provide a general route through which to relate experimental measurements to mechanistic information. We conclude by outlining a study of the aggregation of the Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide. The study identifies the dominant microscopic mechanism of aggregation and reveals previously unidentified therapeutic strategies.

  19. Drug related webpages classification using images and text information based on multi-kernel learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ruiguang; Xiao, Liping; Zheng, Wenjuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, multi-kernel learning(MKL) is used for drug-related webpages classification. First, body text and image-label text are extracted through HTML parsing, and valid images are chosen by the FOCARSS algorithm. Second, text based BOW model is used to generate text representation, and image-based BOW model is used to generate images representation. Last, text and images representation are fused with a few methods. Experimental results demonstrate that the classification accuracy of MKL is higher than those of all other fusion methods in decision level and feature level, and much higher than the accuracy of single-modal classification.

  20. Iteration of ultrasound aberration correction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maasoey, Svein-Erik; Angelsen, Bjoern; Varslot, Trond

    2004-05-01

    Aberration in ultrasound medical imaging is usually modeled by time-delay and amplitude variations concentrated on the transmitting/receiving array. This filter process is here denoted a TDA filter. The TDA filter is an approximation to the physical aberration process, which occurs over an extended part of the human body wall. Estimation of the TDA filter, and performing correction on transmit and receive, has proven difficult. It has yet to be shown that this method works adequately for severe aberration. Estimation of the TDA filter can be iterated by retransmitting a corrected signal and re-estimate until a convergence criterion is fulfilled (adaptive imaging). Two methods for estimating time-delay and amplitude variations in receive signals from random scatterers have been developed. One method correlates each element signal with a reference signal. The other method use eigenvalue decomposition of the receive cross-spectrum matrix, based upon a receive energy-maximizing criterion. Simulations of iterating aberration correction with a TDA filter have been investigated to study its convergence properties. A weak and strong human-body wall model generated aberration. Both emulated the human abdominal wall. Results after iteration improve aberration correction substantially, and both estimation methods converge, even for the case of strong aberration.

  1. Polarization aberrations of crossed folding mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, David G.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1995-08-01

    Polarization aberrations due to varying polarization state across the field of view (FOV) are investigated for crossed folding mirrors. We define crossed mirrors as oriented in space such that s-polarized light incident on the first mirror is p-polarized at the second mirror. This completely compensates for polarization state changes at one point in the field of view. The resulting polarization aberrations are explored across the FOV using the example of aluminum mirrors overcoated with a 12 layer, highly reflective, dielectric stack. The polarization aberration is very low along a band across the field of view. For arbitrary points in the FOV, the retardance and diattenuation are slightly elliptical.

  2. [Do premarketing trials help to predict drug-related iatrogenic effects in elderly patients?].

    PubMed

    Bouvenot, Gilles; Villani, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Premarketing trials contribute poorly to predicting drug-related iatrogenic effects in elderly patients. Since their main goal is the demonstration of drug efficacy, these trials are characterised by a simplistic design, they include a limited number of young participants (volunteers only), are of a short duration, and follow a strict protocol. Results of studies in young people cannot be extrapolated to elderly people. Although licensing authorities recommend the recruitment of a meaningful number of elderly people in clinical trials (with an age distribution comparable to that expected when the drug is in routine use), even in trials that are not devoted to geriatric illnesses, elderly people remain substantially under-represented in most instances for methodological reasons (to avoid increased variance introduced by a heterogenous population), safety reasons (at this stage of drug development, it could be deleterious to include patients with comorbid conditions and unfair with regard to the brand image of the products), and ethical reasons (the decision to participate could not be taken by the elderly people alone). Exclusion of elderly participants, who are particularly exposed to drug-related iatrogenic effects, influences the generalisability of study findings. The recruitment of elderly participants, a vulnerable population, is necessary to allow valid conclusions regarding elderly people, recommendations on the appropriate dosage adjustment for elderly individuals, the avoidance of prescribing decisions based on inadequate information (with respect to a more informative summary of the characteristics of the products), and the maximum benefit for elderly people from research.

  3. Abstinence-Contingent Reinforcement and Engagement in Non-drug Related Activities among Illicit Drug Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Randall E.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Silverman, Kenneth; Thomas, Colleen S.; Badger, Gary J.; Bigelow, George; Stitzer, Maxine

    2010-01-01

    Methadone-maintained cocaine abusers (n = 78) were randomly assigned to a 52-week intervention of either (1) usual care only (UC), (2) take-home methadone doses contingent on cocaine- and opiate-negative results (THM), or (3) take-home methadone doses for cocaine- and opiate-negative results and monetary-based vouchers contingent on cocaine-negative urinalysis results (THM+V). Cocaine use was assessed by urinalysis on a thrice-weekly schedule. Frequency and enjoyability of non-drug related activities were assessed with the Pleasant Events Schedule (PES) at baseline, mid-, and end-of-treatment. The THM+V condition achieved the greatest abstinence from cocaine and opiate use, followed by the THM and UC conditions. The THM+V condition had the highest PES Frequency ratings at mid- and end-of-treatment, followed by the THM and UC conditions. There were significant differences between the THM+V and UC conditions on 10 of 12 PES subscales. Analyses revealed that abstinence mediated the effects of treatment condition on frequency ratings. There were no significant differences in Enjoyability ratings. These results suggest that when contingency-management interventions increase abstinence from drug abuse they also increase engagement in non-drug related activities in naturalistic settings. PMID:19071979

  4. Impact of the heroin 'drought' on patterns of drug use and drug-related harms.

    PubMed

    Longo, Marie C; Henry-Edwards, Susan M; Humeniuk, Rachel E; Christie, Paul; Ali, Robert L

    2004-06-01

    Since late 2000, anecdotal reports from drug users and health professionals have suggested that there was a reduction in the supply of heroin in Adelaide in the first half of 2001, referred to as a heroin 'drought'. The aim of this paper was to critically review evidence for this, using data obtained from 100 injecting drug users surveyed for the 2001 Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS). This project is carried out annually in all Australian jurisdictions, and collects up-to-date information on the markets for heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine and cannabis. This paper also investigates the possible implications of this 'drought' on patterns of drug use and drug-related harms. The 2001 IDRS found consistent reports by users of an increase in the price of heroin, together with decreases in purity and availability. These factors resulted in a decrease in the frequency of self-reported heroin use among those surveyed in 2001, and a concomitant increase in the use of other drugs, in particular methamphetamine and morphine. The heroin 'drought' appears to have had a substantial impact on several indices of drug-related harm. There was a marked decrease in the number of opioid-related fatalities, and hospital data also showed reductions in heroin-related presentations. Treatment service data showed an increase in the number of admissions related to amphetamines. There is a need for health promotion and education on the adverse effects of methamphetamine use, and the development of improved treatment protocols for methamphetamine abuse and dependence.

  5. Clinical decision support for drug related events: Moving towards better prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Achanta, Archita; Kellum, John A; Handler, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems with automated alerts integrated into electronic medical records demonstrate efficacy for detecting medication errors (ME) and adverse drug events (ADEs). Critically ill patients are at increased risk for ME, ADEs and serious negative outcomes related to these events. Capitalizing on CDS to detect ME and prevent adverse drug related events has the potential to improve patient outcomes. The key to an effective medication safety surveillance system incorporating CDS is advancing the signals for alerts by using trajectory analyses to predict clinical events, instead of waiting for these events to occur. Additionally, incorporating cutting-edge biomarkers into alert knowledge in an effort to identify the need to adjust medication therapy portending harm will advance the current state of CDS. CDS can be taken a step further to identify drug related physiological events, which are less commonly included in surveillance systems. Predictive models for adverse events that combine patient factors with laboratory values and biomarkers are being established and these models can be the foundation for individualized CDS alerts to prevent impending ADEs. PMID:27896144

  6. Abstinence-contingent reinforcement and engagement in non-drug-related activities among illicit drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Randall E; Higgins, Stephen T; Silverman, Kenneth; Thomas, Colleen S; Badger, Gary J; Bigelow, George; Stitzer, Maxine

    2008-12-01

    Methadone-maintained cocaine abusers (N = 78) were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 52-week interventions: (a) usual care only (UC), (b) take-home methadone doses contingent on cocaine- and opiate-negative results (THM), or (c) take-home methadone doses for cocaine- and opiate-negative results and monetary-based vouchers contingent on cocaine-negative urinalysis results (THM + V). Cocaine use was assessed by urinalysis on a thrice-weekly schedule. Frequency and enjoyability of non-drug-related activities were assessed with the Pleasant Events Schedule (PES) at baseline, midtreatment, and end of treatment. The THM + V condition achieved the greatest abstinence from cocaine and opiate use, followed by the THM and UC conditions. The THM + V condition had the highest PES frequency ratings at midtreatment and at the end of treatment, followed by the THM and UC conditions. There were significant differences between the THM + V and UC conditions on 10 of 12 PES-derived subscales. Analyses revealed that abstinence mediated the effects of treatment condition on frequency ratings. There were no significant differences in enjoyability ratings. These results suggest that when contingency-management interventions increase abstinence from drug abuse, they also increase engagement in non-drug-related activities in naturalistic settings.

  7. Psychosocial stress enhances non-drug-related positive memory retrieval in male abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Lu, Lin

    2010-11-12

    Stress exposure in addicted individuals is known to provoke drug craving, presumably through a memory-like process, but less is known about the effects of stress on non-drug-related affective memory retrieval per se in such individuals, which is likely to provide important insights into therapy for relapse. In present study, we explored the effect of stress on retrieval of neutral and emotionally valenced (positive and negative) words in abstinent heroin addicts. In present study, 28 male inpatient abstinent heroin addicts and 20 sex-, age-, education- and economic status-matched healthy control participants were assessed for 24h delayed recall of valenced and neutral word lists on two occasions 4 weeks apart-once in a nonstress control condition, once after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test in a counterbalanced design. In addition, attention, working memory, blood pressure, heart rate and salivary cortisol were assessed. We found acute stress at the time of word list recall enhanced retrieval of positively valenced words, but no effect on negative and neutral word retrieval in abstinent heroin addicts was observed. No changes were detected for attention and working memory. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol, blood pressure and heart rate. Stress can enhance non-drug-related positive memory in abstinent heroin addicts. Our findings will provide richer information in understanding dysregulation of their emotional memory processing under stress and hopefully provide insight into designing improved treatments for drug addiction.

  8. Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) induced by telmisartan-hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Olga; Mota, Alberto; Morais, Paulo; Cunha, Ana Paula; Azevedo, Filomena

    2010-12-01

    Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) is a drug-related eruption that characteristically involves the intertriginous or flexural folds and gluteal areas. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with the presence of a sharply demarcated erythema of the inferior cervical folds, axillae, and gluteal area that started 4 days after the introduction of telmisartan-hydrochlorothiazide administration to treat hypertension. Skin biopsy revealed a dense perivascular and periadnexal lymphohistiocytic infiltrate in the superficial dermis, with some eosinophils and mast cells. A cutaneous drug adverse reaction was suspected, administration of telmisartan-hydrochlorothiazide was suspended, and medium-potency topical corticosteroids were prescribed, with subsequent significant improvement of the lesions. Eight months later, epicutaneous patch tests were performed in previously lesional and nonlesional skin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of SDRIFE related to telmisartan-hydrochlorothiazide and illustrates an uncommon presentation of a skin-related drug reaction to an antihypertensive medication and the role of the dermatologist in diagnosis and management, in particular in follow-up of the patient.

  9. Image Ellipticity from Atmospheric Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W H; Olivier, S S; Asztalos, S J; Rosenberg, L J; Baker, K L

    2007-03-06

    We investigate the ellipticity of the point-spread function (PSF) produced by imaging an unresolved source with a telescope, subject to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. It is important to quantify these effects in order to understand the errors in shape measurements of astronomical objects, such as those used to study weak gravitational lensing of field galaxies. The PSF modeling involves either a Fourier transform of the phase information in the pupil plane or a ray-tracing approach, which has the advantage of requiring fewer computations than the Fourier transform. Using a standard method, involving the Gaussian weighted second moments of intensity, we then calculate the ellipticity of the PSF patterns. We find significant ellipticity for the instantaneous patterns (up to more than 10%). Longer exposures, which we approximate by combining multiple (N) images from uncorrelated atmospheric realizations, yield progressively lower ellipticity (as 1/{radical}N). We also verify that the measured ellipticity does not depend on the sampling interval in the pupil plane using the Fourier method. However, we find that the results using the ray-tracing technique do depend on the pupil sampling interval, representing a gradual breakdown of the geometric approximation at high spatial frequencies. Therefore, ray tracing is generally not an accurate method of modeling PSF ellipticity induced by atmospheric turbulence unless some additional procedure is implemented to correctly account for the effects of high spatial frequency aberrations. The Fourier method, however, can be used directly to accurately model PSF ellipticity, which can give insights into errors in the statistics of field galaxy shapes used in studies of weak gravitational lensing.

  10. Sensing Phase Aberrations behind Lyot Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Direct detection of young extrasolar planets orbiting nearby stars can be accomplished from the ground with extreme adaptive optics and coronagraphy in the near-infrared, as long as this combination can provide an image with a dynamic range of 107 after the data are processed. Slowly varying speckles due to residual phase aberrations that are not measured by the primary wave-front sensor are the primary obstacle to achieving such a dynamic range. In particular, non-common optical path aberrations occurring between the wave-front sensor and the coronagraphic occulting spot degrade performance the most. We analyze the passage of both low and high spatial frequency phase ripples, as well as low-order Zernike aberrations, through an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph in order to demonstrate the way coronagraphic filtering affects various aberrations. We derive the coronagraphically induced cutoff frequency of the filtering and estimate coronagraphic contrast losses due to low-order Zernike aberrations: tilt, astigmatism, defocus, coma, and spherical aberration. Such slowly varying path errors can be measured behind a coronagraph and corrected by a slowly updated optical path delay precompensation or offset asserted on the wave front by the adaptive optics (AO) system. We suggest ways of measuring and correcting all but the lowest spatial frequency aberrations using Lyot plane wave-front data, in spite of the complex interaction between the coronagraph and those mid-spatial frequency aberrations that cause image plane speckles near the coronagraphic focal plane mask occulter's edge. This investigation provides guidance for next-generation coronagraphic instruments currently under construction.

  11. Prediction of Visual Acuity from Wavefront Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for generating a visual acuity metric, based on wavefront aberrations (WFAs), associated with a test subject and representing classes of imperfections, such as defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberrations, of the subject's visual system. The metric allows choices of different image template, can predict acuity for different target probabilities, can incorporate different and possibly subject-specific neural transfer functions, can predict acuity for different subject templates, and incorporates a model of the optotype identification task.

  12. Chromosome aberrations in decondensed sperm DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Factors that could influence the chromosomal aberration frequency observed at first cleavage following in vivo exposure of germ cells to chemical mutagens are discussed. The techniques of chromosome aberration analysis following sperm DNA condensation by in vitro fertilization or fusion seem to be viable research areas for providing information of human germ cell exposures. However, the potential sensitivity of the assay needs to be better understood, and factors that can influence this sensitivity require a great deal of further study using animal models.

  13. Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huanqing; Wang, Zhaoqi; Zhao, Qiuling; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yan

    2005-03-01

    Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore, the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There are four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high-order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software-ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

  14. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian

    2015-11-30

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separator to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were folded

  15. Focusing Diffraction Grating Element with Aberration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.; Greiner, Christoph M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are optical components with regular patterns of grooves, which angularly disperse incoming light by wavelength in a single plane, called dispersion plane. Traditional gratings on flat substrates do not perform wavefront transformation in the plane perpendicular to the dispersion plane. The device proposed here exhibits regular diffraction grating behavior, dispersing light. In addition, it performs wavelength transformation (focusing or defocusing) of diffracted light in a direction perpendicular to the dispersion plane (called sagittal plane). The device is composed of a diffraction grating with the grooves in the form of equidistant arcs. It may be formed by defining a single arc or an arc approximation, then translating it along a certain direction by a distance equal to a multiple of a fixed distance ("grating period") to obtain other groove positions. Such groove layout is nearly impossible to obtain using traditional ruling methods, such as mechanical ruling or holographic scribing, but is trivial for lithographically scribed gratings. Lithographic scribing is the newly developed method first commercially introduced by LightSmyth Technologies, which produces gratings with the highest performance and arbitrary groove shape/spacing for advanced aberration control. Unlike other types of focusing gratings, the grating is formed on a flat substrate. In a plane perpendicular to the substrate and parallel to the translation direction, the period of the grating and, therefore, the projection of its k-vector onto the plane is the same for any location on the grating surface. In that plane, no waveform transformation by the grating k-vector occurs, except of simple redirection.

  16. The effects of cocaine and heroin price on drug-related emergency department visits.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval

    2006-03-01

    This paper estimates the empirical relationship between cocaine and heroin prices and drug-related hospital ED admissions for 21 U.S. cities. These outcomes bypass some of the problems with self-reports and directly measure a component of healthcare costs associated with heavy drug usage. The price elasticity of the probability of a cocaine and heroin episode is estimated at -0.27 and -0.10, respectively. A 10% increase in prices can prevent 10,723 cocaine and heroin-related ED visits, with cost savings between 21 million dollars and 47 million dollars. These low magnitudes of the drug outcome-price response have implications for the cost-effectiveness of enforcement-driven price increases.

  17. Drug-related problems in patients with erectile dysfunctions and multiple comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ling, Chui Fang; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted in a tertiary medical center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 200 erectile dysfunction (ED) patients with 499 cases who had received pharmacological treatments for their ED participated in this study. Types, causes and factors associated with drug-related problems (DRPs) in ED patients with multiple comorbidities were assessed. A total of 244 DRPs with an average of 1.2±2.1 DRPs per patient were identified. Drug interaction contributed the most to DRPs occurrence. There was a significant higher risk of DRPs in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract infection and elderly and end-stage renal disease. Early identification of types of DRPs and factors associated may enhance their prevention and management.

  18. Abstinence reverses EEG-indexed attention bias between drug-related and pleasant stimuli in cocaine-addicted individuals

    PubMed Central

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Moeller, Scott J.; Malaker, Pias; Sinha, Rajita; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2017-01-01

    Background Increased attention bias toward drug-related cues over non–drug-related intrinsically pleasant reinforcers is a hallmark of drug addiction. In this study we used the late positive potential (LPP) to investigate whether such increased attention bias toward drug-related relative to non–drug-related cues changes over a protracted period of reduced drug use in treatment-seeking individuals with a cocaine use disorder (CUD). Methods Treatment-seeking individuals with CUD and matched healthy controls passively viewed a series of pleasant, neutral and drug-related pictures while their event-related potentials were recorded at baseline (≤ 3 weeks after treatment initiation) and at 6-month follow-up (only CUD). Results We included 19 treatment-seeking individuals with CUD and 18 matched controls in our analyses. The results showed a reversal in attention bias (i.e., LPP amplitude) from baseline (i.e., drug > pleasant) to follow-up (i.e., pleasant > drug) driven by an increased attentional engagement with pleasant pictures; this LPP reversal was paralleled by a concomitant reduction in self-reported wanting and craving for cocaine in the CUD group. Furthermore, reduced attention bias toward drug-related cues (relative to pleasant cues) was correlated with longer duration of abstinence at baseline, and the extent of its longitudinal reversal was correlated with decreased craving at follow-up, providing support for abstinence as a putative mechanism of this bottom–up attentional change. Limitations A limited sample size and the use of the same set of pictures at baseline and follow-up were the major limitations of this study. Conclusion Results collectively indicate that, by tracking with drug abstinence, LPP in response to drug-related relative to pleasant cues may serve as an indicator of clinical progress in treatment-seeking individuals with CUD. PMID:28245173

  19. Transitionality in addiction: A "temporal continuum" hypotheses involving the aberrant motivation, the hedonic dysregulation, and the aberrant learning.

    PubMed

    Patrono, Enrico; Gasbarri, Antonella; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a chronic compulsion and relapsing disorder. It involves several brain areas and circuits, which encode vary functions such as reward, motivation, and memory. Drug addiction is defined as a "pathological pattern of use of a substance", characterized by the loss of control on drug-taking-related behaviors, the pursuance of those behaviors even in the presence of negative consequences, and a strong motivated activity to assume substances. Three different theories guide experimental research on drug addiction. Each of these theories consider singles features, such as an aberrant motivation, a hedonic dysregulation, and an aberrant habit learning as the main actor to explain the entire process of the addictive behaviors. The major goal of this study is to present a new hypotheses of transitionality from a controlled use to abuse of addictive substances trough the overview of the three different theories, considering all the single features of each single theory together on the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances. Recently, it has been suggested that common neural systems may be activated by natural and pharmacological stimuli, raising the hypotheses that binge-eating disorders could be considered as addictive behaviors. The second goal of this study is to present evidences in order to highlight a possible psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction". Finally, interesting questions are brought up starting from last findings about a theoretical/psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction" and their possibly same transitionality along the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances in order to investigate new therapeutic strategies based on new therapeutic strategies based on the individual moments characterizing the transition from the voluntary intake of substances to the maladaptive addictive behavior.

  20. Supplementary motor area (SMA) volume is associated with psychotic aberrant motor behaviour of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stegmayer, Katharina; Horn, Helge; Federspiel, Andrea; Razavi, Nadja; Bracht, Tobias; Laimböck, Karin; Strik, Werner; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Müller, Thomas J; Walther, Sebastian

    2014-07-30

    We aimed to investigate whether aberrant motor behavior in schizophrenia was associated with structural alterations in the motor system. Whole brain voxel based morphometry of patients with different severity of motor symptoms identified altered gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA), a key region of the motor system.

  1. Aberration Compensation Using Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somalingam, S.; Hain, M.; Tschudi, T.; Knittel, J.; Richter, H.

    We have developed a novel transmissive nematic liquid crystal device which is capable of compensating spherical wavefront aberration that occurs during the operation of optical pickup systems. In order to increase the storage capacity, next generation optical data storage systems beyond CD and DVD will use according to the Blu-Ray specification (BD) blue laser light and an objective lens with high numerical aperture (N.A.) of 0.85. However, such high N.A. systems have an inherent higher sensitivity on aberrations. For example spherical aberration is inversely proportional to the wavelength and grows with the fourth power of N.A. of the objective lens. In an optical pickup system there are two sources for spherical aberration: The first one is the variation of the substrate thickness due to manufacturing tolerances under mass production conditions. The second one concerns disks with multiple data-layers, which cause spherical aberration when layers are switched, as the objective lens can only be optimized for a single layer thickness. We report a method for effective compensation of spherical aberration by utilizing a novel liquid crystal device, which generates a parabolic wavefront profile. This particular shape makes the device highly tolerant against lateral movement. A sophisticated electrode design allows us to reduce the number of driving electrodes down to two by using the method of conductive ladder mashing. Further evaluation in a blue-DVD test drive has been carried out with good results. By placing the device into an optical pick-up we were able to readout a dual-layer ROM disk with a total capacity of 50 gigabytes (GB). A data-to-clock jitter of 6.9% for the 80 μm and of 8.0% for the 100 μm cover layer could be realized.

  2. Aberration corrected Lorentz scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    McVitie, S; McGrouther, D; McFadzean, S; MacLaren, D A; O'Shea, K J; Benitez, M J

    2015-05-01

    We present results from an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope which has been customised for high resolution quantitative Lorentz microscopy with the sample located in a magnetic field free or low field environment. We discuss the innovations in microscope instrumentation and additional hardware that underpin the imaging improvements in resolution and detection with a focus on developments in differential phase contrast microscopy. Examples from materials possessing nanometre scale variations in magnetisation illustrate the potential for aberration corrected Lorentz imaging as a tool to further our understanding of magnetism on this lengthscale.

  3. Chromosome aberration test for hydroxyapatite in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kannan, T P; Nik Ahmad Shah, N L; Azlina, A; Samsudin, A R; Narazah, M Y; Salleh, Ma'arof

    2004-05-01

    The present study is aimed at finding the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of dense form of synthetic hydroxyapatite (Source: School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the blood of sheep. The biomaterial was implanted in the tibia of Malin, an indigenous sheep breed of Malaysia. Blood was collected from the sheep before implantation of the biomaterial, cultured and a karyological study was made. Six weeks after implantation, blood was collected from the same animal, cultured and screened for chromosome aberrations. The mitotic indices and karyological analysis indicated that the implantation of synthetic hydroxyapatite (dense form) did not produce any cytotoxicity or chromosome aberrations in the blood of sheep.

  4. Misalignment induced aberration off-axis optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhihai; Fan, Xuewu; Ma, Zhen; Zou, Gangyi

    2016-10-01

    Through introducing transformed pupil vector and shifted center of aberration fields vector into the nodal aberration expansions of an axially symmetric optical system, the aberration expression in third order of an off-axis optical system and misaligned off-axis optical system are detailed. Nodal aberration characteristics of misaligned off-axis optical system are revealed only by analyzing the pupil decentration vector, aberration fields shifted vector and the aberration coefficients of the axially symmetric optical system. Actually, it is well demonstrated that the 3rd spherical aberration, 3rd coma, 3rd astigmatism in a misalignment off-axis system are comparable to the aberrations in a misalignment axially symmetric system. Otherwise it will not only induced constant 3rd spherical aberration but also constant 3rd coma and 3rd astigmatism over the field of view, when aligned an off-axis optical system elements with error axial spacing.

  5. First case of symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (sdrife) due to rivastigmine?

    PubMed

    Allain-Veyrac, Gwenaëlle; Lebreton, Anne; Collonnier, Catherine; Jolliet, Pascale

    2011-06-01

    The term 'baboon syndrome' was introduced in 1984 to describe a special form of systemic, contact-type dermatitis that occurs after ingestion or systemic absorption of a contact allergen in individuals previously sensitized by topical exposure to the same allergen in the same areas. Its clinical picture presents as an erythema of the buttocks and upper inner thighs resembling the red bottom of baboons. This reaction was originally observed with mercury, nickel, and ampicillin. In 2004, some authors proposed the acronym SDRIFE standing for 'symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema' specifically for cases elicited by systemically administered drugs. Since 1984, about 100 cases have been reported in the literature; for most of the concerned drugs, previous skin sensitization or possible cross-sensitization has not been shown. We report the first case of SDRIFE due to rivastigmine, with the exception of an erythematous maculopapular eruption due to rivastigmine that was previously reported. Rivastigmine is a reversible and noncompetitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. SDRIFE is an important condition to keep in mind in order to avoid a misdiagnosis when dealing with other exanthematous disorders and to prevent re-exposure to the responsible allergen in the future.

  6. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: drug-related law enforcement and access to syringe exchange programmes.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C; Friedman, Samuel R

    2009-05-01

    The concept of the "risk environment"--defined as the "space ... [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission"--draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City [NYC]). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures--grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies--can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors' health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors.

  7. Aberrations of diffracted wave fields. II. Diffraction gratings.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, V N

    2000-12-01

    The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld theory is applied to diffraction of a spherical wave by a grating. The grating equation is obtained from the aberration-free diffraction pattern, and its aberrations are shown to be the same as the conventional aberrations obtained by using Fermat's principle. These aberrations are shown to be not associated with the diffraction process. Moreover, it is shown that the irradiance distribution of a certain diffraction order is the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of the grating aperture as a whole aberrated by the aberration of that order.

  8. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es

    2013-04-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles a{sub lm}'s via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation.

  9. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  10. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  11. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu

    2012-08-01

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over Galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, resulting in Galactic Hemisphere Annual Modulations (GHAM) with amplitudes larger than the usual non-directional annual modulation.

  12. The Extent of Mismeasurement for Aberrant Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petridou, Alexandra; Williams, Julian

    2010-01-01

    The person-fit literature assumes that aberrant response patterns could be a sign of person mismeasurement, but this assumption has rarely, if ever, been empirically investigated before. We explore the validity of test responses and measures of 10-year-old examinees whose response patterns on a commercial standardized paper-and-pencil mathematics…

  13. Assessing the construct validity of aberrant salience.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kristin; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT). The "aberrant salience" measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance (LIrr), attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a LIrr task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for approximately 75% of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated "Introvertive Anhedonia" schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. LIrr loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of LIrr and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.

  14. Drug-related problems in medical wards of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Mohammed Biset; Megersa, Teshome Nedi; Mengistu, Yewondwossen Taddese

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of drug-related problems (DRPs), identify the most common drugs, and drug classes involved in DRPs as well as associated factors with the occurrence of DRPs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 225 patients admitted to medical wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa from March to June 2014. Data regarding patient characteristics, medications, diagnosis, length of hospitalization, investigation, and laboratory results were collected using data abstraction forms through review of patients’ medical card and medication charts. Identified DRPs were recorded and classified using DRP registration forms. The possible intervention measures for the identified DRPs were proposed and communicated to either the physician or the patient. Data were entered into Epi Info 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 21 (IBM Corp. Released 2012, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Findings: DRPs were found in 52% of study subjects. A drug-drug interaction (48% of all DRPs) was the most common DRP followed by adverse drug reaction (23%). Anti-infectives and gastrointestinal medicines were commonly involved in DRPs. Drugs with the highest drug risk ratio were gentamycin, warfarin, nifedipine, and cimetidine. The number of drugs taken by the patient per day is an important risk factor for DRPs. Conclusion: DRPs are common among medical ward patients. Polypharmacy has a significant association with the occurrence of DRP. Drugs such as gentamycin, warfarin, nifedipine, and cimetidine have the highest probability of causing DRP. So, patients who are taking either of these drugs or polypharmacy should be closely assessed for identification and timely correction of DRPs. PMID:26645029

  15. Online illegal drug use information: an exploratory analysis of drug-related website viewing by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Dugosh, Karen L; Lynch, Kevin; Mericle, Amy A; Pich, Michele; Forman, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Given the uncertain effects of antidrug media campaigns, and the ease of finding online illegal drug information, research is needed on the Internet role in disseminating drug information to youths. This exploratory study analyzes National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) data on drug website viewing among 12-18 year olds (N = 7,145). Approximately 10.4% reported drug-related website exposure: 5.4% viewed only websites that communicated how to avoid drugs or bad things about drugs (antidrug websites); 1.7% only viewed websites that communicated how to use drugs and good things about drugs (prodrug websites); and 3.2% viewed both types of websites. The low rates of viewing antidrug websites occurred despite efforts in the National Youth Antidrug Media Campaign (NYAMC) to encourage youths to visit such websites. Prodrug website viewers had used inhalants and been offered marijuana, perceived little risk in trying marijuana, intended to use marijuana, had close friends who used drugs, reported low parental monitoring, and had been exposed to antidrug media messages. Viewing antidrug websites was related to gender, income, likelihood of using marijuana in the next 12 months, having close friends who use drugs and talking to friends about avoiding drugs, parental monitoring, and drug prevention exposure. Prior prevention exposure increased drug website viewing overall, perhaps by increasing general curiosity about drugs. Because adolescents increasingly seek health information online, research is needed on how they use the Internet as a drug information source, the temporal relationships of prevention exposure and drug website viewing, and the effects of viewing prodrug websites on drug risk.

  16. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  17. Computation of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments for two-mirror telescopes using nodal-aberration theory.

    PubMed

    Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang; Gu, Zhiyuan; Ma, Hongcai

    2016-05-01

    In active optics systems, one concern is how to quantitatively separate the effects of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments that couple together in determining the total aberration fields when wavefront measurements are available at only a few field points. In this paper, we first quantitatively describe the impact of mount-induced trefoil deformation on the net aberration fields by proposing a modified theoretical formulation for the field-dependent aberration behavior of freeform surfaces based on the framework of nodal aberration theory. This formulation explicitly expresses the quantitative relationships between the magnitude of freeform surfaces and the induced aberration components where the freeform surfaces can be located away from the aperture stop and decentered from the optical axis. On this basis, and in combination with the mathematical presentation of nodal aberration theory for the effects of misalignments, we present the analytic expressions for the aberration fields of two-mirror telescopes in the presence of astigmatic primary mirror figure errors, mount-induced trefoil deformations on both mirrors, and misalignments. We quantitatively separate these effects using the analytical expressions with wavefront measurements at a few field points and pointing errors. Valuable insights are provided on how to separate these coupled effects in the computation process. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to demonstrate the correctness and accuracy of the analytic method presented in this paper.

  18. Linezolid plasma concentrations and occurrence of drug-related haematological toxicity in patients with gram-positive infections.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Dario; Orlando, Giovanna; Cozzi, Valeria; Cordier, Laura; Baldelli, Sara; Merli, Stefania; Fucile, Serena; Gulisano, Cecilia; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Clementi, Emilio

    2013-06-01

    Retrospective studies have documented a significant association between linezolid (LNZ) plasma concentrations and drug-related haematological toxicity. However, the safe upper threshold level for LNZ plasma trough concentrations (Cmin values) has not been defined with certainty. A prospective observational study was performed aimed at comparing LNZ Cmin values in patients developing drug-related side effects with those measured in patients not experiencing LNZ toxicity. LNZ Cmin values were measured from the first week after starting therapy and were repeated periodically up to the end of treatment. Fifty patients, for a total of 210 LNZ Cmin evaluations, were considered. All patients (n=9) who developed drug-related haematological toxicity also had significantly higher plasma LNZ Cmin values during the first week of therapy (9.0±6.4 mg/L vs. 4.9±3.7 mg/L; P<0.01) and thereafter (9.3±5.4 mg/L vs. 4.4±3.4 mg/L; P<0.01). The significant association between LNZ plasma concentrations and haematological toxicity was also confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis including age, serum creatinine and concomitant medications as independent variables. A causal relationship between LNZ concentrations and the risk of developing drug-related haematological toxicity was observed. Accordingly, application of therapeutic drug monitoring may improve the safety outcome of patients receiving LNZ therapy.

  19. 77 FR 12997 - Drug and Drug-Related Supply Promotion by Pharmaceutical Company Representatives at VA Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 1 RIN 2900-AN42 Drug and Drug-Related Supply Promotion by Pharmaceutical Company... disruption in the patient care environment, manage activities and promotions at VA facilities, and provide..., VA must continue to maintain strict adherence to its criteria-for-use and prevent undesired...

  20. Implicit and Explicit Drug-Related Cognitions during Detoxification Treatment Are Associated with Drug Relapse: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marhe, Reshmi; Waters, Andrew J.; van de Wetering, Ben J. M.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relapse is a major problem in drug addiction treatment. Both drug craving and drug-related cognitions (e.g., attentional bias and implicit attitudes to drugs) may contribute to relapse. Using ecological momentary assessments, we examined whether craving and cognitions assessed during drug detoxification treatment were associated with…

  1. Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

    2008-04-01

    The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative electron

  2. Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated.

    PubMed

    Gambra, Enrique; Sawides, Lucie; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Marcos, Susana

    2009-06-09

    We evaluated the accommodative response to a stimulus moving from 0 to 6 D following a staircase function under natural, corrected, and induced optical aberrations, using an adaptive-optics (AO) electromagnetic deformable mirror. The accommodative response of the eye (through the mirror) and the change of aberrations were measured on 5 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor operating at 12.8 Hz. Five conditions were tested: (1) natural aberrations, (2) AO correction of the unaccommodated state and induction (over 6-mm pupils) of (3) +1 microm and (4) -1 microm of spherical aberration and (5) -2 microm of vertical coma. Four subjects showed a better accommodative response with AO correction than with their natural aberrations. The induction of negative spherical aberration also produced a better accommodative response in the same subjects. Accommodative lag increased in all subjects when positive spherical aberration and coma were induced. Fluctuations of the accommodative response (computed during each 1-D period of steady accommodation) increased with accommodative response when high-order aberrations were induced. The largest fluctuations occurred for induced negative spherical aberration and the smallest for natural and corrected aberrations. The study demonstrates that aberrations influence accommodative lag and fluctuations of accommodation and that correcting aberrations improves rather than compromises the accommodative response.

  3. Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality.

    PubMed

    McLellan, J S; Prieto, P M; Marcos, S; Burns, S A

    2006-09-01

    Wave aberrations degrade the optical quality of the eye relative to the diffraction limit, but there are situations in which having slightly aberrated optics can provide some relative visual benefits. This fact led us to consider whether interactions among aberrations in the eye's wavefront produce an advantage for image quality relative to wavefronts with randomized combinations of aberrations with the same total RMS error. Total ocular wave aberrations from two experimental groups and corneal wave aberrations from one group were measured and expressed as Zernike polynomial expansions through the seventh-order. In a series of Monte Carlo simulations, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) for the measured wave aberrations were compared to distributions of artificial MTFs for wavefronts created by randomizing the sign or orientation of the aberrations, while maintaining the RMS error within each Zernike order. In a control condition, "synthetic" model eyes were produced by choosing each individual aberration term at random from individuals in the experimental group, and again MTFs were compared for original and randomized signs. Results were summarized by the MTF ratio: real MTF/mean simulated MTF, as a function of spatial frequency. For a 6mm pupil, the mean MTF ratio for total ocular aberrations was greater than 1.0 up to 60 cycles per degree, suggesting that the eye's aberrations are not independent and that there may be a positive functional consequences to their interrelations. This positive relation did not hold for corneal aberrations alone, or for the synthetic eyes.

  4. Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Aberrant Prescription Opioid Use

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Robert N.; Butler, Stephen F.; Budman, Simon H.; Edwards, Robert R.; Wasan, Ajay D.

    2009-01-01

    This is a longitudinal predictive study to examine gender differences in the clinical correlates of risk for opioid misuse among chronic pain patients prescribed opioids for pain. Two hundred seventy five male and 335 female patients prescribed opioids for chronic noncancer pain were asked to complete a series of baseline questionnaires, including the revised Screener and Opioid Assessment for Pain Patients (SOAPP-R). After five months the subjects were administered a structured prescription drug use interview (Prescription Drug Use Questionnaire; PDUQ), and submitted a urine sample for toxicology assessment. Their treating physicians also completed a substance misuse behavior checklist (Prescription Opioid Therapy Questionnaire; POTQ). At 5-month follow-up, women showed higher scores on the PDUQ (p<0.05), while men had a higher incidence of physician-rated aberrant drug behavior on the POTQ (p<0.05). An item analysis of the SOAPP-R, PDUQ and POTQ showed that women tended to score higher on items relating to psychological distress, while the male patients tended to report having more legal and behavioral problems. These results suggest that risk factors associated with prescription opioid misuse may differ between men and women. Perspective Understanding gender differences in substance abuse risk among chronic pain patients is important for clinical assessment and treatment. This study suggests that women are at greater risk to misuse opioids due to emotional issues and affective distress, while men tend to misuse opioids due to legal and problematic behavioral issues. PMID:19944648

  5. Harm reduction and knowledge exchange—a qualitative analysis of drug-related Internet discussion forums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    cumulative amount of knowledge about NPS and how to use them safely. Although this publicly available knowledge could entail an increase in drug use, the main characteristics of the discussions in general were a concern for safety and harm reduction, not for recruiting new users. Drug-related Internet forums could be used as a location for drug prevention, as well as a source of information for further research about NPS. PMID:25200686

  6. Recent partner violence and sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk among adolescent and young adult women attending family planning clinics

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072

  7. Mutational consequences of aberrant ion channels in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Ambasta, Rashmi K; Kumar, Pravir

    2014-11-01

    Neurological channelopathies are attributed to aberrant ion channels affecting CNS, PNS, cardiac, and skeletal muscles. To maintain the homeostasis of excitable tissues, functional ion channels are necessary to rely electrical signals, whereas any malfunctioning serves as an intrinsic factor to develop neurological channelopathies. Molecular basis of these disease is studied based on genetic and biophysical approaches, e.g., loci positional cloning, whereas pathogenesis and bio-behavioral analysis revealed the dependency on genetic mutations and inter-current triggering factors. Although electrophysiological studies revealed the possible mechanisms of diseases, analytical study of ion channels remained unsettled and therefore underlying mechanism in channelopathies is necessary for better clinical application. Herein, we demonstrated (i) structural and functional role of various ion channels (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+),Cl(-)), (ii) pathophysiology involved in the onset of their associated channelopathies, and (iii) comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis of diversified sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ion channel subtypes.

  8. [A rare observation of intralaryngeal aberrant goiter].

    PubMed

    Gadzhimirzaev, G A; Shakhnazarov, A M; Gadzhimirzaeva, R G

    This paper was designed to report a rare observation of intralaryngeal aberrant goiter associated with goiter of the main thyroid tissue and chronic suppurative otitis media complicated by the polyp that causes occlusion of the auditory passage. The histomorphological investigation of the material harvested intraoperatively following rehabilitation of the purulent focus in the middle ear and the removal of the tumour from the inside of the right vestibular fold confirmed the diagnosis of colloid goiter.

  9. The aberrant retroesophageal right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Seres-Sturm, M; Maros, T N; Seres-Sturm, L

    1985-01-01

    Two cases with arteria lusoria were found at 278 routine dissections. These arteria arise as the last branches of the aortic arch and have a retroesophageal position. At the crossing point, the esophagus narrows due to the groove caused by the artery. The appearance of this malposition is the consequence of the perturbation in the organo-genesis of the right dorsal aorta and fourth branchial artery. The aberration can lead to disphagia lusoria.

  10. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors. PMID:22570777

  11. Testing for Aberrant Behavior in Response Time Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marianti, Sukaesi; Fox, Jean-Paul; Avetisyan, Marianna; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Tijmstra, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Many standardized tests are now administered via computer rather than paper-and-pencil format. In a computer-based testing environment, it is possible to record not only the test taker's response to each question (item) but also the amount of time spent by the test taker in considering and answering each item. Response times (RTs) provide…

  12. All-cause, drug-related, and HIV-related mortality risk by trajectories of jail incarceration and homelessness among adults in New York City.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Harris, Tiffany G; Nash, Denis; Lennon, Mary Clare; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2015-02-15

    We studied a cohort of 15,620 adults who had experienced at least 1 jail incarceration and 1 homeless shelter stay in 2001-2003 in New York City to identify trajectories of these events and tested whether a particular trajectory was associated with all-cause, drug-related, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related mortality risk in 2004-2005. Using matched data on jail time, homeless shelter stays, and vital statistics, we performed sequence analysis and assessed mortality risk using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and marginal structural modeling. We identified 6 trajectories. Sixty percent of the cohort members had a temporary pattern, which was characterized by sporadic experiences of brief incarceration and homelessness, whereas the rest had the other 5 patterns, which reflected experiences of increasing, decreasing, or persistent jail or shelter stays. Mortality risk among individuals with a temporary pattern was significantly higher than those of adults who had not been incarcerated or stayed in a homeless shelter during the study period (all-cause SMR: 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.59; drug-related SMR: 4.60, 95% CI: 3.17, 6.46; HIV-related SMR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.21); all-cause and HIV-related SMRs in other patterns were not statistically significantly different. When we compared all 6 trajectories, the temporary pattern was more strongly associated with higher mortality risk than was the continuously homelessness pattern. Institutional interventions to reduce recurrent cycles of incarceration and homelessness are needed to augment behavioral interventions to reduce mortality risk.

  13. [Familial, structural aberration of the Y chromosome with fertility disorders].

    PubMed

    Gall, H; Schmid, M; Schmidtke, J; Schempp, W; Weber, L

    1985-11-01

    Cytogenetic studies on a patient with Klinefelter's syndrome revealed an inherited, structural aberration of the Y-chromosome which has not been described before. The aberrant Y-chromosome was characterized by eight different banding methods. The value of individual staining techniques in studies on Y-heterochromatin aberrations is emphasized. Analysis of the cytogenetic studies (banding methods, restriction endonuclease of DNA, and measurement of the length of the Y-chromosome) permits an interpretation to be made on how the aberrant Y-chromosome originated. The functions of the Y-chromosome are discussed. The decrease in fertility (cryptozoospermia) in the two brothers with the same aberrant Y-chromosome was striking.

  14. Labelled drug-related public expenditure in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) in Europe: a luxury good?

    PubMed

    Prieto, Luis

    2010-05-17

    "Labelled drug-related public expenditure" is the direct expenditure explicitly labelled as related to illicit drugs by the general government of the state. As part of the reporting exercise corresponding to 2005, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction's network of national focal points set up in the 27 European Union (EU) Member States, Norway, and the candidates countries to the EU, were requested to identify labelled drug-related public expenditure, at the country level. This was reported by 10 countries categorised according to the functions of government, amounting to a total of EUR 2.17 billion. Overall, the highest proportion of this total came within the government functions of Health (66%), and Public Order and Safety (POS) (20%). By country, the average share of GDP was 0.023% for Health, and 0.013% for POS. However, these shares varied considerably across countries, ranging from 0.00033% in Slovakia, up to 0.053% of GDP in Ireland in the case of Health, and from 0.003% in Portugal, to 0.02% in the UK, in the case of POS; almost a 161-fold difference between the highest and the lowest countries for Health, and a 6-fold difference for POS. Why do Ireland and the UK spend so much in Health and POS, or Slovakia and Portugal so little, in GDP terms? To respond to this question and to make a comprehensive assessment of drug-related public expenditure across countries, this study compared Health and POS spending and GDP in the 10 reporting countries. Results found suggest GDP to be a major determinant of the Health and POS drug-related public expenditures of a country. Labelled drug-related public expenditure showed a positive association with the GDP across the countries considered: r = 0.81 in the case of Health, and r = 0.91 for POS. The percentage change in Health and POS expenditures due to a one percent increase in GDP (the income elasticity of demand) was estimated to be 1.78% and 1.23% respectively. Being highly income elastic

  15. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  16. Chromatic variation of aberration: the role of induced aberrations and raytrace direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A.; Nobis, T.; Shafer, D.; Gross, H.

    2015-09-01

    The design and optimization process of an optical system contains several first order steps. The definition of the appropriate lens type and the fixation of the raytrace direction are some of them. The latter can be understood as a hidden assumption rather than an aware design step. This is usually followed by the determination of the paraxial lens layout calculated for the primary wavelength. It is obvious, that for this primary wavelength the paraxial calculations are independent of raytrace direction. Today, most of the lens designs are specified not to work only for one wavelength, but in a certain wavelength range. Considering such rays of other wavelengths, one can observe that depending on the direction there will already occur differences in the first order chromatic aberrations and additionally in the chromatic variation of the third-order aberrations. The reason for this effect are induced aberrations emerging from one surface to the following surfaces by perturbed ray heights and ray angles. It can be shown, that the total amount of surface-resolved first order chromatic aberrations and the chromatic variation of the five primary aberrations can be split into an intrinsic part and an induced part. The intrinsic part is independent of the raytrace direction whereas the induced part is not.

  17. Epidemiology of illicit and abused drugs in the general population, emergency department drug-related episodes, and arrestees.

    PubMed

    Rouse, B A

    1996-08-01

    National trends in substance abuse are presented: the civilian noninstitutionalized general population; drug-related emergency department episodes; and booked arrestees. Major metropolitan differences are also noted. This study was based on the primary national data systems for these groups: The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, SAMHSA's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), and the National Institute of Justice Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) system. While the most prevalent drug differed in the three data sources, all three showed recent increases in marijuana. Despite the general decline in drug use seen in the general population, both the number of drug-related cases in the DAWN system and the drug use detected in the DUF arrestees showed recent increases.

  18. Wavefront aberrations of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams.

    PubMed

    Liao, Keliang; Hong, Youli; Sheng, Weifan

    2014-10-01

    The effects of dynamical diffraction in x-ray diffractive optics with large numerical aperture render the wavefront aberrations difficult to describe using the aberration polynomials, yet knowledge of them plays an important role in a vast variety of scientific problems ranging from optical testing to adaptive optics. Although the diffraction theory of optical aberrations was established decades ago, its application in the area of x-ray dynamical diffraction theory (DDT) is still lacking. Here, we conduct a theoretical study on the aberration properties of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams. By treating the modulus of the complex envelope as the amplitude weight function in the orthogonalization procedure, we generalize the nonrecursive matrix method for the determination of orthonormal aberration polynomials, wherein Zernike DDT and Legendre DDT polynomials are proposed. As an example, we investigate the aberration evolution inside a tilted multilayer Laue lens. The corresponding Legendre DDT polynomials are obtained numerically, which represent balanced aberrations yielding minimum variance of the classical aberrations of an anamorphic optical system. The balancing of classical aberrations and their standard deviations are discussed. We also present the Strehl ratio of the primary and secondary balanced aberrations.

  19. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  20. Peripheral Aberrations and Image Quality for Contact Lens Correction

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Thibos, Larry N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Contact lenses reduced the degree of hyperopic field curvature present in myopic eyes and rigid contact lenses reduced sphero-cylindrical image blur on the peripheral retina, but their effect on higher order aberrations and overall optical quality of the eye in the peripheral visual field is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to evaluate peripheral wavefront aberrations and image quality across the visual field before and after contact lens correction. Methods A commercial Hartmann-Shack aberrometer was used to measure ocular wavefront errors in 5° steps out to 30° of eccentricity along the horizontal meridian in uncorrected eyes and when the same eyes are corrected with soft or rigid contact lenses. Wavefront aberrations and image quality were determined for the full elliptical pupil encountered in off-axis measurements. Results Ocular higher-order aberrations increase away from fovea in the uncorrected eye. Third-order aberrations are larger and increase faster with eccentricity compared to the other higher-order aberrations. Contact lenses increase all higher-order aberrations except 3rd-order Zernike terms. Nevertheless, a net increase in image quality across the horizontal visual field for objects located at the foveal far point is achieved with rigid lenses, whereas soft contact lenses reduce image quality. Conclusions Second order aberrations limit image quality more than higher-order aberrations in the periphery. Although second-order aberrations are reduced by contact lenses, the resulting gain in image quality is partially offset by increased amounts of higher-order aberrations. To fully realize the benefits of correcting higher-order aberrations in the peripheral field requires improved correction of second-order aberrations as well. PMID:21873925

  1. Microcollimated laser diode with low wavefront aberration

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, S.; Sekii, H.; Maeda, T.; Goto, H.; Yamashita, T.; Imanaka, K. )

    1989-11-01

    The authors developed microcollimated laser diode( MCLD) utilizing a 1 mm short focal length, phi, lc 0.5 mm small diameter micro Fresnel lens (MFL) for the first time as the collimating lens. The MCLD is assembled with a 780 nm quantum-well laser diode dice and an MFL in the smallest commercial available laser package. The radiated laser beam form the MCLD has higher than 2mW power at 50 mA driving current, narrow enough as a phi 2 mm beam diameter with nearly Gaussian intensity profile, and low wavefront aberration less than {lambda}14 (rms value) measured at 1 m distance.

  2. Altered Insular Function during Aberrant Salience Processing in Relation to the Severity of Psychotic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Anna; Suenderhauf, Claudia; Smieskova, Renata; Lenz, Claudia; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Schmidt, André; Vogel, Tobias; Lang, Undine E.; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Eckert, Anne; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence for abnormal salience processing in patients with psychotic experiences. In particular, there are indications that the degree of aberrant salience processing increases with the severity of positive symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate this relationship by means of brain imaging. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired to assess hemodynamic responses during the Salience Attribution Test, a paradigm for reaction time that measures aberrant salience to irrelevant stimulus features. We included 42 patients who were diagnosed as having a psychotic disorder and divided them into two groups according to the severity of their positive symptoms. Whole brain analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. We found no significant behavioral differences with respect to task performance. Patients with more positive symptoms showed increased hemodynamic responses in the left insula corresponding to aberrant salience than in patients with less positive symptoms. In addition, left insula activation correlated negatively with cumulative antipsychotic medication. Aberrant salience processing in the insula may be increased in psychosis, depending on the severity of positive symptoms. This study indicates that clinically similar psychosis manifestations share the same functional characteristics. In addition, our results suggest that antipsychotic medication can modulate insular function. PMID:27933003

  3. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  4. Aberrant DNA Methylation and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sunipa; Buckles, Eric; Estrada, John; Koochekpour, Shahriar

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer, a significant contributor to morbidity and a leading cause of cancer-related death in men in Western industrialized countries. In contrast to genetic changes that vary among individual cases, somatic epigenetic alterations are early and highly consistent events. Epigenetics encompasses several different phenomena, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, RNA interference, and genomic imprinting. Epigenetic processes regulate gene expression and can change malignancy-associated phenotypes such as growth, migration, invasion, or angiogenesis. Methylations of certain genes are associated with PCa progression. Compared to normal prostate tissues, several hypermethylated genes have also been identified in benign prostate hyperplasia, which suggests a role for aberrant methylation in this growth dysfunction. Global and gene-specific DNA methylation could be affected by environmental and dietary factors. Among other epigenetic changes, aberrant DNA methylation might have a great potential as diagnostic or prognostic marker for PCa and could be tested in tumor tissues and various body fluids (e.g., serum, urine). The DNA methylation markers are simple in nature, have high sensitivity, and could be detected either quantitatively or qualitatively. Availability of genome-wide screening methodologies also allows the identification of epigenetic signatures in high throughput population studies. Unlike irreversible genetic changes, epigenetic alterations are reversible and could be used for PCa targeted therapies. PMID:22547956

  5. Lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay in radiation biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawala, Paban K.; Adhikari, J. S.; Chaudhury, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations, whether medical, occupational or accidental, leads to deleterious biological consequences like mortality or carcinogenesis. It is considered that no dose of ionizing radiation exposure is safe. However, once the accurate absorbed dose is estimated, one can be given appropriate medical care and the severe consequences can be minimized. Though several accurate physical dose estimation modalities exist, it is essential to estimate the absorbed dose in biological system taking into account the individual variation in radiation response, so as to plan suitable medical care. Over the last several decades, lots of efforts have been taken to design a rapid and easy biological dosimeter requiring minimum invasive procedures. The metaphase chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes, though is labor intensive and requires skilled individuals, still remains the gold standard for radiation biodosimetry. The current review aims at discussing the human lymphocyte metaphase chromosomal aberration assay and recent developments involving the application of molecular cytogenetic approaches and other technological advancements to make the assay more authentic and simple to use even in the events of mass radiation casualties. PMID:21829315

  6. Imaging System Using Shared Optics and Aberration Exploitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-11

    the past it has generally been accepted that the resolution of lenses with geometric aberrations cannot be increased beyond a certain threshold. In...this work we aim to overcome this limitation and demonstrate very high resolution imagery for aberrated lenses through the use of hybrid optical and...of any camera is fundamentally limited by geometric aberrations. In the past it has generally been accepted that the resolution of lenses with

  7. Line of Sight of an Aberrated Optical System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-24

    8217 4. TITLE (and &"do) TYEO’lEOTAeEID)OEE LIME OF SIGHT OF AN ABERRATED _____________ OPTICAL SYTE S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) I...aberration across its interior regardless of Q shape. Next, an optical system with aberrated but uniformly illuminated annular pupil is considered. The...and R a 21! [sn Mwh, Q ; C) +cosO _9W(h,6; C) 1 id ~ 2b111J J (h) sin h h d8, (2b where E -R2W! I(h) hdh de (30) Ca -15- We now expand the aberration

  8. Spherical aberration and diffraction derived via Fourier optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, J.; Peterson, P.

    1984-02-01

    Noting that third-order spherical aberration is usually derived by way of classical geometric wavefront aberration theory, an alternative derivation is demonstrated with Fourier optics. The quadratic phase factor introduced by a lens (Goodman, 1968) is taken as the point of departure. It is shown that by extending this technique, it is possible to pick up the effect of spherical aberration, as manifested in a Fourier-optics-defined structural aberration coefficient. This coefficient is compared with the classical structural coefficient for a planoconvex lens. This difference is also demonstrated through Fresnel propagation. The effects of these differences on diffraction are investigated in the maximum Strehl planes.

  9. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  10. Overlapped Fourier coding for optical aberration removal

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We present an imaging procedure that simultaneously optimizes a camera’s resolution and retrieves a sample’s phase over a sequence of snapshots. The technique, termed overlapped Fourier coding (OFC), first digitally pans a small aperture across a camera’s pupil plane with a spatial light modulator. At each aperture location, a unique image is acquired. The OFC algorithm then fuses these low-resolution images into a full-resolution estimate of the complex optical field incident upon the detector. Simultaneously, the algorithm utilizes redundancies within the acquired dataset to computationally estimate and remove unknown optical aberrations and system misalignments via simulated annealing. The result is an imaging system that can computationally overcome its optical imperfections to offer enhanced resolution, at the expense of taking multiple snapshots over time. PMID:25321982

  11. Structural aberrations in group A Staphylococcus bacteriophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, H W; Berthiaume, L; Sonea, S; Kasatiya, S S

    1976-01-01

    Six related Staphylococcus phages spontaneously produced various abnormal head and tail structures: (i) giant capsids which were tailed and apparently contained nucleic acid; (ii) regular and irregular smooth polyheads; (iii) heads and polyheads with wavy outlines; (iv) mottled heads and polyheads; (v) abnormally long and short tails; and (vi) "double capsids" connected by a small bridge. Some of these structures are rare, or have not yet been reported. The frequency os specific aberrant particles varied from one phage to another. Length distribution of smooth irregular polyheads and of abnormal tails indicated that these structures assemble at random from protein synthesized in excess. These phages represent an interesting model for genetic and morphogentic studies. Images PMID:131865

  12. Patterns of Chromosomal Aberrations in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Grade, Marian; Difilippantonio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a defining feature of solid tumors. Such cytogenetic alterations are mainly classified into structural chromosomal aberrations and copy number alterations, giving rise to aneuploid karyotypes. The increasing detection of these genetic changes allowed the description of specific tumor entities and the associated patterns of gene expression. In fact, tumor-specific landscapes of gross genomic copy number changes, including aneuploidies of entire chromosome arms and chromosomes result in a global deregulation of the transcriptome of cancer cells. Furthermore, the molecular characterization of cytogenetic abnormalities has provided insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and has, in a few instances, led to the clinical implementation of effective diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as treatment strategies that target a specific genetic abnormality. PMID:26376875

  13. Congenital Aberrant Tearing: A Re-Look

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marilyn T.; Strömland, Kerstin; Ventura, Liana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Congenital aberrant tearing is characterized by tearing when eating (“crocodile tears”), lack of emotional tearing, or both. Most reported cases are associated with Duane syndrome. In our previous studies we observed aberrant tearing in individuals with thalidomide embryopathy and Möbius sequence. This report summarizes the literature on the subject and adds 3 new studies that give information on this unusual condition. Methods Twenty-eight individuals with Möbius sequence were interviewed about tearing symptoms at a support group meeting in Italy. In Sweden 30 adults primarily from the original thalidomide series were reexamined. In this latter study, a Schirmer test was done at baseline and repeated 5 minutes after eating. Twenty families in Brazil who have children with Möbius sequence were questioned about tearing symptoms and exposure to misoprostol during pregnancy. Results In the 28 Italian individuals, either “crocodile tears” or lack of emotional tearing was noted in 7 cases. In the thalidomide study, 10 of 30 patients had tearing when eating and 7 had no emotional tearing. Low Schirmer scores or increased tearing after eating was noted in a few asymptomatic individuals. Among the 20 Brazilian children with Möbius sequence, 10 had some tearing abnormality. Conclusion Congenital anomalous lacrimation is rare but usually associated with Duane syndrome or abduction deficits, as in Möbius sequence and, less frequently, facial nerve palsy. Studies implicate an early insult in development at 4 to 6 weeks. At that time the facial nerve, sixth nerve, and lacrimal nucleus are in close proximity in the embryo. PMID:19277226

  14. Magnetically optimized SERS assay for rapid detection of trace drug-related biomarkers in saliva and fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianxi; Guo, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hui; Fu, Shuyue; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-06-15

    New developments in the fields of human healthcare and social security call for the exploration of an easy and on-field method to detect drug-related biomarkers. In this paper, Au nanoparticles dotted magnetic nanocomposites (AMN) modified with inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) were used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to quickly monitor trace drug-related biomarkers in saliva and to on-site screen a trace drug biomarker in fingerprints. Due to inducing with an external magnet, such substrate presented a huge SERS activity, which has met the sensitivity requirement for assay to detect the drug biomarkers in saliva from the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and also the limit of detection for drug biomarker in fingerprint reached 100 nM. In addition, this AMN-based SERS assay was successfully conducted using a portable Raman spectrometer, which could be used to on-site and accurately differentiate between the smokers and drug addicts in near future.

  15. Effect of chromatic aberration on atomic-resolved spherical aberration corrected STEM images.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Koji; Yamazaki, Takashi; Kotaka, Yasutoshi; Ohtsuka, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Iwao; Watanabe, Kazuto

    2009-12-01

    The effect of the chromatic aberration (C(c)) coefficient in a spherical aberration (C(s))- corrected electromagnetic lens on high-resolution high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images is explored in detail. A new method for precise determination of the C(c) coefficient is demonstrated, requiring measurement of an atomic-resolution one-frame through-focal HAADF STEM image. This method is robust with respect to instrumental drift, sample thickness, all lens parameters except C(c), and experimental noise. It is also demonstrated that semi-quantitative structural analysis on the nanometer scale can be achieved by comparing experimental C(s)- corrected HAADF STEM images with their corresponding simulated images when the effects of the C(c) coefficient and spatial incoherence are included.

  16. Beta/Gamma Oscillations and Event-Related Potentials Indicate Aberrant Multisensory Processing in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Balz, Johanna; Roa Romero, Yadira; Keil, Julian; Krebber, Martin; Niedeggen, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Senkowski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested multisensory processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Thus far, the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Previous studies with unisensory stimulation have shown altered neural oscillations in SCZ. As such, altered oscillations could contribute to aberrant multisensory processing in this patient group. To test this assumption, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in 15 SCZ and 15 control participants in whom we examined neural oscillations and event-related potentials (ERPs) in the sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). In the SIFI multiple auditory stimuli that are presented alongside a single visual stimulus can induce the illusory percept of multiple visual stimuli. In SCZ and control participants we compared ERPs and neural oscillations between trials that induced an illusion and trials that did not induce an illusion. On the behavioral level, SCZ (55.7%) and control participants (55.4%) did not significantly differ in illusion rates. The analysis of ERPs revealed diminished amplitudes and altered multisensory processing in SCZ compared to controls around 135 ms after stimulus onset. Moreover, the analysis of neural oscillations revealed altered 25–35 Hz power after 100 to 150 ms over occipital scalp for SCZ compared to controls. Our findings extend previous observations of aberrant neural oscillations in unisensory perception paradigms. They suggest that altered ERPs and altered occipital beta/gamma band power reflect aberrant multisensory processing in SCZ. PMID:27999553

  17. Beta/Gamma Oscillations and Event-Related Potentials Indicate Aberrant Multisensory Processing in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Balz, Johanna; Roa Romero, Yadira; Keil, Julian; Krebber, Martin; Niedeggen, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Senkowski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested multisensory processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Thus far, the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Previous studies with unisensory stimulation have shown altered neural oscillations in SCZ. As such, altered oscillations could contribute to aberrant multisensory processing in this patient group. To test this assumption, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in 15 SCZ and 15 control participants in whom we examined neural oscillations and event-related potentials (ERPs) in the sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). In the SIFI multiple auditory stimuli that are presented alongside a single visual stimulus can induce the illusory percept of multiple visual stimuli. In SCZ and control participants we compared ERPs and neural oscillations between trials that induced an illusion and trials that did not induce an illusion. On the behavioral level, SCZ (55.7%) and control participants (55.4%) did not significantly differ in illusion rates. The analysis of ERPs revealed diminished amplitudes and altered multisensory processing in SCZ compared to controls around 135 ms after stimulus onset. Moreover, the analysis of neural oscillations revealed altered 25-35 Hz power after 100 to 150 ms over occipital scalp for SCZ compared to controls. Our findings extend previous observations of aberrant neural oscillations in unisensory perception paradigms. They suggest that altered ERPs and altered occipital beta/gamma band power reflect aberrant multisensory processing in SCZ.

  18. Modified Matching Ronchi Test to Visualize Lens Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Kh; Ziafi, H. Hooshmand

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work…

  19. Sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, A.V.; Kopf, D.A.

    In an electron beam device in which an electron beam is developed and then focused by a lens to a particular spot, there is provided a means for eliminating spherical aberration. A sextupole electromagnetic lens is positioned between two focusing lenses. The interaction of the sextupole with the beam compensates for spherical aberration. (GHT)

  20. Adaptive aberration correction using a triode hyperbolic electron mirror.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2011-01-01

    A converging electron mirror can be used to compensate spherical and chromatic aberrations in an electron microscope. This paper presents an analytical solution to a novel triode (three electrode) hyperbolic mirror as an improvement to the well-known diode (two electrode) hyperbolic mirror for aberration correction. A weakness of the diode mirror is a lack of flexibility in changing the chromatic and spherical aberration coefficients independently without changes in the mirror geometry. In order to remove this limitation, a third electrode can be added. We calculate the optical properties of the resulting triode mirror analytically on the basis of a simple model field distribution. We present the optical properties-the object/image distance, z(0), and the coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration, C(s) and C(c), of both mirror types from an analysis of electron trajectories in the mirror field. From this analysis, we demonstrate that while the properties of both designs are similar, the additional parameters in the triode mirror improve the range of aberration that can be corrected. The triode mirror is also able to provide a dynamic adjustment range of chromatic aberration for fixed spherical aberration and focal length, or any permutation of these three parameters. While the dynamic range depends on the values of aberration correction needed, a nominal 10% tuning range is possible for most configurations accompanied by less than 1% change in the other two properties.

  1. Optical aberrations measurement with a low cost optometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Walter D.; Muñoz-Escrivá, L.; Pons, A.; Martínez-Corral, M.

    2002-08-01

    A simple experimental method for measuring optical aberrations of a single lens is proposed. The technique is based on the use of an optometric instrument employed for the assessment of the refractive state of the eye: the retinoscope. Experimental results for spherical aberration and astigmatism are obtained.

  2. Extending nodal aberration theory to include mount-induced aberrations with application to freeform surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P; Thompson, Kevin P

    2012-08-27

    This paper introduces the path forward for the integration of freeform optical surfaces, particularly those related to φ-polynomial surfaces, including Zernike polynomial surfaces, with nodal aberration theory. With this formalism, the performance of an optical system throughout the field of view can be anticipated analytically accounting for figure error, mount-induced errors, and misalignment. Previously, only misalignments had been described by nodal aberration theory, with the exception of one special case for figure error. As an example of these new results, three point mounting error that results in a Zernike trefoil deformation is studied for the secondary mirror of a two mirror and three mirror telescope. It is demonstrated that for the case of trefoil deformation applied to a surface not at the stop, there is the anticipated field constant contribution to elliptical coma (also called trefoil) as well as a newly identified field dependent contribution to astigmatism: field linear, field conjugate astigmatism. The magnitude of this astigmatic contribution varies linearly with the field of view; however, it has a unique variation in orientation with field that is described mathematically by a concept that is unique to nodal aberration theory known as the field conjugate vector.

  3. The application of information fusion in human eye aberration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiming; Chen, Jiabi; Cao, Liang; Zhuang, Songlin

    2008-12-01

    A novel human eye aberration measurement method based on information fusion is presented here. We built a combined subjective and objective human eye aberration measurement system which is composed by an objective measurement part which measure human eye aberration by using Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a subjective view test part through which can test the subject's vision. The deformable mirror can compensate the high order aberrations of human eye, and thus, can improve the visual acuity of human eye. We had weighting process on Zernike coefficients of both psychology stimulated results and objective results by the method of information fusion, and got combined Zernike coefficients, and finally the combined wavefront aberrations. The result shows that information fusion can combine advantages of both subjective and objective measurement, can have more comprehensive to characterized human eye visual performance, thus providing a more detailed advice for ideal individual human eye.

  4. Effects of aberrations in spatiotemporal focusing of ultrashort laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bangshan; Salter, Patrick S; Booth, Martin J

    2014-04-01

    Spatiotemporal focusing, or simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF), has already been adopted for various applications in microscopy, photoactivation for biological studies, and laser fabrication. We investigate the effects of aberrations on focus formation in SSTF, in particular, the effects of phase aberrations related to low-order Zernike modes and a refractive index mismatch between the immersion medium and sample. By considering a line focus, we are able to draw direct comparison between the performance of SSTF and conventional spatial focusing (SF). Wide-field SSTF is also investigated and is found to be much more robust to aberrations than either line SSTF or SF. These results show the sensitivity of certain focusing methods to specific aberrations, and can inform on the necessity and benefit of aberration correction.

  5. Chaos in ocular aberration dynamics of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Karen M.; Mallen, Edward A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Since the characterization of the eye’s monochromatic aberration fluctuations in 2001, the power spectrum has remained the most widely used method for analyzing their dynamics. However, the power spectrum does not capture the complexities of the fluctuations. We measured the monochromatic aberration dynamics of six subjects using a Shack-Hartmann sensor sampling at 21 Hz. We characterized the dynamics using techniques from chaos theory. We found that the attractor embedding dimension for all aberrations, for all subjects, was equal to three. The embedding lag averaged across aberrations and subjects was 0.31 ± 0.07 s. The Lyapunov exponent of the rms wavefront error was positive for each subject, with an average value of 0.44 ± 0.15 µm/s. This indicates that the aberration dynamics are chaotic. Implications for future modeling are discussed. PMID:22567581

  6. A new momenclature for structural aberrations detected by chromosome painting

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Morgan, W.F.; Awa, A.A.; Bauchinger, M.; Blakey, D.; Cornforth, N.N.; Littlefield, L.G.; Natarajan, A.T.; Shasserre, C.

    1994-12-31

    The advent of chromosome painting has brought the realization that structural aberrations can be far more complex than previously imagined. Different laboratories have devised their own nomenclature systems to deal with this complexity, with the result that the terminology has become inconsistent and confusing. Recently, an international group of cytogeneticists experienced with chromosome painting convened to address this issue. The result is a systematic nomenclature capable of describing chromosome aberrations occurring between painted and unpainted chromosomes, as well as aberrations involving only painted chromosomes. The nomenclature is flexible enough to describe accurately even the most extensively rearranged chromosomes. As a consequence of this flexibility, the scheme upon which the nomenclature is based differs substantially from other systems of aberration classification. We call this system the Protocol for Aberration Identification and Nomenclature Terminology (PAINT).

  7. In situ correction of the spherical aberration in a double-toroidal electron analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Nicolas, Christophe; Miron, Catalin

    2017-02-01

    In an energy-dispersive electron spectrometer, the electrons with the same kinetic energy but different polar angles fly along different paths and impinge upon the detector at different locations. This behavior materializes the spherical aberration of the electron optics, which deteriorates the focussing quality on the detector, and thus the energy resolution of the instrument. Here, we demonstrate that, in general, the electron time of flight changes monotonically as a function of the polar angle. Combining the impact position on the detector and the time of flight of electrons, the spherical aberration can be corrected and the energy resolution can be significantly improved, 1.5× in the case of our double toroidal analyser. This correction method has a general applicability and can be of interest to experimentalists willing to push further the performances of their electron spectrometers when the time of flight is available.

  8. Enhanced midbrain response at 6-month follow-up in cocaine addiction, association with reduced drug-related choice: Midbrain in drug choice

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Woicik, Patricia A.; Maloney, Thomas; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Honorio, Jean; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Sinha, Rajita; Carise, Deni; Astone-Twerell, Janetta; Bolger, Joy; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-03-28

    Drug addiction is characterized by dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Although dopamine functioning appears to partially recover with abstinence, the specific regions that recover and potential impact on drug seeking remain to be determined. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study an ecologically valid sample of 15 treatment-seeking cocaine addicted individuals at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At both study sessions, we collected fMRI scans during performance of a drug Stroop task, clinical self-report measures of addiction severity and behavioral measures of cocaine seeking (simulated cocaine choice); actual drug use in between the two study sessions was also monitored. At 6-month follow-up (compared with baseline), we predicted functional enhancement of dopaminergically innervated brain regions, relevant to the behavioral responsiveness toward salient stimuli. Consistent with predictions, whole-brain analyses revealed responses in the midbrain (encompassing the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra complex) and thalamus (encompassing the mediodorsal nucleus) that were higher (and more positively correlated) at follow-up than baseline. Increased midbrain activity from baseline to follow-up correlated with reduced simulated cocaine choice, indicating that heightened midbrain activations in this context may be marking lower approach motivation for cocaine. Normalization of midbrain function at follow-up was also suggested by exploratory comparisons with active cocaine users and healthy controls (who were assessed only at baseline). Enhanced self-control at follow-up was suggested by a trend for the commonly hypoactive dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to increase response during a drug-related context. Together, these results suggest that fMRI could be useful in sensitively tracking follow-up outcomes in drug addiction.

  9. Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias.

    PubMed

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-Su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Huang, Juan; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and treated monkeys reared with optically induced defocus or form deprivation showed a decrease in the magnitude of high-order aberrations with age. However, the decrease in aberrations was typically smaller in the treated animals. Thus, at the end of the lens-rearing period, higher than normal amounts of aberrations were observed in treated eyes, both hyperopic and myopic eyes and treated eyes that developed astigmatism, but not spherical ametropias. The total RMS wavefront error increased with the degree of spherical refractive error, but was not correlated with the degree of astigmatism. Both myopic and hyperopic treated eyes showed elevated amounts of coma and trefoil and the degree of trefoil increased with the degree of spherical ametropia. Myopic eyes also exhibited a much higher prevalence of positive spherical aberration than normal or treated hyperopic eyes. Following the onset of unrestricted vision, the amount of high-order aberrations decreased in the treated monkeys that also recovered from the experimentally induced refractive errors. Our results demonstrate that high-order aberrations are influenced by visual experience in young primates and that the increase in high-order aberrations in our treated monkeys appears to be an optical byproduct of the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth that underlie changes in refractive error. The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development.

  10. Aberrant Salience Is Related to Reduced Reinforcement Learning Signals and Elevated Dopamine Synthesis Capacity in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Rebecca; Deserno, Lorenz; Gleich, Tobias; Katthagen, Teresa; Pankow, Anne; Behr, Joachim; Buchert, Ralph; Roiser, Jonathan P; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2015-07-15

    The striatum is known to play a key role in reinforcement learning, specifically in the encoding of teaching signals such as reward prediction errors (RPEs). It has been proposed that aberrant salience attribution is associated with impaired coding of RPE and heightened dopamine turnover in the striatum, and might be linked to the development of psychotic symptoms. However, the relationship of aberrant salience attribution, RPE coding, and dopamine synthesis capacity has not been directly investigated. Here we assessed the association between a behavioral measure of aberrant salience attribution, the salience attribution test, to neural correlates of RPEs measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants (n = 58) performed an instrumental learning task. A subset of participants (n = 27) also underwent positron emission tomography with the radiotracer [(18)F]fluoro-l-DOPA to quantify striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity. Individual variability in aberrant salience measures related negatively to ventral striatal and prefrontal RPE signals and in an exploratory analysis was found to be positively associated with ventral striatal presynaptic dopamine levels. These data provide the first evidence for a specific link between the constructs of aberrant salience attribution, reduced RPE processing, and potentially increased presynaptic dopamine function.

  11. Astrocyte Hypertrophy Contributes to Aberrant Neurogenesis after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Clark; Apgar, Christopher; Shapiro, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a widespread epidemic with severe cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. TBIs typically result in a relatively rapid inflammatory and neuroinflammatory response. A major component of the neuroinflammatory response is astrocytes, a type of glial cell in the brain. Astrocytes are important in maintaining the integrity of neuronal functioning, and it is possible that astrocyte hypertrophy after TBIs might contribute to pathogenesis. The hippocampus is a unique brain region, because neurogenesis persists in adults. Accumulating evidence supports the functional importance of these newborn neurons and their associated astrocytes. Alterations to either of these cell types can influence neuronal functioning. To determine if hypertrophied astrocytes might negatively influence immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, astrocyte and newborn neurons were analyzed at 30 days following a TBI in mice. The results demonstrate a loss of radial glial-like processes extending through the granule cell layer after TBI, as well as ectopic growth and migration of immature dentate neurons. The results further show newborn neurons in close association with hypertrophied astrocytes, suggesting a role for the astrocytes in aberrant neurogenesis. Future studies are needed to determine the functional significance of these alterations to the astrocyte/immature neurons after TBI. PMID:27274873

  12. Aberrant Effective Connectivity in Schizophrenia Patients during Appetitive Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Diaconescu, Andreea Oliviana; Jensen, Jimmy; Wang, Hongye; Willeit, Matthäus; Menon, Mahesh; Kapur, Shitij; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that schizophrenia involves dysfunction in brain connectivity at a neural level, and a dysfunction in reward processing at a behavioral level. The purpose of the present study was to link these two levels of analyses by examining effective connectivity patterns between brain regions mediating reward learning in patients with schizophrenia and healthy, age-matched controls. To this aim, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and galvanic skin recordings (GSR) while patients and controls performed an appetitive conditioning experiment with visual cues as the conditioned (CS) stimuli, and monetary reward as the appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US). Based on explicit stimulus contingency ratings, conditioning occurred in both groups; however, based on implicit, physiological GSR measures, patients failed to show differences between CS+ and CS− conditions. Healthy controls exhibited increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity across striatal, hippocampal, and prefrontal regions and increased effective connectivity from the ventral striatum to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC BA 11) in the CS+ compared to the CS− condition. Compared to controls, patients showed increased BOLD activity across a similar network of brain regions, and increased effective connectivity from the striatum to hippocampus and prefrontal regions in the CS− compared to the CS+ condition. The findings of increased BOLD activity and effective connectivity in response to the CS− in patients with schizophrenia offer insight into the aberrant assignment of motivational salience to non-reinforced stimuli during conditioning that is thought to accompany schizophrenia. PMID:21267430

  13. The Lunacy of It All: Lunar Phases and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotton, James; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between aberrant human behavior and phases of the moon. Reviews media influence, myth, superstition and pseudoscience. Examines studies purporting to have found relationships between moon phases and behavior. (JM)

  14. Drug-related death following release from prison: a brief review of the literature with recommendations for practice.

    PubMed

    Leach, D; Oliver, P

    2011-12-01

    Mortality from drug-related death is a significant contributor to the loss of life of young people in the UK. Despite attention, the high death rate from this cause continues to persist. One of the most frequently cited factors involved in drug-related death (DRD) is release from prison. This review aims to examine the published literature with a view to quantifying the risk associated with recent prison release and identifying risk factors and prevention strategies. Most deaths following release from prison are caused by overdose, usually from opioid use. The risk of death is greatest within the first week of release but, when compared with the general population, continues to be elevated for several weeks. Relative risk estimates suggest that those released from prison are up to 40 times more likely to die than similar individuals from the general population. Other than gender and an association with poor mental health, there is little in the way of robust risk factors for post-release death that could be identified from the literature. In-prison pharmacological maintenance treatment with methadone and buprenorphine has been shown to reduce the rate of heroin use, in the period immediately following release, in a small number of randomised controlled trials. It is widely recognised that continuity of care, of any form, is critical in avoiding DRDs. For problem drug users, packages of education, including information on the associated risks, treatments, and recognition of DRD after release from prison, are seen as a basic minimum requirement of the prison services. However, special protocols may be required for those drug-using prisoners who have a possibility of being released at short notice.

  15. Optical aberrations of the cornea and the crystalline lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2006-09-01

    The wave-front aberrations of the anterior corneal surface, the posterior corneal surface and the complete eye have been measured by a corneal topographic system (Orbscan II) and a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor. We have calculated the aberrations for both the corneal surfaces with the discrete set of corneal elevation data, and with which to acquire the aberrations of the whole cornea. The aberrations of the crystalline lens are calculated by subtracting the aberrations of the cornea from that of the complete eye. The aberration combination between the anterior and the posterior corneal surface, between the cornea and the crystalline lens is complicated, either compensation or addition. For individual Zernike terms, astigmatism and quatrefoil in the anterior corneal surface are added by the posterior corneal surface, while some other terms show compensation between the two surfacesE And for complete eye, astigmatism and spherical aberrations in the cornea are partially compensated by the crystalline lens, and other terms show addition between the two parts. Individual eye shows different combinations of compensation and addition across different Zernike terms.

  16. Aberration correction of zoom lenses using evolutionary programming.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sourav

    2013-08-10

    A systematic approach for the aberration correction of zoom systems is presented. It is assumed that the powers and movements of the components of the zoom systems are known. Each component is considered as a system of thin lenses in contact. An evolutionary algorithm is developed to explore the multivariate hyperspace of design variables formed by spherical aberration, central coma, and longitudinal chromatic aberration of each component for infinite conjugate. The primary aberrations for each component at any zoom position are deduced from three central aberration coefficients of the component for infinite conjugate using conjugate shift formulas. Overall system aberrations of the zoom systems are determined by using stop shift formulas. In most of the zoom lens systems it is important to achieve stability in the primary aberrations of the system over the zoom range. This is facilitated by proper formulation of the merit function for the optimization process. Investigations have been carried out on four-component zoom lenses, and an ab initio structure of a four-component zoom lens is presented.

  17. Off-axis variable focus and aberration control mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmer, Phillip A.; Dickensheets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Elliptical-boundary deformable mirrors have been developed for focus control of an optical beam incident at forty-five degrees with respect to the surface normal. The mirrors are silicon nitride membranes 1.4×1 mm in size, designed to accommodate a 1 mm diameter beam. Two electrostatic actuation zones provide control over spherical aberration. Focal lengths ranging from infinity to 36 mm have been achieved, and the mirror surface figure has been characterized to quantify aberration. Residual aberrations have been observed to be less than λ/5 (peak to peak) measured at λ = 660 nm.

  18. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Florian T A; Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd U

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting, monofocal intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS Twenty-one patients (34 eyes) aged 50 to 83y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity (CS) under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations (HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight (C-Quant). RESULTS Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27 (primary coma components) and -0.04±0.16 (spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed (P≥0.28). CONCLUSION The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataract surgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration (HOA) and normal straylight. PMID:26309872

  19. Functionally aberrant electrophysiological cortical connectivities in first episode medication-naive schizophrenics from three psychiatry centers

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L.; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D.; Milz, Patricia; Herrmann, Werner M.; Koukkou, Martha; Saito, Naomi; Winterer, Georg; Kochi, Kieko

    2014-01-01

    Functional dissociation between brain processes is widely hypothesized to account for aberrations of thought and emotions in schizophrenic patients. The typically small groups of analyzed schizophrenic patients yielded different neurophysiological findings, probably because small patient groups are likely to comprise different schizophrenia subtypes. We analyzed multichannel eyes-closed resting EEG from three small groups of acutely ill, first episode productive schizophrenic patients before start of medication (from three centers: Bern N = 9; Osaka N = 9; Berlin N = 12) and their controls. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to compute intracortical source model-based lagged functional connectivity not biased by volume conduction effects between 19 cortical regions of interest (ROIs). The connectivities were compared between controls and patients of each group. Conjunction analysis determined six aberrant cortical functional connectivities that were the same in the three patient groups. Four of these six concerned the facilitating EEG alpha-1 frequency activity; they were decreased in the patients. Another two of these six connectivities concerned the inhibiting EEG delta frequency activity; they were increased in the patients. The principal orientation of the six aberrant cortical functional connectivities was sagittal; five of them involved both hemispheres. In sum, activity in the posterior brain areas of preprocessing functions and the anterior brain areas of evaluation and behavior control functions were compromised by either decreased coupled activation or increased coupled inhibition, common across schizophrenia subtypes in the three patient groups. These results of the analyzed three independent groups of schizophrenics support the concept of functional dissociation. PMID:25191252

  20. Aberrant frontal lobe maturation in adolescents with fragile X syndrome is related to delayed cognitive maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Signe; Hirt, Melissa; Jo, Booil; Hall, Scott S.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Walter, Elizabeth; Chen, Kelly; Patnaik, Swetapadma; Reiss, Allan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known heritable cause of intellectual disability. Prior studies in FXS have observed a plateau in cognitive and adaptive behavioral development in early adolescence, suggesting that brain development in FXS may diverge from typical development during this period. Methods In this study, we examined adolescent brain development using structural magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from 59 individuals with FXS, and 83 typically developing (TD) controls aged 9 to 22, a subset of whom were followed-up longitudinally (1-5 years; TD:17, FXS:19). Regional volumes were modeled to obtain estimates of age-related change. Results We found that while structures such as the caudate showed consistent volume differences from controls across adolescence, prefrontal cortex gyri (PFC) showed significantly aberrant maturation. Furthermore, we found that PFC-related measures of cognitive functioning followed a similarly aberrant developmental trajectory in FXS. Conclusions Our findings suggest that aberrant maturation of the PFC during adolescence may contribute to persistent or increasing intellectual deficits in FXS. PMID:21802660

  1. VLBI measurement of the secular aberration drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Lambert, S. B.; Gontier, A.-M.

    2011-05-01

    Aims: While analyzing decades of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data, we detected the secular aberration drift of the extragalatic radio source proper motions caused by the rotation of the Solar System barycenter around the Galactic center. Our results agree with the predicted estimate to be 4-6 micro arcseconds per year (μas/yr) towards α = 266° and δ = -29°. In addition, we tried to detect the quadrupole systematics of the velocity field. Methods: The analysis method consisted of three steps. First, we analyzed geodetic and astrometric VLBI data to produce radio source coordinate time series. Second, we fitted proper motions of 555 sources with long observational histories over the period 1990-2010 to their respective coordinate time series. Finally, we fitted vector spherical harmonic components of degrees 1 and 2 to the proper motion field. Results: Within the error bars, the magnitude and the direction of the dipole component agree with predictions. The dipole vector has an amplitude of 6.4 ± 1.5 μas/yr and is directed towards equatorial coordinates α = 263° and δ = -20°. The quadrupole component has not been detected. The primordial gravitational wave density, integrated over a range of frequencies less than 10-9 Hz, has a limit of 0.0042h-2 where h is the normalized Hubble constant is H0/(100 km s-1). We dedicate this work to the memory of Anne-Marie Gontier, our colleague and personal friend, and a widely recognized specialist of VLBI. She passed away shortly after this paper was submitted.Proper motion data is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/529/A91

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL ABERRATION OF ARTHROBACTER GLOBIFORMIS CELLS DUE TO BIOTIN DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    CHAN, E C

    1964-03-01

    Chan, E. C. S. (University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada). Morphological aberration of Arthrobacter globiformis cells due to biotin deficiency. J. Bacteriol. 87:641-651. 1964.-Morphological aberration of Arthrobacter globiformis strain 425 was shown to occur during growth in a chemically defined medium without added biotin. Such aberrant cells could revert back to normal coccoid forms upon inoculation into fresh medium supplemented with the vitamin. This abnormal cellular development occurred even when there was good growth (turbidity) or increase in total cell mass. Light photomicrographs of negative and cell-wall stains of the organism at different times of the morphological growth cycle are presented in support of these observations. The relationship between cellular aberration and the biochemical role of biotin is briefly discussed.

  3. Multiple imaging with an aberration optimized hololens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, A.; Vasu, R. M.

    1989-08-01

    The imaging performance of hololenses formed with four different geometries were studied through an analysis of their third-order aberration coefficients. It is found that the geometry proposed by Brandt (1969) gives the least residual aberration with minimum variation of this aberration with the reconstruction angle. When the ideal position of one of the construction beams is changed in order to generate a hololens array, the residual aberration is found to increase sharply, which in turn affects the image resolution among the multiplied images in the output. A hololens array was generated using Brandt's geometry with the help of a one-dimensional sinusoidal grating. The results of multiple imaging with the hololens array are presented. The image resolution is reasonably high and can be further improved by reducing the f-number of the hololenses.

  4. Multiple Imaging With An Aberration Optimized Hololens Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. Senthil; Vasu, R. M.

    1989-08-01

    We study the imaging performance of hololenses formed with four different geometries through an analysis of their third-order aberration coefficients. It is found that the geometry proposed by Brandt [Appl. Opt. 8(7), 1421-1429 (1969)] gives the least residual aberration with minimum variation of this aberration with the reconstruction angle. When the ideal position of one of the construction beams is changed in order to generate a hololens array, the residual aberration is found to increase sharply, which in turn affects the image resolution among the multiplied images in the output. We have generated a hololens array using Brandt's geometry with the help of a 1-D sinusoidal grating. The results of multiple imaging with the hololens array are presented. The image resolution is reasonably high and can be further improved by reducing the f-number of the hololenses.

  5. Early Development of Children with Sex Chromosome Aberrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haka-Ilse, Katerina; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. A prospective study was made of the early development of 42 children with sex chromosome aberrations. (Author)

  6. Aberrant reward processing in Parkinson's disease is associated with dopamine cell loss.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Esther; Helmich, Rick C; Janssen, Marcel J R; Oyen, Wim J G; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Cools, Roshan

    2012-02-15

    Dopamine has been implicated in reward-related impulsivity, but the exact relationship between dopamine, reward and impulsivity in humans remains unknown. We address this question in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by severe dopamine depletion. PD is associated primarily with motor and cognitive inflexibility, but can also be accompanied by reward-related impulsivity. This paradoxical symptom of PD has often been attributed to dopaminergic overstimulation by antiparkinson medication, which is necessary to relieve the motor and cognitive inflexibility. However, factors other than medication may also contribute to aberrant impact of reward. Here we assess whether cognitive inflexibility and aberrant reward impact in PD are two sides of the same coin, namely dopamine cell loss. To measure dopamine cell loss, we employed (123)I-FP-CIT Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in 32 PD patients (10 never-medicated patients and 22 patients after withdrawal of all medication for >12h) and related the values to behavior on a rewarded task-switching paradigm. Dopamine cell loss was associated not only with cognitive inflexibility (under low reward), but also with aberrant impact of reward. These effects could not be attributed to medication use. Relative to controls (n=26), aberrant reward processing in PD was particularly expressed as reduced capacity to maintain (i.e., repeat) the current task-set under high reward. Our findings demonstrate that factors intrinsically related to PD may underlie the paradoxical symptoms of inflexibility and reward-related impulsivity in PD. The present results concur with observations that low baseline dopamine states predispose to drug and other addictions.

  7. Aberration vignetting phenomena and its visualization in wide angular objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livshits, Irina; Letunovskaya, Marina; Potemin, Igor; Okishev, Sergey; Zhdanov, Dmitry

    2016-11-01

    Aberration vignetting phenomena changes light distribution in the image plane. A method of physically accurate simulation of this effect in optical devices is presented. We modified a stochastic ray tracing technique to use it for the analysis and visualization of the aberration vignetting. Some useful illustrations with a number of visual examples of these phenomena for different optical systems are given: bi-concentric lens, wide-angle lens, fish-eye lenses, etc.

  8. Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E.; Sun, Wenzhi; Tan, Zhongchao; Kerlin, Aaron; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas S.; Ji, Na

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multiplexed aberration measurement method that modulates the intensity or phase of light rays at multiple pupil segments in parallel to determine their phase gradients. Applicable to fluorescent-protein-labeled structures of arbitrary complexity, it allows us to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in various samples in vivo. For the strongly scattering mouse brain, a single aberration correction improves structural and functional imaging of fine neuronal processes over a large imaging volume. PMID:25128976

  9. Optical aberration compensation in a multiplexed optical trapping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čižmár, T.; Dalgarno, H. I. C.; Ashok, P. C.; Gunn-Moore, F. J.; Dholakia, K.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we discuss optical aberrations within a multiplexed optical trapping system. We analyze two of the most powerful methods for optical trap multiplexing: time-shared beam steering and holographic beam shaping in a tandem system with an acousto-optic deflector and spatial light modulator. We show how to isolate and correct for the aberrations introduced by these individual optical components using the spatial light modulator and demonstrate the enhancement this provides to optical trapping.

  10. Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye.

    PubMed

    Benny, Yael; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M; Ribak, Erez N; Artal, Pablo

    2007-06-01

    The human eye is affected by large chromatic aberration. This may limit vision and makes it difficult to see fine retinal details in ophthalmoscopy. We designed and built a two-triplet system for correcting the average longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye while keeping a reasonably wide field of view. Measurements in real eyes were conducted to examine the level and optical quality of the correction. We also performed some tests to evaluate the effect of the corrector on visual performance.

  11. Modified matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Kh; Hooshmand Ziafi, H.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work by comparing a single lens with a doublet, we can clearly demonstrate the superior quality of the doublet over the single lens, and estimate their conic constants.

  12. Aberrant Alternative Splicing Is Another Hallmark of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ladomery, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of human genes are alternatively spliced. Not surprisingly, aberrant alternative splicing is increasingly linked to cancer. Splice isoforms often encode proteins that have distinct and even antagonistic properties. The abnormal expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in cancer changes the alternative splicing of critically important pre-mRNAs. Aberrant alternative splicing should be added to the growing list of cancer hallmarks. PMID:24101931

  13. Risks of drug-related death, suicide, and homicide during the immediate post-release period among people released from New York City jails, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Seligson, Amber Levanon; Parvez, Farah M; Luther, Charles W; Mavinkurve, Maushumi P; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Kerker, Bonnie D

    2012-03-15

    The authors assessed the risks of drug-related death, suicide, and homicide after release from New York City jails in 155,272 people who were incarcerated anytime from 2001 through 2005 and examined whether the mortality rate was associated with homelessness. Using jail records matched with death and single-adult homeless registries in New York City, they calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative risks. After adjustment for age, sex, race, and neighborhood, the risks of drug-related death and homicide in formerly incarcerated persons were 2 times higher than those of New York City residents who had not been incarcerated in New York City jails during the study period. These relative risks were greatly elevated during the first 2 weeks after release (for drug-related causes, SMR = 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.2, 11.8; for homicide, SMR = 5.1, 95% CI: 3.2, 7.8). Formerly incarcerated people with histories of homelessness had higher rates of drug-related death (RR = 3.4, 95% CI: 2.1, 5.5) and suicide (RR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.4) than did persons without such histories. For individuals who died of drug-related causes, longer jail stays were associated with a shorter time until death after release. These results suggest that jail- and community-based interventions are needed to reduce the excess mortality risk among formerly incarcerated people.

  14. Wave-front aberration measurements on GRIN-rod lenses.

    PubMed

    Cline, T W; Jander, R B

    1982-03-15

    A survey of the optical quality of commercial and experimental Selfoc GRIN-rod lenses was made using a digital Twyman-Green wave-front interferometer. The technique provides an accurate and reproducible method for predicting lens performance in microoptic devices. Wave-front aberrations are reported for (1/4) pitch lenses measured in a double-pass configuration. It was found that spherical aberration is dominant in commercial lenses. SLW (1/4) pitch lenses have lower aberrations than SLS lenses and are quite suitable for microoptic devices based on fiber-to-fiber coupling. Measured multimode coupling efficiency under steady-state modal propagation is compared to measured spherical aberration for a number of lenses. The slope of the coupling dependence on spherical aberration was found to be -0.1 dB/wave. Effects due to mechanical alignment and the modal distribution in the fibers had a greater influence on the measured coupling efficiency than the contribution due the intrinsic lens aberrations, especially for the SLW lenses. Comparison of this empirical dependence with theoretical predictions for a uniform distribution, which suggests a stronger dependence, is discussed. This work suggests that commercially available GRIN-rod lenses are suitable for use in microoptic components.

  15. Lesion generation through ribs using histotripsy therapy without aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction.

  16. Generalized Alvarez lens for correction of laser aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    LaFortune, K N

    2004-12-02

    The Alvarez lens (US Patent No. 3,305,294 [1]) is a compact aberration corrector. The original design emphasized in the patent consists of a pair of adjacent optical elements that provide a variable focus. A lens system with a variable effective focal length is nothing new. Such systems are widely used in cameras, for example. It is the compactness and simplicity of operation that is the key advantage of the Alvarez lens. All of the complexity is folded into the design and fabrication of the optical elements. As mentioned in the Alvarez patent [1] and elaborated upon in Palusinski et al. [2], if one is willing to fold even more complexity into the optical elements, it is possible to correct higher-order aberrations as well. There is no theoretical limit to the number or degree of wavefront distortions that can be corrected. The only limitation is that there must be a fixed relative magnitude of the aberrations. Independent correction of each component of the higher-order aberrations can not be performed without additional elements and degrees of freedom [3]. Under some circumstances, coupling may be observed between different aberrations. This can be mitigated with the appropriate choice of design parameters. New methods are available today that increase the practicality of making higher-order aberration correctors [4,5,6].

  17. Induction of chromosome aberrations in human cells by charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations induced by high-energy charged particles in normal human lymphocytes and human fibroblasts have been investigated. The charged particles included 250 MeV/nucleon protons, 290 MeV/nucleon carbon ions and 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. The energies of the charged particles were higher than in most of the studies reported in the literature. Lymphocytes were stimulated to grow immediately after irradiation, while fibroblasts were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h for repair. Chromosomes were collected at the first mitosis after irradiation and chromosome aberrations were scored using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with a whole-chromosome 4 probe. Chromosome aberrations were classified as reciprocal exchanges, incomplete exchanges, deletions and complex exchanges. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for each type of aberration was calculated by dividing a dose of 4 Gy by the dose of the charged particles producing the same effect as 4 Gy of gamma rays. Results of this study showed that complex aberrations have the highest RBE for radiation of high linear energy transfer (LET) for human lymphocytes, but for fibroblasts, the greatest effect was for incomplete exchanges. For both lymphocytes and fibroblasts, iron ions induced a similar fraction of aberrant cells.

  18. Lesion Generation Through Ribs Using Histotripsy Therapy Without Aberration Correction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction. PMID:22083767

  19. Photolithography for the static compensation of human eye aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bara, Salvador; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew

    2004-08-01

    Recent developments in human eye aberration measurements allow to design and fabricate compensating elements aiming to achieve aberration-limited imaging. This is important not merely from a subject's viewpoint (improving the sharpness of the outer world images formed at the retina) but mainly for clinical instrumentation purposes, especially those dealing with high-resolution retinal imaging (eye fundus cameras, scanning laser ophtlalmosopes, etc.). Here we report recent developments in the correction of the static component of the eye aberrations. Aberration data of several subjects were used for manufacturing personally customized phase plates designed to compensate for the wave aberration in the human eye. These plates were made by gray-level single-mask photosculpture in photoresist and then placed in front of the eye. The effects of misalignments as well as the strategy to design wide-field correcting elements are briefly revised. Applications include improving images in scanning laser ophtalmoscopes. The future plans of research including application of axicons for compensation of the lack of accommodation and kinoforms cancelling high amounts of eye's aberrations in monochromatic illumination are also sketched.

  20. Aberrant Glycosylation as Biomarker for Cancer: Focus on CD43

    PubMed Central

    de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Fiume, Giuseppe; Borrelli, Antonella; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Scala, Iris; Buonaguro, Franco Maria; Quinto, Ileana; Scala, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins playing a major role in cell signalling, immune recognition, and cell-cell interaction because of their glycan branches conferring structure variability and binding specificity to lectin ligands. Aberrant expression of glycan structures as well as occurrence of truncated structures, precursors, or novel structures of glycan may affect ligand-receptor interactions and thus interfere with regulation of cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Indeed, aberrant glycosylation represents a hallmark of cancer, reflecting cancer-specific changes in glycan biosynthesis pathways such as the altered expression of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Most studies have been carried out to identify changes in serum glycan structures. In most cancers, fucosylation and sialylation are significantly modified. Thus, aberrations in glycan structures can be used as targets to improve existing serum cancer biomarkers. The ability to distinguish differences in the glycosylation of proteins between cancer and control patients emphasizes glycobiology as a promising field for potential biomarker identification. In this review, we discuss the aberrant protein glycosylation associated with human cancer and the identification of protein glycoforms as cancer biomarkers. In particular, we will focus on the aberrant CD43 glycosylation as cancer biomarker and the potential to exploit the UN1 monoclonal antibody (UN1 mAb) to identify aberrant CD43 glycoforms. PMID:24689054

  1. Aberrant Lymphatic Endothelial Progenitors in Lymphatic Malformation Development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, June K.; Kitajewski, Christopher; Reiley, Maia; Keung, Connie H.; Monteagudo, Julie; Andrews, John P.; Liou, Peter; Thirumoorthi, Arul; Wong, Alvin

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are vascular anomalies thought to arise from dysregulated lymphangiogenesis. These lesions impose a significant burden of disease on affected individuals. LM pathobiology is poorly understood, hindering the development of effective treatments. In the present studies, immunostaining of LM tissues revealed that endothelial cells lining aberrant lymphatic vessels and cells in the surrounding stroma expressed the stem cell marker, CD133, and the lymphatic endothelial protein, podoplanin. Isolated patient-derived CD133+ LM cells expressed stem cell genes (NANOG, Oct4), circulating endothelial cell precursor proteins (CD90, CD146, c-Kit, VEGFR-2), and lymphatic endothelial proteins (podoplanin, VEGFR-3). Consistent with a progenitor cell identity, CD133+ LM cells were multipotent and could be differentiated into fat, bone, smooth muscle, and lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro. CD133+ cells were compared to CD133− cells isolated from LM fluids. CD133− LM cells had lower expression of stem cell genes, but expressed circulating endothelial precursor proteins and high levels of lymphatic endothelial proteins, VE-cadherin, CD31, podoplanin, VEGFR-3 and Prox1. CD133− LM cells were not multipotent, consistent with a differentiated lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype. In a mouse xenograft model, CD133+ LM cells differentiated into lymphatic endothelial cells that formed irregularly dilated lymphatic channels, phenocopying human LMs. In vivo, CD133+ LM cells acquired expression of differentiated lymphatic endothelial cell proteins, podoplanin, LYVE1, Prox1, and VEGFR-3, comparable to expression found in LM patient tissues. Taken together, these data identify a novel LM progenitor cell population that differentiates to form the abnormal lymphatic structures characteristic of these lesions, recapitulating the human LM phenotype. This LM progenitor cell population may contribute to the clinically refractory behavior of LMs. PMID:25719418

  2. Angelman syndrome: A review highlighting musculoskeletal and anatomical aberrations.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Donkers, Sarah J; Kim, Soo Y

    2016-07-01

    Angelman's syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopment disorder. The cause is a known abnormality involving the maternal inherited ubiquitin-protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. Clinical characteristics universal to the disorder are well documented in the literature and include developmental delay, seizures, ataxia, altered tone, severely impaired speech and intellect, as well as an overall happy demeanor, frequent bouts of laughter, and hypermotoric behavior. Associated with this disorder are several musculoskeletal aberrations. To date, a review of case studies reporting on these musculoskeletal changes has not been carried out. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the musculoskeletal changes present in individuals with AS. In our review of 21 case reports from 1965-2013, the most consistently reported anatomical changes were of the craniofacial region. These include microcephaly, brachycephaly, a palpable occipital groove, prognathism, and wide spaced teeth. Other musculoskeletal abnormalities less frequently reported in the literature include scoliosis, excessive lumbar lordosis, and pes planus. Given that the majority of the case reports reviewed was of young children, the possibility of underreporting musculoskeletal changes which may manifest in the later years of life may be present. Early diagnosis and interventions to minimize secondary complications are crucial to maintain quality of life. An overall multidisciplinary approach is emphasized to maximize developmental potential for these individuals. Future prospective studies that follow patients into adulthood are needed to better understand the prevalence and development of secondary musculoskeletal changes, which in turn can inform intervention techniques and preventative measures. Clin. Anat. 29:561-567, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Drug-related crime and sentencing policies from the perspective of the United Nations crime prevention and criminal justice programme.

    PubMed

    Hanreich, H

    1984-01-01

    Owing to the incompleteness of available data, there is no conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of sentencing policies in various countries. Insufficient data at both the regional and international levels also make it difficult to draw any firm conclusions on general trends in sentencing policies for offenders convicted of drug-related infractions. Regional, and particularly national, circumstances influence the pattern of penal measures against drug offences in any given country. Thus, drug legislation reflects the socio-cultural, religious and other values of a nation. There is a growing tendency to apply measures of treatment and social reintegration to drug-addicted persons who have committed minor offences rather than to impose prison sentences on them. Drug addiction is increasingly recognized as a disease, which should be cured in an appropriate treatment setting, but the data available indicate that the application of this measure to drug offenders is rather restricted. Another apparent tendency is the move to decriminalize the simple use of drugs and, at the same time, to provide more severe penalties for drug trafficking. In certain countries, however, there is a trend towards increased penalties for illicit drug use as well.

  4. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse event co-occurrences. Methods: We analyzed the similarity of adverse event profiles of 2347 patients extracted from EMRs from a mental health center in Denmark. The patients were clustered based on their adverse event profiles and the similarities were presented as a network. The set of adverse events in each main patient cluster was evaluated. Co-occurrences of adverse events in patients (p-value < 0.01) were identified and presented as well. Results: We found that each cluster of patients typically had a most distinguishing adverse event. Examination of the co-occurrences of adverse events in patients led to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles, which also makes it possible to identify adverse event correlations. Used on larger data sets, this data-driven method has the potential to reveal unknown patterns concerning adverse event occurrences. PMID:25249979

  5. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Urvi Kaye, Elena; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focused ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus.

  6. Optical aberrations of intraocular lenses measured in vivo and in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Sergio; Marcos, Susana; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio

    2003-10-01

    Corneal and ocular aberrations were measured in a group of eyes before and after cataract surgery with spherical intraocular lens (IOL) implantation by use of well-tested techniques developed in our laboratory. By subtraction of corneal from total aberration maps, we also estimated the optical quality of the intraocular lens in vivo. We found that aberrations in pseudophakic eyes are not significantly different from aberrations in eyes before cataract surgery or from previously reported aberrations in healthy eyes of the same age. However, aberrations in pseudophakic eyes are significantly higher than in young eyes. We found a slight increase of corneal aberrations after surgery. The aberrations of the IOL and the lack of balance of the corneal spherical aberrations by the spherical aberrations of the intraocular lens also degraded the optical quality in pseudophakic eyes. We also measured the aberrations of the IOL in vitro, using an eye cell model, and simulated the aberrations of the IOL on the basis of the IOL's physical parameters. We found a good agreement among in vivo, in vitro, and simulated measures of spherical aberration: Unlike the spherical aberration of the young crystalline lens, which tends to be negative, the spherical aberration of the IOL is positive and increases with lens power. Computer simulations and in vitro measurements show that tilts and decentrations might be contributors to the increased third-order aberrations in vivo in comparison with in vitro measurements.

  7. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: a focus on syringe exchange program site access and drug-related law enforcement activities

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah LF; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the “risk environment” – defined as the “space … [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission” – draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures – grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies – can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors’ health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors. PMID:18963907

  8. Tuning fifth-order aberrations in a Quadrupole-Octupole Corrector

    SciTech Connect

    Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of conventional electron microscopes is usually limited by spherical aberration. Microscopes equipped with aberration-correctors are then primarily limited by higher-order, chromatic, and misalignment aberrations. In particular the Nion third-order aberration correctors installed on machines with a low energy spread and possessing sophisticated alignment software were limited by the uncorrected fifth-order aberrations. Here we show how the Nion fifth-order aberration corrector can be used to adjust and reduce some of the fourth and fifth-order aberrations in a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope.

  9. Analytical approach to the impact of polarization aberration on lithographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yuanying; Wang, Xiangzhao; Li, Sikun; Cao, Yuting

    2012-06-01

    An analytical approach to the impact of polarization aberration on lithographic imaging is proposed. The linear relationship between image placement error (IPE) of alternating phase-shifting mask (Alt-PSM) and odd aberration items of polarization aberrations, as well as that between best focus shift (BFS) of Alt-PSM and even aberration items of polarization aberrations are established by analytical equations, respectively. The validity of the linear relationships is demonstrated by numerical results. The differences and connections between scalar aberration and polarization aberration are briefly discussed based on these linear relationships.

  10. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  11. Speckle contrast in the diffraction field of weak and strong diffusers, in the presence of spherical aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escamilla, Héctor M.; Méndez, Eugenio R.; Ruiz-Cortés, Víctor; Landgrave, J. Enrique A.

    2014-02-01

    We study theoretically the speckle contrast at the center of the diffraction field of phase diffusers illuminated by a Gaussian beam focused by a lens which introduces primary spherical aberration. Using a Gaussian approximation for the speckle complex amplitude, and assuming that the diffusers introduce Gaussian-distributed random phase fluctuations with an autocorrelation function of Gaussian form, we derive analytical expressions for the mean speckle complex amplitude or direct component, the mean speckle intensity and the speckle contrast, which are valid for arbitrary values of the standard deviation of the phase fluctuations and arbitrary strength of the aberration; the results are valid in both, the Fresnel and Fraunhofer zones of the diffuser. For certain combinations of the aberration coefficient, beam parameters and focal length of the focusing lens, the speckle contrast shows an oscillatory behavior as the strength of the aberration is increased, which has a significant effect on the rate at which the speckle contrast increases as the phase standard deviation increases. We mention the relevance of our results for the measurement of surface roughness.

  12. Primary chromatic aberration elimination via optimization work with genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Hsien-Lin; Chang, En-Hao

    2008-09-01

    Chromatic Aberration plays a part in modern optical systems, especially in digitalized and smart optical systems. Much effort has been devoted to eliminating specific chromatic aberration in order to match the demand for advanced digitalized optical products. Basically, the elimination of axial chromatic and lateral color aberration of an optical lens and system depends on the selection of optical glass. According to reports from glass companies all over the world, the number of various newly developed optical glasses in the market exceeds three hundred. However, due to the complexity of a practical optical system, optical designers have so far had difficulty in finding the right solution to eliminate small axial and lateral chromatic aberration except by the Damped Least Squares (DLS) method, which is limited in so far as the DLS method has not yet managed to find a better optical system configuration. In the present research, genetic algorithms are used to replace traditional DLS so as to eliminate axial and lateral chromatic, by combining the theories of geometric optics in Tessar type lenses and a technique involving Binary/Real Encoding, Multiple Dynamic Crossover and Random Gene Mutation to find a much better configuration for optical glasses. By implementing the algorithms outlined in this paper, satisfactory results can be achieved in eliminating axial and lateral color aberration.

  13. Time sequence of events leading to chromosomal aberration formation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C. ); Bender, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on the influence of the repair polymerases on the yield of different types of chromosomal aberrations. The studies were mainly concerned with the effect of inhibiting the polymerases on the yield of aberrations. The polymerases fill in single-strand regions, and the fact that their inhibition affects the yield of aberrations suggests that single-strand lesions are influential in aberration formation. The results indicate that there are two actions of polymerases in clastogenesis. One is in their involvement in a G[sub 2] repair system, in which either of the two chromatids is concerned, and which does not yield aberrations unless the inhibition is still operating when the cells enter mitosis. The second is such that when repair is inhibited, further damage accrues. The second action is affected by inhibiting polymerase repair, but also operates even when the repair enzymes are active. The production of chromosomal exchanges involves a series of reactions, some of which are reversible. The time span over which the reactions occur is much longer than has been envisaged previously.

  14. Time sequence of events leading to chromosomal aberration formation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C.; Bender, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Investigations have been carried out on the influence of the repair polymerases on the yield of different types of chromosomal aberrations. The studies were mainly concerned with the effect of inhibiting the polymerases on the yield of aberrations. The polymerases fill in single-strand regions, and the fact that their inhibition affects the yield of aberrations suggests that single-strand lesions are influential in aberration formation. The results indicate that there are two actions of polymerases in clastogenesis. One is in their involvement in a G{sub 2} repair system, in which either of the two chromatids is concerned, and which does not yield aberrations unless the inhibition is still operating when the cells enter mitosis. The second is such that when repair is inhibited, further damage accrues. The second action is affected by inhibiting polymerase repair, but also operates even when the repair enzymes are active. The production of chromosomal exchanges involves a series of reactions, some of which are reversible. The time span over which the reactions occur is much longer than has been envisaged previously.

  15. Focusing of an elliptical mirror based system with aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Ai, Min; Zhang, He; Wang, Chao; Tan, Jiubin

    2013-10-01

    The effect of primary aberrations on the focusing of an elliptical mirror based system is studied by using the Debye integral. Specifically, the apodization function for elliptical mirror is derived and expressed by the eccentricity of the elliptical mirror. For the elliptical mirror with low aperture, intensity distributions in the presence of aberrations near focus are presented based on the derived scalar theory, while for the high-aperture condition, vectorial theory is used to describe the electric field in the focal region. In particular, the effect of aberrations is studied under radially polarized illumination. Moreover, tolerance conditions are given based on the knowledge of focusing with aberrations. It is found that the elliptical mirror based system shares a similar level of tolerance conditions with that of the single lens, while both of them are more sensitive to the presence of astigmatism than other aberrations. It is believed that the results will theoretically support the application of the high-aperture elliptical mirror in scanning microscopy.

  16. Sub-ångstrom resolution using aberration corrected electron optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batson, P. E.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L.

    2002-08-01

    Following the invention of electron optics during the 1930s, lens aberrations have limited the achievable spatial resolution to about 50 times the wavelength of the imaging electrons. This situation is similar to that faced by Leeuwenhoek in the seventeenth century, whose work to improve the quality of glass lenses led directly to his discovery of the ubiquitous ``animalcules'' in canal water, the first hints of the cellular basis of life. The electron optical aberration problem was well understood from the start, but more than 60 years elapsed before a practical correction scheme for electron microscopy was demonstrated, and even then the remaining chromatic aberrations still limited the resolution. We report here the implementation of a computer-controlled aberration correction system in a scanning transmission electron microscope, which is less sensitive to chromatic aberration. Using this approach, we achieve an electron probe smaller than 1Å. This performance, about 20 times the electron wavelength at 120keV energy, allows dynamic imaging of single atoms, clusters of a few atoms, and single atomic layer `rafts' of atoms coexisting with Au islands on a carbon substrate. This technique should also allow atomic column imaging of semiconductors, for detection of single dopant atoms, using an electron beam with energy below the damage threshold for silicon.

  17. Minimum change in spherical aberration that can be perceived

    PubMed Central

    Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    It is important to know the visual sensitivity to optical blur from both a basic science perspective and a practical point of view. Of particular interest is the sensitivity to blur induced by spherical aberration because it is being used to increase depth of focus as a component of a presbyopic solution. Using a flicker detection-based procedure implemented on an adaptive optics visual simulator, we measured the spherical aberration thresholds that produce just-noticeable differences in perceived image quality. The thresholds were measured for positive and negative values of spherical aberration, for best focus and + 0.5 D and + 1.0 D of defocus. At best focus, the SA thresholds were 0.20 ± 0.01 µm and −0.17 ± 0.03 µm for positive and negative spherical aberration respectively (referred to a 6-mm pupil). These experimental values may be useful in setting spherical aberration permissible levels in different ophthalmic techniques. PMID:27699113

  18. Chromosome aberrations as biomarkers of radiation exposure: Modelling basic mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, F.; Ottolenghi, A.

    The space radiation environment is a mixed field consisting of different particles having different energies, including high charge and energy (HZE) ions. Conventional measurements of absorbed doses may not be sufficient to completely characterise the radiation field and perform reliable estimates of health risks. Biological dosimetry, based on the observation of specific radiation-induced endpoints (typically chromosome aberrations), can be a helpful approach in case of monitored exposure to space radiation or other mixed fields, as well as in case of accidental exposure. Furthermore, various ratios of aberrations (e.g. dicentric chromosomes to centric rings and complex exchanges to simple exchanges) have been suggested as possible fingerprints of radiation quality, although all of them have been subjected to some criticisms. In this context a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of chromosome aberration induction were developed. The model, able to provide dose-responses for different aberrations (e.g. dicentrics, rings, fragments, translocations, insertions and other complex exchanges), was further developed to assess the dependence of various ratios of aberrations on radiation quality. The predictions of the model were compared with available data, whose experimental conditions were faithfully reproduced. Particular attention was devoted to the scoring criteria adopted in different laboratories and to possible biases introduced by interphase death and mitotic delay. This latter aspect was investigated by taking into account both metaphase data and data obtained with Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC).

  19. Risk estimation based on chromosomal aberrations induced by radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Bonassi, S.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a causal association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes and the risk of cancer has been substantiated recently by epidemiological studies. Cytogenetic analyses of crew members of the Mir Space Station have shown that a significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations can be detected after flight, and that such an increase is likely to be attributed to the radiation exposure. The risk of cancer can be estimated directly from the yields of chromosomal aberrations, taking into account some aspects of individual susceptibility and other factors unrelated to radiation. However, the use of an appropriate technique for the collection and analysis of chromosomes and the choice of the structural aberrations to be measured are crucial in providing sound results. Based on the fraction of aberrant lymphocytes detected before and after flight, the relative risk after a long-term Mir mission is estimated to be about 1.2-1.3. The new technique of mFISH can provide useful insights into the quantification of risk on an individual basis.

  20. Antimutagenic potential of curcumin on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa *

    PubMed Central

    Ragunathan, Irulappan; Panneerselvam, Natarajan

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric has long been used as a spice and food colouring agent in Asia. In the present investigation, the antimutagenic potential of curcumin was evaluated in Allium cepa root meristem cells. So far there is no report on the biological properties of curcumin in plant test systems. The root tip cells were treated with sodium azide at 200 and 300 µg/ml for 3 h and curcumin was given at 5, 10 and 20 µg/ml for 16 h, prior to sodium azide treatment. The tips were squashed after colchicine treatment and the cells were analyzed for chromosome aberration and mitotic index. Curcumin induces chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa root tip cells in an insignificant manner, when compared with untreated control. Sodium azide alone induces chromosomal aberrations significantly with increasing concentrations. The total number of aberrations was significantly reduced in root tip cells pretreated with curcumin. The study reveals that curcumin has antimutagenic potential against sodium azide induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa root meristem cells. In addition, it showed mild cytotoxicity by reducing the percentage of mitotic index in all curcumin treated groups, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. The antimutagenic potential of curcumin is effective at 5 µg/ml in Allium cepa root meristem cells. PMID:17610326

  1. Chromosome aberrations as biomarkers of radiation quality: modelling basic mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottolenghi, A.; Ballarini, F.

    Since space radiation consists of a mixed field of different particles having different energies, including HZE ions, conventional measurements of absorbed doses are not sufficient to completely characterise the radiation field and perform reliable estimates of health risks. Biological dosimetry, based on the observation of specific radiation-induced endpoints (typically chromosome aberrations) after exposure, can be a helpful approach in case of monitored exposure to space radiation or other mixed fields, as well as in case of accidental exposure. Although various ratios of aberrations (e.g. dicentrics to centric rings and complex exchanges to simple exchanges) have been suggested as possible biomarkers both in theoretical and in experimental studies, all of them have been subjected to some criticisms. In this context a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of chromosome aberrations was developed. The model, able to provide dose-responses for different aberrations (e.g. dicentrics, rings, translocations, insertions and other complex exchanges), was further developed to assess the dependence of various ratios of aberrations on radiation quality. The predictions of the model were compared with available data, whose experimental conditions were faithfully reproduced. Particular attention was devoted to the scoring criteria adopted in different laboratories and to possible biases introduced by interphase death and mitotic delay; this latter aspect was investigated by taking into account both metaphase data and data obtained with PCC (Premature Chromosome Condensation).

  2. Effects of contrast medium on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, S.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, H.; Kuwabara, Y.; Okano, T.

    1982-07-01

    The effects of contrast material (meglumine iothalamate) on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations were investigated in studies on the lymphocytes of patients who had undergone diagnostic radiography and in in vitro experiments with diagnostic x rays and /sup 60/Co gamma rays. Chromosome and chromatid aberrations were found to increase significantly with increasing concentrations of contrast material that were added at irradiation. However, the aberrations were not associated with elevation of the ratio of dicentric and ring chromosomes to the number of cells with unstable chromosome aberrations at the first mitosis. Lymphocytes irradiated in the absence of contrast material did not show an increase in chromosome-type aberrations when the agent was given in increasing concentrations during subsequent incubation, but there were greater numbers of chromatid gaps and breaks. When lymphocytes were exposed to 400 R (103.2 mC/kg) of /sup 60/Co gamma rays, the presence of contrast agent did not increase the yield of dicentric and ring chromosomes, but induced a marked delay in cell proliferation, especially in lymphocytes with more heavily damaged chromosomes. In additional examination, the contrast agent itself induced sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes.

  3. Drug-related problems associated with self-medication and medication guided by prescription: A pharmacy-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Abinash; Pradhan, Supriya; Mohapatra, Gurukrushna; Mohapatra, Jigyansa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to identify and compare the nature of the drug-related problems (DRPs) associated with self-medication and non-self-medication (drug use guided by a prescription). Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on 1100 adult participants at a convenience sample of six retail private pharmacy counters. The data collection form was based on the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe version 6.2 classification for DRPs. Descriptive statistics was used to represent the prevalence of DRPs. Chi-square test was used to find out the association between the type of medication and DRPs. Odds ratio (OR) with confidence interval (CI) was computed to find the factors determining the occurrence of DRPs. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 18.72%. The prevalence of DRPs was 17.36%. In the self-medication group, the prevalence of DRPs was high (40.78%) as compared to the non-self-medication group (11.97%). DRP related to inappropriate drug dosing was observed in 44.83% and 40.45% subjects in self-medication and non-self-medication group, respectively (P < 0.001). The subjects in the self-medication group were about 5 times likely to have a DRP (OR: 5.06, CI: 3.59-7.14, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Self-medication is associated with a higher risk of various DRPs. Since retail pharmacy outlet is often the first point of contact between the patient and the health care system in a developing country, interventions like drug information activities at the retail pharmacy is likely to bring down the DRPs associated with self-medication. PMID:27721536

  4. Spectral discrimination in color blind animals via chromatic aberration and pupil shape.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Alexander L; Stubbs, Christopher W

    2016-07-19

    We present a mechanism by which organisms with only a single photoreceptor, which have a monochromatic view of the world, can achieve color discrimination. An off-axis pupil and the principle of chromatic aberration (where different wavelengths come to focus at different distances behind a lens) can combine to provide "color-blind" animals with a way to distinguish colors. As a specific example, we constructed a computer model of the visual system of cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) that have a single unfiltered photoreceptor type. We compute a quantitative image quality budget for this visual system and show how chromatic blurring dominates the visual acuity in these animals in shallow water. We quantitatively show, through numerical simulations, how chromatic aberration can be exploited to obtain spectral information, especially through nonaxial pupils that are characteristic of coleoid cephalopods. We have also assessed the inherent ambiguity between range and color that is a consequence of the chromatic variation of best focus with wavelength. This proposed mechanism is consistent with the extensive suite of visual/behavioral and physiological data that has been obtained from cephalopod studies and offers a possible solution to the apparent paradox of vivid chromatic behaviors in color blind animals. Moreover, this proposed mechanism has potential applicability in organisms with limited photoreceptor complements, such as spiders and dolphins.

  5. Electroacupuncture Treatment Alleviates Central Poststroke Pain by Inhibiting Brain Neuronal Apoptosis and Aberrant Astrocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Gui-Hua; Tao, Shan-Shan; Chen, Man-Tang; Li, Yu-Sang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Tang, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is reported to effectively relieve the central poststroke pain (CPSP). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the detailed mechanisms of action of EA treatment at different frequencies for CPSP. A CPSP model was established with a single collagenase injection to the left ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus. The EA-treated groups then received EA treatment at frequency of 2, 2/15, or 15 Hz for 30 min daily for five days. The pain-related behavioral responses, neuronal apoptosis, glial activation, and the expression of pain signal transmission-related factors (β-catenin, COX-2, and NK-1R) were assessed using behavioral tests, Nissl staining, TUNEL staining, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The low-frequency EA treatment significantly (1) reduced brain tissue damage and hematoma sizes and (2) inhibited neuronal apoptosis, thereby exerting abirritative effects. Meanwhile, the high-frequency EA treatment induced a greater inhibition of the aberrant astrocyte activation, accompanied by the downregulation of the expressions of COX-2, β-catenin, and subsequently NK-1R, thereby alleviating inflammation and producing strong analgesic effects. Together, these findings suggest that CPSP is closely related to pathological changes of the neocortex and hippocampus. EA treatments at different frequencies may exert abirritative effects by inhibiting brain neuronal apoptosis and aberrant astrocyte activation in the brain. PMID:27774321

  6. Spectral discrimination in color blind animals via chromatic aberration and pupil shape

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Alexander L.; Stubbs, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a mechanism by which organisms with only a single photoreceptor, which have a monochromatic view of the world, can achieve color discrimination. An off-axis pupil and the principle of chromatic aberration (where different wavelengths come to focus at different distances behind a lens) can combine to provide “color-blind” animals with a way to distinguish colors. As a specific example, we constructed a computer model of the visual system of cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) that have a single unfiltered photoreceptor type. We compute a quantitative image quality budget for this visual system and show how chromatic blurring dominates the visual acuity in these animals in shallow water. We quantitatively show, through numerical simulations, how chromatic aberration can be exploited to obtain spectral information, especially through nonaxial pupils that are characteristic of coleoid cephalopods. We have also assessed the inherent ambiguity between range and color that is a consequence of the chromatic variation of best focus with wavelength. This proposed mechanism is consistent with the extensive suite of visual/behavioral and physiological data that has been obtained from cephalopod studies and offers a possible solution to the apparent paradox of vivid chromatic behaviors in color blind animals. Moreover, this proposed mechanism has potential applicability in organisms with limited photoreceptor complements, such as spiders and dolphins. PMID:27382180

  7. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  8. Emergency Department Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Involving Antidepressants by Adolescents and Young Adults: 2004 to 2008. The DAWN Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, adolescents made 23,124 visits to the emergency department (ED) for drug-related suicide attempts, and young adults made 38,036 such visits; of these visits, 23.0 percent (5,312 visits) among adolescents and 17.6 percent (6,700 visits) among young adults involved antidepressants. Among ED visits for suicide attempts involving…

  9. Differential aberration correction (DAC) microscopy: a new molecular ruler.

    PubMed

    Vallotton, P

    2008-11-01

    Considerable efforts have been deployed towards measuring molecular range distances in fluorescence microscopy. In the 1-10 nm range, Förster energy transfer microscopy is difficult to beat. Above 300 nm, conventional diffraction limited microscopy is suitable. We introduce a simple experimental technique that allows bridging the gap between those two resolution scales in both 2D and 3D with a resolution of about 20 nm. The method relies on a computational approach to accurately correct optical aberrations over the whole field of view. The method is differential because the probes of interest are affected in exactly the same manner by aberrations as are the reference probes used to construct the aberration deformation field. We expect that this technique will have significant implications for investigating structural and functional questions in bio-molecular sciences.

  10. Conformal dome aberration correction by designing the inner surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wang; Chen, Shouqian; Fan, Zhigang

    2016-12-01

    The ray transmission models of optical domes were established, and the characteristics of the rays while passing through a hemispherical dome and a conformal dome were comparatively analysed. Acquiring the minimum deviated angles from the inner surface of the conformal dome was then determined to be the designing goal for reducing the dynamic aberrations. Based on this, the inner surface of the conformal dome was optimized and thus, the dynamic aberrations were reduced. Finally, a completely cooled conformal optical system was designed. The results show that the optical system have produced good imaging quality within all the fields of regard, which further illustrates that designing the inner surface of a conformal dome is an effective method for aberration correction.

  11. [Chromosome aberrations in workers in a printing press].

    PubMed

    Pelclová, D; Rössner, P; Pícková, J; Hykes, P

    1990-08-10

    Using cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes the authors examined three groups of subjects: 42 rotogravure printers exposed to toluene in concentrations of 400-4400 mg.m-3 for a mean period of 13 years, 28 administrative employees of the printing plant exposed to low concentrations of toluene (8-16 mg.m-3) in their offices, whereby more than half of them spent on average two hours in the photogravure workshop, and 32 control subjects. In the printers 3.64% subjects, in the office staff 3.32% aberrant cells were found. The difference between the control group and the two groups from the printing plant was highly significant as regards the number of aberrant cells (P less than 0.005) and chromatid breaks and number of breaks per cell. The higher frequency of aberrant cells in probably associated with exposure to toluene, gravure printing dyes and in all three groups also with the highly contaminated communal atmosphere.

  12. Adaptive phase aberration correction based on imperialist competitive algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, R; Hajimahmoodzadeh, M; Fallah, H R

    2014-01-01

    We investigate numerically the feasibility of phase aberration correction in a wavefront sensorless adaptive optical system, based on the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA). Considering a 61-element deformable mirror (DM) and the Strehl ratio as the cost function of ICA, this algorithm is employed to search the optimum surface profile of DM for correcting the phase aberrations in a solid-state laser system. The correction results show that ICA is a powerful correction algorithm for static or slowly changing phase aberrations in optical systems, such as solid-state lasers. The correction capability and the convergence speed of this algorithm are compared with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. The results indicate that these algorithms have almost the same correction capability. Also, ICA and GA are almost the same in convergence speed and SPGD is the fastest of these algorithms.

  13. Aberrant Protein S-Nitrosylation in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomohiro; Tu, Shichun; Akhtar, Mohd Waseem; Sunico, Carmen R.; Okamoto, Shu-ichi; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-mediated posttranslational modification that regulates protein function via covalent reaction of nitric oxide (NO)-related species with a cysteine thiol group on the target protein. Under physiological conditions, S-nitrosylation can be an important modulator of signal transduction pathways, akin to phosphorylation. However, with aging or environmental toxins that generate excessive NO, aberrant S-nitrosylation reactions can occur and affect protein misfolding, mitochondrial fragmentation, synaptic function, apoptosis or autophagy. Here, we discuss how aberrantly S-nitrosylated proteins (SNO-proteins) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Insight into the pathophysiological role of aberrant S-nitrosylation pathways will enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms leading to neurodegenerative diseases and point to potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:23719160

  14. Ischemic Stroke Injury Is Mediated by Aberrant Cdk5

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Douglas A.; Torres-Altoro, Melissa I.; Tan, Zhenjun; Tozzi, Alessandro; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; DiNapoli, Vincent; Plattner, Florian; Kansy, Janice W.; Benkovic, Stanley A.; Huber, Jason D.; Miller, Diane B.; Greengard, Paul; Calabresi, Paolo; Rosen, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Treatment options are limited and only a minority of patients receive acute interventions. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate neuronal injury and death may identify targets for neuroprotective treatments. Here we show that the aberrant activity of the protein kinase Cdk5 is a principal cause of neuronal death in rodents during stroke. Ischemia induced either by embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo or by oxygen and glucose deprivation in brain slices caused calpain-dependent conversion of the Cdk5-activating cofactor p35 to p25. Inhibition of aberrant Cdk5 during ischemia protected dopamine neurotransmission, maintained field potentials, and blocked excitotoxicity. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or conditional knock-out (CKO) of Cdk5 prevented neuronal death in response to ischemia. Moreover, Cdk5 CKO dramatically reduced infarctions following MCAO. Thus, targeting aberrant Cdk5 activity may serve as an effective treatment for stroke. PMID:24920629

  15. In vivo chromosome aberration test for hydroxyapetite in mice.

    PubMed

    Kannan, T P; Nik Ahmad Shah, N L; Azlina, A; Samsudin, A R; Narazah, M Y; Salleh, Ma'arof

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluates the cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (source: School of Material and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the bone marrow cells of mice. Mice are exposed to synthetic hydroxyapatite granules, the bone marrow cells are collected and observed for chromosome aberrations. No chromosome aberrations were noticed in the animals exposed to distilled water (negative control) and to the test substance, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (treatment) groups. Chromosome aberrations were observed in the animals exposed to Mitomycin C (positive control group). There was no indication of cytotoxicity due to synthetic hydroxyapatite granules in the animals as revealed by the mitotic index. Hence, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules are considered non-mutagenic under the prevailing test conditions.

  16. Low chromatic aberration hexapole for molecular state selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yi; Deng, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    In molecular beam state-selection experiments, the electrostatic hexapole acts as an optical lens, imaging molecules from the source to the focus. The molecular longitudinal velocity spread induces the phenomenon of chromatic aberration, which will reduce the state-selection purity. We propose a scheme which can effectively reduce the chromatic aberration by changing the hexapole voltage operating manner. The hexapole is already charged before molecules arrive at the entrance of the hexapole. When molecules are completely inside the hexapole, the voltage is switched off rapidly at an appropriate time. In this manner, faster molecules travel a longer hexapole focusing region than slower molecules. Therefore the focusing positions of molecules with different velocities become close. Numerical trajectory simulations of molecular state selection are carried out, and the results show that this low chromatic aberration hexapole can significantly improve the state purity from 46.2% to 87.0%.

  17. Dynamic compensation of chromatic aberration in a programmable diffractive lens.

    PubMed

    Millán, María S; Otón, Joaquín; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet

    2006-10-02

    A proposal to dynamically compensate chromatic aberration of a programmable phase Fresnel lens displayed on a liquid crystal device and working under broadband illumination is presented. It is based on time multiplexing a set of lenses, designed with a common focal length for different wavelengths, and a tunable spectral filter that makes each sublens work almost monochromatically. Both the tunable filter and the sublens displayed by the spatial light modulator are synchronized. The whole set of sublenses are displayed within the integration time of the sensor. As a result the central order focalization has a unique location at the focal plane and it is common for all selected wavelengths. Transversal chromatic aberration of the polychromatic point spread function is reduced by properly adjusting the pupil size of each sublens. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is compensated by making depth of focus curves coincident for the selected wavelengths. Experimental results are in very good agreement with theory.

  18. Measuring chromatic aberrations in imaging systems using plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaro, Sylvain D.; Roschuk, Tyler R.; Maier, Stefan A.; Oulton, Rupert F.

    2016-04-01

    Chromatic aberration in optical systems arises from the wavelength dependence of a glass's refractive index. Polychromatic rays incident upon an optical surface are refracted at slightly different angles and in traversing an optical system follow distinct paths creating images displaced according to color. Although arising from dispersion, it manifests as a spatial distortion correctable only with compound lenses with multiple glasses and accumulates in complicated imaging systems. While chromatic aberration is measured with interferometry, simple methods are attractive for their ease of use and low cost. In this letter we retrieve the longitudinal chromatic focal shift of high numerical aperture (NA) microscope objectives from the extinction spectra of metallic nanoparticles within the focal plane. The method is accurate for high NA objectives with apochromatic correction, and enables rapid assessment of the chromatic aberration of any complete microscopy systems, since it is straightforward to implement

  19. Aberrant hepatic arteries running through pancreatic parenchyma encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Jianwei; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Zongli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Aberrant hepatic arteries (HAs) encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy are difficult to manage. Mehtods: Two cases with rare types of aberrant HA running through the pancreatic parenchyma were reviewed. Results: The first case, a 68-year-old man, was admitted with obstructive jaundice. A tumor of the pancreatic head and aberrant HAs were suspected on computed tomography (CT) scan. At laparotomy, a new variation was identified; namely, 2 aberrant arteries—a right replaced HA and middle HA (RMHA) that both originated from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and ran via intrapancreatic paths posterior and anterior to the pancreatic head, respectively. Branches of the RMHA to the pancreas were ligated and severed and the trunk preserved. The RMHA was mistakenly identified as an aberrant left HA (RLHA), whereas the RLHA was overlooked and not dissected intraoperatively. CT angiography performed 11 days postoperatively identified that the RLHA originated from the left gastric artery (LGA). The second case had a variation of Michels IX. A 58-year-old woman presented with obstructive jaundice and a distal cholangiocarcinoma was suspected on the basis of enhanced CT scan. At laparotomy, the common hepatic artery (CHA) was found to originate entirely from the SMA and run posterior to the pancreatic head via an intrapancreatic path. The segment of CHA in the pancreatic parenchyma was removed and reconstructed with the LGA. Conclusions: Preoperative identification of aberrant HAs helps in planning appropriate operative procedures and minimizing unnecessary complications. Both preservation and reconstruction of these arteries are technically safe and feasible; however, preservation is preferable. PMID:27930504

  20. Chromosome aberration assays in genetic toxicology testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ishidate, M; Miura, K F; Sofuni, T

    1998-08-03

    The chromosome aberration test using cultured mammalian cells is one of the sensitive methods to predict environmental mutagens and/or carcinogens, and is a complementary test to the Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test). From our recent survey of 951 chemicals which have been tested for their clastogenicity in cultured mammalian cells such as Chinese hamster fibroblasts or human lymphocytes, it was noted that 47% of them are consistently positive either with or without metabolic activation. When the test was performed using the cell line CHL/IU, 39.2% (292/745) were found to be positive. However, 8% (36/447) of such clastogens were positive only at an extremely high concentration of more than 10 mM. About 11% (48/447) of clastogens such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) and methyl AalphaC (Glob-P-1) induced mainly polyploid cells. Most chemicals induced chromatid-type aberrations, some induce only break-type aberrations at relatively high dose levels, but others induce more exchange-type aberrations at relatively low dose levels. Clastogenic activities were compared among different clastogens, using the D20 value, which is the minimum dose (mg/ml) at which aberrations were found in 20% of metaphases. In addition, the translocation (TR) value was calculated from the incidence of cells with exchange-type aberrations. It was suggested that possible carcinogens are included in the group of compounds with relatively low D20 values, but with high TR values. Karyological analysis was performed, using a FISH painting probe prepared from No. 1 chromosome of CHO cells, on the clonal subline isolated after treatment with benzo(a)pyrene. However, no specific changes common to the agent were detected. Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) was also applied to screen for abnormal karyotypes. A translocation between particular chromosomes was reflected by the deletion of a DNA peak.

  1. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    SciTech Connect

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I

    2001-12-31

    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  2. Chromatic aberration effect on solar energy systems using Fresnel lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzo, E.

    1981-11-01

    In concentration systems using Fresnel lenses the effect of the chromatic aberration can become important. In this paper we propose a method to take this effect into account for designing purposes. Also we define a parameter that allows one to estimate the degradation of the thermodynamic quality of the concentrator due to this effect. This parameter follows a hyperbolic law, with the acceptance angle showing that it is important to consider chromatic aberration when modeling concentrators with a high concentration factor. However, this complexity is unnecessary for moderate or low concentration factors.

  3. A study on optical aberrations in parabolic neutron guides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Yuntao; Zu, Yong; He, Linfeng; Wei, Guohai; Sun, Kai; Han, Songbai; Chen, Dongfeng

    2015-06-01

    It is widely believed that a neutron beam can be focused to a small spot using a parabolic guide, which will significantly improve the flux. However, researchers have also noted challenges for the neutron inhomogeneous phase space distribution in parabolic focusing guide systems. In this paper, the sources of most prominent optical aberrations, such as an inhomogeneous phase space distribution and irregular divergence distribution, are discussed, and an optimization solution is also proposed. We indicate that optimizing the parabolic guide geometrical configuration removes almost all of the aberrations and yields a considerable intensity gain factor.

  4. Description of optical aberrations in dynamic Fresnel dish concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Borton, D.N.; Borton, C.J.

    1995-10-01

    Tracking solar dish concentrators have the highest efficiencies of solar devices. Traditional paraboloidal dish systems have the best optics, but are limited in size by mechanical constraints. Fresnel dishes can be made larger and are cheaper than paraboloidal dishes, but have optical imperfections. This paper describes a mathematical model of a dynamic Fresnel dish concentrator, and examines its optics. Optical aberrations of any design can be described for any day of the year. In general, the aberrations are small and the benefits of a Fresnel design outweigh the loss in optical performance. The model can be used to design concentrators for any application including distributed dish electric power generating systems.

  5. Aberration Theory - A Spectrum Of Design Techniques For The Perplexed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, David

    1986-10-01

    The early medieval scholar Maimonides wrote a famous book called "Guide for the Perplexed", which explained various thorny philosophical and religious questions for the benefit of the puzzled novice. I wish I had had such a person to guide me when I first started a career in lens design. There the novice is often struck by how much of an "art" this endeavor is. The best bet, for a beginner with no experience, should be to turn to optical aberration theory - which, in principle, should explain much of what goes into designing an optical system. Unfortunately, this subject is usually presented in the form of proofs and derivations, with little time spent on the practical implications of aberration theory. Furthermore, a new generation of lens designers, who grew up with the computer, often consider aberration theory as an unnecessary relic from the past. My career, by contrast, is based on the conviction that using the results of aberration theory is the only intelligent way to design optical systems. Computers are an invaluable aide, but we must, ultimately, bite the bullet and think. Along these lines, I have given several papers over the last few years which deal directly with the philosophy of lens design; the kind of guides for the perplexed that I wished I had had from the start. These papers include: "Lens design on a desert island - A simple method of optical design", "A modular method of optical design", "Optical design with air lenses", "Optical design with 'phantom' aspherics", "Optical design methods: your head as a personal computer", "Aberration theory and the meaning of life", and a paper at Innsbruck - "Some interesting correspondences in aberration theory". In all cases, the emphasis is on using your head to think, and the computer to help you out with the numerical work and the "fine-tuning" of a design. To hope that the computer will do the thinking for you is folly. Solutions gained by this route rarely equal the results of an experienced and

  6. Increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in railroad car painters.

    PubMed

    Piña-Calva, A; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Fuentes, M V; Neria, P; Pérez-Lucio, C; Vélez-Zamora, N M

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to paints and solvents contributes to chromosomal alterations in occupationally exposed individuals. A total of 25 male railroad and underground railroad car painters were studied. This group had a mean age of 32.7 y and a mean exposure time of 5.2 y. The results were compared with those obtained for 25 healthy (unexposed) males. The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations clearly revealed an increase in the number of all types of aberrations considered in the population of painters. This suggests that exposure to a combination of chemicals may increase genotoxicity in industrial workers.

  7. An integrative characterization of recurrent molecular aberrations in glioblastoma genomes.

    PubMed

    Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Liu, Pei-Ling; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Decades of investigations and the recent effort of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project have mapped many molecular alterations in GBM cells. Alterations on DNAs may dysregulate gene expressions and drive malignancy of tumors. It is thus important to uncover causal and statistical dependency between 'effector' molecular aberrations and 'target' gene expressions in GBMs. A rich collection of prior studies attempted to combine copy number variation (CNV) and mRNA expression data. However, systematic methods to integrate multiple types of cancer genomic data-gene mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms, CNVs, DNA methylations, mRNA and microRNA expressions and clinical information-are relatively scarce. We proposed an algorithm to build 'association modules' linking effector molecular aberrations and target gene expressions and applied the module-finding algorithm to the integrated TCGA GBM data sets. The inferred association modules were validated by six tests using external information and datasets of central nervous system tumors: (i) indication of prognostic effects among patients; (ii) coherence of target gene expressions; (iii) retention of effector-target associations in external data sets; (iv) recurrence of effector molecular aberrations in GBM; (v) functional enrichment of target genes; and (vi) co-citations between effectors and targets. Modules associated with well-known molecular aberrations of GBM-such as chromosome 7 amplifications, chromosome 10 deletions, EGFR and NF1 mutations-passed the majority of the validation tests. Furthermore, several modules associated with less well-reported molecular aberrations-such as chromosome 11 CNVs, CD40, PLXNB1 and GSTM1 methylations, and mir-21 expressions-were also validated by external information. In particular, modules constituting trans-acting effects with chromosome 11 CNVs and cis-acting effects with chromosome

  8. Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

  9. Aberration compensation and resolution improvement of focus modulation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Gao, Peng; Shao, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has wide applications in biological research and medical diagnosis. However, the spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of CLSM is reduced in the presence of an aberration. Here we improve the pupil-segmentation method to measure and compensate for aberrations in focus modulation CLSM (FM-CLSM), which uses Gaussian-type and doughnut-like foci to scan a sample in sequence. As a result, FM-CLSM can provide images with a high resolution and a high SNR for biomedical or industrial applications.

  10. Risk factors for developing drug-related problems in patients with cardiovascular diseases attending Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abdela, Ousman Abubeker; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Getachew, Henok; Kelifa, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are often accompanied with comoribidities and complications leading to taking multiple drugs and thus are more liable to be exposed to drug-related problems (DRPs). DRPs can occur at any stages of medication process from prescription to follow-up treatment. However, a few studies have assessed the specific risk factors for occurrence of at least one potential DRP per patient with CVDs in sub-Saharan African region. Aim: We aim to assess the risk factors for developing potential DRPs in patients with CVDs attending Gondar University Referral Hospital (GUH). Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study. A structured systematic data review was designed focusing on patients with CVDs (both out and inpatients) with age >18 years of both genders attending GUH from April to June 2015. All DRPs were assessed using drugs.com and Medscape. The causes of DRPs were classified using Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe version 6.2. Risk factors that could cause DRPs were assessed using binary logistic regression showing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 227 patients with CVDs were reviewed with a mean age of 52.0 ± 1.7 years. Majority were females (143, 63%), outpatients (133, 58.6%), and diagnosed with heart failure (71, 31.3%). Diuretics (199, 29.5%) were the most commonly prescribed drugs. A total of 265 DRPs were identified, 63.4% of patients have at least one DRP (1.17 ± 1.1). The most common DRPs were found to be an inappropriate selection of drug (36.1%) and dose (24.8%). The most identified risk factors causing DRPs were: Need of additional drug therapy and lack of therapeutic monitoring. Conclusion: The most identified risk factors for developing DRPs were the need of additional drug therapy and lack of therapeutic monitoring. There is a need for clinical pharmacist interventions to monitor and prevent the risk of developing DRPs and contribute to

  11. Drug scene, drug use and drug-related health consequences and responses in Kulob and Khorog, Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    Latypov, Alisher; Otiashvili, David; Zule, William

    2014-01-01

    Background Tajikistan and other Central Asian republics are facing intertwined epidemics of injecting drug use and HIV. This paper aims to examine drug scene, drug use, drug-related infectious diseases, drug treatment and other responses to health consequences of drug injecting in two Tajik cities of Kulob (Khatlon Region) and Khorog (Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast). Methods We conducted twelve focus group discussions in Kulob and Khorog and analysed peer-reviewed literature, published and unpublished programme and country reports and other publications that focused on substance use and/or HIV/AIDS in Tajikistan and included the Khatlon and Gorno-Badakhshan regions. Results In both Kulob and Khorog, heroin is used by the overwhelming majority of people who inject drugs (PWID), with one dose of heroin in Khorog costing less than a bottle of vodka. Opioid overdose among PWID in Tajikistan is a serious issue that appears to be substantially underestimated and inadequately addressed at the policy and practice levels. In integrated bio-behavioural surveys (IBBS), HIV and HCV prevalence in both Kulob and Khorog varied widely over a short period of time, raising questions over the quality and reliability of these data. Access to opioid substitution therapy (OST) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) by PWID is either lacking or inadequate. Very few women who inject drugs access needle and syringe programmes in Kulob and Khorog. HCV treatment cannot be afforded by the overwhelming majority of PWID due to high costs. Conclusion Tajikistan IBBS data point to the potential problems in using composite national prevalence as an adequate reflection of the HIV epidemic among PWID in the country and highlight the importance of examining site-specific prevalence rates for better understanding of the dynamics of the epidemic over time as well as potential problems related to the reliability of data. Furthermore, our analysis highlights that in a country where almost all PWID inject

  12. The Missing Psychological Behaviorism Chapter in "A History of the Behavioral Therapies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    "A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…

  13. Measurement of large low-order aberrations by using a series of through-focus Ronchigrams.

    PubMed

    Akima, Hisanao; Yoshida, Takaho

    2014-08-01

    A method for measuring large aberrations up to second order (defocus, 2-fold astigmatism and axial coma), which uses a through-focus series of Ronchigrams, is proposed. The method is based on the principle that line-focus conditions in Ronchigrams can be locally detected and low-order aberrations can thereby be measured. The proposed method provides auto-tuning of large low-order aberration; in particular, iterative aberration measurement and correction reduce low-order aberrations from several thousand nanometers to less than a few hundred nanometers, which can be handled by conventional fine-aberration tuning methods.

  14. The spherical aberration of the crystalline lens of the human eye.

    PubMed

    Smith, G; Cox, M J; Calver, R; Garner, L F

    2001-01-15

    The in vivo spherical aberration of the lenses of 26 subjects was estimated from the measured total aberration of the eye and that predicted from the measured shape of the anterior corneal surface. Since it was only possible to estimate the aberration contribution from the posterior corneal surface, its value led to an uncertainty in the final aberration level of the lens. For all the subjects and for a wide range of possible aberration levels at the posterior corneal surface, the spherical aberration of the relaxed lens was found to be negative.

  15. Aberrant Pattern of Scanning in Prosopagnosia Reflects Impaired Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Blossom Christa Maree; Caine, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Visual scanpath recording was used to investigate the information processing strategies used by a prosopagnosic patient, SC, when viewing faces. Compared to controls, SC showed an aberrant pattern of scanning, directing attention away from the internal configuration of facial features (eyes, nose) towards peripheral regions (hair, forehead) of the…

  16. The Aberrant Salience Inventory: A New Measure of Psychosis Proneness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant salience is the unusual or incorrect assignment of salience, significance, or importance to otherwise innocuous stimuli and has been hypothesized to be important for psychosis and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Despite the importance of this concept in psychosis research, no questionnaire measures are available to assess…

  17. Benzene-induced chromosome aberrations: A follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Forni, A.

    1996-12-01

    To study the evolution of cytogenetic damage from past exposure to high concentrations of benzene and its health significance, chromosome aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes were reinvestigated after approximately 20 years in four subjects with past severe hemopathy and in seven controls studied in the late 1960s. Increased chromosome-type aberrations were still present up to 30 years after benzene toxicity, but blood counts were normal. The vital status at the end of 1993 was ascertained for 32 subjects with a history of benzene toxicity and for 31 controls studied for CA from 1965 to 1970, who differed significantly for CA rates. Of the 32 benzene-exposed subjects, 1 was lost to follow-up, 20 were still alive, and 11 had died at ages 36 to 83, between 1 and 20 years after the last CA study. Five deaths were from neoplasia (acute erythroleukemia, brain tumor, cancer of lung, paranasal cavity, esophagus). The deceased subjects had significantly higher rates of chromosome-type aberrations than those alive, and those who died of neoplasia had the highest rates of these aberrations in the last study before death or diagnosis of cancer. Out of the 31 controls, 12 had died from 4 to 23 years after the CA study. Three deaths were from neoplasia (two lung cancer, one brain tumor). Even if this is a small sample, the results suggest a higher risk of cancer for the benzene-exposed cohort, who had persistently high CA rates in lymphocytes. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Chromosome aberrations in plants as a monitoring system.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, W F

    1978-01-01

    The potential of higher plants as a first-tier assay system for detecting chemical mutagens is evaluated. The use of plant tissue (primarily root tips and pollen mother cells) for studying the induction of chromosomal aberrations is one of the oldest, simplest, most reliable, and inexpensive methods available. Specific types of abnormalities have been induced by different classes of pesticides. Chromosome clumping, contraction, stickiness, paling, fragmentation, dissolution, chromosome and chromatid bridges, C-mitosis, and endoploidy have been reported in the literature. Examples of cytogenetic studies with pesticides demonstrating the usefulness of higher plants as a monitoring system are reviewed. Pesticides which cause chromosome aberrations in plant cells also produce chromosome aberrations in cultured animal cells. Frequently, the aberrations are identical. For example, studies have shown that compounds which have a C-mitotic effect on plant cells have the same effect on animal cells. It is recommended that plant systems be accepted as a first-tier assay system for the detection of possible genetic damage by environmental chemicals. PMID:367773

  19. [Cytogenetic aberrations in histologically benign infiltratively growing sphenoid wing meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, A G; Cherekaev, V A; Bekiashev, A Kh; Sycheva, R V

    2007-01-01

    Meningiomas of the sphenoid wing (SW) frequently show an invasive pattern of growth and cause destruction of the adjacent structures. As a result, the rate of recurrent SW meningiomas is as high as 30%. Cytogenetic investigations showed no aberrations specific to invasively growing meningiomas. During this study, the authors evaluated 10 invasive and 5 non-invasive SW meningiomas via comparative genome hybridization (CGH) (matrix CGH), by using the gene chips of GenoSensor Array micromatrixes. The mean number of aberrations in the tumor cells was much greater in case of invasive meningiomas (67.4 versus 40.5 in case of non-invasive SW meningiomas. Furthermore, in invasive SW meningiomas, there were frequently losses in loci 1p, 6q, and 14q and gains in loci 15q and 10, which had been predetermined as molecular markers of stepwise progression of meningioma. Thus, the presence of a complex cytogenetic profile and progression-associated chromosome aberrations in benign SW meningiomas is linked with the increase of their invasive potential. Due to the fact that there are no well-defined adjuvant therapy regimens for recurring meningiomas at present, the revealed genomic aberrations may become potential targets for searching for drugs and a therapeutic intervention in future.

  20. Aberrant nerve fibres within the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Moffie, D

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of aberrant nerve fibres in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are described. The literature on these fibres is discussed and their possible role in regeneration. Different views on the possibility of regeneration or functional recovery of the central nervous system are mentioned in the light of recent publications, which are more optimistic than before.

  1. Mapping magnetism with atomic resolution using aberrated electron probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, Juan; Rusz, Ján; McGuire, Michael A.; Symons, Christopher T.; Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Lupini, Andrew R.

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, we report a direct experimental real-space mapping of magnetic circular dichroism with atomic resolution in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Using an aberrated electron probe with customized phase distribution, we reveal with electron energy-loss (EEL) spectroscopy the checkerboard antiferromagnetic ordering of Mn moments in LaMnAsO by observing a dichroic signal in the Mn L-edge. The aberrated probes allow the collection of EEL spectra using the transmitted beam, which results in a magnetic circular dichroic signal with intrinsically larger signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained via nanodiffraction techniques (where most of the transmitted electrons are discarded). The novel experimental setup presented here, which can easily be implemented in aberration-corrected STEM, opens new paths for probing dichroic signals in materials with unprecedented spatial resolution. This research was supported by DOE SUFD MSED, by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US DOE, and by the Swedish Research Council and Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (NSC center)

  2. Nanowire growth kinetics in aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Yi -Chia; Panciera, Federico; Reuter, Mark C.; Stach, Eric A.; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-03-15

    Here, we visualize atomic level dynamics during Si nanowire growth using aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy, and compare with lower pressure results from ultra-high vacuum microscopy. We discuss the importance of higher pressure observations for understanding growth mechanisms and describe protocols to minimize effects of the higher pressure background gas.

  3. The pterygo-spinous muscle--an aberrant (atavic) remnant.

    PubMed

    Nathan, H

    1989-01-01

    We report here on an aberrant pterygoid muscle found during a dissection of the infratemporal fossa. We have not noted such a muscle in hundreds of dissections in the area. A few anatomical texts (Piersol, 1911; Testut, Latarjet, 1931) have referred to its possible existence as the pterygo-spinous muscle.

  4. Aberrant Learning and Memory in Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Torregrossa, Mary M.; Corlett, Philip R.; Taylor, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, drug addiction has increasingly been accepted to be a disease of the brain as opposed to simply being due to a lack of willpower or personality flaw. Exposure to addictive substances has been shown to create enduring changes in brain structure and function that are thought to underlie the transition to addiction. Specific genetic and environmental vulnerability factors also influence the impact of drugs of abuse on the brain and can enhance the likelihood of becoming an addict. Long-lasting alterations in brain function have been found in neural circuits that are known to be responsible for normal appetitive learning and memory processes and it has been hypothesized that drugs of abuse enhance positive learning and memory about the drug while inhibiting learning about the negative consequences of drug use. Therefore, the addict's behavior becomes increasingly directed towards obtaining and using drugs of abuse, while at the same time developing a poorer ability to stop using, even when the drug is less rewarding or interferes with functioning in other facets of life. In this review we will discuss the clinical evidence that addicted individuals have altered learning and memory and describe the possible neural substrates of this dysfunction. In addition, we will explore the preclinical evidence that drugs of abuse cause a progressive disorder of learning and memory, review the molecular and neurobiological changes that may underlie this disorder, determine the genetic and environmental factors that may increase vulnerability to addiction, and suggest potential strategies for treating addiction through manipulations of learning and memory. PMID:21376820

  5. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlmann-Diaz, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 10[sup 5] copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G[sub 0], the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes.

  6. Non-Gaussianity and CMB aberration and Doppler

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Notari, Alessio E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it E-mail: arenzi@pd.infn.it

    2013-09-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces a deflection in the arrival direction of the observed photons (also known as CMB aberration) and a Doppler shift in the measured photon frequencies. As a consequence, aberration and Doppler effects induce non trivial correlations between the harmonic coefficients of the observed CMB temperature maps. In this paper we investigate whether these correlations generate a bias on non-Gaussianity estimators f{sub NL}. We perform this analysis simulating a large number of temperature maps with Planck-like resolution (lmax = 2000) as different realizations of the same cosmological fiducial model (WMAP7yr). We then add to these maps aberration and Doppler effects employing a modified version of the HEALPix code. We finally evaluate a generalization of the Komatsu, Spergel and Wandelt non-Gaussianity estimator for all the simulated maps, both when peculiar velocity effects have been considered and when these phenomena have been neglected. Using the value v/c = 1.23 × 10{sup −3} for our peculiar velocity, we found that the aberration/Doppler induced non-Gaussian signal is at most of about half of the cosmic variance σ for f{sub NL} both in a full-sky and in a cut-sky experimental configuration, for local, equilateral and orthogonal estimators. We conclude therefore that when estimating f{sub NL} it is safe to ignore aberration and Doppler effects if the primordial map is already Gaussian. More work is necessary however to assess whether a map which contains non-Gaussianity can be significantly distorted by a peculiar velocity.

  7. Canine urothelial carcinoma: genomically aberrant and comparatively relevant

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, S. G.; Raghunath, S.; Williams, C.; Motsinger-Reif, A. A.; Cullen, J. M.; Liu, T.; Albertson, D.; Ruvolo, M.; Lucas, A. Bergstrom; Jin, J.; Knapp, D. W.; Schiffman, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC), also referred to as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), is the most common bladder malignancy in both human and canine populations. In human UC, numerous studies have demonstrated the prevalence of chromosomal imbalances. Although the histopathology of the disease is similar in both species, studies evaluating the genomic profile of canine UC are lacking, limiting the discovery of key comparative molecular markers associated with driving UC pathogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated 31 primary canine UC biopsies by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH). Results highlighted the presence of three highly recurrent numerical aberrations: gain of dog chromosome (CFA) 13 and 36 and loss of CFA 19. Regional gains of CFA 13 and 36 were present in 97% and 84% of cases, respectively, and losses on CFA 19 were present in 77% of cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and custom Agilent SureFISH probes, was performed to detect and quantify these regions in paraffin-embedded biopsy sections and urine-derived urothelial cells. The data indicate that these three aberrations are potentially diagnostic of UC. Comparison of our canine oaCGH data with that of 285 human cases identified a series of shared copy number aberrations. Using an informatics approach to interrogate the frequency of copy number aberrations across both species, we identified those that had the highest joint probability of association with UC. The most significant joint region contained the gene PABPC1, which should be considered further for its role in UC progression. In addition, cross-species filtering of genome-wide copy number data highlighted several genes as high-profile candidates for further analysis, including CDKN2A, S100A8/9, and LRP1B. We propose that these common aberrations are indicative of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of pathogenesis and harbor genes key to

  8. Child maltreatment, parent alcohol and drug-related problems, polydrug problems, and parenting practices: a test of gender differences and four theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Locke, Thomas F; Newcomb, Michael

    2004-03-01

    The authors tested how adverse childhood experiences (child maltreatment and parent alcohol- and drug-related problems) and adult polydrug use (as a mediator) predict poor parenting in a community sample (237 mothers and 81 fathers). These relationships were framed within several theoretical perspectives, including observational learning, impaired functioning, self-medication, and parentification-pseudomaturity. Structural models revealed that child maltreatment predicted poor parenting practices among mothers. Parent alcohol- and drug-related problems had an indirect detrimental influence on mothers' parenting and practices through self-drug problems. Among fathers, emotional neglect experienced as a child predicted lack of parental warmth more parental neglect, and sexual abuse experienced as a child predicted a rejecting style of parenting.

  9. Aberrant Cx26 hemichannels and keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome: insights into syndromic hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Helmuth A.; Verselis, Vytas K.

    2014-01-01

    Mutation of the GJB2 gene, which encodes the connexin 26 (Cx26) gap junction (GJ) protein, is the most common cause of hereditary, sensorineural hearing loss. Cx26 is not expressed in hair cells, but is widely expressed throughout the non-sensory epithelial cells of the cochlea. Most GJB2 mutations produce non-syndromic deafness, but a subset produces syndromic deafness in which profound hearing loss is accompanied by a diverse array of infectious and neoplastic cutaneous disorders that can be fatal. Although GJ channels, which are assembled by the docking of two, so-called hemichannels (HCs), have been the main focus of deafness-associated disease models, it is now evident that the HCs themselves can function in the absence of docking and contribute to signaling across the cell membrane as a novel class of ion channel. A notable feature of syndromic deafness mutants is that the HCs exhibit aberrant behaviors providing a plausible basis for disease that is associated with excessive or altered contributions of Cx26 HCs that, in turn, lead to compromised cell integrity. Here we discuss some of the aberrant Cx26 HC properties that have been described for mutants associated with keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome, a particularly severe Cx26-associated syndrome, which shed light on genotype-phenotype relationships and causes underlying cochlear dysfunction. PMID:25386120

  10. Opioid abuse in the United States and Department of Health and Human Services actions to address opioid-drug-related overdoses and deaths.

    PubMed

    U S Department Of Health And Human Services

    2015-06-01

    On March 26, 2015, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HSS) published an online Issue Brief that addresses opioid abuse in the United States and (HHS) actions to address opioid-drug-related overdoses and deaths. This report, which contains the full content of the Issue Brief, is adapted from that document.

  11. Effects of a pharmacist-led structured medication review in primary care on drug-related problems and hospital admission rates: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Elfsson, Birgitta; Danielsson, Birgitta; Midlöv, Patrik; Hasselström, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To determine whether a pharmacist-led medications review in primary care reduces the number of drugs and the number of drug-related problems. Design. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Setting. Liljeholmen Primary Care Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. Subjects. 209 patients aged ≥ 65 years with five or more different medications. Intervention. Patients answered a questionnaire regarding medications. The pharmacist reviewed all medications (prescription, non-prescription, and herbal) regarding recommendations and renal impairment, giving advice to patients and GPs. Each patient met the pharmacist before seeing their GP. Control patients received their usual care. Main outcome measures. Drug-related problems and number of drugs. Secondary outcomes included health care utilization and self-rated health during 12 months of follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen when comparing change in drug-related problems between the groups. However, a significant decrease in drug-related problems was observed in the intervention group (from 1.73 per patient at baseline to 1.31 at follow-up, p < 0.05). The change in number of drugs was more pronounced in the intervention group (p < 0.046). Intervention group patients were not admitted to hospital on fewer occasions or for fewer days, and there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding utilization of primary care during follow-up. Self-rated health remained unchanged in the intervention group, whereas a drop (p < 0.02) was reported in the control group. This resulted in a significant difference in change in self-rated health between the groups (p < 0.047). Conclusions. The addition of a skilled pharmacist to the primary care team may contribute to reductions in numbers of drugs and maintenance of self-rated health in elderly patients with polypharmacy. PMID:25347723

  12. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2016-08-01

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field's components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field's derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope.

  13. Optimal principal component analysis-based numerical phase aberration compensation method for digital holography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiasong; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Yuzhen; Zuo, Chao

    2016-03-15

    In this Letter, an accurate and highly efficient numerical phase aberration compensation method is proposed for digital holographic microscopy. Considering that most parts of the phase aberration resides in the low spatial frequency domain, a Fourier-domain mask is introduced to extract the aberrated frequency components, while rejecting components that are unrelated to the phase aberration estimation. Principal component analysis (PCA) is then performed only on the reduced-sized spectrum, and the aberration terms can be extracted from the first principal component obtained. Finally, by oversampling the reduced-sized aberration terms, the precise phase aberration map is obtained and thus can be compensated by multiplying with its conjugation. Because the phase aberration is estimated from the limited but more relevant raw data, the compensation precision is improved and meanwhile the computation time can be significantly reduced. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed technique could achieve both high compensating accuracy and robustness compared with other developed compensation methods.

  14. Third-order aberration analysis of an off-axial optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakazono, Tsuyoshi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Araki, Keisuke

    2016-02-01

    The aberration theory applied to co-axial optical systems is extended to off-axial systems, for which third-order aberration coefficients are considered. The derived aberrations are analyzed using three-dimensional ray bundles, spot diagrams, and image charts, and classified in relation to the system symmetry. This theory is very useful for optical designers, allowing them to clarify the relationship between the structures of off-axial optical systems and the corresponding off-axial aberrations.

  15. [Aberrations of the alarm call of the steppe marmot, Marmota bobak (Rodentia, Sciuridae)].

    PubMed

    Nikol'skiĭ, A A

    2008-01-01

    Aberrations, or deviations from the normal type of alarm call have been studied in the steppe marmot. One regular and several rare aberrations have been identified. The regular aberration manifests itself in all six populations studied, from the Kharkov Region in the west to the eastern border of the Orenburg Region in the east, with its frequency in the populations varying in different years from 10 to 66%. Rare aberrations occur sporadically and not in all populations.

  16. The BHVI-EyeMapper: Peripheral Refraction and Aberration Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Bakaraju, Ravi C.; Holden, Brien A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this article was to present the optical design of a new instrument (BHVI-EyeMapper, EM), which is dedicated to rapid peripheral wavefront measurements across the visual field for distance and near, and to compare the peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles obtained in myopic eyes with and without accommodation. Methods Central and peripheral refractive errors (M, J180, and J45) and higher-order aberrations (C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0]) were measured in 26 myopic participants (mean [±SD] age, 20.9 [±2.0] years; mean [±SD] spherical equivalent, −3.00 [±0.90] diopters [D]) corrected for distance. Measurements were performed along the horizontal visual field with (−2.00 to −5.00 D) and without (+1.00 D fogging) accommodation. Changes as a function of accommodation were compared using tilt and curvature coefficients of peripheral refraction and aberration profiles. Results As accommodation increased, the relative peripheral refraction profiles of M and J180 became significantly (p < 0.05) more negative and the profile of M became significantly (p < 0.05) more asymmetric. No significant differences were found for the J45 profiles (p > 0.05). The peripheral aberration profiles of C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0] became significantly (p < 0.05) less asymmetric as accommodation increased, but no differences were found in the curvature. Conclusions The current study showed that significant changes in peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles occurred during accommodation in myopic eyes. With its extended measurement capabilities, that is, permitting rapid peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration measurements up to visual field angles of ±50 degrees for distance and near (up to −5.00 D), the EM is a new advanced instrument that may provide additional insights in the ongoing quest to understand and monitor myopia development. PMID:25105690

  17. Dependence of the wave-front aberration on the radius of the reference sphere.

    PubMed

    Miks, Antonín

    2002-06-01

    Wave-front aberration is a basic characteristic of the imaging properties of optical systems. The value of the wave-front aberration is obtained by calculating the difference between the optical path lengths of the real wave front and the reference sphere. The general relations for calculated dependence of the wave-front aberration on the radius of the reference sphere are given.

  18. Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artal, Pablo; Berrio, Esther; Guirao, Antonio; Piers, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    We studied the age dependence of the relative contributions of the aberrations of the cornea and the internal ocular surfaces to the total aberrations of the eye. We measured the wave-front aberration of the eye with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and the aberrations of the anterior corneal surface from the elevation data provided by a corneal topography system. The aberrations of the internal surfaces were obtained by direct subtraction of the ocular and corneal wave-front data. Measurements were obtained for normal healthy subjects with ages ranging from 20 to 70 years. The magnitude of the RMS wave-front aberration (excluding defocus and astigmatism) of the eye increases more than threefold within the age range considered. However, the aberrations of the anterior corneal surface increase only slightly with age. In most of the younger subjects, total ocular aberrations are lower than corneal aberrations, while in the older subjects the reverse condition occurs. Astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration of the cornea are larger than in the complete eye in younger subjects, whereas the contrary is true for the older subjects. The internal ocular surfaces compensate, at least in part, for the aberrations associated with the cornea in most younger subjects, but this compensation is not present in the older subjects. These results suggest that the degradation of the ocular optics with age can be explained largely by the loss of the balance between the aberrations of the corneal and the internal surfaces.

  19. Electromagnetic Induction Aberration: The Possible Mechanism of Tic Douloureux

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A theory based on the principles of electromagnetic induction aberration is presented as the possible mechanism of classic trigeminal neuralgia, tic douloureux. The anatomy of the dorsal root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve at the pons in the proximity of the superior cerebellar artery presents a scenario conducive to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. When the action potentials traversing the axons in this zone of the compromised myelin come into juxtaposition with the vascular structure, the criteria for electromagnetic induction are satisfied. The laws of physics governing the phenomenon indicate that a new current, an aberration, would be produced. This could be responsible for the clinical symptoms of tic douloureux. Other clinical situations with similar features could share this mechanism. This proposed theory, a merger of anatomy, neurophysiology, and the physics of electromagnetic induction, extends the established concept of vascular compression as the etiology of tic douloureux. PMID:26180679

  20. Electromagnetic Induction Aberration: The Possible Mechanism of Tic Douloureux.

    PubMed

    Rish, Berkley

    2015-03-01

    A theory based on the principles of electromagnetic induction aberration is presented as the possible mechanism of classic trigeminal neuralgia, tic douloureux. The anatomy of the dorsal root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve at the pons in the proximity of the superior cerebellar artery presents a scenario conducive to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. When the action potentials traversing the axons in this zone of the compromised myelin come into juxtaposition with the vascular structure, the criteria for electromagnetic induction are satisfied. The laws of physics governing the phenomenon indicate that a new current, an aberration, would be produced. This could be responsible for the clinical symptoms of tic douloureux. Other clinical situations with similar features could share this mechanism. This proposed theory, a merger of anatomy, neurophysiology, and the physics of electromagnetic induction, extends the established concept of vascular compression as the etiology of tic douloureux.

  1. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas

    2015-08-01

    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy - or rather nanoscopy - to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem.

  2. [Aluminum induces chromosome aberrations in wheat root meristem cells].

    PubMed

    Bulanova, N V; Synzynys, B I; Koz'min, G V

    2001-12-01

    The yield and pattern of chromosome structure aberrations in wheat seedlings treated with aluminum nitrate and aluminum sulfate at various concentrations have been determined by the anaphase method. Aluminum has a genotoxic effect causing genome, chromatid, and chromosome aberrations in apical root meristem cells. The relationship between the total yield of structural mutations and the aluminum concentration follows a bell-shaped curve. The mutagenic activity of aluminum nitrate peaks at 10(-3) mg/ml, which is twice as high as the permissible concentration limit (PCL) of aluminum in potable water. The maximum of the mutagenic activity of aluminum sulfate is observed at 5 x 10(-4) mg/ml, i.e., one PCL. Tap water boiled for 2 h in an aluminum vessel has virtually no genotoxic effect on wheat cells.

  3. [239Pu and chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Okladnikova, N D; Osovets, S V; Kudriavtseva, T I

    2009-01-01

    The genome status in somatic cells was assessed using the chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 194 plutonium workers exposed to occupational radiation mainly from low-transportable compounds of airborne 230Pu. Pu body burden at the time of cytogenetic study varied from values close to the method sensitivity to values multiply exceeding the permissible level. Standard (routine) methods of peripheral blood lymphocytes cultivation were applied. Chromatid- and chromosomal-type structural changes were estimated. Aberrations were estimated per 100 examined metaphase cells. The quantitative relationship between the CA frequency and Pu body burden and the absorbed dose to the lung was found. Mathematical processing of results was carried out based on the phenomenological model. The results were shown as theoretical and experimental curves. The threshold of the CA yield was 0.43 +/- 0.03 kBq (Pu body burden) and 6.12 +/- 1.20 cGy (absorbed dose to the lung).

  4. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to epilepsy and associated cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Ok; Lybrand, Zane R.; Ito, Naoki; Brulet, Rebecca; Tafacory, Farrah; Zhang, Ling; Good, Levi; Ure, Kerstin; Kernie, Steven G.; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Scharfman, Helen E.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Hsieh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Acute seizures after a severe brain insult can often lead to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis follows the insult but the role of adult-generated neurons in the development of chronic seizures or associated cognitive deficits remains to be determined. Here we show that the ablation of adult neurogenesis before pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in mice leads to a reduction in chronic seizure frequency. We also show that ablation of neurogenesis normalizes epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits. Remarkably, the effect of ablating adult neurogenesis before acute seizures is long lasting as it suppresses chronic seizure frequency for nearly 1 year. These findings establish a key role of neurogenesis in chronic seizure development and associated memory impairment and suggest that targeting aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis may reduce recurrent seizures and restore cognitive function following a pro-epileptic brain insult. PMID:25808087

  5. The Sensitivity of Shaped Pupil Coronagraphs to Optical Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Joseph J.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Unlike focal-plane coronagraphs that use occulting spots and Lyot stops to eliminate diffraction, pupil-plane coronagraphs operate by shaping the pupil to redirect the diffracted stellar light into a tight core. As in focal-plane coronagraphs, the optical aberrations in the telescope must be sufficiently corrected to enable high contrast imaging. However, in shaped-pupil coronagraphs, the low-order aberrations resulting from misalignment and optical figure drift have a much smaller influence upon the contrast at at the inner working angle. These weaker sensitivities greatly relax the strict low-order wavefront stability required for high-contrast imaging the cost of some throughput. In this paper, we present the simulated performance of the concentric ring shaped pupil concepts comparing them to focal-plane coronagraphs that are optimized for the same inner working angles.

  6. Detection of epigenetic aberrations in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujing

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex, multistep process. It is now recognized that HCC is a both genetic and epigenetic disease; genetic and epigenetic components cooperate at all stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. Epigenetic changes involve aberrant DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications and aberrant expression of microRNAs all of which can affect the expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other tumor-related genes and alter the pathways in cancer development. Several risk factors for HCC, including hepatitis B and C virus infections and exposure to the chemical carcinogen aflatoxin B1 have been found to influence epigenetic changes. Their interactions could play an important role in the initiation and progression of HCC. Discovery and detection of biomarkers for epigenetic changes is a promising area for early diagnosis and risk prediction of HCC.

  7. Functional annotation of rare gene aberration drivers of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Yiu Huen; Dogruluk, Turgut; Tedeschi, Philip M.; Wardwell-Ozgo, Joanna; Lu, Hengyu; Espitia, Maribel; Nair, Nikitha; Minelli, Rosalba; Chong, Zechen; Chen, Fengju; Chang, Qing Edward; Dennison, Jennifer B.; Dogruluk, Armel; Li, Min; Ying, Haoqiang; Bertino, Joseph R.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Ittmann, Michael; Kerrigan, John; Chen, Ken; Creighton, Chad J.; Eterovic, Karina; Mills, Gordon B.; Scott, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    As we enter the era of precision medicine, characterization of cancer genomes will directly influence therapeutic decisions in the clinic. Here we describe a platform enabling functionalization of rare gene mutations through their high-throughput construction, molecular barcoding and delivery to cancer models for in vivo tumour driver screens. We apply these technologies to identify oncogenic drivers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This approach reveals oncogenic activity for rare gene aberrations in genes including NAD Kinase (NADK), which regulates NADP(H) homeostasis and cellular redox state. We further validate mutant NADK, whose expression provides gain-of-function enzymatic activity leading to a reduction in cellular reactive oxygen species and tumorigenesis, and show that depletion of wild-type NADK in PDAC cell lines attenuates cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that annotating rare aberrations can reveal important cancer signalling pathways representing additional therapeutic targets. PMID:26806015

  8. Holographic optical system for aberration corrections in laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, R. C.; Case, S. K.; Schock, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical system containing multifaceted holographic optical elements (HOEs) has been developed to correct for aberrations introduced by nonflat windows in laser Doppler velocimetry. The multifacet aberration correction approach makes it possible to record on one plate many sets of adjacent HOEs that address different measurement volume locations. By using 5-mm-diameter facets, it is practical to place 10-20 sets of holograms on one 10 x 12.5-cm plate, so that the procedure of moving the entire optical system to examine different locations may not be necessary. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin and therefore are nonabsorptive and suitable for use with high-power argon laser beams. Low f-number optics coupled with a 90-percent efficient distortion-correcting hologram in the collection side of the system yield high optical efficiency.

  9. Are aberrant phase transitions a driver of cellular aging?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Why do cells age? Recent advances show that the cytoplasm is organized into many membrane‐less compartments via a process known as phase separation, which ensures spatiotemporal control over diffusion‐limited biochemical reactions. Although phase separation is a powerful mechanism to organize biochemical reactions, it comes with the trade‐off that it is extremely sensitive to changes in physical‐chemical parameters, such as protein concentration, pH, or cellular energy levels. Here, we highlight recent findings showing that age‐related neurodegenerative diseases are linked to aberrant phase transitions in neurons. We discuss how these aberrant phase transitions could be tied to a failure to maintain physiological physical‐chemical conditions. We generalize this idea to suggest that the process of cellular aging involves a progressive loss of the organization of phase‐separated compartments in the cytoplasm. PMID:27554449

  10. Evaluation of an automated karyotyping system for chromosome aberration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prichard, Howard M.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome aberration analysis is a promising complement to conventional radiation dosimetry, particularly in the complex radiation fields encountered in the space environment. The capabilities of a recently developed automated karyotyping system were evaluated both to determine current capabilities and limitations and to suggest areas where future development should be emphasized. Cells exposed to radiometric chemicals and to photon and particulate radiation were evaluated by manual inspection and by automated karyotyping. It was demonstrated that the evaluated programs were appropriate for image digitization, storage, and transmission. However, automated and semi-automated scoring techniques must be advanced significantly if in-flight chromosome aberration analysis is to be practical. A degree of artificial intelligence may be necessary to realize this goal.

  11. Quantitative characterization of aberrations in x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiboth, Frank; Kahnt, Maik; Scholz, Maria; Seyrich, Martin; Wittwer, Felix; Garrevoet, Jan; Falkenberg, Gerald; Schropp, Andreas; Schroer, Christian G.

    2016-09-01

    Due to the weak interaction of X-rays with matter and their small wavelength on the atomic scale, stringent requirements are put on X-ray optics manufacturing and metrology. As a result, these optics often suffer from aberrations. Until now, X-ray optics were mainly characterized by their focal spot size and efficiency. How- ever, both measures provide only insufficient information about optics quality. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of residual aberrations in current beryllium compound refractive lenses using ptychography followed by a determination of the wavefront error and subsequent Zernike polynomial decomposition. Known from visible light optics, we show that these measures can provide an adequate tool to determine and compare the quality of various X-ray optics.

  12. Hotspots of aberrant enhancer activity punctuate the colorectal cancer epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrea J.; Saiakhova, Alina; Corradin, Olivia; Luppino, Jennifer M.; Lovrenert, Katreya; Bartels, Cynthia F.; Morrow, James J.; Mack, Stephen C.; Dhillon, Gursimran; Beard, Lydia; Myeroff, Lois; Kalady, Matthew F.; Willis, Joseph; Bradner, James E.; Keri, Ruth A.; Berger, Nathan A.; Pruett-Miller, Shondra M.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Scacheri, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to mutations in genes, aberrant enhancer element activity at non-coding regions of the genome is a key driver of tumorigenesis. Here, we perform epigenomic enhancer profiling of a cohort of more than forty genetically diverse human colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. Using normal colonic crypt epithelium as a comparator, we identify enhancers with recurrently gained or lost activity across CRC specimens. Of the enhancers highly recurrently activated in CRC, most are constituents of super enhancers, are occupied by AP-1 and cohesin complex members, and originate from primed chromatin. Many activate known oncogenes, and CRC growth can be mitigated through pharmacologic inhibition or genome editing of these loci. Nearly half of all GWAS CRC risk loci co-localize to recurrently activated enhancers. These findings indicate that the CRC epigenome is defined by highly recurrent epigenetic alterations at enhancers which activate a common, aberrant transcriptional programme critical for CRC growth and survival. PMID:28169291

  13. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to epilepsy and associated cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Ok; Lybrand, Zane R; Ito, Naoki; Brulet, Rebecca; Tafacory, Farrah; Zhang, Ling; Good, Levi; Ure, Kerstin; Kernie, Steven G; Birnbaum, Shari G; Scharfman, Helen E; Eisch, Amelia J; Hsieh, Jenny

    2015-03-26

    Acute seizures after a severe brain insult can often lead to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis follows the insult but the role of adult-generated neurons in the development of chronic seizures or associated cognitive deficits remains to be determined. Here we show that the ablation of adult neurogenesis before pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in mice leads to a reduction in chronic seizure frequency. We also show that ablation of neurogenesis normalizes epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits. Remarkably, the effect of ablating adult neurogenesis before acute seizures is long lasting as it suppresses chronic seizure frequency for nearly 1 year. These findings establish a key role of neurogenesis in chronic seizure development and associated memory impairment and suggest that targeting aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis may reduce recurrent seizures and restore cognitive function following a pro-epileptic brain insult.

  14. Telomere dysfunction drives aberrant hematopoietic differentiation and myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colla, Simona; Ong, Derrick Sek Tong; Ogoti, Yamini; Marchesini, Matteo; Mistry, Nipun A; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Ang, Sonny A; Storti, Paola; Viale, Andrea; Giuliani, Nicola; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Ganan Gomez, Irene; Bristow, Christopher A; Estecio, Marcos; Weksberg, David C; Ho, Yan Wing; Hu, Baoli; Genovese, Giannicola; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Multani, Asha S; Jiang, Shan; Hua, Sujun; Ryan, Michael C; Carugo, Alessandro; Nezi, Luigi; Wei, Yue; Yang, Hui; D'Anca, Marianna; Zhang, Li; Gaddis, Sarah; Gong, Ting; Horner, James W; Heffernan, Timothy P; Jones, Philip; Cooper, Laurence J N; Liang, Han; Kantarjian, Hagop; Wang, Y Alan; Chin, Lynda; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; DePinho, Ronald A

    2015-05-11

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) risk correlates with advancing age, therapy-induced DNA damage, and/or shorter telomeres, but whether telomere erosion directly induces MDS is unknown. Here, we provide the genetic evidence that telomere dysfunction-induced DNA damage drives classical MDS phenotypes and alters common myeloid progenitor (CMP) differentiation by repressing the expression of mRNA splicing/processing genes, including SRSF2. RNA-seq analyses of telomere dysfunctional CMP identified aberrantly spliced transcripts linked to pathways relevant to MDS pathogenesis such as genome stability, DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, and histone modification, which are also enriched in mouse CMP haploinsufficient for SRSF2 and in CD34(+) CMML patient cells harboring SRSF2 mutation. Together, our studies establish an intimate link across telomere biology, aberrant RNA splicing, and myeloid progenitor differentiation.

  15. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method is disclosed for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe. 11 figs.

  16. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1998-01-01

    A method for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe.

  17. Filtering chromatic aberration for wide acceptance angle electrostatic lenses.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Ádám; Tóth, László

    2014-07-01

    Chromatic aberration is a major issue for imaging mainly with large acceptance angle electrostatic lenses. Its correction is necessary to take advantage of the outstanding spatial and angular resolution that these lenses provide. We propose a method to eliminate the effect of chromatic aberration on the measured images by determining the impact resulting from higher and lower kinetic energies. Based on a spectral image sequence and a matrix, which describes the transmission function of the lens, a system of linear equations is solved to approximate the 2D spectral intensity distribution of the sample surface. We present the description of our method and preliminary test results, which show significant contrast and image quality improvement. The presented algorithm can also be applied as a software-based energy analyzer.

  18. Manipulation of spatiotemporal photon distribution via chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuelin; Chemerisov, Sergey

    2008-09-01

    We demonstrate a spatiotemporal laser-pulse-shaping scheme that exploits the chromatic aberration in a dispersive lens. This normally harmful effect transforms the phase modulation into a beam-size modulation at the focal plane. In combination with the intricate diffraction effect via beam apodization, this method provides a spatiotemporal control of photon distribution with an accuracy of diffraction limit on a time scale of femtoseconds.

  19. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Biankin, Andrew V.; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Johns, Amber L.; Miller, David K.; Wilson, Peter J.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K.; Cowley, Mark J.; Gardiner, Brooke B.; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Gill, Anthony J.; Pinho, Andreia V.; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J. Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R. Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L.; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D.; Colvin, Emily K.; Nagrial, Adnan M.; Humphrey, Emily S.; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T.; Chantrill, Lorraine A.; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Kench, James G.; Lovell, Jessica A.; Daly, Roger J.; Merrett, Neil D.; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q.; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M.; Fisher, William E.; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Hodges, Sally E.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R.; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J.; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E.; Yung, Christina K.; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Morgan, Richard A.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A.; Mann, Karen M.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Adams, David J.; Largaespada, David A.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Rust, Alistair G.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Tuveson, David A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Wheeler, David A.; Pearson, John V.; McPherson, John D.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:23103869

  20. Chromosomal aberrations of cancer-testis antigens in myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Curioni-Fontecedro, Alessandra; Martin, Vittoria; Vogetseder, Alexander; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger; Soldini, Davide; Tinguely, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    Cancer-testis antigens (CTAgs) play a major role in the immune response against cancer, but their biological functions in germ and cancer cells is still unclear. MAGE-C1 and MAGE-C2 are two CTAgs located at the Xq27 region of chromosome X and frequently expressed in multiple myeloma. Chromosomal rearrangements often occur in myeloma. We therefore investigated whether numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations correlate with their protein expression in primary multiple myelomas. To this aim, we designed new fluorescence in situ hybridization probes specific for the MAGE region in the Xq27 region and evaluated simultaneously aberrations of the X chromosome centromere. The comparison of MAGE copy number and chromosome X status revealed that MAGE copy number changes occurred in 6/43 (14%) cases, independent of concomitant X chromosome alterations. These numerical aberrations are less frequent than the expression of MAGE-C1 and MAGE-C2 (63% and 27% of patients, respectively) and do not always correlate with MAGE-C1 and MAGE-C2 expressions, suggesting alternative regulatory mechanisms in the expression of these genes.

  1. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.

    PubMed

    Biankin, Andrew V; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B; Johns, Amber L; Miller, David K; Wilson, Peter J; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K; Cowley, Mark J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J; Gill, Anthony J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D; Colvin, Emily K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Humphrey, Emily S; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Lovell, Jessica A; Daly, Roger J; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles; Hodges, Sally E; Reid, Jeffrey G; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E; Yung, Christina K; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A; Petersen, Gloria M; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Mann, Karen M; Jenkins, Nancy A; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Adams, David J; Largaespada, David A; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Rust, Alistair G; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuveson, David A; Copeland, Neal G; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R; Hudson, Thomas J; Sutherland, Robert L; Wheeler, David A; Pearson, John V; McPherson, John D; Gibbs, Richard A; Grimmond, Sean M

    2012-11-15

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  2. Alignment induced aberration fields of next generation telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Tobias; Thompson, Kevin; Rolland, Jannick

    2008-08-01

    There is a long list of new ground-based optical telescopes being considered around the world. While many are conventional Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien designs, some are from a family of three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes that are configured with an offset field (but still obscured) that trace back to designs developed in the 1970s for military applications. The nodal theory of aberrations, developed in the late 1970s, provides valuable insights into the response of TMA telescopes to alignment errors. Here it is shown for the first time that the alignment limiting aberration in any TMA telescope is a 3rd order astigmatism term with a new field dependence, termed field-asymmetric, field-linear 3rd order astigmatism. It is also shown that a TMA telescope under assembly that is only measured to have excellent/perfect performance onaxis is not aligned in any significant way. This is because the new astigmatic term is always zero on-axis, even though it is large over the field of view. Knowledge of this intrinsic misalignment aberration field for any TMA telescope aids greatly in ensuring it can be aligned successfully. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is used an example of a relevant TMA system.

  3. Genomic aberrations of BRCA1-mutated fallopian tube carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sally M; Ryland, Georgina L; Moss, Phillip; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

    2014-06-01

    Intraepithelial carcinomas of the fallopian tube are putative precursors to high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary and peritoneum. Molecular characterization of these early precursors is limited but could be the key to identifying tumor biomarkers for early detection. This study presents a genome-wide copy number analysis of occult fallopian tube carcinomas identified through risk-reducing prophylactic oophorectomy from three women with germline BRCA1 mutations, demonstrating that extensive genomic aberrations are already established at this early stage. We found no indication of a difference in the level of genomic aberration observed in fallopian tube carcinomas compared with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. These findings suggest that spread to the peritoneal cavity may require no or very little further tumor evolution, which raises the question of what is the real window of opportunity to detect high-grade serous peritoneal carcinoma arising from the fallopian tube before it spreads. Nonetheless, the similarity of the genomic aberrations to those observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas suggests that genetic biomarkers identified in late-stage disease may be relevant for early detection.

  4. Phase aberration correction by correlation in digital holographic adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a phase aberration correction method based on the correlation between the complex full-field and guide-star holograms in the context of digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO). Removal of a global quadratic phase term before the correlation operation plays an important role in the correction. Correlation operation can remove the phase aberration at the entrance pupil plane and automatically refocus the corrected optical field. Except for the assumption that most aberrations lie at or close to the entrance pupil, the presented method does not impose any other constraints on the optical systems. Thus, it greatly enhances the flexibility of the optical design for DHAO systems in vision science and microscopy. Theoretical studies show that the previously proposed Fourier transform DHAO (FTDHAO) is just a special case of this general correction method, where the global quadratic phase term and a defocus term disappear. Hence, this correction method realizes the generalization of FTDHAO into arbitrary DHAO systems. The effectiveness and robustness of this method are demonstrated by simulations and experiments. PMID:23669707

  5. Chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia cells exposed to heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, T.; Cucinotta, F.; George, K.; Wu, H.; Shigematsu, N.; Furusawa, Y.; Uno, T.; Isobe, K.; Ito, H.

    Understanding of biological effects of heavy ions is important to assess healt h risk in space. One of the most important issues may be to take into account individual susceptibility. Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) cells are known to exhibit abnormal responses to radiations but the mechanism of hyper radiosensitivity of A-T still remains unknown. We report chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts and AT fibroblasts exposed to low- and high-LET radiations. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique combined with chromosome- painting technique was applied to score chromosome aberrations in G2/M-phase cells. Following gamma irradiation, GM02052 cells were approximately 5 times more sensitive to g-rays than AG1522 cells. GM02052 cells had a much higher frequency of deletions and misrejoining than AG1522 cells. When the frequency of complex type aberrations was compared, GM02052 cells showed more than 10 times higher frequency than AG1522 cells. The results will be compared with those obtained from high-LET irradiations.

  6. Aberration correction for time-domain ultrasound diffraction tomography.

    PubMed

    Mast, T Douglas

    2002-07-01

    Extensions of a time-domain diffraction tomography method, which reconstructs spatially dependent sound speed variations from far-field time-domain acoustic scattering measurements, are presented and analyzed. The resulting reconstructions are quantitative images with applications including ultrasonic mammography, and can also be considered candidate solutions to the time-domain inverse scattering problem. Here, the linearized time-domain inverse scattering problem is shown to have no general solution for finite signal bandwidth. However, an approximate solution to the linearized problem is constructed using a simple delay-and-sum method analogous to "gold standard" ultrasonic beamforming. The form of this solution suggests that the full nonlinear inverse scattering problem can be approximated by applying appropriate angle- and space-dependent time shifts to the time-domain scattering data; this analogy leads to a general approach to aberration correction. Two related methods for aberration correction are presented: one in which delays are computed from estimates of the medium using an efficient straight-ray approximation, and one in which delays are applied directly to a time-dependent linearized reconstruction. Numerical results indicate that these correction methods achieve substantial quality improvements for imaging of large scatterers. The parametric range of applicability for the time-domain diffraction tomography method is increased by about a factor of 2 by aberration correction.

  7. Aberrant muscle syndrome: hypertrophy of the hand and arm due to aberrant muscles with or without hypertrophy of the muscles.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Toshihiko; Satake, Hiroshi; Takahara, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Noriaki; Watanabe, Tadayosi; Iba, Kousuke; Ishii, Seiichi

    2010-06-01

    Five patients were reported in our congenital anomaly registry who had six hands in total with muscular hyperplasia, aberrant muscles, ulnar drift of the fingers in the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints, flexion contractures of the MP joints, and enlargement of the metacarpal spaces. Thirty patients with unilateral involvement of this condition have been reported previously. We reviewed these cases and found that the condition varied in severity and that it was reported using different names. However, this condition seems different from true macrodactyly and multiple camptodactyly, including windblown hand, and seems to be an isolated entity of congenital upper limb anomaly. The authors recommend 'aberrant muscle syndrome' or 'accessory muscle syndrome' as a diagnostic name, because this seems to be the most common pathological finding in this condition.

  8. Statistical interpretation of the overdispersed distribution of radiation-induced dicentric chromosome aberrations at high LET

    SciTech Connect

    Virsik, R.P.; Harder, D.

    1981-01-01

    The hypothesis that overdispersion of the chromosome aberration number per cell results from multiple aberrations per particle traversal is investigated in mathematical terms. At a given absorbed dose, Poisson distributions are assumed both for the number of ionizing particles traversing a cell nucleus and for the number of aberrations induced by a single particle traversal. The resulting distribution of the number of aberrations per cell is the Neyman type A distribution, a special case of the generalized Poisson distribution. This function is generally overdispersed, its relative variance 1 + lambda being determined by the expectation value lambda of aberrations per particle traversal. Data from experiments with neutrons and ..cap alpha.. particles are found to agree with this theory. The developed formalism provides a method to determine the efficiency of aberration induction per particle traversal, lambda, from the frequency distribution of aberrations.

  9. The Effects of Meal Schedule and Quantity on Problematic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two case examples (a toddler with severe developmental delays and a 7-year old with severe mental retardation) illustrating effects of meal schedule and food quantity on displays of problematic behavior are offered. Brief functional analyses of aberrant behavior provided useful information for interpreting distinct patterns of behavior. (DB)

  10. Autistic-spectrum disorders in Down syndrome: further delineation and distinction from other behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Carter, John C; Capone, George T; Gray, Robert M; Cox, Christiane S; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2007-01-05

    The present study extends our previous work characterizing the behavioral features of autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Autism Behavior Checklist (AutBehav). We examined which specific behaviors distinguished the behavioral phenotype of DS + ASD from other aberrant behavior disorders in DS, by determining the relative contribution of ABC and AutBehav subscales and items to the diagnosis of ASD. A total of 127 subjects (aged 2-24 years; mean age: 8.4 years; approximately 70% male), comprising: a cohort of 64 children and adolescents with DS and co-morbid ASD (DS + ASD), 19 with DS and stereotypic movement disorder (DS + SMD), 18 with DS and disruptive behaviors (DS + DB), and 26 with DS and no co-morbid behavior disorders (DS + none) were examined using the aforementioned measures of aberrant behavior. We found that subjects with DS + ASD showed the most severe aberrant behavior, especially stereotypy compared to DS + none and lethargy/social withdrawal and relating problems compared to DS + SMD. Specifically, relatively simple stereotypic behavior differentiated DS + ASD from DS + DB, whereas odd/bizarre stereotypic and anxious behavior characterized DS + ASD relative to DS + SMD and DS + none. Additionally, in a subset of subjects with DS + ASD and anxiety, social withdrawal was particularly pronounced. Overall, our findings indicate that a diagnosis of DS + ASD represents a distinctive set of aberrant behaviors marked by characteristic odd/bizarre stereotypic behavior, anxiety, and social withdrawal.

  11. Idiosyncratic Functions: Severe Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Ritualistic Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Nicole; Kahng, SungWoo; Farrell, Ellen; Mongeon, Camille

    2009-01-01

    The development of functional analysis technology has been an important tool in the assessment and treatment of aberrant behaviors among individuals with developmental disabilities. In some cases, the function of problem behavior may be idiosyncratic in nature, making modifications to functional analyses necessary. In the current study, a…

  12. Phase aberration simulation study of MRgFUS breast treatments

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Alexis I.; Almquist, Scott; Dillon, Christopher R.; Neumayer, Leigh A.; Parker, Dennis L.; Christensen, Douglas A.; Payne, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This simulation study evaluates the effects of phase aberration in breast MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation treatments performed with a phased-array transducer positioned laterally to the breast. A quantification of these effects in terms of thermal dose delivery and the potential benefits of phase correction is demonstrated in four heterogeneous breast numerical models. Methods: To evaluate the effects of varying breast tissue properties on the quality of the focus, four female volunteers with confirmed benign fibroadenomas were imaged using 3T MRI. These images were segmented into numerical models with six tissue types, with each tissue type assigned standard acoustic properties from the literature. Simulations for a single-plane 16-point raster-scan treatment trajectory centered in a fibroadenoma in each modeled breast were performed for a breast-specific MRgFUS system. At each of the 16 points, pressure patterns both with and without applying a phase correction technique were determined with the hybrid-angular spectrum method. Corrected phase patterns were obtained using a simulation-based phase aberration correction technique to adjust each element’s transmit phase to obtain maximized constructive interference at the desired focus. Thermal simulations were performed for both the corrected and uncorrected pressure patterns using a finite-difference implementation of the Pennes bioheat equation. The effect of phase correction was evaluated through comparison of thermal dose accumulation both within and outside a defined treatment volume. Treatment results using corrected and uncorrected phase aberration simulations were compared by evaluating the power required to achieve a 20 °C temperature rise at the first treatment location. The extent of the volumes that received a minimum thermal dose of 240 CEM at 43 °C inside the intended treatment volume as well as the volume in the remaining breast tissues was also evaluated in the form of

  13. Anterior corneal and internal contributions to peripheral aberrations of human eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, David A.

    2004-03-01

    Anterior corneal and internal component contributions to overall peripheral aberrations of five human eyes were determined, based on corneal topography and overall aberration measurements. Anterior corneal position and orientation (tilt) were referenced to the line of sight. Ray tracing was performed through the anterior cornea for 6-mm-diameter pupils at angles out to 40° in both the temporal and the nasal visual fields. In general, both component and overall Zernike aberrations were greater for the nasal than for the temporal visual field. In general, the anterior corneal aberration components were considerably higher than the overall aberrations across the visual field and were balanced to a considerable degree by the internal ocular aberration components. The component and overall levels of Zernike third-order aberrations showed linear trends away from the fixation axis, and the component levels of Zernike fourth-order aberrations showed quadratic trends away from the fixation axis. The second-order, but not higher-order, aberration components were susceptible to the choice of image radius of curvature, while disregarding corneal position and orientation affected second- and higher-order aberration components.

  14. Wide-field aberration corrector for spherical gossamer primary mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, David A.

    2000-10-01

    If gossamer primary mirrors were to be constructed in a spherical form, it would be possible to arrange a simple null- test in situ. However, spherical mirrors would require correction of the large amount of spherical aberration created in pupils that generally will be greater than 2 m diameter. The design requirement is for diffraction-limited performance over a useful angular field. The otherwise excellent wide- field design solutions of the classical Schmidt and Maksutov are inapplicable in gossamer structures because of the mass and size penalty of large refractive components. However, it is possible for this mode of correction to be achieved near the prime focus by means of pupil transfer optics that minify the large entrance pupil down to more acceptable dimensions. A problem with these solutions is constraint of field coverage due to pupil aberrations created by the large spherical aberration of the primary mirror. This leads the designer towards slower primaries and the penalty of larger, heavier structures. A solution is presented here for spherical primaries with speeds up to f/4. This is based on the 'KiwiStar' principle presented here in 1997, in which a large spherical catoptric is combined by pupil-transfer with a smaller spherical catadioptric to give well corrected wide field images of high speed. This system is well suited to correction at the prime focus of large spherical mirrors, and has only one relatively small weak aspheric surface to provide zonal correction, all other surfaces being spherical. An example is presented of a 4 m diameter, f/2.5 system that is diffraction-limited over the whole of a 0.25 degree field (43 mm diameter), for a bandpass of 486 - 850 nm.

  15. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation in serum DNA from patients with silicosis.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Shigeki; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Hiraki, Akio; Gemba, Kenichi; Takigawa, Nagio; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Fujii, Masanori; Umemura, Hiroshi; Satoh, Mamoru; Tabata, Masahiro; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Kishimoto, Takumi; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2008-09-01

    It is well established that patients with silicosis are at high risk for lung cancer; however, it is difficult to detect lung cancer by chest radiography during follow-up treatment of patients with silicosis because of preexisting diffuse pulmonary shadows. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of detection of serum DNA methylation for early detection of lung cancer in silicosis. Serum samples from healthy controls (n = 20) and silicosis patients with (n = 11) and without (n = 67) lung cancer were tested for aberrant hypermethylation at the promoters of the DNA repair gene O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p16(INK4a), ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), the apoptosis-related gene death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Aberrant promoter methylation in at least one of five tumor suppressor genes was detected more frequently in the serum DNA of silicosis patients with lung cancer than in that of patients without it (P = 0.006). Furthermore, the odds ratio of having lung cancer was 9.77 (P = 0.009) for those silicosis patients with methylation of at least one gene. Extended exposure to silica (>30 years) was correlated with an increased methylation frequency (P = 0.017); however, methylation status did not correlate with age, smoking history or radiographic findings of silicosis. These results suggest that testing for aberrant promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes using serum DNA may facilitate early detection of lung cancer in patients with silicosis.

  16. Examining the relationship between ethnicity and the use of drug-related services: an ethnographic study of Nepali drug users in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wai-Man

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has shown that Nepali drug users in Hong Kong tend to have a low rate of usage of day-care and residential rehabilitation services, but a high rate of usage of methadone services. Little is known about the reasons behind such a pattern. Therefore, in this study, a 12-month ethnographic examination has been implemented in three sites, including a day-care center, residential rehabilitation center, and methadone clinic, to explore the experiences of 20 Nepali drug users in their use of drug-related services in Hong Kong and to examine the relationship between ethnicity and the use of drug-related services. The result shows that the reason for this pattern of service use is related to the approach of the services and the cultural perception of the service providers about the service users. The day-care and residential rehabilitation services emphasize an integrated approach, but the staff tend to overlook the heterogeneity of their clients, for example, the differences in caste and sex, and fail to provide suitable services to them, whereas the methadone service follows a biomedical model, which seldom addresses the social characteristics of the service users, which in turn minimizes the opportunity for misunderstandings between the staff and the clients. This research shows that ethnicity is a significant factor in drug treatment and that culture-specific treatment that takes into consideration the treatment approach and the heterogeneity of the clients is strongly needed. PMID:25114609

  17. Analysis of MT-45, a Novel Synthetic Opioid, in Human Whole Blood by LC-MS-MS and its Identification in a Drug-Related Death.

    PubMed

    Papsun, Donna; Krywanczyk, Alison; Vose, James C; Bundock, Elizabeth A; Logan, Barry K

    2016-05-01

    MT-45 (1-cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine) is just one of the many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) to have reached the recreational drug market in the twenty-first century; it is however, one of the first designer opioids to achieve some degree of popularity, in a market currently dominated by synthetic cannabinoids and designer stimulants. A single fatality involving MT-45 and etizolam is described. A method for the quantitation of MT-45 in whole blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The linear range was determined to be 1.0-100 ng/mL with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/mL, and the method met the requirements for acceptable linearity, precision and accuracy. After analyzing the sample on dilution and by standard addition, the concentration of MT-45 in the decedent's blood was determined to be 520 ng/mL, consistent with other concentrations of MT-45 reported in drug-related fatalities. Etizolam was present at a concentration of 35 ng/mL. This case illustrates the importance of considering non-traditional drugs in unexplained apparent drug-related deaths.

  18. Intrinsic instability of aberration-corrected electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, S M; van der Molen, S J; Tromp, R M

    2012-10-19

    Aberration-corrected microscopes with subatomic resolution will impact broad areas of science and technology. However, the experimentally observed lifetime of the corrected state is just a few minutes. Here we show that the corrected state is intrinsically unstable; the higher its quality, the more unstable it is. Analyzing the contrast transfer function near optimum correction, we define an "instability budget" which allows a rational trade-off between resolution and stability. Unless control systems are developed to overcome these challenges, intrinsic instability poses a fundamental limit to the resolution practically achievable in the electron microscope.

  19. FISH and FICTION to detect chromosomal aberrations in lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Giefing, Maciej; Siebert, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) is a powerful and robust technique allowing the visualization of target sequences like genes in interphase nuclei. It is widely used in routine diagnostics to identify cancer specific aberrations including lymphoma associated translocations or gene copy number changes in single tumor cells. By combining FISH with immunophenotyping-a technique called Fluorescence Immunophenotyping and Interphase Cytogenetic as a Tool for Investigation Of Neoplasia (FICTION)-it is moreover possible to identify a cell population of interest. Here we describe standard protocols for FISH and FICTION as used in our laboratory in diagnosis and research.

  20. Correcting for Beam Aberrations in a Beam-Waveguide Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Manuel; Slobin, Stephen; Veruttipong, Watt

    2003-01-01

    A method for correcting the aim of a beam-waveguide microwave antenna compensates for the beam aberration that occurs during radio tracking of a target that has a component of velocity transverse to the line of sight from the tracking station. The method was devised primarily for use in tracking of distant target spacecraft by large terrestrial beam-waveguide antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The method should also be adaptable to tracking, by other beam-waveguide antennas, of targets that move with large transverse velocities at large distances from the antennas.

  1. Active Correction of Aberrations of Low-Quality Telescope Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yijian

    2007-01-01

    A system of active optics that includes a wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror has been demonstrated to be an effective means of partly correcting wavefront aberrations introduced by fixed optics (lenses and mirrors) in telescopes. It is envisioned that after further development, active optics would be used to reduce wavefront aberrations of about one wave or less in telescopes having aperture diameters of the order of meters or tens of meters. Although this remaining amount of aberration would be considered excessive in scientific applications in which diffraction-limited performance is required, it would be acceptable for free-space optical- communication applications at wavelengths of the order of 1 m. To prevent misunderstanding, it is important to state the following: The technological discipline of active optics, in which the primary or secondary mirror of a telescope is directly and dynamically tilted, distorted, and/or otherwise varied to reduce wavefront aberrations, has existed for decades. The term active optics does not necessarily mean the same thing as does adaptive optics, even though active optics and adaptive optics are related. The term "adaptive optics" is often used to refer to wavefront correction at speeds characterized by frequencies ranging up to between hundreds of hertz and several kilohertz high enough to enable mitigation of adverse effects of fluctuations in atmospheric refraction upon propagation of light beams. The term active optics usually appears in reference to wavefront correction at significantly lower speeds, characterized by times ranging from about 1 second to as long as minutes. Hence, the novelty of the present development lies, not in the basic concept of active or adaptive optics, but in the envisioned application of active optics in conjunction with a deformable mirror to achieve acceptably small wavefront errors in free-space optical communication systems that include multi-meter-diameter telescope mirrors that are

  2. Coherence and aberration effects in surface plasmon polariton imaging.

    PubMed

    Berthel, Martin; Jiang, Quanbo; Chartrand, Camille; Bellessa, Joel; Huant, Serge; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2015-09-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally coherent imaging of surface plasmon polaritons using either leakage radiation microscopy through a thin metal film or interference microscopy through a thick metal film. Using a rigorous modal formalism based on scalar Whittaker potentials, we develop a systematic analytical and vectorial method adapted to the analysis of coherent imaging involving surface plasmon polaritons. The study includes geometrical aberrations due index mismatch which played an important role in the interpretation of recent experiments using leakage radiation microscopy. We compare our theory with experiments using classical or quantum near-field scanning optical microscopy probes and show that the approach leads to a full interpretation of the recorded optical images.

  3. Coherence and aberration effects in surface plasmon polariton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthel, Martin; Jiang, Quanbo; Chartrand, Camille; Bellessa, Joel; Huant, Serge; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2015-09-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally coherent imaging of surface plasmon polaritons using either leakage radiation microscopy through a thin metal film or interference microscopy through a thick metal film. Using a rigorous modal formalism based on scalar Whittaker potentials, we develop a systematic analytical and vectorial method adapted to the analysis of coherent imaging involving surface plasmon polaritons. The study includes geometrical aberrations due index mismatch which played an important role in the interpretation of recent experiments using leakage radiation microscopy. We compare our theory with experiments using classical or quantum near-field scanning optical microscopy probes and show that the approach leads to a full interpretation of the recorded optical images.

  4. Adaptive dispersion formula for index interpolation and chromatic aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Ling; Sasián, José

    2014-01-13

    This paper defines and discusses a glass dispersion formula that is adaptive. The formula exhibits superior convergence with a minimum number of coefficients. Using this formula we rationalize the correction of chromatic aberration per spectrum order. We compare the formula with the Sellmeier and Buchdahl formulas for glasses in the Schott catalogue. The six coefficient adaptive formula is found to be the most accurate with an average maximum index of refraction error of 2.91 × 10(-6) within the visible band.

  5. Removing lateral chromatic aberration in bright field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Altamirano, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio

    2015-06-01

    We present an efficient alternative to remove lateral chromatic aberration (LCA) in bright field light microscopy images. Our procedure is based on error calibration using time-sequential acquisition at different wavelengths, and error correction through digital image warping. Measurement of the displacements of fiducial marks in the red and green images relative to blue provide calibration factors that are subsequently used in test images to realign color channels digitally. We demonstrate quantitative improvement in the position and boundaries of objects in target slides and in the color content and morphology of specimens in stained biological samples. Our results show a reduction of LCA content below the 0.1% level.

  6. Miniaturized modules for light sheet microscopy with low chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Bruns, T; Bauer, M; Bruns, S; Meyer, H; Kubin, D; Schneckenburger, H

    2016-12-01

    Two miniaturized fibre-coupled modules for light sheet-based microscopy are described and compared with respect to image quality, chromatic aberration and beam alignment. Whereas in one module the light sheet is created by an achromatic cylindrical lens, reflection by a spherical mirror and concomitant astigmatic distortion are used to create the light sheet in the second module. Test experiments with fluorescent dyes in solution and multicellular tumour spheroids are reported, and some details on construction are given for both systems. Both modules are optimized for imaging individual cell layers of 3D biological samples and can be adapted to fit commercial microscopes.

  7. Intrinsic Instability of Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, S. M.; van der Molen, S. J.; Tromp, R. M.

    2012-10-01

    Aberration-corrected microscopes with subatomic resolution will impact broad areas of science and technology. However, the experimentally observed lifetime of the corrected state is just a few minutes. Here we show that the corrected state is intrinsically unstable; the higher its quality, the more unstable it is. Analyzing the contrast transfer function near optimum correction, we define an “instability budget” which allows a rational trade-off between resolution and stability. Unless control systems are developed to overcome these challenges, intrinsic instability poses a fundamental limit to the resolution practically achievable in the electron microscope.

  8. [The aberrant parasitism of horse botflies (Diptera: Gasterophilidae)].

    PubMed

    Rastegaev, Iu M

    1990-01-01

    Alongside with a high intensity of infection of horses with botfly larvae there was observed mass aberrant parasitism of horse botflies in farms of Astrakhan, Guryev and Uralsk Provinces, and in the Kalmyk ASSR in 1980-1981 and 1987. As a result of extremely high aggregation of horse botfly larvae in their usual localization places, Gasterophilus pecorum larvae remained, due to interspecific competition, in nonspecific places (oral cavity, pharynx), adapted to new habitats and normally developed. Their number varied from 260 to 750 specimens. Localization of G. pecorum larvae in the mentioned departments of the alimentary canal results in serious morbidity of horses.

  9. An evaluation of the effects of matched stimuli on behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, C C; Adelinis, J D; Hanley, G P; Goh, H L; Delia, M D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to extend the literature on matched stimuli to three dissimilar forms of aberrant behavior (dangerous climbing and jumping, saliva manipulation, and hand mouthing). The results of functional analyses suggested that each behavior was automatically reinforced. Preference assessments were used to identify two classes of stimuli: items that matched the hypothesized sensory consequences of aberrant behavior (matched stimuli) and items that produced sensory consequences that were not similar to those produced by the aberrant behavior (unmatched stimuli). The effects of providing continuous and noncontingent access to either the most highly preferred matched or the most highly preferred unmatched stimuli were assessed relative to a condition in which no stimuli were available. Overall results suggested that providing access to items that matched the hypothesized sensory consequences of aberrant behavior may be more effective than simply selecting stimuli either arbitrarily or based on the results of preference assessments alone. PMID:10738949

  10. Three-dimensional polarization aberration functions in optical system based on three-dimensional polarization ray-tracing calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenjun; Fu, Yuegang; Liu, Zhiying; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jiake; Zheng, Yang; Li, Yahong

    2017-03-01

    The polarization aberrations of a complex optical system with multi-element lens have been investigated using a 3D polarization aberration function. The 3D polarization ray-tracing matrix has been combined with the optical path difference to obtain a 3D polarization aberration function, which avoids the need for a complicated phase unwrapping process. The polarization aberrations of a microscope objective have been analyzed to include, the distributions of 3D polarization aberration functions, diattenuation aberration, retardance aberration, and polarization-dependent intensity on the exit pupil. Further, the aberrations created by the field of view and the coating on the distribution rules of 3D polarization aberration functions are discussed in detail. Finally a novel appropriate field of view and wavelength correction is proposed for a polarization aberration function which optimizes the image quality of a multi-element optical system.

  11. Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampson, Karen M.; Munro, Ian; Paterson, Carl; Dainty, Christopher

    2005-07-01

    It is fairly well established that the higher-order aberrations of the eye fluctuate over relatively short time periods, but as yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the origin of these fluctuations. We measured the aberrations and the pulse pressure wave simultaneously for five subjects. The aberrations were measured by using a Shack-Hartmann sensor sampling at 21.2 Hz. We decomposed the aberration data into Zernike coefficients up to and including fifth order and also calculated the rms wave-front error. From the pulse data the heart rate variability signal was also derived. Coherence function analysis showed that for all subjects there was a weak correlation between many of the aberrations and the pulse and the derived heart rate variability. The pulse and the heart rate variability can account for only 11%+/-2% and 20%+/-2%, respectively, of the aberration dynamics.

  12. Performance of Dispersed Fringe Sensor in the Presence of Segmented Mirror Aberrations - Modeling and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Fang; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Wavefront aberrations will lower the DFS fringe visibility and DFS signal SNR. The specific effect of wavefront aberration on DFS depends on the aberration type. Due to the "pixel spatial filter" effect the extracted DFS signal can tolerate moderate amount of wavefront aberrations..By averaging piston detection results from multiple traces extracted from fringe images DFS can further increase its robustness against wavefront aberration. Line-of-sight jitter can cause significant loss of fringe visibility will affect more on the aberrated system..Modeling results have shown that gravity sag on the JWST segment mirror during I&T will lower the DHS fringe visibility by factor of 2-3X and lower the DHS signal intensity by factor of approx.5X. Under gravity sag the RMS DHS detection error approx. 100 nm.

  13. Analytical analysis for impact of polarization aberration of projection lens on lithographic imaging quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lina; Li, Sikun; Wang, Xiangzhao; Yan, Guanyong

    2015-03-01

    In high-NA and hyper-NA lithography systems, the polarization aberration of projection lens leads to imaging degradations. Typically, numerical simulations are used to explore the relationship. In this paper, analytical analysis for the impact of polarization aberration of projection lens on the aerial image of alternating phase-shift mask (Alt-PSM) is realized. The analytical expressions of image placement error (IPE) and best focus shift (BFS) caused by polarization aberration are derived from the intensity of aerial image. The derived expressions match simulation results extremely well, and can be used to understand more fully the detrimental impact of polarization aberration on lithographic imaging quality. The linear relationships between IPE and odd items of Pauli-Zernike polarization aberrations, as well as that between BFS and even items of Pauli-Zernike polarization aberrations are established, using linear polarization illumination. The accuracy of the linear relationships is assessed by the least square method.

  14. Study of cenesthesias and body image aberration in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rajender, Gaurav; Kanwal, Krishna; Rathore, Dinesh M.; Chaudhary, Deepa

    2009-01-01

    Background: Abnormal body sensations are reported frequently by schizophrenic patients. Cenesthesias are infrequently recognized and diagnosis of cenesthopathic schizophrenia is rarely made. There are very few studies regarding the same. Aims and Objectives: To assess cenesthesias and different aspects of body image aberration and their relationship with psychopathology in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients of paranoid schizophrenia meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed with Positive and Negative Symptom Scale(PANSS) for psychopathology, Bonn Scale for Assessment of Basic Symptoms/Category D ‘Cenesthesias’ (BSABS), Image-Marking Procedure(IMP), alteration of body size and body cathexis. Assessments were made at baseline and after two weeks and assessed with SPSS 12.0. Results: The most commonly endorsed items on BSABS were depersonalization, motor weakness, abnormal pain, numbness and stiffness. Patients underestimated lower extremities and feelings of body size change which was positively correlated with PANSS-scores and improved on reassessment. Cenesthesias were positively correlated with disturbances of body concept and were present at onset in 40% and change form in 75.7%. Conclusions: Cenesthesias and body image aberrations are common in paranoid schizophrenia. They are present from onset in few, change form and improve on treatment. Cenesthesias and disturbances of body concept are correlated and body size is associated with other psychopathology. PMID:19881047

  15. Biclonal chromosomal aberrations in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Z; Balogh, E; Kiss, C; Pajor, L; Oláh, E

    1999-01-01

    Hematological malignancies and premalignant diseases are generally of monoclonal origin. The prognostic and therapeutic significance of finding two genetically independent clones remains to be determined. We followed a case of childhood myelodysplastic syndrome showing biclonal chromosomal abnormalities (+8, -7) by conventional cytogenetic examination and double target fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A 7-year-old girl presented with Plaut-Vincent angina and leukopenia. The cytogenetic aberration of +8 was the first sign to suggest MDS. Serial bone marrow controls, prompted by a progressive clinical course detected myelodysplastic changes and a new clonal aberration (-7). The presence of -7 and +8 in two independent clones was verified by double-target FISH. While at diagnosis and during cytokine treatment more cells showed +8, after successful all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) therapy, the clone with -7 predominated. Following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation the patient displayed donor-derived hematopoesis. Our data stress the significance of cytogenetic and FISH examinations in detecting specific genetic abnormalities and progressive clonal changes as an indicator and guideline for therapy. Different cell clones characterized by different genetic changes might be associated with different biologic features reflected in their response to treatment.

  16. Exercise protects against methamphetamine-induced aberrant neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Minseon; Levine, Harry; Toborek, Michal

    2016-09-28

    While no effective therapy is available for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity, aerobic exercise is being proposed to improve depressive symptoms and substance abuse outcomes. The present study focuses on the effect of exercise on METH-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the context of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology. Mice were administered with METH or saline by i.p. injections for 5 days with an escalating dose regimen. One set of mice was sacrificed 24 h post last injection of METH, and the remaining animals were either subjected to voluntary wheel running (exercised mice) or remained in sedentary housing (sedentary mice). METH administration decreased expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus. These changes were preserved post METH administration in sedentary mice and were associated with the development of significant aberrations of neural differentiation. Exercise protected against these effects by enhancing the protein expression of TJ proteins, stabilizing the BBB integrity, and enhancing the neural differentiation. In addition, exercise protected against METH-induced systemic increase in inflammatory cytokine levels. These results suggest that exercise can attenuate METH-induced neurotoxicity by protecting against the BBB disruption and related microenvironmental changes in the hippocampus.

  17. Mechanistic modeling of aberrant energy metabolism in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Sangar, Vineet; Eddy, James A.; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Price, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction in energy metabolism—including in pathways localized to the mitochondria—has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide array of disorders, ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases to type II diabetes. The inherent complexities of energy and mitochondrial metabolism present a significant obstacle in the effort to understand the role that these molecular processes play in the development of disease. To help unravel these complexities, systems biology methods have been applied to develop an array of computational metabolic models, ranging from mitochondria-specific processes to genome-scale cellular networks. These constraint-based (CB) models can efficiently simulate aspects of normal and aberrant metabolism in various genetic and environmental conditions. Development of these models leverages—and also provides a powerful means to integrate and interpret—information from a wide range of sources including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and enzyme kinetics. Here, we review a variety of mechanistic modeling studies that explore metabolic functions, deficiency disorders, and aberrant biochemical pathways in mitochondria and related regions in the cell. PMID:23112774

  18. Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism.

    PubMed

    Santini, Emanuela; Huynh, Thu N; MacAskill, Andrew F; Carter, Adam G; Pierre, Philippe; Ruggero, Davide; Kaphzan, Hanoch; Klann, Eric

    2013-01-17

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are an early onset, heterogeneous group of heritable neuropsychiatric disorders with symptoms that include deficits in social interaction skills, impaired communication abilities, and ritualistic-like repetitive behaviours. One of the hypotheses for a common molecular mechanism underlying ASDs is altered translational control resulting in exaggerated protein synthesis. Genetic variants in chromosome 4q, which contains the EIF4E locus, have been described in patients with autism. Importantly, a rare single nucleotide polymorphism has been identified in autism that is associated with increased promoter activity in the EIF4E gene. Here we show that genetically increasing the levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in mice results in exaggerated cap-dependent translation and aberrant behaviours reminiscent of autism, including repetitive and perseverative behaviours and social interaction deficits. Moreover, these autistic-like behaviours are accompanied by synaptic pathophysiology in the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. The autistic-like behaviours displayed by the eIF4E-transgenic mice are corrected by intracerebroventricular infusions of the cap-dependent translation inhibitor 4EGI-1. Our findings demonstrate a causal relationship between exaggerated cap-dependent translation, synaptic dysfunction and aberrant behaviours associated with autism.

  19. HER2 aberrations in cancer: implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Min; Parker, Barbara A; Schwab, Richard; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2014-07-01

    Although anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) therapy is currently approved for breast, gastric, and gastroesophageal cancers overexpressing the HER2 protein or amplified for the HER2 gene, HER2 aberrations (gene amplification, gene mutations, and protein overexpression) are reported in other diverse malignancies. Indeed, about 1-37% of tumors of the following types harbor HER2 aberrations: bladder, cervix, colon, endometrium, germ cell, glioblastoma, head and neck, liver, lung, ovarian, pancreas, and salivary duct. Four HER2-targeted therapies have been approved for HER2-positive breast cancer: two antibodies (trastuzumab and pertuzumab), an antibody-drug conjugate (ado-trastuzumab emtansine), and a small molecule kinase inhibitor (lapatinib). In addition, afatinib, a small molecule kinase inhibitor that causes irreversible inhibition of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and HER2, was recently approved for EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer. A large number of novel HER2-targeted agents are also in clinical trials. Herein we discuss the state of the art in understanding and targeting HER2 across anatomic tumor types.

  20. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016–0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD. PMID:27257047

  1. Exercise protects against methamphetamine-induced aberrant neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minseon; Levine, Harry; Toborek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    While no effective therapy is available for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity, aerobic exercise is being proposed to improve depressive symptoms and substance abuse outcomes. The present study focuses on the effect of exercise on METH-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the context of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology. Mice were administered with METH or saline by i.p. injections for 5 days with an escalating dose regimen. One set of mice was sacrificed 24 h post last injection of METH, and the remaining animals were either subjected to voluntary wheel running (exercised mice) or remained in sedentary housing (sedentary mice). METH administration decreased expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus. These changes were preserved post METH administration in sedentary mice and were associated with the development of significant aberrations of neural differentiation. Exercise protected against these effects by enhancing the protein expression of TJ proteins, stabilizing the BBB integrity, and enhancing the neural differentiation. In addition, exercise protected against METH-induced systemic increase in inflammatory cytokine levels. These results suggest that exercise can attenuate METH-induced neurotoxicity by protecting against the BBB disruption and related microenvironmental changes in the hippocampus. PMID:27677455

  2. Active optics concept for hypertelescope aberration control and pupil densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohlen, Kjetil; Dargent, Pascal; Ferrari, Marc; Lemaitre, Gerard R.

    2003-02-01

    One of the instrumental concepts under study for large baseline interferometers for high resolution astronomical imaging, in particular applied to exoplanet search and characterisation, is the hypertelescope (HT). Mainly considered for space deployment, this sparse array of mirror segments supported either by a struss structure or by free-flying micro satellites form a giant, diluted primary mirror. The focal plane instrumentation, including pupil densification optics, is located in the primary focus instrument space craft (ISC). Baselines considered for first-generation HTs are of the order of 100 m, but one can envisage kilometric arrays capable of unprecedented angular resolution. Pointing with such a telescope poses orbital navigation problems. Letting the entire array perform a slow sky-scanning motion and navigating the ISC within the primary focal plane in order to follow the image of the object may solve these problems. The ISC must therefore be equipped with aberration correction optics capable of covering a sufficiently large primary field of view, of the order of a few degrees. In this paper we present optical and mechanical concepts for combined aberration correction and pupil densification using multimode deformable mirror (MDM) and mechanically amplified piezo actuator technologies. Among the advantages of such a system over large monolithic corrector optics is the relaxation of piston alignment requirements for primary segments.

  3. Velocity aberration and atmospheric refraction in satellite laser communication experiments.

    PubMed

    Nugent, L J; Condon, R J

    1966-11-01

    The effects of satellite velocity aberration and atmospheric refraction on the direction of propagation of lagser radiation reflected from a satellite back to an observer on the earth are examined. A velocity aberration analysis for the two-dimensional case where the satellite passes directly overhead at velocity v is presented to first order in v/c in order to illustrate the method. The equations for the more general threedimensional case are then given to first order in v/c, and it is indicated that higher order treatments are normally unnecessary in typical experimental considerations. Following this, a simple approximate equation giving the atmospheric refraction to an accuracy of a few microradians is developed; it is indicated that greater accuracy is not important because of laser pointing limitations imposed by atmospheric scattering and turbulence. The atmospheric refraction equation depends only on the apparent zenith angle of the satellite reflector relative to the earth-based laser, on the satelli-te altitude, and on the index of refraction of the laser radiation in the atmosphere at the earth's surface. Both of these developments should be useful in the design and interpretation of satellite laser-communication experiments.

  4. Aberrant DNA methylation imprints in aborted bovine clones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-He; Yin, Shen; Xiong, Bo; Hou, Yi; Chen, Da-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-04-01

    Genomic imprinting plays a very important role during development and its abnormality may heavily undermine the developmental potential of bovine embryos. Because of limited resources of the cow genome, bovine genomic imprinting, both in normal development and in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning, is not well documented. DNA methylation is thought to be a major factor for the establishment of genomic imprinting. In our study, we determined the methylation status of differential methylated regions (DMRs) of four imprinted genes in four spontaneously aborted SCNT-cloned fetuses (AF). Firstly, abnormal methylation imprints were observed in each individual to different extents. In particular, Peg3 and MAOA were either seriously demethylated or showed aberrant methylation patterns in four aborted clones we tested, but Xist and Peg10 exhibited relatively better maintained methylation status in AF1 and AF4. Secondly, two aborted fetuses, AF2 and AF3 exhibited severe aberrant methylation imprints of four imprinted genes. Finally, MAOA showed strong heterogeneous methylation patterns of its DMR in normal somatic adult tissue, but largely variable methylation levels and relatively homogeneous methylation patterns in aborted cloned fetuses. Our data indicate that the aborted cloned fetuses exhibited abnormal methylation imprints, to different extent, in aborted clones, which partially account for the higher abortion and developmental abnormalities during bovine cloning.

  5. Effect of induced transverse chromatic aberration on peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Winter, Simon; Fathi, Mohammad Taghi; Venkataraman, Abinaya Priya; Rosén, Robert; Seidemann, Anne; Esser, Gregor; Lundström, Linda; Unsbo, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is one of the largest optical errors affecting the peripheral image quality in the human eye. However, the effect of chromatic aberrations on our peripheral vision is largely unknown. This study investigates the effect of prism-induced horizontal TCA on vision, in the central as well as in the 20° nasal visual field, for four subjects. Additionally, the magnitude of induced TCA (in minutes of arc) was measured subjectively in the fovea with a Vernier alignment method. During all measurements, the monochromatic optical errors of the eye were compensated for by adaptive optics. The average reduction in foveal grating resolution was about 0.032 ± 0.005  logMAR/arcmin of TCA (mean ± std). For peripheral grating detection, the reduction was 0.057 ± 0.012  logMAR/arcmin. This means that the prismatic effect of highly dispersive spectacles may reduce the ability to detect objects in the peripheral visual field.

  6. Effect of sampling on real ocular aberration measurements

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Lourdes; Marcos, Susana; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Burns, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    The minimum number of samples necessary to fully characterize the aberration pattern of the eye is a question under debate in the clinical as well as the scientific community. We performed repeated measurements of ocular aberrations in 12 healthy nonsurgical human eyes and in 3 artificial eyes, using different sampling patterns (hexagonal, circular, and rectangular with 19 to 177 samples, and 3 radial patterns with 49 sample coordinates corresponding to zeros of the Albrecht, Jacobi, and Legendre functions). For each measurement set we computed two different metrics based on the root-mean-square (RMS) of difference maps (RMS_Diff) and the proportional change in the wavefront (W%). These metrics are used to compare wavefront estimates as well as to summarize results across eyes. We used computer simulations to extend our results to “abnormal eyes” (keratoconic, post-LASIK, and post-radial keratotomy eyes). We found that the spatial distribution of the samples can be more important than the number of samples for both our measured as well as our simulated “abnormal” eyes. Experimentally, we did not find large differences across patterns except, as expected, for undersampled patterns. PMID:17767247

  7. Diverticula of Kommerell and Aberrant Subclavian Arteries Complicated by Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. G. Whigham, C. J.; Trinh, C.

    2005-06-15

    This is a retrospective evaluation of the incidence of aberrant subclavian arteries (ASAs) and diverticula of Kommerell, as well as the occurrence and significance of associated aneurysms. Thoracic aortograms obtained during a 12.5-year period were reviewed, seeking the presence of aberrant right and left subclavian arteries (ARSAs/ALSAs), diverticula of Kommerell, and the incidence of associated aortic aneurysms. Several cases were evaluated with computed tomography concomitantly. Results were correlated with a literature review. Twenty-two ASAs were identified. Nineteen were on the right (ARSAs) and three were on the left (ALSAs). A diverticulum of Kommerell (DOK) was also present on the right in seven and on the left in three. Five of these patients had complicating aneurysms. Four of these were associated with ARSAs and their diverticula. Two were atherosclerotic; one was a limited dissection and one of uncertain etiology was ruptured. One additional aneurysm (atherosclerotic) involved an ALSA/DOK. The patient with the ruptured aneurysm died in surgery; three were managed conservatively because of concomitant disease; and one is being followed because of the small size (2.5 cm) of the aneurysm. ARSAs are relatively uncommon and ALSAs are rare. Both ARSA and ALSA are frequently associated with a DOK. Aneurysms rarely involve ASAs (with or without a DOK), but they are associated with a high mortality rate if they are not discovered before rupture. Early diagnosis plus surgical and/or endovascular management can be lifesaving.

  8. The Distribution of Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Cells Predicted by a Generalized Time-Dependent Model of Radiation-Induced Formation of Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    New experimental data show how chromosomal aberrations for low- and high-LET radiation are dependent on DSB repair deficiencies in wild-type, AT and NBS cells. We simulated the development of chromosomal aberrations in these cells lines in a stochastic track-structure-dependent model, in which different cells have different kinetics of DSB repair. We updated a previously formulated model of chromosomal aberrations, which was based on a stochastic Monte Carlo approach, to consider the time-dependence of DSB rejoining. The previous version of the model had an assumption that all DSBs would rejoin, and therefore we called it a time-independent model. The chromosomal-aberrations model takes into account the DNA and track structure for low- and high-LET radiations, and provides an explanation and prediction of the statistics of rare and more complex aberrations. We compared the program-simulated kinetics of DSB rejoining to the experimentally-derived bimodal exponential curves of the DSB kinetics. We scored the formation of translocations, dicentrics, acentric and centric rings, deletions, and inversions. The fraction of DSBs participating in aberrations was studied in relation to the rejoining time. Comparisons of simulated dose dependence for simple aberrations to the experimental dose-dependence for HF19, AT and NBS cells will be made.

  9. Method for measuring ocular aberrations induced by thermal lensing in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincelette, Rebecca; Oliver, Jeff; Noojin, Gary; Schuster, Kurt; Shingledecker, Aurora; Welch, Ashley J.

    2010-02-01

    An adaptive optics imaging system was used to qualitatively observe the types of aberrations induced by an infrared laser in a rhesus eye. Thermal lensing was induced with an infrared laser radiation wavelength of 1150-nm. The adaptive optics system tracked the temporal response of the aberrations at a frequency of 30 Hz for continuous-wave exposures. Results are compared against thermal lensing aberrations induced in an artificial eye.

  10. Effects of the cornea and the crystalline lens on the aberrations of the complete eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoqi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2005-12-01

    In order to understand the relative contribution of the wave-front aberrations of the cornea and the crystalline lens to the retinal image quality in the human eye, we have measured the wave-front aberrations of the anterior corneal surface, the posterior corneal surface and the complete eye with a corneal topographic system (Orbscan) and a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor. The 20 subjects selected to participate in the study are all no eye diseases, covering a range of age from 18 to 25. All the subjects have refractive errors of defocus varying from 0.5 D to 5 D and astigmatism varying from 0.1 D to 1.5D. Using the Orbscan, we obtained the discrete set of corneal elevation data in radial distribution over the pupil plane for the anterior and the posterior corneal surfaces directly, and the data are then transformed into wave-front aberrations of both the corneal surfaces. The wave-front aberrations of the two surfaces are then used to acquire the aberrations in whole cornea. The aberration contribution of the crystalline lens is obtained by subtracting the aberrations in the cornea from that in the complete eye. It is shown that the combination of the aberrations between the crystalline lens and the cornea could be either a compensatory or an additive process. The effect of the combination between the anterior and the posterior corneal surface is also complicated, and the aberration compensation, as well as aberration addition can be observed. It is shown from statistics point of view that the anterior corneal surface contributes more lower-order aberrations (astigmatism) to the complete eye, while the posterior corneal surface and the crystalline lens play a more important role in contributing higher-order aberrations.

  11. A model of field and spherical aberration in soft/hard edge solenoid magnets.

    PubMed

    Biswas, B

    2013-10-01

    A solenoid magnetic field model is presented that describes the on axis field by a parameter of its hard edginess and axial half-width at half-maximum field, which universally define its spherical aberration without solving the ray equation. The model shows an increase in spherical aberration from real soft edge fields to hard edge models, as used in beam tracking. It compares well with existing field models. It simply and accurately finds the spherical aberration in many types of solenoids.

  12. A method of dynamic chromatic aberration correction in low-voltage scanning electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Anjam

    2005-07-01

    A time-of-flight concept that dynamically corrects for chromatic aberration effects in scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) is presented. The method is predicted to reduce the microscope's chromatic aberration by an order of magnitude. The scheme should significantly improve the spatial resolution of low-voltage scanning electron microscopes (LVSEMs). The dynamic means of correcting for chromatic aberration also allows for the possibility of obtaining high image resolution from electron guns that have relatively large energy spreads.

  13. The definition of optical systems aberrations to secondary school students regarding their knowledge of mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordek, David

    2017-01-01

    The problematics of optical systems aberrations that is described in my article is beyond mathematical knowledge of secondary school students, especially the problematics of simulations of these aberrations. In my contribution the problematics of optical systems aberrations will be described using higher level-mathematics. Then it will be presented to secondary school students regarding their theoretical knowledge of mathematics. Even though i&tacute;s necessary to include mathematics into clearly physics problem.

  14. Effect of temperature gradients on the wave aberration in athermal optical glasses.

    PubMed

    Reitmayer, F; Schroeder, H

    1975-03-01

    Temperature gradients that are caused by partial heating in optical elements may result in wave aberrations. The athermal glasses developed within the past two years exhibit considerably reduced thermal wave aberrations compared to the classical optical glasses. Evidence is given that the total wave aberration is due not only to the change of optical path DeltaW(Gamma) computed from a, n, and dn/dT, but also that, upon the occurrence of thermal stresses, an additional wave aberration DeltaW(s) must be taken into consideration.

  15. Evaluation of large aberrations using a lateral-shear interferometer having variable shear.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, M P; Wyant, J C

    1975-01-01

    A variable shear lateral shearing interferometer consisting of two holographically produced crossed diffraction gratings is used to test nonrotationally symmetric wavefronts having aberrations greater than 100 wavelengths and slope variations of more than 400 wavelengths/diameter. Comparisons are made with results of Twyman-Green interferometric tests for wavefront aberrations of up to thirty wavelengths. The results indicate that small wavefront aberrations can be measured as accurately with the lateral-shear interferometer as with the Twyman-Green interferometer and that aberrations that cannot be measured at all with a Twyman-Green interferometer can be measured to about 1% accuracy or better.

  16. Aberration fields of off-axis two-mirror astronomical telescopes induced by lateral misalignments.

    PubMed

    Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang; Gu, Zhiyuan; Ma, Hongcai

    2016-10-17

    This paper presents a systematic and in-depth discussion for the aberration fields of off-axis two-mirror astronomical telescopes with an offset pupil that is induced by lateral misalignment. Based on the framework of nodal aberration theory and a system level pupil coordinate transformation, the aberration function for misaligned off-axis telescopes is derived. Some general descriptions for the misalignment-induced aberrations are presented. The specific astigmatic and coma aberration field characteristics in off-axis two-mirror telescopes are then discussed. The precision of the presented aberration expressions is demonstrated. The discrepancies between the ray tracing data and aberration expressions are explicated. Then the inherent relationships between the astigmatism and coma aberration fields are revealed and explicated. Based on this knowledge, some quantitative discussions are further presented for determining the misalignments used to compensate for the effects of primary mirror astigmatic figure errors as well as separating these two effects when coupled. Other effects of lateral misalignments are also presented, especially the field-constant focal shift, which is only sensitive to the lateral misalignments in the symmetry plane of the nominal off-axis system. A quantitative discussion is also presented which explains the reason why trefoil aberration in off-axis telescopes is more sensitive to lateral misalignments. Most of the results presented in this paper can be extended to the other off-axis astronomical telescopes with more freedoms.

  17. Efficient estimation and large-scale evaluation of lateral chromatic aberration for digital image forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloe, Thomas; Borowka, Karsten; Winkler, Antje

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of lateral chromatic aberration forms another ingredient for a well equipped toolbox of an image forensic investigator. Previous work proposed its application to forgery detection1 and image source identification.2 This paper takes a closer look on the current state-of-the-art method to analyse lateral chromatic aberration and presents a new approach to estimate lateral chromatic aberration in a runtime-efficient way. Employing a set of 11 different camera models including 43 devices, the characteristic of lateral chromatic aberration is investigated in a large-scale. The reported results point to general difficulties that have to be considered in real world investigations.

  18. Measurement of chromatic aberration in STEM and SCEM by coherent convergent beam electron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, C L; Etheridge, J

    2013-02-01

    A simple method is described for the accurate and precise measurement of chromatic aberration under electron-optical conditions pertinent to scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM). The method requires only the measurement of distances in a coherent CBED pattern and knowledge of the electron wavelength and the lattice spacing of a calibration specimen. The chromatic aberration of a spherical-aberration corrected 300 kV thermal field emission TEM is measured in STEM and SCEM operating modes and under different condenser lens settings. The effect of the measured chromatic aberrations on the 3 dimensional intensity distribution of the electron probe is also considered.

  19. Influence of ocular longitudinal chromatic aberration on the selection of aspheric intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xin; Choi, Myoung

    2010-12-06

    Polychromatic defocus could affect the optimal residual spherical aberration that could yield the best image quality for patients with intraocular lenses (IOLs). Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) were generated using a model that included polychromatic defocus. The maximum MTF volume occurred at + 0.05 μm of overall ocular spherical aberration. For 3 case studies, the optimal overall ocular spherical aberration was ~0.05 μm more positive with the contribution of polychromatic defocus than without it. Overall, the model indicated that image quality was usually best when IOLs allowed overall ocular spherical aberration that was slightly positive, rather than strongly positive, zero, or negative.

  20. Theoretical estimates of spherical and chromatic aberration in photoemission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2016-01-01

    We present theoretical estimates of the mean coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration for low energy photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Using simple analytic models, we find that the aberration coefficients depend primarily on the difference between the photon energy and the photoemission threshold, as expected. However, the shape of the photoelectron spectral distribution impacts the coefficients by up to 30%. These estimates should allow more precise correction of aberration in PEEM in experimental situations where the aberration coefficients and precise electron energy distribution cannot be readily measured.

  1. Primary wavefront aberrations calculation from a defocused image or a Hartmanngram.

    PubMed

    Malacara-Doblado, Daniel; Malacara-Hernández, Zacarias; Gómez-Vieyra, Armando

    2010-04-20

    A wavefront aberration can be retrieved from a defocused image or a Hartmanngram by several different methods using diffraction theory and Fourier transforms. In this manuscript, we describe an alternate method for wavefront aberration determination from a defocused image or a Hartmanngram using a geometric l approximation. The main assumption is that the image is defocused, with the observation plane outside the caustic limits. The result will be applied to the retrieval of a wavefront with primary aberrations from a Hartmanngram or defocused image without the need for any transversal aberration integration.

  2. FBI DRUGFIRE program: the development and deployment of an automated firearms identification system to support serial, gang, and drug-related shooting investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, Robert W.

    1994-03-01

    The FBI DRUGFIRE Program entails the continuing phased development and deployment of a scalable automated firearms identification system. The first phase of this system, a networked, database-driven firearms evidence imaging system, has been operational for approximately one year and has demonstrated its effectiveness in facilitating the sharing and linking of firearms evidence collected in serial, gang, and drug-related shooting investigations. However, there is a pressing need for development of enhancements which will more fully automate the system so that it is capable of processing very large volumes of firearms evidence. These enhancements would provide automated image analysis and pattern matching functionalities. Existing `spin off' technologies need to be integrated into the present DRUGFIRE system to automate the 3-D mensuration, registration, feature extraction, and matching of the microtopographical surface features imprinted on the primers of fired casings during firing.

  3. The Greeting Behavior of Fragile X Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Peter H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mentally retarded males (N=18) above 12 years of age with a fragile site on the X chromosome exhibited a highly idiosyncratic stereotypic form of gaze avoidance during greeting ceremonies. Results suggest this aberrant greeting behavior may be uniquely associated with this syndrome of mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  4. Ocular wavefront aberrations in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus: effects of age and refractive error.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Nancy J; Marcos, Susana; Troilo, David

    2010-11-23

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is a primate model for emmetropization studies. The refractive development of the marmoset eye depends on visual experience, so knowledge of the optical quality of the eye is valuable. We report on the wavefront aberrations of the marmoset eye, measured with a clinical Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences). Aberrations were measured on both eyes of 23 marmosets whose ages ranged from 18 to 452 days. Twenty-one of the subjects were members of studies of emmetropization and accommodation, and two were untreated normal subjects. Eleven of the 21 experimental subjects had worn monocular diffusers and 10 had worn binocular spectacle lenses of equal power. Monocular deprivation or lens rearing began at about 45 days of age and ended at about 108 days of age. All refractions and aberration measures were performed while the eyes were cyclopleged; most aberration measures were made while subjects were awake, but some control measurements were performed under anesthesia. Wavefront error was expressed as a seventh-order Zernike polynomial expansion, using the Optical Society of America's naming convention. Aberrations in young marmosets decreased up to about 100 days of age, after which the higher-order RMS aberration leveled off to about 0.10 μm over a 3 mm diameter pupil. Higher-order aberrations were 1.8 times greater when the subjects were under general anesthesia than when they were awake. Young marmoset eyes were characterized by negative spherical aberration. Form-deprived eyes of the monocular deprivation animals had greater wavefront aberrations than their fellow untreated eyes, particularly for asymmetric aberrations in the odd-numbered Zernike orders. Both lens-treated and form-deprived eyes showed similar significant increases in Z3(-3) trefoil aberration, suggesting the increase in trefoil may be related to factors that do not involve visual feedback.

  5. Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.; Fochs, Scott N.

    1999-09-28

    An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

  6. Catadioptric lens with aberrations balanced by aspherizing one surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystricky, K. M.; Yoder, P. R., Jr.

    1985-04-01

    In this paper a description is provided of an optical system with one surface aspherized to give a specific level of performance and to equalize the intensity profiles of star images over the field. The system was a 25.4-cm EFL, 5.8 deg field, f/1.53 catadioptric Cassegrain. It was designed to determine the attitude of a space platform by detecting and mapping the geometric pattern of stars observed to ninth visual magnitude. Aberrations were controlled over a 0.5-1.1-micron spectral region. A comparison is conducted of the polychromatic performance of the design to one conventionally optimized. How the spherical substrate base radius was chosen to minimize glass removal is also described.

  7. Geometrical Aberration Suppression for Large Aperture Sub-THz Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachon, M.; Liebert, K.; Siemion, A.; Bomba, J.; Sobczyk, A.; Knap, W.; Coquillat, D.; Suszek, J.; Sypek, M.

    2017-03-01

    Advanced THz setups require high performance optical elements with large numerical apertures and small focal lengths. This is due to the high absorption of humid air and relatively low efficiency of commercially available detectors. Here, we propose a new type of double-sided sub-THz diffractive optical element with suppressed geometrical aberration for narrowband applications (0.3 THz). One side of the element is designed as thin structure in non-paraxial approach which is the exact method, but only for ideally flat elements. The second side will compensate phase distribution differences between ideal thin structure and real volume one. The computer-aided optimization algorithm is performed to design an additional phase distribution of correcting layer assuming volume designing of the first side of the element. The experimental evaluation of the proposed diffractive component created by 3D printing technique shows almost two times larger performance in comparison with uncorrected basic diffractive lens.

  8. Geometrical Aberration Suppression for Large Aperture Sub-THz Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachon, M.; Liebert, K.; Siemion, A.; Bomba, J.; Sobczyk, A.; Knap, W.; Coquillat, D.; Suszek, J.; Sypek, M.

    2016-11-01

    Advanced THz setups require high performance optical elements with large numerical apertures and small focal lengths. This is due to the high absorption of humid air and relatively low efficiency of commercially available detectors. Here, we propose a new type of double-sided sub-THz diffractive optical element with suppressed geometrical aberration for narrowband applications (0.3 THz). One side of the element is designed as thin structure in non-paraxial approach which is the exact method, but only for ideally flat elements. The second side will compensate phase distribution differences between ideal thin structure and real volume one. The computer-aided optimization algorithm is performed to design an additional phase distribution of correcting layer assuming volume designing of the first side of the element. The experimental evaluation of the proposed diffractive component created by 3D printing technique shows almost two times larger performance in comparison with uncorrected basic diffractive lens.

  9. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns.

    PubMed

    Zee, Barry M; Dibona, Amy B; Alekseyenko, Artyom A; French, Christopher A; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2016-01-01

    Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC), which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N) covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state.

  10. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zee, Barry M.; Dibona, Amy B.; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; French, Christopher A.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC), which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N) covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state. PMID:27698495

  11. Chromosome Aberrations and Fertility Disorders in Domestic Animals.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Terje; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The association between chromosomal abnormalities and reduced fertility in domestic animals is well recorded and has been studied for decades. Chromosome aberrations directly affect meiosis, gametogenesis, and the viability of zygotes and embryos. In some instances, balanced structural rearrangements can be transmitted, causing fertility problems in subsequent generations. Here, we aim to give a comprehensive overview of the current status and future prospects of clinical cytogenetics of animal reproduction by focusing on the advances in molecular cytogenetics during the genomics era. We describe how advancing knowledge about animal genomes has improved our understanding of connections between gross structural or molecular chromosome variations and reproductive disorders. Further, we expand on a key area of reproduction genetics: cytogenetics of animal gametes and embryos. Finally, we describe how traditional cytogenetics is interfacing with advanced genomics approaches, such as array technologies and next-generation sequencing, and speculate about the future prospects.

  12. Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human infant eye.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T Rowan; Teel, Danielle F W; Jacobs, Robert J

    2008-09-01

    Although the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the adult eye has been studied, there are no data collected from the human infant eye. A chromatic retinoscope was used to measure cyclopleged infant and adult refractions with four pseudomonochromatic sources (centered at 472, 538, 589, and 652 nm) and with polychromatic light. The LCA of the infant eyes between 472 and 652 nm was a factor of 1.7 greater than the LCA found in the adult group: infant mean=1.62 D, SD+/- 0.14 D; adult mean=0.96 D, SD+/- 0.17 D. The elevated level of LCA in infant eyes is consistent with the greater optical power of the immature eye and indicates similar chromatic dispersion in infant and adult eyes. The implications for visual performance, defocus detection, and measurement of refraction are discussed.

  13. Fast and robust estimation of ophthalmic wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Keith

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly rising levels of myopia, particularly in the developing world, have led to an increased need for inexpensive and automated approaches to optometry. A simple and robust technique is provided for estimating major ophthalmic aberrations using a gradient-based wavefront sensor. The approach is based on the use of numerical calculations to produce diverse combinations of phase components, followed by Fourier transforms to calculate the coefficients. The approach does not utilize phase unwrapping nor iterative solution of inverse problems. This makes the method very fast and tolerant to image artifacts, which do not need to be detected and masked or interpolated as is needed in other techniques. These features make it a promising algorithm on which to base low-cost devices for applications that may have limited access to expert maintenance and operation.

  14. Genomic Aberrations Frequently Alter Chromatin Regulatory Genes in Chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F.; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C. David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ~8 Mb segment at 3p21.1–p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (~23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (~40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. PMID:27072194

  15. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in spermatozoa of fertile boars.

    PubMed

    Orsztynowicz, Maciej; Pawlak, Piotr; Oleś, Dominika; Kubickova, Svatava; Lechniak, Dorota

    2011-11-01

    Chromosomal imbalance in gametes and embryos is one of the factors contributing to early embryonic mortality. Although the rate of chromosomally abnormal sperm cells is low and usually does not exceed 1%, there is no clear indication of fertilizing potential of such gametes. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the type and incidence of numerical chromosomal aberrations in spermatozoa produced by fertile boars used in artificial insemination (AI). We used the protocol of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm interphase nuclei with molecular probes for porcine chromosome pairs 1 and 10. Altogether 12 348 sperm cells were examined. Disomy was observed in spermatozoa of all seven AI boars whereas only one diploid cell was identified in all screened sperm cells. The average rate of chromosomally unbalanced sperm was 0.105% (13/12 348) with an inter-individual variation from 0.048% to 0.194%. Among abnormal sperm cells, both disomy (0.097%) and diploidy (0.008%) were detected. Nullisomy was not included into calculations. The estimated aneuploidy rate calculated by doubling the number of disomic cells was 0.194%. Chromosome pair 10 was significantly more often involved in non-disjunction (75%, 9/12 aneuploid sperm cells) than chromosome pair 1 (25%, 3/12). We have shown for the pig that the rate of disomic cells falls into a range presented by other authors, whereas that of diploid spermatozoa appeared to be lower in the present study. In conclusion, numerical chromosome aberrations were present in spermatozoa of all AI boars analyzed in this study. Therefore, it can be assumed that the presence of unbalanced spermatozoa at the level observed in fertile males does not significantly affect their reproductive potential.

  16. Chromosome aberration and lipid peroxidation in chromium-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Maeng, S H; Chung, H W; Kim, K J; Lee, B M; Shin, Y C; Kim, S J; Yu, I J

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency and lipid peroxidation levels were analyzed to investigate their efficacy as biological markers for monitoring the genotoxicity and oxidative damage in Korean chromium (Cr)-exposed workers. Fifty-one Cr-exposed workers and 31 age-matched controls in ten chrome-plating plants were sampled. The Cr level was measured in the workers' blood and urine, and in the ambient air at the workplaces. The conventional Giemsa staining method and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique were used for chromosome aberration analysis. Spectrum green whole chromosome paint specific for chromosome 4 was used in the FISH procedure. As for lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in the blood plasma as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The blood Cr concentration was statistically correlated with both the frequency of chromatid exchange and the total frequency of chromosome/chromatid breaks and exchanges, as detected by the Giemsa staining. Meanwhile, the frequency of translocation, as detected by the FISH technique, was significantly higher in the Cr-exposed workers than in the controls and it correlated with the blood Cr concentration. Although the concentration of MDA, the metabolite of lipid peroxidation, in the exposed workers was higher than that of the controls, no statistically significant correlation between the MDA level and the blood or urine Cr levels was observed. Accordingly, the genotoxicity and oxidative damage (plasma lipid peroxidation) in the Korean Cr-exposed workers were consequential at quite low exposure levels, plus chromosome rearrangement, especially translocation, was clearly evident as a biological response marker for Cr exposure based on a significant positive correlation between the translocations detected by FISH and the Cr in the blood.

  17. Regional Specificity of Aberrant Thalamocortical Connectivity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Aarti; Carper, Ruth A.; Abbott, Angela E.; Chen, Colleen P.; Solders, Seraphina; Nakutin, Sarah; Datko, Michael C.; Fishman, Inna; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests aberrant (mostly reduced) thalamocortical (TC) connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but despite the crucial role of thalamus in sensorimotor functions and its extensive connectivity with cerebral cortex, relevant evidence remains limited. We performed a comprehensive investigation of region-specific TC connectivity in ASD. Resting-state functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired for 60 children and adolescents with ASD (ages 7–17 years) and 45 age, sex, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) participants. We examined intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) and anatomical connectivity (probabilistic tractography) with thalamus, using 68 unilateral cerebral cortical regions of interest (ROIs). For frontal and parietal lobes, iFC was atypically reduced in the ASD group for supramodal association cortices, but was increased for cingulate gyri and motor cortex. Temporal iFC was characterized by overconnectivity for auditory cortices, but underconnectivity for amygdalae. Occipital iFC was broadly reduced in the ASD group. DTI indices (such as increased radial diffusion) for regions with group differences in iFC further indicated compromised anatomical connectivity, especially for frontal ROIs, in the ASD group. Our findings highlight the regional specificity of aberrant TC connectivity in ASD. Their overall pattern can be largely accounted for by functional overconnectivity with limbic and sensorimotor regions, but underconnectivity with supramodal association cortices. This could be related to comparatively early maturation of limbic and sensorimotor regions in the context of early overgrowth in ASD, at the expense of TC connectivity with later maturing cortical regions. PMID:26493162

  18. Aberrant parietal cortex developmental trajectories in girls with Turner syndrome and related visual-spatial cognitive development: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Green, Tamar; Chromik, Lindsay C; Mazaika, Paul K; Fierro, Kyle; Raman, Mira M; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Hong, David S; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-09-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) arises from partial or complete absence of the X-chromosome in females. Girls with TS show deficits in visual-spatial skills as well as reduced brain volume and surface area in the parietal cortex which supports these cognitive functions. Thus, measuring the developmental trajectory of the parietal cortex and the associated visual-spatial cognition in TS may provide novel insights into critical brain-behavior associations. In this longitudinal study, we acquired structural MRI data and assessed visual-spatial skills in 16 (age: 8.23 ± 2.5) girls with TS and 13 age-matched controls over two time-points. Gray and white matter volume, surface area and cortical thickness were calculated from surfaced based segmentation of bilateral parietal cortices, and the NEPSY Arrows subtest was used to assess visual-spatial ability. Volumetric and cognitive scalars were modeled to obtain estimates of age-related change. The results show aberrant growth of white matter volume (P = 0.011, corrected) and surface area (P = 0.036, corrected) of the left superior parietal regions during childhood in girls with TS. Other parietal sub-regions were significantly smaller in girls with TS at both time-points but did not show different growth trajectories relative to controls. Furthermore, we found that visual-spatial skills showed a widening deficit for girls with TS relative to controls (P = 0.003). Young girls with TS demonstrate an aberrant trajectory of parietal cortical and cognitive development during childhood. Elucidating aberrant neurodevelopmental trajectories in this population is critical for determining specific stages of brain maturation that are particularly dependent on TS-related genetic and hormonal factors.

  19. A Preliminary Analysis of a Behavioral Classrooms Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McCray, Cynthia; Lamkins, Carol; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Cihon, Joseph H.

    2016-01-01

    Today many special education classrooms implement procedures based upon the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to establish educationally relevant skills and decrease aberrant behaviors. However, it is difficult for school staff and consultants to evaluate the implementation of various components of ABA and general classroom set up. In…

  20. Problem Behaviors Associated with 15q- Angelman Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David J.; Marston, Geoff

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-three caregivers of persons with Angelman syndrome completed the Aberrant Behavior checklist and Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior. Responses indicate that 15q- Angelman syndrome is associated with problems such as lack of speech, over activity, restlessness, and eating and sleeping problems. Inappropriate laughter was only reported…

  1. Patterns of Aberrant Eating among Pre-Adolescent Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarren-Sweeney, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports epidemiological and phenomenological investigations of aberrant eating among 347 pre-adolescent children in court-ordered foster and kinship care, in New South Wales, Australia. A quarter of children displayed clinically significant aberrant eating problems, with no evidence of gender or age effects. Two distinct patterns were…

  2. Simple Demonstration of the Impact of Spherical Aberration on Optical Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Isabel; Saavedra, Genaro; Pons, Amparo; Martinez-Corral, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We present an experiment, well adapted for students of introductory optics courses, for the visualization of the impact of spherical aberration in the point spread function of imaging systems. The demonstrations are based on the analogy between the point-spread function of spherically aberrated systems, and the defocused patterns of 1D slit-like…

  3. Criteria for admissible values of smooth aberrations for nondiffractive laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Malashko, Ya I; Khabibulin, V M

    2014-04-28

    We have derived analytical expressions, verified by the methods of numerical simulation, to evaluate the angular divergence of nondiffractive laser beams containing smooth aberrations, i.e., spherical defocusing, astigmatism and toroid. Using these expressions we have formulated the criteria for admissible values of smooth aberrations. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Study on the modification of measured wavefront aberration data for customized visual correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Zhidong; Quan, Wei; An, Li

    2008-12-01

    Wavefront aberration of human eye is an important foundation for customized vision correction. In most current aberrometers, near infrared light is used to measure ocular wavefront aberration, whereas for customized visual correction, wavefront aberration data in visible range are required. With the measured wavefront aberration, corneal topography and eye's axial lengths data, individual eye models for twenty normal human eyes are constructed with the optical design software ZEMAX. Changing the incidence light wavelength and the refractive indexes of eye models, the values of defocus, astigmatism, higher-order aberrations in the measuring wavelength (833nm) and at the most sensitive wavelength of human eye (555nm) are obtained. Average focus shift between 833nm and 555nm is found to be about 0.94D, and different slightly for different individuals; the differences of astigmatism and higher-order aberrations between 833nm and 555nm are quite slight. For customized visual correction, the measured defocus value should be modified, whereas the measured astigmatism and higher-order aberrations could be used directly for the current correction precision. Individual eye model is a useful tool for accurate transformation of the measured wavefront aberration data into the data for visible spectrum.

  5. Eliminating chromatic aberration in Gauss-type lens design using a novel genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi-Chin; Tsai, Chen-Mu; Macdonald, John; Pai, Yang-Chieh

    2007-05-01

    Two different types of Gauss lens design, which effectively eliminate primary chromatic aberration, are presented using an efficient genetic algorithm (GA). The current GA has to deal with too many targets in optical global optimization so that the performance is not much improved. Generally speaking, achromatic aberrations have a great relationship with variable glass sets for all elements. For optics whose design is roughly convergent, glass sets for optics will play a significant role in axial and lateral color aberration. Therefore better results might be derived from the optimal process of eliminating achromatic aberration, which could be carried out by finding feasible glass sets in advance. As an alternative, we propose a new optimization process by using a GA and involving theories of geometrical optics in order to select the best optical glass combination. Two Gauss-type lens designs are employed in this research. First, a telephoto lens design is sensitive to axial aberration because of its long focal length, and second, a wide-angle Gauss design is complicated by lateral color aberration at the extreme corners because Gauss design is well known not to deal well with wide-angle problems. Without numbers of higher chief rays passing the element, it is difficult to correct lateral color aberration altogether for the Gauss design. The results and conclusions show that the attempts to eliminate primary chromatic aberrations were successful.

  6. Accommodation with higher-order monochromatic aberrations corrected with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Kruger, Philip B.; Hofer, Heidi; Singer, Ben; Williams, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order monochromatic aberrations in the human eye cause a difference in the appearance of stimuli at distances nearer and farther from best focus that could serve as a signed error signal for accommodation. We explored whether higher-order monochromatic aberrations affect the accommodative response to 0.5 D step changes in vergence in experiments in which these aberrations were either present as they normally are or removed with adaptive optics. Of six subjects, one could not accommodate at all for steps in either condition. One subject clearly required higher-order aberrations to accommodate at all. The remaining four subjects could accommodate in the correct direction even when higher-order aberrations were removed. No subjects improved their accommodation when higher-order aberrations were corrected, indicating that the corresponding decrease in the depth of field of the eye did not improve the accommodative response. These results are consistent with previous findings of large individual differences in the ability to accommodate in impoverished conditions. These results suggest that at least some subjects can use monochromatic higher-order aberrations to guide accommodation. They also show that some subjects can accommodate correctly when higher-order monochromatic aberrations as well as established cues to accommodation are greatly reduced.

  7. Aberration extraction in the hartmann test by use of spatial filters.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Sánchez, C; Camacho-Basilio, G; Jaramillo-Núñez, A; Gale, D

    1999-06-01

    Using a computer, we generated a set of filters to aid in the retrieval of aberration functions from Hartmanngrams. These filters consist of discrete two-dimensional data points, like the Hartmanngrams themselves, and are orthogonalized by the Gram-Schmidt procedure. The aberration coefficients are obtained by calculation of the scalar product of the Hartmanngram and each orthogonal filter.

  8. Relationship between radiation induced dicentric chromosome aberrations and micronucleus formation in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hatayoglu, S E; Orta, T

    2007-06-01

    Chromosome damage measured by the chromosome aberration technique is a reliable method to assess the radiation dose absorbed by cells. However, this technique has some disadvantages. Scoring is difficult and requires skill and experience which of these lead low number of cell counts. The micronucleus (MN) technique which also measures chromosome losses has easy scoring criteria leading high numbers of cell counts and therefore holds more statistical power. In this study, the relationship between the results of the micronucleus technique and those obtained by the chromosome aberration technique was investigated after radiation doses of 1Gy, 2Gy, 3Gy and 4Gy to peripheral blood lymphocytes of 3 healthy individuals. Increases in the chromosome damage after radiation were observed in both techniques. When the dicentric aberration frequencies that were measured in the chromosome aberration technique and the micronucleus frequencies were compared, no difference (p > 0.05) between these two independent measures of radiation damage was reported. The relationship between the micronuclei and the free acentric chromosome aberrations measured in the chromosome aberration technique was not significant as well as that between the dicentrics and micronuclei. On the basis of the relationship between the dicentric aberrations and the micronucleus frequencies, the micronucleus technique with an easy and short-term application and with an easy scoring can be used as an alternative to the chromosome aberration technique.

  9. Accuracy of Person-Fit Statistics: A Monte Carlo Study of the Influence of Aberrance Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Onge, Christina; Valois, Pierre; Abdous, Belkacem; Germain, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Using a Monte Carlo experimental design, this research examined the relationship between answer patterns' aberrance rates and person-fit statistics (PFS) accuracy. It was observed that as the aberrance rate increased, the detection rates of PFS also increased until, in some situations, a peak was reached and then the detection rates of PFS…

  10. Mechanisms for the induction of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori infection: aberrant DNA methylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Masahiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2017-03-01

    Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer have been established in the last two decades. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation is induced in multiple driver genes, which inactivates them. Methylation profiles in gastric cancer are associated with specific subtypes, such as microsatellite instability. Recent comprehensive and integrated analyses showed that many cancer-related pathways are more frequently altered by aberrant DNA methylation than by mutations. Aberrant DNA methylation can even be present in noncancerous gastric mucosae, producing an "epigenetic field for cancerization." Mechanistically, H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation, but not H. pylori itself, plays a direct role in the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. The expression of three inflammation-related genes, Il1b, Nos2, and Tnf, is highly associated with the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. Importantly, the degree of accumulated aberrant DNA methylation is strongly correlated with gastric cancer risk. A recent multicenter prospective cohort study demonstrated the utility of epigenetic cancer risk diagnosis for metachronous gastric cancer. Suppression of aberrant DNA methylation by a demethylating agent was shown to inhibit gastric cancer development in an animal model. Induction of aberrant DNA methylation is the major pathway by which H. pylori infection induces gastric cancer, and this can be utilized for translational opportunities.

  11. Aberrance Detection Powers of the BW and Person-Fit Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tsai-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the aberrance detection powers of the BW person-fit indices with other group-based indices (SCI, MCI, NCI, and Wc&Bs) and item response theory based (IRT-based) indices (OUTFITz, INFITz, ECI2z, ECI4z, and lz). Four kinds of comparative conditions, including content category (CC), types of aberrance (AT), severity of…

  12. Bayesian Procedures for Identifying Aberrant Response-Time Patterns in Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Guo, Fanmin

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify aberrant response-time patterns on educational and psychological tests, it is important to be able to separate the speed at which the test taker operates from the time the items require. A lognormal model for response times with this feature was used to derive a Bayesian procedure for detecting aberrant response times.…

  13. Aberration correction of double-sided telecentric zoom lenses using lens modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-09-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a four-component double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is presented. The Gaussian structure of the zoom system is specified previously which means the powers and movements of components are known. Each component is treated as a lens module during the design stage with specified first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. The third-order aberration targets of the first component are determined by minimizing the whole aberrations of the zoom lens system using a genetic algorithm (GA). And the aberration targets of components behind are determined by reoptimization with already fixed structures of previous components. Mean pupil spherical aberration of every component in every zoom position is adopted in the objective function to control high-order aberrations. The thin lens structure of each component can be determined from their first-order properties and aberration targets. After lens thickening and reoptimization, the zoom lens system can finally be determined.

  14. [A case of chronic pancreatitis occurring in gastric aberrant pancreas poorly distinguishable from gastric aberrant pancreas ductal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sayaka; Miyaoka, Youichi; Fujiwara, Aya; Tsukano, Kousuke; Kotani, Satoshi; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Ito, Satoko; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Kohge, Nariaki; Onuma, Hideyuki

    2015-11-01

    A man in his 40s was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain. A gastric submucosal tumor (SMT) was diagnosed nine years previously, but the patient was lost to follow-up. Upon our evaluation, the SMT had enlarged, as demonstrated by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and abdominal computed tomography. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic and isoechoic mosaic mass, which primarily occupied the third and fourth layers of the gastric wall. Aspiration cytodiagnosis was performed, the results of which led to a suspicion of adenocarcinoma arising from gastric ectopic pancreas. Next, we conducted segmental gastrectomy. Pathological examination showed adiponecrosis, a pancreatic stone, chronic inflammatory cell infiltration, and fibrosis. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis occurring in a gastric aberrant pancreas.

  15. Aspherical surfaces design for extreme ultraviolet lithographic objective with correction of thermal aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Yanqiu

    2016-09-01

    At present, few projection objectives for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography pay attention to correct thermal aberration in optical design phase, which would lead to poor image quality in a practical working environment. We present an aspherical modification method for helping the EUV lithographic objective additionally correct the thermal aberration. Based on the thermal aberration and deformation predicted by integrated optomechanical analysis, the aspherical surfaces in an objective are modified by an iterative algorithm. The modified aspherical surfaces could correct the thermal aberration and maintain the initial high image quality in a practical working environment. A six-mirror EUV lithographic objective with 0.33-numerical aperture is taken as an example to illustrate the presented method. The results show that the thermal aberration can be corrected effectively, and the image quality of the thermally deformed system is improved to the initial design level, which proves the availability of the method.

  16. Four-zone varifocus mirrors with adaptive control of primary and higher-order spherical aberration.

    PubMed

    Lukes, Sarah J; Downey, Ryan D; Kreitinger, Seth T; Dickensheets, David L

    2016-07-01

    Electrostatically actuated deformable mirrors with four concentric annular electrodes can exert independent control over defocus as well as primary, secondary, and tertiary spherical aberration. In this paper we use both numerical modeling and physical measurements to characterize recently developed deformable mirrors with respect to the amount of spherical aberration each can impart, and the dependence of that aberration control on the amount of defocus the mirror is providing. We find that a four-zone, 4 mm diameter mirror can generate surface shapes with arbitrary primary, secondary, and tertiary spherical aberration over ranges of ±0.4, ±0.2, and ±0.15  μm, respectively, referred to a non-normalized Zernike polynomial basis. We demonstrate the utility of this mirror for aberration-compensated focusing of a high NA optical system.

  17. The Visual Impact of Zernike and Seidel Forms of Monochromatic Aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xu; Bradley, Arthur; Ravikumar, Sowmya; Thibos, Larry N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact on visual acuity of different aberrations modes (e.g. coma, astigmatism, spherical aberration (SA)) and different aberration basis functions (Zernike or Seidel). Methods Computational optics was used to generate retinal images degraded by either the Zernike or Seidel forms of 2nd through 4th order aberrations for an eye with a 5mm pupil diameter. High contrast, photopic visual acuity was measured using method of constant stimuli for letters displayed on a computer-controlled, linearized, quasi-monochromatic (λ=556 nm) display. Results Minimum angle of resolution (MAR) varied linearly with the magnitude (root mean square error, RMS) of all modes of aberration. The impact of individual Zernike lower and higher order aberrations (HOAs) varied significantly with mode, e.g. arc minutes of MAR/micron of RMS slopes varied from 7 (spherical defocus) to 0.5 (quadrafoil). Seidel forms of these aberrations always had a smaller visual impact. Notably, Seidel spherical aberration (SA) had 1/17th the impact of Zernike SA with the same wavefront variance, and about 1/4th the impact of Zernike SA with matching levels of r4 wavefront error. With lower order components removed, HOAs near the center of the Zernike pyramid do not have a large visual impact. Conclusions The majority of the visual impact of high levels of 4th order Zernike aberrations can be attributed to the 2nd order terms within these polynomials. Therefore, the impact of SA can be minimized by balancing it with a defocus term that flattens the central wavefront (paraxial focus) or maximizes the area of the pupil with a flat wavefront. Over this wide range of aberration types and levels, image quality metrics based upon the PSF and OTF can predict VA as reliably as VA measures can predict retests of VA, and thus such metrics may become valuable predictors of both VA and, via optimization, refractions. PMID:20351600

  18. Evolution of gold structure during thermal treatment of Au/FeOx catalysts revealed by aberration-corrected electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Allard, Lawrence F; Borisevich, Albina; Deng, Weiling; Si, Rui; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Overbury, Steven H

    2009-06-01

    High-resolution aberration-corrected electron microscopy was performed on a series of catalysts derived from a parent material, 2 at.% Au/Fe(2)O(3) (WGC ref. no. 60C), prepared by co-precipitation and calcined in air at 400 degrees C, and a catalyst prepared by leaching surface gold from the parent catalyst and exposed to various treatments, including use in the water-gas shift reaction at 250 degrees C. Aberration-corrected JEOL 2200FS (JEOL USA, Peabody, MA) and Vacuum Generators HB-603U STEM instruments were used to image fresh, reduced, leached, used and re-oxidized catalyst samples. A new in situ heating technology (Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA), which permits full sub-Angström imaging resolution in the JEOL 2200FS was used to study the effects of temperature on the behavior of gold species. A remarkable stability of gold to redox treatments up to 400 degrees C, with atomic gold decorating step surfaces of iron oxide was identified. On heating the samples in vacuum to 700 degrees C, it was found that monodispersed gold began to sinter to form nanoparticles above 500 degrees C. Gold species internal to the iron oxide support material was shown to diffuse to the surface at elevated temperature, coalescing into discrete nanocrystals. The results demonstrate the value of in situ heating for understanding morphological changes in the catalyst with elevated temperature treatments.

  19. Phase-contrast imaging in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krumeich, F; Müller, E; Wepf, R A

    2013-06-01

    Although the presence of phase-contrast information in bright field images recorded with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has been known for a long time, its systematic exploitation for the structural characterization of materials began only with the availability of aberration-corrected microscopes that allow sufficiently large illumination angles. Today, phase-contrast STEM (PC-STEM) imaging represents an increasingly important alternative to the well-established HRTEM method. In both methods, the image contrast is coherently generated and thus depends not only on illumination and collection angles but on defocus and specimen thickness as well. By PC-STEM, a projection of the crystal potential is obtained in thin areas, with the scattering sites being represented either with dark or bright contrast at two different defocus values which are both close to Gaussian defocus. This imaging behavior can be further investigated by image simulations performed with standard HRTEM simulation software based on the principle of reciprocity. As examples for the application of this method, PC-STEM results obtained on metal nanoparticles and dodecagonal quasicrystals dd-(Ta,V)₁.₆Te are discussed.

  20. Resting-State Time-Varying Analysis Reveals Aberrant Variations of Functional Connectivity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Xie, Yuanwei; Zheng, Fang; Liu, Guangyao; Chen, Xuejiao; Zheng, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies based on time-varying functional connectivity have unveiled brain states diversity in some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. However, time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have been rarely performed on the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Hence, we performed time-varying connectivity analysis on resting-state fMRI data to investigate brain states mutation in ASD children. ASD showed an imbalance of connectivity state and aberrant ratio of connectivity with different strengths in the whole brain network, and decreased connectivity associated precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus with medial prefrontal gyrus in default mode network. As compared to typical development children, weak relevance condition (the strength of a large number of connectivities in the state was less than means minus standard deviation of all connection strength) was maintained for a longer time between brain areas of ASD children, and ratios of weak connectivity in brain states varied dramatically in the ASD. In the ASD, the abnormal brain state might be related to repetitive behaviors and stereotypical interests, and macroscopically reflect disruption of gamma-aminobutyric acid at the cellular level. The detection of brain states based on time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI might be conducive for diagnosis and early intervention of ASD before obvious clinical symptoms. PMID:27695408

  1. Interferometric control of contact line, shape, and aberrations of liquid lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitenko, Igor; Storm, Ronald; Westfall, Raymond; Rogers, Stanley

    2007-09-01

    An optical system consisting of an aqueous electrolyte resting on a polymer/gold/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) layer deposited onto a glass substrate is analyzed to acquire contact angle - focal distance data as a function of applied voltage. The shape factor of a liquid lens and its dependence on the perimeter of contact line and contact angle was analyzed in the presence of an electrical field applied between the electrolyte and planar electrode system. The contact angle of a liquid on a thin, transparent film of gold (20 nm thick) - on ITO under electrolyte solution could be varied from 110 +/- 3° when the gold was held at -2.4 V to 41 +/- 3° without voltage. The behavior of a water-based electrolyte and water-soluble polymer blend and its influence on the shape of contact line and profile of the lens were investigated by employing a holographic setup at wavelengths of 632.8 and 543.5 nm. Optical micrographs showing the profile of the lens, aberration-less aperture, deformation of contact line, and shape of the liquid lens, respectively, were analyzed in reflection and transmission. Both the advancing and receding contact angles were measured directly from digitized images of the profile of the lens. The dynamic range of linear beam steering and dependence of the focal length of the liquid lens on the applied voltage are discussed.

  2. Resting-State Time-Varying Analysis Reveals Aberrant Variations of Functional Connectivity in Autism.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Xie, Yuanwei; Zheng, Fang; Liu, Guangyao; Chen, Xuejiao; Zheng, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies based on time-varying functional connectivity have unveiled brain states diversity in some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. However, time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have been rarely performed on the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Hence, we performed time-varying connectivity analysis on resting-state fMRI data to investigate brain states mutation in ASD children. ASD showed an imbalance of connectivity state and aberrant ratio of connectivity with different strengths in the whole brain network, and decreased connectivity associated precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus with medial prefrontal gyrus in default mode network. As compared to typical development children, weak relevance condition (the strength of a large number of connectivities in the state was less than means minus standard deviation of all connection strength) was maintained for a longer time between brain areas of ASD children, and ratios of weak connectivity in brain states varied dramatically in the ASD. In the ASD, the abnormal brain state might be related to repetitive behaviors and stereotypical interests, and macroscopically reflect disruption of gamma-aminobutyric acid at the cellular level. The detection of brain states based on time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI might be conducive for diagnosis and early intervention of ASD before obvious clinical symptoms.

  3. Self-regulation of brain oscillations as a treatment for aberrant brain connections in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Pineda, J A; Juavinett, A; Datko, M

    2012-12-01

    Autism is a highly varied developmental disorder typically characterized by deficits in reciprocal social interaction, difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although a wide range of behavioral, pharmacological, and alternative medicine strategies have been reported to ameliorate specific symptoms for some individuals, there is at present no cure for the condition. Nonetheless, among the many incompatible observations about aspects of the development, anatomy, and functionality of the autistic brain, it is widely agreed that it is characterized by widespread aberrant connectivity. Such disordered connectivity, be it increased, decreased, or otherwise compromised, may complicate healthy synchronization and communication among and within different neural circuits, thereby producing abnormal processing of sensory inputs necessary for normal social life. It is widely accepted that the innate properties of brain electrical activity produce pacemaker elements and linked networks that oscillate synchronously or asynchronously, likely reflecting a type of functional connectivity. Using phase coherence in multiple frequency EEG bands as a measure of functional connectivity, studies have shown evidence for both global hypoconnectivity and local hyperconnectivity in individuals with ASD. However, the nature of the brain's experience-dependent structural plasticity suggests that these abnormal patterns may be reversed with the proper type of treatment. Indeed, neurofeedback (NF) training, an intervention based on operant conditioning that results in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown promise in addressing marked abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity. It is hypothesized that neurofeedback produces positive behavioral changes in ASD children by normalizing the aberrant connections within and between neural circuits. NF exploits the brain's plasticity to normalize aberrant

  4. Optical aberrations, retinal image quality and eye growth: Experimentation and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yibin

    2007-12-01

    Retinal image quality is important for normal eye growth. Optical aberrations are of interest for two reasons: first, they degrade retinal images; second, they might provide some cues to defocus. Higher than normal ocular aberrations have been previously associated with human myopia. However, these studies were cross-sectional in design, and only reported aberrations in terms of root mean square (RMS) errors of Zernike coefficients, a poor metric of optical quality. This dissertation presents results from investigations of ocular optical aberrations, retinal image quality and eye growth in chicks and humans. A number of techniques were utilized, including Shack-Hartmann aberrometry, high-frequency A-scan ultrasonography, ciliary nerve section (CNX), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) as well as computer simulations and modeling. A technique to extract light scatter information from Shack-Hartmann images was also developed. The main findings of the dissertation are summarized below. In young chicks, most ocular aberrations decreased with growth in both normal and CNX eyes, and there were diurnal fluctuations in some aberrations. Modeling suggested active reduction in higher order aberrations (HOAs) during early development. Although CNX eyes manifested greater than normal HOAs, they showed near normal growth. Retinal image degradation varied greatly among individual eyes post-PRK in young chicks. Including light scatter information into analyses of retinal image quality better estimated the latter. Albino eyes showed more severe retinal image degradation than normal eyes, due to increased optical aberrations and light scatter, but their growth was similar to those of normal eyes, implying that they are relatively insensitive to retina image quality. Although the above results questioned the influence of optical aberrations on early ocular growth, some optical quality metrics, derived from optical aberrations data, could predict how much the eyes of young chicks

  5. In-line-focus monitoring technique using lens aberration effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Sawano, Toshio; Yao, Teruyoshi; Kobayashi, Katsuyoshi; Asai, Satoru

    2005-05-01

    Process windows have become narrower as nano-processing technology has advanced. The semiconductor industry, faced with this situation, has had to impose extremely severe tool controls. Above all, with the advent of 90-nm device production, demand has arisen for strict levels of control that exceed the machine specifications of ArF exposure systems. Consequently, high-accuracy focus control and focus monitoring techniques for production wafers will be necessary in order for this to be achieved for practical use. Focus monitoring techniques that measure pattern placement errors and resist features using special reticle and mark have recently been proposed. Unfortunately, these techniques have several disadvantages. They are unable to identify the direction of a focus error, and there are limits on the illumination conditions. Furthermore, they require the use of a reticle that is more expensive than normal and they suffer from a low level of measurement accuracy. To solve these problems, the authors examined methods of focus control and focus error measurement for production wafers that utilize the lens aberration of the exposure tool system. The authors call this method FMLA (focus monitoring using lens aberration). In general, astigmatism causes a difference in the optimum focal point between the horizontal and vertical patterns in the same image plane. If a focus error occurs, regardless of the reason, a critical dimension (CD) difference arises between the sparse horizontal and vertical lines. In addition, this CD difference decreases or increases monotonously with the defocus value. That is to say, it is possible to estimate the focus errors to measure the vertical and horizontal line CD formed by exposure tool with astigmatism. In this paper, the authors examined the FMLA technique using astigmatism. First, focus monitoring accuracy was investigated. Using normal scholar type simulation, FMLA was able to detect a 32.3-nm focus error when 10-mλ astigmatism was

  6. Using Rapidly Alternating Multiple Schedules To Assess and Treat Aberrant Behavior in Natural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolli, Kathleen; Daggett, Julie; Ortiz, Kristi; Mullins, Jo

    1999-01-01

    The validity of using rapidly alternating multiple schedules (RAMS) as a method for assessing and treating aggression was demonstrated by using the naturally occurring reinforcers identified in the RAMS to develop treatments that were experimentally tested. All treatments using the reinforcers identified in the RAMS were effective. Possible uses…

  7. Detecting and managing drug-related problems in the neurology ward of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Iran: A clinical pharmacist's intervention

    PubMed Central

    Foroughinia, Farzaneh; Tazarehie, Seyyed Ramtin; Petramfar, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Nowadays, the role of clinical pharmacists has become more prominent by more clinical pharmacists joining the health-care teams. This study was aimed to assess the role of a clinical pharmacist specialist in detecting and managing drug-related problems (DRPs) in the neurology ward of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Iran. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted on 123 hospitalized patients admitted to the neurology ward of a teaching hospital. The clinical pharmacist visited the patients and filled out the designed pharmacotherapy sheet for each patient. Then, the general pharmacist checked the patients' files and pharmacotherapy sheets and categorized DRPs using modified method of “The Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe classification, Version 5.01.” Findings: A total of 168 errors were found and 346 interventions were done by the clinical pharmacist during the study period. The most common form of errors in our study was “drug choice problems” (57.76%). The acceptance rate of interventions was 41.91% among physicians. Conclusion: The large number of interventions reported in several studies, as well as this study, revealed that clinical pharmacy services could contribute to a rationalization of drug therapy and may eventually lead to more medication safety. PMID:27843966

  8. Postmortem detection of hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency virus genomes in blood samples from drug-related deaths in Denmark*.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Kringsholm, Birgitte; Banner, Jytte; Thomsen, Jørgen L; Georgsen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Court; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2009-09-01

    Blood-borne viral infections are widespread among injecting drug users; however, it is difficult to include these patients in serological surveys. Therefore, we developed a national surveillance program based on postmortem testing of persons whose deaths were drug related. Blood collected at autopsy was tested for anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), or anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies using commercial kits. Subsets of seropositive samples were screened for viral genomes using sensitive in-house and commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was detected in 20% (3/15) of anti-HBc-positive/anti-HBs-negative samples, HCV RNA was found in 64% (16/25) of anti-HCV-positive samples, and HIV RNA was detected in 40% (6/15) of anti-HIV-positive samples. The postmortem and antemortem prevalences of HBV DNA and HCV RNA were similar. Postmortem HIV RNA testing was less sensitive than antemortem testing. Thus, postmortem PCR analysis for HBV and HBC infection is feasible and relevant for demonstrating ongoing infections at death or for transmission analysis during outbreaks.

  9. HOXA11 gene is hypermethylation and aberrant expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant DNA methylation is an acquired epigenetic alteration that serves as an alternative to genetic defects in the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and other genes in diverse human cancers. Gastric carcinoma is one of the tumors with a high frequency of aberrant methylation in promoter region. Hence we investigated the promoter methylation status and expression level of HOXA11 gene which may involve in GC development. Methods Thirty-two surgical excised gastric cancer specimens, twelve paired adjacent non-cancerous specimens and seven normal gastric mucosas were examined. The methylation status and expression level of HOXA11 gene were determined by bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively. HOXA11 expression was knocked-down with siRNA to mimic HOXA11 gene hypermethylation and ability of cell proliferation and migration was determinate. In addition, we analyzed and correlated the findings with clinicopathological features. Results The methylation level of HOXA11 gene in gastric cancer tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were higher than those in normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). The methylation level was higher in TNM III and IV patients of GC than those in TNM I and II patients (P < 0.05). The expression of HOXA11 mRNA and protein decreased in normal gastric mucosa, peri-cancer tissue and GC (P < 0.05). HOXA11 expression was inversely correlated with DNA methylation (P < 0.05). Knocked-down of HOXA11 expression with siRNA in BGC-823 cells enhanced cell proliferation compared with control, but no significant different was observed in migration ability. Conclusion Hypermethylation and decreased expression of HOXA11 gene may be involved in the carcinogenesis and development of GC and may provide useful information for the prediction of the malignant behaviors of GC. And the expression of HOXA11 is impaired by DNA methylation. However

  10. Balanced diffraction aberrations, independent of the observation point: application to a tilted dielectric plate.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Colin J R

    2013-10-01

    Balancing of Zernike aberrations breaks down if the defocus term is large enough that the condition (z/λ)≪2/[π(NA)⁴] is not satisfied. A modified Zernike aberration expansion, based on the Zernike aberrations, is developed that accurately includes axial displacement as a low-order term, even for large displacements. This expansion can be used to analyze aberrations for on-axis illumination of a high numerical aperture system. But more importantly, for systems of moderate numerical aperture it allows balanced aberration coefficients to be determined independent of the assumption of a particular reference point. The approach is applied to the case of a tilted dielectric plate. An exact expression is given for the wave front aberration, valid for both large angles of tilt and high beam convergence angles, that is independent of observation distance. Analytical expressions for the third- and fifth-order aberration coefficients are derived. Expressions are given for expansion of multiple-angle power series terms into Zernike polynomials.

  11. Study on intra-ocular lens aberration measurement in-air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jiaojie; Fen, Haihua; Hu, Chuan; Li, Yiyi

    2010-10-01

    In clinical ophthalmology, the wavefront aberration of human eyes is expressed by Zernike polynomial after cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation, the human eyes aberration will change. The problem of objective evaluation of wavefront aberration introduced by the Intra-ocular (IOL) in-vivo remains unsolved. This paper introduced the measurement principal of IOL wavefront aberration with expression by Zernike polynominal in air. A Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor system was constructed to measure the wavefront of IOL and to get the corresponding grid patterns. After a series of computer image processing steps, 7th order with 35 items Zernike coefficients was obtained. The IOL of 20.0D power was measured 5 times by this system to get the spherical aberration about 6.73+/-0.02μm, demonstrating the good repeatability of the system. Ten IOLs with the same 20.0D power but difference in surface curvature were chosen for measurement. The spherical aberration observed were in the range of 2.74μm-11.26μm. These results are valuable for the optical design of IOLs and the aberration analysis of human eyes post-operation.

  12. Influence of atmospheric turbulence on the energy focusability of Gaussian beams with spherical aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jinping; Ji, Xiaoling

    2014-05-01

    By using the four-dimensional (4D) computer code of the time-dependent propagation of laser beams through atmospheric turbulence, the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the energy focusability of Gaussian beams with spherical aberration is studied in detail, where the mean-squared beam width, the power in the bucket (PIB), the β parameter and the energy Strehl ratio are taken as the characteristic parameters. It is shown that turbulence results in beam spreading, and the effect of spherical aberration on the beam spreading decreases due to turbulence. Gaussian beams with negative spherical aberration are more affected by turbulence than those with positive spherical aberration. For the negative spherical aberration case, the focus position moves to the source plane due to turbulence. It is mentioned that the influence of turbulence on the energy focusability defined by a certain energy (i.e. PIB = 63%) is very heavy when the negative spherical aberration is very heavy. On the other hand, the influence of turbulence on the energy focusability defined by the energy within a given bucket radius (i.e. mean-squared beam width) is heaviest when a certain negative spherical aberration coefficient is adopted.

  13. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs in colon neoplasms arising in the azoxymethane colon cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Borinstein, Scott C.; Conerly, Melissa; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Biswas, Swati; Washington, M. Kay; Trobridge, Patty; Henikoff, Steve; Grady, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Mouse models of intestinal tumors have advanced our understanding of the role of gene mutations in colorectal malignancy. However, the utility of these systems for studying the role of epigenetic alterations in intestinal neoplasms remains to be defined. Consequently, we assessed the role of aberrant DNA methylation in the azoxymethane (AOM) rodent model of colon cancer. AOM induced tumors display global DNA hypomethylation, which is similar to human colorectal cancer. We next assessed the methylation status of a panel of candidate genes previously shown to be aberrantly methylated in human cancer or in mouse models of malignant neoplasms. This analysis revealed different patterns of DNA methylation that were gene specific. Zik1 and Gja9 demonstrated cancer-specific aberrant DNA methylation, whereas, Cdkn2a/p16, Igfbp3, Mgmt, Id4, and Cxcr4 were methylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. No aberrant methylation of Dapk1 or Mlt1 was detected in the neoplasms, but normal colon mucosa samples displayed methylation of these genes. Finally, p19Arf, Tslc1, Hltf, and Mlh1 were unmethylated in both the AOM tumors and normal colon mucosa. Thus, aberrant DNA methylation does occur in AOM tumors, although the frequency of aberrantly methylated genes appears to be less common than in human colorectal cancer. Additional studies are necessary to further characterize the patterns of aberrantly methylated genes in AOM tumors. PMID:19777566

  14. Influence of wavefront aberration on the imaging performance of the solar grating spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L H; Rao, C H; Gu, N T; Huang, L H; Qiu, Q

    2016-01-11

    The solar grating spectrometer is an important tool to study the thermodynamic properties of the solar atmosphere with different height distribution, but its imaging performance will be degraded by the wavefront aberration. On the other hand, narrow slit of the grating spectrometer will filter the wavefront aberration to a certain extent. In this paper, the mathematical relation between the wavefront aberration and the imaging performance of the grating spectrometer is derived. The numerical simulation is performed and is validated by the experiment. The results demonstrate that: The influence of the wavefront aberration with the different types and magnitudes on the spectral resolution and the energy utilization is different. The influence of the different slits on the wavefront aberrations is different. Generally, the smaller the slit is, the better the spectral resolution is. However, this is not true for the low-frequency dominated aberration, e.g. the defocus, since its low frequency will also be blocked by the narrow slit. If the influence of the filter slit on the wavefront aberration cannot be taken into account, it will lead to adaptive optics over-compensation.

  15. Eigenfunction analysis of stochastic backscatter for characterization of acoustic aberration in medical ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varslot, Trond; Krogstad, Harald; Mo, Eirik; Angelsen, Bjørn A.

    2004-06-01

    Presented here is a characterization of aberration in medical ultrasound imaging. The characterization is optimal in the sense of maximizing the expected energy in a modified beamformer output of the received acoustic backscatter. Aberration correction based on this characterization takes the form of an aberration correction filter. The situation considered is frequently found in applications when imaging organs through a body wall: aberration is introduced in a layer close to the transducer, and acoustic backscatter from a scattering region behind the body wall is measured at the transducer surface. The scattering region consists of scatterers randomly distributed with very short correlation length compared to the acoustic wavelength of the transmit pulse. The scatterer distribution is therefore assumed to be δ correlated. This paper shows how maximizing the expected energy in a modified beamformer output signal naturally leads to eigenfunctions of a Fredholm integral operator, where the associated kernel function is a spatial correlation function of the received stochastic signal. Aberration characterization and aberration correction are presented for simulated data constructed to mimic aberration introduced by the abdominal wall. The results compare well with what is obtainable using data from a simulated point source.

  16. Breaking the spherical and chromatic aberration barrier in transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Freitag, B; Kujawa, S; Mul, P M; Ringnalda, J; Tiemeijer, P C

    2005-02-01

    Since the invention of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in 1932 (Z. Physik 78 (1932) 318) engineering improvements have advanced system resolutions to levels that are now limited only by the two fundamental aberrations of electron lenses; spherical and chromatic aberration (Z. Phys. 101 (1936) 593). Since both aberrations scale with the dimensions of the lens, research resolution requirements are pushing the designs to lenses with only a few mm space in the pole-piece gap for the specimen. This is in conflict with the demand for more and more space at the specimen, necessary in order to enable novel techniques in TEM, such as He-cooled cryo electron microscopy, 3D-reconstruction through tomography (Science 302 (2003) 1396) TEM in gaseous environments, or in situ experiments (Nature 427 (2004) 426). All these techniques will only be able to achieve Angstrom resolution when the aberration barriers have been overcome. The spherical aberration barrier has recently been broken by introducing spherical aberration correctors (Nature 392 (1998) 392, 418 (2002) 617), but the correction of the remaining chromatic aberrations have proved to be too difficult for the present state of technology (Optik 57 (1980) 73). Here we present an alternative and successful method to eliminate the chromatic blur, which consists of monochromating the TEM beam (Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 161 (1999) 191). We show directly interpretable resolutions well below 1A for the first time, which is significantly better than any TEM operating at 200 KV has reached before.

  17. Analysis of nodal aberration properties in off-axis freeform system design.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haodong; Jiang, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Freeform surfaces have the advantage of balancing off-axis aberration. In this paper, based on the framework of nodal aberration theory (NAT) applied to the coaxial system, the third-order astigmatism and coma wave aberration expressions of an off-axis system with Zernike polynomial surfaces are derived. The relationship between the off-axis and surface shape acting on the nodal distributions is revealed. The nodal aberration properties of the off-axis freeform system are analyzed and validated by using full-field displays (FFDs). It has been demonstrated that adding Zernike terms, up to nine, to the off-axis system modifies the nodal locations, but the field dependence of the third-order aberration does not change. On this basis, an off-axis two-mirror freeform system with 500 mm effective focal length (EFL) and 300 mm entrance pupil diameter (EPD) working in long-wave infrared is designed. The field constant aberrations induced by surface tilting are corrected by selecting specific Zernike terms. The design results show that the nodes of third-order astigmatism and coma move back into the field of view (FOV). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves are above 0.4 at 20 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) which meets the infrared reconnaissance requirement. This work provides essential insight and guidance for aberration correction in off-axis freeform system design.

  18. Aberrant and alternative splicing in skeletal system disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xin; Tang, Liling

    2013-10-01

    The main function of skeletal system is to support the body and help movement. A variety of factors can lead to skeletal system disease, including age, exercise, and of course genetic makeup and expression. Pre-mRNA splicing plays a crucial role in gene expression, by creating multiple protein variants with different biological functions. The recent studies show that several skeletal system diseases are related to pre-mRNA splicing. This review focuses on the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease. On the one hand, splice site mutation that leads to aberrant splicing often causes genetic skeletal system disease, like COL1A1, SEDL and LRP5. On the other hand, alternative splicing without genomic mutation may generate some marker protein isoforms, for example, FN, VEGF and CD44. Therefore, understanding the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease will aid in uncovering the mechanism of disease and contribute to the future development of gene therapy.

  19. Aberrant seasonal variations of platelet serotonin uptake in endogenous depression.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, R; Aberg-Wistedt, A; Mårtensson, B

    1989-02-15

    The serotonin uptake in platelets of 120 healthy volunteers and 64 endogenously depressed patients was investigated over a 2-year period. In healthy individuals, Km exhibited a significant seasonal rhythm during the bright half of the year. The seasonal rhythm of Vmax assumes the form of a sine curve, with nadir values at the vernal and autumn equinoxes and peak values at the winter and summer solstices. Km in patients was higher than in controls in February and October, and the seasonal variation of Km differed between patients and controls. The monthly mean values of Vmax in patients were, as a rule, lower than corresponding values in controls, but significantly so only in December. Patients had higher Vmax than controls in October and November, and the seasonal variation of Vmax in patients differed from that of controls. The results suggest that Km, a measure of the affinity of the serotonin uptake site, may be subject to photoperiodic regulation in healthy individuals. The annual variation in uptake site densities, as judged by the changes in Vmax, are probably generated by an endogenous superior oscillator. The aberrant uptake kinetics found in the endogenously depressed patients may reflect seasonal susceptibility to the disorder and/or altered serotonergic rhythmicity.

  20. Aberrations and focusability in large solid-state-laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality of the several major components - amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters - in each amplifier train. Residual static aberrations in optical components are transferred to the beam as it traverses the optical amplifier chain. Although individual components are typically less than lambda/20 for components less than 10 cm clear aperture; and less than lambda/10 for components less than 20 cm clear aperture; the large number of such components in optical series results in a wavefront error that may exceed one wave for modern solid state lasers. For pulse operation, the focal spot is additionally broadened by intensity dependent nonlinearities. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 74 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry.

  1. Generalized formulas for ray-tracing and longitudinal spherical aberration.

    PubMed

    Elagha, Hassan A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we generalize the paraxial ray-tracing formulas to include nonparaxial rays. For a refracting (reflecting) spherical surface, a new single meridional formula is derived. This formula can be easily reduced to a paraxial formula. It can also be applied to any aspheric (or general) surface with a known equation. Also, a new exact ray-tracing procedure for a centered system of spherical surfaces is derived. In this procedure, we apply just two simple equations for each surface of the system, which, to the best of our knowledge, makes it the shortest analytical ray-tracing technique ever. This procedure can be applied in some other applications. For example, it can be reduced to a new single paraxial formula that can be easily used to trace a paraxial ray propagating through a system of spherical surfaces. Also, it is applied to derive an exact meridional formula for both thick and thin lenses that can also be reduced to a new paraxial formula different from the Gaussian one. These results led us to easily derive an exact formula for the longitudinal spherical aberration for both thick and thin lenses and also for a single refracting (reflecting) spherical surface. Numerical examples are provided and discussed.

  2. Aberrant expression of homeobox gene SIX1 in Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A.F.

    2015-01-01

    In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) we recently identified deregulated expression of homeobox genes MSX1 and OTX2 which are physiologically involved in development of the embryonal neural plate border region. Here, we examined in HL homeobox gene SIX1 an additional regulator of this embryonal region mediating differentiation of placodal precursors. SIX1 was aberrantly activated in 12 % of HL patient samples in silico, indicating a pathological role in a subset of this B-cell malignancy. In addition, SIX1 expression was detected in HL cell lines which were used as models to reveal upstream factors and target genes of this basic developmental regulator. We detected increased copy numbers of the SIX1 locus at chromosome 14q23 correlating with enhanced expression while chromosomal translocations were absent. Moreover, comparative expression profiling data and pertinent gene modulation experiments indicated that the WNT-signalling pathway and transcription factor MEF2C regulate SIX1 expression. Genes encoding the transcription factors GATA2, GATA3, MSX1 and SPIB – all basic lymphoid regulators - were identified as targets of SIX1 in HL. In addition, cofactors EYA1 and TLE4, respectively, contrastingly mediated activation and suppression of SIX1 target gene expression. Thus, the protein domain interfaces may represent therapeutic targets in SIX1-positive HL subsets. Collectively, our data reveal a gene regulatory network with SIX1 centrally deregulating lymphoid differentiation and support concordance of lymphopoiesis/lymphomagenesis and developmental processes in the neural plate border region. PMID:26473286

  3. Aberrant genomic imprinting in rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Akihisa; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Wolf, Don P

    2006-03-01

    Genomic imprinting involves modification of a gene or a chromosomal region that results in the differential expression of parental alleles. Disruption or inappropriate expression of imprinted genes is associated with several clinically significant syndromes and tumorigenesis in humans. Additionally, abnormal imprinting occurs in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in clonally derived animals. Imprinted gene expression patterns in primate ESCs are largely unknown, despite the clinical potential of the latter in the cell-based treatment of human disease. Because of the possible implications of abnormal gene expression to cell or tissue replacement therapies involving ESCs, we examined allele specific expression of four imprinted genes in the rhesus macaque. Genomic and complementary DNA from embryos and ESC lines containing useful single nucleotide polymorphisms were subjected to polymerase chain reaction-based amplification and sequence analysis. In blastocysts, NDN expression was variable indicating abnormal or incomplete imprinting whereas IGF2 and SNRPN were expressed exclusively from the paternal allele and H19 from the maternal allele as expected. In ESCs, both NDN and SNRPN were expressed from the paternal allele while IGF2 and H19 showed loss of imprinting and biallelic expression. In differentiated ESC progeny, these expression patterns were maintained. The implications of aberrant imprinted gene expression to ESC differentiation in vitro and on ESC-derived cell function in vivo after transplantation are unknown.

  4. Histomorphology of aberrant crypt foci in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Norlida, A Ojep; Phang, Koon Seng

    2010-12-01

    Colorectal carcinogenesis is a complex multistep process that includes changes in histomorphological appearance of the colonic mucosa and changes at molecular level. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was first described by Bird in 1987 on examination of methylene-blue-stained colonic mucosa of azoxymethane-treated mice under light microscopy. Since then ACF was considered as the earliest preneoplastic change that can be seen in the colonic mucosa. The aim of this study was to look at the histomorphology and distribution of ACF in colorectal carcinoma. 50 formalin-fixed archival colectomy specimens for colorectal carcinoma were examined under light microscopy after staining with 0.2% methylene blue. ACF was identified by larger and darker crypts with thickened epithelium, and often elevated from adjacent normal mucosa. ACF was found in 41 of 50 colectomy specimens examined. There were 328 ACF consisting of 36 (11.0%) ACF without hyperplasia or dysplasia, 263 (80.2%) ACF with hyperplasia and 29 (8.8%) ACF with dysplasia. Of these 29 ACF with dysplasia, 25 showed low grade dysplasia and four high grade dysplasia. The density of ACF was higher in the left colon, those older than 65 years of age and among males but these findings were statistically not significant. The crypt multiplicity of hyperplastic ACF (30.149, SD 28.395) was larger than dysplastic ACF (20.613, SD 40.128). The spectrum of histological changes observed probably represent the evolution of ACF in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  5. Compendium of aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Naoko; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2014-12-05

    Epigenetics now refers to the study or research field related to DNA methylation and histone modifications. Historically, global DNA hypomethylation was first revealed in 1983, and, after a decade, silencing of a tumor suppressor gene by regional DNA hypermethylation was reported. After the proposal of the histone code in the 2000s, alterations of histone methylation were also identified in cancers. Now, it is established that aberrant epigenetic alterations are involved in cancer development and progression, along with mutations and chromosomal losses. Recent cancer genome analyses have revealed a large number of mutations of epigenetic modifiers, supporting their important roles in cancer pathogenesis. Taking advantage of the reversibility of epigenetic alterations, drugs targeting epigenetic regulators and readers have been developed for restoration of normal pattern of the epigenome, and some have already demonstrated clinical benefits. In addition, DNA methylation of specific marker genes can be used as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis, including risk diagnosis, detection of cancers, and pathophysiological diagnosis. In this paper, we will summarize the major concepts of cancer epigenetics, placing emphasis on history.

  6. Mast cell desensitization inhibits calcium flux and aberrantly remodels actin

    PubMed Central

    Ang, W.X. Gladys; Church, Alison M.; Kulis, Mike; Choi, Hae Woong; Burks, A. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Rush desensitization (DS) is a widely used and effective clinical strategy for the rapid inhibition of IgE-mediated anaphylactic responses. However, the cellular targets and underlying mechanisms behind this process remain unclear. Recent studies have implicated mast cells (MCs) as the primary target cells for DS. Here, we developed a murine model of passive anaphylaxis with demonstrated MC involvement and an in vitro assay to evaluate the effect of DS on MCs. In contrast with previous reports, we determined that functional IgE remains on the cell surface of desensitized MCs following DS. Despite notable reductions in MC degranulation following DS, the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI was still capable of transducing signals in desensitized MCs. Additionally, we found that displacement of the actin cytoskeleton and its continued association with FcεRI impede the capacity of desensitized MCs to evoke the calcium response that is essential for MC degranulation. Together, these findings suggest that reduced degranulation responses in desensitized MCs arise from aberrant actin remodeling, providing insights that may lead to improvement of DS treatments for anaphylactic responses. PMID:27669462

  7. Aberrant crypt foci in human colons: distribution and histomorphologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shpitz, B; Bomstein, Y; Mekori, Y; Cohen, R; Kaufman, Z; Neufeld, D; Galkin, M; Bernheim, J

    1998-05-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are one of the earliest putative preneoplastic, and in some cases, neoplastic lesions in human colons. These microscopic lesions, identified on methylene blue-stained mucosa with a low-power-magnification microscope, are thought to be closely related to the earliest steps in multistage colonic tumorigenesis. We investigated the distribution pattern and histomorphological features of ACF in 74 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. The distribution pattern shows a slightly higher prevalence with older age. The prevalence of the ACF in sigmoid colon was significantly higher in patients with colorectal cancer as compared with patients with benign colonic diseases. Also, significantly more ACF were detected in distal parts of the large bowel (descending, sigmoid colon, and rectum) than in proximal parts. Of 42 microdissected lesions, 12 were dysplastic and 30 were hyperplastic foci. The average size of dysplastic lesions was significantly larger than hyperplastic foci. More apoptotic bodies were found in dysplastic lesions. These lesions also showed an upward expansion of proliferative compartment and higher proliferation indices expressed as proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labeling index. Lymphoid follicles were frequently observed in the base of both hyperplastic and dysplastic foci (40% and 66.6%, respectively). The coincidence of lymphoid follicles was 2.5 to 8 times higher than expected. These features may be related to further progression of selected ACF during colorectal tumorigenesis.

  8. Chromosome aberrations induced by high-LET radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, Tetsuya; Ito, Hisao; George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes are currently the most sensitive and reliable indicator of radiation exposure that can be used for biological dosimetry. This technique has been implemented recently to study radiation exposures incurred by astronauts during space flight, where a significant proportion of the dose is delivered by high-LET particle exposure. Traditional methods for the assessing of cytogenetic damage in mitotic cells collected at one time point after exposure may not be suitable for measuring high-LET radiation effects due to the drastic cell cycle perturbations and interphase cell death induced by this type of exposure. In this manuscript we review the recent advances in methodology used to study high-LET induced cytogenetic effects and evaluate the use of chemically-induced Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) as an alternative to metaphase analysis. Published data on the cytogenetic effects of in vitro exposures of high-LET radiation is reviewed, along with biodosimetry results from astronauts after short or long space missions.

  9. Factors associated with aberrant imprint methylation and oligozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Norio; Miyauchi, Naoko; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Kitamura, Akane; Okae, Hiroaki; Hiura, Hitoshi; Sato, Akiko; Utsunomiya, Takafumi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Nakai, Kunihiko; Arima, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Disturbingly, the number of patients with oligozoospermia (low sperm count) has been gradually increasing in industrialized countries. Epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in this condition. Recent studies have clarified that intrinsic and extrinsic factors can induce epigenetic transgenerational phenotypes through apparent reprogramming of the male germ line. Here we examined DNA methylation levels of 22 human imprinted loci in a total of 221 purified sperm samples from infertile couples and found methylation alterations in 24.8% of the patients. Structural equation model suggested that the cause of imprint methylation errors in sperm might have been environmental factors. More specifically, aberrant methylation and a particular lifestyle (current smoking, excess consumption of carbonated drinks) were associated with severe oligozoospermia, while aging probably affected this pathology indirectly through the accumulation of PCB in the patients. Next we examined the pregnancy outcomes for patients when the sperm had abnormal imprint methylation. The live-birth rate decreased and the miscarriage rate increased with the methylation errors. Our research will be useful for the prevention of methylation errors in sperm from infertile men, and sperm with normal imprint methylation might increase the safety of assisted reproduction technology (ART) by reducing methylation-induced diseases of children conceived via ART. PMID:28186187

  10. Criterion of phasing in the presence of segment aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Qiudong; Cao, Genrui; Wang, Xiao

    2008-03-01

    In order to achieve a spatial resolution comparable to a monolithic telescope of the same diameter, the segmented mirror surface must be phased with an accuracy about λ/20 wavefront rms, which is comparable with the accuracy of the segment figure. During the phasing procedure, piston, tip-tilt are controlled to achieve the best image quality of the telescope. The residual rms wavefront error of whole aperture taken as the merit function reaches minimum analytically when the least-square-fit plane of tested segment meets together with that of reference mirror, which means that "phasing" is a statistical mood of the whole aperture, not to match some small areas of the segments. The impact of segment aberration on the whole aperture residual rms wavefront error is simulated using the whole segment aperture sensing and edge sensing respectively. By the analytical and numerical simulation, it is demonstrated that the whole segment aperture phase sensing can make a better image quality than the edge sensing.

  11. Aberrant CpG Islands Hypermethylation Profiles in Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Ryeol; Kim, Ealmaan

    2014-01-01

    Background The authors analyzed whether the promoter hypermethylation of cancer-related genes was involved in the tumorigenesis of malignant gliomas. Methods A total of 29 patients received surgery and histologically confirmed to have malignant gliomas from January 2000 to December 2006. The promoter methylation status of several genes, which were reported to be frequently methylated in malignant gliomas, was investigated using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Results All cases of malignant gliomas represented the promoter hypermethylation in at least 2 or more genes tested. Of 29 tumors, 28 (96.55%) showed concurrent hypermethylation of 3 or more genes. Ras association domain family member 1, epithelial cadherin, O-6 methyl guanine DNA methyltransferase, thrombospondin 1, p14 and adenomatous polyposis coli were frequently methylated in high grade gliomas including glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Conclusion Aberrant hypermethylation profile was closely related with malignant gliomas suggesting that epigenetic change may play a role in the development of malignant gliomas. Two or three target genes may provide useful clues to the development of the useful prognostic as well as diagnostic assays for malignant gliomas. PMID:24926469

  12. Aberrant Water Homeostasis Detected by Stable Isotope Analysis

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, Shannon P.; Wende, Adam R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Valenzuela, Luciano O.; Enright, Lindsey E.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Abel, E. Dale; Cerling, Thure E.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2010-01-01

    While isotopes are frequently used as tracers in investigations of disease physiology (i.e., 14C labeled glucose), few studies have examined the impact that disease, and disease-related alterations in metabolism, may have on stable isotope ratios at natural abundance levels. The isotopic composition of body water is heavily influenced by water metabolism and dietary patterns and may provide a platform for disease detection. By utilizing a model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes as an index case of aberrant water homeostasis, we demonstrate that untreated diabetes mellitus results in distinct combinations, or signatures, of the hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope ratios in body water. Additionally, we show that the δ2H and δ18O values of body water are correlated with increased water flux, suggesting altered blood osmolality, due to hyperglycemia, as the mechanism behind this correlation. Further, we present a mathematical model describing the impact of water flux on the isotopic composition of body water and compare model predicted values with actual values. These data highlight the importance of factors such as water flux and energy expenditure on predictive models of body water and additionally provide a framework for using naturally occurring stable isotope ratios to monitor diseases that impact water homeostasis. PMID:20657736

  13. Aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming in bovine SCNT preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Xin; Wang, Fang; An, Xinglan; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Xueming; Sun, Liguang; Li, Ziyi

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation reprogramming plays important roles in mammalian embryogenesis. Mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos with reprogramming defects fail to develop. Thus, we compared DNA methylation reprogramming in preimplantation embryos from bovine SCNT and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and analyzed the influence of vitamin C (VC) on the reprogramming of DNA methylation. The results showed that global DNA methylation followed a typical pattern of demethylation and remethylation in IVF preimplantation embryos; however, the global genome remained hypermethylated in SCNT preimplantation embryos. Compared with the IVF group, locus DNA methylation reprogramming showed three patterns in the SCNT group. First, some pluripotency genes (POU5F1 and NANOG) and repeated elements (satellite I and α-satellite) showed insufficient demethylation and hypermethylation in the SCNT group. Second, a differentially methylated region (DMR) of an imprint control region (ICR) in H19 exhibited excessive demethylation and hypomethylation. Third, some pluripotency genes (CDX2 and SOX2) were hypomethylated in both the IVF and SCNT groups. Additionally, VC improved the DNA methylation reprogramming of satellite I, α-satellite and H19 but not that of POU5F1 and NANOG in SCNT preimplantation embryos. These results indicate that DNA methylation reprogramming was aberrant and that VC influenced DNA methylation reprogramming in SCNT embryos in a locus-specific manner. PMID:27456302

  14. Aberrant expression of RUNX3 in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jianlin; Liu, Yun; Wu, Yulu; Li, Xiaoqian; Zhu, Feng; Xia, Yuan; Yao, Haina; Chu, Peipei; Li, Hongchun; Ma, Ping; Li, Depeng; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Kailin; Zeng, Lingyu

    2015-09-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by dysregulation of cellular immunity. Previous studies demonstrated that immune imbalance between Th1 and Th2 was associated with the pathogenesis of ITP. Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a member of the runt domain-containing family of transcription factors and plays an important role in the regulation of T cell differentiation into Th1 cells. Whether RUNX3 was involved in the pathogenesis of ITP remains unclear. In this study, 47 active ITP patients, 18 ITP with remission and 26 age and gender matched healthy control were included. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from ITP and control for isolation of RNA and plasma which were used to measure mRNA level of RUNX3 and T-box transcription factor (T-bet) by quantitative real-time PCR and interferon γ (IFN-γ) plasma level by ELISA. Meanwhile, protein was also extracted from PBMCs for Western blot analysis of RUNX3 expression. Our results showed a significantly higher expression of RUNX3, T-bet and plasma level of IFN-γ in active ITP patients compared to control. No differences were observed between ITP with remission and control. Furthermore, a positive correlation of RUNX3 with T-bet was found in active ITP patients. In conclusion, aberrant expression of RUNX3 was associated with the pathogenesis of ITP and therapeutically targeting it might be a novel approach in ITP treatment.

  15. Aberration-free x-ray lenses made of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alianelli, L.; Pape, I.; Sutter, J. P.; Fox, O. J. L.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Korwin-Mikke, K.

    2016-09-01

    Brilliant beams of hard x-rays, with geometrical cross-sections below 50×50 nm2, are a standard research tool for synchrotron users. With the advent of lower emittance sources, such as NSLSII, Petra III and Max IV, and planned upgraded lattices, such as APS-2, SPING8-II, ESRF II and DLS II, nanofocusing optics operating in transmission mode will become more competitive than they are currently. In general, they suffer from lower efficiency than reflective optics, however they often have easier set-up and alignment, combined with a smaller footprint. Fabrication and exploitation of ultra-short focal refractive lenses has not witnessed the same progress in the last decade as other optics, such as multilayer mirrors and multilayer Laue lenses. This paper reports on current status of high-resolution lithography for fabricating silicon lenses and on proposed designs for a new class of refractive lenses with zero aberrations and good efficiency. The new designs are created with geometrical parameters matching the spatial resolution achieved by modern lithography and silicon etch technology.

  16. Aberrant network connectivity during error processing in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Voegler, Rolf; Becker, Michael P.I.; Nitsch, Alexander; Miltner, Wolfgang H.R.; Straube, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging methods have pointed to deficits in the interaction of large-scale brain networks in patients with schizophrenia. Abnormal connectivity of the right anterior insula (AI), a central hub of the salience network, is frequently reported and may underlie patients’ deficits in adaptive salience processing and cognitive control. While most previous studies used resting state approaches, we examined right AI interactions in a task-based fMRI study. Methods Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls performed an adaptive version of the Eriksen Flanker task that was specifically designed to ensure a comparable number of errors between groups. Results We included 27 patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls in our study. The between-groups comparison replicated the classic finding of reduced activation in the midcingulate cortex (MCC) in patients with schizophrenia during the commission of errors while controlling for confounding factors, such as task performance and error frequency, which have been neglected in many previous studies. Subsequent psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed aberrant functional connectivity (FC) between the right AI and regions in the inferior frontal gyrus and temporoparietal junction. Additionally, FC between the MCC and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was reduced. Limitations As we examined a sample of medicated patients, effects of antipsychotic medication may have influenced our results. Conclusion Overall, it appears that schizophrenia is associated with impairment of networks associated with detection of errors, refocusing of attention, superordinate guiding of cognitive control and their respective coordination. PMID:26836622

  17. Unbiased Estimation of Refractive State of Aberrated Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jesson; Vasudevan, Balamurali; Himebaugh, Nikole; Bradley, Arthur; Thibos, Larry

    2011-01-01

    To identify unbiased methods for estimating the target vergence required to maximize visual acuity based on wavefront aberration measurements. Experiments were designed to minimize the impact of confounding factors that have hampered previous research. Objective wavefront refractions and subjective acuity refractions were obtained for the same monochromatic wavelength. Accommodation and pupil fluctuations were eliminated by cycloplegia. Unbiased subjective refractions that maximize visual acuity for high contrast letters were performed with a computer controlled forced choice staircase procedure, using 0.125 diopter steps of defocus. All experiments were performed for two pupil diameters (3mm and 6mm). As reported in the literature, subjective refractive error does not change appreciably when the pupil dilates. For 3 mm pupils most metrics yielded objective refractions that were about 0.1D more hyperopic than subjective acuity refractions. When pupil diameter increased to 6 mm, this bias changed in the myopic direction and the variability between metrics also increased. These inaccuracies were small compared to the precision of the measurements, which implies that most metrics provided unbiased estimates of refractive state for medium and large pupils. A variety of image quality metrics may be used to determine ocular refractive state for monochromatic (635nm) light, thereby achieving accurate results without the need for empirical correction factors. PMID:21777601

  18. Profiles of aberrant white matter microstructure in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Scott S.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies attempting to quantify white matter (WM) microstructure in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) have produced inconsistent findings, most likely due to the various control groups employed, differing analysis methods, and failure to examine for potential motion artifact. In addition, analyses have heretofore lacked sufficient specificity to provide regional information. In this study, we used Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ) to identify specific regions of aberrant WM microstructure along WM tracts in patients with FXS that differed from controls who were matched on age, IQ and degree of autistic symptoms. Participants were 20 patients with FXS, aged 10 to 23 years, and 20 matched controls. Using Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ), we created Tract Profiles of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity along 18 major WM fascicles. We found that fractional anisotropy was significantly increased in the left and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), right uncinate fasciculus, and left cingulum hippocampus in individuals with FXS compared to controls. Conversely, mean diffusivity was significantly decreased in the right ILF in patients with FXS compared to controls. Age was significantly negatively associated with MD values across both groups in 11 tracts. Taken together, these findings indicate that FXS results in abnormal WM microstructure in specific regions of the ILF and uncinate fasciculus, most likely caused by inefficient synaptic pruning as a result of decreased or absent Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26937381

  19. Perceived no reference image quality measurement for chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Anupama B.; Khambete, Madhuri

    2016-03-01

    Today there is need for no reference (NR) objective perceived image quality measurement techniques as conducting subjective experiments and making reference image available is a very difficult task. Very few NR perceived image quality measurement algorithms are available for color distortions like chromatic aberration (CA), color quantization with dither, and color saturation. We proposed NR image quality assessment (NR-IQA) algorithms for images distorted with CA. CA is mostly observed in images taken with digital cameras, having higher sensor resolution with inexpensive lenses. We compared our metric performance with two state-of-the-art NR blur techniques, one full reference IQA technique and three general-purpose NR-IQA techniques, although they are not tailored for CA. We used a CA dataset in the TID-2013 color image database to evaluate performance. Proposed algorithms give comparable performance with state-of-the-art techniques in terms of performance parameters and outperform them in terms of monotonicity and computational complexity. We have also discovered that the proposed CA algorithm best predicts perceived image quality of images distorted with realistic CA.

  20. Adaptive Optics Analysis of Visual Benefit with Higher-order Aberrations Correction of Human Eye - Poster Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lixia; Dai, Yun; Rao, Xuejun; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Yiyun; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Wenhan

    2008-01-01

    Higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye to some extent. To evaluate how much visual benefit can be obtained with higher-order aberrations correction we developed an adaptive optics vision simulator (AOVS). Dynamic real time optimized modal compensation was used to implement various customized higher-order ocular aberrations correction strategies. The experimental results indicate that higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye comparing with only lower-order aberration correction but the improvement degree and higher-order aberration correction strategy are different from each individual. Some subjects can acquire great visual benefit when higher-order aberrations were corrected but some subjects acquire little visual benefit even though all higher-order aberrations were corrected. Therefore, relative to general lower-order aberrations correction strategy, customized higher-order aberrations correction strategy is needed to obtain optimal visual improvement for each individual. AOVS provides an effective tool for higher-order ocular aberrations optometry for customized ocular aberrations correction.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for aberrant portal hemodynamics: The Aberrant Portal Hemodynamics Study Group supported by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan.

    PubMed

    2017-01-06

    Idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH), causing aberrant portal hemodynamics, is a disease with an as yet unidentified cause and no established treatment protocol. The Japanese research group on IPH in Japan was set up in 1975 by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Extrahepatic portal obstruction and Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) have since been added to the group's research subjects. The aims of the research group are to accurately evaluate the current status of the three diseases in Japan, elucidate their etiology and pathogenesis, and develop new treatments. Due to the long-term efforts of the Japanese research group, aberrant portal hemodynamics has been investigated in a variety of aspects, from epidemiological and pathological studies to molecular biology analyses. As a result, it has been shown that there are abnormal genes in the liver, specific for IPH. In addition, pathological findings of BCS were internationally compared and the difference in findings between Japan and Europe (or North America) has been clarified. Furthermore, it was found that complication rates of hepatocellular carcinoma in BCS were higher in Japan. Based on the research, "Diagnosis and treatment of aberrant portal hemodynamics (2001)", including diagnostic criteria for aberrant portal hemodynamics, was published in 2001. In 2013, it was revised to "Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for aberrant portal hemodynamics (2013)" after the incorporation of diagnosis and treatment in accordance with its current status.

  2. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving.

  3. Wave-front aberrations in the anterior corneal surface and the whole eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ji C.; Gwiazda, Jane; Thorn, Frank; Held, Richard

    2003-07-01

    In order to investigate the sources of wave-front aberrations in the human eye, we have measured the aberrations of the anterior cornea and the whole eye using a topographic system and a psychophysical wave-front sensor. We have also calculated the aberrations for the internal optics of both eyes of 45 young subjects (aged 9 to 29 years). The mean rms for the anterior cornea was similar to that for the internal optics and the whole eye when astigmatism was included, but less than that for both the internal optics and the whole eye with astigmatism removed. For eyes with low whole-eye rms values, mean rms for the anterior cornea was greater than that for the whole eye, suggesting that the anterior corneal aberration is partially compensated by the internal optics of the eye to produce the low whole-eye rms. For eyes with larger whole-eye rms values, the rms values for both the anterior cornea and the internal optics were less than that for the whole eye. Thus the aberrations for the two elements tend to be primarily additive. This pattern exists whether or not astigmatism was included in the wave-front aberration rms. For individual Zernike terms, astigmatism and spherical aberration in the anterior cornea were partially compensated by internal optics, while some other Zernike terms showed addition between the anterior cornea and internal optics. Individual eyes show different combinations of compensation and addition across different Zernike terms. Our data suggest that the reported loss of internal compensation for anterior corneal aberrations in elderly eyes with large whole-eye aberrations J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19 , 137 (2002) may also occur in young eyes. 2003 Optical Society of America

  4. [Aberrant internal carotid artery as a cause of pulsatile tinnitus: a difficult diagnosis in MRI?].

    PubMed

    Soyka, M B; Schuknecht, B; Huber, A M

    2010-02-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old patient with sensorineural hearing loss and the finding of an aberrant internal carotid artery in the left tympanic cavity that was causing pulsatile tinnitus. The aberrant vessel was initially invisible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and was confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography and MR angiography (MRA). Recognition of an aberrant course of an internal carotid artery often requires a combination of MRI and MRA to establish the diagnosis and rule out other differential diagnoses.

  5. Removing static aberrations from the active optics system of a wide-field telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; Noethe, Lothar; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Dall'Ora, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Farinato, Jacopo; Magrin, Demetrio; Marty, Laurent; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Umbriaco, Gabriele

    2012-07-01

    The wavefront sensor in active and adaptive telescopes is usually not in the optical path toward the scientific detector. It may generate additional wavefront aberrations, which have to be separated from the errors due to the telescope optics. The aberrations that are not rotationally symmetric can be disentangled from the telescope aberrations by a series of measurements taken in the center of the field, with the wavefront sensor at different orientation angles with respect to the focal plane. This method has been applied at the VLT Survey Telescope on the ESO Paranal observatory.

  6. Artificial neural network for the determination of Hubble Space Telescope aberration from stellar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Todd K.; Sandler, David G.

    1993-01-01

    An artificial-neural-network method, first developed for the measurement and control of atmospheric phase distortion, using stellar images, was used to estimate the optical aberration of the Hubble Space Telescope. A total of 26 estimates of distortion was obtained from 23 stellar images acquired at several secondary-mirror axial positions. The results were expressed as coefficients of eight orthogonal Zernike polynomials: focus through third-order spherical. For all modes other than spherical the measured aberration was small. The average spherical aberration of the estimates was -0.299 micron rms, which is in good agreement with predictions obtained when iterative phase-retrieval algorithms were used.

  7. Artificial neural network for the determination of Hubble Space Telescope aberration from stellar images.

    PubMed

    Barrett, T K; Sandler, D G

    1993-04-01

    An artificial-neural-network method, first developed for the measurement and control of atmospheric phase distortion, using stellar images, was used to estimate the optical aberration of the Hubble Space Telescope. A total of 26 estimates of distortion was obtained from 23 stellar images acquired at several secondary-mirror axial positions. The results were expressed as coefficients of eight orthogonal Zernike polynomials: focus through third-order spherical. For all modes other than spherical the measured aberration was small. The average spherical aberration of the estimates was -0.299 microm rms, which is in good agreement with predictions obtained when iterative phase-retrieval algorithms were used.

  8. Numerical parametric lens for shifting, magnification, and complete aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Colomb, Tristan; Montfort, Frédéric; Kühn, Jonas; Aspert, Nicolas; Cuche, Etienne; Marian, Anca; Charrière, Florian; Bourquin, Sébastien; Marquet, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian

    2006-12-01

    The concept of numerical parametric lenses (NPL) is introduced to achieve wavefront reconstruction in digital holography. It is shown that operations usually performed by optical components and described in ray geometrical optics, such as image shifting, magnification, and especially complete aberration compensation (phase aberrations and image distortion), can be mimicked by numerical computation of a NPL. Furthermore, we demonstrate that automatic one-dimensional or two-dimensional fitting procedures allow adjustment of the NPL parameters as expressed in terms of standard or Zernike polynomial coefficients. These coefficients can provide a quantitative evaluation of the aberrations generated by the specimen. Demonstration is given of the reconstruction of the topology of a microlens.

  9. Painting Analysis of Chromosome Aberrations Induced by Energetic Heavy Ions in Human Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    FISH, mFISH, mBAND, telomere and centromere probes have been used to study chromosome aberrations induced in human cells exposed to low-and high-LET radiation in vitro. High-LET induced damages are mostly a single track effect. Unrejoined chromosome breaks (incomplete exchanges) and complex type aberrations were higher for high-LET. Biosignatures may depend on the method the samples are collected. Recent mBAND analysis has revealed more information about the nature of intra-chromosome exchanges. Whether space flight/microgravity affects radiation-induced chromosome aberration frequencies is still an open question.

  10. Recovering correct phase information in multiwavelength digital holographic microscopy by compensation for chromatic aberrations.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, S; Finizio, A; Pierattini, G; Alfieri, D; Grilli, S; Sansone, L; Ferraro, P

    2005-10-15

    We demonstrate experimentally that correct phase imaging without 2pi ambiguity is obtainable in digital holography by using a multiwavelength approach in the microscope configuration. We describe a general approach for removing chromatic aberrations and for controlling the pixel size of the reconstructed phase image in multiwavelength digital holography when the Fourier transform method is adopted for the numerical reconstruction of digital holograms. The retrieved phase is affected by the unavoidable, unwanted chromatic aberration. The correct phase can be obtained by evaluating the phase from the reference holograms reconstructed at different wavelengths to compensate for the chromatic aberration.

  11. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Study on the design and Zernike aberrations of a segmented mirror telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen-Yu; Li, Lin; Huang, Yi-Fan

    2009-07-01

    The segmented mirror telescope is widely used. The aberrations of segmented mirror systems are different from single mirror systems. This paper uses the Fourier optics theory to analyse the Zernike aberrations of segmented mirror systems. It concludes that the Zernike aberrations of segmented mirror systems obey the linearity theorem. The design of a segmented space telescope and segmented schemes are discussed, and its optical model is constructed. The computer simulation experiment is performed with this optical model to verify the suppositions. The experimental results confirm the correctness of the model.

  12. Aberration correction for transcranial photoacoustic tomography of primates employing adjunct image data

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Schoonover, Robert W.; Guo, Zijian; Schirra, Carsten O.; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A challenge in photoacoustic tomography (PAT) brain imaging is to compensate for aberrations in the measured photoacoustic data due to their propagation through the skull. By use of information regarding the skull morphology and composition obtained from adjunct x-ray computed tomography image data, we developed a subject-specific imaging model that accounts for such aberrations. A time-reversal-based reconstruction algorithm was employed with this model for image reconstruction. The image reconstruction methodology was evaluated in experimental studies involving phantoms and monkey heads. The results establish that our reconstruction methodology can effectively compensate for skull-induced acoustic aberrations and improve image fidelity in transcranial PAT. PMID:22734772

  13. Parallel direct laser writing in three dimensions with spatially dependent aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Jesacher, Alexander; Booth, Martin J

    2010-09-27

    We propose a hologram design process which aims at reducing aberrations in parallel three-dimensional direct laser writing applications. One principle of the approach is to minimise the diffractive power of holograms while retaining the degree of parallelisation. This reduces focal distortion caused by chromatic aberration. We address associated problems such as the zero diffraction order and aberrations induced by a potential refractive index mismatch between the immersion medium of the microscope objective and the fabrication substrate. Results from fabrication in diamond, fused silica and lithium niobate are presented.

  14. Aberration correction for transcranial photoacoustic tomography of primates employing adjunct image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao; Nie, Liming; Schoonover, Robert W.; Guo, Zijian; Schirra, Carsten O.; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-06-01

    A challenge in photoacoustic tomography (PAT) brain imaging is to compensate for aberrations in the measured photoacoustic data due to their propagation through the skull. By use of information regarding the skull morphology and composition obtained from adjunct x-ray computed tomography image data, we developed a subject-specific imaging model that accounts for such aberrations. A time-reversal-based reconstruction algorithm was employed with this model for image reconstruction. The image reconstruction methodology was evaluated in experimental studies involving phantoms and monkey heads. The results establish that our reconstruction methodology can effectively compensate for skull-induced acoustic aberrations and improve image fidelity in transcranial PAT.

  15. Autistic-like phenotypes in Cadps2-knockout mice and aberrant CADPS2 splicing in autistic patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadakata, Tetsushi; Washida, Miwa; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Shoji, Satoshi; Sato, Yumi; Ohkura, Takeshi; Katoh-Semba, Ritsuko; Nakajima, Mizuho; Sekine, Yukiko; Tanaka, Mika; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Mori, Norio; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2007-01-01

    Autism, characterized by profound impairment in social interactions and communicative skills, is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder, and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2; also known as CAPS2) mediates the exocytosis of dense-core vesicles, and the human CADPS2 is located within the autism susceptibility locus 1 on chromosome 7q. Here we show that Cadps2-knockout mice not only have impaired brain-derived neurotrophic factor release but also show autistic-like cellular and behavioral phenotypes. Moreover, we found an aberrant alternatively spliced CADPS2 mRNA that lacks exon 3 in some autistic patients. Exon 3 was shown to encode the dynactin 1–binding domain and affect axonal CADPS2 protein distribution. Our results suggest that a disturbance in CADPS2-mediated neurotrophin release contributes to autism susceptibility. PMID:17380209

  16. Choice-making treatment of young children's severe behavior problems.

    PubMed Central

    Peck, S M; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; Brown, K A; Richman, D; McComas, J J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T

    1996-01-01

    The choice-making behavior of 5 young children with developmental disabilities who engaged in aberrant behavior was studied within a concurrent operants framework. Experimental analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers that maintained aberrant behavior, and functional communication training packages were implemented to teach the participants to gain reinforcement using mands. Next, a choice-making analysis, in which the participants chose one of two responses (either a mand or an alternative neutral response) to obtain different durations and qualities of reinforcement, was conducted. Finally, treatment packages involving choice making via manding were implemented to decrease inappropriate behavior and to increase mands. The results extended previous applications of choice making to severe behavior disorders and across behaviors maintained by positive and negative reinforcement. PMID:8810061

  17. Evaluation of cost of treatment of drug-related events in a tertiary care public sector hospital in Northern India: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Pattanaik, Smita; Dhamija, Punit; Malhotra, Samir; Sharma, Navneet; Pandhi, Promila

    2009-01-01

    AIMS Drug related events (DREs) contribute significantly to hospital admissions. These are largely preventable events and require optimum use of the therapeutic agents. The study was conducted to analyze the cost of treatment of DREs. PATIENTS & METHODS All visits to medical emergency department of a tertiary care public sector hospital in northern India were recorded in a prospective, non-interventional manner over a period of 4 months. DREs were recognized and were followed up till their stay in the hospital. Data about the cost generating components of direct and indirect costs of treatment of DREs were collected. The projected cost of treatment of the same DREs in a private sector hospital was estimated and compared. RESULTS Out of 1833 admissions, 92(5.01%) were due to DREs. Maximum cases were due to non compliance (66%) followed by ADR (28%) and drug overdose(6%). The common DREs leading to ED visits were cerebrovascular accident(19.44%), followed by accelerated hypertension(18.36%) and diabetic ketoacidosis(14.04%). Total cost of management of all the 92 DREs in our hospital was calculated to be INR17,37,339(€30,215). The direct cost was INR1,72,961(€3008) and the approximate indirect cost was INR15,64, 378(€27, 206). The projected cost of management of all the 92 DREs was estimated to be INR63,63,872(€1,01, 676) in a private sector hospital. CONCLUSION The study shows that ADEs leading to emergency department visits and hospitalizations constitute a significant economic burden. Training of the patients and the prescribers may lessen the economic burden on the patient as well as the health care system. PMID:19523017

  18. Improved sensitivity by use of gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for the analysis of drug related substances.

    PubMed

    Van Gansbeke, Wim; Polet, Michael; Hooghe, Fiona; Devos, Christophe; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2015-09-15

    In 2013, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) drastically lowered the minimum required performance levels (MRPLs) of most doping substances, demanding a substantial increase in sensitivity of the existing methods. For a number of compounds, conventional electron impact ionization gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) is often no longer sufficient to reach these MRPLs and new strategies are required. In this study, the capabilities of positive ion chemical ionization (PICI) GC-MS/MS are investigated for a wide range of drug related compounds of various classes by injection of silylated reference standards. Ammonia as PICI reagent gas had superior characteristics for GC-MS/MS purposes than methane. Compared to GC-EI-MS/MS, PICI (with ammonia as reagent gas) provided more selective ion transitions and consequently, increased sensitivity by an average factor of 50. The maximum increase (by factor of 500-1000) was observed in the analysis of stimulants, namely chlorprenaline, furfenorex and phentermine. In total, improved sensitivity was obtained for 113 out of 120 compounds. A new GC-PICI-MS/MS method has been developed and evaluated for the detection of a wide variety of exogenous doping substances and the quantification of endogenous steroids in urine in compliance with the required MRPLs established by WADA in 2013. The method consists of a hydrolysis and extraction step, followed by derivatization and subsequent 1μL pulsed splitless injection on GC-PICI-MS/MS (16min run). The increased sensitivity allows the set up of a balanced screening method that meets the requirements for both quantitative and qualitative compounds: sufficient capacity and resolution in combination with high sensitivity and short analysis time. This resulted in calibration curves with a wide linear range (e.g., 48-9600ng/mL for androsterone and etiochanolone; all r(2)>0.99) without compromising the requirements for the qualitative compounds.

  19. Array CGH reveals genomic aberrations in human emphysema.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Soo; Lee, Woon Jeong; Baik, Seung Ho; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Kweon-Haeng; Kim, Yeul Hong; Lim, Young; Wang, Young-Pil

    2009-01-01

    Emphysema is the major component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Several epidemiologic studies suggest that genetic factors may have an important role in the pathogenesis of emphysema. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of chromosomal aberrations using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in 32 patients with emphysema to identify the candidate genes that might be causally involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Copy number gains and losses were detected in chromosomal regions, and the corresponding genes were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Several frequently altered loci were found, including a gain at 5p15.33 (60% of the study subjects), and a loss at 7q22.1 (31% of the study subjects). DNA gains were identified at a high frequency at 1p, 5p, 11p, 12p, 15q, 17p, 18q, 21q, and 22q, whereas DNA losses were frequently found at 7q and 22q. We found that the fold change levels were highest at the CYP4B1 (1p33), JUN (1p32.1), NOTCH2 (1p12-p11.2), SDHA (5p15.33), KCNQ1 (11p15.5-p15.4), NINJ2 (12p13.33), PCSK6 (15q26.3), ABR (17p13.3), CTDP1 (18q23), RUNX1 (21q22.12) and HDAC10 (22q13.33) gene loci. We also observed losses in the MUC17 (7q22.1), COMT (22q11.21) and GSTT1 (22q11.2) genes. These studies show that array CGH is a useful tool for the identification of gene alterations in cases of emphysema and that the aforementioned genes might represent potential candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema.

  20. Aberrant miRNA profiles associated with chronic benzene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wenlin; Chen, Yujiao; Yang, Jing; Niu, Piye; Tian, Lin; Gao, Ai

    2014-06-01

    Chronic occupational benzene exposure is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies. To gain an insight into the new biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning, miRNA profiles and mRNA expression pattern from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic benzene poisoning patients and health controls matched age and gender without benzene exposure were performed using the Exiqon miRNA PCR ARRAY and Gene Chip Human Gene 2.0ST Arrays, respectively. Totally, 6 up-regulated miRNAs (miR-34a, miR-205, miR-10b, let-7d, miR-185 and miR-423-5p-2) and 7 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-133a, miR-543, hsa-miR-130a, miR-27b,miR-223, miR-142-5p and miR-320b) were found in chronic benzene poisoning group compared to health controls (P ≤ 0.05). By integrating miRNA and mRNA expression data, these differential miRNAs were mainly involved in regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, axon guidance, regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent, nervous system development, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization. Further, pathway analysis indicated that SMAD4, PLCB1, NFAT5, GNAI2, PTEN, VEGFA, BCL2, CTNNB1 and CCND1 were key target genes of differential miRNAs which were implicated in Adherens junction, TGF-beta signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, tight junction and Pathways in cancer. In conclusion, the aberrant miRNAs might be a potential biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning.