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Sample records for aberrant fatty acid-binding

  1. Fatty Acid Binding Protein FABP4 Mechanistically Links Obesity with Aggressive AML by Enhancing Aberrant DNA Methylation in AML Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, F; Shen, N; Pang, JX; Zhang, YW; Rao, EY; Bode, AM; Al-Kali, A; Zhang, DE; Litzow, MR; Li, B; Liu, SJ

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is becoming more prevalent worldwide and is a major risk factor for cancer development. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common acute leukemia in adults, remains a frequently fatal disease. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which obesity favors AML growth and uncovered the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) regulatory axis that mediates aggressive AML in obesity. We showed that leukemia burden was much higher in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, which had higher levels of FABP4 and IL-6 in sera. Upregulation of environmental and cellular FABP4 accelerated AML cell growth in both a cell-autonomous and cell-non-autonomous manner. Genetic disruption of FABP4 in AML cells or in mice blocked cell proliferation in vitro and induced leukemia regression in vivo. Mechanistic investigations showed that FABP4 upregulation increased IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation leading to DNMT1 overexpression and further silencing of the p15INK4B tumor suppressor gene in AML cells. Conversely, FABP4 ablation reduced DNMT1-dependent DNA methylation and restored p15INK4B expression, thus conferring substantial protection against AML growth. Our findings reveal the FABP4/DNMT1 axis in the control of AML cell fate in obesity, and suggest that interference with the FABP4/DNMT1 axis might be a new strategy to treat leukemia. PMID:27885273

  2. Fatty acid-binding protein FABP4 mechanistically links obesity with aggressive AML by enhancing aberrant DNA methylation in AML cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, F; Shen, N; Pang, J X; Zhang, Y W; Rao, E Y; Bode, A M; Al-Kali, A; Zhang, D E; Litzow, M R; Li, B; Liu, S J

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is becoming more prevalent worldwide and is a major risk factor for cancer development. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common acute leukemia in adults, remains a frequently fatal disease. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which obesity favors AML growth and uncovered the fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) regulatory axis that mediates aggressive AML in obesity. We showed that leukemia burden was much higher in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, which had higher levels of FABP4 and interleukin (IL)-6 in the sera. Upregulation of environmental and cellular FABP4 accelerated AML cell growth in both a cell-autonomous and cell-non-autonomous manner. Genetic disruption of FABP4 in AML cells or in mice blocked cell proliferation in vitro and induced leukemia regression in vivo. Mechanistic investigations showed that FABP4 upregulation increased IL-6 expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 phosphorylation leading to DNMT1 overexpression and further silencing of the p15 INK4B tumor-suppressor gene in AML cells. Conversely, FABP4 ablation reduced DNMT1-dependent DNA methylation and restored p15 INK4B expression, thus conferring substantial protection against AML growth. Our findings reveal the FABP4/DNMT1 axis in the control of AML cell fate in obesity and suggest that interference with the FABP4/DNMT1 axis might be a new strategy to treat leukemia.

  3. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jun; Lücke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the promiscuous binding and transport properties of L-FABP, we investigated structure and dynamics of human L-FABP with and without bound ligands by means of heteronuclear NMR. The overall conformation of human L-FABP shows the typical β-clam motif. Binding of two oleic acid (OA) molecules does not alter the protein conformation substantially, but perturbs the chemical shift of certain backbone and side-chain protons that are involved in OA binding according to the structure of the human L-FABP/OA complex. Comparison of the human apo and holo L-FABP structures revealed no evidence for an “open-cap” conformation or a “swivel-back” mechanism of the K90 side chain upon ligand binding, as proposed for rat L-FABP. Instead, we postulate that the lipid binding process in L-FABP is associated with backbone dynamics. PMID:22713574

  4. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adipocytes promote cholangiocarcinoma metastasis through fatty acid binding protein 4.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jihua; Zhang, Jingying; Wang, Lili; Lu, Lunjie; Yuan, Qian; An, Fangmei; Zhang, Shuyu; Jiao, Yang

    2017-12-13

    The early occurrence regional nodal and distant metastases cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the major reasons for its poor prognosis. However, the related mechanisms are largely elusive. Recently, increasing evidences indicate that adipocytes might be involved in the proliferation, homing, migration and invasion of several malignancies. In the present study, we attempt to determine the effects and possible mechanisms of adipocytes on regulating progression of CCA. Adipocyte-CCA cell co-culture system and CCA metastasis mice model were used to determine the effects of adipocytes on CCA metastasis. We identified the biological functions and possible mechanisms of adipocyte-derived fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in regulating the adipocyte-induced CCA metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes, both in vitro and in vivo. Adipocyte-CCA cell co-culture promotes the in vitro and in vivo tumor metastasis, leading to increased adipocyte-derived fatty acid absorbance and intracellular lipids of CCA cells, which indicates adipocytes might function as the energy source for CCA progression by providing free fatty acids. Further, highly expressed FABP4 protein was identified in adipose tissues and fully differentiated adipocytes, and upregulated FABP4 was also detected by qRT-PCR assay in CCA cells co-cultivated with adipose extracts as compared to parental CCA cells. The specific FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 significantly impaired adipocyte-induced CCA metastasis and EMT phenotypes both in vitro and in vivo. Together, the results demonstrate that the adipocyte-CCA interaction and the energy extraction of CCA cells from adipocytes are crucial for the invasion, migration and EMT of CCA cells. FABP4 from adipocytes mediates these adipocyte-induced variations in CCA cells, which could serve as a potential target for the treatment of CCA.

  6. Oleic acid transfer from microsomes to egg lecithin liposomes: participation of fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Catalá, A; Avanzati, B

    1983-11-01

    Oleic acid transfer from microsomes or mitochondria to egg lecithin liposomes was stimulated by fatty acid binding protein. By gel filtration, it could be demonstrated that this protein incorporates oleic acid into liposomes. Fatty acid binding protein transfer activity was higher using microsomes rather than mitochondria, which suggests a selective interaction with different kinds of membranes. Transfer of oleic acid by this soluble protein is greater than that of stearic acid. The results indicate that fatty acid binding protein may participate in the intracellular transport of fatty acids.

  7. The interaction of albumin and fatty-acid-binding protein with membranes: oleic acid dissociation.

    PubMed

    Catalá, A

    1984-10-01

    Bovine serum albumin or fatty-acid-binding protein rapidly lose oleic acid when incubated in the presence of dimyristoyl lecithin liposomes. The phenomenon is dependent on vesicle concentration and no measurable quantities of protein are found associated with liposomes. Upon gel filtration on Sepharose CL-2B of incubated mixtures of microsomes containing [1-14C] oleic acid and albumin or fatty-acid-binding protein, association of fatty acid with the soluble proteins could be demonstrated. Both albumin and fatty-acid-binding protein stimulated the transfer of oleic acid from rat liver microsomes to egg lecithin liposomes. These results indicate that albumin is more effective in the binding of oleic acid than fatty-acid-binding protein, which allows a selective oleic acid dissociation during its interaction with membranes.

  8. Evidence that Chemical Chaperone 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Binds to Human Serum Albumin at Fatty Acid Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    James, Joel; Shihabudeen, Mohamed Sham; Kulshrestha, Shweta; Goel, Varun; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress elicits unfolded protein response to counteract the accumulating unfolded protein load inside a cell. The chemical chaperone, 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is a FDA approved drug that alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress by assisting protein folding. It is found efficacious to augment pathological conditions like type 2 diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. This study explores the binding nature of 4-PBA with human serum albumin (HSA) through spectroscopic and molecular dynamics approaches, and the results show that 4-PBA has high binding specificity to Sudlow Site II (Fatty acid binding site 3, subdomain IIIA). Ligand displacement studies, RMSD stabilization profiles and MM-PBSA binding free energy calculation confirm the same. The binding constant as calculated from fluorescence spectroscopic studies was found to be kPBA = 2.69 x 105 M-1. Like long chain fatty acids, 4-PBA induces conformational changes on HSA as shown by circular dichroism, and it elicits stable binding at Sudlow Site II (fatty acid binding site 3) by forming strong hydrogen bonding and a salt bridge between domain II and III of HSA. This minimizes the fluctuation of HSA backbone as shown by limited conformational space occupancy in the principal component analysis. The overall hydrophobicity of W214 pocket (located at subdomain IIA), increases upon occupancy of 4-PBA at any FA site. Descriptors of this pocket formed by residues from other subdomains largely play a role in compensating the dynamic movement of W214. PMID:26181488

  9. Adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, and epidermal fatty acid binding protein: proteins newly identified in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Bronsky, Jirí; Karpísek, Michal; Bronská, Eva; Pechová, Marta; Jancíková, Barbora; Kotolová, Hana; Stejskal, David; Prusa, Richard; Nevoral, Jirí

    2006-09-01

    Breastfeeding may protect children from developing metabolic syndrome and other diseases later in life. We investigated novel proteins in human breast milk that might play a role in this process. We used ELISA to measure adiponectin, adipocyte and epidermal fatty acid binding proteins (AFABP, EFABP), and leptin concentrations in human breast milk obtained from 59 mothers 48 h after initiation of lactation. Using a questionnaire and medical records, we collected information about the mothers and newborns. Mean (SE) adiponectin concentrations in breast milk were 13.7 (0.8), range 3.9-30.4 microg/L; AFABP concentrations 26.7 (4.4), range 1.2-137.0 microg/L; EFABP concentrations 18.1 (1.4), range 0.8-47.0 microg/L; and leptin concentrations 0.50 (0.05), range 0-1.37 microg/L. We found a significant correlation between AFABP and EFABP concentrations (r = 0.593, P <0.0001). Maternal EFABP concentrations were significantly higher in mothers who delivered boys than in those who delivered girls [21.7 (2.3) vs 15.4 (1.7) microg/L, P = 0.028] and correlated with newborn birth weight (r = 0.266, P = 0.045). Maternal leptin correlated with body weight before pregnancy (r = 0.272, P = 0.043) and at delivery (r = 0.370, P = 0.005), body mass index before pregnancy (r = 0.397, P = 0.003) and at delivery (r = 0.498, P <0.0001), body weight gain during pregnancy (r = 0.267, P = 0.047), and newborn gestational age (r = 0.266, P = 0.048). Leptin was significantly lower in mothers who delivered preterm vs term babies [0.30 (0.09) vs 0.60 (0.05) ug/L, P = 0.026]. Concentrations of adiponectin, AFABP, and EFABP in human breast milk are related to nutritional variables of mothers and newborns and thus may play a role in the protective effects of breastfeeding.

  10. Fatty acid transfer between multilamellar liposomes and fatty acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Brecher, P; Saouaf, R; Sugarman, J M; Eisenberg, D; LaRosa, K

    1984-11-10

    A simple experimental system was developed for studying the movement of long-chain fatty acids between multilamellar liposomes and soluble proteins capable of binding fatty acids. Oleic acid was incorporated into multilamellar liposomes containing cholesterol and egg yolk lecithin and incubated with albumin or hepatic fatty acid-binding protein. It was found that the fatty acid transferred from the liposomes to either protein rapidly and selectively under conditions where phospholipid and cholesterol transfer did not occur. More than 50% of the fatty acid contained within liposomes could become protein bound, suggesting that the fatty acid moved readily between and across phospholipid bilayers. Transfer was reduced at low pH, and this reduction appeared to result from decreased dissociation of the protonated fatty acid from the bilayer. Liposomes made with dimyristoyl or dipalmitoyl lecithin and containing 1 mol per cent palmitic acid were used to show the effect of temperature on fatty acid transfer. Transfer to either protein did not occur at temperatures where the liposomes were in a gel state but occurred rapidly at temperatures at or above the transition temperatures of the phospholipid used.

  11. Structure of Zebrafish IRBP Reveals Fatty Acid Binding

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debashis; Haswell, Karen M.; Sprada, Molly; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) has a remarkable role in targeting and protecting all-trans and 11-cis retinol, and 11-cis retinal during the rod and cone visual cycles. Little is known about how the correct retinoid is efficiently delivered and removed from the correct cell at the required time. It has been proposed that different fatty composition at that the outer-segments and retinal-pigmented epithelium could have an important role is regulating the delivery and uptake of the visual cycle retinoids at the cell-interphotoreceptor-matrix interface. Although this suggests intriguing mechanisms for the role of local fatty acids in visual-cycle retinoid trafficking, nothing is known about the structural basis of IRBP-fatty acid interactions. Such regulation may be mediated through IRBP’s unusual repeating homologous modules, each containing about 300 amino acids. We have been investigating structure-function relationships of Zebrafish IRBP (zIRBP), which has only two tandem modules (z1 and z2), as a model for the more complex four-module mammalian IRBP’s. Here we report the first X-ray crystal structure of a teleost IRBP, and the only structure with a bound ligand. The X-ray structure of z1, determined at 1.90Å resolution, reveals a two-domain organization of the module (domains A and B). A deep hydrophobic pocket was identified within the N-terminal domain A. In fluorescence titrations assays, oleic acid displaced all-trans retinol from zIRBP. Our study, which provides the first structure of an IRBP with bound ligand, supports a potential role for fatty acids in regulating retinoid binding. PMID:26344741

  12. The peritumoural adipose tissue microenvironment and cancer. The roles of fatty acid binding protein 4 and fatty acid binding protein 5.

    PubMed

    Guaita-Esteruelas, S; Gumà, J; Masana, L; Borràs, J

    2018-02-15

    The adipose tissue microenvironment plays a key role in tumour initiation and progression because it provides fatty acids and adipokines to tumour cells. The fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) family is a group of small proteins that act as intracellular fatty acid transporters. Adipose-derived FABPs include FABP4 and FABP5. Both have an important role in lipid-related metabolic processes and overexpressed in many cancers, such as breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian. Moreover, their expression in peritumoural adipose tissue is deregulated, and their circulating levels are upregulated in some tumours. In this review, we discuss the role of the peritumoural adipose tissue and the related adipokines FABP4 and FABP5 in cancer initiation and progression and the possible pathways implicated in these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) inhibitors. A comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Floresta, Giuseppe; Pistarà, Venerando; Amata, Emanuele; Dichiara, Maria; Marrazzo, Agostino; Prezzavento, Orazio; Rescifina, Antonio

    2017-09-29

    Small molecule inhibitors of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) have attracted interest following the recent publications of beneficial pharmacological effects of these compounds. FABP4 is predominantly expressed in macrophages and adipose tissue where it regulates fatty acids (FAs) storage and lipolysis and is an important mediator of inflammation. In the past years, hundreds FABP4 inhibitors have been synthesized for effective atherosclerosis and diabetes treatments, including derivatives of niacin, quinoxaline, aryl-quinoline, bicyclic pyridine, urea, aromatic compounds and other novel heterocyclic compounds. This review provides an overview of the synthesized and discovered molecules as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 inhibitors (FABP4is) since the synthesis of the putative FABP4i, BMS309403, highlighting the interactions of the different classes of inhibitors with the targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards an Understanding of Mesocestoides vogae Fatty Acid Binding Proteins’ Roles

    PubMed Central

    Alvite, Gabriela; Garrido, Natalia; Kun, Alejandra; Paulino, Margot; Esteves, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, MvFABPa and MvFABPb were identified in the parasite Mesocestoides vogae (Platyhelmithes, Cestoda). Fatty acid binding proteins are small intracellular proteins whose members exhibit great diversity. Proteins of this family have been identified in many organisms, of which Platyhelminthes are among the most primitive. These proteins have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo synthesis of fatty acids is absent. Fatty acids should be captured from the media needing an efficient transport system to uptake and distribute these molecules. While HLBPs could be involved in the shuttle of fatty acids to the surrounding host tissues and convey them into the parasite, FABPs could be responsible for the intracellular trafficking. In an effort to understand the role of MvFABPs in fatty acid transport of M. vogae larvae, we analysed the intracellular localization of both MvFABPs and the co-localization with in vivo uptake of fatty acid analogue BODIPY FL C16. Immunohistochemical studies on larvae sections using specific antibodies, showed a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution of each protein with some expression in nuclei and mitochondria. MvFABPs distribution was confirmed by mass spectrometry identification from 2D-electrophoresis of larvae subcellular fractions. This work is the first report showing intracellular distribution of MvFABPs as well as the co-localization of these proteins with the BODIPY FL C16 incorporated from the media. Our results suggest that fatty acid binding proteins could target fatty acids to cellular compartments including nuclei. In this sense, M. vogae FABPs could participate in several cellular processes fulfilling most of the functions attributed to vertebrate’s counterparts. PMID:25347286

  15. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  16. Fatty acid binding proteins have the potential to channel dietary fatty acids into enterocyte nuclei.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Adriana; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Canclini, Lucia; Silvarrey, Maria Cecilia; André, Michèle; Babin, Patrick J

    2016-02-01

    Intracellular lipid binding proteins, including fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) 1 and 2, are highly expressed in tissues involved in the active lipid metabolism. A zebrafish model was used to demonstrate differential expression levels of fabp1b.1, fabp1b.2, and fabp2 transcripts in liver, anterior intestine, and brain. Transcription levels of fabp1b.1 and fabp2 in the anterior intestine were upregulated after feeding and modulated according to diet formulation. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy immunodetection with gold particles localized these FABPs in the microvilli, cytosol, and nuclei of most enterocytes in the anterior intestinal mucosa. Nuclear localization was mostly in the interchromatin space outside the condensed chromatin clusters. Native PAGE binding assay of BODIPY-FL-labeled FAs demonstrated binding of BODIPY-FLC(12) but not BODIPY-FLC(5) to recombinant Fabp1b.1 and Fabp2. The binding of BODIPY-FLC(12) to Fabp1b.1 was fully displaced by oleic acid. In vivo experiments demonstrated, for the first time, that intestinal absorption of dietary BODIPY-FLC(12) was followed by colocalization of the labeled FA with Fabp1b and Fabp2 in the nuclei. These data suggest that dietary FAs complexed with FABPs are able to reach the enterocyte nucleus with the potential to modulate nuclear activity. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Plasma fatty acid-binding protein 4, nonesterified fatty acids, and incident diabetes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Djoussé, Luc; Khawaja, Owais; Bartz, Traci M; Biggs, Mary L; Ix, Joachim H; Zieman, Susan J; Kizer, Jorge R; Tracy, Russell P; Siscovick, David S; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2012-08-01

    To examine the relation of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)4 and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) to diabetes in older adults. We ascertained incident diabetes among 3,740 Cardiovascular Health Study participants (1992-2007) based on the use of hypoglycemic medications, fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, or nonfasting glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL. FABP4 and NEFA were measured on specimens collected between 1992 and 1993. Mean age of the 3,740 subjects studied was 74.8 years. For each SD increase in log FABP4, hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes were 1.35 (95% CI 1.10-1.65) for women and 1.45 (1.13-1.85) for men controlling for age, race, education, physical activity, cystatin C, alcohol intake, smoking, self-reported health status, and estrogen use for women (P for sex-FABP4 interaction 0.10). BMI modified the FABP4-diabetes relation (P = 0.009 overall; 0.02 for women and 0.135 for men), in that statistically significant higher risk of diabetes was mainly seen in men with BMI <25 kg/m(2) (HR per SD: 1.78 [95% CI 1.13-2.81]). There was a modest and nonsignificant association of NEFA with diabetes (P(trend) = 0.21). However, when restricted to the first 5 years of follow-up, multivariable-adjusted HRs for diabetes were 1.0 (ref.), 1.68 (95% CI 1.12-2.53), and 1.63 (1.07-2.50) across consecutive tertiles of NEFA (P(trend) = 0.03). Plasma FABP4 was positively associated with incident diabetes in older adults, and such association was statistically significant in lean men only. A significant positive association between plasma NEFA and incident diabetes was observed during the first 5 years of follow-up.

  18. Overexpression of heart-type fatty acid binding protein enhances fatty acid-induced podocyte injury

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qing; Sarkar, Alhossain; Chen, Yizhi; Xu, Bo; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Yang; Guan, Tianjun

    2018-01-01

    Deregulated lipid metabolism is a characteristic of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and obesity, and likely contributes to podocyte injury and end-stage kidney disease. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) was reported to be associated with lipid metabolism. The present study investigated whether H-FABP contributes to podocyte homeostasis. Podocytes were transfected by lentiviral vector to construct a cell line which stably overexpressed H-FABP. Small interfering RNA capable of effectively silencing H-FABP was introduced into podocytes to construct a cell line with H-FABP knockdown. Certain groups were treated with palmitic acid (PA) and the fat metabolism, as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were measured. PA accelerated lipid metabolism derangement, inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress in podocytes. Overexpression of H-FABP enhanced the PA-induced disequilibrium in podocytes. The mRNA and protein expression levels of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 3 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and the protein expression levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxynonenal were upregulated in the H-FABP overexpression group, while the mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α was downregulated. Knockdown of H-FABP inhibited the PA-induced injury and lipid metabolism derangement, as well as the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress in podocytes. These results indicated that overexpression of H-FABP enhances fatty acid-induced podocyte injury, while H-FABP inhibition may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of lipid metabolism-associated podocyte injury. PMID:29434805

  19. Overexpression of heart-type fatty acid binding protein enhances fatty acid-induced podocyte injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing; Sarkar, Alhossain; Chen, Yizhi; Xu, Bo; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Yang; Guan, Tianjun

    2018-02-01

    Deregulated lipid metabolism is a characteristic of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and obesity, and likely contributes to podocyte injury and end-stage kidney disease. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) was reported to be associated with lipid metabolism. The present study investigated whether H-FABP contributes to podocyte homeostasis. Podocytes were transfected by lentiviral vector to construct a cell line which stably overexpressed H-FABP. Small interfering RNA capable of effectively silencing H-FABP was introduced into podocytes to construct a cell line with H-FABP knockdown. Certain groups were treated with palmitic acid (PA) and the fat metabolism, as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were measured. PA accelerated lipid metabolism derangement, inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress in podocytes. Overexpression of H-FABP enhanced the PA-induced disequilibrium in podocytes. The mRNA and protein expression levels of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 3 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and the protein expression levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxynonenal were upregulated in the H-FABP overexpression group, while the mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α was downregulated. Knockdown of H-FABP inhibited the PA-induced injury and lipid metabolism derangement, as well as the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress in podocytes. These results indicated that overexpression of H-FABP enhances fatty acid-induced podocyte injury, while H-FABP inhibition may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of lipid metabolism-associated podocyte injury.

  20. Studies on fatty acid-binding proteins. The detection and quantification of the protein from rat liver by using a fluorescent fatty acid analogue.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, T C; Wilton, D C

    1986-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein from rat liver is shown to bind the fluorescent fatty acid probe dansyl undecanoic acid. Binding is accompanied by a shift in the fluorescence emission maximum from 550 nm to 500 nm and a 60-fold fluorescence enhancement at 500 nm. These spectral properties have allowed the use of this probe to detect and quantify microgram amounts of liver fatty acid-binding protein during purification procedures. In conjunction with h.p.l.c. the method allows the rapid estimation of liver fatty acid-binding protein in biological samples. The validity of the method is demonstrated by measuring the concentration of fatty acid-binding protein in livers from control and hypolipidaemic-drug-treated rats. The dramatic diurnal rhythm previously reported for this protein [Dempsey (1984) Curr. Top. Cell. Regul. 24, 63-86] was not observed with this method. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3800946

  1. Role of liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatocellular injury: effect of CrPic treatment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijiang; Chen, Kun; Zheng, Guoqiang; Wang, Wenhang; Teng, Anguo; Liu, Anjun; Ming, Dongfeng; Yan, Peng

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of chromium picolinate (CrPic, Fig. 1) hepatoprotective activity from alloxan-induced hepatic injury. Diabetes is induced by alloxan-treatment concurrently with the hepatic injury in mice. In this study, we investigate the protective effect of CrPic treatment in hepatic injury and the signal role of liver fatty acid binding protein in early hepatocellular injury diagnostics. In this study, alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) levels in the alloxan group were higher 71% and 50%, respectively, than those of the control group (ALT: 14.51±0.74; AST: 22.60±0.69). The AST and ALT levels in CrPic group were of minimal difference compared to the control groups. Here, CrPic exhibited amelioration alloxan induced oxidative stress in mouse livers. A significant increase in liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) was observed, which indicates increased fatty acid utilization in liver tissue [1]. In this study, the mRNA levels of L-FABP increased in both the control (1.1 fold) and CrPic (0.78 fold) groups compared the alloxan group. These findings suggest that hepatic injury may be prevented by CrPic, and is a potential target for use in the treatment of early hepatic injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Heart fatty-acid binding protein (h-FABP): a new cardiac marker].

    PubMed

    Servonnet, A; Delacour, H; Dehan, C; Gardet, V

    2006-01-01

    Heart Fatty-Acid Binding Protein (h-FABP) is a small cytosolic protein that is abundant in the heart and found at lower concentrations in muscle or in the brain. h-FABP is released into the circulation shortly after the onset of ischemia. Several studies indicate its usefulness in cardiology: exclusion of acute myocardial infarction, detection of reperfusion, prognostic value... A rapid immuno-chromatographic assay (Cardiodetect) was recently commercialized in France with a result obtainable within 15 minutes. We review the strengths and weakness of h-FABP for detecting myocardial injury.

  3. The primary structure of fatty-acid-binding protein from nurse shark liver. Structural and evolutionary relationship to the mammalian fatty-acid-binding protein family.

    PubMed

    Medzihradszky, K F; Gibson, B W; Kaur, S; Yu, Z H; Medzihradszky, D; Burlingame, A L; Bass, N M

    1992-02-01

    The primary structure of a fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) isolated from the liver of the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) was determined by high-performance tandem mass spectrometry (employing multichannel array detection) and Edman degradation. Shark liver FABP consists of 132 amino acids with an acetylated N-terminal valine. The chemical molecular mass of the intact protein determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (Mr = 15124 +/- 2.5) was in good agreement with that calculated from the amino acid sequence (Mr = 15121.3). The amino acid sequence of shark liver FABP displays significantly greater similarity to the FABP expressed in mammalian heart, peripheral nerve myelin and adipose tissue (61-53% sequence similarity) than to the FABP expressed in mammalian liver (22% similarity). Phylogenetic trees derived from the comparison of the shark liver FABP amino acid sequence with the members of the mammalian fatty-acid/retinoid-binding protein gene family indicate the initial divergence of an ancestral gene into two major subfamilies: one comprising the genes for mammalian liver FABP and gastrotropin, the other comprising the genes for mammalian cellular retinol-binding proteins I and II, cellular retinoic-acid-binding protein myelin P2 protein, adipocyte FABP, heart FABP and shark liver FABP, the latter having diverged from the ancestral gene that ultimately gave rise to the present day mammalian heart-FABP, adipocyte FABP and myelin P2 protein sequences. The sequence for intestinal FABP from the rat could be assigned to either subfamily, depending on the approach used for phylogenetic tree construction, but clearly diverged at a relatively early evolutionary time point. Indeed, sequences proximately ancestral or closely related to mammalian intestinal FABP, liver FABP, gastrotropin and the retinoid-binding group of proteins appear to have arisen prior to the divergence of shark liver FABP and should therefore also be present in elasmobranchs

  4. Exogenous fatty acid binding protein 4 promotes human prostate cancer cell progression.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Hisanori; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Oha, Mina; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Izumi, Keisuke

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found that obesity is associated with malignant grade and mortality in prostate cancer. Several adipokines have been implicated as putative mediating factors between obesity and prostate cancer. Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), a member of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein multigene family, was recently identified as a novel adipokine. Although FABP4 is released from adipocytes and mean circulating concentrations of FABP4 are linked with obesity, effects of exogenous FABP4 on prostate cancer progression are unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of exogenous FABP4 on human prostate cancer cell progression. FABP4 treatment promoted serum-induced prostate cancer cell invasion in vitro. Furthermore, oleic acid promoted prostate cancer cell invasion only if FABP4 was present in the medium. These promoting effects were reduced by FABP4 inhibitor, which inhibits FABP4 binding to fatty acids. Immunostaining for FABP4 showed that exogenous FABP4 was taken up into DU145 cells in three-dimensional culture. In mice, treatment with FABP4 inhibitor reduced the subcutaneous growth and lung metastasis of prostate cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the number of apoptotic cells, positive for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, was increased in subcutaneous tumors of FABP4 inhibitor-treated mice, as compared with control mice. These results suggest that exogenous FABP4 might promote human prostate cancer cell progression by binding with fatty acids. Additionally, exogenous FABP4 activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, independently of binding to fatty acids. Thus, FABP4 might be a key molecule to understand the mechanisms underlying the obesity-prostate cancer progression link. © 2014 UICC.

  5. Selective Cooperation between Fatty Acid Binding Proteins and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Regulating Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Nguan-Soon; Shaw, Natacha S.; Vinckenbosch, Nicolas; Liu, Peng; Yasmin, Rubina; Desvergne, Béatrice; Wahli, Walter; Noy, Noa

    2002-01-01

    Lipophilic compounds such as retinoic acid and long-chain fatty acids regulate gene transcription by activating nuclear receptors such as retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These compounds also bind in cells to members of the family of intracellular lipid binding proteins, which includes cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins (CRABPs) and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs). We previously reported that CRABP-II enhances the transcriptional activity of RAR by directly targeting retinoic acid to the receptor. Here, potential functional cooperation between FABPs and PPARs in regulating the transcriptional activities of their common ligands was investigated. We show that adipocyte FABP and keratinocyte FABP (A-FABP and K-FABP, respectively) selectively enhance the activities of PPARγ and PPARβ, respectively, and that these FABPs massively relocate to the nucleus in response to selective ligands for the PPAR isotype which they activate. We show further that A-FABP and K-FABP interact directly with PPARγ and PPARβ and that they do so in a receptor- and ligand-selective manner. Finally, the data demonstrate that the presence of high levels of K-FABP in keratinocytes is essential for PPARβ-mediated induction of differentiation of these cells. Taken together, the data establish that A-FABP and K-FABP govern the transcriptional activities of their ligands by targeting them to cognate PPARs in the nucleus, thereby enabling PPARs to exert their biological functions. PMID:12077340

  6. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein in cardiovascular disease: A systemic review.

    PubMed

    Otaki, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Kubota, Isao

    2017-11-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins, whose clinical applications have been studied, are a family of proteins that reflect tissue injury. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a marker of ongoing myocardial damage and useful for early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the past decade, compared to other cardiac enzymes, H-FABP has shown more promise as an early detection marker for AMI. However, the role of H-FABP is being re-examined due to recent refinement in the search for newer biomarkers, and greater understanding of the role of high-sensitivity troponin. We discuss the current role of H-FABP as an early marker for AMI in the era of high sensitive troponin. H-FABP is highlighted as a prognostic marker for a broad spectrum of fatal diseases, viz., AMI, heart failure, arrhythmia, and pulmonary embolism that could be associated with poor clinical outcomes. Because the cut-off value of what constitutes an abnormal H-FABP potentially differs for each cardiovascular event and depends on the clinical setting, an optimal cut-off value has not been clearly established. Of note, several factors such as age, gender, and cardiovascular risk factors, which affect H-FABP levels need to be considered in this context. In this review, we discuss the clinical applications of H-FABP as a prognostic marker in various clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The human fatty acid-binding protein family: Evolutionary divergences and functions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are members of the intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP) family and are involved in reversibly binding intracellular hydrophobic ligands and trafficking them throughout cellular compartments, including the peroxisomes, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus. FABPs are small, structurally conserved cytosolic proteins consisting of a water-filled, interior-binding pocket surrounded by ten anti-parallel beta sheets, forming a beta barrel. At the superior surface, two alpha-helices cap the pocket and are thought to regulate binding. FABPs have broad specificity, including the ability to bind long-chain (C16-C20) fatty acids, eicosanoids, bile salts and peroxisome proliferators. FABPs demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation and are present in a spectrum of species including Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, mouse and human. The human genome consists of nine putatively functional protein-coding FABP genes. The most recently identified family member, FABP12, has been less studied. PMID:21504868

  8. Structural analysis of ibuprofen binding to human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4).

    PubMed

    González, Javier M; Fisher, S Zoë

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. However, FABP4 displays a naturally low selectivity towards hydrophobic ligands, leading to the possibility of side effects arising from cross-inhibition of other FABP isoforms. In a search for structural determinants of ligand-binding selectivity, the binding of FABP4 towards a group of small molecules structurally related to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen was analyzed through X-ray crystallography. Several specific hydrophobic interactions are shown to enhance the binding affinities of these compounds, whereas an aromatic edge-to-face interaction is proposed to determine the conformation of bound ligands, highlighting the importance of aromatic interactions in hydrophobic environments.

  9. Small molecule inhibitors of human adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (FABP4).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhu, Weiliang; Li, Yingxia

    2014-06-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, and modulates inflammatory and metabolic response. Studies in FABP4-deficient mice have shown that this lipid carrier has a significant role within the field of metabolic syndrome, inflammation and atherosclerosis; thus, its inhibition may open up new opportunities to develop novel therapeutic agents. A number of potent small molecule inhibitors of FABP4 have been identified and found to have the potential to prevent and treat metabolic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Due to the ubiquity of endogenous fatty acids and the high intracellular concentration of FABP4, the inhibitors need to have significantly greater intrinsic potency than endogenous fatty acids. Furthermore, heart-type FABP (FABP3), which is expressed in both heart and skeletal muscle, is involved in active fatty acid metabolism where it transports fatty acids from the cell membrane to mitochondria for oxidation. However, FABP3 shares high overall sequence identity and similar 3D structure with FABP4, but has a potential problem with selectivity. In this review, we would like to analyze the main inhibitors that have appeared in the literature in the last decade, focusing on chemical structures, biological properties, selectivity and structure-activity relationships.

  10. Uncoupling Lipid Metabolism from Inflammation through Fatty Acid Binding Protein-Dependent Expression of UCP2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongliang; Hertzel, Ann V.; Steen, Kaylee A.; Wang, Qigui; Suttles, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue is linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and systemic insulin resistance. Targeted deletion of the murine fatty acid binding protein (FABP4/aP2) uncouples obesity from inflammation although the mechanism underlying this finding has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that inhibition or deletion of FABP4/aP2 in macrophages results in increased intracellular free fatty acids (FFAs) and elevated expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) without concomitant increases in UCP1 or UCP3. Silencing of UCP2 mRNA in FABP4/aP2-deficient macrophages negated the protective effect of FABP loss and increased ER stress in response to palmitate or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pharmacologic inhibition of FABP4/aP2 with the FABP inhibitor HTS01037 also upregulated UCP2 and reduced expression of BiP, CHOP, and XBP-1s. Expression of native FABP4/aP2 (but not the non-fatty acid binding mutant R126Q) into FABP4/aP2 null cells reduced UCP2 expression, suggesting that the FABP-FFA equilibrium controls UCP2 expression. FABP4/aP2-deficient macrophages are resistant to LPS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and exhibit decreased mitochondrial protein carbonylation and UCP2-dependent reduction in intracellular reactive oxygen species. These data demonstrate that FABP4/aP2 directly regulates intracellular FFA levels and indirectly controls macrophage inflammation and ER stress by regulating the expression of UCP2. PMID:25582199

  11. Effect of liver fatty acid binding protein on fatty acid movement between liposomes and rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    McCormack, M; Brecher, P

    1987-06-15

    Although movement of fatty acids between bilayers can occur spontaneously, it has been postulated that intracellular movement is facilitated by a class of proteins named fatty acid binding proteins (FABP). In this study we have incorporated long chain fatty acids into multilamellar liposomes made of phosphatidylcholine, incubated them with rat liver microsomes containing an active acyl-CoA synthetase, and measured formation of acyl-CoA in the absence or presence of FABP purified from rat liver. FABP increased about 2-fold the accumulation of acyl-CoA when liposomes were the fatty acid donor. Using fatty acid incorporated into liposomes made either of egg yolk lecithin or of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, it was found that the temperature dependence of acyl-CoA accumulation in the presence of FABP correlated with both the physical state of phospholipid molecules in the liposomes and the binding of fatty acid to FABP, suggesting that fatty acid must first desorb from the liposomes before FABP can have an effect. An FABP-fatty acid complex incubated with microsomes, in the absence of liposomes, resulted in greater acyl-CoA formation than when liposomes were present, suggesting that desorption of fatty acid from the membrane is rate-limiting in the accumulation of acyl-CoA by this system. Finally, an equilibrium dialysis cell separating liposomes from microsomes on opposite sides of a Nuclepore filter was used to show that liver FABP was required for the movement and activation of fatty acid between the compartments. These studies show that liver FABP interacts with fatty acid that desorbs from phospholipid bilayers, and promotes movement to a membrane-bound enzyme, suggesting that FABP may act intracellularly by increasing net desorption of fatty acid from cell membranes.

  12. Biochemical Roles for Conserved Residues in the Bacterial Fatty Acid-binding Protein Family*

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Tyler C.; Miller, Darcie J.; Jackson, Pamela; Nourse, Amanda; White, Stephen W.; Rock, Charles O.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid kinase (Fak) is a ubiquitous Gram-positive bacterial enzyme consisting of an ATP-binding protein (FakA) that phosphorylates the fatty acid bound to FakB. In Staphylococcus aureus, Fak is a global regulator of virulence factor transcription and is essential for the activation of exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids. The 1.2-Å x-ray structure of S. aureus FakB2, activity assays, solution studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and in vivo complementation were used to define the functions of the five conserved residues that define the FakB protein family (Pfam02645). The fatty acid tail is buried within the protein, and the exposed carboxyl group is bound by a Ser-93-fatty acid carboxyl-Thr-61-His-266 hydrogen bond network. The guanidinium of the invariant Arg-170 is positioned to potentially interact with a bound acylphosphate. The reduced thermal denaturation temperatures of the T61A, S93A, and H266A FakB2 mutants illustrate the importance of the hydrogen bond network in protein stability. The FakB2 T61A, S93A, and H266A mutants are 1000-fold less active in the Fak assay, and the R170A mutant is completely inactive. All FakB2 mutants form FakA(FakB2)2 complexes except FakB2(R202A), which is deficient in FakA binding. Allelic replacement shows that strains expressing FakB2 mutants are defective in fatty acid incorporation into phospholipids and virulence gene transcription. These conserved residues are likely to perform the same critical functions in all bacterial fatty acid-binding proteins. PMID:26774272

  13. Fatty acid binding proteins and the nervous system: Their impact on mental conditions.

    PubMed

    Matsumata, Miho; Inada, Hitoshi; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The brain is rich in lipid and fatty molecules. In this review article, we focus on fatty acid binding proteins (Fabps) that bind to fatty acids such as arachidonic acid and docosahexianoic acid and transfer these lipid ligands within the cytoplasm. Among Fabp family molecules, Fabp3, Fabp5, and Fabp7 are specifically localized in neural stem/progenitor cells, neurons and glia in a cell-type specific manner. Quantitative trait locus analysis has revealed that Fabp7 is related with performance of prepulse inhibition (PPI) that is used as an endophenotype of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Fabp5 and Fabp7 play important roles on neurogenesis and differentially regulate acoustic startle response and PPI. However, other behavior performances including spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior, and diurnal changes in general activity were not different in mice deficient for Fabp7 or Fabp5. Considering the importance of fatty acids in neurogenesis, we would like to emphasize that lipid nutrition and its dynamism via Fabps play significant roles in mental conditions. This might provide a good example of how nutritional environment can affect psychiatric conditions at the molecular level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Two novel Mesocestoides vogae fatty acid binding proteins--functional and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Canclini, Lucía; Corvo, Ileana; Esteves, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    This work describes two new fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) identified in the parasite platyhelminth Mesocestoides vogae (syn. corti). The corresponding polypeptide chains share 62% identical residues and overall 90% similarity according to CLUSTALX default conditions. Compared with Cestoda FABPs, these proteins share the highest similarity score with the Taenia solium protein. M. vogae FABPs are also phylogenetically related to the FABP3/FABP4 mammalian FABP subfamilies. The native proteins were purified by chromatographical procedures, and apparent molecular mass and isoelectric point were determined. Immunolocalization studies determined the localization of the expression of these proteins in the larval form of the parasite. The genomic exon-intron organization of both genes is also reported, and supports new insights on intron evolution. Consensus motifs involved in splicing were identified.

  15. Recent insights into the biological functions of liver fatty acid binding protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, GuQi; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; de Lemos, Andrew; Burczynski, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Over four decades have passed since liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP)1 was first isolated. There are few protein families for which most of the complete tertiary structures, binding properties, and tissue occurrences are described in such detail and yet new functions are being uncovered for this protein. FABP1 is known to be critical for fatty acid uptake and intracellular transport and also has an important role in regulating lipid metabolism and cellular signaling pathways. FABP1 is an important endogenous cytoprotectant, minimizing hepatocyte oxidative damage and interfering with ischemia-reperfusion and other hepatic injuries. The protein may be targeted for metabolic activation through the cross-talk among many transcriptional factors and their activating ligands. Deficiency or malfunction of FABP1 has been reported in several diseases. FABP1 also influences cell proliferation during liver regeneration and may be considered as a prognostic factor for hepatic surgery. FABP1 binds and modulates the action of many molecules such as fatty acids, heme, and other metalloporphyrins. The ability to bind heme is another cytoprotective property and one that deserves closer investigation. The role of FABP1 in substrate availability and in protection from oxidative stress suggests that FABP1 plays a pivotal role during intracellular bacterial/viral infections by reducing inflammation and the adverse effects of starvation (energy deficiency). PMID:26443794

  16. Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Promotes Palmitate-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Xiao, Yang; Tang, Lin; Zhong, Feng; Huang, Gan; Xu, Jun-Mei; Xu, Ai-Min; Dai, Ru-Ping; Zhou, Zhi-Guang

    2018-01-01

    A high level of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) is known to be an important trigger for macrophage apoptosis during the development of atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanism by which FFAs result in macrophage apoptosis is not well understood. In cultured human macrophage Thp-1 cells, we showed that palmitate (PA), the most abundant FFA in circulation, induced excessive reactive oxidative substance production, increased malondialdehyde concentration, and decreased adenosine triphosphate levels. Furthermore, PA treatment also led to mitochondrial dysfunction, including the decrease of mitochondrial number, the impairment of respiratory complex IV and succinate dehydrogenase activity, and the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial apoptosis was also detected after PA treatment, indicated by a decrease in cytochrome c release, downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax, and increased caspase-3 activity. PA treatment upregulated the expression of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), a critical regulator of fatty acid trafficking and lipid metabolism. Inhibition of A-FABP with BMS309403, a small-molecule A-FABP inhibitor, almost reversed all of these indexes. Thus, this study suggested that PA-mediated macrophage apoptosis through A-FABP upregulation, which subsequently resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxidative stress. Inhibition of A-FABP may be a potential therapeutic target for macrophage apoptosis and to delay the progress of atherosclerosis. PMID:29441065

  17. Determination of drug and fatty acid binding capacity to pluronic f127 in microemulsions.

    PubMed

    James-Smith, Monica A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Moudgil, Brij M; Shah, Dinesh O

    2007-02-13

    We propose that one can deduce very insightful information regarding the drug and fatty acid binding capacity of microemulsions through simple turbidity experiments. Pluronic F127-based oil-in-water microemulsions of various compositions were synthesized and titrated to turbidity with concentrated amitriptyline, an antidepressant drug. We observed that, above certain Pluronic F127 concentrations, turbidity was never observed, irrespective of how much amitriptyline was added to the microemulsion. We also observed that whenever sodium caprylate fatty acid was not included in the microemulsion formulation, turbidity never occurred. On the basis of these findings, we were able to determine the point at which all sodium caprylate present in the microemulsion formulation was bound to the F127 in the microemulsion (i.e., no fatty acid was free in the bulk in monomer form). By the same logic we were also able to determine how much amitriptyline was binding to the microemulsions. We also measured the dynamic surface tension, foamability, and fabric wetting time of the microemulsion formulations to further prove the hypothesis that all fatty acid is bound to the F127 in the microemulsion above a critical Pluronic F127 concentration. On the basis of this research, we have concluded that there are approximately 11 molecules of sodium caprylate fatty acid bound per molecule of Pluronic F127 and approximately 12 molecules of amitriptyline bound per molecule of Pluronic F127 in the optimal microemulsion formulation. These findings give us valuable information about the charge density at the oil/water interface and about the mechanism of binding of the drug to the microemulsion.

  18. Bedside heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP): Is an early predictive marker of cardiac syncope.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Bedriye Muge; Ozturk, Derya; Yilmaz, Fevzi; Altinbilek, Ertugrul; Kavalci, Cemil; Durdu, Tamer; Hakbilir, Oktay; Turhan, Turan; Ongar, Murat

    2015-11-01

    To determine the value of bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein in diagnosis of cardiac syncope in patients presenting with syncope or presyncope. The prospective study was conducted at Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between September 1, 2010, and January 1, 2011, and comprised patients aged over 18 years who presented with syncope or presyncope. Patients presenting to emergency department within 4 hours of syncope or presyncope underwent a bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein test measurement. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 100 patients evaluated, 22(22%) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope. Of them, 13(59.1%) patients had a positive and 9(40.9%) had a negative heart-type fatty acid binding protein result. Consequently, the test result was 12.64 times more positive in patients with cardiac syncope compared to those without. Bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein, particularly at early phase of myocardial injury, reduces diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainity of cardiac origin in syncope patients.

  19. The effect of feeding high corn oil on fatty-acid-binding-protein isolated from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Catalá, A

    1987-12-01

    Fatty-acid-binding-protein isolated from liver of rats receiving normal or high fat diet was studied by three different methods. The effect of high fat diet on the thermal stability of the protein was determined employing differential scanning calorimetry. Fatty acids have a stabilizing effect on the thermal stability of the protein. In order to determine the relative binding affinity of native and delipidated protein a Sephadex G-50 assay was employed using [1-14C] oleate as ligand. The delipidated protein exhibited greater binding of oleate than did the native material. Increases in the transfer of oleic acid from rat liver microsomes to egg lecithin liposomes in vitro were also observed when protein obtained from both sources were delipidated. The results suggest that high corn oil diet would modify the properties of fatty-acid-binding-protein in the uptake and cytosolic transport of long-chain fatty acids.

  20. Adipose-Derived Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins Plasma Concentrations Are Increased in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Guaita-Esteruelas, Sandra; Saavedra-García, Paula; Bosquet, Alba; Borràs, Joan; Girona, Josefa; Amiliano, Kepa; Rodríguez-Balada, Marta; Heras, Mercedes; Masana, Luís; Gumà, Josep

    2017-11-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that could play a role in tumor progression via its secreted adipokines. The role of adipose-derived fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4 and FABP5 in breast cancer is presently under study, but their circulating levels in this pathology are poorly known. We analyzed the blood concentrations of FABP4 and FABP5 in breast cancer patients to determine whether there is an association between them and breast cancer. We studied 294 women in the oncology department with a family history of breast cancer; 198 of the women had breast cancer, and 96 were healthy controls. The levels of FABP4, FABP5, lipid profile, standard biochemical parameter, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were determined. We analyzed the association of FABP4 and FABP5 with breast cancer, while adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical parameters. Breast cancer patients had a 24.8% ( p  < .0001) and 11.4% ( p  < .05) higher blood concentration of FABP4 and FABP5, respectively. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 was positively associated with age, body mass index (BMI), FABP5, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc), non-high-density lipoprote in cholesterol (non-HDLc), Apolipoprotein B 100 (ApoB100), triglycerides, glycerol, glucose, and hsCRP ( p  < .05), and was negatively associated with HDLc ( p  < .005) in breast cancer patients. Fatty acid-binding protein 5 was positively associated with BMI, FABP4, VLDLc, triglycerides, glycerol, and hsCRP ( p  < .05), and was negatively associated with HDLc and Apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI) ( p  < .05) in breast cancer patients. Using a logistic regression analysis and adjusting for age, BMI, hsCRP, non-HDLc, and triglycerides, FABP4 was independently associated with breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 1.091 [95% CI: 1.037-1.149]). Moreover, total cholesterol, VLDLc, non-HDLc, ApoB100, triglycerides, and hsCRP were significantly increased in breast cancer patients ( p

  1. Interactions between Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Selective Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Velkov, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular shuttles for fatty acids as well as lipophilic xenobiotics to the nucleus, where these ligands are released to a group of nuclear receptors called the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). PPAR mediated gene activation is ultimately involved in maintenance of cellular homeostasis through the transcriptional regulation of metabolic enzymes and transporters that target the activating ligand. Here we show that liver- (L-) FABP displays a high binding affinity for PPAR subtype selective drugs. NMR chemical shift perturbation mapping and proteolytic protection experiments show that the binding of the PPAR subtype selective drugs produces conformational changes that stabilize the portal region of L-FABP. NMR chemical shift perturbation studies also revealed that L-FABP can form a complex with the PPAR ligand binding domain (LBD) of PPARα. This protein-protein interaction may represent a mechanism for facilitating the activation of PPAR transcriptional activity via the direct channeling of ligands between the binding pocket of L-FABP and the PPARαLBD. The role of L-FABP in the delivery of ligands directly to PPARα via this channeling mechanism has important implications for regulatory pathways that mediate xenobiotic responses and host protection in tissues such as the small intestine and the liver where L-FABP is highly expressed. PMID:23476633

  2. Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Marker of Necrosis and Severity in Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kupčinskas, Juozas; Gedgaudas, Rolandas; Hartman, Hannes; Sippola, Tomi; Lindström, Outi; Johnson, Colin D; Regnér, Sara

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to study intestinal fatty acid binding protein (i-FABP) as a potential biomarker in predicting severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). In a prospective multicenter cohort study, plasma levels of i-FABP were measured in 402 patients with AP. Severity of AP was determined based on the 1992 Atlanta Classification. Admission levels of plasma i-FABP were significantly higher in patients with pancreatic necrosis, in patients having systemic complications, in patients treated invasively, in patients treated in the intensive care unit, in patients with severe AP, and in deceased patients. Plasma i-FABP levels on admission yielded an area under curve (AUC) of 0.732 in discriminating patients with or without pancreatic necrosis and AUC of 0.669 in predicting severe AP. Combination of levels of i-FABP and venous lactate on the day of admission showed higher discriminative power in severe AP-AUC of 0.808. Higher i-FABP levels on admission were associated with pancreatic necrosis, systemic complications, and severe AP. Low levels of i-FABP had a high negative predictive value for pancreatic necrosis and severe AP. Combination of levels of i-FABP and venous lactates on admission were superior to either of markers used alone in predicting severe AP.

  3. Exploring and Expanding the Fatty-Acid-Binding Protein Superfamily in Fasciola Species.

    PubMed

    Morphew, Russell M; Wilkinson, Toby J; Mackintosh, Neil; Jahndel, Veronika; Paterson, Steve; McVeigh, Paul; Abbas Abidi, Syed M; Saifullah, Khalid; Raman, Muthusamy; Ravikumar, Gopalakrishnan; LaCourse, James; Maule, Aaron; Brophy, Peter M

    2016-09-02

    The liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica infect livestock worldwide and threaten food security with climate change and problematic control measures spreading disease. Fascioliasis is also a foodborne disease with up to 17 million humans infected. In the absence of vaccines, treatment depends on triclabendazole (TCBZ), and overuse has led to widespread resistance, compromising future TCBZ control. Reductionist biology from many laboratories has predicted new therapeutic targets. To this end, the fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) superfamily has proposed multifunctional roles, including functions intersecting vaccine and drug therapy, such as immune modulation and anthelmintic sequestration. Research is hindered by a lack of understanding of the full FABP superfamily complement. Although discovery studies predicted FABPs as promising vaccine candidates, it is unclear if uncharacterized FABPs are more relevant for vaccine formulations. We have coupled genome, transcriptome, and EST data mining with proteomics and phylogenetics to reveal a liver fluke FABP superfamily of seven clades: previously identified clades I-III and newly identified clades IV-VII. All new clade FABPs were analyzed using bioinformatics and cloned from both liver flukes. The extended FABP data set will provide new study tools to research the role of FABPs in parasite biology and as therapy targets.

  4. Novel fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) inhibitors: virtual screening, synthesis and crystal structure determination.

    PubMed

    Cai, Haiyan; Liu, Qiufeng; Gao, Dingding; Wang, Ting; Chen, Tiantian; Yan, Guirui; Chen, Kaixian; Xu, Yechun; Wang, Heyao; Li, Yingxia; Zhu, Weiliang

    2015-01-27

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a potential drug target for diabetes and atherosclerosis. For discovering new chemical entities as FABP4 inhibitors, structure-based virtual screening (VS) was performed, bioassay demonstrated that 16 of 251 tested compounds are FABP4 inhibitors, among which compound m1 are more active than endogenous ligand linoleic acid (LA). Based on the structure of m1, new derivatives were designed and prepared, leading to the discovery of two more potent inhibitors, compounds 9 and 10. To further explore the binding mechanisms of these new inhibitors, we determined the X-ray structures of the complexes of FABP4-9 and FABP4-10, which revealed similar binding conformations of the two compounds. Residue Ser53 and Arg126 formed direct hydrogen bonding with the ligands. We also found that 10 could significantly reduce the levels of lipolysis on mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Taken together, in silico, in vitro and crystallographic data provide useful hints for future development of novel inhibitors against FABP4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of fatty acid binding protein 4 as an adipokine that regulates insulin secretion during obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lindsay E.; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Whitworth, P. Tess; Fazakerley, Daniel J.; Turner, Nigel; Biden, Trevor J.; James, David E.; Cantley, James

    2014-01-01

    A critical feature of obesity is enhanced insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, enabling the majority of individuals to maintain glycaemic control despite adiposity and insulin resistance. Surprisingly, the factors coordinating this adaptive β-cell response with adiposity have not been delineated. Here we show that fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2) is an adipokine released from adipocytes under obesogenic conditions, such as hypoxia, to augment insulin secretion. The insulinotropic action of FABP4 was identified using an in vitro system that recapitulates adipocyte to β-cell endocrine signalling, with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) as a functional readout, coupled with quantitative proteomics. Exogenous FABP4 potentiated GSIS in vitro and in vivo, and circulating FABP4 levels correlated with GSIS in humans. Insulin inhibited FABP4 release from adipocytes in vitro, in mice and in humans, consistent with feedback regulation. These data suggest that FABP4 and insulin form an endocrine loop coordinating the β-cell response to obesity. PMID:24944906

  6. Serum heart type fatty acid binding protein levels are not changed in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Mustafa; Gungunes, Askin; Sahin, Mustafa; Ginis, Zeynep; Ucan, Bekir; Sayki, Muyesser; Tutal, Esra; Cakal, Erman; Kuşkonmaz, Serife M; Öztürk, Mehmet A; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2016-09-01

    Heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is a small protein and released into the circulation when myocardial damage has occurred. Previous studies have demonstrated that H-FABP is closely associated with cardiac and some endocrinologic disorders including prediabetes, metabolic syndrome, and acromegaly. Hyperthyroism is a well-known disorder associated with cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the effect of hyperthyrodism on H-FABP levels. Forty six patients with hyperthyroidism with no known history of coronary artery disease and 40 healthy controls are involved in the study. Serum H-FABP levels are measured using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There was no significant difference between serum H-FABP levels of patients with hyperthyroidism and controls (871±66 pg/mL, and 816±66 pg/mL, respectively P=0.56). There was no significant correlation between H-FABP, free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in patients and controls. Serum H-FABP levels are not altered in patients with hyperthyroidism.

  7. Liver Fatty acid binding protein (L-Fabp) modulates murine stellate cell activation and diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Anping; Tang, Youcai; Davis, Victoria; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Kennedy, Susan M.; Song, Haowei; Turk, John; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is crucial to the development of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Quiescent HSCs contain lipid droplets (LDs), whose depletion upon activation induces a fibrogenic gene program. Here we show that liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-Fabp), an abundant cytosolic protein that modulates fatty acid (FA) metabolism in enterocytes and hepatocytes also modulates HSC FA utilization and in turn regulates the fibrogenic program. L-Fabp expression decreased 10-fold following HSC activation, concomitant with depletion of LDs. Primary HSCs isolated from L-FABP−/− mice contain fewer LDs than wild type (WT) HSCs, and exhibit upregulated expression of genes involved in HSC activation. Adenoviral L-Fabp transduction inhibited activation of passaged WT HSCs and increased both the expression of prolipogenic genes and also augmented intracellular lipid accumulation, including triglyceride and FA, predominantly palmitate. Freshly isolated HSCs from L-FABP−/− mice correspondingly exhibited decreased palmitate in the free FA pool. To investigate whether L-FABP deletion promotes HSC activation in vivo, we fed L-FABP−/− and WT mice a high fat diet supplemented with trans-fatty acids and fructose (TFF). TFF-fed L-FABP−/− mice exhibited reduced hepatic steatosis along with decreased LD abundance and size compared to WT mice. In addition, TFF-fed L-FABP−/− mice exhibited decreased hepatic fibrosis, with reduced expression of fibrogenic genes, compared to WT mice. Conclusion L-FABP deletion attenuates both diet-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrogenesis, despite the observation that L-Fabp paradoxically promotes FA and LD accumulation and inhibits HSC activation in vitro. These findings highlight the importance of cell-specific modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism in promoting fibrogenesis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:23401290

  8. Probing the Interaction of Brain Fatty Acid Binding Protein (B-FABP) with Model Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Dyszy, Fábio; Pinto, Andressa P. A.; Araújo, Ana P. U.; Costa-Filho, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Brain fatty acid-binding protein (B-FABP) interacts with biological membranes and delivers polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) via a collisional mechanism. The binding of FAs in the protein and the interaction with membranes involve a motif called “portal region”, formed by two small α-helices, A1 and A2, connected by a loop. We used a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and electron spin resonance to probe the changes in the protein and in the membrane model induced by their interaction. Spin labeled B-FABP mutants and lipidic spin probes incorporated into a membrane model confirmed that B-FABP interacts with micelles through the portal region and led to structural changes in the protein as well in the micelles. These changes were greater in the presence of LPG when compared to the LPC models. ESR spectra of B-FABP labeled mutants showed the presence of two groups of residues that responded to the presence of micelles in opposite ways. In the presence of lysophospholipids, group I of residues, whose side chains point outwards from the contact region between the helices, had their mobility decreased in an environment of lower polarity when compared to the same residues in solution. The second group, composed by residues with side chains situated at the interface between the α-helices, experienced an increase in mobility in the presence of the model membranes. These modifications in the ESR spectra of B-FABP mutants are compatible with a less ordered structure of the portal region inner residues (group II) that is likely to facilitate the delivery of FAs to target membranes. On the other hand, residues in group I and micelle components have their mobilities decreased probably as a result of the formation of a collisional complex. Our results bring new insights for the understanding of the gating and delivery mechanisms of FABPs. PMID:23555925

  9. Adipose Fatty Acid Binding Protein Promotes Saturated Fatty Acid-induced Macrophage Cell Death through Enhancing Ceramide Production

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuwen; Rao, Enyu; Zeng, Jun; Hao, Jiaqing; Sun, Yanwen; Liu, Shujun; Sauter, Edward R.; Bernlohr, David A.; Cleary, Margot P.; Suttles, Jill; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in obesity-associated chronic inflammation and disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of macrophages to elevated fatty acids (FAs) and their contribution to metabolic inflammation in obesity remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we report a new mechanism by which dietary FAs, in particular saturated FAs, are able to directly trigger macrophage cell death. We demonstrated that excess saturated FAs, but not unsaturated FAs, induced the production of cytotoxic ceramides in macrophage cell lines. Most importantly, expression of adipose fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) in macrophages facilitated metabolism of excess saturated FAs for ceramide synthesis. Inhibition or deficiency of A-FABP in macrophage cell lines decreased saturated FA-induced ceramide production, thereby resulting in reduced cell death. Furthermore, we validated the role of A-FABP in promoting saturated FA-induced macrophage cell death with primary bone-marrow derived macrophages and high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Altogether, our data reveal that excess dietary saturated FAs may serve as direct triggers in induction of ceramide production and macrophage cell death through elevated expression of A-FABP, thus establishing A-FABP as a new molecular sensor in triggering macrophage-associated sterile inflammation in obesity. PMID:27920274

  10. Isolation and characterization of fatty acid binding protein in the liver of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    PubMed

    Bass, N M; Manning, J A; Luer, C A

    1991-01-01

    1. A 14.5 kDa fatty acid binding protein was isolated from the liver of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. 2. Purified shark liver FABP (pI = 5.4) bound oleic acid at a single site with an affinity similar to that of mammalian FABP. 3. The apparent size, pI and amino acid composition of shark liver FABP indicate a close structural relationship between this protein and mammalian heart FABP.

  11. Adaptive Evolution of Eel Fluorescent Proteins from Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Produces Bright Fluorescence in the Marine Environment.

    PubMed

    Gruber, David F; Gaffney, Jean P; Mehr, Shaadi; DeSalle, Rob; Sparks, John S; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent A

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of two new members of a family of bilirubin-inducible fluorescent proteins (FPs) from marine chlopsid eels and demonstrate a key region of the sequence that serves as an evolutionary switch from non-fluorescent to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). Using transcriptomic analysis of two species of brightly fluorescent Kaupichthys eels (Kaupichthys hyoproroides and Kaupichthys n. sp.), two new FPs were identified, cloned and characterized (Chlopsid FP I and Chlopsid FP II). We then performed phylogenetic analysis on 210 FABPs, spanning 16 vertebrate orders, and including 163 vertebrate taxa. We show that the fluorescent FPs diverged as a protein family and are the sister group to brain FABPs. Our results indicate that the evolution of this family involved at least three gene duplication events. We show that fluorescent FABPs possess a unique, conserved tripeptide Gly-Pro-Pro sequence motif, which is not found in non-fluorescent fatty acid binding proteins. This motif arose from a duplication event of the FABP brain isoforms and was under strong purifying selection, leading to the classification of this new FP family. Residues adjacent to the motif are under strong positive selection, suggesting a further refinement of the eel protein's fluorescent properties. We present a phylogenetic reconstruction of this emerging FP family and describe additional fluorescent FABP members from groups of distantly related eels. The elucidation of this class of fish FPs with diverse properties provides new templates for the development of protein-based fluorescent tools. The evolutionary adaptation from fatty acid-binding proteins to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins raises intrigue as to the functional role of bright green fluorescence in this cryptic genus of reclusive eels that inhabit a blue, nearly monochromatic, marine environment.

  12. Variants in the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 gene in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Sipiläinen, R; Uusitupa, M; Heikkinen, S; Rissanen, A; Laakso, M

    1997-08-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 2 gene (FABP2) has been proposed to be an important candidate gene for insulin resistance; therefore, it also could be a promising candidate gene for obesity. We screened the whole coding region of the FABP2 gene in 40 obese nondiabetic Finnish subjects. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of the codon 54 polymorphism of this gene (Ala-->Thr) on insulin levels and basal metabolic rate in 170 obese subjects. The frequencies of the variants found in exon 4 (GTA-->GTG) and 3'-noncoding region (GCGCA-->GCACA), as well as the allele frequencies for the variable lengths of the ATT repeat sequence in intron 2 did not differ between the obese subjects and nonobese controls. The frequency of threonine-encoding allele in codon 54 of the FABP2 gene did not differ between obese and control subjects (28 vs. 29%, respectively). In the obese group there were no differences in gender distribution, age, weight, body mass index, lean body mass, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio among the individuals homozygous for Ala54, heterozygous for Thr54, and homozygous for Thr54-encoding alleles. Similarly, fasting serum insulin, glucose, lipids and lipoprotein concentrations, basal metabolic rate (adjusted for lean body mass and age), respiratory quotient, and rates of glucose and lipid oxidation did not differ among the groups. We conclude that obesity is not associated with specific variants in the FABP2 gene. Furthermore, the codon 54 Ala to Thr polymorphism of this gene does not influence insulin levels or basal metabolic rate in obese Finns.

  13. Interaction of perfluoroalkyl acids with human liver fatty acid-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Nan; Li, Juan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Aiqian; Dai, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent and bioaccumulative, resulting in their broad distribution in humans and the environment. The liver is an important target for PFAAs, but the mechanisms behind PFAAs interaction with hepatocyte proteins remain poorly understood. We characterized the binding of PFAAs to human liver fatty acid-binding protein (hL-FABP) and identified critical structural features in their interaction. The binding interaction of PFAAs with hL-FABP was determined by fluorescence displacement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assay. Molecular simulation was conducted to define interactions at the binding sites. ITC measurement revealed that PFOA/PFNA displayed a moderate affinity for hL-FABP at a 1:1 molar ratio, a weak binding affinity for PFHxS and no binding for PFHxA. Moreover, the interaction was mainly mediated by electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding. Substitution of Asn111 with Asp caused loss of binding affinity to PFAA, indicating its crucial role for the initial PFAA binding to the outer binding site. Substitution of Arg122 with Gly caused only one molecule of PFAA to bind to hL-FABP. Molecular simulation showed that substitution of Arg122 increased the volume of the outer binding pocket, making it impossible to form intensive hydrophobic stacking and hydrogen bonds with PFOA, and highlighting its crucial role in the binding process. The binding affinity of PFAAs increased significantly with their carbon number. Arg122 and Asn111 played a pivotal role in these interactions. Our findings may help understand the distribution pattern, bioaccumulation, elimination, and toxicity of PFAAs in humans.

  14. Transition of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein on hypothermic circulatory arrest with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Kano, Hiroya; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Okita, Yutaka

    2017-04-01

    Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) is increasingly employed as a highly specific marker of intestinal necrosis. However, the value of this marker associated with cardiovascular surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest is unclear. The aim of this study was to measure serum I-FABP levels and provide the transition of I-FABP levels with hypothermic circulatory arrest to help in the management of intestinal perfusion. From August 2011 to September 2013, 33 consecutive patients who had aortic arch surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest or heart valve surgery performed were enrolled in the study. Twenty patients had aortic surgery with hypothermic (23-29°C) circulatory arrest and 13 patients had heart valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (33°C). I-FABP levels increased, both in patients undergoing aortic surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest and heart valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, reaching peak levels shortly after the administration of protamine. I-FABP levels in patients with aortic surgery were significantly higher with circulatory arrest. They reached peak levels immediately after recirculation and there was a significant drop at the end of surgery (p<0.001). I-FABP levels in heart valve surgery were gradually increased, with the highest at the administration of protamine; they gradually decreased. Peak I-FABP levels were significantly higher in patients undergoing aortic surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest than in patients with heart valve surgery. However, no postoperative reperfusion injury occurred in the intestinal tract due to the use of hypothermic organ protection. Plasma I-FABP monitoring could be a valuable method for finding an intestinal ischemia in patients with cardiovascular surgery.

  15. Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montoudis, Alain; Delvin, Edgard; Canadian Institute of Health Research, Group of the Functional Development and Physiopathology of the Digestive Tract, and Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que., Canada J1H 5N4

    2006-01-06

    Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferationmore » and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.« less

  16. Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein Is Associated with Proteinuria in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Mei; Zheng, Chun-Xia; Gao, Qing; Ge, Yong-Chun; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Lipid metabolism contributes to the formation of obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG). Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP or FABP3) is involved in lipid metabolism and was predicted to relate to renal lesions in obesity. Methods A total of 28 patients with ORG were investigated, and renal tissue from 7 kidney donors served as controls. Db/db mice with albuminuria were treated with Simvastatin for 12 weeks. Results Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the H-FABP staining in glomerular and tubular areas of patients with ORG, and the percentage of H-FABP in the glomerular area was significantly higher than in controls (15.8±1.62 versus 4.51±0.56%, P<0.001). Moreover, H-FABP expression correlated with proteinuria, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, waist circumference and the homeostatic model assessment – insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) among patients with ORG. Enhanced expression of H-FABP was also detected in the db/db mice, and expression increased from 8 to 20 weeks of age and was weakly related to increased albuminuria (r = 0.433; P = 0.020). Furthermore, H-FABP was co-localized with synaptopodin and demonstrated a podocyte pattern distribution. After Simvastation treatment, the urine albumin levels decreased with lipid levels and H-FABP expression in the glomeruli. The expression of H-FABP was related to Simvastatin treatment, albuminuria and triglycerides, while it was only linked with triglycerides and albuminuria (r = 0.643, P = 0.036). Conclusions This study confirmed an association of H-FABP with the pathogenesis of clinical and experimental ORG, and suggests that such a process might be related to podocytes and lipid dysmetabolism. PMID:23029183

  17. Circulating intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) levels in acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kitai, Takeshi; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kiefer, Kathryn; Morales, Rommel; Borowski, Allen G; Grodin, Justin L; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-06-01

    Venous congestion has become increasingly recognized as a potential contributor to end-organ dysfunction in heart failure. Elevated I-FABP, which is excreted specifically from damaged intestinal epithelial cells, has been found in patients with abdominal hypertension and intestinal ischemia. We hypothesize that elevated intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) levels would identify patients with more advanced heart failure who have venous and intestinal congestion. Baseline serum I-FABP levels were measured in 69 acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) patients admitted to the intensive care unit for invasive hemodynamic monitoring and tailored medical therapy. Comprehensive echocardiography examinations were performed in all study patients, and clinical outcomes (death, cardiac transplant or left ventricular assist device placement) were assessed. The median circulating I-FABP level was 853pg/ml (interquartile range: 533 to 1448pg/ml). Age, gender, race, and baseline comorbidities were comparable between patients with low and high I-FABP levels. Although there were no significant correlations between I-FABP levels and invasively-measured hemodynamic parameters nor echocardiographic parameters, patients with higher I-FABP levels (≥853g/ml) had significantly worse clinical outcomes compared to those with lower I-FABP levels (<853pg/ml, P=0.025). Circulating I-FABP levels had no association with invasively-measured hemodynamic parameters, but were associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with ADHF with systolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural Basis for Activation of Fatty Acid-binding Protein 4

    SciTech Connect

    Gillilan,R.; Ayers, S.; Noy, N.

    2007-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) delivers ligands from the cytosol to the nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma} in the nucleus, thereby enhancing the transcriptional activity of the receptor. Notably, FABP4 binds multiple ligands with a similar affinity but its nuclear translocation is activated only by specific compounds. To gain insight into the structural features that underlie the ligand-specificity in activation of the nuclear import of FABP4, we solved the crystal structures of the protein complexed with two compounds that induce its nuclear translocation, and compared these to the apo-protein and to FABP4 structures bound to non-activating ligands. Examination of these structures indicatesmore » that activation coincides with closure of a portal loop phenylalanine side-chain, contraction of the binding pocket, a subtle shift in a helical domain containing the nuclear localization signal of the protein, and a resultant change in oligomeric state that exposes the nuclear localization signal to the solution. Comparisons of backbone displacements induced by activating ligands with a measure of mobility derived from translation, libration, screw (TLS) refinement, and with a composite of slowest normal modes of the apo state suggest that the helical motion associated with the activation of the protein is part of the repertoire of the equilibrium motions of the apo-protein, i.e. that ligand binding does not induce the activated configuration but serves to stabilize it. Nuclear import of FABP4 can thus be understood in terms of the pre-existing equilibrium hypothesis of ligand binding.« less

  19. Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 Deficiency Protects against Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Geniez, Magali; Ghelfi, Elisa; Liang, Xiaoliang; Yu, Chenwei; Spencer, Carrie; Abend, Stephanie; Hotamisligil, Gokhan; Cataltepe, Sule

    2014-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of blindness in children worldwide due to increasing survival rates of premature infants. Initial suppression, followed by increased production of the retinal vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) expression are key events that trigger the pathological neovascularization in ROP. Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is an intracellular lipid chaperone that is induced by VEGF in a subset of endothelial cells. FABP4 exhibits a pro-angiogenic function in cultured endothelial cells and in airway microvasculature, but whether it plays a role in modulation of retinal angiogenesis is not known. We hypothesized that FABP4 deficiency could ameliorate pathological retinal vascularization and investigated this hypothesis using a well-characterized mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). We found that FABP4 was not expressed in retinal vessels, but was present in resident macrophages/microglial cells and endothelial cells of the hyaloid vasculature in the immature retina. While FABP4 expression was not required for normal development of retinal vessels, FABP4 expression was upregulated and localized to neovascular tufts in OIR. FABP4−/− mice demonstrated a significant decrease in neovessel formation as well as a significant improvement in physiological revascularization of the avascular retinal tissues. These alterations in retinal vasculature were accompanied by reduced endothelial cell proliferation, but no effect on apoptosis or macrophage/microglia recruitment. FABP4−/− OIR samples demonstrated decreased expression of genes involved in angiogenesis, such as Placental Growth Factor, and angiopoietin 2. Collectively, our findings suggest FABP4 as a potential target of pathologic retinal angiogenesis in proliferative retinopathies. PMID:24802082

  20. Maternal serum fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and the development of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Scifres, Christina M; Catov, Janet M; Simhan, Hyagriv

    2012-03-01

    Serum fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome in nonpregnant individuals, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Preeclampsia shares many features with the metabolic syndrome, but the relationship between early pregnancy serum FABP4 levels and the development of preeclampsia is unknown. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that FABP4 is elevated in women who develop preeclampsia before the onset of disease. This was a nested case-control study within a larger prospective cohort of healthy women with singleton gestations. Cases included 22 women who developed preeclampsia, and a random sample of 72 unmatched controls delivered without preeclampsia was identified. Maternal serum FABP4 was measured at less than 13 wk gestation and 24-28 wk gestation, which was before the onset of preeclampsia in all patients. The main outcome measure was preeclampsia (new-onset gestational hypertension and proteinuria for the first time after 20 wk gestation). Maternal serum FABP4 concentrations were higher in women who ultimately developed preeclampsia both at 8-13 wk (20.4±12.3 vs. 10.1±4.7 ng/ml; P<0.01) and at 24-28 wk (20.7±11.7 vs. 9.9±4.5 ng/ml; P<0.01). After controlling for first trimester body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and nulliparity, FABP4 was associated with the development of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.3; P<0.01). Maternal serum FABP4 levels are elevated before the clinical onset of preeclampsia, and this increase occurs independently of maternal body mass index.

  1. Fatty acid-binding protein 5 limits the anti-inflammatory response in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sherri M; Holt, Vivian V; Malpass, Lillie R; Hines, Ian N; Wheeler, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    The beginning stages of liver damage induced by various etiologies (i.e. high fat diet, alcohol consumption, toxin exposure) are characterized by abnormal accumulation of lipid in liver. Alterations in intracellular lipid transport, storage, and metabolism accompanied by cellular insult within the liver play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver disease, often involving a sustained inflammatory response. The intracellular lipid transporter, fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), is highly expressed in macrophages and may play an important role in the hepatic inflammatory response after endotoxin exposure in mice. This study tested the hypothesis that FABP5 regulates macrophage response to LPS in male C57bl/6 (wild type) and FABP5 knockout mice, both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with LPS revealed that loss of FABP5 enhances the number of hepatic F4/80(+) macrophages in the liver despite limited liver injury. Conversely, FABP5 knock out mice display higher mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, arginase, YM-1, and Fizz-1 in liver compared to wild type mice. Bone marrow derived macrophages stimulated with inflammatory (LPS and IFN-γ) or anti-inflammatory (IL-4) mediators also showed significantly higher expression of anti-inflammatory/regulatory factors. These findings reveal a regulatory role of FABP5 in the acute inflammatory response to LPS-induced liver injury, which is consistent with the principle finding that FABP5 is a regulator of macrophage phenotype. Specifically, these findings demonstrate that loss of FABP5 promotes a more anti-inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatty acid binding proteins have the potential to channel dietary fatty acids into enterocyte nuclei[S

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Adriana; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Canclini, Lucia; Silvarrey, Maria Cecilia; André, Michèle; Babin, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular lipid binding proteins, including fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) 1 and 2, are highly expressed in tissues involved in the active lipid metabolism. A zebrafish model was used to demonstrate differential expression levels of fabp1b.1, fabp1b.2, and fabp2 transcripts in liver, anterior intestine, and brain. Transcription levels of fabp1b.1 and fabp2 in the anterior intestine were upregulated after feeding and modulated according to diet formulation. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy immunodetection with gold particles localized these FABPs in the microvilli, cytosol, and nuclei of most enterocytes in the anterior intestinal mucosa. Nuclear localization was mostly in the interchromatin space outside the condensed chromatin clusters. Native PAGE binding assay of BODIPY-FL-labeled FAs demonstrated binding of BODIPY-FLC12 but not BODIPY-FLC5 to recombinant Fabp1b.1 and Fabp2. The binding of BODIPY-FLC12 to Fabp1b.1 was fully displaced by oleic acid. In vivo experiments demonstrated, for the first time, that intestinal absorption of dietary BODIPY-FLC12 was followed by colocalization of the labeled FA with Fabp1b and Fabp2 in the nuclei. These data suggest that dietary FAs complexed with FABPs are able to reach the enterocyte nucleus with the potential to modulate nuclear activity. PMID:26658423

  3. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and gut permeability responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    March, Daniel S; Marchbank, Tania; Playford, Raymond J; Jones, Arwel W; Thatcher, Rhys; Davison, Glen

    2017-05-01

    Intestinal cell damage due to physiological stressors (e.g. heat, oxidative, hypoperfusion/ischaemic) may contribute to increased intestinal permeability. The aim of this study was to assess changes in plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) in response to exercise (with bovine colostrum supplementation, Col, positive control) and compare this to intestinal barrier integrity/permeability (5 h urinary lactulose/rhamnose ratio, L/R). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 18 males completed two experimental arms (14 days of 20 g/day supplementation with Col or placebo, Plac). For each arm participants performed two baseline (resting) intestinal permeability assessments (L/R) pre-supplementation and one post-exercise following supplementation. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise to determine I-FABP concentration. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed an arm × time interaction for L/R and I-FABP (P < 0.001). Post hoc analyses showed urinary L/R increased post-exercise in Plac (273% of pre, P < 0.001) and Col (148% of pre, P < 0.001) with post-exercise values significantly lower with Col (P < 0.001). Plasma I-FABP increased post-exercise in Plac (191% of pre-exercise, P = 0.002) but not in the Col arm (107%, P = 0.862) with post-exercise values significantly lower with Col (P = 0.013). Correlations between the increase in I-FABP and L/R were evident for visit one (P = 0.044) but not visit two (P = 0.200) although overall plots/patterns do appear similar for each. These findings suggest that exercise-induced intestinal cellular damage/injury is partly implicated in changes in permeability but other factors must also contribute.

  4. Association Between Serum Levels of Adipocyte Fatty Acid-binding Protein and Free Thyroxine

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Shih, Shyang-Ron; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP) has been shown to be a biomarker of body weight change and atherosclerosis. Changes in thyroid function are associated with changes in body weight and risks of cardiovascular diseases. The association between AFABP and thyroid function status has been seldom evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the serum AFABP concentrations in hyperthyroid patients and those in euthyroid individuals, and to evaluate the associations between serum AFABP and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. For this study, 30 hyperthyroid patients and 30 euthyroid individuals at a referral medical center were recruited. The patients with hyperthyroidism were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated. No medication was given to the euthyroid individuals. The body weight, body mass index, thyroid function, serum levels of AFABP, and biochemical data of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Associations between AFABP and fT4 levels were also analyzed. At the baseline, the hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum AFABP levels than the euthyroid individuals (median [Q1, Q3]: 22.8 [19.4, 30.6] ng/mL vs 18.6 [15.3, 23.2] ng/mL; P = 0.038). With the antithyroid regimens, the AFABP serum levels of the hyperthyroid patients decreased to 16.6 (15.0, 23.9) ng/mL at the 6th month. No difference in the AFABP level was found between the hyperthyroid and the euthyroid groups at the 6th month. At baseline, sex (female vs male, ß = 7.65, P = 0.022) and fT4 level (ß = 2.51, P = 0.018) were significantly associated with AFABP levels in the univariate regression analysis. At the 6th month, sex and fT4 level (ß = 8.09, P < 0.001 and ß = 3.61, P = 0.005, respectively) were also significantly associated with AFABP levels. The associations between sex and fT4 level with AFABP levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both at baseline and at

  5. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein levels in elderly diabetics without known cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Beysel, Selvihan; Kizilgul, Muhammed; Ozbek, Mustafa; Caliskan, Mustafa; Kan, Seyfullah; Apaydin, Mahmut; Ozcelik, Ozgur; Cakal, Erman

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is reported to be higher in elderly diabetics. Serum heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is a serum marker of myocardial ischemia. We aimed to investigate the association between serum H-FABP level and conventional cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers and subclinical atherosclerosis in elderly diabetics without overt CVD. A total of 50 elderly diabetic patients without overt CVD and 30 age-, sex- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, serum H-FABP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were measured. Logistic regression analyses (adjustments for age, sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, BMI, blood pressure, lipid, blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, hs-CRP and fibrinogen) were performed to evaluate the association between H-FABP and cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis indices. Serum fibrinogen (421.50±85.52 mg/dL vs 319.17±30.77 mg/dL, p =0.023), CIMT (0.70±0.12 mm vs 0.59±0.06 mm, p <0.001) and hs-CRP (5.72±4.50 mg/dL vs 1.60±0.72 mg/dL, p <0.001) were significantly higher in diabetic patients than controls. The mean serum H-FABP level did not differ between groups (1571.79±604.60 ng/mL vs 1500.25±463.35 ng/mL, p =0.905). H-FABP was positively correlated with fibrinogen ( r 2 =0.473, p <0.001), hs-CRP ( r 2 =0.323, p =0.003) and CIMT ( r 2 =0.467, p <0.001). After full adjustments, the serum H-FABP level was independently associated with an increase in the fibrinogen level (odds ratio [OR] =4.21, 95% confidence level [CI] =1.49-11.90). Serum H-FABP was similar in the elderly diabetic patients without known CVD when compared with the nondiabetic control group. H-FABP does not possess a high diagnostic value as a cardiovascular marker when used alone; however, it may add supplementary information in patients with a high fibrinogen level.

  6. Decreased serum fatty acid binding protein 4 concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Li; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Lai, Yu-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Kuo, Chiu-Huang; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2018-06-21

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is found to play a role in skeletal muscle homeostasis. Since the dysregulation of FABP4 and sarcopenia are both highly prevalent in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD), the correlation between them remains unknown. We aimed to examine this relationship in a cross-sectional study. A total of 120 chronic HD patients were recruited, and whose skeletal muscle mass, handgrip strength, and gait speed were assessed and blood samples were obtained. We grouped these participants into sarcopenia (n = 20) and non-sarcopenia groups according to European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. The sarcopenia group exhibited lower weight (P < 0.001), height (P = 0.019), waist circumference (P < 0.001), body mass index (P < 0.001), body fat mass (P = 0.004), and lower serum triglycerides (P = 0.009), creatinine (P < 0.001), phosphorus (P = 0.013), intact parathyroid hormone (P = 0.012), and FABP4 concentrations (P = 0.005), and higher malnutrition-inflammation scores (MIS) (P = 0.031), urea reduction rates (P < 0.001), and fractional clearance index for urea (Kt/V) values (P < 0.001). Serum FABP4 concentrations (odds ratio (OR): 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96-0.99, P = 0.043), body fat mass (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.77-0.97, P = 0.013), MIS (OR: 6.90, 95% CI: 1.31-36.36, P = 0.023), and Kt/V (each increase of 0.1, OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.29-3.57, P = 0.003) were independent predictors of sarcopenia in chronic HD patients. We delineated the association between serum FABP4 concentrations and sarcopenia in chronic HD patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Heart-type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in the Assessment of Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hai-Yan; Huang, Ji; Yang, Yue-Jin; Yang, Yan-Min; Li, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Jing-Mei

    2016-12-01

    To explore the predictive value of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in the stratification and prognosis of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). According to risk stratification, 69 patients with APE admitted into the emergency department within 24 hours after onset were divided into the following 3 groups: high-risk group, moderate-risk group and low-risk group. H-FABP- and cardiac troponin I (cTNI)-positive rates of all groups were analyzed and compared, and the correlation between major adverse events (death, endotracheal intubation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and the cardiac markers (heart rate, arterial partial pressure of oxygen, right ventricular dimension, pulmonary arterial pressure, etc.) during the in-hospital period were statistically analyzed. Then the prognosis (death, embolic pulmonary hypertension, right heart failure and recurrence of APE) at 6 months after onset of APE was followed-up on and compared between groups. The admission time of high-risk group patients was earlier than non-high-risk group (7.1 ± 2.9 versus 13.5 ± 6.7 versus 15.2 ± 10.7 hours, P = 0.001), had larger right ventricular dimension (33.1 ± 10.4 versus 26.7 ± 7.3 versus 20.5 ± 8.9mm, P = 0.002) and higher pulmonary arterial pressure (45.8 ± 14.6 versus 29.4 ± 13.9 versus 23.1 ± 12.6mmHg, P = 0.001). The major adverse events during in-hospital period, including death, endotracheal intubation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, were more prevalent in the high-risk group than those in the other 2 risk groups. Further analysis indicated that the positive rate of H-FABP was remarkably higher than cTNI (52/69, 75.4% versus 28/69, 40.6%, P = 0.003). The H-FABP (r = 0.881, P = 0.020) was significantly correlated to the major adverse events; however, this was not so regarding cTNI (r = 0.115, P = 0.059). At 6 months after onset of APE, the follow-up data indicated that cTNI and H-FABP were both significantly correlated with the major adverse events

  8. Interaction of LY171883 and other peroxisome proliferators with fatty-acid-binding protein isolated from rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, J R; Eacho, P I

    1991-01-01

    Fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) is a 14 kDa protein found in hepatic cytosol which binds and transports fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands throughout the cell. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether LY171883, a leukotriene D4 antagonist, and other peroxisome proliferators bind to FABP and displace an endogenous fatty acid. [3H]Oleic acid was used to monitor the elution of FABP during chromatographic purification. [14C]LY171883 had a similar elution profile when substituted in the purification, indicating a common interaction with FABP. LY171883 and its structural analogue, LY189585, as well as the hypolipidaemic peroxisome proliferators clofibric acid, ciprofibrate, bezafibrate and WY14,643, displaced [3H]oleic acid binding to FABP. Analogues of LY171883 that do not induce peroxisome proliferation only weakly displaced oleate binding. [3H]Ly171883 bound directly to FABP with a Kd of 10.8 microM, compared with a Kd of 0.96 microM for [3H]oleate. LY171883 binding was inhibited by LY189585, clofibric acid, ciprofibrate and bezafibrate. These findings demonstrate that peroxisome proliferators, presumably due to their structural similarity to fatty acids, are able to bind to FABP and displace an endogenous ligand from its binding site. Interaction of peroxisome proliferators with FABP may be involved in perturbations of fatty acid metabolism caused by these agents as well as in the development of the pleiotropic response of peroxisome proliferation. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1747111

  9. Heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is decreased in brains of patients with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cheon, M S; Kim, S H; Fountoulakis, M; Lubec, G

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are thought to play a role in the binding, targeting and transport of long-chain fatty acids, and at least three types of FABPs are found in human brain; heart type (H)-FABP, brain type (B)-FABP and epidermal type (E)-FABP. Although all three FABPs could be involved in normal brain function in prenatal and postnatal life, a neurobiological role of FABPs in neurodegenerative diseases has not been reported yet. These made us evaluate the protein levels of FABPs in brains from patients with Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fetal cerebral cortex with DS using two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis with subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI-MS) identification and specific software for quantification of proteins. In adult brain, B-FABP was significantly increased in occipital cortex of DS, and H-FABP was significantly decreased in DS (frontal, occipital and parietal cortices) and AD (frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal cortices). In fetal brain, B-FABP and epidermal E-FABP levels were comparable in controls and DS. We conclude that aberrant expression of FABPs, especially H-FABP may alter membrane fluidity and signal transduction, and consequently could be involved in cellular dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Heart type fatty acid binding protein response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Evrim; Ozbek, Mustafa; Sahin, Mustafa; Cakal, Erman; Gungunes, Askin; Ginis, Zeynep; Demirci, Taner; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2012-12-18

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heart type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) has been found to be predictive for myocardial ischemia.Wet ested whether HFABP is the predictor for CVD in PCOS patients, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This was a prospective, cross sectional controlled study conducted in a training and research hospital.The study population consisted of 46 reproductive-age PCOS women and 28 control subjects. We evaluated anthropometric and metabolic parameters, carotid intima media thickness and HFABP levels in both PCOS patients and control group. Mean fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, free testosterone, total testosterone, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients. Although HFABP levels were higher in PCOS patients, the difference did not reach statistically significant in early age groups. After adjustment for age and body mass index, HFABP level was positive correlated with hsCRP, free testosterone levels, CIMT and HOMA-IR. Heart type free fatty acid binding protein appeared to have an important role in metabolic response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant, hyperandrogenemic PCOS patients.

  11. Progress in the development of Fasciola hepatica vaccine using recombinant fatty acid binding protein with the adjuvant adaptation system ADAD.

    PubMed

    López-Abán, J; Casanueva, P; Nogal, J; Arias, M; Morrondo, P; Diez-Baños, P; Hillyer, G V; Martínez-Fernández, A R; Muro, A

    2007-04-30

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) have been designed as a potential vaccine against fasciolosis. In this work, the immunoprophylaxis of the recombinant Fh15 FABP from F. hepatica (Fh15) in adjuvant/immunomodulator ADAD system was evaluated using mice and sheep challenged with F. hepatica. The ADAD system combines the Fh15 antigen with an immunomodulator (hydroalcoholic extract of Polypodium leucotomos; PAL) and/or an adjuvant (saponins of Quillaja saponaria; Qs) in a water/oil emulsion (30/70) with a non-mineral oil (Montanide). All the infected control mice died by 41-48 days post-infection. The mice vaccinated with ADAD only with PAL+Fh15 present a survival rate of 40-50% and those vaccinated with ADAD containing PAL+Qs+Fh15 had a survival rate of 50-62.5%. IgG1 antibodies were lower in surviving mice in comparison with non-surviving mice. The sheep vaccinated with ADAD PAL+Qs+Fh15 showed lower fluke recovery (43%), less hepatic lesions and higher post-infection daily weight gain than F. hepatica infected control animals. Thus, the ADAD system using recombinant fatty acid binding proteins from F. hepatica could be a good option to develop vaccines against F. hepatica.

  12. Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Citrulline as Markers of Gut Injury and Prognosis in Patients With Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Pooja; Sonika, Ujjwal; Moka, Praneeth; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Saraya, Anoop

    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with high mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the early phase and secondary infection in the later phase. Concomitant intestinal ischemia often results in gut injury. We studied intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) and citrulline levels as markers of gut injury to predict prognosis in AP. Acute pancreatitis patients at admission and controls were studied. Serum IFABP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plasma citrulline by high-performance liquid chromatography technique. Ultrastructural changes in duodenal biopsy were also compared between the 2 groups. The IFABP concentration was significantly higher in AP cases (n = 94) compared with controls (n = 100) (mean [standard deviation], 592.5 [753.6] vs 87.8 [67.6] pg/mL; P < 0.001) and in patients with severe AP versus mild AP (738.3 [955.3] vs 404.0 [263.3] pg/ mL, P = 0.03). Citrulline concentration was lower in AP versus controls (29.9 [33.8] vs 83.9 [60.1] μg/L, P < 0.001). We propose a model by which these biomarkers (IFABP >350 pg/mL and citrulline <18 μg/L) are able to predict poor prognosis in 33.9% of patients with AP. The gut injury was also validated via ultrastructural changes. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein is a promising prognostic marker in acute pancreatitis.

  13. Fatty Acid-binding Proteins Interact with Comparative Gene Identification-58 Linking Lipolysis with Lipid Ligand Shuttling*

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Peter; Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Jaeger, Doris; Feiler, Ursula; Arthanari, Haribabu; Mayer, Nicole; Zehender, Fabian; Rechberger, Gerald; Oberer, Monika; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim; Haemmerle, Guenter; Breinbauer, Rolf; Zechner, Rudolf; Preiss-Landl, Karina

    2015-01-01

    The coordinated breakdown of intracellular triglyceride (TG) stores requires the exquisitely regulated interaction of lipolytic enzymes with regulatory, accessory, and scaffolding proteins. Together they form a dynamic multiprotein network designated as the “lipolysome.” Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) catalyzes the initiating step of TG hydrolysis and requires comparative gene identification-58 (Cgi-58) as a potent activator of enzyme activity. Here, we identify adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-Fabp) and other members of the fatty acid-binding protein (Fabp) family as interaction partners of Cgi-58. Co-immunoprecipitation, microscale thermophoresis, and solid phase assays proved direct protein/protein interaction between A-Fabp and Cgi-58. Using nuclear magnetic resonance titration experiments and site-directed mutagenesis, we located a potential contact region on A-Fabp. In functional terms, A-Fabp stimulates Atgl-catalyzed TG hydrolysis in a Cgi-58-dependent manner. Additionally, transcriptional transactivation assays with a luciferase reporter system revealed that Fabps enhance the ability of Atgl/Cgi-58-mediated lipolysis to induce the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Our studies identify Fabps as crucial structural and functional components of the lipolysome. PMID:25953897

  14. Enterocyte fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs): different functions of liver and intestinal FABPs in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Angela M; Storch, Judith

    2015-02-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP) are highly abundant cytosolic proteins that are expressed in most mammalian tissues. In the intestinal enterocyte, both liver- (LFABP; FABP1) and intestinal FABPs (IFABP; FABP2) are expressed. These proteins display high-affinity binding for long-chain fatty acids (FA) and other hydrophobic ligands; thus, they are believed to be involved with uptake and trafficking of lipids in the intestine. In vitro studies have identified differences in ligand-binding stoichiometry and specificity, and in mechanisms of FA transfer to membranes, and it has been hypothesized that LFABP and IFABP have different functions in the enterocyte. Studies directly comparing LFABP- and IFABP-null mice have revealed markedly different phenotypes, indicating that these proteins indeed have different functions in intestinal lipid metabolism and whole body energy homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the evolving knowledge of the functions of LFABP and IFABP in the intestinal enterocyte. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of hepatic level of fatty-acid-binding protein by hormones and clofibric acid in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, S; Kawashima, Y; Hirose, A; Kozuka, H

    1994-01-01

    Regulation of the hepatic level of fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) by hormones and p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (clofibric acid) was studied. The hepatic level of FABP, measured as the oleic acid-binding capacity of the cytosolic FABP fraction, was decreased in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The level of FABP was markedly increased in adrenalectomized rats, and the elevation was prevented by the administration of dexamethasone. Hypothyroidism decreased the level of FABP and hyperthyroidism increased it. A high correlation between the incorporation of [14C]oleic acid in vivo into hepatic triacylglycerol and the level of FABP was found for normal, diabetic and adrenalectomized rats. The level of FABP was increased by administration of clofibric acid to rats in any altered hormonal states, as was microsomal 1-acylglycerophosphocholine (1-acyl-GPC) acyltransferase, a peroxisome-proliferator-responsive parameter. These results suggest that the hepatic level of FABP is under regulation by multiple hormones and that clofibric acid induces FABP and 1-acyl-GPC acyltransferase by a mechanism which may be distinct from that by which hormones regulate the level of FABP. PMID:8110197

  16. Molecular dynamic simulations reveal the structural determinants of fatty acid binding to oxy-myoglobin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanism(s) by which fatty acids are sequestered and transported in muscle have not been fully elucidated. A potential key player in this process is the protein myoglobin (Mb). Indeed, there is a catalogue of empirical evidence supporting direct interaction of globins with fatty acid metabolite...

  17. Protein-membrane interaction and fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein to membranes. Support for a multistep process.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Lockhart, Lisandro J; Laborde, Lisandro; Kahn, Peter C; Storch, Judith; Córsico, Betina

    2006-05-19

    Fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) to phospholipid membranes occurs during protein-membrane collisions. Electrostatic interactions involving the alpha-helical "portal" region of the protein have been shown to be of great importance. In the present study, the role of specific lysine residues in the alpha-helical region of IFABP was directly examined. A series of point mutants in rat IFABP was engineered in which the lysine positive charges in this domain were eliminated or reversed. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, we analyzed the rates and mechanism of fatty acid transfer from wild type and mutant proteins to acceptor membranes. Most of the alpha-helical domain mutants showed slower absolute fatty acid transfer rates to zwitterionic membranes, with substitution of one of the lysines of the alpha2 helix, Lys27, resulting in a particularly dramatic decrease in the fatty acid transfer rate. Sensitivity to negatively charged phospholipid membranes was also reduced, with charge reversal mutants in the alpha2 helix the most affected. The results support the hypothesis that the portal region undergoes a conformational change during protein-membrane interaction, which leads to release of the bound fatty acid to the membrane and that the alpha2 segment is of particular importance in the establishment of charge-charge interactions between IFABP and membranes. Cross-linking experiments with a phospholipid-photoactivable reagent underscored the importance of charge-charge interactions, showing that the physical interaction between wild-type intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and phospholipid membranes is enhanced by electrostatic interactions. Protein-membrane interactions were also found to be enhanced by the presence of ligand, suggesting different collisional complex structures for holo- and apo-IFABP.

  18. Prognostic role of heart-type fatty acid binding protein in pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingjie; Yuan, Xia; Qiu, Xianming; Shan, Xiaoxi; Lin, Dianjie; Zhu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) has a high morbidity and mortality. Hence it is important to recognize factors associated with higher risk of adverse outcomes in hemodynamically stable patients. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is a novel marker evaluated in recent years for prognosis in acute PE. Our aim was to evaluate the available evidence on the accuracy of H-FABP for predicting the prognosis of adverse clinical outcomes (defined as the occurrence of any of the following: death, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, endotracheal intubation, use of vasopressors, thrombolysis, surgical embolectomy, or admission to the intensive care unit) or mortality in patients with acute PE. Unrestricted searches of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Science Direct were performed using the terms of "H-FABP" or "heart-type fatty acid binding protein" and ("pulmonary embolism" or "pulmonary thromboembolism"). A random-effect model was used to pool study results; χ(2) and I(2) testing was used to test for heterogeneity. Data of six studies were included in this analysis. 34 of 119(28.57%; 95%CI, 20.42%-36.72%) patients with elevated H-FABP levels had adverse events during follow-up compared with 24 of 475 (5.05%; 95%CI, 3.08%-7.02%) patients with normal levels. High H-FABP levels were associated with a high risk of occurrence of adverse clinical outcome (pooled OR, 10.81; 95%CI, 3.92-29.83). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that H-FABP is a good predictor for adverse outcomes in patients with acute PE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peri-operative heart-type fatty acid binding protein is associated with acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Jennifer A.; Garg, Amit X.; Coca, Steven G.; Testani, Jeffrey M.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Eikelboom, John; Kavsak, Peter; McArthur, Eric; Shortt, Colleen; Whitlock, Richard; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with worse outcomes. Since heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is a myocardial protein that detects cardiac injury, we sought to determine if plasma H-FABP was associated with AKI in the TRIBE-AKI cohort; a multi-center cohort of 1219 patients at high risk for AKI who underwent cardiac surgery. The primary outcomes of interest were any AKI (Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage 1 or higher) and severe AKI (AKIN stage 2 or higher). The secondary outcome was long-term mortality after discharge. Patients who developed AKI had higher levels of H-FABP pre- and post-operatively than patients who did not have AKI. In analyses adjusted for known AKI risk factors, first post-operative log(H-FABP) was associated with severe AKI (adjusted OR 5.39 [95% CI, 2.87-10.11] per unit increase), while pre-operative log(H-FABP) was associated with any AKI (2.07 [1.48-2.89]) and mortality (1.67 [1.17-2.37]). These relationships persisted after adjustment for change in serum creatinine (for first postoperative log(H-FABP)) and biomarkers of cardiac and kidney injury, including brain natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin-I, interleukin-18, liver fatty acid binding protein, kidney injury molecule-1, and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin. Thus, peri-operative plasma H-FABP levels may be used for risk-stratification of AKI and mortality following cardiac surgery. PMID:25830762

  20. A vicious loop of fatty acid-binding protein 4 and DNA methyltransferase 1 promotes acute myeloid leukemia and acts as a therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Yan, F; Shen, N; Pang, JX; Zhao, N; Zhang, YW; Bode, AM; Al-Kali, A; Litzow, MR; Li, B; Liu, SJ

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation mediated by deregulation of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) is a key hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), yet efforts to target DNMT deregulation for drug development have lagged. We previously demonstrated that upregulation of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) promotes AML aggressiveness through enhanced DNMT1-dependent DNA methylation. Here we demonstrate that FABP4 upregulation in AML cells occurs through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, thus elucidating a crucial FABP4-DNMT1 regulatory feedback loop in AML biology. We show that FABP4 dysfunction by its selective inhibitor BMS309403 leads to downregulation of DNMT1, decrease of global DNA methylation and re-expression of p15INK4B tumor suppressor gene by promoter DNA hypomethylation in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Functionally, BMS309403 suppresses cell colony formation, induces cell differentiation, and, importantly, impairs leukemic disease progression in mouse models of leukemia. Our findings highlight AML-promoting properties of the FABP4-DNMT1 vicious loop, and identify an attractive class of therapeutic agents with a high potential for clinical use in AML patients. The results will also assist in establishing the FABP4-DNMT1 loop as a target for therapeutic discovery to enhance the index of current epigenetic therapies. PMID:28993705

  1. Localization of a portion of the liver isoform of fatty-acid-binding protein (L-FABP) to peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Antonenkov, Vasily D; Sormunen, Raija T; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Amery, Leen; Fransen, Marc; Mannaerts, Guy P; Hiltunen, J Kalervo

    2006-03-01

    The liver isoform of fatty-acid-binding protein (L-FABP) facilitates the cellular uptake, transport and metabolism of fatty acids and is also involved in the regulation of gene expressions and cell differentiation. Consistent with these functions, L-FABP is predominantly present in the cytoplasm and to a lesser extent in the nucleus; however, a significant portion of this protein has also been detected in fractions containing different organelles. More recent observations, notably on L-FABP-deficient mice, indicated a possible direct involvement of L-FABP in the peroxisomal oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. In order to clarify the links between L-FABP and peroxisomal lipid metabolism, we reinvestigated the subcellular distribution of the protein. Analytical subcellular fractionation by a method preserving the intactness of isolated peroxisomes, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with MS analysis, and immunoelectron microscopy of liver sections demonstrate the presence of L-FABP in the matrix of peroxisomes as a soluble protein. Peroxisomal L-FABP was highly inducible by clofibrate. The induction of L-FABP was accompanied by a marked increase in the binding capacity of peroxisomal matrix proteins for oleic acid and cis-parinaric acid. The peroxisomal beta-oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA and acyl-CoA thioesterase activity were stimulated by L-FABP, indicating that the protein modulates the function of peroxisomal lipid-metabolizing enzymes. The possible role of intraperoxisomal L-FABP in lipid metabolism is discussed.

  2. Expression of epidermal fatty acid binding protein (E-FABP) in septoclasts in the growth plate cartilage of mice.

    PubMed

    Bando, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Sakiyama, Koji; Inoue, Katsuyuki; Takizawa, Shota; Owada, Yuji; Iseki, Shoichi; Kondo, Hisatake; Amano, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a role in regulating the growth of the long bones. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) bind and transport hydrophobic long-chain fatty acids intracellularly, and epidermal-type FABP (E-FABP) has an affinity for n-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to clarify the localization of E-FABP in the growth plate of the mouse tibia. At the chondro-osseous junction (COJ) of the growth plate, E-FABP-immunoreactivity was exclusively localized in mononuclear, spindle-shaped cells with several long processes. These E-FABP-immunoreactive cells were identified as being septoclasts, i.e., cells that resorb uncalcified transverse septa. The processes of these immunoreactive septoclasts terminated between the longitudinal and transverse septa. E-FABP-immunoreactivity was found in the entire cytoplasm and on the mitochondrial outer membrane. In ontogeny, immunoreactive septoclasts were observed immediately after emergence of the primary ossifying center and were distributed not only at the COJ but also in the metaphysis near the COJ. The number of septoclasts increased at the postnatal age of 1 week (P1w)-P2w, and thereafter gradually decreased; and the cells became concentrated at the COJ after P3w-P4w. The immunoreactivity for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β/δ was detected in these E-FABP-immunoreactive septoclasts. The present results suggest that fatty acids, preferably n-3 ones, are intracellularly transported by E-FABP to various targets, including mitochondria and nucleus, in which PPARβ/δ may play functional roles in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the endochondral ossification.

  3. Epidermal fatty acid-binding protein protects nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells from lipotoxic injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jo-Wen; Montero, Manuel; Bu, Liming; De Leon, Marino

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP/FABP5/DA11) binds and transport long-chain fatty acids in the cytoplasm and may play a protecting role during neuronal injury. We examined whether E-FABP protects nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells (NGFDPC12 cells) from lipotoxic injury observed after palmitic acid (C16:0; PAM) overload. NGFDPC12 cells cultures treated with PAM/bovine serum albumin at 0.3 mM/0.15 mM show PAM-induced lipotoxicity (PAM-LTx) and apoptosis. The apoptosis was preceded by a cellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher levels of E-FABP. Antioxidants MCI-186 and N-acetyl cysteine prevented E-FABP's induction in expression by PAM-LTx, while tert-butyl hydroperoxide increased ROS and E-FABP expression. Non-metabolized methyl ester of PAM, methyl palmitic acid (mPAM), failed to increase cellular ROS, E-FABP gene expression, or trigger apoptosis. Treatment of NGFDPC12 cultures with siE-FABP showed reduced E-FABP levels correlating with higher accumulation of ROS and cell death after exposure to PAM. In contrast, increasing E-FABP cellular levels by pre-loading the cells with recombinant E-FABP diminished the PAM-induced ROS and cell death. Finally, agonists for PPARβ (GW0742) or PPARγ (GW1929) increased E-FABP expression and enhanced the resistance of NGFDPC12 cells to PAM-LTx. We conclude that E-FABP protects NGFDPC12 cells from lipotoxic injury through mechanisms that involve reduction of ROS. Epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP) may protect nerve cells from the damaging exposure to high levels of free fatty acids (FA). We show that E-FABP can neutralize the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the high levels of FA in the cell and protect PC12 cells from lipotoxic injuries common in Type 2 diabetes neuropathy. Potentially, E-FABP gene up-regulation may be mediated through the NFkB pathway and future studies are needed to further evaluate this proposition. PMID:25147052

  4. Low abdominal NIRS values and elevated plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in a premature piglet model of necrotizing enterocolitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To identify early markers of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we hypothesized that continuous abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (A-NIRS) measurement of splanchnic tissue oxygen saturation and intermittent plasma intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (pI-FABP) measured every 6 hours can detect NEC...

  5. Structural and functional interaction of fatty acids with human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-05-01

    The human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant, the most common in the FABP family, has been associated with elevated liver triglyceride levels. How this amino acid substitution elicits these effects is not known. This issue was addressed using human recombinant wild-type (WT) and T94A variant L-FABP proteins as well as cultured primary human hepatocytes expressing the respective proteins (genotyped as TT, TC and CC). The T94A substitution did not alter or only slightly altered L-FABP binding affinities for saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids, nor did it change the affinity for intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Nevertheless, the T94A substitution markedly altered the secondary structural response of L-FABP induced by binding long chain fatty acids or intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Finally, the T94A substitution markedly decreased the levels of induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-regulated proteins such as L-FABP, fatty acid transport protein 5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α itself meditated by the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Thus, although the T94A substitution did not alter the affinity of human L-FABP for long chain fatty acids, it significantly altered human L-FABP structure and stability, as well as the conformational and functional response to these ligands. © 2014 FEBS.

  6. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, aP2, alters late atherosclerotic lesion formation in severe hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Boord, Jeffrey B; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Makowski, Liza; Babaev, Vladimir R; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2002-10-01

    The adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, aP2, has important effects on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Its expression in macrophages enhances early foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in vivo. This study was designed to determine whether aP2 deficiency has a similar effect in the setting of advanced atherosclerosis and severe hypercholesterolemia. Mice deficient in aP2 and apolipoprotein E (aP2(-/-)apoE(-/-) mice) and apolipoprotein E-deficient control mice (apoE(-/-) mice) were fed a Western diet for 14 weeks. No significant differences in fasting serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or free fatty acids were found between groups for each sex. Compared with apoE(-/-) control mice, male and female aP2(-/-)apoE(-/-) mice had significant reductions in mean atherosclerotic lesion size in the proximal aorta, en face aorta, and innominate/right carotid artery. Feeding the Western diet in the apoE-deficient background did not cause a significant reduction in insulin sensitivity in vivo, as determined by steady-state serum glucose levels and insulin tolerance testing. These data demonstrate an important role for aP2 expression in the advanced stages of atherosclerotic lesion formation. Thus, aP2 provides an important physiological link between different features of the metabolic syndrome and is a potential target for therapy of atherosclerosis.

  7. Localization of a portion of the liver isoform of fatty-acid-binding protein (L-FABP) to peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Antonenkov, Vasily D.; Sormunen, Raija T.; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Amery, Leen; Fransen, Marc; Mannaerts, Guy P.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2005-01-01

    The liver isoform of fatty-acid-binding protein (L-FABP) facilitates the cellular uptake, transport and metabolism of fatty acids and is also involved in the regulation of gene expressions and cell differentiation. Consistent with these functions, L-FABP is predominantly present in the cytoplasm and to a lesser extent in the nucleus; however, a significant portion of this protein has also been detected in fractions containing different organelles. More recent observations, notably on L-FABP-deficient mice, indicated a possible direct involvement of L-FABP in the peroxisomal oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. In order to clarify the links between L-FABP and peroxisomal lipid metabolism, we reinvestigated the subcellular distribution of the protein. Analytical subcellular fractionation by a method preserving the intactness of isolated peroxisomes, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with MS analysis, and immunoelectron microscopy of liver sections demonstrate the presence of L-FABP in the matrix of peroxisomes as a soluble protein. Peroxisomal L-FABP was highly inducible by clofibrate. The induction of L-FABP was accompanied by a marked increase in the binding capacity of peroxisomal matrix proteins for oleic acid and cis-parinaric acid. The peroxisomal β-oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA and acyl-CoA thioesterase activity were stimulated by L-FABP, indicating that the protein modulates the function of peroxisomal lipid-metabolizing enzymes. The possible role of intraperoxisomal L-FABP in lipid metabolism is discussed. PMID:16262600

  8. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-ablation Exacerbates Weight Gain in High-Fat Fed Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Storey, Stephen M.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Loss of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) decreases long chain fatty acid uptake and oxidation in primary hepatocytes and in vivo. On this basis, L-FABP gene ablation would potentiate high-fat diet-induced weight gain and weight gain/energy intake. While this was indeed the case when L-FABP null (−/−) mice on the C57BL/6NCr background were pair-fed high fat diet, whether this would also be observed under high-fat diet fed ad libitum was not known. Therefore, this possibility was examined in female L-FABP (−/−) mice on the same background. L-FABP (−/−) mice consumed equal amounts of defined high-fat or isocaloric control diets fed ad libitum. However, on the ad libitum fed high-fat diet the L-FABP (−/−) mice exhibited: 1) Decreased hepatic long chain fatty acid (LCFA) β-oxidation as indicated by lower serum β–hydroxybutyrate level; 2) Decreased hepatic protein levels of key enzymes mitochondrial (rate limiting carnitine palmitoyl acyltransferase A1, CPT1A; HMG-CoA synthase) and peroxisomal (acyl CoA oxidase 1, ACOX1) LCFA β-oxidation; 3) Increased fat tissue mass (FTM) and FTM/energy intake to the greatest extent; and 4) Exacerbated body weight gain, weight gain/energy intake, liver weight, and liver weight/body weight to the greatest extent. Taken together, these findings showed that L-FABP gene-ablation exacerbated diet-induced weight gain and fat tissue mass gain in mice fed high-fat diet ad libitum—consistent with the known biochemistry and cell biology of L-FABP. PMID:23539345

  9. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and FABP5 modulate cytokine production in the mouse thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yasuhiro; Hiramatsu, Sumie; Tokuda, Nobuko; Sharifi, Kazem; Ebrahimi, Majid; Islam, Ariful; Kagawa, Yoshiteru; Koshy Vaidyan, Linda; Sawada, Tomoo; Hamano, Kimikazu; Owada, Yuji

    2012-09-01

    Thymic stromal cells, including cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTEC) produce many humoral factors, such as cytokines and eicosanoids to modulate thymocyte homeostasis, thereby regulating the peripheral immune responses. In this study, we identified fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4), an intracellular fatty acid chaperone, in the mouse thymus, and examined its role in the control of cytokine production in comparison with FABP5. By immunofluorescent staining, FABP4(+) cells enclosing the thymocytes were scattered throughout the thymic cortex with a spatial difference from the FABP5(+) cell that were distributed widely throughout the cTEC. The FABP4(+) cells were immunopositive for MHC class II, NLDC145 and cytokeratin 8, and were identified as part of cTEC. The FABP4(+) cells were identified as thymic nurse cells (TNC), a subpopulation of cTEC, by their active phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes. Furthermore, FABP4 expression was confirmed in the isolated TNC at the gene and protein levels. To explore the function of FABP in TNC, TSt-4/DLL1 cells stably expressing either FABP4 or FABP5 were established and the gene expressions of various cytokines were examined. The gene expression of interleukin (IL)-7 and IL-18 was increased both in FABP4 and FABP5 over-expressing cells compared with controls, and moreover, the increase in their expressions by adding of stearic acids was significantly enhanced in the FABP4 over-expressing cells. These data suggest that both FABPs are involved in the maintenance of T lymphocyte homeostasis through the modulation of cytokine production, which is possibly regulated by cellular fatty acid-mediated signaling in TEC, including TNC.

  10. Altered fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) expression and function in human and animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kyle J; Austin, Rebecca Garland; Nazari, Shayan S; Gersin, Keith S; Iannitti, David A; McKillop, Iain H

    2017-11-24

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Risk factors for developing HCC include viral hepatitis, alcohol and obesity. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) and are expressed in a tissue-specific pattern; FABP1 being the predominant hepatic form, and FABP4 the predominant adipocyte form. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression and function of FABPs1-9 in human and animal models of obesity-related HCC. FABP1-9 expression was determined in a mouse model of obesity-promoted HCC. Based on these data, expression and function of FABP4 was determined in human HCC cells (HepG2 and HuH7) in vitro. Serum from patients with different underlying hepatic pathologies was analysed for circulating FABP4 levels. Livers from obese mice, independent of tumour status, exhibited increased FABP4 mRNA and protein expression concomitant with elevated serum FABP4. In vitro, FABP4 expression was induced in human HCC cells by FFA treatment, and led to FABP4 release into culture medium. Treatment of HCC cells with exogenous FABP4 significantly increased proliferation and migration of human HCC cells. Patient serum analysis demonstrated significantly increased FABP4 in those with underlying liver disease, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and HCC. These data suggest FABP4, an FABP not normally expressed in the liver, can be synthesized and secreted by hepatocytes and HCC cells, and that FABP4 may play a role in regulating tumour progression in the underlying setting of obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Risk stratification in acute pulmonary embolism with heart-type fatty acid-binding protein: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Anurag; Rathor, Parul; Sehgal, Vishal; Shetty, Ajay; Kabak, Besher; Hosur, Srikanth

    2015-10-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) has emerged as a new biomarker in risk stratification of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). We performed a meta-analysis of studies in patients with acute PE to assess the prognostic value of elevated H-FABP for short-term adverse outcomes. Two independent reviewers systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database until June 2014. Studies were searched using MeSH word "fatty acid-binding protein" and "pulmonary embolism." Prospective studies were included if those were done on patients with acute PE and if serum H-FABP assay was done. Relevant data on study design, year of publication, patient population, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, mean age, sex, type of H-FABP assay, cutoff of H-FABP used, and outcomes were extracted. The primary end point was 30-day complicated clinical course and PE-related mortality. The secondary end point was right ventricular dysfunction (RVD). A random-effects model was used to pool study results. Nine studies, including 1680 patients, reported data on the 30-day complicated clinical course. Elevated H-FABP was significantly associated with the increased risk of 30-day complicated clinical course (odds ratio [OR], 17.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.02-51.89; I(2) = 80%). Similarly, 6 studies, including 676 patients, reported 30-day mortality data. Elevated H-FABP was associated with increased risk of 30-day PE-related mortality (OR, 32.94; 95% CI, 8.80-123.21, I(2) = 53%). The risk of RVD was significantly higher in patients with elevated H-FABP as compared with patients with normal H-FABP (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.05-6.33, I(2) = 57%). The prognostic sensitivity and specificity of H-FABP were 71% and 74% in predicting 30-day complicated clinical course and were 90% and 70% in predicting 30-day mortality. This meta-analysis indicates that elevated H-FABP levels are associated with increased risk of 30-day complicated clinical course, mortality, and RVD

  12. Comparative Study of the Fatty Acid Binding Process of a New FABP from Cherax quadricarinatus by Fluorescence Intensity, Lifetime and Anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiayao; Henry, Etienne; Wang, Lanmei; Delelis, Olivier; Wang, Huan; Simon, Françoise; Tauc, Patrick; Brochon, Jean-Claude; Zhao, Yunlong; Deprez, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytosolic proteins, largely distributed in invertebrates and vertebrates, which accomplish uptake and intracellular transport of hydrophobic ligands such as fatty acids. Although long chain fatty acids play multiple crucial roles in cellular functions (structural, energy metabolism, regulation of gene expression), the precise functions of FABPs, especially those of invertebrate species, remain elusive. Here, we have identified and characterized a novel FABP family member, Cq-FABP, from the hepatopancreas of red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. We report the characterization of fatty acid-binding affinity of Cq-FABP by four different competitive fluorescence-based assays. In the two first approaches, the fluorescent probe 8-Anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS), a binder of internal cavities of protein, was used either by directly monitoring its fluorescence emission or by monitoring the fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurring between the single tryptophan residue of Cq-FABP and ANS. The third and the fourth approaches were based on the measurement of the fluorescence emission intensity of the naturally fluorescent cis-parinaric acid probe or the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy measurements of a fluorescently labeled fatty acid (BODIPY-C16), respectively. The four methodologies displayed consistent equilibrium constants for a given fatty acid but were not equivalent in terms of analysis. Indeed, the two first methods were complicated by the existence of non specific binding modes of ANS while BODIPY-C16 and cis-parinaric acid specifically targeted the fatty acid binding site. We found a relationship between the affinity and the length of the carbon chain, with the highest affinity obtained for the shortest fatty acid, suggesting that steric effects primarily influence the interaction of fatty acids in the binding cavity of Cq-FABP. Moreover, our results show that the binding affinities of several fatty

  13. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL INTERACTION OF FATTY ACIDS WITH HUMAN LIVER FATTY ACID BINDING PROTEIN (L-FABP) T94A VARIANT

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Landrock, Danilo; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-01-01

    The human liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant, the most common in the FABP family, has been associated with elevated liver triglyceride (TG) levels. How this amino acid substitution elicits these effects is not known. This issue was addressed with human recombinant wild-type (WT, T94T) and T94A variant L-FABP proteins as well as cultured primary human hepatocytes expressing the respective proteins (genotyped as TT, TC, and CC). T94A substitution did not or only slightly alter L-FABP binding affinities for saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids (LCFA), nor did it change the affinity for intermediates in TG synthesis. Nevertheless, T94A substitution markedly altered the secondary structural response of L-FABP induced by binding LCFA or intermediates of TG synthesis. Finally, T94A substitution markedly diminished polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) - regulated proteins such as L-FABP, fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5), and PPARα itself in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Thus, while T94A substitution did not alter the affinity of human L-FABP for LCFAs, it significantly altered human L-FABP structure and stability as well as conformational and functional response to these ligands. PMID:24628888

  14. Proteomic analysis of the intestinal adaptation response reveals altered expression of fatty acid binding proteins following massive small bowel resection.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Andrew N; Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Wilson, Guineva; Taylor, Russell G; Rainczuk, Adam; Meehan, Katie L; Sourial, Magdy; Fuller, Peter J; Stanton, Peter G; Robertson, David M; Bines, Julie E

    2010-03-05

    Intestinal adaptation in response to the loss of the small intestine is essential to restore enteral autonomy in patients who have undergone massive small bowel resection (MSBR). In a proportion of patients, intestinal function is not restored, resulting in chronic intestinal failure (IF). Early referral of such patients for transplant provides the best prognosis; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain elusive and there is currently no convenient marker to predict whether patients will develop IF. We have investigated the adaptation response in a well-characterized porcine model of intestinal adaptation. 2D DIGE analysis of ileal epithelium from piglets recovering from massive small bowel resection (MSBR) identified over 60 proteins that changed specifically in MSBR animals relative to nonoperational or sham-operated controls. Three fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP, FABP-6, and I-FABP) showed changes in MSBR animals. The expression changes and localization of each FABP were validated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis. FABP expression changes in MSBR animals occurred concurrently with altered triglyceride and bile acid metabolism as well as weight gain. The observed FABP expression changes in the ileal epithelium occur as part of the intestinal adaptation response and could provide a clinically useful marker to evaluate adaptation following MSBR.

  15. Serum levels of fatty acid binding protein 4 and fat metabolic markers in relation to catecholamines following exercise.

    PubMed

    Iso, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Matsui, Hiroki; Kasama, Shu; Oshima, Naomi; Haruyama, Hikari; Furukawa, Nozomi; Nakajima, Kiyomi; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2017-11-01

    Lipolysis is stimulated by activation of adrenergic inputs to adipose tissues. Our recent study showed that serum concentrations of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) are robustly elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction and ventricular tachyarrhythmia, that display a marked activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, it remains unknown whether circulating FABP4 concentrations are associated with exercise-induced SNS activation. Thirty one healthy volunteers underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer up to the workload levels below and above anaerobic threshold, low- and high-intensity exercise, respectively. Serial blood samplings were performed before and after exercise. High-intensity exercise significantly increased serum concentrations of FABP4 and catecholamines, and their concentrations declined fast thereafter in a similar fashion. These changes were accompanied by little, if any, changes in other metabolic markers. Regardless of adiposity, percent change from baseline to peak FABP4 levels (%FABP4) was comparable in all subjects. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that %FABP4 was highly correlated with that in norepinephrine. Our study reveals the significant correlation between circulating FABP4 and norepinephrine levels during exercise testing. Together with the fact that FABP4 is secreted from adipocytes via β-adrenergic-mediated lipolytic mechanisms, this study suggests FABP4 as a potential biomarker for adrenergic overdrive. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunodiagnostic monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA of fasciolosis by detection of Fasciola gigantica circulating fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Chawengkirttikul, Runglawan; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-09-01

    Up to now, parasitological diagnosis of fasciolosis is often unreliable and possesses low sensitivity. Hence, the detection of circulating parasite antigens is thought to be a better alternative for diagnosis of fasciolosis, as it reflects the real parasite burden. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against recombinant Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (rFgFABP) has been produced. As well, a reliable sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich ELISA) has been developed for the detection of circulating FABP in the sera of mice experimentally and cattle naturally infected with F. gigantica. MoAb 3A3 and biotinylated rabbit anti-recombinant FABP antibody were selected due to their high reactivities and specificities. The lower detection limit of sandwich ELISA was 5 pg mL-1, and no cross-reaction with other parasite antigens was observed. This assay could detect F. gigantica infection from day 1 post infection. In experimental mice, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this assay were 93·3, 100 and 98·2%, while in natural cattle they were 96·7, 100 and 99·1%. Hence, this sandwich ELISA method showed high efficiencies and precisions for diagnosis of fasciolosis by F. gigantica.

  17. Cloning and characterization of the fatty acid-binding protein gene from the protoscolex of Taenia multiceps.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hua-Ming; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Yang, Ying-Dong; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Shu-Xian; Peng, Xi; Lai, Wei-Ming; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

    2013-05-01

    Taenia multiceps (Cestoda: Taeniidae), a worldwide cestode parasite, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis due to serious or fatal central nervous system disease commonly known as coenurosis in domestic and wild ruminants including humans. Herein, a fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) gene was identified from transcriptomic data in T. multiceps. This gene, which contains a complete coding sequence, was amplified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The corresponding protein, which was named TmFABP, had a molecular weight of 14 kDa, and subsequently was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein was purified on Ni-NTA beads (Bio-Rad). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses showed that the purified recombinant protein caused immunogenicity. Immunohistochemical studies showed that TmFABP was expressed at the tegumental level in the protoscolices and in the cells between the body wall and parenchyma layer of the cestode. In sections from gravid proglottids, intense staining was detected in the uterus and eggs. Based on this, TmFABP could be switched on during differentiation of germinative layers to protoscoleces and from metacestodes to adult worms. Taken together, our results already reported for T. multiceps suggest the possibility of TmFABP developing a vaccine to control and prevent coenurosis.

  18. A sensitive capacitive immunosensor for direct detection of human heart fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP).

    PubMed

    Mihailescu, Carmen-Marinela; Stan, Dana; Iosub, Rodica; Moldovan, Carmen; Savin, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of a capacitive interdigitated immunosensor (CID) based on a mixed self-assembled monolayer (mSAM) film for the direct detection of heart fatty-acid binding protein (h-FABP) without any labeling is described. The capacitance changes of mSAMs vs. homogenous ordered self-assembled monolayers (hSAMs) on gold work electrodes/covalently bonded antibodies/buffered medium are utilized for monitoring the specific antibody-antigen interaction. Capacitance measurements in the absence and presence of Faradaic currents were performed. The electrochemical properties of mixed monolayers were compared with those of a pure monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) self-assembled on gold surfaces. Taking into account the stability of the studied monolayers during the electrochemical experiments with the Faradaic process, the best SAM functionalization method was used for developing a sensitive capacitive immunosensor with a non-Faradaic process for direct immune detection of human h-FABP. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed mixed self-assembled monolayer (mSAM1) on gold electrode exhibited good insulating properties such as a capacitive behavior when detecting h-FABP from human serum in the range of 98 pg ml(-1)-100 ng ml(-1), with a detection limit of 0.836 ng ml(-1) comparative with a homogenous self-assembled monolayer (hSAM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An Evidence-Based Approach to the Assessment of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Karthik; Hall, Alistair S; Barth, Julian H

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac troponins have been the biomarkers of choice for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for over a decade. There has, however, been considerable interest over the last two decades for newer biomarkers that would bring added value to the measurement of troponin such as the provision of prognosis and assistance in the choice of therapeutic interventions. In this manuscript, we review the development of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in patients with ACS using the evidence-based laboratory medicine format. Phase I studies have established that H-FABP reference intervals and pre-analytical factors influencing H-FABP. Phase II studies have confirmed a) that H-FABP is elevated in patients with established myocardial infarction; b) that its serum concentration is related to the extent of infarction using survival as a surrogate; and c) that its use in chest pain patients can identify ACS patients and also provide prognostic information on survival. Furthermore, it is an independent prognostic marker for patients with suspected ACS who are troponin negative. Phase III studies involving randomised control trials for diagnosis and prognosis have not yet been performed and Phase IV studies await uptake of H-FABP in a routine service. PMID:22363093

  20. Cytokine-like Activity of Liver Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (L-FABP) Inducing Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Gil, Gaae; Lee, Siyoung; Kwak, Areum; Jo, Seunghyun; Kim, Ensom; Nguyen, Tam T.; Kim, Sinae; Jhun, Hyunjhung; Kim, Somi; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) do not act only as intracellular mediators of lipid responses but also have extracellular functions. This study aimed to investigate whether extracellular liver type (L)-FABP has a biological activity and to determined serum L-FABP levels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We isolated L-FABP complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) from the Huh7 human hepatocarcinoma cell line and expressed the recombinant L-FABP protein in Escherichia coli. A549 lung carcinoma and THP-1 monocytic cells were stimulated with the human recombinant L-FABP. Human whole blood cells were also treated with the human recombinant L-FABP or interleukin (IL)-1α. IL-6 levels were measured in cell culture supernatants using IL-6 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Human recombinant L-FABP induced IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner in A549, THP-1 cells, and whole blood cells. The blood samples of healthy volunteers and patients with ESRD were taken after an overnight fast. The serum levels of L-FABP in healthy volunteers and ESRD patients were quantified with L-FABP ELISA. The values of L-FABP in patients with ESRD were significantly lower than those in the control group. Our results demonstrated the biological activity of L-FABP in human cells suggesting L-FABP can be a mediator of inflammation. PMID:27799875

  1. Fatty acid binding protein 4 enhances prostate cancer progression by upregulating matrix metalloproteinases and stromal cell cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingguo; Narita, Shintaro; Inoue, Takamitsu; Koizumi, Atsushi; Saito, Mitsuru; Tsuruta, Hiroshi; Numakura, Kazuyuki; Satoh, Shigeru; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Takehiko; Habuchi, Tomonori

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is an abundant protein in adipocytes, and its production is influenced by high-fat diet (HFD) or obesity. The prostate stromal microenvironment induces proinflammatory cytokine production, which is key for the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we show that high FABP4 expression and its secretion by PCa cells directly stimulated PCa cell invasiveness by upregulating matrix metalloproteinases through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. In addition, prostate stromal cells augmented PCa cell invasiveness by secreting interleukin-8 and -6 in response to FABP4. This was abrogated by the FABP4 specific inhibitor, BMS309403. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft experiment showed HFD enhanced PCa metastasis and invasiveness by the upregulation of FABP4 and interleukin-8. Clinically, the serum level of FABP4 was significantly associated with an aggressive type of PCa rather than obesity. Taken together, FABP4 may enhance PCa progression and invasiveness by upregulating matrix metalloproteinases and cytokine production in the PCa stromal microenvironment, especially under HFD or obesity. PMID:29340091

  2. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 impairs the insulin-dependent nitric oxide pathway in vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) plasma levels are associated with impaired endothelial function in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this work, we analysed the effect of FABP4 on the insulin-mediated nitric oxide (NO) production by endothelial cells in vitro. Methods In human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), we measured the effects of FABP4 on the insulin-mediated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activation and on NO production. We also explored the impact of exogenous FABP4 on the insulin-signalling pathway (insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt). Results We found that eNOS expression and activation and NO production are significantly inhibited by exogenous FABP4 in HUVECs. FABP4 induced an alteration of the insulin-mediated eNOS pathway by inhibiting IRS1 and Akt activation. These results suggest that FABP4 induces endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting the activation of the insulin-signalling pathway resulting in decreased eNOS activation and NO production. Conclusion These findings provide a mechanistic linkage between FABP4 and impaired endothelial function in diabetes, which leads to an increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:22709426

  3. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 (FABP4): Pathophysiological Insights and Potent Clinical Biomarker of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidences of an integration of metabolic and inflammatory pathways, referred to as metaflammation in several aspects of metabolic syndrome, have been accumulating. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), also known as adipocyte FABP (A-FABP) or aP2, is mainly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages and plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in relation to metaflammation. Despite lack of a typical secretory signal peptide, FABP4 has been shown to be released from adipocytes in a non-classical pathway associated with lipolysis, possibly acting as an adipokine. Elevation of circulating FABP4 levels is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular events. Furthermore, ectopic expression and function of FABP4 in several types of cells and tissues have been recently demonstrated. Here, we discuss both the significant role of FABP4 in pathophysiological insights and its usefulness as a biomarker of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25674026

  4. Common FABP4 genetic variants and plasma levels of fatty acid binding protein 4 in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Wilk, Jemma B; Biggs, Mary L; Jensen, Majken K; Ix, Joachim H; Kizer, Jorge R; Tracy, Russell P; Zieman, Susan J; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Psaty, Bruce M; Siscovick, David S; Djoussé, Luc

    2013-11-01

    We examined common variants in the fatty acid binding protein 4 gene (FABP4) and plasma levels of FABP4 in adults aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study. We genotyped rs16909187, rs1054135, rs16909192, rs10808846, rs7018409, rs2290201, and rs6992708 and measured circulating FABP4 levels among 3190 European Americans and 660 African Americans. Among European Americans, the minor alleles of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were associated with lower FABP4 levels (all p ≤ 0.01). Among African Americans, the SNP with the lowest minor allele frequency was associated with lower FABP4 levels (p = 0.015). The C-A haplotype of rs16909192 and rs2290201 was associated with lower FABP4 levels in both European Americans (frequency = 16 %; p = 0.001) and African Americans (frequency = 8 %; p = 0.04). The haplotype combined a SNP in the first intron with one in the 3'untranslated region. However, the alleles associated with lower FABP4 levels were associated with higher fasting glucose in meta-analyses from the MAGIC consortium. These results demonstrate associations of common SNP and haplotypes in the FABP4 gene with lower plasma FABP4 but higher fasting glucose levels.

  5. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 (FABP4): Pathophysiological Insights and Potent Clinical Biomarker of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Masato; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidences of an integration of metabolic and inflammatory pathways, referred to as metaflammation in several aspects of metabolic syndrome, have been accumulating. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), also known as adipocyte FABP (A-FABP) or aP2, is mainly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages and plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in relation to metaflammation. Despite lack of a typical secretory signal peptide, FABP4 has been shown to be released from adipocytes in a non-classical pathway associated with lipolysis, possibly acting as an adipokine. Elevation of circulating FABP4 levels is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular events. Furthermore, ectopic expression and function of FABP4 in several types of cells and tissues have been recently demonstrated. Here, we discuss both the significant role of FABP4 in pathophysiological insights and its usefulness as a biomarker of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Endothelial cell-fatty acid binding protein 4 promotes angiogenesis: role of stem cell factor/c-kit pathway

    PubMed Central

    Elmasri, Harun; Ghelfi, Elisa; Yu, Chen-wei; Traphagen, Samantha; Cernadas, Manuela; Cao, Haiming; Shi, Guo-Ping; Plutzky, Jorge; Sahin, Mustafa; Hotamisligil, Gokhan; Cataltepe, Sule

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) plays an important role in regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as inflammation through its actions in adipocytes and macrophages. FABP4 is also expressed in a subset of endothelial cells, but its role in this cell type is not known. We found that FABP4-deficient human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) demonstrate a markedly increased susceptibility to apoptosis as well as decreased migration and capillary network formation. Aortic rings from FABP4−/− mice demonstrated decreased angiogenic sprouting, which was recovered by reconstitution of FABP4. FABP4 was strongly regulated by mTORC1 and inhibited by Rapamycin. FABP4 modulated activation of several important signaling pathways in HUVECs, including downregulation of P38, eNOS, and stem cell factor (SCF)/c-kit signaling. Of these, the SCF/c-kit pathway was found to have a major role in attenuated angiogenic activity of FABP4-deficient ECs as provision of exogenous SCF resulted in a significant recovery in cell proliferation, survival, morphogenesis, and aortic ring sprouting. These data unravel a novel pro-angiogenic role for endothelial cell-FABP4 and suggest that it could be exploited as a potential target for diseases associated with pathological angiogenesis. PMID:22562362

  7. Δ98Δ, a minimalist model of antiparallel β-sheet proteins based on intestinal fatty acid binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Curto, Lucrecia María; Caramelo, Julio Javier; Franchini, Gisela Raquel; Delfino, José María

    2009-01-01

    The design of β-barrels has always been a formidable challenge for de novo protein design. For instance, a persistent problem is posed by the intrinsic tendency to associate given by free edges. From the opposite standpoint provided by the redesign of natural motifs, we believe that the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) framework allows room for intervention, giving rise to abridged forms from which lessons on β-barrel architecture and stability could be learned. In this context, Δ98Δ (encompassing residues 29–126 of IFABP) emerges as a monomeric variant that folds properly, retaining functional activity, despite lacking extensive stretches involved in the closure of the β-barrel. Spectroscopic probes (fluorescence and circular dichroism) support the existence of a form preserving the essential determinants of the parent structure, albeit endowed with enhanced flexibility. Chemical and physical perturbants reveal cooperative unfolding transitions, with evidence of significant population of intermediate species in equilibrium, structurally akin to those transiently observed in IFABP. The recognition by the natural ligand oleic acid exerts a mild stabilizing effect, being of a greater magnitude than that found for IFABP. In summary, Δ98Δ adopts a monomeric state with a compact core and a loose periphery, thus pointing to the nonintuitive notion that the integrity of the β-barrel can indeed be compromised with no consequence on the ability to attain a native-like and functional fold. PMID:19309727

  8. Serum Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 (FABP4) Predicts Pre-eclampsia in Women With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wotherspoon, Amy C; Young, Ian S; McCance, David R; Patterson, Chris C; Maresh, Michael J A; Pearson, Donald W M; Walker, James D; Holmes, Valerie A

    2016-10-01

    To examine the association between fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and pre-eclampsia risk in women with type 1 diabetes. Serum FABP4 was measured in 710 women from the Diabetes and Pre-eclampsia Intervention Trial (DAPIT) in early pregnancy and in the second trimester (median 14 and 26 weeks' gestation, respectively). FABP4 was significantly elevated in early pregnancy (geometric mean 15.8 ng/mL [interquartile range 11.6-21.4] vs. 12.7 ng/mL [interquartile range 9.6-17]; P < 0.001) and the second trimester (18.8 ng/mL [interquartile range 13.6-25.8] vs. 14.6 ng/mL [interquartile range 10.8-19.7]; P < 0.001) in women in whom pre-eclampsia later developed. Elevated second-trimester FABP4 level was independently associated with pre-eclampsia (odds ratio 2.87 [95% CI 1.24-6.68], P = 0.03). The addition of FABP4 to established risk factors significantly improved net reclassification improvement at both time points and integrated discrimination improvement in the second trimester. Increased second-trimester FABP4 independently predicted pre-eclampsia and significantly improved reclassification and discrimination. FABP4 shows potential as a novel biomarker for pre-eclampsia prediction in women with type 1 diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Induces Hepatic Steatosis by Enhancing the Expression of Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun-Li; Peng, Xian-E; Zhu, Yi-Bing; Yan, Xiao-Li; Chen, Wan-Nan; Lin, Xu

    2016-02-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been implicated as a potential trigger of hepatic steatosis although molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HBV-associated hepatic steatosis still remain elusive. Our prior work has revealed that the expression level of liver fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1), a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was elevated in HBV-producing hepatoma cells. In this study, the effects of HBV X protein (HBx) mediated FABP1 regulation on hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanism were determined. mRNA and protein levels of FABP1 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. HBx-mediated FABP1 regulation was evaluated by luciferase assay, coimmunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Hepatic lipid accumulation was measured by using Oil-Red-O staining and the triglyceride level. It was found that expression of FABP1 was increased in HBV-producing hepatoma cells, the sera of HBV-infected patients, and the sera and liver tissues of HBV-transgenic mice. Ectopic overexpression of HBx resulted in upregulation of FABP1 in HBx-expressing hepatoma cells, whereas HBx abolishment reduced FABP1 expression. Mechanistically, HBx activated the FABP1 promoter in an HNF3β-, C/EBPα-, and PPARα-dependent manner, in which HBx increased the gene expression of HNF3β and physically interacted with C/EBPα and PPARα. On the other hand, knockdown of FABP1 remarkably blocked lipid accumulation both in long-chain free fatty acids treated HBx-expressing HepG2 cells and in a high-fat diet-fed HBx-transgenic mice. Therefore, FABP1 is a key driver gene in HBx-induced hepatic lipid accumulation via regulation of HNF3β, C/EBPα, and PPARα. FABP1 may represent a novel target for treatment of HBV-associated hepatic steatosis. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has indicated that chronic HBV infection is associated with hepatic steatosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying HBV

  10. Fatty Acid-binding Proteins (FABPs) Are Intracellular Carriers for Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD)*

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, Matthew W.; Kaczocha, Martin; Berger, William T.; Leung, KwanNok; Ralph, Brian P.; Wang, Liqun; Sweeney, Joseph M.; Miyauchi, Jeremy T.; Tsirka, Stella E.; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale G.

    2015-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) occur naturally in marijuana (Cannabis) and may be formulated, individually or in combination in pharmaceuticals such as Marinol or Sativex. Although it is known that these hydrophobic compounds can be transported in blood by albumin or lipoproteins, the intracellular carrier has not been identified. Recent reports suggest that CBD and THC elevate the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) when administered to humans, suggesting that phytocannabinoids target cellular proteins involved in endocannabinoid clearance. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate AEA transport to its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). By computational analysis and ligand displacement assays, we show that at least three human FABPs bind THC and CBD and demonstrate that THC and CBD inhibit the cellular uptake and catabolism of AEA by targeting FABPs. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to rodent FAAH, CBD does not inhibit the enzymatic actions of human FAAH, and thus FAAH inhibition cannot account for the observed increase in circulating AEA in humans following CBD consumption. Using computational molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis we identify key residues within the active site of FAAH that confer the species-specific sensitivity to inhibition by CBD. Competition for FABPs may in part or wholly explain the increased circulating levels of endocannabinoids reported after consumption of cannabinoids. These data shed light on the mechanism of action of CBD in modulating the endocannabinoid tone in vivo and may explain, in part, its reported efficacy toward epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:25666611

  11. Expression of psoriasis-associated fatty acid-binding protein in senescent human dermal microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ha, Moon Kyung; Chung, Kee Yang; Lee, Ju Hee; Bang, Dongsik; Park, Yoon Kee; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2004-09-01

    Aging is associated with the progressive pathophysiologic modification of endothelial cells. In vitro endothelial cell senescence is accompanied by proliferative activity failure and by perturbations in gene and protein expressions. Moreover, this cellular senescence in culture has been proposed to reflect processes that occur in aging organisms. In order to observe the changing patterns of protein expression in senescent human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs), proteins obtained from both early- and late-passaged HDMECs were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, visualized by silver staining, and quantified by image processing. Proteins of interest were extracted by in-gel digestion with trypsin and quantified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), by searching the National Center for Biotechnology Information protein-sequence database. More than 2000 spots were detected by 2D electrophoresis within a linear pH range of 3-10. Twenty-two major differentially expressed spots were observed in serially passaged HDMECs and identified with high confidence by MALDI-TOF-MS. One of these spots was found to be a 14-15 kDa psoriasis-associated fatty acid-binding protein (PA-FABP) with high affinity for long-chain fatty acids. The expression of PA-FABP was confirmed to be elevated in senescent HDMECs (passage 20) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), confocal laser microscopy, and by immunohistochemistry in aged human skin tissue. Our results suggest that the overexpression of FABP in cultured senescent HDMECs is closely related to skin aging.

  12. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

    PubMed

    Elmes, Matthew W; Kaczocha, Martin; Berger, William T; Leung, KwanNok; Ralph, Brian P; Wang, Liqun; Sweeney, Joseph M; Miyauchi, Jeremy T; Tsirka, Stella E; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale G

    2015-04-03

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) occur naturally in marijuana (Cannabis) and may be formulated, individually or in combination in pharmaceuticals such as Marinol or Sativex. Although it is known that these hydrophobic compounds can be transported in blood by albumin or lipoproteins, the intracellular carrier has not been identified. Recent reports suggest that CBD and THC elevate the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) when administered to humans, suggesting that phytocannabinoids target cellular proteins involved in endocannabinoid clearance. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate AEA transport to its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). By computational analysis and ligand displacement assays, we show that at least three human FABPs bind THC and CBD and demonstrate that THC and CBD inhibit the cellular uptake and catabolism of AEA by targeting FABPs. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to rodent FAAH, CBD does not inhibit the enzymatic actions of human FAAH, and thus FAAH inhibition cannot account for the observed increase in circulating AEA in humans following CBD consumption. Using computational molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis we identify key residues within the active site of FAAH that confer the species-specific sensitivity to inhibition by CBD. Competition for FABPs may in part or wholly explain the increased circulating levels of endocannabinoids reported after consumption of cannabinoids. These data shed light on the mechanism of action of CBD in modulating the endocannabinoid tone in vivo and may explain, in part, its reported efficacy toward epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein Ala54Thr polymorphism is associated with peripheral atherosclerosis combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Salma A; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Ghattas, Maivel H; Mesbah, Noha M; Mehanna, Eman T

    2017-09-01

    Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) is expressed in enterocytes and binds saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. The FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism has been reported to effect lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between this polymorphism and peripheral atherosclerosis combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in an Egyptian population. The study was performed on 100 T2DM patients with peripheral atherosclerosis and 100 control subjects. The Ala54Thr polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, whereas serum FABP2 levels were determined using ELISA. Fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin concentrations, HbA1c, lipid profile, body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were determined. There was a higher frequency of the Thr54 allele among the patient group (P = 0.002). In Ala54/Thr54 heterozygotes and carriers of the rare Thr54/Thr54 genotype, there were significant increases in BMI and FABP2. Those with the Thr54/Thr54 genotype had significantly decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations; in addition, those with the Thr54/Thr54 genotype had significantly higher SBP and DBP than subjects with the Ala54/Ala54 and Ala54/Thr54 genotypes. There was a positive correlation between FABP2 levels and BMI, SBP and DBP, and a negative correlation with HDL-C. The Thr54 allele of the FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism was associated with an increased incidence of peripheral atherosclerosis combined with T2DM in the population studied. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. The cancer-promoting gene fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) is epigenetically regulated during human prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Koichiro; Kinameri, Ayumi; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Senga, Shogo; Ke, Youqiang; Fujii, Hiroshi

    2016-02-15

    FABPs (fatty-acid-binding proteins) are a family of low-molecular-mass intracellular lipid-binding proteins consisting of ten isoforms. FABPs are involved in binding and storing hydrophobic ligands such as long-chain fatty acids, as well as transporting these ligands to the appropriate compartments in the cell. FABP5 is overexpressed in multiple types of tumours. Furthermore, up-regulation of FABP5 is strongly associated with poor survival in triple-negative breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the specific up-regulation of the FABP5 gene in these cancers remain poorly characterized. In the present study, we determined that FABP5 has a typical CpG island around its promoter region. The DNA methylation status of the CpG island in the FABP5 promoter of benign prostate cells (PNT2), prostate cancer cells (PC-3, DU-145, 22Rv1 and LNCaP) and human normal or tumour tissue was assessed by bisulfite sequencing analysis, and then confirmed by COBRA (combined bisulfite restriction analysis) and qAMP (quantitative analysis of DNA methylation using real-time PCR). These results demonstrated that overexpression of FABP5 in prostate cancer cells can be attributed to hypomethylation of the CpG island in its promoter region, along with up-regulation of the direct trans-acting factors Sp1 (specificity protein 1) and c-Myc. Together, these mechanisms result in the transcriptional activation of FABP5 expression during human prostate carcinogenesis. Importantly, silencing of Sp1, c-Myc or FABP5 expression led to a significant decrease in cell proliferation, indicating that up-regulation of FABP5 expression by Sp1 and c-Myc is critical for the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  15. Structural and Binding Properties of Two Paralogous Fatty Acid Binding Proteins of Taenia solium Metacestode

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyun-Jong; Shin, Joo-Ho; Diaz-Camacho, Sylvia Paz; Nawa, Yukifumi; Kang, Insug; Kong, Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Fatty acid (FA) binding proteins (FABPs) of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM), a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC), shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2), which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15–95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1) and 8.4 (TsMFABP2). Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]amino)undecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions of lipids

  16. The pathogen-related yeast protein Pry1, a member of the CAP protein superfamily, is a fatty acid-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Rabih; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Gfeller, David; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Schneiter, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Members of the CAP superfamily (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins), also known as SCP superfamily (sperm-coating proteins), have been implicated in many physiological processes, including immune defenses, venom toxicity, and sperm maturation. Their mode of action, however, remains poorly understood. Three proteins of the CAP superfamily, Pry1, -2, and -3 (pathogen related in yeast), are encoded in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We have shown previously that Pry1 binds cholesterol in vitro and that Pry function is required for sterol secretion in yeast cells, indicating that members of this superfamily may generally bind sterols or related small hydrophobic compounds. On the other hand, tablysin-15, a CAP protein from the horsefly Tabanus yao, has been shown to bind leukotrienes and free fatty acids in vitro. Therefore, here we assessed whether the yeast Pry1 protein binds fatty acids. Computational modeling and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the mode of fatty acid binding is conserved between tablysin-15 and Pry1. Pry1 bound fatty acids with micromolar affinity in vitro, and its function was essential for fatty acid export in cells lacking the acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1 and Faa4. Fatty acid binding of Pry1 is independent of its capacity to bind sterols, and the two sterol- and fatty acid-binding sites are nonoverlapping. These results indicate that some CAP family members, such as Pry1, can bind different lipids, particularly sterols and fatty acids, at distinct binding sites, suggesting that the CAP domain may serve as a stable, secreted protein domain that can accommodate multiple ligand-binding sites. PMID:28365570

  17. Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 Modulates Docosahexaenoic Acid-Induced Recovery in Rats Undergoing Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Johnny D.; Serrano-Illan, Miguel; Licero, Jenniffer; Cordero, Kathia; Miranda, Jorge D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) promote functional recovery in rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the precise molecular mechanism coupling n-3 PUFAs to neurorestorative responses is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the spatiotemporal expression of fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) after contusive SCI and to investigate whether this protein plays a role in n-3 PUFA–mediated functional recovery post-SCI. We found that SCI resulted in a robust spinal cord up-regulation in FABP5 mRNA levels (556 ± 187%) and protein expression (518 ± 195%), when compared to sham-operated rats, at 7 days post-injury (dpi). This upregulation coincided with significant alterations in the metabolism of fatty acids in the injured spinal cord, as revealed by metabolomics-based lipid analyses. In particular, we found increased levels of the n-3 series PUFAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) at 7 dpi. Animals consuming a diet rich in DHA and EPA exhibited a significant upregulation in FABP5 mRNA levels at 7 dpi. Immunofluorescence showed low basal FABP5 immunoreactivity in spinal cord ventral gray matter NeuN+ neurons of sham-operated rats. SCI resulted in a robust induction of FABP5 in glial (GFAP+, APC+, and NG2+) and precursor cells (DCX+, nestin+). We found that continuous intrathecal administration of FABP5 silencing with small interfering RNA (2 μg) impaired spontaneous open-field locomotion post-SCI. Further, FABP5 siRNA administration hindered the beneficial effects of DHA to ameliorate functional recovery at 7 dpi. Altogether, our findings suggest that FABP5 may be an important player in the promotion of cellular uptake, transport, and/or metabolism of DHA post-SCI. Given the beneficial roles of n-3 PUFAs in ameliorating functional recovery, we propose that FABP5 is an important contributor to basic repair mechanisms in the

  18. Fatty acid binding protein 5 promotes tumor angiogenesis and activates the IL6/STAT3/VEGFA pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Xiao, Heng; Liao, Rui; Chen, Qingsong; Peng, Chong; Zhang, Yuchi; Mu, Tong; Wu, Zhongjun

    2018-06-25

    Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for facilitating tumor growth and metastasis. Fatty acid binding protein 5(FABP5)is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, we investigated the role of FABP5 in tumor angiogenesis during HCC development. In this study, the protein and mRNA levels of FABP5 in matched HCC and adjacent noncancerous liver tissues from 43 patients were determined using immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. Two HCC cell lines (Huh7 and SMMC-7721) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECS) were used to investigate the pro-angiogenic effect of FABP5 by tube formation, CCK8 and Transwell migration assays. The expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL6) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) secreted from HCC cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In 43 HCC patients, the expression of FABP5 mRNA was positively correlated with intratumoral VEGFA mRNA expression. FABP5 mRNA expression was also associated with adverse HCC characteristics. In vitro, cell viability, cell migration and tube formation in HUVECs were enhanced with increasing expression of FABP5 in HCC cells. Downregulation of FABP5 expression inhibited the IL6/STAT3/VEGFA pathway in HCC cells and inhibited tumor angiogenesis. FABP5 was shown to promote angiogenesis and activate the IL6/STAT3/VEGFA pathway in HCC. FABP5 may be a potential antiangiogenic target in the treatment of HCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Expressed at the Human Blood-Brain Barrier Bind Drugs in an Isoform-Specific Manner.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gordon S; Kappler, Katharina; Porter, Christopher J H; Scanlon, Martin J; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    To examine the expression of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) at the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to assess their ability to bind lipophilic drugs. mRNA and protein expression of FABP subtypes in immortalized human brain endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cells were examined by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. FABPs that were found in hCMEC/D3 cells (hFABPs) were recombinantly expressed and purified from Escherichia coli C41(DE3) cells. Drug binding to these hFABPs was assessed using a fluorescence assay, which measured the ability of a panel of lipophilic drugs to displace the fluorescent probe compound 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS). hFABP3, 4 and 5 were expressed in hCMEC/D3 cells at the mRNA and protein level. The competitive ANS displacement assay demonstrated that, in general, glitazones preferentially bound to hFABP5 (Ki: 1.0-28 μM) and fibrates and fenamates preferentially bound to hFABP4 (Ki: 0.100-17 μM). In general, lipophilic drugs appeared to show weaker affinities for hFABP3 relative to hFABP4 and hFABP5. No clear correlation was observed between the molecular structure or physicochemical properties of the drugs and their ability to displace ANS from hFABP3, 4 and 5. hFABP3, 4 and 5 are expressed at the human BBB and bind differentially to a diverse range of lipophilic drugs. The unique expression and binding patterns of hFABPs at the BBB may therefore influence drug disposition into the brain.

  20. Anthropometric and lipid profile of individuals with severe obesity carrying the fatty acid-binding protein-2 Thr54 allele.

    PubMed

    Kops, Natalia Luiza; Correia Horvath, Jaqueline D; de Castro, Mariana L Dias; Friedman, Rogério

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and lipid profiles of individuals being considered for bariatric surgery, taking into account the presence of the Thr54 allele of the fatty acid-binding protein-2 (FABP-2) gene (rs1799883), and dietary intake. In a cross-sectional study, 120 participants being evaluated for bariatric surgery were asked to keep 24-h dietary records (R24 h) for 3 d, and to collect a 24-h urine sample for measurement of urea (as an assessment of the adequacy of food records) during day 3 of the diet record; a fasting blood sample for laboratory and genetic evaluations was collected. When considering the whole sample, no significant differences were found; however, those who complied with the R24 h (n = 43) had more years of schooling and higher saturated fat intake, but lower weight and body mass index (BMI). When analyzing only the completers, the Thr54 allele carriers showed higher body weight (P = 0.02), BMI (P = 0.03), hip circumference (P = 0.02), basal metabolic rate (P = 0.02), and homeostatic model assessment-β (P = 0.04) compared with those who were homozygous for Ala54. When the participants complied with the R24 h, Thr54 carriers were shown to have higher anthropometric parameters and higher homeostatic model assessment-β values than those with the wild genotype, but the lipid profile resulted similar in both carriers and noncarriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations of serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein with body composition and fat distribution in nondiabetic Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yaping; Ma, Xiaojing; Luo, Yuqi; Hu, Xiang; Pan, Xiaoping; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated evidence of a positive relationship between serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and obesity. However, associations of A-FABP with body composition and ectopic fat accumulation remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of body composition, visceral fat area (VFA), and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) on serum A-FABP levels in a cohort of Chinese women without diabetes mellitus. A total of 2108 women without diabetes (760 premenopausal and 1348 postmenopausal women; age, 20-78 y) selected from the Shanghai Obesity Study were enrolled. VFA and SFA were measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A high VFA was defined as ≥ 80 cm(2). A high SFA was defined as that above the 75th percentile cutoff point of the menopause-specific population, respectively. Serum A-FABP levels were higher in postmenopausal than premenopausal women (P < .001). Both premenopausal and postmenopausal women with an isolated high VFA had higher A-FABP levels than did those with an isolated high SFA (P = .017 and .002, respectively). In both body mass index (BMI) groups (< 25 and ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), women with a high VFA had higher serum A-FABP levels regardless of their menopausal status. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that A-FABP was independently associated with fat mass (Standardized β = 0.417 and 0.252 for premenopausal and postmenopausal status, respectively, both P < .001). Moreover, VFA was identified as an independent risk factor for A-FABP in postmenopausal women (Standardized β = 0.114, P = .001). Application of the same regression analyses model to the two BMI groups produced similar results in both BMI categories. Serum A-FABP levels were associated with fat mass, and were also influenced by VFA after menopause in Chinese women without diabetes mellitus.

  2. Fatty acid-binding protein genes of the ancient, air-breathing, ray-finned fish, spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus).

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Ananda B; Fontenot, Quenton; Farrara, Allyse; Wright, Jonathan M

    2018-03-01

    With the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing technology, the genomic sequence of many disparate species has led to the relatively new discipline of genomics, the study of genome structure, function and evolution. Much work has been focused on the role of whole genome duplications (WGD) in the architecture of extant vertebrate genomes, particularly those of teleost fishes which underwent a WGD early in the teleost radiation >230 million years ago (mya). Our past work has focused on the fate of duplicated copies of a multigene family coding for the intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP) genes in the teleost fishes. To define the evolutionary processes that determined the fate of duplicated genes and generated the structure of extant fish genomes, however, requires comparative genomic analysis with a fish lineage that diverged before the teleost WGD, such as the spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), an ancient, air-breathing, ray-finned fish. Here, we describe the genomic organization, chromosomal location and tissue-specific expression of a subfamily of the iLBP genes that code for fatty acid-binding proteins (Fabps) in spotted gar. Based on this work, we have defined the minimum suite of fabp genes prior to their duplication in the teleost lineages ~230-400 mya. Spotted gar, therefore, serves as an appropriate outgroup, or ancestral/ancient fish, that did not undergo the teleost-specific WGD. As such, analyses of the spatio-temporal regulation of spotted gar genes provides a foundation to determine whether the duplicated fabp genes have been retained in teleost genomes owing to either sub- or neofunctionalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Complementary Diagnostic Value of Heart Type Fatty Acid-binding Protein in Early Detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sotoudeh Anvari, Maryam; Karimi, Mahsa; Shafiee, Akbar; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Bozorgi, Ali; Sedaghat, Reza; Jalali, Arash

    2018-03-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a novel biomarker for myocardial injury. We compared the use of H-FABP with serum levels of cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) in the diagnosis of patients suspicious to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). From October 2013 to December 2014, 182 consecutive patients suspicious to acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in this study, who presented within the past 6 hours from the onset of symptoms. Venous blood samples were drawn at baseline to measure serum biochemistry, high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT), creatine kinase-MB, and H-FABP, and the measurements were repeated after 8 hours. The patients were categorized into 3 groups based on the baseline and second measurements of cTnT and general characteristics, and changes of H-FABP levels were then compared between the groups. Sensitivity and specificity of H-FABP in predicting the presence of AMI was calculated. A total of 91 patients had AMI. Changes of H-FABP through time were also significantly different between the AMI and non-AMI patients (P < 0.001). A cutoff point of 7.15 for H-FABP could predict AMI with a sensitivity of 51.5%, specificity of 96.3%, and diagnostic accuracy of 68.3%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for H-FABP at 8 hours was 79.4% (95% confidence interval: 73.0-85.9; P < 0.001). Positive predictive value and negative predictive value for H-FABP were 85% and 60%, respectively. H-FABP can be used as an additional cardiac biomarker in the diagnosis of AMI.

  4. [Changes of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein in children with chronic heart failure and its significance].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Ping; Wang, Wen-Di; Ma, Shao-Chun; Wang, Li-Yan; Qiao, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2013-02-01

    To study serum levels of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP) in children with chronic heart failure (CHF), and the correlation between heart function and the level of h-FABP, with the aim of studying the significance of h-FABP in CHF. Thirty-six children with CHF, including 16 cases of endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) and 20 cases of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were enrolled in the study. Thirty healthy children sevred as the control group. Serum levels of h-FABP were determined using ELISA, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac index (CI) and fractional shortening of the left ventricle (LVSF) were measured by two-dimensional echocardiography in the CHF group. Mean levels of h-FABP in the CHF group were significantly higher than in the control group (21.7±4.3 ng/mL vs 6.2±1.7 ng/mL; P<0.01). The worse the heart function, the higher the h-FABP levels (P<0.01). Mean levels of h-FABP in both the EFE and DCM groups were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.01). Serum h-FABP concentrations were negatively correlated with LVEF, CI and LVSF (r=-0.65, -0.64 and -0.71 respectively; P<0.01) in the CHF group. Serum h-FABP levels increase in children with CHF and are closely related to the severity of the condition. Serum h-FABP levels can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of heart failure and the evaluation of its severity.

  5. Renal Liver-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (L-FABP) Attenuates Acute Kidney Injury in Aristolochic Acid Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Katsuomi; Kamijo-Ikemorif, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2011-01-01

    Injection of aristolochic acid (AA) in mice causes AA-induced nephrotoxicity, in which oxidative stress contributes to development of tubulointerstitial damage (TID). Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is expressed in human proximal tubules and has an endogenous antioxidative function. The renoprotection of renal L-FABP was examined in a model of AA-induced nephrotoxicity. Established human L-FABP (hL-FABP) transgenic (Tg) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with AA for up to 5 days. Mice were sacrificed on days 1, 3, and 5 after the start of AA injection. Although mouse L-FABP was not expressed in proximal tubules of WT mice, hL-FABP was expressed in proximal tubules of Tg mice. The expression of renal hL-FABP was significantly increased in Tg mice administered AA (Tg-AA), compared with the control (saline-treated Tg mice). In WT-AA mice, there was high urinary excretion of Nε-(hexanoyl)-lysine, the production of heme oxygenase-1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products increased, and TID was provoked. In contrast, renal hL-FABP in Tg-AA mice suppressed production of Nε-(hexanoyl)lysine, heme oxygenase-1, and receptor for advanced glycation end products. Renal dysfunction was significantly milder in Tg-AA mice than in WT-AA mice. The degree of TID was significantly attenuated in Tg-AA mice, compared with WT-AA. In conclusion, renal hL-FABP reduced the oxidative stress in AA-induced nephrotoxicity and attenuated TID. PMID:21356355

  6. Heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) as a diagnostic biomarker in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gururajan, Priya; Gurumurthy, Prema; Nayar, Pradeep; Srinivasa Nageswara Rao, G; Babu, Sai; Cherian, K M

    2010-11-01

    Diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia at an early stage in the emergency department is often difficult. A recently proposed biomarker, heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) has been found to appear in the circulation superior to that of cardiac troponins in the early hours of acute coronary syndrome. We proposed to evaluate the levels of H-FABP and ascertain its utility as an early biomarker for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The present study was carried out in 485 subjects, of whom 297 were diagnosed as patients with ACS, 89 were diagnosed as non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) and 99 people served as healthy controls. H-FABP levels were measured in comparison with standard markers such as troponin I and CK-MB in all subjects enrolled in the study. The levels of H-FABP were significantly raised in patients when compared to controls and NCCP (P<0.001). Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve (ROC) analysis showed H-FABP to be a good discriminator between patients with ischaemic heart disease and patients without ischaemic heart disease. The area under the curve was found to be 0.965 with 95% CI (0.945-0.979). The cut-off value above which H-FABP can be considered positive was found to be 17.7ng/ml. H-FABP is a promising biomarker for the early detection of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2010 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diabetic patients have increased perioperative cardiac risk in heart-type fatty acid-binding protein-based assessment.

    PubMed

    Sari, Munevver; Kilic, Harun; Ariturk, Ozlem Karakurt; Yazihan, Nuray; Akdemir, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    To test the potential role of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) in detecting increased perioperative cardiac risk in comparison with cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in the early postoperative period. Sixty-seven patients who had clinical risk factors and underwent elective intermediate - or high-risk noncardiac surgery were included in this study. Serum specimens were analyzed for H-FABP and cTnI levels before and at 8 h after surgery. None of the patients had chest pain; 27 had a history of ischemic heart disease, 3 of heart failure, 5 of cerebrovascular diseases, 40 of diabetes and 46 of hypertension. The mean duration of the operations was 2.33 ± 1.27 h (range 1-6). In the postoperative period, 27 (40.3%) patients had increased H-FABP levels (≥7.5 ng/ml); the median preoperative serum H-FABP level was 0.13 ng/ml (<0.1-5.9) and the median postoperative H-FABP level was 6.86 ng/ml (<0.1-13.7). Only 1 (1.5%) patient had cTnI >0.1 µg/l during the postoperative period. Correlation analysis revealed that the presence of diabetes was associated with an increased H-FABP level (r = 0.30, p = 0.01). Of the 27 patients with H-FABP ≥7.5 ng/ml, 21 (87%) had diabetes. There was no significant correlation with other clinical risk factors, type or duration of surgery. The H-FABP levels significantly increased in the postoperative period. Most patients with increased postoperative H-FABP levels were diabetic. High H-FABP levels could alert clinicians to increased perioperative cardiovascular risk and could prevent underdiagnosis, especially in diabetic patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Troponin T and Heart Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (h-Fabp) as Biomarkers in Patients Presenting with Chest Pain.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Lakshmi Lavanya; Shah, Swarup A V; Dherai, Alpa J; Ponde, Chandrashekhar K; Ashavaid, Tester F

    2016-03-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a term for a range of clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischemia. It results in functional and structural changes and ultimately releasing protein from injured cardiomyocytes. These cardiac markers play a major role in diagnosis and prognosis of ACS. This study aims to assess the efficacy of heart type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP) as a marker for ACS along with the routinely used hs-TropT. In our observational study, plasma h-FABP (cut-off 6.32 ng/ml) and routinely done hs-Trop T (cutoff 0.1 and 0.014 ng/ml) were estimated by immunometric laboratory assays in 88 patients with acute chest pain. Based on the clinical and laboratory test findings the patients were grouped into ACS (n = 41) and non-ACS (n = 47). The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV and ROC curve at 95 % CI were determined. Sensitivity of hs-TropT (0.1 ng/ml), hs-TropT (0.014 ng/ml) and h-FABP were 53, 86 and 78 % respectively and specificity for the same were 98, 73 and 70 % respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and NPV calculated for a cut-off combination of hs-TropT 0.014 ng/ml and h-FABP was 100, 51 and 100 % respectively. These results were substantiated by ROC analysis. Measurement of plasma h-FABP and hs-TropT together on admission appears to be more precise predictor of ACS rather than either hs-Trop T or h-FABP.

  9. Serum adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) levels in women from Mexico exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; González-Palomo, Ana K; Almendarez-Reyna, Claudia I; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a very important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Correspondingly, adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (FABP4, also known as aP2 and AFABP) has been proposed as a new, meaningful and useful biomarker to predict metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate serum FABP4 levels in Mexican women exposed to PAHs. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene ((1-OHP), exposure biomarker for PAHs) levels were quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique, and serum FABP4 concentrations were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. The mean urinary 1-OHP level found in women participating in this study was 1.30 ± 1.10 μmol/mol creatinine (2.45 ± 2.10 μg/g creatinine). Regarding serum FABP4 concentrations, the levels ranged from 3.80 to 62.5 ng/mL in the assessed population. Moreover, a significant association (p < 0.001) was found between urinary 1-OHP levels and serum FABP4 concentrations in women after adjusting for potential confounding variables. The presented data in this study can be considered only as a starting point for further studies. Then, in order to elucidate whether FABP4 represents a risk factor for CVD disease in humans exposed to air contaminants (such as PAHs), large epidemiological studies are necessary.

  10. Fatty Acid-binding Protein 4, a Point of Convergence for Angiogenic and Metabolic Signaling Pathways in Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Harjes, Ulrike; Bridges, Esther; McIntyre, Alan; Fielding, Barbara A.; Harris, Adrian L.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) is an adipogenic protein and is implicated in atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and cancer. In endothelial cells, FABP4 is induced by VEGFA, and inhibition of FABP4 blocks most of the VEGFA effects. We investigated the DLL4-NOTCH-dependent regulation of FABP4 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by gene/protein expression and interaction analyses following inhibitor treatment and RNA interference. We found that FABP4 is directly induced by NOTCH. Stimulation of NOTCH signaling with human recombinant DLL4 led to FABP4 induction, independently of VEGFA. FABP4 induction by VEGFA was reduced by blockade of DLL4 binding to NOTCH or inhibition of NOTCH signal transduction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of the NOTCH intracellular domain showed increased binding to two specific regions in the FABP4 promoter. The induction of FABP4 gene expression was dependent on the transcription factor FOXO1, which was essential for basal expression of FABP4, and FABP4 up-regulation following stimulation of the VEGFA and/or the NOTCH pathway. Thus, we show that the DLL4-NOTCH pathway mediates endothelial FABP4 expression. This indicates that induction of the angiogenesis-restricting DLL4-NOTCH can have pro-angiogenic effects via this pathway. It also provides a link between DLL4-NOTCH and FOXO1-mediated regulation of endothelial gene transcription, and it shows that DLL4-NOTCH is a nodal point in the integration of pro-angiogenic and metabolic signaling in endothelial cells. This may be crucial for angiogenesis in the tumor environment. PMID:24939870

  11. Plasma fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) as a novel biomarker to predict gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ning, Hui; Tao, Hong; Weng, Zhanping; Zhao, Xingbo

    2016-12-01

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) is mainly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages and is demonstrated to be elevated in diabetes patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of FABP4 in the diagnosis of GDM and to investigate the relationship between FABP4 and overweight, insulin resistance and inflammatory marker TNF-α. A total of 46 women with GDM and 55 age-matched pregnant women without GDM (non-GDM) were eligible for the study. Demographic and biochemical parameters and fasting venous blood samples of two groups were collected from all cases. Serum concentrations of FABP4 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The predictive value of Serum FABP4 level was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) analysis. We found that the serum FABP4 levels were significantly higher in GDM compared to the non-GDM group. The area under the ROC curve assay yielded a satisfactory result of 0.94 (95 % confidence interval 0.90-0.98; p < 0.001). The best compromise between 86.96 % specificity and 89.09 % sensitivity was obtained with a cutoff value of 1.96 ng/mL for GDM diagnosis. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between FABP4 and overweight, insulin resistance and TNF-α in pregnant women with GDM. These results suggest that serum FABP4 may potentially serve as a novel biomarker for the prediction of GDM.

  12. Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 Regulates VEGF-Induced Airway Angiogenesis and Inflammation in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ghelfi, Elisa; Yu, Chen-Wei; Elmasri, Harun; Terwelp, Matthew; Lee, Chun G.; Bhandari, Vineet; Comhair, Suzy A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Elias, Jack A.; Cataltepe, Sule

    2014-01-01

    Neovascularization of the airways occurs in several inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in vascular remodeling in the asthmatic airways. Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 or aP2) is an intracellular lipid chaperone that is induced by VEGF in endothelial cells. FABP4 exhibits a proangiogenic function in vitro, but whether it plays a role in modulation of angiogenesis in vivo is not known. We hypothesized that FABP4 promotes VEGF-induced airway angiogenesis and investigated this hypothesis with the use of a transgenic mouse model with inducible overexpression of VEGF165 under a CC10 promoter [VEGF-TG (transgenic) mice]. We found a significant increase in FABP4 mRNA levels and density of FABP4-expressing vascular endothelial cells in mouse airways with VEGF overexpression. FABP4−/− mouse airways showed a significant decrease in neovessel formation and endothelial cell proliferation in response to VEGF overexpression. These alterations in airway vasculature were accompanied by attenuated expression of proinflammatory mediators. Furthermore, VEGF-TG/FABP4−/− mice showed markedly decreased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, a well-known mediator of VEGF-induced responses, compared with VEGF-TG mice. Finally, the density of FABP4-immunoreactive vessels in endobronchial biopsy specimens was significantly higher in patients with asthma than in control subjects. Taken together, these data unravel FABP4 as a potential target of pathologic airway remodeling in asthma. PMID:23391391

  13. Circulating FABP4 (Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4) Is a Novel Prognostic Biomarker in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wen-Jun; Zeng, Xian-Wei; Deng, Aijun; Zhao, Sheng-Jie; Luo, Ding-Zhen; Ma, Guo-Zhao; Wang, Hong; Liu, Qiang

    2017-06-01

    FABP4 (fatty acid-binding protein 4) is an intracellular lipid chaperone involved in coordination of lipid transportation and atherogenesis. This study aimed at observing the effect of FABP4 on the 3-month outcomes in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke. In a prospective multicenter observational study, serum concentrations of FABP4 were on admission measured in plasma of 737 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. Serum concentrations of FABP4, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and conventional risk factors were evaluated to determine their value to predict functional outcome and mortality within 3 months. During follow-up, an unfavorable functional outcome was found in 260 patients (35.3%), and 94 patients (12.8%) died. In multivariate models comparing the third and fourth quartiles to the first quartile of FABP4, the concentrations of FABP4 were associated with poor functional outcome and mortality. Compared with the reference category (Q1-Q3), the concentrations of FABP4 in Q4 had a relative risk of 4.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.02-8.15; P <0.001) for poor functional outcome and mortality (odds ratio, 6.15; 95% CI, 3.43-12.68) after adjusting for other significant outcome predictors in univariate logistic regression analysis. Receiver-operating characteristic curves to predict poor functional outcome and mortality demonstrated areas under the curve of FABP4 of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.75-0.82) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79-0.88), which improved the prognostic accuracy of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score with combined areas under the curve of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.89; P <0.01) and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.92), respectively. Data show that FABP4 is a novel independent prognostic marker improving the currently used risk stratification of stroke patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Gender difference in plasma fatty-acid-binding protein 4 levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Diandian; Wang, Hao; Pang, Caishuang; Wu, Yanqiu; Wen, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airway inflammation and increases the likelihood of the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies have indicated that FABP4 (fatty-acid-binding protein 4), an intracellular lipid chaperone of low molecular mass, plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation and atherosclerosis. We carried out a preliminary clinical study aiming at investigating the relationships between circulating FABP4 levels in patients with COPD and inflammation and lung function. We enrolled 50 COPD patients and 39 healthy controls in the study. Lung function tests were performed in all subjects. Plasma levels of FABP4 and adiponectin, TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) and CRP (C-reactive protein) were measured. The correlations between FABP4 and lung function, adipokine (adiponectin), inflammatory factors and BMI (body mass index) were analysed. Compared with both males with COPD and healthy females, plasma FABP4 levels in females with COPD were significantly increased. Adiponectin and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with COPD. Furthermore, we found that FABP4 levels were inversely correlated with FEV1% predicted (FEV1 is forced expiratory volume in 1 s) and positively correlated with adiponectin and TNFα in COPD patients. In addition, a positive correlation between plasma FABP4 and CRP was found in females with COPD. However, FABP4 levels were not correlated with BMI. Our results underline a gender difference in FABP4 secretion in stable COPD patients. Further studies are warranted to clarify the exact role of FABP4 in the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:26823558

  15. Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 (FABP4) Overexpression in Intratumoral Hepatic Stellate Cells within Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Metabolic Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Chiyonobu, Norimichi; Shimada, Shu; Akiyama, Yoshimitsu; Mogushi, Kaoru; Itoh, Michiko; Akahoshi, Keiichi; Matsumura, Satoshi; Ogawa, Kosuke; Ono, Hiroaki; Mitsunori, Yusuke; Ban, Daisuke; Kudo, Atsushi; Arii, Shigeki; Suganami, Takayoshi; Yamaoka, Shoji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Minoru; Tanaka, Shinji

    2018-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a newly identified risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, tumor-specific biomarkers still remain unclear. We performed cross-species analysis to compare gene signatures of HCC from human patients and melanocortin 4 receptor-knockout mice, which develop HCC with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering and principle component analysis of 746 differentially expressed orthologous genes classified HCC of 152 human patients and melanocortin 4 receptor-knockout mice into two distinct subgroups, one of which included mouse HCC and was causatively associated with metabolic risk factors. Nine genes commonly overexpressed in human and mouse metabolic disease-associated HCC were identified; fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) was remarkably enriched in intratumoral activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Subclones constitutively expressing FABP4 were established from a human HSC cell line in which expression levels of inflammatory chemokines, including IL-1A and IL-6, were up-regulated through NF-κB nuclear translocation, resulting in recruitment of macrophages. An immunohistochemical validation study of 106 additional human HCC samples indicated that FABP4-positive HSCs were distributed in tumors of 38 cases, and the FABP4-high group consisted of patients with nonviral and nonalcoholic HCC (P = 0.027) and with multiple metabolic risk factors (P < 0.001) compared with the FABP4-low group. Thus, FABP4 overexpression in HSCs may contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis in patients with metabolic risk factors by modulation of inflammatory pathways. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jun; Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4)more » which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.« less

  17. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 regulates fatty infiltration after rotator cuff tear by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ja-Yeon; Oh, Kyung-Soo; Chung, Seok Won

    2017-10-01

    Fatty infiltration in skeletal muscle is directly linked to loss of muscle strength and is associated with various adverse physical outcomes such as muscle atrophy, inflammation, insulin resistance, mobility impairments, and even mortality in the elderly. Aging, mechanical unloading, muscle injury, and hormonal imbalance are main causes of muscle fat accumulation, and the fat cells are derived from muscle stem cells via adipogenic differentiation. However, the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of fatty infiltration in muscles are still not fully defined. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a carrier protein for fatty acids and is involved in fatty acid uptake, transport, and lipid metabolism. Rotator cuff tear (RCT) usually occurs in the elderly and is closely related with fatty infiltration in injured muscle. To investigate potential mechanisms for fatty infiltration other than adipogenic differentiation of muscle stem cells, we examined the role of FABP4 in muscle fatty infiltration in an RCT mouse model. In the RCT model, we evaluated the expression of FABP4 by qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemical analyses. Histological changes such as inflammation and fat accumulation in the injured muscles were examined immunohistochemically. To evaluate whether hypoxia induces FABP4 expression, the levels of FABP4 mRNA and protein in C3H10T1/2 cells after hypoxia were examined. Using a transient transfection assay in 293T cells, we assessed the promoter activity of FABP4 by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Additionally, we evaluated the reduction in FABP4 expression and fat accumulation using specific inhibitors for HIF1 and FABP4, respectively. FABP4 expression was significantly increased after RCT in mice, and its expression was localized in the intramuscular fatty region. Rotator cuff tear-induced FABP4 expression was up-regulated by hypoxia. HIF1α, which is activated by hypoxia, augmented the promoter activity of FABP4, together with HIF1

  18. SAR studies on truxillic acid mono esters as a new class of antinociceptive agents targeting fatty acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Yan, Su; Elmes, Matthew W; Tong, Simon; Hu, Kongzhen; Awwa, Monaf; Teng, Gary Y H; Jing, Yunrong; Freitag, Matthew; Gan, Qianwen; Clement, Timothy; Wei, Longfei; Sweeney, Joseph M; Joseph, Olivia M; Che, Joyce; Carbonetti, Gregory S; Wang, Liqun; Bogdan, Diane M; Falcone, Jerome; Smietalo, Norbert; Zhou, Yuchen; Ralph, Brian; Hsu, Hao-Chi; Li, Huilin; Rizzo, Robert C; Deutsch, Dale G; Kaczocha, Martin; Ojima, Iwao

    2018-05-24

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) serve as critical modulators of endocannabinoid signaling by facilitating the intracellular transport of anandamide and whose inhibition potentiates anandamide signaling. Our previous work has identified a novel small-molecule FABP inhibitor, α-truxillic acid 1-naphthyl monoester (SB-FI-26, 3) that has shown efficacy as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agent in rodent models. In the present work, we have performed an extensive SAR study on a series of 3-analogs as novel FABP inhibitors based on computer-aided inhibitor drug design and docking analysis, chemical synthesis and biological evaluations. The prediction of binding affinity of these analogs to target FABP3, 5 and 7 isoforms was performed using the AutoDock 4.2 program, using the recently determined co-crystal structures of 3 with FABP5 and FABP7. The compounds with high docking scores were synthesized and evaluated for their activities using a fluorescence displacement assay against FABP3, 5 and 7. During lead optimization, compound 3l emerged as a promising compound with the Ki value of 0.21 μM for FABP 5, 4-fold more potent than 3 (Ki, 0.81 μM). Nine compounds exhibit similar or better binding affinity than 3, including compounds 4b (Ki, 0.55 μM) and 4e (Ki, 0.68 μM). Twelve compounds are selective for FABP5 and 7 with >10 μM Ki values for FABP3, indicating a safe profile to avoid potential cardiotoxicity concerns. Compounds 4f, 4j and 4k showed excellent selectivity for FABP5 and would serve as other new lead compounds. Compound 3a possessed high affinity and high selectivity for FABP7. Compounds with moderate to high affinity for FABP5 displayed antinociceptive effects in mice while compounds with low FABP5 affinity lacked in vivo efficacy. In vivo pain model studies in mice revealed that exceeding hydrophobicity significantly affects the efficacy. Thus, among the compounds with high affinity to FABP5 in vitro, the compounds with moderate

  19. Liver fatty-acid-binding protein in heart and kidney allograft recipients in relation to kidney function.

    PubMed

    Przybylowski, P; Koc-Zorawska, E; Malyszko, J S; Kozlowska, S; Mysliwiec, M; Malyszko, J

    2011-10-01

    Mammalian intracellular fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs), a large multigene family, encode 14-kD proteins that are members of a superfamily of lipid-binding proteins. FABPs are tissue specific. Liver-type FABP (L-FABP) can be filtered through the glomerulus owing to its small molecular size, similar to cystatin C, but it is reabsorbed by proximal tubule epithelial cells like other small proteins. In the human kidney, L-FABP is expressed predominantly in proximal tubules. It had been suggested that the presence of L-FABP in urine reflects hypoxic conditions resulting from decreased peritubular capillary flow, serving as a marker of acute kidney injury. The aim of this study was to assess urinary L-FABP in 111 heart and 76 kidney transplant recipients in relation to kidney function. Complete blood count, urea, fasting glucose, creatinine, and the N-terminal fragment of brain natriuretic protein were studied by standard laboratory methods; L-FABP and cystatin C, by ELISA using commercially available kits. Kidney transplant recipients displayed significantly higher L-FABP than heart recipients. Upon univariate analysis, urinary L-FABP correlated, with serum creatinine, cystatin C and estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFR) in kidney allograft recipients. However, in heart transplant recipients it was not related to kidney function, as reflected by creatinine or eGFR; was strongly related to cystatin C (r=0.34; P<.001) and urinary creatinine (r=-0.29; P<.01), and NGAL (r=0.29; P<.01). Upon multiple regression analysis, the best predictor of urinary L-FABP in kidney allograft recipients, was eGFR whereas in heart recipients, no parameter independently predicted L-FABP. Successful heart transplantation is associated with kidney injury as reflected by a reduced eGFR; however, in this population, L-FABP did not serve as a marker of kidney function. In contrast, in kidney allograft recipients, L-FABP may be a potential early marker for impaired kidney function

  20. Current Metabolic Status Affects Urinary Liver-Type Fatty-Acid Binding Protein in Normoalbuminuric Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hitomi; Nakashima, Mina; Takaki, Akifusa; Yukawa, Chiduko; Matsumoto, Suzuko; Omoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Masahiro; Nishio, Shinya; Abe, Mariko; Antoku, Shinichi; Mifune, Mizuo; Togane, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to study the association between urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a biomarker of tubulointerstitial injury, and the clinical characteristics of normoalbuminuric and albuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes in order to detect the factors affecting urinary L-FABP. Methods Urinary L-FABP levels were measured in 788 patients with type 2 diabetes and again in 666 patients at 6 months after the initial measurement. The association between the urinary L-FABP level and the clinical parameters was investigated in a retrospective cross-sectional study and a subsequent observation. Results The HbA1c (odds ratio (OR): 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11 - 1.79; P < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.05; P < 0.01) levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.00; P = 0.01) were significantly associated with the high levels of urinary L-FABP (> 8.4 μg/gCr) in normoalbuminuric patients. However, a logistic regression analysis revealed that use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.16 - 4.89; P = 0.02), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.01; P < 0.01) and serum HDL-cholesterol concentration (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.89; P = 0.03) were significantly associated in albuminuric patients. In the follow-up observation, the change in urinary L-FABP was found to be significantly (P < 0.01) influenced by the change in the HbA1c level in both the normoalbuminuric and albuminuric patients. Conclusions High urinary L-FABP is associated with part of the current metabolic abnormalities, including high levels of HbA1c and systolic blood pressure among normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28270898

  1. Uncoupling of Obesity from Insulin Resistance Through a Targeted Mutation in aP2, the Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.; Johnson, Randall S.; Distel, Robert J.; Ellis, Ramsey; Papaioannou, Virginia E.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    1996-11-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytoplasmic proteins that are expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner and bind to fatty acids such as oleic and retinoic acid. Mice with a null mutation in aP2, the gene encoding the adipocyte FABP, were developmentally and metabolically normal. The aP2-deficient mice developed dietary obesity but, unlike control mice, they did not develop insulin resistance or diabetes. Also unlike their obese wild-type counterparts, obese aP2-/- animals failed to express in adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a molecule implicated in obesity-related insulin resistance. These results indicate that aP2 is central to the pathway that links obesity to insulin resistance, possibly by linking fatty acid metabolism to expression of TNF-α.

  2. The prognostic and risk-stratified value of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein in septic patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Xia; Li, Chun-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the prognostic and risk-stratified ability of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) in septic patients in the emergency department (ED). From August to November 2012, 295 consecutive septic patients were enrolled. Circulating H-FABP was measured. The predictive value of H-FABP for 28-day mortality, organ dysfunction on ED arrival, and requirement for mechanical ventilation or a vasopressor within 6 hours after ED arrival was assessed by the receiver operating characteristic curve and logistic regression and was compared with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The 28-day mortality, APACHE II, MEDS, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were much higher in H-FABP-positive patients. The incidence of organ dysfunction at ED arrival and requirement for mechanical ventilation or a vasopressor within 6 hours after ED arrival was higher in H-FABP-positive patients. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein was an independent predictor of 28-day mortality and organ dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for H-FABP predicting 28-day mortality and organ dysfunction was 0.784 and 0.755, respectively. Combination of H-FABP and MEDS improved the performance of MEDS in predicting organ dysfunction, and the difference of AUC was statistically significant (P<.05). The combinations of H-FABP and MEDS or H-FABP and APACHE II also improved the prognostic value of MEDS and APACHE II, but the areas under the curve were not statistically different. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein was helpful for prognosis and risk stratification of septic patients in the ED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of ALA54THR polymorphism of fatty acid binding protein 2 on lifestyle modification response in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Sagrado, M Gonzalez; Conde, R

    2006-01-01

    It has been found that the expression of fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) mRNA is under dietary control. A G-to-A transition at codon 54 of FABP2 results in an amino acid substitution (from Ala 54 to Thr 54). This polymorphism was associated with high insulin resistance and high fasting insulin concentrations. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism in the FABP2 protein on the response to a lifestyle modification (Mediterranean hypocaloric diet and exercise) in obese patients. A population of 69 obese (body mass index > 30) nondiabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. Before and after 3 months of the lifestyle modification program, indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance measurement, blood pressure recording, serial assessment of the nutritional intake (3 days of written food records), and biochemical analysis were performed. The lifestyle modification program consisted of a hypocaloric diet (1,520 kcal; 52% carbohydrates, 25% lipids, and 23% proteins). The exercise program consisted of aerobic exercise for at least three times/week (60 min each). Statistical analysis was performed for combined Ala54/Thr54 and Thr54/Thr54 as a mutant group and wild-type Ala54/Ala54 as second group. The mean age was 45.5 +/- 16.7 years, the mean body mass index was 34.1 +/- 5.1, and there were 14 males (20.3%) and 55 females (79.7%) with a weight loss of 3.17 +/- 3.5 kg (3.5%). Thirty-seven patients (53.6%) had the genotype Ala54/Ala54 (wild-type group) and 32 (46.4%) patients either the genotype Ala54/Thr54 (26 patients, 30.2%) or the genotype Thr54/Thr54 (6 patients, 16.2%). The percentage of responders (weight loss) was similar in both groups (89.2 vs. 90.6%). In the wild-type group, body mass index, weight, fat mass, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and waist circumference decreased, whereas the VO2 (oxygen consumption) increased. In the mutant group, glucose, body mass index, weight, waist

  4. [Expression and significance of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein in placenta, serum and umbilical cord blood in preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the change of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) in maternal serum and umbilical cord blood and FABP4 mRNA placental expression in patients with preeclampsia (PE). A total of 60 women with PE and 60 normal pregnant women as control participated in this study.All are admitted to Fujian Maternity and Children Health Hospital for delivery from December 2008 to October 2009. Patients with PE were divided into early-onset group (n = 30, presented at ≤ 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset group (n = 30, presented at > 34 weeks of gestation), with 30 normal pregnant women as early control group (≤ 34 weeks of gestation) and 30 as late control group (> 34 weeks of gestation). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect FABP4, fasting serum glucose, fasting insulin (FINS) in maternal serum and FABP4 in umbilical cord blood. Real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to detect placental FABP4 mRNA expression. Furthermore, clinical and biochemical parameters were recorded, such as body mass index (BMI), systolic pressure (SP), diastolic pressure (DP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 24 hours urine protein in pregnant women and neonatal weight. (1) Maternal serum FABP4 was (176 ± 9) ng/L in early-onset PE group and (170 ± 9) ng/L in late-onset PE group, significantly elevated as compared to (81 ± 13) ng/L in early control group and (94 ± 15) ng/L in late control group. (2) Mean maternal FINS, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistence index (HOMA-IR) were significantly elevated in the early-onset PE group and late-onset PE group as compared to control groups, respectively. (3) Mean placental FABP4 mRNA expression were significantly elevated in the early-onset PE group and late-onset PE group as compared to late control

  5. Structural basis for ligand regulation of the fatty acid-binding protein 5, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (FABP5-PPARβ/δ) signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Eric H; Goswami, Devrishi; Griffin, Patrick R; Noy, Noa; Ortlund, Eric A

    2014-05-23

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a widely expressed group of calycins that play a well established role in solubilizing cellular fatty acids. Recent studies, however, have recast FABPs as active participants in vital lipid-signaling pathways. FABP5, like its family members, displays a promiscuous ligand binding profile, capable of interacting with numerous long chain fatty acids of varying degrees of saturation. Certain "activating" fatty acids induce the protein's cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation, stimulating PPARβ/δ transactivation; however, the rules that govern this process remain unknown. Using a range of structural and biochemical techniques, we show that both linoleic and arachidonic acid elicit FABP5's translocation by permitting allosteric communication between the ligand-sensing β2 loop and a tertiary nuclear localization signal within the α-helical cap of the protein. Furthermore, we show that more saturated, nonactivating fatty acids inhibit nuclear localization signal formation by destabilizing this activation loop, thus implicating FABP5 specifically in cis-bonded, polyunsaturated fatty acid signaling. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Structural Basis for Ligand Regulation of the Fatty Acid-binding Protein 5, Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor β/δ (FABP5-PPARβ/δ) Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Eric H.; Goswami, Devrishi; Griffin, Patrick R.; Noy, Noa; Ortlund, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a widely expressed group of calycins that play a well established role in solubilizing cellular fatty acids. Recent studies, however, have recast FABPs as active participants in vital lipid-signaling pathways. FABP5, like its family members, displays a promiscuous ligand binding profile, capable of interacting with numerous long chain fatty acids of varying degrees of saturation. Certain “activating” fatty acids induce the protein's cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation, stimulating PPARβ/δ transactivation; however, the rules that govern this process remain unknown. Using a range of structural and biochemical techniques, we show that both linoleic and arachidonic acid elicit FABP5's translocation by permitting allosteric communication between the ligand-sensing β2 loop and a tertiary nuclear localization signal within the α-helical cap of the protein. Furthermore, we show that more saturated, nonactivating fatty acids inhibit nuclear localization signal formation by destabilizing this activation loop, thus implicating FABP5 specifically in cis-bonded, polyunsaturated fatty acid signaling. PMID:24692551

  7. Unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1 does not interact with the codon 54 polymorphism of the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Aras, Omer; Noutsou, Marina; Tsai, Michael Y

    2002-08-01

    In type 2 diabetes, the threonine (Thr) for alanine (Ala) codon 54 polymorphism of the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene is associated with elevated fasting and postprandial triglycerides and dyslipidemia when compared with the wild type (Ala-54/Ala-54). To assess whether this is the case in patients with type 1 diabetes, who usually do not manifest the metabolic syndrome, we screened 181 patients with similar glycemic control as the type 2 patients. Thirty percent were heterozygous, and 9% were homozygous for the polymorphism. Mean (+/-SEM) fasting plasma triglyceride levels in patients with the wild type (n = 84), those heterozygous for Ala-54/Thr-54 (n = 44), and those homozygous for the Thr-54 (n = 13) were 1.0 +/- 0.07, 1.1 +/- 0.17, and 1.2 +/- 0.23 mmol/liter, respectively. In addition, there were no differences in total, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol among the three groups. After a fat load, the postprandial area under the curve of triglyceride in plasma, chylomicrons, and very low-density lipoprotein were similar between the wild type (n = 18) and the Thr-54 homozygotes (n = 12). In conclusion, in contrast to type 2, type 1 diabetes does not interact with the codon 54 polymorphism of the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene to cause hypertriglyceridemia/dyslipidemia. Insulin resistance could account possibly for this difference.

  8. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two intestinal fatty-acid binding proteins in the presence of 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Laguerre, Aisha; Wielens, Jerome; Parker, Michael W.; Porter, Christopher J. H.; Scanlon, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Fatty-acid binding proteins (FABPs) are abundantly expressed proteins that bind a range of lipophilic molecules. They have been implicated in the import and intracellular distribution of their ligands and have been linked with metabolic and inflammatory responses in the cells in which they are expressed. Despite their high sequence identity, human intestinal FABP (hIFABP) and rat intestinal FABP (rIFABP) bind some ligands with different affinities. In order to address the structural basis of this differential binding, diffraction-quality crystals have been obtained of hIFABP and rIFABP in complex with the fluorescent fatty-acid analogue 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid. PMID:21301109

  9. An NMR-Based Structural Rationale for Contrasting Stoichiometry and Ligand Binding Site(s) in Fatty Acid-binding Proteins†

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Estephan, Rima; Yang, Xiaomin; Vela, Adriana; Wang, Hsin; Bernard, Cédric; Stark, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) is a 14-kDa cytosolic polypeptide, differing from other family members in number of ligand binding sites, diversity of bound ligands, and transfer of fatty acid(s) to membranes primarily via aqueous diffusion rather than direct collisional interactions. Distinct two-dimensional 1H-15N NMR signals indicative of slowly exchanging LFABP assemblies formed during stepwise ligand titration were exploited, without solving the protein-ligand complex structures, to yield the stoichiometries for the bound ligands, their locations within the protein binding cavity, the sequence of ligand occupation, and the corresponding protein structural accommodations. Chemical shifts were monitored for wild-type LFABP and a R122L/S124A mutant in which electrostatic interactions viewed as essential to fatty acid binding were removed. For wild-type LFABP the results compared favorably with previous tertiary structures of oleate-bound wild-type LFABP in crystals and in solution: there are two oleates, one U-shaped ligand that positions the long hydrophobic chain deep within the cavity and another extended structure with the hydrophobic chain facing the cavity and the carboxylate group lying close to the protein surface. The NMR titration validated a prior hypothesis that the first oleate to enter the cavity occupies the internal protein site. In contrast, 1H/15N chemical shift changes supported only one liganded oleate for R122L/S124A LFABP, at an intermediate location within the protein cavity. A rationale based on protein sequence and electrostatics was developed to explain the stoichiometry and binding site trends for LFABPs and to put these findings into context within the larger protein family. PMID:21226535

  10. Fatty acids bind tightly to the N-terminal domain of angiopoietin-like protein 4 and modulate its interaction with lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Robal, Terje; Larsson, Mikael; Martin, Miina; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Lookene, Aivar

    2012-08-24

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4), a potent regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism, binds to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) through its N-terminal coiled-coil domain (ccd-Angptl4) inducing dissociation of the dimeric enzyme to inactive monomers. In this study, we demonstrate that fatty acids reduce the inactivation of LPL by Angptl4. This was the case both with ccd-Angptl4 and full-length Angptl4, and the effect was seen in human plasma or in the presence of albumin. The effect decreased in the sequence oleic acid > palmitic acid > myristic acid > linoleic acid > linolenic acid. Surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence, and chromatography measurements revealed that fatty acids bind with high affinity to ccd-Angptl4. The interactions were characterized by fast association and slow dissociation rates, indicating formation of stable complexes. The highest affinity for ccd-Angptl4 was detected for oleic acid with a subnanomolar equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)). The K(d) values for palmitic and myristic acid were in the nanomolar range. Linoleic and linolenic acid bound with much lower affinity. On binding of fatty acids, ccd-Angptl4 underwent conformational changes resulting in a decreased helical content, weakened structural stability, dissociation of oligomers, and altered fluorescence properties of the Trp-38 residue that is located close to the putative LPL-binding region. Based on these results, we propose that fatty acids play an important role in modulating the effects of Angptl4.

  11. Rapidly rule out acute myocardial infarction by combining copeptin and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein with cardiac troponin.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leo H J; van Borren, Marcel; Gemen, Eugenie; van Eck, Martijn; van Son, Bas; Glatz, Jan F C; Daniels, Marcel; Kusters, Ron

    2015-09-01

    The rapid exclusion of acute myocardial infarction in patients with chest pain can reduce the length of hospital admission, prevent unnecessary diagnostic work-up and reduce the burden on our health-care systems. The combined use of biomarkers that are associated with different pathophysiological aspects of acute myocardial infarction could improve the early diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with chest pain. We measured cardiac troponin I, copeptin and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein concentrations in 584 patients who presented to the emergency department with acute chest pain. The diagnostic performances for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and NSTEMI were calculated for the individual markers and their combinations. Separate calculations were made for patients presenting to the emergency department <3 h, 3-6 h and 6-12 h after chest pain onset. For ruling out acute myocardial infarction, the net predictive values (95% CI) of cardiac troponin I, copeptin and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein were 90.4% (87.3-92.9), 84% (79.8-87.6) and 87% (83.5-90), respectively. Combining the three biomarkers resulted in a net predictive value of 95.8% (92.8-97.8). The improvement was most pronounced in the early presenters (<3 h) where the combined net predictive value was 92.9% (87.3-96.5) compared to 84.6% (79.4-88.9) for cardiac troponin I alone. The area under the receiver operating characteristic for the triple biomarker combination increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of cardiac troponin I alone (0.880 [0.833-0.928] vs. 0.840 [0.781-0.898], respectively). Combining copeptin, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein and cardiac troponin I measurements improves the diagnostic performance in patients presenting with chest pain. Importantly, in patients who present early (<3 h) after chest pain onset, the combination improves the diagnostic performance compared to the standard cardiac troponin I measurement alone.

  12. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the fatty acid-binding protein (Sp-FABP) gene in the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianglan; Ye, Haihui; Yang, Ya'nan; Wang, Guizhong; Huang, Huiyang

    2013-03-01

    Intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are multifunctional cytosolic lipid-binding proteins found in vertebrates and invertebrates. In this work, we used RACE to obtain a full-length cDNA of Sp-FABP from the mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The open reading frame of the full length cDNA (886 bp) encoded a 136 amino acid polypeptide that showed high homology with related genes from other species. Real-time quantitative PCR identified variable levels of Sp-FABP transcripts in epidermis, eyestalk, gill, heart, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, muscle, ovary, stomach and thoracic ganglia. In ovaries, Sp-FABP expression increased gradually from stage I to stage IV of development and decreased in stage V. Sp-FABP transcripts in the hepatopancreas and hemocytes were up-regulated after a bacterial challenge with Vibrio alginnolyficus. These results suggest that Sp-FABP may be involved in the growth, reproduction and immunity of the mud crab.

  13. Role of Cardiac Myocytes Heart Fatty Acid Binding Protein Depletion (H-FABP) in Early Myocardial Infarction in Human Heart (Autopsy Study).

    PubMed

    Shabaiek, Amany; Ismael, Nour El-Hoda; Elsheikh, Samar; Amin, Hebat Allah

    2016-03-15

    Many immunohistochemical markers have been used in the postmortem detection of early myocardial infarction. In the present study we examined the role of Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), in the detection of early myocardial infarction. We obtained samples from 40 human autopsy hearts with/without histopathological signs of ischemia. All cases of definite and probable myocardial infarction showed a well-defined area of H-FABP depletion. All of the control cases showed strong H-FABP expression, except two markedly autolysed myocardial samples that showed affected antigenicity. Thus, we suggest H-FABP as being one of the valuable tools facing the problem of postmortem detection of early myocardial infarction/ischemia, but not in autolysis.

  14. Long-Term Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Feeding on Lipid Composition and Brain Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Expression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elsherbiny, Marwa E.; Goruk, Susan; Monckton, Elizabeth A.; Richard, Caroline; Brun, Miranda; Emara, Marwan; Field, Catherine J.; Godbout, Roseline

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain accretion is essential for brain development. The impact of DHA-rich maternal diets on offspring brain fatty acid composition has previously been studied up to the weanling stage; however, there has been no follow-up at later stages. Here, we examine the impact of DHA-rich maternal and weaning diets on brain fatty acid composition at weaning and three weeks post-weaning. We report that DHA supplementation during lactation maintains high DHA levels in the brains of pups even when they are fed a DHA-deficient diet for three weeks after weaning. We show that boosting dietary DHA levels for three weeks after weaning compensates for a maternal DHA-deficient diet during lactation. Finally, our data indicate that brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7), a marker of neural stem cells, is down-regulated in the brains of six-week pups with a high DHA:AA ratio. We propose that elevated levels of DHA in developing brain accelerate brain maturation relative to DHA-deficient brains. PMID:26506385

  15. X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) modified with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal

    SciTech Connect

    Hellberg, Kristina; Grimsrud, Paul A.; Kruse, Andrew C.

    2012-07-11

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) have been characterized as facilitating the intracellular solubilization and transport of long-chain fatty acyl carboxylates via noncovalent interactions. More recent work has shown that the adipocyte FABP is also covalently modified in vivo on Cys117 with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a bioactive aldehyde linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate 4-HNE binding and modification, the crystal structures of adipocyte FABP covalently and noncovalently bound to 4-HNE have been solved to 1.9 {angstrom} and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. While the 4-HNE in the noncovalently modified protein is coordinated similarly to a carboxylate of a fatty acid, themore » covalent form show a novel coordination through a water molecule at the polar end of the lipid. Other defining features between the two structures with 4-HNE and previously solved structures of the protein include a peptide flip between residues Ala36 and Lys37 and the rotation of the side chain of Phe57 into its closed conformation. Representing the first structure of an endogenous target protein covalently modified by 4-HNE, these results define a new class of in vivo ligands for FABPs and extend their physiological substrates to include bioactive aldehydes.« less

  16. [Urinary L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) as a new urinary biomarker promulgated by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Matsui, Katsuomi; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Sugaya, Takeshi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2013-07-01

    Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is a 14kDa protein found in the cytoplasm of human renal proximal tubules. Fatty acids are bound with L-FABP and transported to the mitochondria or peroxisomes, where fatty acids are beta-oxidized, and this may play a role in fatty acid homeostasis. Moreover, L-FABP has high affinity and capacity to bind long-chain fatty acid oxidation products, and may be an effective endogenous antioxidant. Renal L-FABP is rarely expressed in the kidneys of rodents. In order to evaluate the pathological dynamics of renal L-FABP in kidney disease, human L-FABP chromosomal transgenic mice were generated. Various stress, such as massive proteinuria, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and toxins overloaded in the proximal tubules were revealed to up-regulate the gene expression of renal L-FABP and increase the excretion of L-FABP derived from the proximal tubules into urine. In clinical studies of chronic kidney disease (CKD), urinary L-FABP accurately reflected the degree of tubulointerstitial damage and correlated with the rate of CKD progression. Furthermore, a multicenter trial has shown that urinary L-FABP is more sensitive than urinary protein in predicting the progression of CKD. With respect to diabetic nephropathy and acute kidney disease (AKI), urinary L-FABP is an early diagnostic of kidney disease or a predictive marker for renal prognosis. After many clinical studies, urinary L-FABP was approved as a new tubular biomarker promulgated by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan.

  17. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Enhances Expression of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 at the Blood-Brain Barrier and Brain Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yijun; Morris, Elonie R; Scanlon, Martin J; Marriott, Philip J; Porter, Christopher Jh; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2018-03-27

    The cytoplasmic trafficking of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a cognitively-beneficial fatty acid, across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is governed by fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). Lower levels of brain DHA have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is associated with diminished BBB expression of FABP5. Therefore, upregulating FABP5 expression at the BBB may be a novel approach for enhancing BBB transport of DHA in AD. DHA supplementation has been shown to be beneficial in various mouse models of AD, and therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether DHA has the potential to upregulate the BBB expression of FABP5, thereby enhancing its own uptake into the brain. Treating human brain microvascular brain endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cells with the maximum tolerable concentration of DHA (12.5 μM) for 72 hr resulted in a 1.4-fold increase in FABP5 protein expression. Associated with this was increased expression of fatty acid transport proteins 1 and 4. To study the impact of dietary DHA supplementation, 6-8 week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a control diet or a DHA-enriched diet for 21 days. Brain microvascular FABP5 protein expression was upregulated 1.7-fold in mice fed the DHA-enriched diet, and this was associated with increased brain DHA levels (1.3-fold). Despite an increase in brain DHA levels, reduced BBB transport of 14 C-DHA was observed over a 1 min perfusion, possibly as a result of competitive binding to FABP5 between dietary DHA and 14 C-DHA. The current study has demonstrated that DHA can increase BBB expression of FABP5, as well as fatty acid transporters, overall increasing brain DHA levels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 5 at the Blood-Brain Barrier Regulates Endogenous Brain Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels and Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yijun; Short, Jennifer L; Choy, Kwok H C; Zeng, Annie X; Marriott, Philip J; Owada, Yuji; Scanlon, Martin J; Porter, Christopher J H; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2016-11-16

    Fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) at the blood-brain barrier contributes to the brain uptake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a blood-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid essential for maintenance of cognitive function. Given the importance of DHA in cognition, the aim of this study was to investigate whether deletion of FABP5 results in cognitive dysfunction and whether this is associated with reduced brain endothelial cell uptake of exogenous DHA and subsequent attenuation in the brain levels of endogenous DHA. Cognitive function was assessed in male and female FABP5 +/+ and FABP5 -/- mice using a battery of memory paradigms. FABP5 -/- mice exhibited impaired working memory and short-term memory, and these cognitive deficits were associated with a 14.7 ± 5.7% reduction in endogenous brain DHA levels. The role of FABP5 in the blood-brain barrier transport of DHA was assessed by measuring 14 C-DHA uptake into brain endothelial cells and capillaries isolated from FABP5 +/+ and FABP5 -/- mice. In line with a crucial role of FABP5 in the brain uptake of DHA, 14 C-DHA uptake into brain endothelial cells and brain capillaries of FABP5 -/- mice was reduced by 48.4 ± 14.5% and 14.0 ± 4.2%, respectively, relative to those of FABP5 +/+ mice. These results strongly support the hypothesis that FABP5 is essential for maintaining brain endothelial cell uptake of DHA, and that cognitive deficits observed in FABP5 -/- mice are associated with reduced CNS access of DHA. Genetic deletion of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) in mice reduces uptake of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into brain endothelial cells and brain capillaries and reduces brain parenchymal levels of endogenous DHA. Therefore, FABP5 in the brain endothelial cell is a crucial contributor to the brain levels of DHA. Critically, lowered brain DHA levels in FABP5 -/- mice occurred in tandem with cognitive deficits in a battery of memory paradigms. This study provides evidence of a critical role for FABP5

  19. Molecular cloning and tissue expression of the fatty acid-binding protein (Es-FABP) gene in female Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis).

    PubMed

    Gong, Ya-Nan; Li, Wei-Wei; Sun, Jiang-Ling; Ren, Fei; He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Qun

    2010-09-16

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), small cytosolic proteins that function in the uptake and utilization of fatty acids, have been extensively studied in higher vertebrates while invertebrates have received little attention despite similar nutritional requirements during periods of reproductive activity. Therefore, a cDNA encoding Eriocheir sinensis FABP (Es-FABP) was cloned based upon EST analysis of a hepatopancreas cDNA library. The full length cDNA was 750 bp and encoded a 131 aa polypeptide that was highly homologous to related genes reported in shrimp. The 9108 bp Es-FABP gene contained four exons that were interrupted by three introns, a genomic organization common among FABP multigene family members in vertebrates. Gene expression analysis, as determined by RT-PCR, revealed the presence of Es-FABP transcripts in hepatopancreas, hemocytes, ovary, gills, muscle, thoracic ganglia, heart, and intestine, but not stomach or eyestalk. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that Es-FABP expression in ovary, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas was dependent on the status of ovarian development, with peak expression observed in January. Evidence provided in the present report supports a role of Es-FABP in lipid transport during the period of rapid ovarian growth in E. sinensis, and indirectly confirms the participation of the hepatopancreas, ovary, and hemocytes in lipid nutrient absorption and utilization processes.

  20. Uptake of oleate by isolated rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieterman, W.; Sorrentino, D.; Potter, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    A portion of the hepatocellular uptake of nonesterified long-chain fatty acids is mediated by a specific 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, which has also been isolated from the gut. To investigate whether a similar transport process exists in other tissues with high transmembrane fatty acid fluxes, initial rates (V/sub O/) of (/sup 3/H)-oleate uptake into isolated rat adipocytes were studied as a function of the concentration of unbound (/sup 3/H)oleate in the medium. V/sub O/ reached a maximum as the concentration of unbound oleate was increased and was significantly inhibited both by phloretin and by prior incubation ofmore » the cells with Pronase. A rabbit antibody to the rat liver plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein inhibited adipocyte fatty acid uptake by up to 63% in dose-dependent fashion. Inhibition was noncompetitive; at an immunoglobulin concentration of 250 ..mu..g/ml V/sub max/ was reduced from 2480 /plus minus/ 160 to 1870 /plus minus/ 80 pmol/min per 5 /times/ 10/sup 4/ adipocytes, with no change in K/sub m/. A basic kDa adipocyte plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, isolated from crude adipocyte plasma membrane fractions, reacted strongly in both agar gel diffusion and electrophoretic blots with the antibody raised against the corresponding hepatic plasma membrane protein. These data indicate that the uptake of oleate by rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut.« less

  1. Fatty acid binding protein-1 (FABP1) and the human FABP1 T94A Variant: Roles in the Endocannabinoid System and Dyslipidemias

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Friedhelm; McIntosh, Avery L.; Martin, Gregory G.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Dangott, Lawrence J.; Li, Shengrong; Kaczocha, Martin; Murphy, Eric J.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.

    2017-01-01

    The first discovered member of the mammalian FABP family, liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP), occurs at high cytosolic concentration in liver, intestine and in the case of humans also in kidney. While the rat FABP1 is well studied, the extent these findings translate to human FABP1 is not clear—especially in view of recent studies showing that endocannabinoids and cannabinoids represent novel rat FABP1 ligands and FABP1 gene ablation impacts the hepatic endocannabinoid system, known to be involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) development. Although not detectable in brain, FABP1 ablation nevertheless also impacts brain endocannabinoids. Despite overall tertiary structure similarity, human FABP1 differs significantly from rat FABP1 in secondary structure, much larger ligand binding cavity, and affinities/specificities for some ligands. Moreover, while both mouse and human FABP1 mediate ligand induction of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, (PPARα), they differ markedly in pattern of genes induced. This is critically important because a highly prevalent human SNP (26–38% minor allele frequency and 8.3±1.9% homozygous) results in a FABP1 T94A substitution that further accentuates these species differences. The human FABP1 T94A variant is associated with altered body mass index (BMI), clinical dyslipidemias (elevated plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol), atherothrombotic cerebral infarction, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Resolving human FABP1 and the T94A variant’s impact on the endocannabinoid and cannabinoid system is an exciting challenge due to the importance of this system on hepatic lipid accumulation as well as behavior, pain, inflammation, and satiety. PMID:27117865

  2. Fatty Acid Binding Protein-1 (FABP1) and the Human FABP1 T94A Variant: Roles in the Endocannabinoid System and Dyslipidemias.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Friedhelm; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Landrock, Kerstin K; Dangott, Lawrence J; Li, Shengrong; Kaczocha, Martin; Murphy, Eric J; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B

    2016-06-01

    The first discovered member of the mammalian FABP family, liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP), occurs at high cytosolic concentration in liver, intestine, and in the case of humans also in kidney. While the rat FABP1 is well studied, the extent these findings translate to human FABP1 is not clear-especially in view of recent studies showing that endocannabinoids and cannabinoids represent novel rat FABP1 ligands and FABP1 gene ablation impacts the hepatic endocannabinoid system, known to be involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) development. Although not detectable in brain, FABP1 ablation nevertheless also impacts brain endocannabinoids. Despite overall tertiary structure similarity, human FABP1 differs significantly from rat FABP1 in secondary structure, much larger ligand binding cavity, and affinities/specificities for some ligands. Moreover, while both mouse and human FABP1 mediate ligand induction of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα), they differ markedly in pattern of genes induced. This is critically important because a highly prevalent human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (26-38 % minor allele frequency and 8.3 ± 1.9 % homozygous) results in a FABP1 T94A substitution that further accentuates these species differences. The human FABP1 T94A variant is associated with altered body mass index (BMI), clinical dyslipidemias (elevated plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol), atherothrombotic cerebral infarction, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Resolving human FABP1 and the T94A variant's impact on the endocannabinoid and cannabinoid system is an exciting challenge due to the importance of this system in hepatic lipid accumulation as well as behavior, pain, inflammation, and satiety.

  3. Structural basis for the ligand-binding specificity of fatty acid-binding proteins (pFABP4 and pFABP5) in gentoo penguin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Jung Eun; Do, Hackwon; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Lee, Sung Gu; Park, Hyun Ho; Chang, Jeong Ho; Yim, Joung Han; Park, Hyun; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jun Hyuck

    2015-09-11

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are involved in transporting hydrophobic fatty acids between various aqueous compartments of the cell by directly binding ligands inside their β-barrel cavities. Here, we report the crystal structures of ligand-unbound pFABP4, linoleate-bound pFABP4, and palmitate-bound pFABP5, obtained from gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), at a resolution of 2.1 Å, 2.2 Å, and 2.3 Å, respectively. The pFABP4 and pFABP5 proteins have a canonical β-barrel structure with two short α-helices that form a cap region and fatty acid ligand binding sites in the hydrophobic cavity within the β-barrel structure. Linoleate-bound pFABP4 and palmitate-bound pFABP5 possess different ligand-binding modes and a unique ligand-binding pocket due to several sequence dissimilarities (A76/L78, T30/M32, underlining indicates pFABP4 residues) between the two proteins. Structural comparison revealed significantly different conformational changes in the β3-β4 loop region (residues 57-62) as well as the flipped Phe60 residue of pFABP5 than that in pFABP4 (the corresponding residue is Phe58). A ligand-binding study using fluorophore displacement assays shows that pFABP4 has a relatively strong affinity for linoleate as compared to pFABP5. In contrast, pFABP5 exhibits higher affinity for palmitate than that for pFABP4. In conclusion, our high-resolution structures and ligand-binding studies provide useful insights into the ligand-binding preferences of pFABPs based on key protein-ligand interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of polymorphisms in solute carrier family 27, isoform A6 (SLC27A6) and fatty acid-binding protein-3 and fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP3 and FABP4) with fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Nafikov, R A; Schoonmaker, J P; Korn, K T; Noack, K; Garrick, D J; Koehler, K J; Minick-Bormann, J; Reecy, J M; Spurlock, D E; Beitz, D C

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop tools for genetic selection of animals producing milk with a lower concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The reasons for changing milk fatty acid (FA) composition were to improve milk technological properties, such as for production of more spreadable butter, and milk nutritional value with respect to the potentially adverse effects of SFA on human health. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in solute carrier family 27, isoform A6 (SLC27A6) fatty acid transport protein gene and fatty acid binding protein (FABP)-3 and FABP-4 (FABP3 and FABP4) would affect the selectivity of FA uptake into, and FA redistribution inside, mammary epithelial cells, resulting in altered FA composition of bovine milk. The objectives of our study were to discover genetic polymorphisms in SLC27A6, FABP3, and FABP4, and to test those polymorphisms for associations with milk FA composition. The results showed that after pairwise comparisons between SLC27A6 haplotypes for significantly associated traits, haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.37 weight percentage (wt%) lower SFA concentration, 0.091 lower SFA:UFA ratio, and 0.17 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0) concentration, but 1.37 wt% higher UFA and 1.24 wt% higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Pairwise comparisons between FABP4 haplotypes for significantly associated traits showed that haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.04 wt% lower SFA concentration, 0.079 lower SFA:UFA ratio, 0.15 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0), and 0.27 wt% lower myristic acid (14:0) concentrations, but 1.04 wt% higher UFA and 0.91 wt% higher MUFA concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Percentages of genetic variance explained by H3 versus H1 haplotype substitutions for SLC27A6 and FABP4 ranged from 2.50 to 4.86% and

  5. Prediction of fatty acid-binding residues on protein surfaces with three-dimensional probability distributions of interacting atoms.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Rajasekaran; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei

    2014-08-01

    Protein-fatty acid interaction is vital for many cellular processes and understanding this interaction is important for functional annotation as well as drug discovery. In this work, we present a method for predicting the fatty acid (FA)-binding residues by using three-dimensional probability density distributions of interacting atoms of FAs on protein surfaces which are derived from the known protein-FA complex structures. A machine learning algorithm was established to learn the characteristic patterns of the probability density maps specific to the FA-binding sites. The predictor was trained with five-fold cross validation on a non-redundant training set and then evaluated with an independent test set as well as on holo-apo pair's dataset. The results showed good accuracy in predicting the FA-binding residues. Further, the predictor developed in this study is implemented as an online server which is freely accessible at the following website, http://ismblab.genomics.sinica.edu.tw/. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic potential of Fasciola gigantica-derived 14.5 kDa fatty acid binding protein in the immunodiagnosis of bubaline fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Allam, G; Bauomy, I R; Hemyeda, Z M; Diab, T M; Sakran, T F

    2013-06-01

    The 14.5 kDa fatty acid binding protein (FABP) was isolated from the crude extract of adult Fasciola gigantica worms. Polyclonal anti-FABP IgG was generated in rabbits immunized with prepared FABP antigen. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to detect coproantigen in stools and circulating Fasciola antigen (CA) in sera of 126 water buffaloes by using purified and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-FABP IgG. Sandwich ELISA sensitivity was 96.97% and 94.95%; while specificity was 94.12% and 82.35% for coproantigen and CA detection, respectively. However, sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique was 73.74% and 100%, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of sandwich ELISA was 96.55% and 93.1% for coproantigen and CA detection, respectively. In contrast, the diagnostic efficacy of the Kato-Katz technique was 77.59%. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the purified 14.5 kDa FABP provides a more suitable antigen for immunodiagnosis of early and current bubaline fascioliasis by using sandwich ELISA.

  7. Lack of association between the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) polymorphism with obesity and insulin resistance in two aboriginal populations from Chile.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Fuentes, M; Angel, B; Sanchez, H; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Lera, L; Albala, C

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) Ala54Thr genetic polymorphism and to evaluate its association with obesity and insulin resistance in Chilean aboriginal populations. A sample of 96 urban Aymara and 111 urban Mapuche subjects aged 20-80 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in fasting plasma samples. Insulin resistance was estimated through the HOMA-IR model. FABP2 Ala54Thr genotypes were determined by PCR followed by RFLP analysis. The allele frequency of Thr54 variant was estimated as 18.2% in Aymara subjects, which is one of the lowest reported to date. The corresponding frequency in Mapuche subjects was 31.9% (p<0.002). Regarding genotype-phenotype associations, no significant differences were found in any of the anthropometric or metabolic variables according to Ala54Thr genotypes. After adjustment by BMI and metabolic variables through a logistic regression analysis, the association of the FABP2 polymorphism with ethnic group persisted (Mapuche group: OR=2.37, 95% CI 1.319-4.277, p=0.004) It is unlikely that Ala54Thr polymorphism of the FABP2 gene plays a relevant role in obesity and insulin resistance in Chilean ethnic groups.

  8. Immunohistochemical analysis of cyclooxygenase-2 and brain fatty acid binding protein expression in grades I-II meningiomas: correlation with tumor grade and clinical outcome after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Kim, Il Han; Park, Charn Il; Park, Sung-Hye

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to evaluate the association of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and brain fatty acid binding protein (BFABP) with tumor grade and outcome of grades I-II meningiomas treated with radiotherapy. From 1996 to 2008, 40 patients with intracranial grades I-II meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 and BFABP were performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. COX-2 expression was significantly associated with BFABP status and both COX-2 (P < 0.01) and BFABP (P = 0.01) expression were stronger in the grade II meningiomas than in grade I tumors. Among the clinicopathologic factors, age and COX-2 status were prognostic in progression-free survival. Patients with moderate or strong COX-2 expression had worse outcome than those with negative or weak COX-2 expression (P = 0.03) after controlling for potential confounders. Our results suggest that the molecular biomarker COX-2 has prognostic significance in intracranial grades I-II meningiomas following radiotherapy. © 2014 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  9. Detection of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP) using piezoresistive polymer microcantilevers functionalized by a dry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Dilip Kumar; Prasad, Abhinav; Vinchurkar, Madhuri; Gandhi, Sahir; Prabhakar, Deepika; Mukherji, Soumyo; Rao, V. Ramgopal

    2018-03-01

    Piezoresistive microcantilever-based sensor platform is being used for the last two decades due to their low cost, rapid response and label-free detection system. In this work, we are reporting a microfabricated piezoresistive SU-8/carbon black (polymer cantilever)-based sensor platform for the detection of a clinically important early-stage cardiac marker, i.e., fatty acid-binding protein. It is a most preferred cardiac marker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The embodiment of the sensor is a SU-8 microcantilever chip with an integrated nanoparticle composite (carbon black) as a piezoresistor for on-chip electrical transduction. Prior to improving the sensing and susceptibility towards the specific target biomolecule (i.e., h-FABP), the fabricated SU-8 polymer cantilevers were subjected to tailored functionalization. This includes the use of an in-house dry method of hot wire chemical vapour deposition technique to graft amine groups onto the SU-8 surface. The surface-modified microcantilevers were further integrated with a polydimethylsiloxane liquid flow cell and connected externally with an electrical read-out system. Immobilization of the antibody corresponding to the marker protein on the microcantilever surface and subsequent recording of the signal generated upon the antibody-antigen interaction were carried out inside the liquid flow cell. Using our optimized immobilization protocol with this experimental set-up, we were successfully able to detect h-FABP concentration as low as 100 ng/ml.

  10. NR4A orphan nuclear receptors influence retinoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid signaling via up-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 5

    SciTech Connect

    Volakakis, Nikolaos; Joodmardi, Eliza; Perlmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.perlmann@licr.ki.se

    2009-12-25

    The orphan nuclear receptor (NR) Nurr1 is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system and is also induced as an immediate early gene in a variety of cell types. In silico analysis of human promoters identified fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), a protein shown to enhance retinoic acid-mediated PPAR{beta}/{delta} signaling, as a potential Nurr1 target gene. Nurr1 has previously been implicated in retinoid signaling via its heterodimerization partner RXR. Since NRs are commonly involved in cross-regulatory control we decided to further investigate the regulatory relationship between Nurr1 and FABP5. FABP5 expression was up-regulated by Nurr1 and other NR4Amore » NRs in HEK293 cells, and Nurr1 was shown to activate and bind to the FABP5 promoter, supporting that FABP5 is a direct downstream target of NR4A NRs. We also show that the RXR ligand docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can induce nuclear translocation of FABP5. Moreover, via up-regulation of FABP5 Nurr1 can enhance retinoic acid-induced signaling of PPAR{beta}/{delta} and DHA-induced activation of RXR. We also found that other members of the NR4A orphan NRs can up-regulate FABP5. Thus, our findings suggest that NR4A orphan NRs can influence signaling events of other NRs via control of FABP5 expression levels.« less

  11. From hit to lead: Structure-based discovery of naphthalene-1-sulfonamide derivatives as potent and selective inhibitors of fatty acid binding protein 4.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ding-Ding; Dou, Hui-Xia; Su, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Ming-Ming; Wang, Ting; Liu, Qiu-Feng; Cai, Hai-Yan; Ding, Hai-Peng; Yang, Zhuo; Zhu, Wei-Liang; Xu, Ye-Chun; Wang, He-Yao; Li, Ying-Xia

    2018-05-09

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) plays a critical role in metabolism and inflammatory processes and therefore is a potential therapeutic target for immunometabolic diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. Herein, we reported the identification of naphthalene-1-sulfonamide derivatives as novel, potent and selective FABP4 inhibitors by applying a structure-based design strategy. The binding affinities of compounds 16dk, 16do and 16du to FABP4, at the molecular level, are equivalent to or even better than that of BMS309403. The X-ray crystallography complemented by the isothermal titration calorimetry studies revealed the binding mode of this series of inhibitors and the pivotal network of ordered water molecules in the binding pocket of FABP4. Moreover, compounds 16dk and 16do showed good metabolic stabilities in liver microsomes. Further extensive in vivo study demonstrated that 16dk and 16do exhibited a dramatic improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, by decreasing fasting blood glucose and serum lipid levels, enhancing insulin sensitivity, and ameliorating hepatic steatosis in obese diabetic (db/db) mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Urinary Liver-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Level as a Predictive Biomarker of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Hishikari, Keiichi; Hikita, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shun; Nakagama, Shun; Mizusawa, Masahumi; Yamamoto, Tasuku; Doi, Junichi; Hayashi, Yosuke; Utsugi, Yuya; Araki, Makoto; Sudo, Yuta; Kimura, Shigeki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ashikaga, Takashi; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2017-10-01

    There are no biological markers to predict the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) levels are markedly upregulated in the proximal tubules after renal ischemia. We investigated whether urinary L-FABP is a suitable marker to predict AKI in ADHF patients. We examined 281 consecutive patients with ADHF. Serum creatinine (Cr) and L-FABP levels were measured at admission and 24 and 48 h after admission. AKI developed in 104 patients (37%). Urinary L-FABP levels at admission were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without (33.0 vs. 5.2 μg/g Cr; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that baseline urinary L-FABP level was an independent predictor of AKI in ADHF patients (odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.12; p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that baseline urinary L-FABP level exhibited 94.2% sensitivity and 87.0% specificity at a cutoff value of 12.5 μg/g Cr. Urinary L-FABP level is useful for predicting the onset of AKI in patients with ADHF. The results of our study could help clinicians diagnose AKI in ADHF patients earlier, leading to possible improvements in the treatment of this group of patients.

  13. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) as a biomarker for acute myocardial injury and long-term post-ischemic prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiao-Dong; He, Yi; Wang, Sheng; Wong, Gordon T; Irwin, Michael G; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2018-05-17

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a life-threatening event. Even with timely treatment, acute ischemic myocardial injury and ensuing ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) can still be difficult issues to tackle. Apart from radiological and other auxiliary examinations, laboratory tests of applicable cardiac biomarkers are also necessary for early diagnosis and close monitoring of this disorder. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), which mainly exists inside cardiomyocytes, has recently emerged as a potentially promising biomarker for myocardial injury. In this review we discuss the sensitivity and specificity of H-FABP in the assessment of myocardial injury and IRI, especially in the early stage, and its long-term prognostic value in comparison with other commonly used cardiac biomarkers, including myoglobin (Mb), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), C-reactive protein (CRP), glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB), and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). The potential and value of combined application of H-FABP with other biomarkers are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of H-FABP is summarized; several technical issues are discussed to facilitate wider application of H-FABP in clinical practice.

  14. Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Potentiates Toxic Lipids-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Macrophages via Inhibition of Janus Kinase 2-dependent Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Shu, Lingling; Cheng, Kenneth K. Y.; Wu, Xiaoping; Liao, Boya; Wu, Donghai; Zhou, Zhiguang; Xu, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    Lipotoxicity is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related inflammatory complications by promoting macrophage infiltration and activation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) play key roles in obesity and mediate inflammatory activity through similar signaling pathways. However, little is known about their interplay in lipid-induced inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that prolonged treatment of palmitic acid (PA) increased ER stress and expression of A-FABP, which was accompanied by reduced autophagic flux in macrophages. Over-expression of A-FABP impaired PA-induced autophagy associating with enhanced ER stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, while genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of A-FABP reversed the conditions. PA-induced expression of autophagy-related protein (Atg)7 was attenuated in A-FABP over-expressed macrophages, but was elevated in A-FABP-deficient macrophages. Mechanistically, A-FABP potentiated the effects of PA by inhibition of Janus Kinase (JAK)2 activity, thus diminished PA-induced Atg7 expression contributing to impaired autophagy and further augmentation of ER stress. These findings suggest that A-FABP acts as autophagy inhibitor to instigate toxic lipids-induced ER stress through inhibition of JAK2-dependent autophagy, which in turn triggers inflammatory responses in macrophages. A-FABP-JAK2 axis may represent an important pathological pathway contributing to obesity-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:28094778

  15. Clinical evaluation of point-of-care-testing of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takao; Sohmiya, Ko-ichi; Kitaura, Yasushi; Takeshita, Hitoshi; Morita, Hiroshi; Ohkaru, Yasuhiko; Asayama, Kumiko; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out for clinical evaluation of point-of-care-testing (POCT) of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), Rapicheck H-FABP, for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in comparison with conventional cardiac biochemical markers such as myoglobin, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin T. Whole blood samples from patients with confirmed AMI (n = 53), patients with non-AMI cardiac diseases (n = 24), and patients with non-cardiac diseases with chest pain (n = 6) were used. When a test line appeared within 15 min after the addition of 150 microL of whole blood, it was designated to be positive for H-FABP. A control line indicates a proper use of the test. On the other hand, when no test line appeared, it was negative. In the superacute phase of AMI within 3 hours, the diagnostic sensitivity of H-FABP was 93.1%, which was the highest of the four markers compared here. The diagnostic specificity in the phase for H-FABP was 64.3%, while it was 100% with cardiac troponin T. The POCT of H-FABP is thought to be practical for the detection of cardiac damage and effective for the diagnosis of AMI in superacute phase within 3 hours and/or 6 hours.

  16. Evaluation of a newly developed quantitative heart-type fatty acid binding protein assay based on fluorescence immunochromatography using specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kang, Keren; Wu, Peidian; Li, Wenmei; Tang, Shixing; Wang, Jihua; Luo, Xiaochun; Xie, Mingquan

    2015-01-01

    To develop a rapid, sensitive and specific assay for quantification of serum heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) based on immunofluorescence of specific monoclonal antibodies. We generated novel H-FABP-directed monoclonal antibodies by cloning of spleen cells of mice immunized with H-FABP. Epitopes were mapped and antigen affinity was assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The H-FABP specific monoclonal antibodies were coupled to fluorescent beads and sprayed onto a nitrocellulose membrane facilitating quantification of H-FABP by immunofluorescence. Reagent cross-reactivity, interference resistance, accuracy and sensitivity were examined. A total of 103 clinical samples were used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the new assay to a commercially available Randox kit. This new assay could be finished within 15 min, with sensitivity reaching 1 ng/ml. In a trial of 103 clinical serum samples, the new testing kit results were highly correlated with those from the Randox kit (R(2) = 0.9707). Using the Randox kit as the reference kit, the sensitivity of the new assay was 98.25%, and specificity was 100%. An immunofluorescence-based H-FABP assay employing novel monoclonal antibodies could rapidly, specifically and sensitively detect H-FABP in serum samples, providing an effective method for rapid clinical assessment of H-FABP index in the clinic.

  17. Fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) promotes lipolysis of lipid droplets, de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Senga, Shogo; Kobayashi, Narumi; Kawaguchi, Koichiro; Ando, Akira; Fujii, Hiroshi

    2018-06-12

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are involved in binding and storing hydrophobic ligands such as long-chain fatty acids, as well as transporting them to the appropriate compartments in the cell. Epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (FABP5) is an intracellular lipid-binding protein that is abundantly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages. Previous studies have revealed that the FABP5 expression level is closely related to malignancy in various types of cancer. However, its precise functions in the metabolisms of cancer cells remain unclear. Here, we revealed that FABP5 knockdown significantly induced downregulation of the genes expression, such as hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), elongation of long-chain fatty acid member 6 (Elovl6), and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), which are involved in altered lipid metabolism, lipolysis, and de novo FA synthesis in highly aggressive prostate and breast cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that FABP5 induced inflammation and cytokine production through the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway activated by reactive oxygen species and protein kinase C in PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, FABP5 might regulate lipid quality and/or quantity to promote aggressiveness such as cell growth, invasiveness, survival, and inflammation in prostate and breast cancer cells. In the present study, we have revealed for the first time that high expression of FABP5 plays a critical role in alterations of lipid metabolism, leading to cancer development and metastasis in highly aggressive prostate and breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Cloning and tissue distribution of rat hear fatty acid binding protein mRNA: identical forms in heart and skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Claffey, K.P.; Herrera, V.L.; Brecher, P.

    1987-12-01

    A fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as been identified and characterized in rat heart, but the function and regulation of this protein are unclear. In this study the cDNA for rat heart FABP was cloned from a lambda gt11 library. Sequencing of the cDNA showed an open reading frame coding for a protein with 133 amino acids and a calculated size of 14,776 daltons. Several differences were found between the sequence determined from the cDNA and that reported previously by protein sequencing techniques. Northern blot analysis using rat heart FABP cDNA as a probe established the presence of an abundantmore » mRNA in rat heart about 0.85 kilobases in length. This mRNA was detected, but was not abundant, in fetal heart tissue. Tissue distribution studies showed a similar mRNA species in red, but not white, skeletal muscle. In general, the mRNA tissue distribution was similar to that of the protein detected by Western immunoblot analysis, suggesting that heart FABP expression may be regulated at the transcriptional level. S1 nuclease mapping studies confirmed that the mRNA hybridized to rat heart FABP cDNA was identical in heart and red skeletal muscle throughout the entire open reading frame. The structural differences between heart FABP and other members of this multigene family may be related to the functional requirements of oxidative muscle for fatty acids as a fuel source.« less

  19. Urinary Liver Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein Is Negatively Associated With Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Renal Transplant Recipients With Graft Loss.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y-C; Chang, Y-S; Chen, C-C; Tsai, S-F; Yu, T-M; Wu, M-J; Chen, C-H

    2018-05-01

    Liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is abundant not only in the liver but also in the kidney and is excreted in urine. Its primary function is to facilitate intracellular long chain fatty acid transport and it might also act as an endogenous antioxidant molecular. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether plasma or urinary L-FABP levels were associated with graft function in renal transplant recipients. Sixty-seven renal transplant recipients with a mean age of 48.8 years were recruited. The mean duration of renal transplantation was 4131 days. Recipients were divided into 2 groups based on their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values: moderate graft function (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and low graft function (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). Fasting plasma and urinary L-FABP levels were measured. There was no significant difference in plasma L-FABP level between the 2 groups, although recipients in the low graft function group had significantly lower urinary L-FABP level when compared with recipients in the moderate graft function group. Plasma and urinary L-FABP levels were not associated with eGFR in the 67 recipients; however, urinary L-FABP level (β = -1.24, P = .037) and level adjusted by urinary creatinine (β = -0.75, P = .046) were significantly negatively associated with eGFR in recipients with low graft function after adjusting for potential confounders. Increased urinary L-FABP level seems to be a significant indicator of decreased graft function in renal transplant recipients with loss of graft function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid binding protein (FABPC) content is directly related to weight loss and to changes in fat oxidation following a very low calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Blaak, E E; Glatz, J F; Saris, W H

    2001-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that intracellular fatty acid binding proteins (FABPc's; 15 kD) function as vehicles of cytosolic fatty acid transport. We studied skeletal muscle cytosolic FABPc, and enzymes reflecting beta-oxidation and oxidative capacity (3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, HAD, and citrate synthase, CS) in relation to weight loss and changes in substrate utilisation in a group of 35 obese women and obese men with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (women = 27, men = 8). Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis), and measurements of body composition, resting energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio were taken before and after dietary intervention (by means of a very low calorie diet). Muscle FABPc tended to increase after diet (178 +/- 13 vs 204 +/- 12 mg x gww(-1), p = 0.06), whereas there were no changes in CS (10.5 +/- 0.7 vs 11.1 +/- 0.6 U x gww(-1)) and HAD (11.2 +/- 0.7 vs 11.7 +/- 0.6 U x gww(-1)). There was a positive relation between the increase in FABPc as result of diet and the amount of weight lost (p < 0.01; adjusted R2, 15.4 %), even when adjusted for mean body weight, and changes in CS and in HAD by partial regression analysis. Interestingly, the increase in FABPc was positively related to increases in resting fat oxidation (adjusted R2, 24 %), even when adjusted for mean resting fat oxidation, and changes in CS and in HAD. In conclusion, the ability to increase muscle FABPc could be directly related to weight loss and to changes in fat oxidation following dietary intervention in obesity and Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.

  1. Plasma Levels of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4, Retinol-Binding Protein 4, High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin, and Cardiovascular Mortality Among Men With Type 2 Diabetes: A 22-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Ding, Ming; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Rimm, Eric B; Franks, Paul W; Meigs, James B; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi

    2016-11-01

    To examine select adipokines, including fatty acid-binding protein 4, retinol-binding protein 4, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plasma levels of fatty acid-binding protein 4, retinol-binding protein 4, and HMW adiponectin were measured in 950 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After an average of 22 years of follow-up (1993-2015), 580 deaths occurred, of whom 220 died of CVD. After multivariate adjustment for covariates, higher levels of fatty acid-binding protein 4 were significantly associated with a higher CVD mortality: comparing extreme tertiles, the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of CVD mortality was 1.78 (1.22-2.59; P trend=0.001). A positive association was also observed for HMW adiponectin: the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.07 (1.42-3.06; P trend=0.0002), comparing extreme tertiles, whereas higher retinol-binding protein 4 levels were nonsignificantly associated with a decreased CVD mortality with an hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.73 (0.50-1.07; P trend=0.09). A Mendelian randomization analysis suggested that the causal relationships of HMW adiponectin and retinol-binding protein 4 would be directionally opposite to those observed based on the biomarkers, although none of the Mendelian randomization associations achieved statistical significance. These data suggest that higher levels of fatty acid-binding protein 4 and HMW adiponectin are associated with elevated CVD mortality among men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biological mechanisms underlying these observations deserve elucidation, but the associations of HMW adiponectin may partially reflect altered adipose tissue functionality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Association of fatty acid-binding protein 2 and fat mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism with primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Shania; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Chandra, Anu; Singh, Luxmi; Mahdi, Farzana

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study was carried out to investigate the association of fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphism with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study includes 122 POAG cases and 112 controls. FABP2 and FTO gene polymorphisms in cases and controls were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. RESULTS: The mean ages were 49.88 ± 12.34 and 53.74 ± 11.87 years in POAG cases and control groups, respectively. The FABP2 gene AA, AT, TT genotype frequencies were 12.90%, 62.40%, 24.80% in POAG cases and 20.60%, 64.70%, 14.70% in healthy controls, respectively. The frequencies of A and T allele in POAG cases were 44.06% and 55.94% as compared to 52.94% and 47.06% in the controls. The FTO gene AA, AT, TT genotype frequencies were 2.00%, 79.20%, 18.80% in cases and 0%, 75.50%, 24.50% in healthy controls, respectively. The frequencies of A and T allele in POAG cases were 41.58% and 58.42% as compared to 37.75% and 62.25% in the controls. No significant difference in the frequencies of FABP2 and FTO genotype was found between POAG cases and controls. CONCLUSION: We could not identify the possible association of FABP2 and FTO gene polymorphism with POAG; however, further studies with larger sample size in different population are require to clarify the role of FABP2 and FTO genes in susceptibility to POAG. PMID:29034152

  3. Knocking out or pharmaceutical inhibition of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) alleviates osteoarthritis induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Chiu, K Y; Chan, B P M; Li, T; Wen, C; Xu, A; Yan, C H

    2018-06-01

    Adipokines play roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a novel adipokine that is closely associated with obesity and metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to discover the potential role of FABP4 in OA. Seventy-two FABP4 knockout mice (KO) in C57BL/6N background and wild-type littermates (WT) (male, 6-week-old) were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% calorie) or standard diet (STD, 11.6% calorie) for 3 months, 6 months and 9 months (n = 6 each). In the parallel study, forty-eight 6-week-old male WT mice were fed with HFD or STD, and simultaneously treated with daily oral gavage of selective FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 (15 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 4 months and 6 months (n = 6 each). Serum FABP4 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) concentration was quantified. Histological assessment of knee OA and micro-CT analysis of subchondral bone were performed. HFD induced obesity in mice. After 3 months and 6 months of HFD, KO mice showed alleviated cartilage degradation and synovitis, with significantly lower COMP, modified Mankin OA score, and MMP-13/ADAMTS4 expression. After 6 months and 9 months of HFD, KO mice showed less osteophyte formation and subchondral bone sclerosis. Chronic treatment of BMS309403 for 4 months and 6 months significantly alleviated cartilage degradation, but had no effects on the subchondral bone. Knocking out or pharmaceutical inhibition of FABP4 did not have significant effects on lean mice fed with STD. Knocking out or pharmaceutical inhibition of FABP4 alleviates OA induced by HFD in mice. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatty Acid-binding Proteins 1 and 2 Differentially Modulate the Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor α in a Ligand-selective Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Maria L. R.; Liu, Bonan; Halls, Michelle L.; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Patil, Rahul; Velkov, Tony; Jans, David A.; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Scanlon, Martin J.; Porter, Christopher J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) regulate the expression of proteins that control aspects of reproduction, development and metabolism, and are major therapeutic targets. However, NHRs are ubiquitous and participate in multiple physiological processes. Drugs that act at NHRs are therefore commonly restricted by toxicity, often at nontarget organs. For endogenous NHR ligands, intracellular lipid-binding proteins, including the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), can chaperone ligands to the nucleus and promote NHR activation. Drugs also bind FABPs, raising the possibility that FABPs similarly regulate drug activity at the NHRs. Here, we investigate the ability of FABP1 and FABP2 (intracellular lipid-binding proteins that are highly expressed in tissues involved in lipid metabolism, including the liver and intestine) to influence drug-mediated activation of the lipid regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α. We show by quantitative fluorescence imaging and gene reporter assays that drug binding to FABP1 and FABP2 promotes nuclear localization and PPARα activation in a drug- and FABP-dependent manner. We further show that nuclear accumulation of FABP1 and FABP2 is dependent on the presence of PPARα. Nuclear accumulation of FABP on drug binding is driven largely by reduced nuclear egress rather than an increased rate of nuclear entry. Importin binding assays indicate that nuclear access occurs via an importin-independent mechanism. Together, the data suggest that specific drug-FABP complexes can interact with PPARα to effect nuclear accumulation of FABP and NHR activation. Because FABPs are expressed in a regionally selective manner, this may provide a means to tailor the patterns of NHR drug activation in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:25847235

  5. Evaluation of the relationship between heart type fatty acid binding protein levels and the risk of cardiac damage in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Burcu; Akbal, Erdem; Firat, Hikmet; Ardic, Sadik; Akdemir, Ramazan; Kizilgun, Murat

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish cardiac damage related to nocturnal ischemia using heart type fatty acid binding protein (h-fabp), which reaches detectable levels in plasma after being released from myocytes in case of ischemia in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients without coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifty patients diagnosed with OSAS in our sleep laboratory with polysomnographic analysis (PSG), who did not have any previous history of cardiac disease and in whom CAD was ruled out with myocardium perfusion scintigraphy, were included in the study. Control group comprised 19 volunteers without history of cardiac disease and risk factors in whom OSAS was excluded with PSG analysis. Blood samples were drawn from the patients to examine h-fabp, creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), troponin I levels before and after sleep. No significant difference was found in CK, CK-MB, AST, Troponin I, and h-fabp levels before and after sleep in patient and control groups (p > 0.05). No significant difference was found between groups in terms of CK, CK-MB, AST, and Troponin I levels before and after sleep, while a significant difference was found between them with regard to h-fabp levels before (p = 0.006) and after sleep (p = 0.022). When arithmetical mean of the fabp levels before and after sleep was taken in the patient group, it was found that mean value of h-fabp was associated with the desaturated period in sleep which was under 80% (p = 0.04). H-fabp seems to be a marker that will enable the detection of cardiac injury in the early asymptomatic period in OSAS patients before development of disease that can be detected by imaging methods. Further studies are required to investigate the relation between the value of h-fabp and the development of cardiac dysfunction in the long term.

  6. Serum fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) concentration is associated with insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Risa; Okura, Tsuyoshi; Fujioka, Yohei; Sumi, Keisuke; Matsuzawa, Kazuhiko; Izawa, Shoichiro; Ueta, Etsuko; Kato, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shin-Ichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is caused by insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction. In recent studies reported that several markers associated with insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, Adiponectin and other parameters, such as fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4), have been reported to regulate insulin resistance, but it remains unclear which factor mostly affects insulin resistance in T2DM. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationships between several kinds of biomarkers and insulin resistance, and insulin secretion in T2DM and healthy controls. We recruited 30 participants (12 T2DM and 18 non-diabetic healthy controls). Participants underwent a meal tolerance test during which plasma glucose, insulin and serum C-peptide immunoreactivity were measured. We performed a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and measured the glucose-disposal rate (GDR). The fasting serum levels of adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor-1, irisin, autotaxin, FABP4 and interleukin-6 were measured by ELISA. We found a strong negative correlation between FABP4 concentration and GDR in T2DM (r = -0.657, p = 0.020). FABP4 also was positively correlated with insulin secretion during the meal tolerance test in T2DM (IRI (120): r = 0.604, p = 0.038) and was positively related to the insulinogenic index in non-DM subjects (r = 0.536, p = 0.022). Autotaxin was also related to GDR. However, there was no relationship with insulin secretion. We found that serum FABP4 concentration were associated with insulin resistance and secretion in T2DM. This suggests that FABP4 may play an important role in glucose homeostasis.

  7. Serum fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) concentration is associated with insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Risa; Okura, Tsuyoshi; Fujioka, Yohei; Sumi, Keisuke; Matsuzawa, Kazuhiko; Izawa, Shoichiro; Ueta, Etsuko; Kato, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is caused by insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction. In recent studies reported that several markers associated with insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, Adiponectin and other parameters, such as fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4), have been reported to regulate insulin resistance, but it remains unclear which factor mostly affects insulin resistance in T2DM. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationships between several kinds of biomarkers and insulin resistance, and insulin secretion in T2DM and healthy controls. We recruited 30 participants (12 T2DM and 18 non-diabetic healthy controls). Participants underwent a meal tolerance test during which plasma glucose, insulin and serum C-peptide immunoreactivity were measured. We performed a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and measured the glucose-disposal rate (GDR). The fasting serum levels of adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor-1, irisin, autotaxin, FABP4 and interleukin-6 were measured by ELISA. We found a strong negative correlation between FABP4 concentration and GDR in T2DM (r = -0.657, p = 0.020). FABP4 also was positively correlated with insulin secretion during the meal tolerance test in T2DM (IRI (120): r = 0.604, p = 0.038) and was positively related to the insulinogenic index in non-DM subjects (r = 0.536, p = 0.022). Autotaxin was also related to GDR. However, there was no relationship with insulin secretion. We found that serum FABP4 concentration were associated with insulin resistance and secretion in T2DM. This suggests that FABP4 may play an important role in glucose homeostasis. PMID:28654680

  8. Fatty Acid-binding Proteins 1 and 2 Differentially Modulate the Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor α in a Ligand-selective Manner.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Maria L R; Liu, Bonan; Halls, Michelle L; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Patil, Rahul; Velkov, Tony; Jans, David A; Bunnett, Nigel W; Scanlon, Martin J; Porter, Christopher J H

    2015-05-29

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) regulate the expression of proteins that control aspects of reproduction, development and metabolism, and are major therapeutic targets. However, NHRs are ubiquitous and participate in multiple physiological processes. Drugs that act at NHRs are therefore commonly restricted by toxicity, often at nontarget organs. For endogenous NHR ligands, intracellular lipid-binding proteins, including the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), can chaperone ligands to the nucleus and promote NHR activation. Drugs also bind FABPs, raising the possibility that FABPs similarly regulate drug activity at the NHRs. Here, we investigate the ability of FABP1 and FABP2 (intracellular lipid-binding proteins that are highly expressed in tissues involved in lipid metabolism, including the liver and intestine) to influence drug-mediated activation of the lipid regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α. We show by quantitative fluorescence imaging and gene reporter assays that drug binding to FABP1 and FABP2 promotes nuclear localization and PPARα activation in a drug- and FABP-dependent manner. We further show that nuclear accumulation of FABP1 and FABP2 is dependent on the presence of PPARα. Nuclear accumulation of FABP on drug binding is driven largely by reduced nuclear egress rather than an increased rate of nuclear entry. Importin binding assays indicate that nuclear access occurs via an importin-independent mechanism. Together, the data suggest that specific drug-FABP complexes can interact with PPARα to effect nuclear accumulation of FABP and NHR activation. Because FABPs are expressed in a regionally selective manner, this may provide a means to tailor the patterns of NHR drug activation in a tissue-specific manner. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Correlation between Heart-type Fatty Acid-binding Protein Gene Polymorphism and mRNA Expression with Intramuscular Fat in Baicheng-oil Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; He, Jianzhong; Yang, Wenxuan; Muhantay, Gemenggul; Chen, Ying; Xing, Jinming; Liu, Jianzhu

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the polymorphism and mRNA expression pattern of the heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) gene and their association with intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the breast and leg muscles of Baicheng oil chicken (BOC). A total of 720 chickens, including 240 black Baicheng oil chicken (BBOC), 240 silky Baicheng oil chicken (SBOC), and 240 white Baicheng oil chicken (WBOC) were raised. Three genotypes of H-FABP gene second extron following AA, AB, and BB were detected by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) strategy. The G939A site created AA genotype and G956A site created BB genotype. The content of IMF in AA genotype in breast muscle of BBOC was significantly higher than that of AB (p = 0.0176) and the genotype in leg muscle of WBOC was significantly higher than that of AB (p = 0.0145). The G939A site could be taken as genetic marker for higher IMF content selecting for breast muscle of BBOC and leg muscle of WBOC. The relative mRNA expression of H-FABP was measured by real-time PCR at 30, 60, 90, and 120 d. The IMF content significantly increased with age in both muscles. The mRNA expression level of H-FABP significantly decreased with age in both muscles of the three types of chickens. Moreover, a significant negative correlation between H-FABP abundance and IMF content in the leg muscles of WBOC (p = 0.035) was observed. The mRNA expression of H-FABP negatively correlated with the IMF content in both breast and leg muscles of BOC sat slaughter time. PMID:26323394

  10. Association of pulmonary artery obstruction index with elevated heart-type fatty acid binding protein and short-term mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism at intermediate risk.

    PubMed

    Gul, Enes Elvin; Can, Ilknur; Guler, Ibrahim; Yesildag, Ahmet; Abdulhalikov, Turyan; Kayrak, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Gok, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is a sensitive marker of myocardial injury and predictor of worse prognosis in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Assessment of right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary artery obstruction index (PAOI) with computed tomography (CT) has been reported as a predictor of mortality in PE. Therefore, we aimed to assess the correlation between H-FABP and CT angiographic PAOI in PE patients at intermediate risk. Sixty-one patients (28 males; mean age, 62 ± 17 years) with diagnosis of PE were included in this study. CT was performed in all patients, and the following parameters were evaluated: right ventricle/left ventricle ratio (RV/LV), pulmonary artery axial diameter, superior vena cava axial diameter, and PAOI determined with Qanadli score. Blood samples were assessed for H-FABP and troponin levels. Patients were followed for 30 days after discharge. Mean PAOI was 57 ± 18%. Eleven patients died during the follow-up period due to PE (18% mortality rate). H-FABP was positive in 21 patients (35%). There was no difference in CT parameters between patients with positive H-FABP and negative H-FABP. In addition, CT parameters were similar between patients who survived and those who did not. RV/LV ratio correlated with PAOI score. Among the biomarkers, troponin levels correlated with both RV/LV ratio and PAOI. H-FABP was an independent predictor of mortality. PAOI and RV/LV ratio did not predict 30-day mortality. Although H-FABP positivity confers a bad prognosis on PE patients at intermediate risk, PAOI did not predict mortality in this group.

  11. Short-term increase of serum troponin I and serum heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) in dogs following administration of formoterol.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Volker; Wöhrmann, Thomas; Frank, Ilona; Hübel, Ulrich; Luft, Jörg; Bode, Gerd; Germann, Paul-Georg

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, changes in serum levels of the cardiac biomarkers troponin I and the heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) following administration of a long-acting beta(2)-sympathicomimeticum (long-acting beta-agonist, LABA) to dogs were measured. We measured troponin I in dogs in a 4-week repeated-dose study with inhalative administration of formoterol (13microg/kgd) and a glucocorticoid/formoterol combination (143/16microg/kgd). The medians of troponin I increased within 3 days in both groups, far beyond the cut-off level (0.1microg/L), but returned to baseline levels on study day 9. The increase was more pronounced in the formoterol-only group (3.29microg/L) compared to the glucocorticoid/formoterol combination group (1.32microg/L). In a second study, we measured serum troponin I as well as serum H-FABP levels in several samples over 7 days in dogs, receiving a single inhalative dose of a glucocorticoid/formoterol combination (120/12mug/kgd). The median of the troponin I concentration increased above the cut-off level within 2h and that of H-FABP within 4h. The medians of both parameters were temporarily above the cut-off levels even on study day 7. Both studies were conducted according to national animal welfare guidelines. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows a corresponding increase of troponin I and H-FABP in dogs treated with formoterol. Both parameters are more sensitive in detecting a drug-induced cardiac injury compared to total LDH, total CK as well as CK MB activity. However, it is recommended to take at least three blood samples per day to assess a temporary increase of troponin I.

  12. Association of Heart-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality in the General Population: The Takahata Study

    PubMed Central

    Otaki, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Takahashi, Hiroki; Hirayama, Atushi; Narumi, Taro; Kadowaki, Shinpei; Honda, Yuki; Arimoto, Takanori; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Konta, Tsuneo; Shibata, Yoko; Fukao, Akira; Daimon, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite many recent advances in medicine, preventing the development of cardiovascular diseases remains a challenge. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a marker of ongoing myocardial damage and has been reported to be a useful indicator for future cardiovascular events. However, it remains to be determined whether H-FABP can predict all-cause and cardiovascular deaths in the general population. Methods and Results This longitudinal cohort study included 3,503 subjects who participated in a community-based health checkup with a 7-year follow-up. Serum H-FABP was measured in registered subjects. The results demonstrated that higher H-FABP levels were associated with increasing numbers of cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. There were 158 deaths during the follow-up period, including 50 cardiovascular deaths. Deceased subjects had higher H-FABP levels compared to surviving subjects. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that H-FABP is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular deaths after adjustments for confounding factors. Subjects were divided into four quartiles according to H-FABP level, and Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the highest H-FABP quartile was associated with the greatest risks for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. Net reclassification index and integrated discrimination index were significantly increased by addition of H-FABP to cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions H-FABP level was increased in association with greater numbers of cardiovascular risk factors and was an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. H-FABP could be a useful indicator for the early identification of high-risk subjects in the general population. PMID:24847804

  13. Heart-fatty acid-binding and tau proteins relate to brain injury severity and long-term outcome in subarachnoid haemorrhage patients.

    PubMed

    Zanier, E R; Zoerle, T; Fiorini, M; Longhi, L; Cracco, L; Bersano, A; Branca, V; Benedetti, M D; De Simoni, M G; Monaco, S; Stocchetti, N

    2013-09-01

    Vasospasm and other secondary neurological insults may follow subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Biomarkers have the potential to stratify patient risk and perhaps serve as an early warning sign of delayed ischaemic injury. Serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 38 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit. We measured heart-fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) and tau protein (τ) levels in the CSF to evaluate their association with brain damage, and their potential as predictors of the long-term outcome. H-FABP and τ were analysed in relation to acute clinical status, assessed by the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scale, radiological findings, clinical vasospasm, and 6-month outcome. H-FABP and τ increased after SAH. H-FABP and τ were higher in patients in poor clinical status on admission (WFNS 4-5) compared with milder patients (WFNS 1-3). Elevated H-FABP and τ levels were also observed in patients with early cerebral ischaemia, defined as a CT scan hypodense lesion visible within the first 3 days after SAH. After the acute phase, H-FABP, and τ showed a delayed increase with the occurrence of clinical vasospasm. Finally, patients with the unfavourable outcome (death, vegetative state, or severe disability) had higher peak levels of both proteins compared with patients with good recovery or moderate disability. H-FABP and τ show promise as biomarkers of brain injury after SAH. They may help to identify the occurrence of vasospasm and predict the long-term outcome.

  14. [Diagnostic and prognostic value of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), an early biochemical marker of myocardial injury].

    PubMed

    Bertinchant, J P; Polge, A

    2005-12-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a 132 amino acids soluble protein, with general characteristics resembling myoglobin. Because of its low molecular weight (15 kd) and cytoplasmic location, it constitutes a biologic marker readily released into the circulation after myocardial injury. Despite the development of various immunoassays to measure H-FABP, few are currently easy to perform, quantitative and applicable in emergency. Most studies have shown the diagnostic sensitivity of H-FABP (i.e. its ability to detect the presence of a myocardial infarction) to be high, above that of myoglobin in patients presenting within 3 to 6 h of after the onset of chest pain. This superiority is attributable to an earlier and more rapid rise in H-FABP than in myoglobin. After thrombolysis, the serum concentrations of H-FABP peak at approximately 4 h after the onset of chest pain, and return to normal values within 24 h. Because of this rapid return of its blood concentration to baseline, H-FABP can contribute to an early biologic diagnosis of post-thrombolysis reperfusion and re-infarction. In absence of renal insufficiency, H-FABP also provides a reliable estimate of infarct size associated with ST segment elevation. When myocardial injury occurs after cardiac surgery, the second peak in H-FABP concentration precedes that of myoglobin, CK-MB or troponins. In addition, H-FABP peaks earlier and is more sensitive than troponins in the detection of subtle myocardial injury in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation, and in patients with severe heart failure, thus offering early prognostic information. Limitations of H-FABP include a limited cardio-specificity, a narrow diagnostic window (20 to 30 h), and a nearly exclusive renal elimination.

  15. The Impact of Chronic Liver Diseases on the Level of Heart-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (H-FABP) Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadi, Hafidh A; William, Brent; Fox, Keith A

    2009-08-01

    Heart-type fatty acid binding-protein (H-FABP) has been reported to be a potential novel biochemical marker for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The presence of H-FABP in the liver has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of chronic liver diseases on the level of H-FABP concentrations. The effects of chronic liver diseases including infective hepatitis and cirrhosis on the concentration of H-FABP was studied in a small group of patients (n=10, mean age ±SD = 58.33 ± 7.19 years). The serum concentrations of the following markers were measured: H-FABP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin and compared with a reference control group (20 healthy blood donors, mean age ±SD = 63.8 ±8.01). The serum concentrations of these markers in the control group as compared to patients with chronic liver disease were as follows (mean ± SD): H-FABP = 6.86 ±2.21 μg/L versus 6.44 ±3.06 μg/L (p = NS); ALT = 29.8 ±14.7 U/L versus ALT = 198.67 ±122.89 U/L (p < 0.0005) and bilirubin = 9.6 ±4.0 μmol/L versus bilirubin = 100.89 ±87.85 μmol/L (p < 0.0001). These data illustrate clearly that there is no significant interference with the normal concentration of H-FABP in the presence of liver diseases, despite the significant elevation of liver enzymes and proteins. These data may support a useful role of H-FABP for the diagnosis of myocardial injury in patients with liver diseases.

  16. Pericardial fluid level of heart-type cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is an indicator of severe myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tambara, Keiichi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Miyamoto, Shoichi; Doi, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Kazunobu; Komeda, Masashi

    2004-02-01

    Heart-type cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) has been reported as a sensitive and specific marker for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Our hypothesis was that serum or pericardial fluid levels of H-FABP can reflect not only myocardial infarction but also myocardial ischemia. A total of 34 patients with unstable angina, who had anginal symptoms and/or ST-changes in ECG monitoring within 24 h before operation, were classified into group A (n=17), and those without these symptoms and changes into group B (n=17). Blood and pericardial fluid samples were obtained immediately after median sternotomy, and serum and pericardial fluid levels of creatine kinase-MB, cardiac troponin-T, and H-FABP were measured. Serum H-FABP levels were slightly elevated compared with their normal values in both groups. While they showed no difference between groups A and B (group A vs. B: 8.5+/-1.0 vs. 7.1+/-0.7 ng/ml, P=0.25), pericardial fluid levels of H-FABP were significantly higher in group A than in group B (16.3+/-2.0 vs. 9.6+/-1.0 ng/ml, P=0.0046). H-FABP showed a weak correlation between its serum levels and pericardial fluid levels (r=0.40). Pericardial fluid levels of H-FABP reflect myocardial ischemia occurring within 24 h of their measurements. H-FABP may be secreted into the interstitial space by increased permeability of the myocardial cell membrane associated with severe myocardial ischemia. Thus, pericardial fluid reflects pathophysiological conditions of cardiomyocytes more sensitively than circulating blood.

  17. Serum Level of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP) Before and After Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure in Children.

    PubMed

    Zoair, Amr; Mawlana, Wegdan; Abo-Elenin, Amany; Korrat, Mostafa

    2015-12-01

    Remodeling of the heart following injury affects the morbidity and mortality in children presented with heart failure (HF). Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is a novel biomarker that could be of help to predict the prognosis and risk stratification in those children. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of H-FABP in children with heart failure before and after treatment. The study was conducted as a prospective cohort study. It included 30 children with HF as a patient group and 20 healthy children matched for age and sex as a control group. Echocardiographic assessment of the heart was done using conventional Doppler echocardiography. Serum levels of (H-FABP) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after treatment of HF. All patients were observed during follow-up period of 3 months. There was a significant difference in the serum level of H-FABP in our patients before treatment (5.278 ± 3.253 ng/ml) compared with after treatment (2.089 ± 0.160 ng/ml) with significant difference compared with the control group. There was a significant increase in the serum level of H-FABP with increase in the severity of heart failure according to Ross classification. Significant increase in the H-FABP was associated with adverse outcome. Serum levels of H-FABP strongly correlated with clinical and echocardiographic assessment of LV performance of children with HF, and its levels significantly increased in children with adverse outcome suggesting its value as a useful diagnostic and prognostic predictor (with high sensitivity and specificity).

  18. Diagnostic value of a heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) bedside test in suspected acute coronary syndrome in primary care.

    PubMed

    Bruins Slot, M H E; Rutten, F H; van der Heijden, G J M G; Doevendans, P A; Mast, E G; Bredero, A C; van der Spoel, O P; Glatz, J F C; Hoes, A W

    2013-09-30

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) test in patients suspected of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in primary care. General practitioners included 298 patients suspected of ACS. In all patients, whether referred to hospital or not, ECG and cardiac biomarker testing was performed. ACS was determined in accordance with international guidelines. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the value of H-FABP in addition to clinical findings. Mean patient age was 66 years (SD 14), 52% was female and 66 patients (22%) were diagnosed with ACS. The H-FABP bedside test was performed within 24h (median 3.1, IQR 1.5 to 7.1) after symptom onset. The positive predictive value (PPV) of H-FABP was 65% (95% confidence interval (CI) 50-78). The negative predictive value (NPV) was 85% (95% CI 80-88). Sensitivity was 39% (29-51%) and specificity 94% (90-96%). Within 6h after symptom onset, the PPV was 72% (55-84) and the NPV was 83% (77-88), sensitivity 43% (31-57%) and specificity 94% (89-97%). Adding the H-FABP test to a diagnostic model for ACS led to an increase in the area under the receiver operating curve from 0.66 (95% CI 0.58-0.73) to 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.82). The H-FABP rapid test provides modest additional diagnostic certainty in primary care. It cannot be used to safely exclude rule out ACS. The test can only be used safely in patients otherwise NOT referred to hospital by the GP, as an extra precaution not to miss ACS ('rule in'). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A FABP-ulous 'rule out' strategy? Heart fatty acid binding protein and troponin for rapid exclusion of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Body, Richard; McDowell, Garry; Carley, Simon; Wibberley, Christopher; Ferguson, Jamie; Mackway-Jones, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    Many Emergency Departments (EDs) utilise 'triple marker' testing with CK-MB, myoglobin and troponin I (cTnI) to exclude acute myocardial infarction (AMI) within hours of presentation. We evaluated the ability of 8 biomarkers to rapidly exclude AMI at the point of presentation and investigated whether 'triple marker' testing represents the optimal multimarker strategy. We recruited patients who presented to the ED with suspected cardiac chest pain occurring within 24 h. Blood was drawn at the time of presentation. Diagnostic value was assessed by calculating the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and a multivariate model was constructed by logistic regression. The primary outcome was a diagnosis of AMI, established by ≥12-h troponin testing in all patients. 705 included patients underwent venepuncture a median of 3.5 h after symptom onset. Heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) had an AUC of 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.90), which was significantly higher than any other biomarker including cTnI. While no single biomarker could enable exclusion of AMI, multivariate analysis identified cTnI and H-FABP as the optimal biomarker combination. Combined with clinical risk stratification, this strategy had a sensitivity of 96.9%, specificity of 54.7%, PPV 32.4% and NPV 98.8%. We have derived an algorithm that would enable AMI to be immediately excluded in 315 (44.7%) patients at the cost of missing 6 AMIs per 1000 patients treated. While the risk is likely to be unacceptable for clinical implementation, we have highlighted an area for future development using serial testing and increasingly sensitive assays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic impact of the serum heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) levels in patients admitted to the non-surgical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Shirakabe, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Hata, Noritake; Yamamoto, Masanori; Shinada, Takuro; Tomita, Kazunori; Tsurumi, Masafumi; Matsushita, Masato; Okazaki, Hirotake; Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Yokoyama, Shinya; Asai, Kuniya; Shimizu, Wataru

    2014-10-01

    Biomarkers predicting adverse outcomes in non-surgical intensive care patients have not been reported. Data for 1,006 emergency department patients were prospectively analyzed. The serum heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (s-H-FABP) level was measured within 10 min of admission. The patients were assigned to intensive care (n = 835) or other departments (n = 171). The intensive care patients were divided into survivors (n = 745) and non-survivors (n = 90) according to the in-hospital mortality and assigned to four groups according to the quartiles of s-H-FABP (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4). The s-H-FABP levels were significantly higher in the intensive care patients (12.7 [6.1-38.8] ng/ml versus 5.3 [3.1-9.4] ng/ml) and in the non-survivors (44.9 [23.2-87.6] ng/ml versus 11.5 [5.6-32.6] ng/ml). A Kaplan-Meier curve showed a significantly higher survival rate in Q3 than in Q1 and Q2 and in Q4 than in the other groups. The multivariate Cox regression model identified Q3 (HR 4.646, 95 % CI 1.526-14.146) and Q4 (HR 9.483, 95 % CI 3.152-28.525) as independent predictors of 90-day mortality. The sensitivity and specificity of H-FABP for in-hospital mortality were 81.1 and 66.0 % (AUC 0.775) at 20.95 ng/ml. The in-hospitality rate was significantly higher in the high s-H-FABP patients than in the low s-H-FABP patients in each etiology group. The s-H-FABP level is an effective biomarker for risk stratification in non-surgical intensive care patients.

  1. Cytoprotective role of the fatty acid binding protein 4 against oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Minami, Yoshitaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), one of the most abundant proteins in adipocytes, has been reported to have a proinflammatory function in macrophages. However, the physiological role of FABP4, which is constitutively expressed in adipocytes, has not been fully elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that FABP4 was involved in the regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of FABP4 silencing on the oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-nitro-cyclic GMP levels were significantly elevated in the differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes transfected with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Fabp4, although the intracellular levels or enzyme activities of antioxidants including reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase A4 (GSTA4) were not altered. An in vitro evaluation using the recombinant protein revealed that FABP4 itself functions as a scavenger protein against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). FABP4-knockdown resulted in a significant lowering of cell viability of 3T3-L1 adipocytes against H2O2 treatment. Moreover, four kinds of markers related to the ER stress response including the endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1 (Ern1), the signal sequence receptor α (Ssr1), the ORM1-like 3 (Ormdl3), and the spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), were all elevated as the result of the knockdown of FABP4. Consequently, FABP4 might have a new role as an antioxidant protein against H2O2 and contribute to cytoprotection against oxidative and ER stress in adipocytes. PMID:25161868

  2. Fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) is a hypoxia inducible gene that sensitizes mice to liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bingfang; Guo, Yan; Garbacz, Wojciech G; Jiang, Mengxi; Xu, Meishu; Huang, Hai; Tsung, Allan; Billiar, Timothy R; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Shah, Yatrik M; Lam, Karen S L; Huang, Min; Xie, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been known as a mediator of inflammatory response in the macrophages and adipose tissue, but its hepatic function is poorly understood. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of FABP4 in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), a clinical condition that involves both hypoxia and inflammation. To examine the I/R regulation of FABP4, mice were subjected to I/R surgery before being measured for FABP4 gene expression. Both loss-of-function (by using a pharmacological FABP4 inhibitor) and gain-of-function (by adenoviral overexpression of FABP4) were used to determine the functional relevance of FABP4 expression and its regulation during I/R. To determine the hypoxia responsive regulation of FABP4, primary mouse hepatocytes were exposed to hypoxia. The FABP4 gene promoter was cloned and its regulation by hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) was characterized by luciferase reporter gene, electrophoretic mobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. We found that the hepatic expression of FABP4 was markedly induced by I/R. At the functional level, pharmacological inhibition of FABP4 alleviated the I/R injury, whereas adenoviral overexpression of FABP4 sensitized mice to I/R injury. We also showed that exposure of primary hepatocytes to hypoxia or transgenic overexpression of HIF-1α in the mouse liver was sufficient to induce the expression of FABP4. Our promoter analysis established FABP4 as a novel transcriptional target of HIF-1α. FABP4 is a hypoxia inducible gene that sensitizes mice to liver I/R injury. FABP4 may represent a novel therapeutic target, and FABP4 inhibitors may be used as therapeutic agents to manage hepatic I/R injury. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) is a hypoxia inducible gene that sensitizes mice to liver ischemia/re-perfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bingfang; Guo, Yan; Garbacz, Wojciech G.; Jiang, Mengxi; Xu, Meishu; Huang, Hai; Tsung, Allan; Billiar, Timothy R.; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Shah, Yatrik; Lam, Karen S. L.; Huang, Min; Xie, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been known as a mediator of inflammatory response in the macrophages and adipose tissue, but its hepatic function is poorly understood. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of FABP4 in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), a clinical condition involves both hypoxia and inflammation. Methods To examine the I/R regulation of FABP4, mice were subjected to I/R surgery before being measured for FABP4 gene expression. Both loss-of-function (by using a pharmacological FABP4 inhibitor) and gain-of-function (by adenoviral overexpression of FABP4) were used to determine the functional relevance of FABP4 expression and its regulation during I/R. To determine the hypoxia responsive regulation of FABP4, primary mouse hepatocytes were exposed to hypoxia. The FABP4 gene promoter was cloned and its regulation by hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) was characterized by luciferase reporter gene, electrophoretic mobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Results We found that the hepatic expression of FABP4 was markedly induced by I/R. At the functional level, pharmacological inhibition of FABP4 alleviated the I/R injury, whereas adenoviral overexpression of FABP4 sensitized mice to I/R injury. We also showed that exposure of primary hepatocytes to hypoxia or transgenic overexpression of HIF-1α in the mouse liver was sufficient to induce the expression of FABP4. Our promoter analysis established FABP4 as a novel transcriptional target of HIF-1α. Conclusions FABP4 is a hypoxia inducible gene that sensitizes mice to liver I/R injury. FABP4 may represent a novel therapeutic target, and FABP4 inhibitors may be used as therapeutic agents to manage hepatic I/R injury. PMID:26070408

  4. Fatty acid binding proteins 4 and 5 in overweight prepubertal boys: effect of nutritional counselling and supplementation with an encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Canas, Jose A; Damaso, L; Hossain, J; Balagopal, P Babu

    2015-01-01

    Elevated fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) may play a role in obesity and co-morbidities. The role of nutritional interventions in modulating these levels remains unclear. The aim of this post hoc study was to determine the effect of overweight (OW) on FABP4 and FABP5 in boys in relation to indices of adiposity, insulin resistance and inflammation, and to investigate the effects of a 6-month supplementation with an encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate (FVJC) plus nutritional counselling (NC) on FABP levels. A post hoc analysis of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of children recruited from the general paediatric population was performed. A total of thirty age-matched prepubertal boys (nine lean and twenty-one OW; aged 6-10 years) were studied. Patients received NC by a registered dietitian and were randomised to FVJC or placebo capsules for 6 months. FABP4, FABP5, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glucose-induced acute insulin response (AIR), lipid-corrected β-carotene (LCβC), adiponectin, leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6 and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were determined before and after the intervention. FABP were higher (P < 0·01) in the OW v. lean boys and correlated directly with HOMA-IR, abdominal fat mass (AFM), hs-CRP, IL-6, and LCβC (P < 0·05 for all). FABP4 was associated with adiponectin and AIR (P < 0·05). FVJC plus NC reduced FABP4, HOMA-IR and AFM (P < 0·05 for all) but not FABP5. OW boys showed elevated FABP4 and FABP5, but only FABP4 was lowered by the FVJC supplement.

  5. Reduced blood-brain barrier expression of fatty acid-binding protein 5 is associated with increased vulnerability of APP/PS1 mice to cognitive deficits from low omega-3 fatty acid diets.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yijun; Choy, Kwok H C; Marriott, Philip J; Chai, Siew Y; Scanlon, Martin J; Porter, Christopher J H; Short, Jennifer L; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2018-01-01

    Lower levels of the cognitively beneficial docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are often observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Brain DHA levels are regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of plasma-derived DHA, a process facilitated by fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). This study reports a 42.1 ± 12.6% decrease in the BBB transport of 14 C-DHA in 8-month-old AD transgenic mice (APPswe,PSEN1∆E9) relative to wild-type mice, associated with a 34.5 ± 6.7% reduction in FABP5 expression in isolated brain capillaries of AD mice. Furthermore, short-term spatial and recognition memory deficits were observed in AD mice on a 6-month n-3 fatty acid-depleted diet, but not in AD mice on control diet. This intervention led to a dramatic reduction (41.5 ± 11.9%) of brain DHA levels in AD mice. This study demonstrates FABP5 deficiency and impaired DHA transport at the BBB are associated with increased vulnerability to cognitive deficits in mice fed an n-3 fatty acid-depleted diet, in line with our previous studies demonstrating a crucial role of FABP5 in BBB transport of DHA and cognitive function. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Fatty acid binding protein 3 (fabp3) is associated with insulin, lipids and cardiovascular phenotypes of the metabolic syndrome through epigenetic modifications in a Northern European family population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Kent, Jack W; Lee, Adam; Cerjak, Diana; Ali, Omar; Diasio, Robert; Olivier, Michael; Blangero, John; Carless, Melanie A; Kissebah, Ahmed H

    2013-03-19

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) play regulatory roles at the nexus of lipid metabolism and signaling. Dyslipidemia in clinical manifestation frequently co-occurs with obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension in the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Animal studies have suggested FABPs play regulatory roles in expressing MetS phenotypes. In our family cohort of Northern European descent, transcript levels in peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) of a key FABPs, FABP3, is correlated with the MetS leading components. However, evidence supporting the functions of FABPs in humans using genetic approaches has been scarce, suggesting FABPs may be under epigenetic regulation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that CpG methylation status of a key regulator of lipid homeostasis, FABP3, is a quantitative trait associated with status of MetS phenotypes in humans. We used a mass-spec based quantitative method, EpiTYPER®, to profile a CpG island that extends from the promoter to the first exon of the FABP3 gene in our family-based cohort of Northern European descent (n=517). We then conducted statistical analysis of the quantitative relationship of CpG methylation and MetS measures following the variance-component association model. Heritability of each methylation and the effect of age and sex on CpG methylation were also assessed in our families. We find that methylation levels of individual CpG units and the regional average are heritable and significantly influenced by age and sex. Regional methylation was strongly associated with plasma total cholesterol (p=0.00028) and suggestively associated with LDL-cholesterol (p=0.00495). Methylation at individual units was significantly associated with insulin sensitivity, lipid particle sizing and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.0028, corrected for multiple testing for each trait). Peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) expression of FABP3 in a separate group of subjects (n=128) negatively correlated with adverse

  7. External validation of heart-type fatty acid binding protein, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin, and electrocardiography as rule-out for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Van Hise, Christopher B; Greenslade, Jaimi H; Parsonage, William; Than, Martin; Young, Joanna; Cullen, Louise

    2018-02-01

    To externally validate a clinical decision rule incorporating heart fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP), high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) and electrocardiogram (ECG) for the detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on presentation to the Emergency Department. We also investigated whether this clinical decision rule improved identification of AMI over algorithms incorporating hs-cTn and ECG only. This study included data from 789 patients from the Brisbane ADAPT cohort and 441 patients from the Christchurch TIMI RCT cohort. The primary outcome was index AMI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the algorithms. 1230 patients were recruited, including 112 (9.1%) with AMI. The algorithm including h-FABP and hs-cTnT had 100% sensitivity and 32.4% specificity. The algorithm utilising h-FABP and hs-cTnI had similar sensitivity (99.1%) and higher specificity (43.4%). The hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT algorithms without h-FABP both had a sensitivity of 98.2%; a result that was not significantly different from either algorithm incorporating h-FABP. Specificity was higher for the hs-cTnI algorithm (68.1%) compared to the hs-cTnT algorithm (33.0%). The specificity of the algorithm incorporating hs-cTnI alone was also significantly higher than both of the algorithms incorporating h-FABP (p<0.01). For patients presenting to the Emergency Department with chest pain, an algorithm incorporating h-FABP, hs-cTn and ECG has high accuracy and can rule out up to 40% of patients. An algorithm incorporating only hs-cTn and ECG has similar sensitivity and may rule out a higher proportion of patients. Each of the algorithms can be used to safely identify patients as low risk for AMI on presentation to the Emergency Department. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein levels are associated with peripheral arterial disease in women, but not men, with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Min; Shi, Jian-Ying; Xing, Yun-Zhi; Sun, Bei; Fang, Qian-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Yun; Zhang, Qiu-Mei; Chen, Li-Ming; Yu, De-Min; Li, Chun-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has been recognized as an important player in macrophage cholesterol trafficking and inflammation, and may promote the development of atherosclerosis. To further elucidate the role of A-FABP in atherosclerosis in diabetes, we investigated the relationship between serum A-FABP concentrations and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In all, 488 inpatients with T2DM were enrolled in the study (254 men, 234 women; mean (±SD) age 57.3 ± 13.0 years). The severity of peripheral arterial stenosis was assessed by ultrasound examination. Serum A-FABP concentrations were determined by ELISA. Serum A-FABP concentrations were significantly higher in patients with than without PAD (8.0 ± 3.3 vs 6.2 ± 1.6 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.05). Interestingly, there was an obvious gender-related difference in PAD patients with T2DM, with the stenosis rate being higher for female than male T2DM patients in the third A-FABP tertile. Logistic regression analysis revealed that serum A-FABP concentrations were an independent risk factor for PAD in female T2DM patients (odds ratio 1.890, 95% confidence interval 1.041-3.432; P = 0.036), but not in male T2DM patients. Correlation analyses revealed that A-FABP concentrations were correlated with body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure, urinary microalbumin, and serum creatinine in male patients, and with BMI, duration of T2DM, fasting blood glucose, and serum creatinine in female patients. Serum A-FABP concentrations are closely associated with PAD in Chinese women with T2DM. The study findings suggest that A-FABP may be a more specific marker of PAD in diabetic women than men. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Point-of-care heart-type fatty acid binding protein versus high-sensitivity troponin T testing in emergency patients at high risk for acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kellens, Sebastiaan; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Vanmechelen, Maxime; Grieten, Lars; Van Lierde, Johan; Dens, Joseph; Vrolix, Mathias; Vandervoort, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    High-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing is used to detect myocardial damage in patients with acute chest pain. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) may be an alternative, available as point-of-care test. Patients (n=203) referred by general practitioners for suspected acute coronary syndrome or presenting with typical chest pain and one major cardiovascular risk factor at the emergency department were prospectively included in a single-centre cohort study. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT) and point-of-care H-FABP testing were concomitantly performed at admission and after 6h. Maximal hs-TnT levels above the 99th percentile were observed in 152 patients (75%) with 127 (63%) fulfilling criteria for myocardial infarction. Upon admission, hs-TnT and H-FABP were associated with an area under the curve (95% CI) of 0.83 (0.77-0.89) and 0.79 (0.73-0.85), respectively, to predict myocardial infarction, which increased to 0.93 (0.90-0.97) and 0.88 (0.84-0.93), respectively, after 6h. The diagnostic accuracy for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was somewhat lower with an area under the curve (95% CI) of 0.80 (0.72-0.87), 0.90 (0.84-0.96), 0.73 (0.64-0.81) and 0.77 (0.67-0.86), respectively. When assessment was performed within 3h of chest pain onset, diagnostic accuracy of H-FABP versus hs-TnT was similar. Each standard deviation increase in admission H-FABP was associated with a 68% relative risk increase of all-cause mortality (p-value=0.027) during 666 ± 155 days of follow-up. Point-of-care H-FABP testing has lower diagnostic accuracy compared with hs-TnT assessment in patients with high pre-test acute coronary syndrome probability, but might be of interest when assessment is possible early after chest pain onset. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  10. The Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule: validation with a new automated assay for heart-type fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Body, Richard; Burrows, Gillian; Carley, Simon; Lewis, Philip S

    2015-10-01

    The Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule may enable acute coronary syndromes to be immediately 'ruled in' or 'ruled out' in the emergency department. The rule incorporates heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP) and high sensitivity troponin T levels. The rule was previously validated using a semiautomated h-FABP assay that was not practical for clinical implementation. We aimed to validate the rule with an automated h-FABP assay that could be used clinically. In this prospective diagnostic cohort study we included patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected cardiac chest pain. Serum drawn on arrival was tested for h-FABP using an automated immunoturbidimetric assay (Randox) and high sensitivity troponin T (Roche). The primary outcome, a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), was adjudicated based on 12 h troponin testing. A secondary outcome, major adverse cardiac events (MACE; death, AMI, revascularisation or new coronary stenosis), was determined at 30 days. Of the 456 patients included, 78 (17.1%) had AMI and 97 (21.3%) developed MACE. Using the automated h-FABP assay, the MACS rule had the same C-statistic for MACE as the original rule (0.91; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.92). 18.9% of patients were identified as 'very low risk' and thus eligible for immediate discharge with no missed AMIs and a 2.3% incidence of MACE (n=2, both coronary stenoses). 11.1% of patients were classed as 'high-risk' and had a 92.0% incidence of MACE. Our findings validate the performance of a refined MACS rule incorporating an automated h-FABP assay, facilitating use in clinical settings. The effectiveness of this refined rule should be verified in an interventional trial prior to implementation. UK CRN 8376. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. The predictive value of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein is independent from symptom duration in normotensive patients with pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Lankeit, Mareike; Dellas, Claudia; Benz, Viola; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2013-11-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a useful biomarker for risk stratification of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). In patients with acute myocardial infarction, H-FABP plasma concentrations rise after 30 minutes and return to normal within 20-24 hours. We tested whether the predictive value of H-FABP is affected by the duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis in patients with PE. We prospectively studied 257 consecutive normotensive patients with confirmed symptomatic PE. Patients with acute (<24 hours; n=150) symptom onset presented more often with syncope (28.7% vs. 6.5%; p<0.001) compared to patients with symptoms ≥ 24 hours (n=107); other baseline characteristics, comorbidities, and risk factors were distributed equally. Patients with an adverse 30-day outcome (6.6%) had higher H-FABP levels (11.84 [3.57-19.62] ng/ml) compared to patients with a favorable course (3.42 [1.92-5.42] ng/ml; p<0.001). However, the proportion of patients with H-FABP levels ≥ 6 ng/ml did not differ among patients with acute symptom onset and late presentation (p=0.104). Only tachycardia and elevation of H-FABP were associated with an increased risk of an adverse 30-day outcome both in patients with acute symptom onset (H-FABP: OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.4-24.5; p=0.016; tachycardia: 7.0 [1.4-36.0]; p=0.018) and late presentation (H-FABP: 9.3 [2.0-43.2]; p=0.004 and tachycardia: 12.3 [1.5-103.6]; p=0.021). The prognostic value could further be improved by the use of a simple H-FABP-based clinical prediction score. Our findings indicate that H-FABP is a useful biomarker for risk stratification of normotensive patients with PE regardless of symptom duration prior to diagnosis. © 2013.

  12. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) as an early diagnostic biomarker in patients with acute chest pain.

    PubMed

    Vupputuri, Anjith; Sekhar, Saritha; Krishnan, Sajitha; Venugopal, K; Natarajan, K U

    2015-01-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is an emerging biomarker, which was found to be sensitive for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We prospectively investigated the usefulness of H-FABP determination for the evaluation of acute chest pain in patients arriving at the emergency department. Fifty-four patients presenting with acute ischemic chest pain were evaluated. H-FABP was estimated at admission using latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Serial cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB) determination, ischemia workup with stress testing, and/or coronary angiogram (CAG) were performed according to standard protocols. The sensitivity and specificity of H-FABP was 89.7% and 68%, for cTnI it was 62.1% and 100%, and for CK-MB it was 44.8% and 92%, respectively for diagnosis of AMI. The sensitivity of H-FABP was found to be far superior to initial cTnI and CK-MB, for those seen within 6h (100% vs. 46.1%, 33% respectively). On further evaluation of patients with positive H-FABP and negative cTnI, 71.4% of the patients had significant lesion on CAG, indicating ischemic cause of H-FABP elevation. Six patients with normal cTnI and CK-MB with high H-FABP had ST elevation on subsequent ECGs and were taken for primary angioplasty. H-FABP is a highly sensitive biomarker for the early diagnosis of AMI. H-FABP as early marker and cTnI as late marker would be the ideal combination to cover the complete diagnostic window for AMI. Detection of myocardial injury by H-FABP may also be applied in patients with unstable angina. H-FABP can also be used as a marker for early detection of STEMI before the ECG changes become apparent. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Diagnostic Performance of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction: Evidence From a Meta-Analysis of Contemporary Studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Qian; Yang, Yun-Mei; Tong, Hong; Xu, Chang-Fu

    2018-04-01

    Although cardiac troponin is the cornerstone in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the accuracy is still suboptimal in the early hours after chest pain onset. Due to its small size, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) has been reported accurate in diagnosis of AMI, however, this remains undetermined. The aim is to investigate the diagnostic performance of H-FABP alone and in conjunction with high-sensitivity troponin (hs-Tn) within 6 hours of symptom onset. Furthermore, accuracy in 0h/3h algorithm was also assessed. Medline and EMBASE databases were searched; sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) were used as measures of the diagnostic accuracy. We pooled data on bivariate modelling, threshold effect and publication bias was applied for heterogeneity analysis. Twenty-two studies with 6602 populations were included, pooled sensitivity, specificity and AUC of H-FABP were 0.75 (0.68-0.81), 0.81 (0.75-0.86) and 0.85 (0.82-0.88) within 6 hours. Similar sensitivity (0.76, 0.69-0.82), specificity (0.80, 0.71-0.87) and AUC (0.85, 0.82-0.88) of H-FABP were observed in 4185 (63%) patients in 0h/3h algorithm. The additional use of H-FABP improved the sensitivity of hs-Tn alone but worsened its specificity (all p<0.001), and resulted in no improvement of AUC (p>0.99). There was no threshold effect (p=0.18) and publication bias (p=0.31) in this study. H-FABP has modest accuracy for early diagnosis of AMI within 3 and 6 hours of symptom onset. The incremental value of H-FABP seemed much smaller and was of uncertain clinical significance in addition to hs-Tn in patients with suspected AMI. Routine use of H-FABP in early presentation does not seem warranted. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Establishment and characterization of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against human intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) using synthetic regional peptides and recombinant I-FABP.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Satoshi; Yashiki, Tetsuya; Funaoka, Hiroyuki; Ohkaru, Yasuhiko; Nishikura, Ken; Kanda, Tatsuo; Ajioka, Yoichi; Igarashi, Michihiro; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi; Fujii, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We have succeeded in raising highly specific anti-human intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) monoclonal antibodies by immunizing animals with three synthetic regional peptides, i.e., the amino terminal (RP-1: N-acetylated 1-19-cysteine), middle portion (RP-2: cysteinyl-91-107) and carboxylic terminal (RP-3: cysteinyl-121-131) regions of human I-FABP, and the whole I-FABP molecule as antigens. We also raised a polyclonal antibody by immunizing with a recombinant (r) I-FABP. To ascertain the specificity of these antibodies for human I-FABP, the immunological reactivity of each was examined by a binding assay using rI-FABP, partially purified native I-FABP and related proteins such as liver-type (L)-FABP, heart-type (H)-FABP, as well as the regional peptides as reactants, and by Western blot analysis. In addition, the expression and distribution of I-FABP in the human gastrointestinal tract were investigated by an immunohistochemical technique using a carboxylic terminal region-specific monoclonal antibody, 8F9, and a polyclonal antibody, DN-R2. Our results indicated that both the monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies established in this study were highly specific for I-FABP, but not for L-FABP and H-FABP. Especially, the monoclonal antibodies raised against the regional peptides, showed regional specificity for the I-FABP molecule. Immunoreactivity of I-FABP was demonstrated in the mucosal epithelium of the jejunum and ileum by immunohistochemical staining, and the immunoreactivity was based on the presence of the whole I-FABP molecule but not the presence of any precursors or degradation products containing a carboxylic terminal fragment. It is concluded that some of these monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, such as 8F9, 4205, and DN-R2, will be suitable for use in research on the immunochemistry and clinical chemistry of I-FABP because those antibodies can recognize both types of native and denatured I-FABP. In order to detect I-FABP in blood samples, it

  15. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein and myocardial creatine kinase enable rapid risk stratification in normotensive patients with pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Langer, Martin; Forkmann, Mathias; Richter, Utz; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; Sveric, Krunoslav; Christoph, Marian; Ibrahim, Karim; Günther, Michael; Kolschmann, Steffen; Boscheri, Alessandra; Barthel, Peggy; Strasser, Ruth H; Wunderlich, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    Risk assessments of hemodynamically stable patients with pulmonary embolisms (PE) remain challenging. In this context heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), and troponin I (TnI) may hold prognostic utility for patients with pulmonary embolism. We included 161 consecutive normotensive (systolic blood pressure above 90 mm Hg) patients with confirmed PE to study the combined utility of echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction and several biomarkers (TnI, CK-MB, H-FABP). The primary endpoint was defined as death within 30 days after admission to the hospital. Elevated biomarkers were measured in 26 patients (16.1%) for HFABP, in 66 (41%) for TnI and in 41 (25.5%) for CK-MB. Echocardiography revealed right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in 99 (61.5%) patients. Overall, 16 patients (9.9%) died within the study period. In the H-FABP positive group 15 (57.7%) patients died compared to 13 (19.7%) patients in the TnI positive group and 15 (37.5%) patients in the CK-MB positive group (H-FABP positive vs TnI positive patients, P< .001; H-FABP positive vs CK-MB positive patients P= .13; CK-MB positive vs TnI positive patients P= .07). All elevated biomarkers correlated with the primary endpoint with H-FABP being strongly, CK-MB intermediately and TnI weakly associated with short term death (H-FABP r= 0.701, P< .001; CK-MB r= 0.486, P< .001; TnI r= 0.272, P= .001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a positive H-FABP test (OR 27.1, 95% CI 2.1-352.3, P= .001), elevated CK-MB levels (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.3-23.3, P= .002) and a low systolic blood pressure on admission (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.8-0.9, P< .001) emerged as independent predictors of 30-day mortality. Both H-FABP and CK-MB are associated with short term mortality in normotensive PE patients and could be advantageous for risk stratification in this intermediate risk group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution and surrogate markers for health related to adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) in children.

    PubMed

    Dencker, Magnus; Danielson, Anton; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess possible relationships between adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) and total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, cardiac dimensions and the increase in body fat over 2 years in a community sample of children. A cross-sectional study was used in a community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). TBF was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured. Echocardiography was performed. Left atrial (LA) size was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. A follow-up DXA scan was available in 152 children (84 boys and 68 girls). Frozen serum samples were analyzed for FABP4. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex, between FABP4 vs. ln TBF, ln BF%, ln AFM, AFM/TBF and VO2PEAK were (r=0.69, 0.68, 0.69, 0.49 and -0.39, p<0.05 for all). Moreover, SBP, PP, LVM and LA were also weakly correlated with FABP4 (r=0.23, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.21, p<0.05 for all). Correlations between FABP4 vs. increase in TBF and AFM over 2 years were 0.29 and 0.26, p<0.05, for both. (Increase in percent body fat or change in fat distribution were not correlated.) Conclusions: Findings from this community-based cohort of young children show that increased body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, low fitness, more LVM and increased LA, increased SBP and PP were all associated with increased levels of FABP4. Increase in TBF and abdominal fat over 2 years were also associated with increased levels of FABP4.

  17. Circulating Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) Levels Are Associated with Irisin in the Middle-Aged General Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Yang, Lili; Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Gao, Ting; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) has been recently characterized as an adipokine that is closely associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Irisin, a novel myokine, activates thermogenesis by increasing the transformation of white adipocytes to brown, and it has improved glucose homeostasis in animal models. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between serum FABP4 and irisin in middle-aged Chinese subjects. A total of 111 normal residents (56 men and 55 women) of Fengxian District who were 40 to 60 years of age were recruited. Circulating FABP4 and irisin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anthropometric parameters, oral glucose tolerance test results, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), blood lipids, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, homeostasis model assessment-β and body fat composition were also determined. All participants were categorized by FABP4 tertiles. There were significant differences in blood pressure, body fat percentage, 2-h plasma glucose, and skeletal muscle mass among the three groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, FABP4 levels in the women were significantly higher than in the men (P<0.05). However, there was no sexual dimorphism in serum irisin (P>0.05). To exclude the effect of sex difference, partial correlations analysis showed that FABP4 was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05) and body fat percentage (P<0.05) negatively correlated with skeletal muscle mass (P<0.05) and irisin (P<0.05), while irisin was positively correlated with HbA1c (P<0.05) and negatively correlated with creatinine (P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that serum FABP4 was independently associated with skeletal muscle mass (P<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05) and irisin (P<0.05) after adjustment for age, body mass index, body fat percentage, total cholesterol and HbA1C. Elevated FABP4 levels increase the risks of obesity-related metabolic disorders and hypertension. Serum

  18. Common genetic variants in fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP4) and clinical diabetes risk in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kei-Hang K; Song, Yiqing; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; You, Nai-Chieh Y; F Tinker, Lesley; Liu, Simin

    2010-09-01

    Adipocypte fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP4/adipocyte P2) may play a central role in energy metabolism and inflammation. In animal models, defects of the aP2 gene (aP2(-/-)) partially protected against the development of obesity-related insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether common genetic variation in FABP4 gene contributes to risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) or diabetes-related metabolic traits in humans. We comprehensively assess the genetic associations of variants in the FABP4 gene with T2D risk and diabetes-associated biomarkers in a prospective study of 1,529 cases and 2,147 controls among postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years who enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). We selected and genotyped a total of 11 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) spanning 41.3 kb across FABP4 in all samples. None of the SNPs and their derived haplotypes showed significant association with T2D risk. There were no significant associations between SNPs and plasma levels of inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers, including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), E-selectin, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1). Among African-American women, several SNPs were significantly associated with lower levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), especially among those with incident T2D. On average, plasma levels of VCAM-1 were significantly lower among carriers of each minor allele at rs1486004(C/T; -1.08 ng/ml, P = 0.01), rs7017115(A/G; -1.07 ng/ml, P = 0.02), and rs2290201(C/T; -1.12 ng/ml, P = 0.002) as compared with the homozygotes of the common allele, respectively. After adjusting for multiple testing, carriers of the rs2290201 minor allele remained significantly associated with decreasing levels of plasma VCAM-1 in these women (P = 0.02). In conclusion, our finding from a multiethnic cohort of postmenopausal women did not support the

  19. Fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha - and gamma-mediated gene expression via liver fatty acid binding protein: a signaling path to the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, C; Borrmann, C M; Borchers, T; Spener, F

    2001-02-27

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a key regulator of lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes and target for fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs. How these signaling molecules reach the nuclear receptor is not known; however, similarities in ligand specificity suggest the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) as a possible candidate. In localization studies using laser-scanning microscopy, we show that L-FABP and PPARalpha colocalize in the nucleus of mouse primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate by pull-down assay and immunocoprecipitation that L-FABP interacts directly with PPARalpha. In a cell biological approach with the aid of a mammalian two-hybrid system, we provide evidence that L-FABP interacts with PPARalpha and PPARgamma but not with PPARbeta and retinoid X receptor-alpha by protein-protein contacts. In addition, we demonstrate that the observed interaction of both proteins is independent of ligand binding. Final and quantitative proof for L-FABP mediation was obtained in transactivation assays upon incubation of transiently and stably transfected HepG2 cells with saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as with hypolipidemic drugs. With all ligands applied, we observed strict correlation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma transactivation with intracellular concentrations of L-FABP. This correlation constitutes a nucleus-directed signaling by fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs where L-FABP acts as a cytosolic gateway for these PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists. Thus, L-FABP and the respective PPARs could serve as targets for nutrients and drugs to affect expression of PPAR-sensitive genes.

  20. Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Malik, Zulezwan Ab; Cobley, James N; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L; Edwards, Ben J; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Burniston, Jatin G

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient ( i.e ., 3 h per sample) proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group) bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs . 252 ± 43 m, p < 0.0001) in running capacity during a standardized treadmill test. Soluble muscle proteins were extracted, digested with trypsin and individual biological replicates (50 ng of tryptic peptides) subjected to LC-MS profiling. Proteins were identified by triplicate LC-MS/MS analysis of a pooled sample of each biological replicate. Differential expression profiling was performed on relative abundances (RA) of parent ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897) and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5). Sixteen proteins were significantly ( p < 0.05) more abundant in HCR muscle and hierarchal clustering of the profiling data highlighted two protein subgroups, which encompassed proteins associated with either the respiratory chain or fatty acid oxidation. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (FABPH) was 1

  1. Suspected acute coronary syndrome in the emergency room: Limited added value of heart type fatty acid binding protein point of care or ELISA tests: The FAME-ER (Fatty Acid binding protein in Myocardial infarction Evaluation in the Emergency Room) study.

    PubMed

    Bank, Ingrid Em; Dekker, Marieke S; Hoes, Arno W; Zuithoff, Nicolaas Pa; Verheggen, Peter Whm; de Vrey, Evelyn A; Wildbergh, Thierry X; Timmers, Leo; de Kleijn, Dominique Pv; Glatz, Jan Fc; Mosterd, Arend

    2016-08-01

    Timely recognition of acute coronary syndrome remains a challenge as many biomarkers, including troponin, remain negative in the first hours following the onset of chest pain. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), a cardiac biomarker with potential value immediately post symptom onset. Prospective monocentre diagnostic accuracy study of H-FABP bedside point of care (CardioDetect®) and ELISA tests in acute coronary syndrome suspected patients presenting within 24 hours of symptom onset to the emergency department, in addition to clinical findings, electrocardiography and the currently recommended biomarker high sensitivity troponin-T (hs-cTnT). The final diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists, blinded to H-FABP results. Acute coronary syndrome was diagnosed in 149 (32.9%) of 453 unselected patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (56% men, mean age 62.6 years). Negative predictive values were similar for H-FABP point of care and ELISA tests (79% vs. 78% respectively), but inferior to initial hs-cTnT (negative predictive value 86%). The addition of H-FABP point of care results to hs-cTnT increased the negative predictive value to 89%. In a multivariable logistic regression model, H-FABP point of care and ELISA tests yielded relevant diagnostic information in addition to clinical findings and ECG (likelihood ratio test p<0.001) and increased area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC; 0.82 vs. 0.84 and 0.84). This added value attenuated, however, after inclusion of hs-cTnT in the diagnostic model (AUC 0.88). In patients suspected of acute coronary syndrome presenting to the emergency department, H-FABP testing improves diagnostic accuracy in addition to clinical findings and electrocardiography. H-FABP, however, has no additional diagnostic value when hs-cTnT measurements are also available. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  2. [Effects of Electroacupunctrue Combined with Dietary Control on Peroxisome Proliferator-activa- ted Receptor-α, and Liver Fatty Acid-binding Protein Levels in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Tang, Cheng-lin; Tian, Yuan; Yuan, Hai-zhou; Yang, Hui; Tang, Nian-zhen; Gao, Rui-qi; Cao, Jing

    2015-10-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupunctrue (EA) intervention or EA combined with dietary control on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats, so as to reveal its mechanism underlying improvement of NAFLD. Sixty SD male rats were randomly divided into common diet (control) group (n = 10) and high-fat diet group (n = 45). The NAFLD model was established by feeding the animals with high-fat forage (HFF, including cholesterol, sodium cholate, propylthiouracil, sucrose, lard and common forage) for 5 weeks. Forty NAFLD rats were then randomized into model, EA + HFF, low-fat forage (LFF) and EA+ LFF groups (n = 10 rats in each group). EA (4 Hz/20 Hz, 3 mA) was applied to ipsilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36),"Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) and "Taichong" (LR 3) for 20 min, once daily for 4 weeks. The pathologic changes of the hepatic tissue were detected by H. E. staining. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents were determined by using enzymatic methods, serum free fat acids (FFA) content was detected by colorimetry. The expression levels of PPAR-α and L-FABP protein and gene of the liver tissue were determined by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. H. E. staining showed that the hepatocytes presented moderate or severe bullous adipose degeneration in rats of the model group, vesicular steatosis in the EA + HFF and LFF groups, turned to almost normal but with small amount of lipid droplets in the EA + LFF group. The contents of serum TC, TG and FFA were significantly higher in the model group than in the control group (P < 0.05), and were obviously decreased in the EA + HFF, LFF and EA + LFF groups in comparison with the model group (P < 0.05). Compared to the control group, hepatic PPAR-α protein and mRNA were markedly down-regulated in the model group, and hepatic L-FABP protein and mRNA considerably up-regulated in the model group (P < 0

  3. The mAb against adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2E4 attenuates the inflammation in the mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity via toll-like receptor 4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Wang; Lv, Xiaobo; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-03-05

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) plays an important role in fatty acid-mediated processes and related metabolic and inflammatory responses. In this study, we prepared a novel monoclonal antibody against A-FABP, designated 2E4. Our data showed that 2E4 specifically binded to the recombinant A-FABP and native A-FABP of mice adipose tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of 2E4 on metabolic and inflammatory responses in C57BL/6J obese mice fed on a high fat diet. 2E4 administration improved glucose response in high-fat-diet induced obese mice. The 2E4 treated groups exhibited lower free fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a concentration-dependent manner. These changes were accompanied by down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and interleukin-6. Meanwhile, our data demonstrated that 2E4 significantly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of A-FABP in adipose tissue of mice. Further experiments showed that 2E4 notably suppressed the phosphorylation of IκBα and jun-N-terminal kinase through toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. Taken together, 2E4 is an effective monoclonal antibody against A-FABP, which attenuated the inflammatory responses induced in the high-fat-diet mice. These findings may provide scientific insight into the treatment of chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathological hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction are linked to aberrant endogenous unsaturated fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Salomé Campos, Dijon Henrique; Grippa Sant’Ana, Paula; Okoshi, Katashi; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Masahiro Murata, Gilson; Nguyen, Son; Kolwicz, Stephen C.; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy leads to derangements in lipid metabolism that may contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction. Since previous studies, using high saturated fat diets, have yielded inconclusive results, we investigated whether provision of a high-unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) diet was sufficient to restore impaired lipid metabolism and normalize diastolic dysfunction in the pathologically hypertrophied heart. Male, Wistar rats were subjected to supra-valvar aortic stenosis (SVAS) or sham surgery. After 6 weeks, diastolic dysfunction and pathological hypertrophy was confirmed and both sham and SVAS rats were treated with either normolipidic or HUFA diet. At 18 weeks post-surgery, the HUFA diet failed to normalize decreased E/A ratios or attenuate measures of cardiac hypertrophy in SVAS animals. Enzymatic activity assays and gene expression analysis showed that both normolipidic and HUFA-fed hypertrophied hearts had similar increases in glycolytic enzyme activity and down-regulation of fatty acid oxidation genes. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed depletion of unsaturated fatty acids, primarily linoleate and oleate, within the endogenous lipid pools of normolipidic SVAS hearts. The HUFA diet did not restore linoleate or oleate in the cardiac lipid pools, but did maintain body weight and adipose mass in SVAS animals. Overall, these results suggest that, in addition to decreased fatty acid oxidation, aberrant unsaturated fatty acid metabolism may be a maladaptive signature of the pathologically hypertrophied heart. The HUFA diet is insufficient to reverse metabolic remodeling, diastolic dysfunction, or pathologically hypertrophy, possibly do to preferentially partitioning of unsaturated fatty acids to adipose tissue. PMID:29494668

  5. 9- and 13-HODE regulate fatty acid binding protein-4 in human macrophages, but does not involve HODE/GPR132 axis in PPAR-γ regulation of FABP4

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, Venkatesh; Collier, Fiona; Hodge, Jason; Rush, Catherine; Malabu, Usman; Baune, Bernhard; Kennedy, Richard Lee

    2018-01-01

    Background: Both activation of monocytes and increased serum fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) occur in diabetes and are associated with increased atherosclerosis. The oxidized lipid, 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) increases FABP4 in macrophages, and is a ligand for G protein-coupled receptor 132 (GPR132). We investigated the involvement of GPR132 in mediating the 9-, 13-HODE stimulation of FABP4 secretion, and whether GPR132 expression is increased in monocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The effects of siRNA silencing of GPR132 gene and of the PPAR-γ antagonist T0070907 were studied in THP-1 cells. Serum levels of FABP4 and other adipokines were measured in patients with diabetes, and monocyte subpopulations were analyzed using flow cytometry. GPR132 mRNA was quantified in isolated CD14+ cells. Results: 9-HODE and 13-HODE increased FABP4 expression in THP-1 monocytes and macrophages, and also increased GPR132 expression. Silencing of GPR132 did not influence the increase in FABP4 with 9-HODE, 13-HODE, or rosiglitazone (ROSI). By contrast, T0070907 inhibited the effect of all three ligands on FABP4 expression. Diabetic subjects had increased serum FABP4, and activated monocytes. They also expressed higher levels of GPR132 mRNA in CD14+ cells. Conclusions: We conclude that GPR132 is an independent monocyte activation marker in diabetes, but does not contribute to PPAR-γ-mediated induction of FABP4 by HODEs.

  6. The minor house dust mite allergen Der p 13 is a fatty acid-binding protein and an activator of a TLR2-mediated innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Satitsuksanoa, P; Kennedy, M; Gilis, D; Le Mignon, M; Suratannon, N; Soh, W T; Wongpiyabovorn, J; Chatchatee, P; Vangveravong, M; Rerkpattanapipat, T; Sangasapaviliya, A; Piboonpocanun, S; Nony, E; Ruxrungtham, K; Jacquet, A

    2016-10-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) allergen Der p 13 could be a lipid-binding protein able to activate key innate signaling pathways in the initiation of the allergic response. We investigated the IgE reactivity of recombinant Der p 13 (rDer p 13), its lipid-binding activities, and its capacity to stimulate airway epithelium cells. Purified rDer p 13 was characterized by mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, fluorescence-based lipid-binding assays, and in silico structural prediction. IgE-binding activity and allergenic potential of Der p 13 were examined by ELISA, basophil degranulation assays, and in vitro airway epithelial cell activation assays. Protein modeling and biophysical analysis indicated that Der p 13 adopts a β-barrel structure with a predominately apolar pocket representing a potential binding site for hydrophobic ligands. Fluorescent lipid-binding assays confirmed that the protein is highly selective for ligands and that it binds a fatty acid with a dissociation constant typical of lipid transporter proteins. The low IgE-binding frequency (7%, n = 224) in Thai HDM-allergic patients as well as the limited propensity to activate basophil degranulation classifies Der p 13 as a minor HDM allergen. Nevertheless, the protein with its presumptively associated lipid(s) triggered the production of IL-8 and GM-CSF in respiratory epithelial cells through a TLR2-, MyD88-, NF-kB-, and MAPK-dependent signaling pathway. Although a minor allergen, Der p 13 may, through its lipid-binding capacity, play a role in the initiation of the HDM-allergic response through TLR2 activation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A critical role of fatty acid binding protein 4 and 5 (FABP4/5) in the systemic response to fasting.

    PubMed

    Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A A; Iso, Tatsuya; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Obokata, Masaru; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Goto, Kosaku; Hishiki, Takako; Nagahata, Yoshiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Sano, Motoaki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kikuchi, Osamu; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Masami; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Suematsu, Makoto; Tsushima, Yoshito; Endo, Keigo; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    During prolonged fasting, fatty acid (FA) released from adipose tissue is a major energy source for peripheral tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle and liver. We recently showed that FA binding protein 4 (FABP4) and FABP5, which are abundantly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, are prominently expressed in capillary endothelial cells in the heart and skeletal muscle. In addition, mice deficient for both FABP4 and FABP5 (FABP4/5 DKO mice) exhibited defective uptake of FA with compensatory up-regulation of glucose consumption in these tissues during fasting. Here we showed that deletion of FABP4/5 resulted in a marked perturbation of metabolism in response to prolonged fasting, including hyperketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Blood glucose levels were reduced, whereas the levels of non-esterified FA (NEFA) and ketone bodies were markedly increased during fasting. In addition, the uptake of the (125)I-BMIPP FA analogue in the DKO livers was markedly increased after fasting. Consistent with an increased influx of NEFA into the liver, DKO mice showed marked hepatic steatosis after a 48-hr fast. Although gluconeogenesis was observed shortly after fasting, the substrates for gluconeogenesis were reduced during prolonged fasting, resulting in insufficient gluconeogenesis and enhanced hypoglycemia. These metabolic responses to prolonged fasting in DKO mice were readily reversed by re-feeding. Taken together, these data strongly suggested that a maladaptive response to fasting in DKO mice occurred as a result of an increased influx of NEFA into the liver and pronounced hypoglycemia. Together with our previous study, the metabolic consequence found in the present study is likely to be attributed to an impairment of FA uptake in the heart and skeletal muscle. Thus, our data provided evidence that peripheral uptake of FA via capillary endothelial FABP4/5 is crucial for systemic metabolism and may establish FABP4/5 as potentially novel targets for the

  8. A Critical Role of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 and 5 (FABP4/5) in the Systemic Response to Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A. A.; Iso, Tatsuya; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Obokata, Masaru; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Goto, Kosaku; Hishiki, Takako; Nagahata, Yoshiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Sano, Motoaki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kikuchi, Osamu; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Masami; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Suematsu, Makoto; YoshitoTsushima; Endo, Keigo; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    During prolonged fasting, fatty acid (FA) released from adipose tissue is a major energy source for peripheral tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle and liver. We recently showed that FA binding protein 4 (FABP4) and FABP5, which are abundantly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, are prominently expressed in capillary endothelial cells in the heart and skeletal muscle. In addition, mice deficient for both FABP4 and FABP5 (FABP4/5 DKO mice) exhibited defective uptake of FA with compensatory up-regulation of glucose consumption in these tissues during fasting. Here we showed that deletion of FABP4/5 resulted in a marked perturbation of metabolism in response to prolonged fasting, including hyperketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Blood glucose levels were reduced, whereas the levels of non-esterified FA (NEFA) and ketone bodies were markedly increased during fasting. In addition, the uptake of the 125I-BMIPP FA analogue in the DKO livers was markedly increased after fasting. Consistent with an increased influx of NEFA into the liver, DKO mice showed marked hepatic steatosis after a 48-hr fast. Although gluconeogenesis was observed shortly after fasting, the substrates for gluconeogenesis were reduced during prolonged fasting, resulting in insufficient gluconeogenesis and enhanced hypoglycemia. These metabolic responses to prolonged fasting in DKO mice were readily reversed by re-feeding. Taken together, these data strongly suggested that a maladaptive response to fasting in DKO mice occurred as a result of an increased influx of NEFA into the liver and pronounced hypoglycemia. Together with our previous study, the metabolic consequence found in the present study is likely to be attributed to an impairment of FA uptake in the heart and skeletal muscle. Thus, our data provided evidence that peripheral uptake of FA via capillary endothelial FABP4/5 is crucial for systemic metabolism and may establish FABP4/5 as potentially novel targets for the

  9. Cardiometabolic risk markers, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP) and the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Blüher, Susann; Käpplinger, Jakob; Herget, Sabine; Reichardt, Sandra; Böttcher, Yvonne; Grimm, Andrea; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Petroff, David

    2017-03-01

    The impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as well as the association between the adipocyte fatty binding protein (aFABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight adolescents was investigated. Twenty-eight adolescents (13-18years; BMI≥90th percentile according to German reference values) were offered HIIT twice weekly for 6months. At baseline and after program completion, anthropometric, clinical and metabolic characteristics were assessed and a fasting blood sample was obtained. Leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and aFABP were measured using commercially available kits. DNA methylation at RALBP1 was assessed using pyrosequencing. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation and linear models were calculated. Mean age at start of the program was 15.5±1.4years (53.5% females) and 20/28 (71%) provided follow-up data. At baseline, aFABP was correlated with BMI-SDS (0.48 [0.13,0.72]; p=0.0095), waist-to-height-ratio (0.63 [0.33,0.81], p=0.00036) and body fat content (0.55 [0.21, 0.77]; p=0.0031). Certain markers of metabolic risk were significantly correlated with aFABP (HOMA-IR 0.52 [0.19, 0.75], p=0.0044; γGT 0.48 [0.13, 0.73], p=0.0091; uric acid 0.46 [0.11, 0.71] p=0.013; HDL-C -0.39 [-0.66, -0.01] p=0.043; triglycerides 0.38 [0.01, 0.66], p=0.047). With the exception of triglycerides, these associations vanished after adjusting for BMI-SDS. aFABP did not depend on sex, age or pubertal stage in obese adolescents. After the HIIT program, small but significant reductions were observed in waist-to-height-ratio, (0.013 [0.0025, 0.024]; p=0.023), skin-fold based body fat content (2.0% [0.6, 3.5]; p=0.011), and standard deviation score of systolic blood pressure (0.69 [0.26 to 1.1]; p=0.0036). No changes were observed in adipokines or epigenetic markers following the program. HIIT may have beneficial effects on body composition and cardiometabolic health in overweight adolescents. Like in adults, aFABP seems to be associated with markers of metabolic

  10. Role of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 2 Ala54Thr Genotype on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors after a High-Protein/Low-Carbohydrate versus a Standard Hypocaloric Diet during 9 Months.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Primo, David; Romero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    It has been found that the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene mRNA is under dietary control. The polymorphism Ala54Thr of this protein was associated with high insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism on metabolic response, weight loss and serum adipokine levels secondary to high-protein/low-carbohydrate vs. standard hypocaloric diets during 9 months. A population of 193 obese subjects was analyzed in a randomized trial. A nutritional evaluation was performed at the beginning and at the end of a 9-month period in which subjects received 1 of 2 diets (diet HP: high-protein/low-carbohydrate vs. diet S: standard diet). With both diets and in both genotype groups, body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and leptin levels decreased. With both diets and only in wild genotype (diet HP vs. diet S), glucose (-6.2 ± 2.1 vs. -4.9 ± 2.0 mg/dl; p < 0.05), insulin levels (-5.0 ± 3.9 vs. -2.0 ± 2.1 UI/l; p < 0.05), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R) (-1.1 ± 0.9 vs. -0.7 ± 1.0 units; p < 0.05) decreased. The improvement in these parameters was higher with diet HP than HS. With both diets and only in the wild genotype, total cholesterol and LDL-total cholesterol levels decreased. Carriers of Thr54 allele have a different metabolic response after weight loss than wild type non-A carriers obese, with a lack of decrease of LDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin levels and HOMA-R. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Screening somatic cell nuclear transfer parameters for generation of transgenic cloned cattle with intragenomic integration of additional gene copies that encode bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Li, Hejuan; Wang, Ying; Yan, Xingrong; Sheng, Xihui; Chang, Di; Qi, Xiaolong; Wang, Xiangguo; Liu, Yunhai; Li, Junya; Ni, Hemin

    2017-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is frequently used to produce transgenic cloned livestock, but it is still associated with low success rates. To our knowledge, we are the first to report successful production of transgenic cattle that overexpress bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid binding proteins (A-FABPs) with the aid of SCNT. Intragenomic integration of additional A-FABP gene copies has been found to be positively correlated with the intramuscular fat content in different farm livestock species. First, we optimized the cloning parameters to produce bovine embryos integrated with A-FABP by SCNT, such as applied voltage field strength and pulse duration for electrofusion, morphology and size of donor cells, and number of donor cells passages. Then, bovine fibroblast cells from Qinchuan cattle were transfected with A-FABP and used as donor cells for SCNT. Hybrids of Simmental and Luxi local cattle were selected as the recipient females for A-FABP transgenic SCNT-derived embryos. The results showed that a field strength of 2.5 kV/cm with two 10-μs duration electrical pulses was ideal for electrofusion, and 4-6th generation circular smooth type donor cells with diameters of 15-25 μm were optimal for producing transgenic bovine embryos by SCNT, and resulted in higher fusion (80%), cleavage (73%), and blastocyst (27%) rates. In addition, we obtained two transgenic cloned calves that expressed additional bovine A-FABP gene copies, as detected by PCR-amplified cDNA sequencing. We proposed a set of optimal protocols to produce transgenic SCNT-derived cattle with intragenomic integration of ectopic A-FABP-inherited exon sequences.

  12. Plasma Levels of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4, Retinol-Binding Protein 4, High-Molecular Weight Adiponectin, and Cardiovascular Mortality among Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A 22-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Ding, Ming; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Rimm, Eric B.; Franks, Paul W.; Meigs, James B.; Hu, Frank B.; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine select adipokines, including fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Approach and Results Plasma levels of FABP4, RBP4, and HMW adiponectin were measured in 950 men with T2D in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After an average of 22 years of follow up (1993–2015), 580 deaths occurred, of whom 220 died of CVD. After multivariate adjustment for covariates, higher levels of FABP4 were significantly associated with a higher CVD mortality: comparing extreme tertiles, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of CVD mortality was 1.78 (1.22, 2.59; P trend=0.001). A positive association was also observed for HMW adiponectin: the HR (95% CI) was 2.07 (1.42, 3.06; P trend=0.0002), comparing extreme tertiles, whereas higher RBP4 levels were non-significantly associated with a decreased CVD mortality with an HR (95% CI) of 0.73 (0.50, 1.07; P trend=0.09). A Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis suggested that the causal relationships of HMW adiponectin and RBP4 would be directionally opposite to those observed based on the biomarkers, although none of the MR associations achieved statistical significance. Conclusions These data suggest that higher levels of FABP4 and HMW adiponectin are associated with elevated CVD mortality among men with T2D. Biological mechanisms underlying these observations deserve elucidation, but the associations of HMW adiponectin may partially reflect altered adipose tissue functionality among T2D patients. PMID:27609367

  13. The Prognostic Value of Serum Levels of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Patients With Increased Levels of Amino-Terminal Pro-B Type Natriuretic Peptide.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Hun; Seo, Yiel Hea; Ahn, Jeong Yeal; Kim, Kyung Hee; Seo, Ja Young; Kim, Moon Jin; Lee, Hwan Tae; Park, Pil Whan

    2016-09-01

    Amino-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a well-established prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). However, numerous causes may lead to elevations in NT-proBNP, and thus, an increased NT-proBNP level alone is not sufficient to predict outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of two acute response markers, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), in patients with an increased NT-proBNP level. The 278 patients were classified into three groups by etiology: 1) acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n=62), 2) non-ACS cardiac disease (n=156), and 3) infectious disease (n=60). Survival was determined on day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90, 120, and 150 after enrollment. H-FABP (P<0.001), NT-proBNP (P=0.006), hsCRP (P<0.001) levels, and survival (P<0.001) were significantly different in the three disease groups. Patients were divided into three classes by using receiver operating characteristic curves for NT-proBNP, H-FABP, and hsCRP. Patients with elevated NT-proBNP (≥3,856 pg/mL) and H-FABP (≥8.8 ng/mL) levels were associated with higher hazard ratio for mortality (5.15 in NT-proBNP and 3.25 in H-FABP). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed H-FABP was a better predictor of 60-day mortality than NT-proBNP. The combined measurement of H-FABP with NT-proBNP provides a highly reliable means of short-term mortality prediction for patients hospitalized for ACS, non-ACS cardiac disease, or infectious disease.

  14. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP): relationship with arterial intima-media thickness and role as diagnostic marker for atherosclerosis in patients with ımpaired glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Karbek, Basak; Özbek, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Nujen Colak; Ginis, Zeynep; Güngünes, Askın; Ünsal, Ilknur Öztürk; Cakal, Erman; Delibası, Tuncay

    2011-05-02

    Heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) has been closely associated with acute coronary syndrome, cardiac abnormalities, stroke, and obstructive sleep disorder in previous studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the serum H-FABP levels and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) between patients with prediabetes and control subjects. We measured serum H-FABP levels in 58 prediabetic patients, 29 with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 29 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 28 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched control subjects using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and in order to measure CIMT, all participants underwent high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Serum H-FABP levels were significantly elevated in pre-diabetic patients when compared with that of control subjects (IFG: 32.5 ± 34.2 ng/dL, IGT: 45.4 ± 45.8 ng/dL, control: 16.8 ± 14.9 ng/dL; p = 0.011). The difference in means of H-FABP levels between patients with IGT or IFG and control subjects was significant (p = 0.010 and p = 0.009, respectively). CIMT was higher in the pre-diabetic groups compared with the control group (IFG: 0.6 ± 0.1, IGT: 0.6 ± 0.1, control: 0.5 ± 0.1; p < 0.001), and H-FABP level was positively correlated with CIMT (p < 0.001, rho = 0.626). Our results indicate that patients with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, serum H-FABP levels could represent a useful marker for myocardial performance in patients with IFG and IGT.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) and glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB) in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cubranic, Zlatko; Madzar, Zeljko; Matijevic, Sanja; Dvornik, Stefica; Fisic, Elizabeta; Tomulic, Vjekoslav; Kunisek, Juraj; Laskarin, Gordana; Kardum, Igor; Zaputovic, Luka

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) and glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB) could be used for the accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. The study included 108 ACS patients admitted to a coronary unit within 3 h after chest pain onset. AMI was distinguished from unstable angina (UA) using a classical cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay. H-FABP and GPBB were measured by ELISA on admission (0 h) and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after admission; their accuracy to diagnose AMI was assessed using statistical methods. From 92 patients with ACS; 71 had AMI. H-FABP and GPBB had higher peak value after 3 h from admission than cTnI (P = 0.001). Both markers normalized at 24 h. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was significantly greater for both markers in AMI patients than in UA patients at all time points tested, including admission (P < 0.001). At admission, the H-FABP (37%) and GPBB (40%) sensitivities were relatively low. They increased at 3 and 6 h after admission for both markers and decreased again after 24 h. It was 40% for H-FABP and approximately 2-times lower for GPBB (P < 0.01). In AMI patients, both biomarkers had similar specificities, positive- and negative-predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and risk ratios for AIM. H-FABP and GPBB can contribute to early AMI diagnosis and can distinguish AMI from UA.

  16. Verification of an immunoturbidimetric assay for heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) on a clinical chemistry platform and establishment of the upper reference limit.

    PubMed

    Da Molin, Simona; Cappellini, Fabrizio; Falbo, Rosanna; Signorini, Stefano; Brambilla, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is an early biomarker of cardiac injury. Randox Laboratories developed an immunoturbidimetric H-FABP assay for non-proprietary automated clinical chemistry analysers that could be useful in the emergency department. We verified the analytical performances claimed by Randox Laboratories on Roche Cobas 6000 clinical chemistry platform in use in our laboratory, and we defined our own 99th percentile upper reference limit for H-FABP. For the verification of method performances, we used pools of spared patient samples from routine and two levels of quality control material, while samples for the reference value study were collected from 545 blood donors. Following CLSI guidelines we verified limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), repeatability and within-laboratory precision, trueness, linearity, and the stability of H-FABP in EDTA over 24h. The LOQ (3.19 μg/L) was verified with a CV% of 10.4. The precision was verified for the low (mean 5.88 μg/L, CV=6.7%), the medium (mean 45.28 μg/L, CV=3.0%), and the high concentration (mean 88.81 μg/L, CV=4.0%). The trueness was verified as well as the linearity over the indicated measurement interval of 0.747-120 μg/L. The H-FABP in EDTA samples is stable throughout 24h both at room temperature and at 4 °C. The H-FABP 99th percentile upper reference limit for all subjects (3.60 μg/L, 95% CI 3.51-3.77) is more appropriate than gender-specific ones that are not statistically different. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The value of signs, symptoms and plasma heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) in evaluating patients presenting with symptoms possibly matching acute coronary syndrome: background and methods of a diagnostic study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Robert T A; Buntinx, Frank; Winkens, Bjorn; Glatz, Jan F; Dinant, Geert Jan

    2014-12-12

    Chest complaints presented to a general practitioner (GP) are frequently caused by diseases which have advantageous outcomes. However, in some cases, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is present (1.5-22% of cases). The patient's signs, symptoms and electrocardiography results are insufficient diagnostic tools to distinguish mild disease from ACS. Therefore, most patients presenting chest complaints are referred to secondary care facilities where ACS is then ruled out in a majority of patients (78%). Recently, a point of care test for heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) using a low cut-off value between positive and negative of 4 ng/ml has become available. We aim to study the role of this point of care device in triage of patients presenting chest complaints possibly due to ACS, in primary care. Our research protocol is presented in this article. Results are expected in 2015. Participating GPs will register signs and symptoms in all patients presenting chest complaints possibly due to ACS. Point of care H-FABP testing will also be performed. Our study will be a derivation study to identify signs and symptoms that, combined with point of care H-FABP testing, can be part of an algorithm to either confirm or rule out ACS. The diagnostic value for ACS of this algorithm in general practice will be determined. A safe diagnostic elimination of ACS by application of the algorithm can be of significant clinical relevance. Improved triage and thus reduction of the number of patients with chest complaints without underlying ACS, that are referred to secondary care facilities, could lead to a substantial cost reduction. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01826994, accepted April 8th 2013.

  18. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in patients in an emergency department setting, suspected of acute coronary syndrome: optimal cut-off point, diagnostic value and future opportunities in primary care.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Robert T A; van Severen, Evie; Vandervoort, Pieter M; Grieten, Lars; Buntinx, Frank; Glatz, Jan F C; Dinant, Geert Jan

    2015-01-01

    Most patients presenting chest complaints in primary care are referred to secondary care facilities, whereas only a few are diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim is to determine the optimal cut-off value for a point-of-care heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) test in patients presenting to the emergency department and to evaluate a possible future role of H-FABP in safely ruling out ACS in primary care. Serial plasma H-FABP (index test) and high sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT) (reference test) were determined in patients with any new-onset chest complaint. In a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the optimal cut-off value of H-FABP for ACS was determined. Predictive values of H-FABP for ACS were calculated. For 202 consecutive patients (prevalence ACS 59%), the ROC curve based on the results of the first H-FABP was equal to the ROC curve of hs-cTnT (AUC 0.79 versus 0.80). Using a cut-off value of 4.0 ng/ml for H-FABP, sensitivity for ACS of the H-FABP (hs-cTnT) tests was 73.9% (70.6%). Negative predictive value (NPV) of H-FABP for ACS in a population representative for primary care (incidence of ACS 22%) thus could reach 90.8%. In patients presenting chest pain, plasma H-FABP reaches the highest diagnostic value when a cut-off value of 4 ng/ml is used. Diagnostic values of an algorithm combining point-of-care H-FABP measurement and a score of signs and symptoms should be studied in primary care, to learn if such an algorithm could safely reduce referral rate by GPs.

  19. Protective effects of L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in proximal tubular cells against glomerular injury in anti-GBM antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kanaguchi, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Osaki, Ken; Sugaya, Takeshi; Horikoshi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Background. In glomerulonephritis (GN), an overload of free fatty acids (FFA) bound to albumin in urinary protein may induce oxidative stress in the proximal tubules. Human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (hL-FABP) expressed in human proximal tubules, but not rodents, participates in intracellular FFA metabolism and exerts anti-oxidative effects on the progression of tubulointerstitial damage. We examined whether tubular enhancement of this anti-oxidative action modulates the progression of glomerular damage in immune-mediated GN in hL-FABP chromosomal gene transgenic (Tg) mice. Methods. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN) was induced in Tg and wild-type mice (WT). Proteinuria, histopathology, polymorphonuclear (PMN) influx, expression of tubulointerstitial markers for oxidative stress 4-hydroxy-2-Nonenal (HNE) and fibrosis (α-smooth muscle actin), proximal tubular damage (Kim-1), Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPAR γ) and inflammatory cytokines [Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)] were analyzed. The mice were also treated with an angiotensin type II receptor blocker (ARB). Results. The urinary protein level in Tg mice decreased significantly during the acute phase (∼Day 5). Tg mice survived for a significantly longer time than WT mice, with an attenuation of tubulointerstitial damage score and expression of each tubulointerstitial damage marker observed at Day 7. Expression of inflammatory cytokines on Day 7 was higher in WT mice than Tg mice and correlated strongly with PPARγ expression in WT mice, but not in Tg mice. Interestingly, Tg mice showed insufficient PMN influx at 3 and 6 h, with simultaneous elevation of urinary L-FABP and reduction in HNE expression. The two strains of mice showed different types of glomerular damage, with mild mesangial proliferation in Tg mice and severe endothelial swelling with

  20. Protective effects of L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in proximal tubular cells against glomerular injury in anti-GBM antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Kanaguchi, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Osaki, Ken; Sugaya, Takeshi; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2011-11-01

    In glomerulonephritis (GN), an overload of free fatty acids (FFA) bound to albumin in urinary protein may induce oxidative stress in the proximal tubules. Human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (hL-FABP) expressed in human proximal tubules, but not rodents, participates in intracellular FFA metabolism and exerts anti-oxidative effects on the progression of tubulointerstitial damage. We examined whether tubular enhancement of this anti-oxidative action modulates the progression of glomerular damage in immune-mediated GN in hL-FABP chromosomal gene transgenic (Tg) mice. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN) was induced in Tg and wild-type mice (WT). Proteinuria, histopathology, polymorphonuclear (PMN) influx, expression of tubulointerstitial markers for oxidative stress 4-hydroxy-2-Nonenal (HNE) and fibrosis (α-smooth muscle actin), proximal tubular damage (Kim-1), Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPAR γ) and inflammatory cytokines [Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)] were analyzed. The mice were also treated with an angiotensin type II receptor blocker (ARB). The urinary protein level in Tg mice decreased significantly during the acute phase (~Day 5). Tg mice survived for a significantly longer time than WT mice, with an attenuation of tubulointerstitial damage score and expression of each tubulointerstitial damage marker observed at Day 7. Expression of inflammatory cytokines on Day 7 was higher in WT mice than Tg mice and correlated strongly with PPARγ expression in WT mice, but not in Tg mice. Interestingly, Tg mice showed insufficient PMN influx at 3 and 6 h, with simultaneous elevation of urinary L-FABP and reduction in HNE expression. The two strains of mice showed different types of glomerular damage, with mild mesangial proliferation in Tg mice and severe endothelial swelling with vascular thrombosis in WT mice

  1. Effect of fatty acid-binding protein 2 Ala54Thr genotype on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet in obese patients.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel; Aller, Rocio; Izaola, Olatz; Sagrado, Manuel Gonzalez; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Conde, Rosa; Primo, David

    2012-12-01

    It has been found that the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 2 messenger RNA is under dietary control. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism in the FABP2 gene on weight loss and secondarily in cardiovascular risk factors and serum adipokine after an enriched polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A sample of 111 obese patients was analyzed. The enriched polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet during 3 months' intervention consisted of 1459 kcal, 45.7% carbohydrates, 34.4% lipids, and 19.9% proteins. The distribution of fats was as follows: 21.8% saturated fats, 55.5% monounsaturated fats, and 22.7% polyunsaturated fats. Level of significance was P < 0.05. In Ala54Ala genotype, body mass index (-1.6 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)), weight (-3.2 ± 3.3 kg), fat mass (-3.1 ± 3.5 kg), and waist circumference (-3.3 ± 2.1 cm) decreased. In carriers of the Thr54 allele, body mass index (-1.9 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)), weight (- 4.7 ± 1.4 kg), and waist circumference (-3.9 ± 3.7 cm) decreased. These changes were significantly higher in the carriers of the Thr54 allele than noncarriers. Only in the carriers of Thr54 allele, total cholesterol levels (-11.4 ± 20.6 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (-5.4 ± 10.6 mg/dL), insulin (-2.6 ± 3.4 MUI/L), and the level of homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity (-0.9 ± 1.7 U) decreased. Carriers of Thr54 allele have a better metabolic response than obese carriers with Ala54Ala genotype, with a decrease of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin levels, leptin levels, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity.

  2. Critical review and meta-analysis on the combination of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) and troponin for early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    An early diagnosis is crucial for effective triage and management of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although troponin testing is the cornerstone of diagnosis, the sensitivity of this biomarker is still suboptimal at patient admission. The heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is an early and sensitive biomarker of myocardial ischemia, whose appropriate setting is in combination with troponin testing. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of articles that have assessed the combination of troponin and H-FABP in the early diagnosis of AMI. Eight studies, totaling 2735 patients, met the inclusion criteria but none of them used a high-sensitivity troponin immunoassay. The between-study variation was high (98.5%), and attributable to heterogeneity. When considered alone, troponin exhibited a significantly greater pooled area under the curve (AUC) than H-FABP alone (0.820 versus 0.784; p<0.001). The pooled specificity was also higher for troponin alone than for H-FABP alone (0.94 versus 0.83; p<0.001), whereas the cumulative sensitivity was lower for troponin than for H-FABP (0.73 versus 0.80; p=0.02). The combination of both biomarkers exhibited a greater AUC than troponin alone (0.881; p<0.001), as well as a higher pooled sensitivity (0.91; p<0.001), which was however counterbalanced by a lower specificity (0.82; p<0.001). These results attest that the combination of H-FABP with a conventional troponin immunoassay seems advantageous for increasing the sensitivity of the former biomarker, at the expense of a lower specificity. The introduction of H-FABP testing would hence require careful assessment of laboratory data or clinical signs and symptoms for excluding sources of elevation different from AMI. Further studies are needed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of combining H-FABP with a high-sensitivity troponin immunoassay. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Utility Of Heart Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-Fabp) Point Of Care Test In The Early Hours Of Stemi Compared With Troponin-I In Pakistani Population.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Walid Ahmad; Saleem, Muhammad; Rasheed, Shahid; Kiyani, Azhar Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome remains a dominant cause of high morbidity and mortality despite advancements in treatment This study was conducted to examine the utility of point-of-care test of heart-type fatty-acid binding protein (h-FABP) and compare it with the point-of-care test of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in the first 06 hours of STEMI. This cross-sectional, comparative study which was conducted in Rawalpindi institute of cardiology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2015. Serum samples of 125 patients with the diagnosis of STEMI, presenting with chest pain of less than 6 hours' duration, were analysed for quantitative and qualitative determination of h-FABP and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) using rapid immunochromatographic technique in the emergency department. Samples were taken at presentation and after 12 hours. Out of 125 patients, 112 were males and 13 were females with a mean age of 54.26±9.53 years. The average symptom-to-sample time was 3.19±1.44 hours (median 3 hours). Mean h-FABP levels were significantly higher than the mean cTnI levels (29.10±30.66 vs 0.94±2.02; p=0.000). Overall, HFABP was more sensitive than cTnI (72% vs 26.4%). The sensitivity of cTnI within 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 hours of symptom onset was calculated to be 0%, 17.7%, and 75.9%, whereas sensitivity of HFABP was 35.3%, 79.03% and 100% respectively. There was not a single patient who was cTnI positive and H-FABP negative as compared to 57 patients who were FABP positive and cTnI negative. h-FABP is a promising cardiac biomarker for the early identification of myocardial ischemia and infarction. It could be a superior biomarker for earlier detection of ACS and screening of patients with non-cardiac chest pain.

  4. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) and highly sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) as markers of myocardial injury and cardiovascular events in elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

    PubMed

    Connolly, M; Shand, J; Kinnin, M; Menown, I; Kurth, M J; Lamont, J; Mc Eneaney, D

    2018-01-01

    Type 4a myocardial infarction (MI) occurs when myocardial injury is combined with either symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischaemia, new left bundle branch block, angiographic loss of patency of a major artery or imaging suggestive of new loss of myocardium. Myocardial injury is defined as a rise of >5 x 99th upper reference limit (URL) of 14 ng/l (i.e. >70 ng/l) for highly sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) at 6 h if hsTnT was normal at baseline or >20% rise from 0 to 6 h if hsTnT was >14 ng/l at baseline. To assess the prognostic value of biomarkers of myocardial injury following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A cohort of 209 patients were included of whom 144 (68.9%) were male, mean age was 68.8 years, 28 (13.4%) were smokers, 31 (14.8%) were diabetic, 199 (95.2%) had hypercholesterolaemia and 138 (66.0%) had hypertension. We evaluated hsTnT, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), troponin I (TnI), creatine kinase MB type (CKMB), myoglobin, glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB) and carbonic anhydrase III (CA III) at 0, 4, 6 and 24 h following elective PCI. Patients were followed up at 1 year to assess for major adverse clinical events (MACE). Myocardial injury was observed in 37 (17.7%) patients. Median hsTnT/H-FABP at 4 h were most predictive. MACE was noted in 6 (2.9%) patients, 3 had type 4a MI post PCI, P = 0.036. Median 4 h hsTnT/H-FABP were most predictive of myocardial injury following PCI. H-FABP and hsTnT were predictive of MACE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) in prostate, bladder and kidney cancer cell lines and the use of IL-FABP as survival predictor in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) play an important role in carcinogenesis. Modified FABP expression patterns were described for prostate, bladder and for renal cell carcinoma. Studies on metabolic relationships and interactions in permanent cell lines allow a deeper insight into molecular processes. The aim of this study is therefore a systematic overview on mRNA and protein expressions of seven FABPs in frequently used urological cell lines. Methods Nine cell lines of renal carcinomas, seven of urinary bladder carcinomas, and five of prostate carcinomas were investigated. Quantitative RT-qPCR and western blotting were used to determine different FABPs. In addition, 46 paired cancerous and noncancerous tissue samples from nephrectomy specimen with renal cell carcinomas were investigated regarding the ileum FABP mRNA expression level and associated with survival outcome. Results General characteristics of all urological carcinoma cell lines were the expression of E-and IL-FABP on mRNA and protein level, while the expressions differed between the cell lines. The protein expression was not always congruent with the mRNA expression. Renal cell carcinoma cell lines showed expressions of L-, H- and B-FABP mRNA in addition to the general FABP expression in five out of the eight investigated cell lines. In bladder cancer cell lines, we additionally found the expression of A-FABP mRNA in six cell lines, while H-FABP was present only in three cell lines. In prostate cancer cell lines, a strong reduction of A- and E- FABP mRNA was observed. The expression of B-FABP mRNA and protein was observed only in the 22 RV-1 cells. IL-FABP mRNA was over-expressed in renal tumour tissue. The IL-FABP ratio was identified as an independent indicator of survival outcome. Conclusions Distinctly different FABP expression patterns were observed not only between the cell lines derived from the three cancer types, but also between the cell lines from the same cancer. The FABP

  6. The potential role of a turbidimetric heart-type fatty acid-binding protein assay to aid in the interpretation of persistently elevated, non-changing, cardiac troponin I concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kavsak, Peter A; Ainsworth, Craig; Arnold, Donald M; Scott, Terry; Clark, Lorna; Ivica, Josko; Mackett, Katharine; Whitlock, Richard; Worster, Andrew

    2018-05-08

    Elevated and non-changing high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) concentrations may suggest a process other than acute injury, possibly due to chronic condition(s) causing the elevation, an analytical error/interference or the formation of macrocomplexes. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) might be useful in this setting to identify the etiology of abnormally high and non-changing cTn concentrations which could aid clinical decision making in the hospital setting. We analytically validated the H-FABP assay (Randox) on the Abbott ARICHTECTc8000 platform, testing imprecision, linearity, stability, and matrix comparison. Over the 2-month analytical validation; EDTA plasma samples from patients with a hospital visit with persistently elevated and stable cTnI concentrations (Abbott hs-cTnI≥52 ng/L or 2x99th percentile upper limit of normal (ULN = 26 ng/L) with change between results <20%) were collected and frozen (-20 °C). These samples were tested with the H-FABP assay, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, with the lowest estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF) during the hospital visit also obtained from these patients. The H-FABP assay was linear, with concentrations stable after 4 freeze/thaw cycles, up to 150 h at room temperature, and comparable between lithium heparin and EDTA plasma. During the validation there were 6 patients with eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 identified (total population screened n = 917) with high and non-changing hs-cTnI concentrations. All 6 patients had H-FABP<2xULN; with 3 patients having a macrocomplex and a final diagnosis of not ACS. Testing of H-FABP in patients with an eGFR≥60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 with persistently high and stable cTn elevations may help to confirm prior cardiac injury or the presence of macrocomplexes as the source of these elevations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Diagnostic value of heart-type fatty acid binding protein determined by the rapid qualitative chromatographic immunoassay method for the detection of minor myocardial damage in patients presenting with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Gök, Bülent; Demirüstü, Canan; Birdane, Alparslan; Görenek, Bülent; Ata, Necmi

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) determined by qualitative immunoassay method for the detection of minor myocardial damage (MMD) in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). The study consisted of 62 patients with NSTE-ACS. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) values were measured at arrival. Myoglobin and H-FABP were obtained if cTnI level was found to be elevated. A control group included 20 subjects with normal cTnI and CK-MB values. H-FABP was determined by a rapid qualitative immunochromatographic test. Patients were classified as MMD-ACS group if they had abnormal cTnI and normal CK-MB (n=24) and as NSTEMI-ACS group if they had elevated both cTnI and CK-MB (n=38). The diagnostic accuracy of H-FABP for minor myocardial damage was determined using ROC analysis. The sensitivity of the H-FABP was significantly higher for NSTEMI-ACS than for MMD-ACS (44.7% vs 0%, p<0.001) and its specificity was 95% for both groups. The diagnostic efficacy rates for myoglobin and H-FABP were 75% and 43% for MMD-ACS, 74% and 62% for NSTEMI-ACS. Positive predictive value for H-FABP and myoglobin were found to be 0% and 80.8% in MMD-ACS, 94% and 87% in NSTEMI-ACS and negative predictive value was 44% and 69.5% in MMD-ACS, 47.5% and 59% in NSTEMI-ACS, respectively. AUC for myoglobin was significantly greater than that for H-FABP in MMD-ACS group (0.754 vs 0.525, p=0.027). The sensitivity of the H-FABP was significantly higher in patients with >3-fold increase in cTnI than those with <3-fold increase in cTnI (46.8% vs. 6.7%, p<0.001). A positive correlation was found between the magnitude of cTnI rise and H-FABP results (r=0.45, p<0.001). H-FABP determined by the rapid qualitative immunochromatographic test has almost similar diagnostic value to that of myoglobin for identifying NSTEMI-ACS, however, does not seem to represent diagnostic

  8. Response of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein to contrast media administration has a potential to predict one-year renal outcome in patients with ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Daishi; Takahashi, Masao; Doi, Kent; Abe, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Junichi; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Myojo, Masahiro; Ando, Jiro; Fujita, Hideo; Noiri, Eisei; Sugaya, Takeshi; Hirata, Yasunobu; Komuro, Issei

    2015-05-01

    Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding proteins (uL-FABP) have recently been recognized as a useful biomarker for predicting contrast-induced nephropathy. Although accumulating studies have evaluated short-term outcomes, its prognostic value for long-term renal prognosis in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) has not been fully examined. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of uL-FABP for long-term renal outcome in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Consecutive 24 patients with impaired renal function (serum creatinine >1.2 mg/dL) who underwent CAG were enrolled. uL-FABP was measured before CAG, 24 and 48 h after CAG. The changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) throughout CAG and at 1 year later were compared with the uL-FABP levels. The patients with a greater decrease in eGFR 1 year later had higher uL-FABP levels at all points, but only the value at 48 h after CAG reached statistical significance (lower vs. higher decreased eGFR group, 4.61 ± 3.87 vs. 17.71 ± 12.96; P < 0.01). Measurement of uL-FABP at 48 h after CAG (48h-uL-FABP) showed better correlation with the change in eGFR (pre-CAG uL-FABP vs. 48h-uL-FABP: R = 0.27, P = 0.20 vs. R = 0.65, P < 0.01). Moreover, the high-pre and high-48h-uL-FABP group showed a significantly larger decrease in eGFR compared with the high-pre and low-48h-uL-FABP group (change in eGFR; 8.12 ± 4.06 vs. 1.25 ± 2.23 mL/min/1.73 m2, P < 0.01), although the baseline eGFR levels were similar between these two groups. In this pilot study, measurement of uL-FABP levels at 48 h after CAG may be useful in detecting renal damage, and in predicting 1-year renal outcome in IHD patients undergoing CAG.

  9. Evaluation of New Diagnostic Biomarkers in Pediatric Sepsis: Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1, Mid-Regional Pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide, and Adipocyte Fatty-Acid Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Mashael F.; Smith, Craig M.; Weiss, Scott L.; Dawson, Susan; Ralay Ranaivo, Hantamalala; Wainwright, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (mrProANP), and adipocyte fatty-acid-binding proteins (A-FaBPs) have been investigated as biomarkers for sepsis or detection of acute neurological injuries in adults, but not children. We carried out a single-center, prospective observational study to determine if these measures could serve as biomarkers to identify children with sepsis. A secondary aim was to determine if these biomarkers could identify children with neurologic complications of sepsis. A total of 90 patients ≤ 18 years-old were included in this study. 30 with severe sepsis or septic shock were compared to 30 age-matched febrile and 30 age-matched healthy controls. Serial measurements of each biomarker were obtained, beginning on day 1 of ICU admission. In septic patients, MMP9-/TIMP-1 ratios (Median, IQR, n) were reduced on day 1 (0.024, 0.004–0.174, 13), day 2 (0.020, 0.002–0.109, 10), and day 3 (0.018, 0.003–0.058, 23) compared with febrile (0.705, 0.187–1.778, 22) and healthy (0.7, 0.4–1.2, 29) (p< 0.05) controls. A-FaBP and mrProANP (Median, IQR ng/mL, n) were elevated in septic patients compared to control groups on first 2 days after admission to the PICU (p <0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) for MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio, mrProANP, and A-FaBP to distinguish septic patients from healthy controls were 0.96, 0.99, and 0.76, respectively. MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was inversely and mrProANP was directly related to PIM-2, PELOD, and ICU and hospital LOS (p<0.05). A-FaBP level was associated with PELOD, hospital and ICU length of stay (p<0.05). MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio associated with poor Glasgow Outcome Score (p<0.05). A-FaBP levels in septic patients with neurological dysfunction (29.3, 17.2–54.6, 7) were significantly increased compared to septic patients without neurological dysfunction (14.6, 13.3–20.6, 11). MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios

  10. Evaluation of New Diagnostic Biomarkers in Pediatric Sepsis: Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1, Mid-Regional Pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide, and Adipocyte Fatty-Acid Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mashael F; Smith, Craig M; Weiss, Scott L; Dawson, Susan; Ralay Ranaivo, Hantamalala; Wainwright, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (mrProANP), and adipocyte fatty-acid-binding proteins (A-FaBPs) have been investigated as biomarkers for sepsis or detection of acute neurological injuries in adults, but not children. We carried out a single-center, prospective observational study to determine if these measures could serve as biomarkers to identify children with sepsis. A secondary aim was to determine if these biomarkers could identify children with neurologic complications of sepsis. A total of 90 patients ≤ 18 years-old were included in this study. 30 with severe sepsis or septic shock were compared to 30 age-matched febrile and 30 age-matched healthy controls. Serial measurements of each biomarker were obtained, beginning on day 1 of ICU admission. In septic patients, MMP9-/TIMP-1 ratios (Median, IQR, n) were reduced on day 1 (0.024, 0.004-0.174, 13), day 2 (0.020, 0.002-0.109, 10), and day 3 (0.018, 0.003-0.058, 23) compared with febrile (0.705, 0.187-1.778, 22) and healthy (0.7, 0.4-1.2, 29) (p< 0.05) controls. A-FaBP and mrProANP (Median, IQR ng/mL, n) were elevated in septic patients compared to control groups on first 2 days after admission to the PICU (p <0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) for MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio, mrProANP, and A-FaBP to distinguish septic patients from healthy controls were 0.96, 0.99, and 0.76, respectively. MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was inversely and mrProANP was directly related to PIM-2, PELOD, and ICU and hospital LOS (p<0.05). A-FaBP level was associated with PELOD, hospital and ICU length of stay (p<0.05). MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio associated with poor Glasgow Outcome Score (p<0.05). A-FaBP levels in septic patients with neurological dysfunction (29.3, 17.2-54.6, 7) were significantly increased compared to septic patients without neurological dysfunction (14.6, 13.3-20.6, 11). MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios were

  11. Focal hepatic fatty infiltration in the posterior edge of the medial segment associated with aberrant gastric venous drainage: CT, US, and MR findings

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamori, Yashuiro; Matsui, Osamu; Takahashi, S.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the relation between focal hepatic fatty infiltration and aberrant gastric venous drainage (AGVD) in the posterior edge of the medial segment (PEMS) of the liver and we present two cases of focal hepatic fatty infiltration with AGVD in the PEMS and discuss their imaging features. In both cases the focal fatty infiltration areas were hyperechoic on sonography, hypodense on CT, and hyperintense on T1-weighted MRI. Computed tomography during arterial portography (CTAP) showed nodular perfusion defects corresponding to the areas in both cases, and early enhancement of the area was observed with dynamicmore » MRI in one case. Although the findings on CTAP and dynamic MRI suggested a neoplastic nature for the lesions, focal fatty infiltration was confirmed with surgical resection in one case and with imaging follow-up in the other. Aberrant gastric venous drainage into the area was demonstrated on arteriography in both cases. The variation in blood supply caused by AGVD may play an important role in fatty metabolism in the PENIS of the liver and may influence imaging features. 9 refs., 2 figs.« less

  12. Aberrant Phosphorylation of SMAD4 Thr277-Mediated USP9x-SMAD4 Interaction by Free Fatty Acids Promotes Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Yu, Xiaoting; Yi, Xianghua; Wu, Ke; Dwabe, Sami; Atefi, Mohammad; Elshimali, Yahya; Kemp, Kevin T; Bhat, Kruttika; Haro, Jesse; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2017-03-15

    Obesity increases the risk of distant metastatic recurrence and reduces breast cancer survival. However, the mechanisms behind this pathology and identification of relevant therapeutic targets are poorly defined. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels are elevated in obese individuals. Here we report that TGFβ transiently activates ERK and subsequently phosphorylates SMAD4 at Thr277, which facilitates a SMAD4-USP9x interaction, SMAD4 nuclear retention, and stimulates TGFβ/SMAD3-mediated transcription of Twist and Snail. USP9x inhibited the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TIF1γ from binding and monoubiquitinating SMAD4, hence maintaining the SMAD4 nuclear retention. FFA further facilitated TGFβ-induced ERK activation, SMAD4 phosphorylation, and nuclear retention, promoting TGFβ-dependent cancer progression. Inhibition of ERK and USP9x suppressed obesity-induced metastasis. In addition, clinical data indicated that phospho-ERK and -SMAD4 levels correlate with activated TGFβ signaling and metastasis in overweight/obese patient breast cancer specimens. Altogether, we demonstrate the vital interaction of USP9x and SMAD4 for governing TGFβ signaling and dyslipidemia-induced aberrant TGFβ activation during breast cancer metastasis. Cancer Res; 77(6); 1383-94. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Aberrant phosphorylation of SMAD4 Thr277-mediated USP9x-SMAD4 interaction by free fatty acids promotes breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yong; Yu, Xiaoting; Yi, Xianghua; Wu, Ke; Dwabe, Sami; Atefi, Mohammad; Elshimali, Yahya; Kemp, Kevin T.; Bhat, Kruttika; Haro, Jesse; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2017-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of distant metastatic recurrence and reduces breast cancer (BC) survival. However, the mechanisms behind this pathology and identification of relevant therapeutic targets are poorly defined. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels are elevated in obese individuals. Here we report that TGF-β transiently activates ERK and subsequently phosphorylates SMAD4 at Thr277, which facilitates a SMAD4-USP9x interaction, SMAD4 nuclear retention, and stimulates TGF-β /SMAD3-mediated transcription of Twist and Snail. USP9x inhibited the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TIF1γ from binding and monoubiquitinating SMAD4, hence maintaining SMAD4 nuclear retention. FFA further facilitated TGF-β-induced ERK activation, SMAD4 phosphorylation and nuclear retention, promoting TGF-β-dependent cancer progression. Inhibition of ERK and USP9x suppressed obesity-induced metastasis. Additionally, clinical data indicated that phospho-ERK and -SMAD4 levels correlate with activated TGF-β signaling and metastasis in overweight/obese patient BC specimens. Altogether, we demonstrate the vital interaction of USP9x and SMAD4 for governing TGF-β signaling and dyslipidemia-induced, aberrant TGF-β activation during BC metastasis. PMID:28115363

  14. Predicting nucleic acid binding interfaces from structural models of proteins.

    PubMed

    Dror, Iris; Shazman, Shula; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2012-02-01

    The function of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins can be inferred from the characterization and accurate prediction of their binding interfaces. However, the main pitfall of various structure-based methods for predicting nucleic acid binding function is that they are all limited to a relatively small number of proteins for which high-resolution three-dimensional structures are available. In this study, we developed a pipeline for extracting functional electrostatic patches from surfaces of protein structural models, obtained using the I-TASSER protein structure predictor. The largest positive patches are extracted from the protein surface using the patchfinder algorithm. We show that functional electrostatic patches extracted from an ensemble of structural models highly overlap the patches extracted from high-resolution structures. Furthermore, by testing our pipeline on a set of 55 known nucleic acid binding proteins for which I-TASSER produces high-quality models, we show that the method accurately identifies the nucleic acids binding interface on structural models of proteins. Employing a combined patch approach we show that patches extracted from an ensemble of models better predicts the real nucleic acid binding interfaces compared with patches extracted from independent models. Overall, these results suggest that combining information from a collection of low-resolution structural models could be a valuable approach for functional annotation. We suggest that our method will be further applicable for predicting other functional surfaces of proteins with unknown structure. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Predicting nucleic acid binding interfaces from structural models of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Iris; Shazman, Shula; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-01-01

    The function of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins can be inferred from the characterization and accurate prediction of their binding interfaces. However the main pitfall of various structure-based methods for predicting nucleic acid binding function is that they are all limited to a relatively small number of proteins for which high-resolution three dimensional structures are available. In this study, we developed a pipeline for extracting functional electrostatic patches from surfaces of protein structural models, obtained using the I-TASSER protein structure predictor. The largest positive patches are extracted from the protein surface using the patchfinder algorithm. We show that functional electrostatic patches extracted from an ensemble of structural models highly overlap the patches extracted from high-resolution structures. Furthermore, by testing our pipeline on a set of 55 known nucleic acid binding proteins for which I-TASSER produces high-quality models, we show that the method accurately identifies the nucleic acids binding interface on structural models of proteins. Employing a combined patch approach we show that patches extracted from an ensemble of models better predicts the real nucleic acid binding interfaces compared to patches extracted from independent models. Overall, these results suggest that combining information from a collection of low-resolution structural models could be a valuable approach for functional annotation. We suggest that our method will be further applicable for predicting other functional surfaces of proteins with unknown structure. PMID:22086767

  16. Crystal structure of axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) liver bile acid-binding protein bound to cholic and oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Stefano; Guariento, Mara; Perduca, Massimiliano; Di Pietro, Santiago M; Santomé, José A; Monaco, Hugo L

    2006-07-01

    The family of the liver bile acid-binding proteins (L-BABPs), formerly called liver basic fatty acid-binding proteins (Lb-FABPs) shares fold and sequence similarity with the paralogous liver fatty acid-binding proteins (L-FABPs) but has a different stoichiometry and specificity of ligand binding. This article describes the first X-ray structure of a member of the L-BABP family, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) L-BABP, bound to two different ligands: cholic and oleic acid. The protein binds one molecule of oleic acid in a position that is significantly different from that of either of the two molecules that bind to rat liver FABP. The stoichiometry of binding of cholate is of two ligands per protein molecule, as observed in chicken L-BABP. The cholate molecule that binds buried most deeply into the internal cavity overlaps well with the analogous bound to chicken L-BABP, whereas the second molecule, which interacts with the first only through hydrophobic contacts, is more external and exposed to the solvent. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Conformational and dynamics changes induced by bile acids binding to chicken liver bile acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Eberini, Ivano; Guerini Rocco, Alessandro; Ientile, Anna Rita; Baptista, António M; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Tomaselli, Simona; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2008-06-01

    The correlation between protein motions and function is a central problem in protein science. Several studies have demonstrated that ligand binding and protein dynamics are strongly correlated in intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs), in which the high degree of flexibility, principally occurring at the level of helix-II, CD, and EF loops (the so-called portal area), is significantly reduced upon ligand binding. We have recently investigated by NMR the dynamic properties of a member of the iLBP family, chicken liver bile acid binding protein (cL-BABP), in its apo and holo form, as a complex with two bile salts molecules. Binding was found to be regulated by a dynamic process and a conformational rearrangement was associated with this event. We report here the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed on apo and holo cL-BABP with the aim of further characterizing the protein regions involved in motion propagation and of evaluating the main molecular interactions stabilizing bound ligands. Upon binding, the root mean square fluctuation values substantially decrease for CD and EF loops while increase for the helix-loop-helix region, thus indicating that the portal area is the region mostly affected by complex formation. These results nicely correlate with backbone dynamics data derived from NMR experiments. Essential dynamics analysis of the MD trajectories indicates that the major concerted motions involve the three contiguous structural elements of the portal area, which however are dynamically coupled in different ways whether in the presence or in the absence of the ligands. Motions of the EF loop and of the helical region are part of the essential space of both apo and holo-BABP and sample a much wider conformational space in the apo form. Together with NMR results, these data support the view that, in the apo protein, the flexible EF loop visits many conformational states including those typical of the holo state and that the ligand acts

  18. NMR unfolding studies on a liver bile acid binding protein reveal a global two-state unfolding and localized singular behaviors.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Ragona, Laura; Fessas, Dimitrios; Signorelli, Marco; Ugolini, Raffaella; Pedò, Massimo; Assfalg, Michael; Molinari, Henriette

    2009-01-01

    The folding properties of a bile acid binding protein, belonging to a subfamily of the fatty acid binding proteins, have been here investigated both by hydrogen exchange measurements, using the SOFAST NMR approach, and urea denaturation experiments. The urea unfolding profiles of individual residues, acting as single probes, were simultaneously analyzed through a global fit, according to a two-state unfolding model. The resulting conformational stability DeltaG(U)(H(2)O)=7.2+/-0.25kcal mol(-1) is in good agreement with hydrogen exchange stability DeltaG(op). While the majority of protein residues satisfy this model, few amino-acids display a singular behavior, not directly amenable to the presence of a folding intermediate, as reported for other fatty acid binding proteins. These residues are part of a protein patch characterized by enhanced plasticity. To explain this singular behavior a tentative model has been proposed which takes into account the interplay between the dynamic features and the formation of transient aggregates. A functional role for this plasticity, related to translocation across the nuclear membrane, is discussed.

  19. Nucleic acid-binding polymers as anti-inflammatory agents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaewoo; Sohn, Jang Wook; Zhang, Ying; Leong, Kam W.; Pisetsky, David; Sullenger, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Dead and dying cells release nucleic acids. These extracellular RNAs and DNAs can be taken up by inflammatory cells and activate multiple nucleic acid-sensing toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8, and 9). The inappropriate activation of these TLRs can engender a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The redundancy of the TLR family encouraged us to seek materials that can neutralize the proinflammatory effects of any nucleic acid regardless of its sequence, structure or chemistry. Herein we demonstrate that certain nucleic acid-binding polymers can inhibit activation of all nucleic acid-sensing TLRs irrespective of whether they recognize ssRNA, dsRNA or hypomethylated DNA. Furthermore, systemic administration of such polymers can prevent fatal liver injury engendered by proinflammatory nucleic acids in an acute toxic shock model in mice. Therefore these polymers represent a novel class of anti-inflammatory agent that can act as molecular scavengers to neutralize the proinflammatory effects of various nucleic acids. PMID:21844380

  20. A high-fat diet and the threonine-encoding allele (Thr54) polymorphism of fatty acid–binding protein 2 reduce plasma triglyceride–rich lipoproteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Thr54 allele of the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) DNA polymorphism is associated with increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and insulin resistance. We investigated whether the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein response to diets of varied fat content is affected by the fatty acid binding pr...

  1. Role of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 (FABP5) in Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    invasiveness of S100A7 overexpressing ERa- and ERa? cells One of the hallmarks of tumor metastasis is its ability to degrade extracellular matrix to invade...increase in macrophages in doxycycline-inducedMMTV-mS100a7a15 compared with unin- duced mice (Fig. 2E). MMPs are known to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM...interplay with leptin and other adipocytokines. FEBS Lett 2009;583:259–65. 12. Ranger JJ, Levy DE, Shahalizadeh S, Hallett M, Muller WJ. Identifica- tion of

  2. Identification of Nucleic Acid Binding Sites on Translin-Associated Factor X (TRAX) Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gagan Deep; Kumar, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    Translin and TRAX proteins play roles in very important cellular processes such as DNA recombination, spatial and temporal expression of mRNA, and in siRNA processing. Translin forms a homomeric nucleic acid binding complex and binds to ssDNA and RNA. However, a mutant translin construct that forms homomeric complex lacking nucleic acid binding activity is able to form fully active heteromeric translin-TRAX complex when co-expressed with TRAX. A substantial progress has been made in identifying translin sites that mediate its binding activity, while TRAX was thought not to bind DNA or RNA on its own. We here for the first time demonstrate nucleic acid binding to TRAX by crosslinking radiolabeled ssDNA to heteromeric translin-TRAX complex using UV-laser. The TRAX and translin, photochemically crosslinked with ssDNA, were individually detected on SDS-PAGE. We mutated two motifs in TRAX and translin, designated B2 and B3, to help define the nucleic acid binding sites in the TRAX sequence. The most pronounced effect was observed in the mutants of B3 motif that impaired nucleic acid binding activity of the heteromeric complexes. We suggest that both translin and TRAX are binding competent and contribute to the nucleic acid binding activity. PMID:22427937

  3. A Personal Retrospective: Elevating Anandamide (AEA) by Targeting Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) and the Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs)

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Dale G.

    2016-01-01

    This perspective was adapted from a Career Achievement Award talk given at the International Cannabinoid Research Society Symposium in Bukovina, Poland on June 27, 2016. As a biochemist working in the neurosciences, I was always fascinated with neurotransmitter inactivation. In 1993 we identified an enzyme activity that breaks down anandamide. We called the enzyme anandamide amidase, now called FAAH. We and other laboratories developed FAAH inhibitors that were useful reagents that also proved to have beneficial physiological effects and until recently, new generations of inhibitors were in clinical trials. Nearly all neurotransmitters are water soluble and as such, require a transmembrane protein transporter to pass through the lipid membrane for inactivation inside the cell. However, using model systems, we and others have shown that this is unnecessary for anandamide, an uncharged hydrophobic molecule that readily diffuses across the cellular membrane. Interestingly, its uptake is driven by the concentration gradient resulting from its breakdown mainly by FAAH localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. We identified the FABPs as intracellular carriers that “solubilize” anandamide, transporting anandamide to FAAH. Compounds that bind to FABPs block AEA breakdown, raising its level. The cannabinoids (THC and CBD) also were discovered to bind FABPs and this may be one of the mechanisms by which CBD works in childhood epilepsy, raising anandamide levels. Targeting FABPs may be advantageous since they have some tissue specificity and do not require reactive serine hydrolase inhibitors, as does FAAH, with potential for off-target reactions. At the International Cannabis Research Society Symposium in 1992, Raphe Mechoulam revealed that his laboratory isolated an endogenous lipid molecule that binds to the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid receptor type 1) and this became the milestone paper published in December of that year describing anandamide (AEA, Devane et al., 1992). As to be expected, this discovery raised the issues of AEA's synthesis and breakdown. PMID:27790143

  4. A Personal Retrospective: Elevating Anandamide (AEA) by Targeting Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) and the Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs).

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Dale G

    2016-01-01

    This perspective was adapted from a Career Achievement Award talk given at the International Cannabinoid Research Society Symposium in Bukovina, Poland on June 27, 2016. As a biochemist working in the neurosciences, I was always fascinated with neurotransmitter inactivation. In 1993 we identified an enzyme activity that breaks down anandamide. We called the enzyme anandamide amidase, now called FAAH. We and other laboratories developed FAAH inhibitors that were useful reagents that also proved to have beneficial physiological effects and until recently, new generations of inhibitors were in clinical trials. Nearly all neurotransmitters are water soluble and as such, require a transmembrane protein transporter to pass through the lipid membrane for inactivation inside the cell. However, using model systems, we and others have shown that this is unnecessary for anandamide, an uncharged hydrophobic molecule that readily diffuses across the cellular membrane. Interestingly, its uptake is driven by the concentration gradient resulting from its breakdown mainly by FAAH localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. We identified the FABPs as intracellular carriers that "solubilize" anandamide, transporting anandamide to FAAH. Compounds that bind to FABPs block AEA breakdown, raising its level. The cannabinoids (THC and CBD) also were discovered to bind FABPs and this may be one of the mechanisms by which CBD works in childhood epilepsy, raising anandamide levels. Targeting FABPs may be advantageous since they have some tissue specificity and do not require reactive serine hydrolase inhibitors, as does FAAH, with potential for off-target reactions. At the International Cannabis Research Society Symposium in 1992, Raphe Mechoulam revealed that his laboratory isolated an endogenous lipid molecule that binds to the CB1 receptor (cannabinoid receptor type 1) and this became the milestone paper published in December of that year describing anandamide (AEA, Devane et al., 1992). As to be expected, this discovery raised the issues of AEA's synthesis and breakdown.

  5. In Vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with microwave cooking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bile acid binding potential of foods and food fractions has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Sautéing or steam cooking has been observed to significantly improve bile acid binding of green/leafy vegetables. It was hypothesized that microwave cooking could impr...

  6. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  7. Fatty Acid–Regulated Transcription Factors in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Tripathy, Sasmita; Depner, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription was first reported in the early 1990s. Several transcription factors have been identified as targets of fatty acid regulation. This regulation is achieved by direct fatty acid binding to the transcription factor or by indirect mechanisms where fatty acids regulate signaling pathways controlling the expression of transcription factors or the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, or proteolytic cleavage of the transcription factor. Although dietary fatty acids are well-established regulators of hepatic transcription factors, emerging evidence indicates that endogenously generated fatty acids are equally important in controlling transcription factors in the context of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Our first goal in this review is to provide an up-to-date examination of the molecular and metabolic bases of fatty acid regulation of key transcription factors controlling hepatic metabolism. Our second goal is to link these mechanisms to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a growing health concern in the obese population. PMID:23528177

  8. Unusual binding of ursodeoxycholic acid to ileal bile acid binding protein: role in activation of FXRα.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changming; Filipp, Fabian V; Smith, Jeffrey W

    2012-04-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, ursodiol) is used to prevent damage to the liver in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. The drug also prevents the progression of colorectal cancer and the recurrence of high-grade colonic dysplasia. However, the molecular mechanism by which UDCA elicits its beneficial effects is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether ileal bile acid binding protein (IBABP) has a role in mediating the effects of UDCA. We find that UDCA binds to a single site on IBABP and increases the affinity for major human bile acids at a second binding site. As UDCA occupies one of the bile acid binding sites on IBABP, it reduces the cooperative binding that is often observed for the major human bile acids. Furthermore, IBABP is necessary for the full activation of farnesoid X receptor α (FXRα) by bile acids, including UDCA. These observations suggest that IBABP may have a role in mediating some of the intestinal effects of UDCA.

  9. Measles virus fusion machinery activated by sialic acid binding globular domain.

    PubMed

    Talekar, Aparna; Moscona, Anne; Porotto, Matteo

    2013-12-01

    Paramyxoviruses, including the human pathogen measles virus (MV) and the avian Newcastle disease virus (NDV), enter host cells through fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane. This fusion is driven by the concerted action of two viral envelope glycoproteins: the receptor binding protein and the fusion protein (F). The MV receptor binding protein (hemagglutinin [H]) attaches to proteinaceous receptors on host cells, while the receptor binding protein of NDV (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase [HN]) interacts with sialic acid-containing receptors. The receptor-bound HN/H triggers F to undergo conformational changes that render it competent to mediate fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. The mechanism of fusion activation has been proposed to be different for sialic acid-binding viruses and proteinaceous receptor-binding viruses. We report that a chimeric protein containing the NDV HN receptor binding region and the MV H stalk domain can activate MV F to fuse, suggesting that the signal to the stalk of a protein-binding receptor binding molecule can be transmitted from a sialic acid binding domain. By engineering the NDV HN globular domain to interact with a proteinaceous receptor, the fusion activation signal was preserved. Our findings are consistent with a unified mechanism of fusion activation, at least for the Paramyxovirinae subfamily, in which the receptor binding domains of the receptor binding proteins are interchangeable and the stalk determines the specificity of F activation.

  10. A Large-Scale Assessment of Nucleic Acids Binding Site Prediction Programs

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Computational prediction of nucleic acid binding sites in proteins are necessary to disentangle functional mechanisms in most biological processes and to explore the binding mechanisms. Several strategies have been proposed, but the state-of-the-art approaches display a great diversity in i) the definition of nucleic acid binding sites; ii) the training and test datasets; iii) the algorithmic methods for the prediction strategies; iv) the performance measures and v) the distribution and availability of the prediction programs. Here we report a large-scale assessment of 19 web servers and 3 stand-alone programs on 41 datasets including more than 5000 proteins derived from 3D structures of protein-nucleic acid complexes. Well-defined binary assessment criteria (specificity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy…) are applied. We found that i) the tools have been greatly improved over the years; ii) some of the approaches suffer from theoretical defects and there is still room for sorting out the essential mechanisms of binding; iii) RNA binding and DNA binding appear to follow similar driving forces and iv) dataset bias may exist in some methods. PMID:26681179

  11. Bovine adipose triglyceride lipase is not altered and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein is increased by dietary flaxseed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this paper, we report the full length coding sequence of bovine ATGL cDNA are reported and analyze its expression in bovine tissues. Similar to human, mouse, and pig ATGL sequences, bovine ATGL has a highly conserved patatin domain that is necessary for lipolytic function in mice and humans. Thi...

  12. HUMAN LIVER FATTY ACID BINDING PROTEIN (L-FABP) T94A VARIANT ALTERS STRUCTURE, STABILITY, AND INTERACTION WITH FIBRATES

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gregory G.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-01-01

    Although the human L-FABP T94A variant arises from the most commonly occurring SNP in the entire FABP family, there is a complete lack of understanding regarding the role of this polymorphism in human disease. It has been hypothesized that the T94A substitution results in complete loss of ligand binding ability and function analogous to L-FABP gene ablation. This possibility was addressed using recombinant human WT T94T and T94A variant L-FABP and cultured primary human hepatocytes. Non-conservative replacement of the medium sized, polar, uncharged T residue by a smaller, nonpolar, aliphatic A residue at position 94 of human L-FABP significantly increased L-FABP protein α-helical structure at the expense of β-sheet and concomitantly decreased thermal stability. T94A did not alter binding affinities for PPARα agonist ligands (phytanic acid, fenofibrate, fenofibric acid). While T94A did not alter the impact of phytanic acid and only slightly altered that of fenofibrate on human L-FABP secondary structure, the active metabolite fenofibric acid altered T94A secondary structure much more than that of WT T94T L-FABP. Finally, in cultured primary human hepatocytes the T94A variant exhibited significantly reduced fibrate-mediated induction of PPARα-regulated proteins such as L-FABP, FATP5, and PPARα itself. Thus, while T94A substitution did not alter the affinity of human L-FABP for PPARα agonist ligands, it significantly altered human L-FABP structure, stability, as well as conformational and functional response to fibrate. PMID:24299557

  13. Identification, characterization and leucocyte expression of Siglec-10, a novel human sialic acid-binding receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Munday, J; Kerr, S; Ni, J; Cornish, A L; Zhang, J Q; Nicoll, G; Floyd, H; Mattei, M G; Moore, P; Liu, D; Crocker, P R

    2001-01-01

    Here we characterize Siglec-10 as a new member of the Siglec family of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins. A full-length cDNA was isolated from a human spleen library and the corresponding gene identified. Siglec-10 is predicted to contain five extracellular Ig-like domains and a cytoplasmic tail containing three putative tyrosine-based signalling motifs. Siglec-10 exhibited a high degree of sequence similarity to CD33-related Siglecs and mapped to the same region, on chromosome 19q13.3. The expressed protein was able to mediate sialic acid-dependent binding to human erythrocytes and soluble sialoglycoconjugates. Using specific antibodies, Siglec-10 was detected on subsets of human leucocytes including eosinophils, monocytes and a minor population of natural killer-like cells. The molecular properties and expression pattern suggest that Siglec-10 may function as an inhibitory receptor within the innate immune system. PMID:11284738

  14. Neurologic syndrome associated with homozygous mutation at MAG sialic acid binding site.

    PubMed

    Roda, Ricardo H; FitzGibbon, Edmond J; Boucekkine, Houda; Schindler, Alice B; Blackstone, Craig

    2016-08-01

    The MAG gene encodes myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), an abundant protein involved in axon-glial interactions and myelination during nerve regeneration. Several members of a consanguineous family with a clinical syndrome reminiscent of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and demyelinating leukodystrophy on brain MRI were recently found to harbor a homozygous missense p.Ser133Arg MAG mutation. Here, we report two brothers from a nonconsanguineous family afflicted with progressive cognitive impairment, neuropathy, ataxia, nystagmus, and gait disorder. Exome sequencing revealed the homozygous missense mutation p.Arg118His in MAG. This Arg118 residue in immunoglobulin domain 1 is critical for sialic acid binding, providing a compelling mechanistic basis for disease pathogenesis.

  15. Role of bile acids and bile acid binding agents in patients with collagenous colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ung, K; Gillberg, R; Kilander, A; Abrahamsson, H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In a retrospective study bile acid malabsorption was observed in patients with collagenous colitis.
AIMS—To study the occurrence of bile acid malabsorption and the effect of bile acid binders prospectively in patients with chronic diarrhoea and collagenous colitis.
METHODS—Over 36 months all patients referred because of chronic diarrhoea completed a diagnostic programme, including gastroscopy with duodenal biopsy, colonoscopy with biopsies, and the 75Se-homocholic acid taurine (75SeHCAT) test for bile acid malabsorption. Treatment with a bile acid binder (cholestyramine in 24, colestipol in three) was given, irrespective of the results of the 75SeHCAT test.
RESULTS—Collagenous colitis was found in 28 patients (six men, 22 women), 27 of whom had persistent symptoms and completed the programme. Four patients had had a previous cholecystectomy or a distal gastric resection. The 75SeHCAT test was abnormal in 12/27 (44%) of the collagenous colitis patients with 75SeHCAT values 0.5-9.7%, and normal in 15 patients (56%). Bile acid binding treatment was followed by a rapid, marked, or complete improvement in 21/27 (78%) of the collagenous colitis patients. Rapid improvement occurred in 11/12 (92%) of the patients with bile acid malabsorption compared with 10/15 (67%) of the patients with normal 75SeHCAT tests.
CONCLUSION—Bile acid malabsorption is common in patients with collagenous colitis and is probably an important pathophysiological factor. Because of a high response rate without serious side effects, bile acid binding treatment should be considered for collagenous colitis, particularly patients with bile acid malabsorption.


Keywords: bile acid malabsorption; collagenous colitis; diarrhoea; cholestyramine; colestipol PMID:10644309

  16. Role of bile acids and bile acid binding agents in patients with collagenous colitis.

    PubMed

    Ung, K A; Gillberg, R; Kilander, A; Abrahamsson, H

    2000-02-01

    In a retrospective study bile acid malabsorption was observed in patients with collagenous colitis. To study the occurrence of bile acid malabsorption and the effect of bile acid binders prospectively in patients with chronic diarrhoea and collagenous colitis. Over 36 months all patients referred because of chronic diarrhoea completed a diagnostic programme, including gastroscopy with duodenal biopsy, colonoscopy with biopsies, and the (75)Se-homocholic acid taurine ((75)SeHCAT) test for bile acid malabsorption. Treatment with a bile acid binder (cholestyramine in 24, colestipol in three) was given, irrespective of the results of the (75)SeHCAT test. Collagenous colitis was found in 28 patients (six men, 22 women), 27 of whom had persistent symptoms and completed the programme. Four patients had had a previous cholecystectomy or a distal gastric resection. The (75)SeHCAT test was abnormal in 12/27 (44%) of the collagenous colitis patients with (75)SeHCAT values 0.5-9.7%, and normal in 15 patients (56%). Bile acid binding treatment was followed by a rapid, marked, or complete improvement in 21/27 (78%) of the collagenous colitis patients. Rapid improvement occurred in 11/12 (92%) of the patients with bile acid malabsorption compared with 10/15 (67%) of the patients with normal (75)SeHCAT tests. Bile acid malabsorption is common in patients with collagenous colitis and is probably an important pathophysiological factor. Because of a high response rate without serious side effects, bile acid binding treatment should be considered for collagenous colitis, particularly patients with bile acid malabsorption.

  17. Correlation study between sperm concentration, hyaluronic acid-binding capacity and sperm aneuploidy in Hungarian patients.

    PubMed

    Mokánszki, Attila; Molnár, Zsuzsanna; Ujfalusi, Anikó; Balogh, Erzsébet; Bazsáné, Zsuzsa Kassai; Varga, Attila; Jakab, Attila; Oláh, Éva

    2012-12-01

    Infertile men with low sperm concentration and/or less motile spermatozoa have an increased risk of producing aneuploid spermatozoa. Selecting spermatozoa by hyaluronic acid (HA) binding may reduce genetic risks such as chromosomal rearrangements and numerical aberrations. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to evaluate the presence of aneuploidies. This study examined spermatozoa of 10 oligozoospermic, 9 asthenozoospermic, 9 oligoasthenozoospermic and 17 normozoospermic men by HA binding and FISH. Mean percentage of HA-bound spermatozoa in the normozoospermic group was 81%, which was significantly higher than in the oligozoospermic (P<0.001), asthenozoospermic (P<0.001) and oligoasthenozoospermic (P<0.001) groups. Disomy of sex chromosomes (P=0.014) and chromosome 17 (P=0.0019), diploidy (P=0.03) and estimated numerical chromosome aberrations (P=0.004) were significantly higher in the oligoasthenozoospermic group compared with the other groups. There were statistically significant relationships (P<0.001) between sperm concentration and HA binding (r=0.658), between sperm concentration and estimated numerical chromosome aberrations (r=-0.668) and between HA binding and estimated numerical chromosome aberrations (r=-0.682). HA binding and aneuploidy studies of spermatozoa in individual cases allow prediction of reproductive prognosis and provision of appropriate genetic counselling. Infertile men with normal karyotypes and low sperm concentrations and/or less motile spermatozoa have significantly increased risks of producing aneuploid (diminished mature) spermatozoa. Selecting spermatozoa by hyaluronic acid (HA) binding, based on a binding between sperm receptors for zona pellucida and HA, may reduce the potential genetic risks such as chromosomal rearrangements and numerical aberrations. In the present study we examined sperm samples of 45 men with different sperm parameters by HA-binding assay and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). Mean

  18. Human mRNA polyadenylate binding protein: evolutionary conservation of a nucleic acid binding motif.

    PubMed Central

    Grange, T; de Sa, C M; Oddos, J; Pictet, R

    1987-01-01

    We have isolated a full length cDNA (cDNA) coding for the human poly(A) binding protein. The cDNA derived 73 kd basic translation product has the same Mr, isoelectric point and peptidic map as the poly(A) binding protein. DNA sequence analysis reveals a 70,244 dalton protein. The N terminal part, highly homologous to the yeast poly(A) binding protein, is sufficient for poly(A) binding activity. This domain consists of a four-fold repeated unit of approximately 80 amino acids present in other nucleic acid binding proteins. In the C terminal part there is, as in the yeast protein, a sequence of approximately 150 amino acids, rich in proline, alanine and glutamine which together account for 48% of the residues. A 2,9 kb mRNA corresponding to this cDNA has been detected in several vertebrate cell types and in Drosophila melanogaster at every developmental stage including oogenesis. Images PMID:2885805

  19. Polymorphic Nucleic Acid Binding of Bioactive Isoquinoline Alkaloids and Their Role in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Motilal; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive alkaloids occupy an important position in applied chemistry and play an indispensable role in medicinal chemistry. Amongst them, isoquinoline alkaloids like berberine, palmatine and coralyne of protoberberine group, sanguinarine of the benzophenanthridine group, and their derivatives represent an important class of molecules for their broad range of clinical and pharmacological utility. In view of their extensive occurrence in various plant species and significantly low toxicities, prospective development and use of these alkaloids as effective anticancer agents are matters of great current interest. This review has focused on the interaction of these alkaloids with polymorphic nucleic acid structures (B-form, A-form, Z-form, HL-form, triple helical form, quadruplex form) and their topoisomerase inhibitory activity reported by several research groups using various biophysical techniques like spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, thermal melting, circular dichroism, NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, viscosity, isothermal titration calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, molecular modeling studies, and so forth, to elucidate their mode and mechanism of action for structure-activity relationships. The DNA binding of the planar sanguinarine and coralyne are found to be stronger and thermodynamically more favoured compared to the buckled structure of berberine and palmatine and correlate well with the intercalative mechanism of sanguinarine and coralyne and the partial intercalation by berberine and palmatine. Nucleic acid binding properties are also interpreted in relation to their anticancer activity. PMID:20814427

  20. DNA Methylation of Cellular Retinoic Acid-Binding Proteins in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Arellano-Ortiz, Ana L; Salcedo-Vargas, Mauricio; Vargas-Requena, Claudia L; López-Díaz, José A; De la Mora-Covarrubias, Antonio; Silva-Espinoza, Juan C; Jiménez-Vega, Florinda

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the methylation status of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein ( CRABP ) gene promoters and associated them with demographic characteristics, habits, and the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in patients with cervical cancer (CC), low and high squamous intraepithelial lesions, and no intraepithelial lesion. Women (n = 158) were selected from the Colposcopy Clinic of Sanitary Jurisdiction II in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Demographic characteristics and habit information were collected. Cervical biopsy and endocervical scraping were used to determine methylation in promoter regions by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction technique. We found hemi-methylation patterns in the promoter regions of CRABP1 and CRABP2 ; there was 28.5% hemi-methylation in CRABP1 and 7.0% in that of CRABP2 . Methylation in CRABP1 was associated with age (≥35 years, P = 0.002), family history of cancer ( P = 0.032), the presence of HPV-16 ( P = 0.013), and no alcohol intake ( P = 0.035). These epigenetic changes could be involved in the CC process, and CRABP1 has the potential to be a predictive molecular marker of retinoid therapy response.

  1. DNA Methylation of Cellular Retinoic Acid-Binding Proteins in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arellano-Ortiz, Ana L.; Salcedo-Vargas, Mauricio; Vargas-Requena, Claudia L.; López-Díaz, José A.; De la Mora-Covarrubias, Antonio; Silva-Espinoza, Juan C.; Jiménez-Vega, Florinda

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the methylation status of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) gene promoters and associated them with demographic characteristics, habits, and the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in patients with cervical cancer (CC), low and high squamous intraepithelial lesions, and no intraepithelial lesion. Women (n = 158) were selected from the Colposcopy Clinic of Sanitary Jurisdiction II in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Demographic characteristics and habit information were collected. Cervical biopsy and endocervical scraping were used to determine methylation in promoter regions by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction technique. We found hemi-methylation patterns in the promoter regions of CRABP1 and CRABP2; there was 28.5% hemi-methylation in CRABP1 and 7.0% in that of CRABP2. Methylation in CRABP1 was associated with age (≥35 years, P = 0.002), family history of cancer (P = 0.032), the presence of HPV-16 (P = 0.013), and no alcohol intake (P = 0.035). These epigenetic changes could be involved in the CC process, and CRABP1 has the potential to be a predictive molecular marker of retinoid therapy response. PMID:27867303

  2. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which oftenmore » takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.« less

  3. SNBRFinder: A Sequence-Based Hybrid Algorithm for Enhanced Prediction of Nucleic Acid-Binding Residues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jia; Sun, Jun; Liu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Protein-nucleic acid interactions are central to various fundamental biological processes. Automated methods capable of reliably identifying DNA- and RNA-binding residues in protein sequence are assuming ever-increasing importance. The majority of current algorithms rely on feature-based prediction, but their accuracy remains to be further improved. Here we propose a sequence-based hybrid algorithm SNBRFinder (Sequence-based Nucleic acid-Binding Residue Finder) by merging a feature predictor SNBRFinderF and a template predictor SNBRFinderT. SNBRFinderF was established using the support vector machine whose inputs include sequence profile and other complementary sequence descriptors, while SNBRFinderT was implemented with the sequence alignment algorithm based on profile hidden Markov models to capture the weakly homologous template of query sequence. Experimental results show that SNBRFinderF was clearly superior to the commonly used sequence profile-based predictor and SNBRFinderT can achieve comparable performance to the structure-based template methods. Leveraging the complementary relationship between these two predictors, SNBRFinder reasonably improved the performance of both DNA- and RNA-binding residue predictions. More importantly, the sequence-based hybrid prediction reached competitive performance relative to our previous structure-based counterpart. Our extensive and stringent comparisons show that SNBRFinder has obvious advantages over the existing sequence-based prediction algorithms. The value of our algorithm is highlighted by establishing an easy-to-use web server that is freely accessible at http://ibi.hzau.edu.cn/SNBRFinder.

  4. Identification of a two-component fatty acid kinase responsible for host fatty acid incorporation by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Joshua B.; Broussard, Tyler C.; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Rosch, Jason W.; Jackson, Pamela; Subramanian, Chitra; Rock, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was required to support virulence factor transcription. These data reveal the function of two conserved gene families, their essential role in the incorporation of host fatty acids by Gram-positive pathogens, and connects fatty acid kinase to the regulation of virulence factor transcription in S. aureus. PMID:25002480

  5. Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Proteins: Genomic and Non-genomic Functions and their Regulation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-Na

    Cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABPs) are high-affinity retinoic acid (RA) binding proteins that mainly reside in the cytoplasm. In mammals, this family has two members, CRABPI and II, both highly conserved during evolution. The two proteins share a very similar structure that is characteristic of a "β-clam" motif built up from10-strands. The proteins are encoded by two different genes that share a very similar genomic structure. CRABPI is widely distributed and CRABPII has restricted expression in only certain tissues. The CrabpI gene is driven by a housekeeping promoter, but can be regulated by numerous factors, including thyroid hormones and RA, which engage a specific chromatin-remodeling complex containing either TRAP220 or RIP140 as coactivator and corepressor, respectively. The chromatin-remodeling complex binds the DR4 element in the CrabpI gene promoter to activate or repress this gene in different cellular backgrounds. The CrabpII gene promoter contains a TATA-box and is rapidly activated by RA through an RA response element. Biochemical and cell culture studies carried out in vitro show the two proteins have distinct biological functions. CRABPII mainly functions to deliver RA to the nuclear RA receptors for gene regulation, although recent studies suggest that CRABPII may also be involved in other cellular events, such as RNA stability. In contrast, biochemical and cell culture studies suggest that CRABPI functions mainly in the cytoplasm to modulate intracellular RA availability/concentration and to engage other signaling components such as ERK activity. However, these functional studies remain inconclusive because knocking out one or both genes in mice does not produce definitive phenotypes. Further studies are needed to unambiguously decipher the exact physiological activities of these two proteins.

  6. Towards the elucidation of molecular determinants of cooperativity in the liver bile acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Pedò, Massimo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Ferranti, Pasquale; Molinari, Henriette; Assfalg, Michael

    2009-11-15

    Bile acid binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Liver BABPs act in parallel with ileal transporters to ensure vectorial transport of bile salts in hepatocytes and enterocytes, respectively. We describe the investigation of ligand binding to liver BABP, an essential step in the understanding of intracellular bile salt transport. Binding site occupancies were monitored in NMR titration experiments using (15)N-labelled ligand, while the relative populations of differently bound BABP forms were assessed by mass spectrometry. This site-specific information allowed the determination of intrinsic thermodynamic parameters and the identification of an extremely high cooperativity between two binding sites. Protein-observed NMR experiments revealed a global structural rearrangement which suggests an allosteric mechanism at the basis of the observed cooperativity. The view of a molecular tool capable of buffering against significant concentrations of free bile salts in a large range of solution conditions emerges from the observed pH-dependence of binding. We set to determine the molecular determinants of cooperativity by analysing the binding properties of a protein containing a mutated internal histidine. Both mass spectrometry and NMR experiments are consistent with an overall decreased binding affinity of the mutant, while the measured diffusion coefficients of ligand species reveal that the affinity loss concerns essentially one of the two binding sites. We therefore identified a mutation able to disrupt energetic communication functional to efficient binding and conclude that the buried histidine establishes contacts that stabilize the ternary complex. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes.

  8. Clinical benefit using sperm hyaluronic acid binding technique in ICSI cycles: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Beck-Fruchter, Ronit; Shalev, Eliezer; Weiss, Amir

    2016-03-01

    The human oocyte is surrounded by hyaluronic acid, which acts as a natural selector of spermatozoa. Human sperm that express hyaluronic acid receptors and bind to hyaluronic acid have normal shape, minimal DNA fragmentation and low frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies. Use of hyaluronic acid binding assays in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles to improve clinical outcomes has been studied, although none of these studies had sufficient statistical power. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, electronic databases were searched up to June 2015 to identify studies of ICSI cycles in which spermatozoa able to bind hyaluronic acid was selected. The main outcomes were fertilization rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes included cleavage rate, embryo quality, implantation rate, spontaneous abortion and live birth rate. Seven studies and 1437 cycles were included. Use of hyaluronic acid binding sperm selection technique yielded no improvement in fertilization and pregnancy rates. A meta-analysis of all available studies showed an improvement in embryo quality and implantation rate; an analysis of prospective studies only showed an improvement in embryo quality. Evidence does not support routine use of hyaluronic acid binding assays in all ICSI cycles. Identification of patients that might benefit from this technique needs further study. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

    2008-06-01

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

  10. OF TRYPANOSOMATIDS. ENDOTRANSFORMATIONS AND ABERRATIONS].

    PubMed

    Frolov, A O; Malysheva, M N; Kostygov, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Endotransformations and aberrations of the life cycle in the evolutionary history of trypanosomatids (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) are analyzed. We treat the term "endotransformations" as evolutionarily fixed changes of phases and/or developmental stages of parasites. By contrast, we treat aberrations as evolutionary unstable, periodically arising deformations of developmental phases of trypanosomatids, never leading to life cycle changes. Various examples of life cycle endotransformations and aberrations in representatives of the family Trypanosomatidae are discussed.

  11. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  12. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Lysophosphatidic Acid Binding by a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    J Fleming; J Wojciak; M Campbell

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a common product of glycerophospholipid metabolism and an important mediator of signal transduction. Aberrantly high LPA concentrations accompany multiple disease states. One potential approach for treatment of these diseases, therefore, is the therapeutic application of antibodies that recognize and bind LPA as their antigen. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of an anti-LPA antibody (LT3015) Fab fragment in its antigen-free form to 2.15 {angstrom} resolution and in complex with two LPA isotypes (14:0 and 18:2) to resolutions of 1.98 and 2.51 {angstrom}, respectively. The variable CDR (complementarity-determining region) loops at the antigen binding site adoptmore » nearly identical conformations in the free and antigen-bound crystal structures. The crystallographic models reveal that the LT3015 antibody employs both heavy- and light-chain CDR loops to create a network of eight hydrogen bonds with the glycerophosphate head group of its LPA antigen. The head group is almost completely excluded from contact with solvent, while the hydrocarbon tail is partially solvent-exposed. In general, mutation of amino acid residues at the antigen binding site disrupts LPA binding. However, the introduction of particular mutations chosen strategically on the basis of the structures can positively influence LPA binding affinity. Finally, these structures elucidate the exquisite specificity demonstrated by an anti-lipid antibody for binding a structurally simple and seemingly unconstrained target molecule.« less

  13. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  14. NMR studies reveal the role of biomembranes in modulating ligand binding and release by intracellular bile acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Pedò, Massimo; Löhr, Frank; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Assfalg, Michael; Dötsch, Volker; Molinari, Henriette

    2009-12-18

    Bile acid molecules are transferred vectorially between basolateral and apical membranes of hepatocytes and enterocytes in the context of the enterohepatic circulation, a process regulating whole body lipid homeostasis. This work addresses the role of the cytosolic lipid binding proteins in the intracellular transfer of bile acids between different membrane compartments. We present nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data describing the ternary system composed of the bile acid binding protein, bile acids, and membrane mimetic systems, such as anionic liposomes. This work provides evidence that the investigated liver bile acid binding protein undergoes association with the anionic membrane and binding-induced partial unfolding. The addition of the physiological ligand to the protein-liposome mixture is capable of modulating this interaction, shifting the equilibrium towards the free folded holo protein. An ensemble of NMR titration experiments, based on nitrogen-15 protein and ligand observation, confirm that the membrane and the ligand establish competing binding equilibria, modulating the cytoplasmic permeability of bile acids. These results support a mechanism of ligand binding and release controlled by the onset of a bile salt concentration gradient within the polarized cell. The location of a specific protein region interacting with liposomes is highlighted.

  15. Unusual binding of ursodeoxycholic acid to ileal bile acid binding protein: role in activation of FXRα[S

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Changming; Filipp, Fabian V.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, ursodiol) is used to prevent damage to the liver in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. The drug also prevents the progression of colorectal cancer and the recurrence of high-grade colonic dysplasia. However, the molecular mechanism by which UDCA elicits its beneficial effects is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether ileal bile acid binding protein (IBABP) has a role in mediating the effects of UDCA. We find that UDCA binds to a single site on IBABP and increases the affinity for major human bile acids at a second binding site. As UDCA occupies one of the bile acid binding sites on IBABP, it reduces the cooperative binding that is often observed for the major human bile acids. Furthermore, IBABP is necessary for the full activation of farnesoid X receptor α (FXRα) by bile acids, including UDCA. These observations suggest that IBABP may have a role in mediating some of the intestinal effects of UDCA. PMID:22223860

  16. Tsetse Salivary Gland Proteins 1 and 2 Are High Affinity Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins with Residual Nuclease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Caljon, Guy; Ridder, Karin De; Stijlemans, Benoît; Coosemans, Marc; Magez, Stefan; De Baetselier, Patrick; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans) saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2) display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with KD values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents. PMID:23110062

  17. Identification of a maize nucleic acid-binding protein (NBP) belonging to a family of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, W B; Walker, J C

    1992-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a nuclear-encoded chloroplast nucleic acid-binding protein (NBP) has been isolated from maize. Identified as an in vitro DNA-binding activity, NBP belongs to a family of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins which share a common domain structure and are thought to be involved in posttranscriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression. NBP contains an N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide, a highly acidic domain and a pair of ribonucleoprotein consensus sequence domains. NBP is expressed in a light-dependent, organ-specific manner which is consistent with its involvement in chloroplast biogenesis. The relationship of NBP to the other members of this protein family and their possible regulatory functions are discussed. Images PMID:1346929

  18. On the Definition of Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minghui; Wang, Guangli

    2014-12-01

    There was a groundbreaking step in the history of astronomy in 1728 when the effect of aberration was discovered by James Bradley (1693-1762). Recently, the solar acceleration, due to the variations in the aberrational effect of extragalactic sources caused by it, has been determined from VLBI observations with an uncertainty of about 0.5 mm{\\cdot}{s^{-1}}{\\cdot}{yr^{-1}} level. As a basic concept in astrometry with a nearly 300-year history, the definition of aberration, however, is still equivocal and discordant in the literature. It has been under continuing debate whether it depends on the relative motion between the observer and the observed source or only on the motion of the observer with respect to the frame of reference. In this paper, we will review the debate and the inconsistency in the definition of the aberration since the last century, and then discuss its definition in detail, which involves the discussions on the planetary aberration, the stellar aberration, the proper motion of an object during the travel time of light from the object to the observer, and the way of selecting the reference frame to express and distinguish the motions of the source and the observer. The aberration is essentially caused by the transformation between coordinate systems, and consequently quantified by the velocity of the observer with respect to the selected reference frame, independent of the motion of the source. Obviously, this nature is totally different from that of the definition given by the IAU WG NFA (Capitaine, 2007) in 2006, which is stated as, ``the apparent angular displacement of the observed position of a celestial object from its geometric position, caused by the finite velocity of light in combination with the motions of the observer and of the observed object.''

  19. Metabolic activation and nucleic acid binding of acetaminophen and related arylamine substrates by the respiratory burst of human granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Corbett, M D; Corbett, B R; Hannothiaux, M H; Quintana, S J

    1989-01-01

    Following stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate, human granulocytes were found to incorporate acetaminophen, p-phenetidine, p-aminophenol, and p-chloroaniline into cellular DNA and RNA. Phenacetin was not incorporated into nucleic acid or metabolized by such activated granulocytes. None of the substrates gave nucleic acid binding if the granulocyte cultures were not induced to undergo the respiratory burst. Additional studies on the binding of acetaminophen to DNA and RNA were made by use of both ring-14C-labeled and carbonyl-14C-labeled forms of this substrate. The finding that equivalent amounts of these two labeled acetaminophen substrates were bound to cellular DNA demonstrated that the intact acetaminophen molecule was incorporated into DNA. On the other hand, the finding that excess ring-14C-labeled acetaminophen was incorporated into cellular RNA implies partial hydrolysis of the acetaminophen substrate prior to RNA binding. Evidence was presented which strongly indicates that the nucleic acid binding of the substrates was covalent in nature. The inability of the respiratory burst to result in the binding of phenacetin to nucleic acid suggests that arylamides are not normally activated or metabolized by activated granulocytes. Acetaminophen is an exception to the recalcitrance of arylamides to such bioactivation processes because it also possesses the phenolic functional group, which, like the arylamine group, is oxidized by certain reactive oxygen species. Myeloperoxidase appears to be much more important in the binding of acetaminophen to DNA than it is in the DNA binding of arylamines in general. The role of the respiratory burst in causing the bioactivation of certain arylamines, which are not normally genotoxic via the more usual microsomal activation pathways, was extended to include certain amide substrates such as acetaminophen.

  20. The Art of Optical Aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylde, Clarissa Eileen Kenney

    Art and optics are inseparable. Though seemingly opposite disciplines, the combination of art and optics has significantly impacted both culture and science as they are now known. As history has run its course, in the sciences, arts, and their fruitful combinations, optical aberrations have proved to be a problematic hindrance to progress. In an effort to eradicate aberrations the simple beauty of these aberrational forms has been labeled as undesirable and discarded. Here, rather than approach aberrations as erroneous, these beautiful forms are elevated to be the photographic subject in a new body of work, On the Bright Side. Though many recording methods could be utilized, this work was composed on classic, medium-format, photographic film using white-light, Michelson interferometry. The resulting images are both a representation of the true light rays that interacted on the distorted mirror surfaces (data) and the artist's compositional eye for what parts of the interferogram are chosen and displayed. A detailed description of the captivating interdisciplinary procedure is documented and presented alongside the final artwork, CCD digital reference images, and deformable mirror contour maps. This alluring marriage between the arts and sciences opens up a heretofore minimally explored aspect of the inextricable art-optics connection. It additionally provides a fascinating new conversation on the importance of light and optics in photographic composition.

  1. Distortion of ultrashort pulses caused by aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Z. L.; Kovács, A. P.; Bor, Zs.

    The effect of the primary wave aberrations (spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma) on ultrashort pulses is studied by the Nijboer-Zernike theory. The results of the geometrical and the wave optical treatments are compared.

  2. Techno-functional properties and in vitro bile acid-binding capacities of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) hydrocolloids.

    PubMed

    Gannasin, Sri Puvanesvari; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2016-04-01

    Hydrocolloids were extracted from seed mucilage and the pulp fractions from red tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) mesocarp, and characterisation of their techno-functional properties and in vitro bile acid-binding capacities was performed. The seed mucilage hydrocolloids that were extracted, using either 1% citric acid (THC) or water (THW), had a good foaming capacity (32-36%), whereas the pulp hydrocolloids that were extracted, using 72% ethanol (THE) or 20mM HEPES buffer (THH), had no foaming capacity. The pulp hydrocolloid, however, possessed high oil-holding and water-holding capacities in the range of 3.3-3.6 g oil/g dry sample and 25-27 g water/g dry sample, respectively. This enabled the pulp hydrocolloid to entrap more bile acids (35-38% at a hydrocolloid concentration of 2%) in its gelatinous network in comparison to commercial oat fibre and other hydrocolloids studied. The exceptional emulsifying properties (80-96%) of both hydrocolloids suggest their potential applications as food emulsifiers and bile acid binders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chicoric acid binds to two sites and decreases the activity of the YopH bacterial virulence factor

    PubMed Central

    Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Sahu, Kamlesh K.; Gorska, Magdalena; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Wozniak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Chicoric acid (CA) is a phenolic compound present in dietary supplements with a large spectrum of biological properties reported ranging from antioxidant, to antiviral, to immunostimulatory properties. Due to the fact that chicoric acid promotes phagocytic activity and was reported as an allosteric inhibitor of the PTP1B phosphatase, we examined the effect of CA on YopH phosphatase from pathogenic bacteria, which block phagocytic processes of a host cell. We performed computational studies of chicoric acid binding to YopH as well as validation experiments with recombinant enzymes. In addition, we performed similar studies for caffeic and chlorogenic acids to compare the results. Docking experiments demonstrated that, from the tested compounds, only CA binds to both catalytic and secondary binding sites of YopH. Our experimental results showed that CA reduces activity of recombinant YopH phosphatase from Yersinia enterocolitica and human CD45 phosphatase. The inhibition caused by CA was irreversible and did not induce oxidation of catalytic cysteine. We proposed that inactivation of YopH induced by CA is involved with allosteric inhibition by interacting with essential regions responsible for ligand binding. PMID:26735581

  4. Chicoric acid binds to two sites and decreases the activity of the YopH bacterial virulence factor.

    PubMed

    Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Sahu, Kamlesh K; Gorska, Magdalena; Tuszynski, Jack A; Wozniak, Michal

    2016-01-19

    Chicoric acid (CA) is a phenolic compound present in dietary supplements with a large spectrum of biological properties reported ranging from antioxidant, to antiviral, to immunostimulatory properties. Due to the fact that chicoric acid promotes phagocytic activity and was reported as an allosteric inhibitor of the PTP1B phosphatase, we examined the effect of CA on YopH phosphatase from pathogenic bacteria, which block phagocytic processes of a host cell. We performed computational studies of chicoric acid binding to YopH as well as validation experiments with recombinant enzymes. In addition, we performed similar studies for caffeic and chlorogenic acids to compare the results. Docking experiments demonstrated that, from the tested compounds, only CA binds to both catalytic and secondary binding sites of YopH. Our experimental results showed that CA reduces activity of recombinant YopH phosphatase from Yersinia enterocolitica and human CD45 phosphatase. The inhibition caused by CA was irreversible and did not induce oxidation of catalytic cysteine. We proposed that inactivation of YopH induced by CA is involved with allosteric inhibition by interacting with essential regions responsible for ligand binding.

  5. Molecular interaction of Siglecs (sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins) with sialylated ligands on Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Thomas; Erdmann, Hanna; Fleischer, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is transmitted by blood-sucking insect vectors. After transmission, parasites circulate in the blood as trypomastigotes and invade a variety of cells to multiply intracellularly as amastigotes. The acute phase triggers an immune response that restricts the dissemination and proliferation of parasites. However, parasites are able to persist in different tissues for decades causing the pathology of Chagas' disease. T. cruzi expresses a trans-sialidase (TS). This unique enzyme transfers sialic acid from host glycoconjugates to mucin-like molecules on the parasite and is supposed to be a major virulence factor. TS and sialylated structures were implicated in the persistence of parasites. We discuss here the recent findings on the function of sialylated structures on the surface of T. cruzi with a special emphasis on their property to interact with sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins, which may allow the parasite to modulate the immune system of the host. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Common Variants of the Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene Influence the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in Spanish Population

    PubMed Central

    Mansego, Maria Luisa; Martínez, Fernando; Martínez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Zabena, Carina; Rojo, Gemma; Morcillo, Sonsoles; Soriguer, Federico; Martín-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Redon, Josep; Chaves, Felipe Javier

    2012-01-01

    Summary The main objective was to evaluate the association between SNPs and haplotypes of the FABP1-4 genes and type 2 diabetes, as well as its interaction with fat intake, in one general Spanish population. The association was replicated in a second population in which HOMA index was also evaluated. Methods 1217 unrelated individuals were selected from a population-based study [Hortega study: 605 women; mean age 54 y; 7.8% with type 2 diabetes]. The replication population included 805 subjects from Segovia, a neighboring region of Spain (446 females; mean age 52 y; 10.3% with type 2 diabetes). DM2 mellitus was defined in a similar way in both studies. Fifteen SNPs previously associated with metabolic traits or with potential influence in the gene expression within the FABP1-4 genes were genotyped with SNPlex and tested. Age, sex and BMI were used as covariates in the logistic regression model. Results One polymorphism (rs2197076) and two haplotypes of the FABP-1 showed a strong association with the risk of DM2 in the original population. This association was further confirmed in the second population as well as in the pooled sample. None of the other analyzed variants in FABP2, FABP3 and FABP4 genes were associated. There was not a formal interaction between rs2197076 and fat intake. A significant association between the rs2197076 and the haplotypes of the FABP1 and HOMA-IR was also present in the replication population. Conclusions The study supports the role of common variants of the FABP-1 gene in the development of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians. PMID:22396741

  7. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) genes polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Raza, Syed Tasleem; Fatima, Jalees; Ahmed, Faisal; Abbas, Shania; Zaidi, Zeashan Haider; Singh, Seema; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is growing in an epidemic manner across the world with an expected doubling of the incidence to millions of affected individuals in the last decades. At present, adequate data are not available regarding the ACE and FABP2 polymorphisms and their susceptibility with T2DM cases in the North Indian population. Thus we conceived the need for further study of ACE (I/D) and FABP2 (Ala54Thr) genes polymorphism and its susceptibility to T2DM in the North Indian population. In this study, a total of 300 subjects (including 190 T2DM cases and 110 controls) participated. ACE and FABP2 gene polymorphisms in the cases and controls were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequencies of ACE I/I, I/D and D/D genotypes in T2DM cases and controls were 28.73%, 55.17%, 16.09% and 13.63%, 57.95%, 28.40%, respectively. The frequencies of FABP2 Ala54Ala, Ala54Thr and Thr54Thr in T2DM cases were 18.39%, 66.66%, 14.94% and 22.72%, 61.36%, 15.90% in controls, respectively. ACE I/I genotype was significantly more frequent in cases as compared to controls (p = 0.003, χ(2) = 9.13). It appears that the ACE I/I genotype frequency was significantly higher in the T2DM cases as compared to the controls. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Performance of a semi-quantitative whole blood test for human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP).

    PubMed

    Hiura, Masahito; Nakajima, Osamu; Mori, Toshizumi; Kitano, Katsuya

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of visually reading the whole blood Rapicheck H-FABP panel test using the quantitative plasma H-FABP concentration as the reference. Consecutive patients with chest pain (n = 237) who were suspected of having acute myocardial infarction were recruited. The appearance of an evident test line within 5 min was given a grade of +3 (strongly positive), appearance within 15 min +2 (moderately positive) and the appearance of a weak test line within 15 min +1 (weakly positive). The concordance rates were 91.8% for positive, 70.1% for negative and 80.2% for overall. Plasma H-FABP concentrations were above the cut-off value for 9.2% of negative (0) results. Fifty percent of weakly positive (+1) and 25.0% of moderately positive (+2) results had H-FABP concentrations lower than the cut-off value. All of the strongly positive (+3) were above the cut-off value. These results suggested that the false-positive and false-negative results of Rapicheck H-FABP were caused by over or underestimation in visual reading when the plasma H-FABP concentration was near the cut-off concentration. Low accuracy of visual reading of Rapicheck H-FABP was due to poor estimation by manual reading around the cut-off value.

  9. Value of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) for emergency department patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Banu, Karakus Yilmaz; Niyazi, Ozüçelik Doğaç; Erdem, Cevik; Dpekçi Afşin, Doğan Hatice; Ozlem, Uzun; Yasemin, Celik; Afsin, Ipekci

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is testing the value of H-FABP in the early diagnosis of ACS alone or with routinely used biomarkers such as myoglobin, CK-MB, and cTn I in patients who admitted to emergency department (ED) with complaint of chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndrome. This prospective and cross-sectional study was performed at the Emergency Department of University hospital between June 2009 and September 2010. Patients who were admitted with chest pain within first 48 hours and suspected ACS were enrolled to the study. Blood samples were taken for CK-MB, myoglobin, cTnI and H-FABP The patients were divided into two groups (ACS and non ACS). Statistical analyse were used for relation of biomarkers with diagnosis of ACS. A 66 patients were included to the study. H-FAPB values were positive in 15.2% patients. When H-FABP was added to routinely used biomarkers in the diagnosis of ACS, increasing was observed in all sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values. However, this increase was not statistically significant. H-FABP did not provide any significant change in early diagnosis and exclusion of ACS diagnosis when used either alone or combination with routinely used biomarkers.

  10. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein is a sensitive biomarker for early AMI detection in troponin negative patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Agnello, Luisa; Bivona, Giulia; Novo, Giuseppina; Scazzone, Concetta; Muratore, Roberto; Levantino, Piero; Bellia, Chiara; Lo Sasso, Bruna; Ciaccio, Marcello

    2017-10-01

    Early detecting AMI in individuals presenting to the ED with chest pain continues to be a challenge. cTn is the gold standard for AMI diagnosis but early presenters (<1 hours from symptom onset) maybe cTn negative on admission. We analysed the diagnostic value of h-FABP and hs-TnI in patients presenting to ED with chest pain and no cTnI elevations. 28 AMI and 28 no-AMI individuals both presented to ED within one hour from pain onset were included. Blood donors were analysed for h-FABP cut-off identification. Among AMI patients, 55% were positive for h-FABP and 34.6% were positive for hs-TnI (p = .015), thus 21% were positive only for h-FABP. The diagnostic accuracy was assessed by ROC curve. h-FABP showed a higher sensitivity but lower specificity than hs-TnI. In our study, the frequency of h-FABP positivity among AMI patients was higher than that of hs-TnI, which would have missed six of them; however, hs-TnI AUC was superior to that of h-FABP. These preliminary findings might confirm that h-FABP may be a good candidate for AMI rule-in/rule-out within the ED context.

  11. Association between Q192R paraoxonase 1 polymorphism and serumadipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) levels in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Orta-García, Sandra T; Domínguez-Cortinas, Gabriela; Jiménez-Avalos, Jorge A; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the genetic effects of PON1 Q192R polymorphism on serum FABP4 levels in Mexican women. PON1 Q192R polymorphism was genotyped using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay and serum FABP4 concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The distribution of genotype frequencies in the assessed women (PON1 Q192R polymorphism) was QQ = 20%, QR = 48% and RR = 32%. Significantly higher serum FABP4 levels were found in women with genotype QR/RR (20.6 ± 2.20 ng/mL), when compared with the levels found in the QQ group (12.8 ± 1.70 ng/mL) (p = .004). After, the odds ratio (OR) was calculated by binomial logistic regression analysis and a significantly higher OR was found in the QR/RR group when compared with the QQ group (OR = 3.45; 95% CI = 1.80-16.50; p < .05). The results support an association between 192R-allele of the PON1 polymorphism (Q192R) and increased serum FABP4 levels (suggested as an early biomarker of CVDs risk) in assessed Mexican women.

  12. Severity of soybean meal induced distal intestinal inflammation, enterocyte proliferation rate, and fatty acid binding protein (Fabp2) staining differ between strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complete replacement of fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fishes often causes reduced growth and can negatively affect health. Salmonids fed diets containing full fat or defatted soybean meal develop dose dependent inflammation in the distal intestine (DI). Little is known about the sensitivity of d...

  13. Mask-induced aberration in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Sato, Takashi; Inanami, Ryoichi; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

    2009-04-01

    We estimated aberrations using Zernike sensitivity analysis. We found the difference of the tolerated aberration with line direction for illumination. The tolerated aberration of perpendicular line for illumination is much smaller than that of parallel line. We consider this difference to be attributable to the mask 3D effect. We call it mask-induced aberration. In the case of the perpendicular line for illumination, there was a difference in CD between right line and left line without aberration. In this report, we discuss the possibility of pattern formation in NA 0.25 generation EUV lithography tool. In perpendicular pattern for EUV light, the dominant part of aberration is mask-induced aberration. In EUV lithography, pattern correction based on the mask topography effect will be more important.

  14. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  15. Local sequence information in cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I: specific residue roles in beta-turns.

    PubMed

    Rotondi, Kenneth S; Gierasch, Lila M

    2003-01-01

    We have recently shown that two of the beta-turns (III and IV) in the ten-stranded, beta-clam protein, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I (CRABP I), are favored in short peptide fragments, arguing that they are encoded by local interactions (K. S. Rotondi and L. M. Gierasch, Biochemistry, 2003, Vol. 42, pp. 7976-7985). In this paper we examine these turns in greater detail to dissect the specific local interactions responsible for their observed native conformational biases. Conformations of peptides corresponding to the turn III and IV fragments were examined under conditions designed to selectively disrupt stabilizing interactions, using pH variation, chaotrope addition, or mutagenesis to probe specific side-chain influences. We find that steric constraints imposed by excluded volume effects between near neighbor residues (i,i+2), favorable polar (i,i+2) interactions, and steric permissiveness of glycines are the principal factors accounting for the observed native bias in these turns. Longer-range stabilizing interactions across the beta-turns do not appear to play a significant role in turn stability in these short peptides, in contrast to their importance in hairpins. Additionally, our data add to a growing number of examples of the 3:5 type I turn with a beta-bulge as a class of turns with high propensity to form locally defined structure. Current work is directed at the interplay between the local sequence information in the turns and more long-range influences in the mechanism of folding of this predominantly beta-sheet protein. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Single-Stranded Nucleic Acids Bind to the Tetramer Interface of SAMHD1 and Prevent Formation of the Catalytic Homotetramer.

    PubMed

    Seamon, Kyle J; Bumpus, Namandjé N; Stivers, James T

    2016-11-08

    Sterile alpha motif and HD domain protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a unique enzyme that plays important roles in nucleic acid metabolism, viral restriction, and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Although much attention has been focused on its dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity in viral restriction and disease, SAMHD1 also binds to single-stranded RNA and DNA. Here we utilize a UV cross-linking method using 5-bromodeoxyuridine-substituted oligonucleotides coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify the binding site for single-stranded nucleic acids (ssNAs) on SAMHD1. Mapping cross-linked amino acids on the surface of existing crystal structures demonstrated that the ssNA binding site lies largely along the dimer-dimer interface, sterically blocking the formation of the homotetramer required for dNTPase activity. Surprisingly, the disordered C-terminus of SAMHD1 (residues 583-626) was also implicated in ssNA binding. An interaction between this region and ssNA was confirmed in binding studies using the purified SAMHD1 583-626 peptide. Despite a recent report that SAMHD1 possesses polyribonucleotide phosphorylase activity, we did not detect any such activity in the presence of inorganic phosphate, indicating that nucleic acid binding is unrelated to this proposed activity. These data suggest an antagonistic regulatory mechanism in which the mutually exclusive oligomeric state requirements for ssNA binding and dNTP hydrolase activity modulate these two functions of SAMHD1 within the cell.

  17. Regulation of B Cell Functions by the Sialic Acid-Binding Receptors Siglec-G and CD22

    PubMed Central

    Jellusova, Julia; Nitschke, Lars

    2011-01-01

    B cell antigen receptor (BCR) engagement can lead to many different physiologic outcomes. To achieve an appropriate response, the BCR signal is interpreted in the context of other stimuli and several additional receptors on the B cell surface participate in the modulation of the signal. Two members of the Siglec (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin) family, CD22 and Siglec-G have been shown to inhibit the BCR signal. Recent findings indicate that the ability of these two receptors to bind sialic acids might be important to induce tolerance to self-antigens. Sialylated glycans are usually absent on microbes but abundant in higher vertebrates and might therefore provide an important tolerogenic signal. Since the expression of the specific ligands for Siglec-G and CD22 is tightly regulated and since Siglecs are not only able to bind their ligands in trans but also on the same cell surface this might provide additional mechanisms to control the BCR signal. Although both Siglec-G and CD22 are expressed on B cells and are able to inhibit BCR mediated signaling, they also show unique biological functions. While CD22 is the dominant regulator of calcium signaling on conventional B2 cells and also seems to play a role on marginal zone B cells, Siglec-G exerts its function mainly on B1 cells and influences their lifespan and antibody production. Both Siglec-G and CD22 have also recently been linked to toll-like receptor signaling and may provide a link in the regulation of the adaptive and innate immune response of B cells. PMID:22566885

  18. Regulation of B cell functions by the sialic acid-binding receptors siglec-G and CD22.

    PubMed

    Jellusova, Julia; Nitschke, Lars

    2011-01-01

    B cell antigen receptor (BCR) engagement can lead to many different physiologic outcomes. To achieve an appropriate response, the BCR signal is interpreted in the context of other stimuli and several additional receptors on the B cell surface participate in the modulation of the signal. Two members of the Siglec (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin) family, CD22 and Siglec-G have been shown to inhibit the BCR signal. Recent findings indicate that the ability of these two receptors to bind sialic acids might be important to induce tolerance to self-antigens. Sialylated glycans are usually absent on microbes but abundant in higher vertebrates and might therefore provide an important tolerogenic signal. Since the expression of the specific ligands for Siglec-G and CD22 is tightly regulated and since Siglecs are not only able to bind their ligands in trans but also on the same cell surface this might provide additional mechanisms to control the BCR signal. Although both Siglec-G and CD22 are expressed on B cells and are able to inhibit BCR mediated signaling, they also show unique biological functions. While CD22 is the dominant regulator of calcium signaling on conventional B2 cells and also seems to play a role on marginal zone B cells, Siglec-G exerts its function mainly on B1 cells and influences their lifespan and antibody production. Both Siglec-G and CD22 have also recently been linked to toll-like receptor signaling and may provide a link in the regulation of the adaptive and innate immune response of B cells.

  19. A Repetitive DNA Element Regulates Expression of the Helicobacter pylori Sialic Acid Binding Adhesin by a Rheostat-like Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Vallström, Anna; Olofsson, Annelie; Öhman, Carina; Rakhimova, Lena; Borén, Thomas; Engstrand, Lars; Brännström, Kristoffer; Arnqvist, Anna

    2014-01-01

    During persistent infection, optimal expression of bacterial factors is required to match the ever-changing host environment. The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has a large set of simple sequence repeats (SSR), which constitute contingency loci. Through a slipped strand mispairing mechanism, the SSRs generate heterogeneous populations that facilitate adaptation. Here, we present a model that explains, in molecular terms, how an intergenically located T-tract, via slipped strand mispairing, operates with a rheostat-like function, to fine-tune activity of the promoter that drives expression of the sialic acid binding adhesin, SabA. Using T-tract variants, in an isogenic strain background, we show that the length of the T-tract generates multiphasic output from the sabA promoter. Consequently, this alters the H. pylori binding to sialyl-Lewis x receptors on gastric mucosa. Fragment length analysis of post-infection isolated clones shows that the T-tract length is a highly variable feature in H. pylori. This mirrors the host-pathogen interplay, where the bacterium generates a set of clones from which the best-fit phenotypes are selected in the host. In silico and functional in vitro analyzes revealed that the length of the T-tract affects the local DNA structure and thereby binding of the RNA polymerase, through shifting of the axial alignment between the core promoter and UP-like elements. We identified additional genes in H. pylori, with T- or A-tracts positioned similar to that of sabA, and show that variations in the tract length likewise acted as rheostats to modulate cognate promoter output. Thus, we propose that this generally applicable mechanism, mediated by promoter-proximal SSRs, provides an alternative mechanism for transcriptional regulation in bacteria, such as H. pylori, which possesses a limited repertoire of classical trans-acting regulatory factors. PMID:24991812

  20. Fatty Acid-Mediated Inhibition of Metal Binding to the Multi-Metal Site on Serum Albumin: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Blindauer, Claudia A; Khazaipoul, Siavash; Yu, Ruitao; Stewart, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the major protein in blood plasma and is responsible for circulatory transport of a range of small molecules including fatty acids, metal ions and drugs. We previously identified the major plasma Zn2+ transport site on HSA and revealed that fatty-acid binding (at a distinct site called the FA2 site) and Zn2+ binding are interdependent via an allosteric mechanism. Since binding affinities of long-chain fatty acids exceed those of plasma Zn2+, this means that under certain circumstances the binding of fatty acid molecules to HSA is likely to diminish HSA Zn2+-binding, and hence affects the control of circulatory and cellular Zn2+ dynamics. This relationship between circulatory fatty acid and Zn2+ dynamics is likely to have important physiological and pathological implications, especially since it has been recognised that Zn2+ acts as a signalling agent in many cell types. Fatty acid levels in the blood are dynamic, but most importantly, chronic elevation of plasma fatty acid levels is associated with some metabolic disorders and disease states - including myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. In this article, we briefly review the metal-binding properties of albumin and highlight the importance of their interplay with fatty acid binding. We also consider the impact of this dynamic link upon levels and speciation of plasma Zn2+, its effect upon cellular Zn2+ homeostasis and its relevance to cardiovascular and circulatory processes in health and disease.

  1. RBscore&NBench: a high-level web server for nucleic acid binding residues prediction with a large-scale benchmarking database.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2016-07-08

    RBscore&NBench combines a web server, RBscore and a database, NBench. RBscore predicts RNA-/DNA-binding residues in proteins and visualizes the prediction scores and features on protein structures. The scoring scheme of RBscore directly links feature values to nucleic acid binding probabilities and illustrates the nucleic acid binding energy funnel on the protein surface. To avoid dataset, binding site definition and assessment metric biases, we compared RBscore with 18 web servers and 3 stand-alone programs on 41 datasets, which demonstrated the high and stable accuracy of RBscore. A comprehensive comparison led us to develop a benchmark database named NBench. The web server is available on: http://ahsoka.u-strasbg.fr/rbscorenbench/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2013-12-01

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New insights into the molecular mechanism of intestinal fatty acid absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tony Y; Liu, Min; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fat is one of the most important energy sources of all the nutrients. Fatty acids, stored as triacylglycerols (also called triglycerides) in the body, are an important reservoir of stored energy and derived primarily from animal fats and vegetable oils. Although the molecular mechanisms for the transport of water-insoluble amphipathic fatty acids across cell membranes have been debated for many years, it is now believed that the dominant means for intestinal fatty acid uptake is via membrane-associated fatty acid-binding proteins, that is, fatty acid transporters on the apical membrane of enterocytes. These findings indicate that intestinal fatty acid absorption is a multistep process that is regulated by multiple genes at the enterocyte level, and intestinal fatty acid absorption efficiency could be determined by factors influencing intraluminal fatty acid molecules across the brush border membrane of enterocytes. To facilitate research on intestinal, hepatic and plasma triacylglycerol metabolism, it is imperative to establish standard protocols for precisely and accurately measuring the efficiency of intestinal fatty acid absorption in humans and animal models. In this review, we will discuss the chemical structure and nomenclature of fatty acids and summarize recent progress in investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the intestinal absorption of fatty acids, with a particular emphasis on the physical chemistry of intestinal lipids and the molecular physiology of intestinal fatty acid transporters. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of intestinal fatty acid absorption should lead to novel approaches to the treatment and the prevention of fatty acid-related metabolic diseases that are prevalent worldwide. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. New insights into the molecular mechanism of intestinal fatty acid absorption

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tony Y.; Liu, Min; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fat is the most important energy source of all the nutrients. Fatty acids, stored as triacylglycerols in the body, are an important reservoir of stored energy and derive primarily from animal fats and vegetable oils. Design Although the molecular mechanisms for the transport of water-insoluble amphipathic fatty acids across cell membranes have been debated for many years, it is now believed that the dominant means for intestinal fatty acid uptake is via membrane-associated fatty acid-binding proteins, i.e., fatty acid transporters on the apical membrane of enterocytes. Results These findings indicate that intestinal fatty acid absorption is a multistep process that is regulated by multiple genes at the enterocyte level, and intestinal fatty acid absorption efficiency could be determined by factors influencing intraluminal fatty acid molecules across the brush border membrane of enterocytes. To facilitate research on intestinal, hepatic and plasma triacylglycerol metabolism, it is imperative to establish standard protocols for precisely and accurately measuring the efficiency of intestinal fatty acid absorption in humans and animal models. In this review, we will discuss the chemical structure and nomenclature of fatty acids and summarize recent progress in investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the intestinal absorption of fatty acids, with a particular emphasis on the physical-chemistry of intestinal lipids and the molecular physiology of intestinal fatty acid transporters. Conclusions A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of intestinal fatty acid absorption should lead to novel approaches to the treatment and the prevention of fatty acid-related metabolic diseases that are prevalent worldwide. PMID:24102389

  5. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  6. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating

  7. Production of Medium Chain Fatty Acids by Yarrowia lipolytica: Combining Molecular Design and TALEN to Engineer the Fatty Acid Synthase.

    PubMed

    Rigouin, Coraline; Gueroult, Marc; Croux, Christian; Dubois, Gwendoline; Borsenberger, Vinciane; Barbe, Sophie; Marty, Alain; Daboussi, Fayza; André, Isabelle; Bordes, Florence

    2017-10-20

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising organism for the production of lipids of biotechnological interest and particularly for biofuel. In this study, we engineered the key enzyme involved in lipid biosynthesis, the giant multifunctional fatty acid synthase (FAS), to shorten chain length of the synthesized fatty acids. Taking as starting point that the ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain of Yarrowia lipolytica FAS is directly involved in chain length specificity, we used molecular modeling to investigate molecular recognition of palmitic acid (C16 fatty acid) by the KS. This enabled to point out the key role of an isoleucine residue, I1220, from the fatty acid binding site, which could be targeted by mutagenesis. To address this challenge, TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases)-based genome editing technology was applied for the first time to Yarrowia lipolytica and proved to be very efficient for inducing targeted genome modifications. Among the generated FAS mutants, those having a bulky aromatic amino acid residue in place of the native isoleucine at position 1220 led to a significant increase of myristic acid (C14) production compared to parental wild-type KS. Particularly, the best performing mutant, I1220W, accumulates C14 at a level of 11.6% total fatty acids. Overall, this work illustrates how a combination of molecular modeling and genome-editing technology can offer novel opportunities to rationally engineer complex systems for synthetic biology.

  8. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  9. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  10. Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    High-order monochromatic aberrations could potentially influence vision-dependent refractive development in a variety of ways. As a first step in understanding the effects of wave aberration on refractive development, we characterized the maturational changes that take place in the high-order aberrations of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations of infant and adolescent animals and measured the longitudinal changes in the high-order aberrations of infant monkeys during the early period when emmetropization takes place. Our main findings were that (1) adolescent monkey eyes have excellent optical quality, exhibiting total RMS errors that were slightly better than those for adult human eyes that have the same numerical aperture and (2) shortly after birth, infant rhesus monkeys exhibited relatively larger magnitudes of high-order aberrations predominately spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil, which decreased rapidly to assume adolescent values by about 200 days of age. The results demonstrate that rhesus monkey eyes are a good model for studying the contribution of individual ocular components to the eye’s overall aberration structure, the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in optical quality that occur during early ocular development, and the effects of high-order aberrations on ocular growth and emmetropization. PMID:16750549

  11. A Thermoacidophile-Specific Protein Family, DUF3211, Functions as a Fatty Acid Carrier with Novel Binding Mode

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Takuya; Sawano, Yoriko; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Hatano, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    STK_08120 is a member of the thermoacidophile-specific DUF3211 protein family from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7. Its molecular function remains obscure, and sequence similarities for obtaining functional remarks are not available. In this study, the crystal structure of STK_08120 was determined at 1.79-Å resolution to predict its probable function using structure similarity searches. The structure adopts an α/β structure of a helix-grip fold, which is found in the START domain proteins with cavities for hydrophobic substrates or ligands. The detailed structural features implied that fatty acids are the primary ligand candidates for STK_08120, and binding assays revealed that the protein bound long-chain saturated fatty acids (>C14) and their trans-unsaturated types with an affinity equal to that for major fatty acid binding proteins in mammals and plants. Moreover, the structure of an STK_08120-myristic acid complex revealed a unique binding mode among fatty acid binding proteins. These results suggest that the thermoacidophile-specific protein family DUF3211 functions as a fatty acid carrier with a novel binding mode. PMID:23836863

  12. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induce PPAR α -Regulated Fatty Acid β -Oxidative Genes: Synergistic Roles of L-FABP and Glucose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Petrescu, Anca D; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    While TOFA (acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor) and C75 (fatty acid synthase inhibitor) prevent lipid accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, the mechanism of action is not simply accounted for by inhibition of the enzymes alone. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a mediator of long chain fatty acid signaling to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- α (PPAR α ) in the nucleus, was found to bind TOFA and its activated CoA thioester, TOFyl-CoA, with high affinity while binding C75 and C75-CoA with lower affinity. Binding of TOFA and C75-CoA significantly altered L-FABP secondary structure. High (20 mM) but not physiological (6 mM) glucose conferred on both TOFA and C75 the ability to induce PPAR α transcription of the fatty acid β -oxidative enzymes CPT1A, CPT2, and ACOX1 in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type (WT) mice. However, L-FABP gene ablation abolished the effects of TOFA and C75 in the context of high glucose. These effects were not associated with an increased cellular level of unesterified fatty acids but rather by increased intracellular glucose. These findings suggested that L-FABP may function as an intracellular fatty acid synthesis inhibitor binding protein facilitating TOFA and C75-mediated induction of PPAR α in the context of high glucose at levels similar to those in uncontrolled diabetes.

  13. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induce PPARα-Regulated Fatty Acid β-Oxidative Genes: Synergistic Roles of L-FABP and Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L.; Martin, Gregory G.; Petrescu, Anca D.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    While TOFA (acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor) and C75 (fatty acid synthase inhibitor) prevent lipid accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, the mechanism of action is not simply accounted for by inhibition of the enzymes alone. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a mediator of long chain fatty acid signaling to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) in the nucleus, was found to bind TOFA and its activated CoA thioester, TOFyl-CoA, with high affinity while binding C75 and C75-CoA with lower affinity. Binding of TOFA and C75-CoA significantly altered L-FABP secondary structure. High (20 mM) but not physiological (6 mM) glucose conferred on both TOFA and C75 the ability to induce PPARα transcription of the fatty acid β-oxidative enzymes CPT1A, CPT2, and ACOX1 in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type (WT) mice. However, L-FABP gene ablation abolished the effects of TOFA and C75 in the context of high glucose. These effects were not associated with an increased cellular level of unesterified fatty acids but rather by increased intracellular glucose. These findings suggested that L-FABP may function as an intracellular fatty acid synthesis inhibitor binding protein facilitating TOFA and C75-mediated induction of PPARα in the context of high glucose at levels similar to those in uncontrolled diabetes. PMID:23533380

  14. Harmonic oscillator states in aberration optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    The states of the three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator classify optical aberrations of axis-symmetric systems due to the isomorphism between the two mathematical structures. Cartesian quanta and angular momentum classifications have their corresponding aberration classifications. The operation of concatenation of optical elements introduces a new operation between harmonic oscillator states.

  15. Rooting Out Aberrant Behavior in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokalis, Jerry, Jr.; Paquin, Dave

    1989-01-01

    Discusses aberrant, or disruptive, behavior in an industrial/business, classroom-based, instructor-led training setting. Three examples of aberrant behavior are described, typical case studies are provided for each, and preventive (long-term) and corrective (on-the-spot) strategies for dealing with the problems are discussed. (LRW)

  16. Effect of monochromatic aberrations on photorefractive patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Melanie C. W.; Bobier, W. R.; Roorda, A.

    1995-08-01

    Photorefractive methods have become popular in the measurement of refractive and accommodative states of infants and children owing to their photographic nature and rapid speed of measurement. As in the case of any method that measures the refractive state of the human eye, monochromatic aberrations will reduce the accuracy of the measurement. Monochromatic aberrations cannot be as easily predicted or controlled as chromatic aberrations during the measurement, and accordingly they will introduce measurement errors. This study defines this error or uncertainty by extending the existing paraxial optical analyses of coaxial and eccentric photorefraction. This new optical analysis predicts that, for the amounts of spherical aberration (SA) reported for the human eye, there will be a significant degree of measurement uncertainty introduced for all photorefractive methods. The dioptric amount of this uncertainty may exceed the maximum amount of SA present in the eye. The calculated effects on photorefractive measurement of a real eye with a mixture of spherical aberration and coma are shown to be significant. The ability, developed here, to predict photorefractive patterns corresponding to different amounts and types of monochromatic aberration may in the future lead to an extension of photorefractive methods to the dual measurement of refractive states and aberrations of individual eyes. aberration, retinal image quality,

  17. Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty liver disease that is not related to heavy alcohol use. There are two kinds: Simple fatty ... disease? Alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to heavy alcohol use. Your liver breaks down most of ...

  18. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  19. In vivo and in vitro binding of fatty acids to genetic variants of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Kragh-Hansen, U; Nielsen, H; Pedersen, A O

    1995-01-01

    The effect of genetic variation on the fatty-acid binding properties of human serum albumin was studied by two methods involving the use of sequenced albumin variants isolated from bisalbuminaemic persons. First, the amount of total fatty acid and of several individuals fatty acids bound to eighteen different variants and to their normal counterpart (Alb A) were determined by a gas-chromatographic micromethod. Pronounced effects on total fatty acid binding were found for the glycosylated variants Alb Redhill (modified in domain II) and Alb Casebrook (domain III) in which cases a 1.7- and 8.6-fold increment, respectively, was found. By contrast, Alb Malm0 (glycosylated in domain I) carried the same amount of fatty acid as Alb A. The fatty acid loads on three chain-termination variants were normal. Finally, eight albumins with single amino-acid substitutions bound normal amounts of fatty acid, whereas one bound increased (1.7-fold) and three albumins bound diminished amounts (0.5-0.6-fold). Information on nineteen individual fatty acids was also obtained. It was possible, based on the type of changes in their relative amounts, to group the fatty acids as follows: (a) = C6:0 - C14:0, (b) = C15:0 - C18:0, (c) = C16:1 - C18:1, and (d) a group composed of essential and conditionally essential fatty acids. For nine variants, in most cases modified in domain III, large changes in one or more of these groups were observed. The changes were not related to any changes in total fatty acid load. Second, the binding of laurate, as a representative of the group (a) fatty acids, to delipidated albumin preparations was studied at pH 7.4 by a kinetic dialysis technique. The first stoichiometric association constant for binding to Alb Redhill (0.7-fold) and Alb Casebrook (0.6-fold) was diminished as compared with binding to their corresponding Alb A, whereas binding to one chain-termination variant and three single amino-acid substitutions were all unaffected by the mutation.

  20. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis, ascites, choline deficiency, cirrhosis, drug-induced fatty liver, edema, encephalopathy, glycogen storage disorder, gynecomastia, hepatic steatosis, hepatomegaly, hereditary fructose intolerance, homocystinuria, hyperlipidemia, ...

  1. [Monochromatic aberration in accommodation. Dynamic wavefront analysis].

    PubMed

    Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J

    2011-06-01

    Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement

  2. Iteration of ultrasound aberration correction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maasoey, Svein-Erik; Angelsen, Bjoern; Varslot, Trond

    2004-05-01

    Aberration in ultrasound medical imaging is usually modeled by time-delay and amplitude variations concentrated on the transmitting/receiving array. This filter process is here denoted a TDA filter. The TDA filter is an approximation to the physical aberration process, which occurs over an extended part of the human body wall. Estimation of the TDA filter, and performing correction on transmit and receive, has proven difficult. It has yet to be shown that this method works adequately for severe aberration. Estimation of the TDA filter can be iterated by retransmitting a corrected signal and re-estimate until a convergence criterion is fulfilled (adaptive imaging). Two methods for estimating time-delay and amplitude variations in receive signals from random scatterers have been developed. One method correlates each element signal with a reference signal. The other method use eigenvalue decomposition of the receive cross-spectrum matrix, based upon a receive energy-maximizing criterion. Simulations of iterating aberration correction with a TDA filter have been investigated to study its convergence properties. A weak and strong human-body wall model generated aberration. Both emulated the human abdominal wall. Results after iteration improve aberration correction substantially, and both estimation methods converge, even for the case of strong aberration.

  3. Endogenous fatty acids in olfactory hairs influence pheromone binding protein structure and function in Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Nardella, Jason; Terrado, Mailyn; Honson, Nicolette S; Plettner, Erika

    2015-08-01

    The gypsy moth utilizes a pheromone, (7R,8S)-2-methyl-7,8-epoxyoctadecane, for mate location. The pheromone is detected by sensory hairs (sensilla) on the antennae of adult males. Sensilla contain the dendrites of olfactory neurons bathed in lymph, which contains pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). We have extracted and identified free fatty acids from lymph of sensory hairs, and we demonstrate that these function as endogenous ligands for gypsy moth PBP1 and PBP2. Homology modeling of both PBPs, and docking of fatty acids reveal multiple binding sites: one internal, the others external. Pheromone binding assays suggest that these fatty acids increase PBP-pheromone binding affinity. We show that fatty acid binding causes an increase in α-helix content in the N-terminal domain, but not in the C-terminal peptide of both proteins. The C-terminal peptide was shown to form a α-helix in a hydrophobic, homogeneous environment, but not in the presence of fatty acid micelles. Through partition assays we show that the fatty acids prevent adsorption of the pheromone on hydrophobic surfaces and facilitate pheromone partition into an aqueous phase. We propose that lymph is an emulsion of fatty acids and PBP that influence each other and thereby control the partition equilibria of hydrophobic odorants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatty acid transport and transporters in muscle are critically regulated by Akt2.

    PubMed

    Jain, Swati S; Luiken, Joost J F P; Snook, Laelie A; Han, Xiao Xia; Holloway, Graham P; Glatz, Jan F C; Bonen, Arend

    2015-09-14

    Muscle contains various fatty acid transporters (CD36, FABPpm, FATP1, FATP4). Physiological stimuli (insulin, contraction) induce the translocation of all four transporters to the sarcolemma to enhance fatty acid uptake similarly to glucose uptake stimulation via glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation. Akt2 mediates insulin-induced, but not contraction-induced, GLUT4 translocation, but its role in muscle fatty acid transporter translocation is unknown. In muscle from Akt2-knockout mice, we observed that Akt2 is critically involved in both insulin-induced and contraction-induced fatty acid transport and translocation of fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36) and FATP1, but not of translocation of fatty acid-binding protein (FABPpm) and FATP4. Instead, Akt2 mediates intracellular retention of both latter transporters. Collectively, our observations reveal novel complexities in signaling mechanisms regulating the translocation of fatty acid transporters in muscle. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. FABP4 reversed the regulation of leptin on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in mice adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Liu, Zhenjiang; Cao, Weina; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), plays key role in fatty acid transportation and oxidation, and increases with leptin synergistically during adipose inflammation process. However, the regulation mechanism between FABP4 and leptin on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation remains unclear. In this study, we found that FABP4 reduced the expression of leptin, CPT-1 and AOX1 in mice adipocytes. Conversely, FABP4 was down-regulated in a time-dependent manner by leptin treatment. Additionally, forced expression of FABP4 attenuated the expression of PGC1-α, UCP2, CPT-1, AOX1 and COX2 compared with leptin incubation. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential, fatty acid oxidation enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) and Cyt C levels were reduced in response to the overexpression of FABP4. These reductions correspond well with the reduced release of free fatty acid and the inactivation of mitochondrial complexes I and III by FABP4 overexpression. Furthermore, addition of the Akt/mTOR pathway-specific inhibitor (MK2206) blocked the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and respiration factors, whereas interference of FABP4 overcame these effects. Taken together, FABP4 could reverse the activation of the leptin-induced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and the inhibition of Akt/mTOR signal pathway played a key role in this process. PMID:26310911

  6. FABP4 reversed the regulation of leptin on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in mice adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Liu, Zhenjiang; Cao, Weina; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Chao

    2015-08-27

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), plays key role in fatty acid transportation and oxidation, and increases with leptin synergistically during adipose inflammation process. However, the regulation mechanism between FABP4 and leptin on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation remains unclear. In this study, we found that FABP4 reduced the expression of leptin, CPT-1 and AOX1 in mice adipocytes. Conversely, FABP4 was down-regulated in a time-dependent manner by leptin treatment. Additionally, forced expression of FABP4 attenuated the expression of PGC1-α, UCP2, CPT-1, AOX1 and COX2 compared with leptin incubation. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential, fatty acid oxidation enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) and Cyt C levels were reduced in response to the overexpression of FABP4. These reductions correspond well with the reduced release of free fatty acid and the inactivation of mitochondrial complexes I and III by FABP4 overexpression. Furthermore, addition of the Akt/mTOR pathway-specific inhibitor (MK2206) blocked the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and respiration factors, whereas interference of FABP4 overcame these effects. Taken together, FABP4 could reverse the activation of the leptin-induced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and the inhibition of Akt/mTOR signal pathway played a key role in this process.

  7. Free-Energy-Based Protein Design: Re-Engineering Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein II Assisted by the Moveable-Type Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Haizhen A; Santos, Elizabeth M; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Zheng, Zheng; Geiger, James H; Borhan, Babak; Merz, Kenneth M

    2018-03-14

    How to fine-tune the binding free energy of a small-molecule to a receptor site by altering the amino acid residue composition is a key question in protein engineering. Indeed, the ultimate solution to this problem, to chemical accuracy (±1 kcal/mol), will result in profound and wide-ranging applications in protein design. Numerous tools have been developed to address this question using knowledge-based models to more computationally intensive molecular dynamics simulations-based free energy calculations, but while some success has been achieved there remains room for improvement in terms of overall accuracy and in the speed of the methodology. Here we report a fast, knowledge-based movable-type (MT)-based approach to estimate the absolute and relative free energy of binding as influenced by mutations in a small-molecule binding site in a protein. We retrospectively validate our approach using mutagenesis data for retinoic acid binding to the Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein II (CRABPII) system and then make prospective predictions that are borne out experimentally. The overall performance of our approach is supported by its success in identifying mutants that show high or even sub-nano-molar binding affinities of retinoic acid to the CRABPII system.

  8. Enhanced SH3/Linker Interaction Overcomes Abl Kinase Activation by Gatekeeper and Myristic Acid Binding Pocket Mutations and Increases Sensitivity to Small Molecule Inhibitors*

    PubMed Central

    Panjarian, Shoghag; Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Shugui; Wales, Thomas E.; Engen, John R.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Multidomain kinases such as c-Src and c-Abl are regulated by complex allosteric interactions involving their noncatalytic SH3 and SH2 domains. Here we show that enhancing natural allosteric control of kinase activity by SH3/linker engagement has long-range suppressive effects on the kinase activity of the c-Abl core. Surprisingly, enhanced SH3/linker interaction also dramatically sensitized the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia to small molecule inhibitors that target either the active site or the myristic acid binding pocket in the kinase domain C-lobe. Dynamics analyses using hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry revealed a remarkable allosteric network linking the SH3 domain, the myristic acid binding pocket, and the active site of the c-Abl core, providing a structural basis for the biological observations. These results suggest a rational strategy for enhanced drug targeting of Bcr-Abl and other multidomain kinase systems that use multiple small molecules to exploit natural mechanisms of kinase control. PMID:23303187

  9. Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, U D; Adhikari, S

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve is most commonly due to its damage by trauma. A ten-month old child presented with the history of a fall from a four-storey building. She developed traumatic third nerve palsy and eventually the clinical features of aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. The adduction of the eye improved over time. She was advised for patching for the strabismic amblyopia as well. Traumatic third nerve palsy may result in aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. In younger patients, motility of the eye in different gazes may improve over time. © NEPjOPH.

  10. Aberrations in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, Jacopo; Burke, Daniel; Booth, Martin J.

    2017-12-01

    Like all methods of super-resolution microscopy, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy can suffer from the effects of aberrations. The most important aspect of a STED microscope is that the depletion focus maintains a minimum, ideally zero, intensity point that is surrounded by a region of higher intensity. It follows that aberrations that cause a non-zero value of this minimum intensity are the most detrimental, as they inhibit fluorescence emission even at the centre of the depletion focus. We present analysis that elucidates the nature of these effects in terms of the different polarisation components at the focus for two-dimensional and three-dimensional STED resolution enhancement. It is found that only certain low-order aberration modes can affect the minimum intensity at the Gaussian focus. This has important consequences for the design of adaptive optics aberration correction systems.

  11. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  12. Quality factor analysis for aberrated laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafary, B.; Alavynejad, M.; Kashani, F. D.

    2006-12-01

    The quality factor of laser beams has attracted considerable attention and some different approaches have been reported to treat the problem. In this paper we analyze quality factor of laser beam and compare the effect of different aberrations on beam quality by expanding pure phase term of wavefront in terms of Zernike polynomials. Also we analyze experimentally the change of beam quality for different Astigmatism aberrations, and compare theoretical results with experimentally results. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement.

  13. Corneal spherical aberration in Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayyari, Tarfah M.; Fawzy, Samah M.; Al-Saleh, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To find out the mean corneal spherical aberration and its changes with age in Saudi population. Setting AlHokama Eye Specialist Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods Three hundred (300) eyes of 185 Saudi subjects (97 men and 88 women), whose age ranged from 15 to 85 years old, with matched refractive errors, were divided into three groups according to their age, 100 for each. All the subjects were included in measuring the spherical aberration (SA) using pentacam HR (OCULUS, Germany) at the 6-mm optical zone. Results The mean corneal spherical aberration (CSA) of the fourth order (Z40) of the whole groups was 0.252 ± 0.1154 μm. Patients from 15 to 35 years old have root mean square (RMS) of CSA of 0.2068 ± 0.07151 μm, 0.2370 ± 0.08023 μm was the RMS of CSA of the patients from 35 to 50 years old, while those from 50 to 85 years old have a CSA-RMS of 0.31511 ± 0.1503 μm (P < 0.0001). A positive correlation was found between the spherical aberration (Z40) and the progress of age (r = 0.3429, P < 0.0001). The high order aberration (HOA) presented 28.1% of the total corneal aberrations. While the fourth order corneal spherical aberration constituted 57% of the HOA and 16% of the total aberration. The pupil diameter shows a negative correlation with the increase in age (P = 0.0012). Conclusion Our results showed a CSA (Z40) that is varied among the population, comparable to other studies, and significantly correlates to the progress of age. PMID:25278799

  14. Accommodation to wavefront vergence and chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B; Li, James S; Lin, Peter L; Stark, Lawrence R

    2011-05-01

    Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In this study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less.

  15. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  16. Micro-ribonucleic acid-binding site variants of type 2 diabetes candidate loci predispose to gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese Han women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Wei; Ma, Liangkun; Ping, Fan; Liu, Juntao; Wu, Xueyan; Mao, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xi; Nie, Min

    2018-01-20

    Emerging evidence has suggested that the genetic background of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was analogous to type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast to type 2 diabetes mellitus, the genetic studies for GDM were limited. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to extensively explore the influence of micro-ribonucleic acid-binding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus candidate loci on GDM susceptibility in Chinese. A total of 839 GDM patients and 900 controls were enrolled. Six micro-ribonucleic acid-binding SNPs were selected from 30 type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility loci and genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. The minor allele of three SNPs, PAX4 rs712699 (OR 1.366, 95% confidence interval 1.021-1.828, P = 0.036), KCNB1 rs1051295 (OR 1.579, 95% confidence interval 1.172-2.128, P = 0.003) and MFN2 rs1042842 (OR 1.398, 95% confidence interval 1.050-1.862, P = 0.022) were identified to significantly confer higher a risk of GDM in the additive model. The association between rs1051295 and increased fasting plasma glucose (b = 0.006, P = 0.008), 3-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose (b = 0.058, P = 0.025) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (b = 0.065, P = 0.017) was also shown. Rs1042842 was correlated with higher 3-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose (b = 0.056, P = 0.028). However, no significant correlation between the other included SNPs (LPIN1 rs1050800, VPS26A rs1802295 and NLRP3 rs10802502) and GDM susceptibility were observed. The present findings showed that micro-ribonucleic acid-binding SNPs in type 2 diabetes mellitus candidate loci were also associated with GDM susceptibility, which further highlighted the similar genetic basis underlying GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separatormore » to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were

  18. Substrate-Assisted Catalysis in the Reaction Catalyzed by Salicylic Acid Binding Protein 2 (SABP2), a Potential Mechanism of Substrate Discrimination for Some Promiscuous Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Haobo; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Feng; Yang, Xiaohan; Guo, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Although one of an enzyme's hallmarks is the high specificity for their natural substrates, substrate promiscuity has been reported more frequently. It is known that promiscuous enzymes generally show different catalytic efficiencies to different substrates, but our understanding of the origin of such differences is still lacking. Here we report the results of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations and an experimental study of salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2). SABP2 has promiscuous esterase activity toward a series of substrates but shows a high activity toward its natural substrate, methyl salicylate (MeSA). Our results demonstrate that this enzyme may use substrate-assisted catalysis involving the hydroxyl group from MeSA to enhance the activity and achieve substrate discrimination.

  19. Substrate-Assisted Catalysis in the Reaction Catalyzed by Salicylic Acid Binding Protein 2 (SABP2), a Potential Mechanism of Substrate Discrimination for Some Promiscuous Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Haobo; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta

    Although one of an enzyme’s hallmarks is the high specificity for their natural substrates, substrate promiscuity has been reported more frequently. We know that promiscuous enzymes generally show different catalytic efficiencies to different substrates, but our understanding of the origin of such differences is still lacking. We report the results of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations and an experimental study of salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2). SABP2 has promiscuous esterase activity toward a series of substrates but shows a high activity toward its natural substrate, methyl salicylate (MeSA). Finally, our results demonstrate that this enzyme may use substrate-assisted catalysis involvingmore » the hydroxyl group from MeSA to enhance the activity and achieve substrate discrimination.« less

  20. Substrate-Assisted Catalysis in the Reaction Catalyzed by Salicylic Acid Binding Protein 2 (SABP2), a Potential Mechanism of Substrate Discrimination for Some Promiscuous Enzymes

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Haobo; Chaiprasongsuk, Minta; ...

    2015-08-05

    Although one of an enzyme’s hallmarks is the high specificity for their natural substrates, substrate promiscuity has been reported more frequently. We know that promiscuous enzymes generally show different catalytic efficiencies to different substrates, but our understanding of the origin of such differences is still lacking. We report the results of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations and an experimental study of salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2). SABP2 has promiscuous esterase activity toward a series of substrates but shows a high activity toward its natural substrate, methyl salicylate (MeSA). Finally, our results demonstrate that this enzyme may use substrate-assisted catalysis involvingmore » the hydroxyl group from MeSA to enhance the activity and achieve substrate discrimination.« less

  1. Cellular nucleic acid binding protein binds G-rich single-stranded nucleic acids and may function as a nucleic acid chaperone.

    PubMed

    Armas, Pablo; Nasif, Sofía; Calcaterra, Nora B

    2008-02-15

    Cellular nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP) is a small single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein made of seven Zn knuckles and an Arg-Gly rich box. CNBP is strikingly conserved among vertebrates and was reported to play broad-spectrum functions in eukaryotic cells biology. Neither its biological function nor its mechanisms of action were elucidated yet. The main goal of this work was to gain further insights into the CNBP biochemical and molecular features. We studied Bufo arenarum CNBP (bCNBP) binding to single-stranded nucleic acid probes representing the main reported CNBP putative targets. We report that, although bCNBP is able to bind RNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes in vitro, it binds RNA as a preformed dimer whereas both monomer and dimer are able to bind to ssDNA. A systematic analysis of variant probes shows that the preferred bCNBP targets contain unpaired guanosine-rich stretches. These data expand the knowledge about CNBP binding stoichiometry and begins to dissect the main features of CNBP nucleic acid targets. Besides, we show that bCNBP presents a highly disordered predicted structure and promotes the annealing and melting of nucleic acids in vitro. These features are typical of proteins that function as nucleic acid chaperones. Based on these data, we propose that CNBP may function as a nucleic acid chaperone through binding, remodeling, and stabilizing nucleic acids secondary structures. This novel CNBP biochemical activity broadens the field of study about its biological function and may be the basis to understand the diverse ways in which CNBP controls gene expression. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Linear phase conjugation for atmospheric aberration compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Stappaerts, Eddy A.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric induced aberrations can seriously degrade laser performance, greatly affecting the beam that finally reaches the target. Lasers propagated over any distance in the atmosphere suffer from a significant decrease in fluence at the target due to these aberrations. This is especially so for propagation over long distances. It is due primarily to fluctuations in the atmosphere over the propagation path, and from platform motion relative to the intended aimpoint. Also, delivery of high fluence to the target typically requires low beam divergence, thus, atmospheric turbulence, platform motion, or both results in a lack of fine aimpoint control to keep the beam directed at the target. To improve both the beam quality and amount of laser energy delivered to the target, Northrop Grumman has developed the Active Tracking System (ATS); a novel linear phase conjugation aberration compensation technique. Utilizing a silicon spatial light modulator (SLM) as a dynamic wavefront reversing element, ATS undoes aberrations induced by the atmosphere, platform motion or both. ATS continually tracks the target as well as compensates for atmospheric and platform motion induced aberrations. This results in a high fidelity, near-diffraction limited beam delivered to the target.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  4. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  5. Recurrent branchial sinus tract with aberrant extension.

    PubMed

    Barret, J P

    2004-01-01

    Second branchial cysts are the commonest lesions among congenital lateral neck anomalies. Good knowledge of anatomy and embryology are necessary for proper treatment. Surgical treatment involves resection of all branchial remnants, which extend laterally in the neck, medial to the sternocleidomastoid muscle with cranial extension to the pharynx and ipsilateral tonsillar fosa. However, infections and previous surgery can distort anatomy, making the approach to branchial anomalies more difficult. We present a case of a 17-year-old patient who presented with a second branchial tract anomaly with an aberrant extension to the midline and part of the contralateral neck. Previous surgical interventions and chronic infections may have been the primary cause for this aberrant tract. All head and neck surgeons should bear in mind that aberrant presentations may exist when reoperating on chronic branchial cysts fistulas.

  6. Aberration correction for charged particle lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Eric; Zhu, Xieqing; Rouse, John A.; Liu, Haoning

    2001-12-01

    At present, the throughput of projection-type charge particle lithography systems, such as PREVAIL and SCALPEL, is limited primarily by the combined effects of field curvature in the projection lenses and Coulomb interaction in the particle beam. These are fundamental physical limitations, inherent in charged particle optics, so there seems little scope for significantly improving the design of such systems, using conventional rotationally symmetric electron lenses. This paper explores the possibility of overcoming the field aberrations of round electron lense, by using a novel aberration corrector, proposed by Professor H. Rose of University of Darmstadt, called a hexapole planator. In this scheme, a set of round lenses is first used to simultaneously correct distortion and coma. The hexapole planator is then used to correct the field curvature and astigmatism, and to create a negative spherical aberration. The size of the transfer lenses around the planator can then be adjusted to zero the residual spherical aberration. In a way, an electron optical projection system is obtained that is free of all primary geometrical aberrations. In this paper, the feasibility of this concept has been studied with a computer simulation. The simulations verify that this scheme can indeed work, for both electrostatic and magnetic projection systems. Two design studies have been carried out. The first is for an electrostatic system that could be used for ion beam lithography, and the second is for a magnetic projection system for electron beam lithography. In both cases, designs have been achieved in which all primary third-order geometrical aberrations are totally eliminated.

  7. Spherical aberrations of human astigmatic corneas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huawei; Dai, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li; Weeber, Henk A; Piers, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the average spherical aberration of human astigmatic corneas is statistically equivalent to human nonastigmatic corneas. Spherical aberrations of 445 astigmatic corneas prior to laser vision correction were retrospectively investigated to determine Zernike coefficients for central corneal areas 6 mm in diameter using CTView (Sarver and Associates). Data were divided into groups according to cylinder power (0.01 to 0.25 diopters [D], 0.26 to 0.75 D, 0.76 to 1.06 D, 1.07 to 1.53 D, 1.54 to 2.00 D, and >2.00 D) and according to age by decade. Spherical aberrations were correlated with age and astigmatic power among groups and the entire population. Statistical analyses were conducted, and P<.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean patient age was 42.6±11 years. Astigmatic corneas had an average astigmatic power of 0.78±0.58 D and mean spherical aberration was 0.25±0.13 μm for the entire population and approximately the same (0.27 μm) for individual groups, ranging from 0.23 to 0.29 μm (P>.05 for all tested groups). Mean spherical aberration of astigmatic corneas was not correlated significantly with cylinder power or age (P>.05). Spherical aberrations are similar to those of nonastigmatic corneas, permitting the use of these additional data in the design of aspheric toric intra-ocular lenses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Effect of aberrations in human eye on contrast sensitivity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Wang, Feng-lin; Wang, Zhao-qi

    2011-06-01

    The quantitative analysis of the effect of aberrations in human eye on vision has important clinical value in the correction of aberrations. The wave-front aberrations of human eyes were measured with the Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor and modulation transfer function (MTF) was computed from the wave-front aberrations. Contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was obtained from MTF and the retinal aerial image modulation (AIM). It is shown that the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th Zernike aberrations deteriorate contrast sensitivity function. When the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th Zernike aberrations are corrected high contrast sensitivity function can be obtained.

  9. In vitro bile acid binding of mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with sautéing compared with raw or other methods of preparation.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculating bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of can...

  10. Identification of the bile acid-binding site of the ileal lipid-binding protein by photoaffinity labeling, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry, and NMR structure.

    PubMed

    Kramer, W; Sauber, K; Baringhaus, K H; Kurz, M; Stengelin, S; Lange, G; Corsiero, D; Girbig, F; König, W; Weyland, C

    2001-03-09

    The ileal lipid-binding protein (ILBP) is the only physiologically relevant bile acid-binding protein in the cytosol of ileocytes. To identify the bile acid-binding site(s) of ILBP, recombinant rabbit ILBP photolabeled with 3-azi- and 7-azi-derivatives of cholyltaurine was analyzed by a combination of enzymatic fragmentation, gel electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry. The attachment site of the 3-position of cholyltaurine was localized to the amino acid triplet His(100)-Thr(101)-Ser(102) using the photoreactive 3,3-azo-derivative of cholyltaurine. With the corresponding 7,7-azo-derivative, the attachment point of the 7-position could be localized to the C-terminal part (position 112-128) as well as to the N-terminal part suggesting more than one binding site for bile acids. By chemical modification and NMR structure of ILBP, arginine residue 122 was identified as the probable contact point for the negatively charged side chain of cholyltaurine. Consequently, bile acids bind to ILBP with the steroid nucleus deep inside the protein cavity and the negatively charged side chain near the entry portal. The combination of photoaffinity labeling, enzymatic fragmentation, MALDI-mass spectrometry, and NMR structure was successfully used to determine the topology of bile acid binding to ILBP.

  11. Spectral estimation for characterization of acoustic aberration.

    PubMed

    Varslot, Trond; Angelsen, Bjørn; Waag, Robert C

    2004-07-01

    Spectral estimation based on acoustic backscatter from a motionless stochastic medium is described for characterization of aberration in ultrasonic imaging. The underlying assumptions for the estimation are: The correlation length of the medium is short compared to the length of the transmitted acoustic pulse, an isoplanatic region of sufficient size exists around the focal point, and the backscatter can be modeled as an ergodic stochastic process. The motivation for this work is ultrasonic imaging with aberration correction. Measurements were performed using a two-dimensional array system with 80 x 80 transducer elements and an element pitch of 0.6 mm. The f number for the measurements was 1.2 and the center frequency was 3.0 MHz with a 53% bandwidth. Relative phase of aberration was extracted from estimated cross spectra using a robust least-mean-square-error method based on an orthogonal expansion of the phase differences of neighboring wave forms as a function of frequency. Estimates of cross-spectrum phase from measurements of random scattering through a tissue-mimicking aberrator have confidence bands approximately +/- 5 degrees wide. Both phase and magnitude are in good agreement with a reference characterization obtained from a point scatterer.

  12. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  13. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  14. Human cytomegalovirus UL76 induces chromosome aberrations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is known to induce chromosome aberrations in infected cells, which can lead to congenital abnormalities in infected fetuses. HCMV UL76 belongs to a conserved protein family from herpesviruses. Some reported roles among UL76 family members include involvement in virulence determination, lytic replication, reactivation of latent virus, modulation of gene expression, induction of apoptosis, and perturbation of cell cycle progression, as well as potential nuclease activity. Previously, we have shown that stable expression of UL76 inhibits HCMV replication in glioblastoma cells. Methods To examine chromosomal integrity and the DNA damage signal γ-H2AX in cells constitutively expressing UL76, immunofluorescent cell staining and Western blotting were performed. The comet assay was employed to assess DNA breaks in cells transiently expressing UL76. Results We report that stably transfected cells expressing UL76 developed chromosome aberrations including micronuclei and misaligned chromosomes, lagging and bridging. In mitotic cells expressing UL76, aberrant spindles were increased compared to control cells. However, cells with supernumerary centrosomes were marginally increased in UL76-expressing cells relative to control cells. We further demonstrated that UL76-expressing cells activated the DNA damage signal γ-H2AX and caused foci formation in nuclei. In addition, the number of cells with DNA breaks increased in proportion to UL76 protein levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the virus-associated protein UL76 induces DNA damage and the accumulation of chromosome aberrations. PMID:19930723

  15. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Ashwood, Paul; Bostrom, Alan; Hendren, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and initial safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (1.3 g/day) for the treatment of hyperactivity in 27 children ages 3-8 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After 12 weeks, hyperactivity, as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, improved 2.7 (plus or minus…

  16. PURA, the gene encoding Pur-alpha, member of an ancient nucleic acid-binding protein family with mammalian neurological functions.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Dianne C; Johnson, Edward M

    2018-02-15

    The PURA gene encodes Pur-alpha, a 322 amino acid protein with repeated nucleic acid binding domains that are highly conserved from bacteria through humans. PUR genes with a single copy of this domain have been detected so far in spirochetes and bacteroides. Lower eukaryotes possess one copy of the PUR gene, whereas chordates possess 1 to 4 PUR family members. Human PUR genes encode Pur-alpha (Pura), Pur-beta (Purb) and two forms of Pur-gamma (Purg). Pur-alpha is a protein that binds specific DNA and RNA sequence elements. Human PURA, located at chromosome band 5q31, is under complex control of three promoters. The entire protein coding sequence of PURA is contiguous within a single exon. Several studies have found that overexpression or microinjection of Pura inhibits anchorage-independent growth of oncogenically transformed cells and blocks proliferation at either G1-S or G2-M checkpoints. Effects on the cell cycle may be mediated by interaction of Pura with cellular proteins including Cyclin/Cdk complexes and the Rb tumor suppressor protein. PURA knockout mice die shortly after birth with effects on brain and hematopoietic development. In humans environmentally induced heterozygous deletions of PURA have been implicated in forms of myelodysplastic syndrome and progression to acute myelogenous leukemia. Pura plays a role in AIDS through association with the HIV-1 protein, Tat. In the brain Tat and Pura association in glial cells activates transcription and replication of JC polyomavirus, the agent causing the demyelination disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Tat and Pura also act to stimulate replication of the HIV-1 RNA genome. In neurons Pura accompanies mRNA transcripts to sites of translation in dendrites. Microdeletions in the PURA locus have been implicated in several neurological disorders. De novo PURA mutations have been related to a spectrum of phenotypes indicating a potential PURA syndrome. The nucleic acid, G-rich Pura binding

  17. Theoretical investigation of aberrations upon ametropic human eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.; Baker, Kevin

    2003-11-01

    The human eye aberrations are important for visual acuity and ophthalmic diagnostics and surgical procedures. Reported monochromatic aberration data of the normal 20/20 human eyes are scarce. There exist even fewer reports of the relation between ametropic conditions and aberrations. We theoretically investigate the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of human eyes for refractive errors of -10 to +10 diopters. Schematic human eye models are employed using optical design software for axial, index, and refractive types of ametropia.

  18. Stress- and Rho-activated ZO-1–associated nucleic acid binding protein binding to p21 mRNA mediates stabilization, translation, and cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Mei; Balda, Maria S.; Matter, Karl

    2012-01-01

    A central component of the cellular stress response is p21WAF1/CIP1, which regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Inflammation and cell stress often up-regulate p21 posttranscriptionally by regulatory mechanisms that are poorly understood. ZO-1–associated nucleic acid binding protein (ZONAB)/DbpA is a Y-box transcription factor that is regulated by components of intercellular junctions that are affected by cytokines and tissue damage. We therefore asked whether ZONAB activation is part of the cellular stress response. Here, we demonstrate that ZONAB promotes cell survival in response to proinflammatory, hyperosmotic, and cytotoxic stress and that stress-induced ZONAB activation involves the Rho regulator GEF-H1. Unexpectedly, stress-induced ZONAB activation does not stimulate ZONAB’s activity as a transcription factor but leads to the posttranscriptional up-regulation of p21 protein and mRNA. Up-regulation is mediated by ZONAB binding to specific sites in the 3′-untranslated region of the p21 mRNA, resulting in mRNA stabilization and enhanced translation. Binding of ZONAB to mRNA is activated by GEF-H1 via Rho stimulation and also mediates Ras-induced p21 expression. We thus identify a unique type of stress and Rho signaling activated pathway that drives mRNA stabilization and translation and links the cellular stress response to p21 expression and cell survival. PMID:22711822

  19. The arachidonic acid-binding protein S100A8/A9 promotes NADPH oxidase activation by interaction with p67phox and Rac-2.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoff, Claus; Nacken, Wolfgang; Benedyk, Malgorzata; Dagher, Marie Claire; Sopalla, Claudia; Doussiere, Jacques

    2005-03-01

    The Ca2+- and arachidonic acid-binding S100A8/A9 protein complex was recently identified by in vitro studies as a novel partner of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. The present study demonstrated its functional relevance by the impaired oxidase activity in neutrophil-like NB4 cells, after specific blockage of S100A9 expression, and bone marrow polymorphonuclear neutrophils from S100A9-/- mice. The impaired oxidase activation could also be mimicked in a cell-free system by pretreatment of neutrophil cytosol with an S100A9-specific antibody. Further analyses gave insights into the molecular mechanisms by which S100A8/A9 promoted NADPH oxidase activation. In vitro analysis of oxidase activation as well as protein-protein interaction studies revealed that S100A8 is the privileged interaction partner for the NADPH oxidase complex since it bound to p67phox and Rac, whereas S100A9 did interact with neither p67phox nor p47phox. Moreover, S100A8/A9 transferred the cofactor arachidonic acid to NADPH oxidase as shown by the impotence of a mutant S100A8/A9 complex unable to bind arachidonic acid to enhance NADPH oxidase activity. It is concluded that S100A8/A9 plays an important role in phagocyte NADPH oxidase activation.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the sialic acid-binding domain (VP8*) of porcine rotavirus strain CRW-8

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Stacy A.; Holloway, Gavan; Coulson, Barbara S.

    2005-06-01

    The sialic acid-binding domain (VP8*) component of the porcine CRW-8 rotavirus spike protein has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and co-crystallized with an N-acetylneuraminic acid derivative. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.3 Å, which has enabled determination of the structure by molecular replacement. Rotavirus recognition and attachment to host cells involves interaction with the spike protein VP4 that projects outwards from the surface of the virus particle. An integral component of these spikes is the VP8* domain, which is implicated in the direct recognition and binding of sialic acid-containing cell-surface carbohydrates and facilitates subsequent invasion by themore » virus. The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of VP8* from porcine CRW-8 rotavirus is reported. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.3 Å resolution, enabling the determination of the VP8* structure by molecular replacement.« less

  1. Primary aberrations in focused radially polarized vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, David P.; Brown, T. G.

    2004-02-01

    We study the effect of primary aberrations on the 3-D polarization of the electric field in a focused lowest order radially polarized beam. A full vector diffraction treatment of the focused beams is used. Attention is given to the effects of primary spherical, astigmatic, and comatic aberrations on the local polarization, Strehl ratio, and aberration induced degradation of the longitudinal field at focus

  2. Aberration Compensation in Aplanatic Solid Immersion Lens Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-08

    model and ray tracing software ( Zemax ) to understand how much aberrations are in the system and how much can be compensated by the DM. Subsequently...aberration. Table 2 shows the Zemax simulation on this particular case. With aberration compensation, the finest resolvable group is at 252 nm

  3. RADIATION-INDUCED CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS IN MAN

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, M.; Ottoman, R.E.; Norman, A.

    1963-10-01

    A study was made of the production and elimination of radioinduced chromosomal aberrations in leukocytes from the peripheral blood of persons exposed to chronic or acute doses of high-energy radiation. Included in the group were radiologists and laboratory scientists, for whom there were available complete records of the radiation dose received during their working life, and a number of distinguished radiologists who have practiced more than 25 yrs and who may have received substantial doses One of seven leukocytes from a distinguished radiologist contained a pair of chromosomes that could be classified as pseudo- diploid. In laboratory personnel for whommore » the doses received were significantly within the prescribed limits, the incidence of pseudo-diploid cells, of dicentrics, and of other chroNonemosomal aberrations was significantly higher than in a more or less comparable control group. (tr-auth)« less

  4. Aberrations associated with rigid contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Atchison, D A

    1995-10-01

    A rigid contact lens on an eye can produce levels of spherical aberration very different from those produced by a spectacle lens in front of the eye. These levels are considerably affected by contact lens surface asphericity. Change in longitudinal spherical aberration associated with aspherizing a contact lens surface is well predicted by a simple equation for change in sagittal power of the surface. Displacing an aspheric contact lens on the eye can produce considerable defocus, which is well predicted by simple equations for change in sagittal and tangential surface powers. The best refractive correction with contact lenses can be determined only by overrefraction with a patient wearing a contact lens of power and characteristics similar to that which will be prescribed. An aspheric contact lens that moves to a considerable extent on the eye will cause more unstable vision than will a spherical lens that moves to the same extent.

  5. Anterior Corneal, Posterior Corneal, and Lenticular Contributions to Ocular Aberrations.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Suheimat, Marwan; Mathur, Ankit; Lister, Lucas J; Rozema, Jos

    2016-10-01

    To determine the corneal surfaces and lens contributions to ocular aberrations. There were 61 healthy participants with ages ranging from 20 to 55 years and refractions -8.25 diopters (D) to +3.25 D. Anterior and posterior corneal topographies were obtained with an Oculus Pentacam, and ocular aberrations were obtained with an iTrace aberrometer. Raytracing through models of corneas provided total corneal and surface component aberrations for 5-mm-diameter pupils. Lenticular contributions were given as differences between ocular and corneal aberrations. Theoretical raytracing investigated influence of object distance on aberrations. Apart from defocus, the highest aberration coefficients were horizontal astigmatism, horizontal coma, and spherical aberration. Most correlations between lenticular and ocular parameters were positive and significant, with compensation of total corneal aberrations by lenticular aberrations for 5/12 coefficients. Anterior corneal aberrations were approximately three times higher than posterior corneal aberrations and usually had opposite signs. Corneal topographic centers were displaced from aberrometer pupil centers by 0.32 ± 0.19 mm nasally and 0.02 ± 0.16 mm inferiorly; disregarding corneal decentration relative to pupil center was significant for oblique astigmatism, horizontal coma, and horizontal trefoil. An object at infinity, rather than at the image in the anterior cornea, gave incorrect aberration estimates of the posterior cornea. Corneal and lenticular aberration magnitudes are similar, and aberrations of the anterior corneal surface are approximately three times those of the posterior surface. Corneal decentration relative to pupil center has significant effects on oblique astigmatism, horizontal coma, and horizontal trefoil. When estimating component aberrations, it is important to use correct object/image conjugates and heights at surfaces.

  6. Contemporary management of aberrant right subclavian arteries.

    PubMed

    Stone, William M; Ricotta, Joseph J; Fowl, Richard J; Garg, Nitin; Bower, Thomas C; Money, Samuel R

    2011-05-01

    Aberrant origin of right subclavian arteries represents the most common of the aortic arch anomalies. This variant has few published series to guide management. Our goal was to review treatment options and results for these potentially complex reconstructions. A retrospective review was performed on all patients with a diagnosis of aberrant right subclavian artery at our institution between January 2003 and July 2009. A total of 24 patients, which comprises one of the largest series reported, including 10 males and 14 females (mean age: 46.6 years, range: 7-77), were diagnosed with an aberrant right subclavian artery. Sixteen (66%) were diagnosed incidentally, but eight (33%) had symptoms of either dysphagia, upper extremity ischemia, or both. Computed tomography was most commonly used to establish the diagnosis (19 patients, 79%). Magnetic resonance imaging established the diagnosis in three patients (12%), upper gastrointestinal barium study in one (4%), and standard angiography in one (4%). A Kommerell's diverticulum (KD) was the most common associated anomaly (seven patients, 29%). All seven patients (100%) with a KD required intervention for either symptoms or aneurysmal degeneration. Intervention was performed in 10 patients (42%), including carotid subclavian bypass in five (50%), carotid subclavian transposition in three (30%), and ascending aorta to subclavian bypass in two (20%). Four patients (40%) had additional intervention for management of aneurysmal disease of the aorta or KD, with open aortic replacement in two (20%) and aortic endografting in two (20%). There was one perioperative death (10%) in a patient undergoing aortic arch debranching with placement of an aortic endograft. In all, 18 patients survived without symptoms after a mean follow-up of 38 months. Aberrant right subclavian arteries are most commonly found incidentally with computed tomography. The presence of a KD seemed to correlate with the need for intervention. Patients with no

  7. Aberrant phenotypes in peripheral T cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Hastrup, N; Ralfkiaer, E; Pallesen, G

    1989-01-01

    Seventy six peripheral T cell lymphomas were examined immunohistologically to test their reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies against 11 T cell associated antigens (CD1-8, CD27, UCHL1, and the T cell antigen receptor). Sixty two (82%) lymphomas showed aberrant phenotypes, and four main categories were distinguished as follows: (i) lack of one or several pan-T cell antigens (49, 64% of the cases); (ii) loss of both the CD4 and CD8 antigens (11, 15% of the cases); (iii) coexpression of the CD4 and CD8 antigens (13, 17% of the cases); and (iv) expression of the CD1 antigen (eight, 11% of the cases). No correlation was seen between the occurrence of aberrant phenotypes and the histological subtype. It is concluded that the demonstration of an aberrant phenotype is a valuable supplement to histological assessment in the diagnosis of peripheral T cell lymphomas. It is recommended that the panel of monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens should be fairly large, as apparently any antigen may be lost in the process of malignant transformation. Images Figure PMID:2469701

  8. 3D resolved mapping of optical aberrations in thick tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun; Mahou, Pierre; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Débarre, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple method for mapping optical aberrations with 3D resolution within thick samples. The method relies on the local measurement of the variation in image quality with externally applied aberrations. We discuss the accuracy of the method as a function of the signal strength and of the aberration amplitude and we derive the achievable resolution for the resulting measurements. We then report on measured 3D aberration maps in human skin biopsies and mouse brain slices. From these data, we analyse the consequences of tissue structure and refractive index distribution on aberrations and imaging depth in normal and cleared tissue samples. The aberration maps allow the estimation of the typical aplanetism region size over which aberrations can be uniformly corrected. This method and data pave the way towards efficient correction strategies for tissue imaging applications. PMID:22876353

  9. Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.

  10. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  11. Investigation on interaction of Achatinin, a 9-O-acetyl sialic acid-binding lectin, with lipopolysaccharide in the innate immunity of Achatina fulica snails.

    PubMed

    Biswas, C; Sinha, D; Mandal, C

    2000-01-01

    Achatinin, a 9-O-acetyl sialic acid (9-O-AcSA) binding lectin, has been demonstrated to be synthesized in amoebocytes of Achatina fulica snails. This lectin was affinity-purified from Achatina amoebocytes lysate (AAL); it appeared as a single band on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and showed 16 identical subunits of M.W. 15 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-PAGE. It was found to be homologous with an earlier reported lectin, Achatinin-H, derived from hemolymph of A. fulica snails (Sen, G., Mandal, C., 1995. The specificity of the binding site of Achatinin-H, a sialic-acid binding lectin from Achantia fulica. Carbohydr. Res., 268, 115-125). Homology between both lectins was confirmed by their similar electrophoretic mobilities, carbohydrate specificity and cross reactivity on immunodiffusion. Achatinin showed in vitro calcium dependent binding to two 9-O-acetylated sialoglyoconjugates (9-O-AcSG) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Escherichia coli 055: B5) of M.W. 40 kDa and 27.5 kDa, which was abolished following de-O-acetylation. Based on the previously defined narrow sugar specificity of Achatinin towards 9-O-AcSAalpha2-->6GalNAc [Sen, G., Mandal, C., 1995. The specificity of the binding site of Achatinin-H, a sialic-acid binding lectin from Achatina fulica. Carbohydr. Res., 268, 115-125], we conclude that LPS contains this lectinogenic epitope at the terminal sugar moiety. The Achatinin-mediated hemagglutination inhibition of rabbit erythrocytes by LPS further confirmed it. The lectin exhibited bacteriostatic effect on Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, DH5alpha and C600. AAL was earlier reported to undergo coagulation in presence of pg level of LPS (Biswas, C., Mandal, C., 1999. The role of amoebocytes in the endotoxin-mediated coagulation in the innate immunity of Achatina fulica snail, Scand. J. Immunol. 49, 131-138). We now demonstrate that Achatinin participates in LPS-mediated coagulation of AAL as indicated by enhanced release of Achatinin from

  12. Human eyes do not need monochromatic aberrations for dynamic accommodation.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Molina, Paula; Marín-Franch, Iván; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Esteve-Taboada, Jose J; López-Gil, Norberto; Kruger, Philip B; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-09-01

    To determine if human accommodation uses the eye's own monochromatic aberrations to track dynamic accommodative stimuli. Wavefront aberrations were measured while subjects monocularly viewed a monochromatic Maltese cross moving sinusoidally around 2D of accommodative demand with 1D amplitude at 0.2 Hz. The amplitude and phase (delay) of the accommodation response were compared to the actual vergence of the stimulus to obtain gain and temporal phase, calculated from wavefront aberrations recorded over time during experimental trials. The tested conditions were as follows: Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus (C); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and habitual second-order astigmatism (AS); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and odd higher-order aberrations (HOAs); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and even HOAs (E); Natural aberrations of the subject's eye, i.e., the adaptive-optics system only corrected the optical system's aberrations (N); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and fourth-order spherical aberration (SA). The correction was performed at 20 Hz and each condition was repeated six times in randomised order. Average gain (±2 standard errors of the mean) varied little across conditions; between 0.55 ± 0.06 (SA), and 0.62 ± 0.06 (AS). Average phase (±2 standard errors of the mean) also varied little; between 0.41 ± 0.02 s (E), and 0.47 ± 0.02 s (O). After Bonferroni correction, no statistically significant differences in gain or phase were found in the presence of specific monochromatic aberrations or in their absence. These results show that the eye's monochromatic aberrations are not necessary for accommodation to track dynamic accommodative stimuli. © 2017 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.

  13. Reduction of circulating FABP4 level by treatment with omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Masato; Hiramitsu, Shinya; Mita, Tomohiro; Omori, Akina; Fuseya, Takahiro; Ishimura, Shutaro; Watanabe, Yuki; Hoshina, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Megumi; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Hideaki; Ishii, Junnichi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-12

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) mainly expressed in adipocytes is secreted and acts as an adipokine. Increased circulating FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the modulation of serum FABP4 level by drugs including anti-dyslipidemic agents. Patients with dyslipidemia were treated with omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (4 g/day; n = 14) containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 4 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment. Expression and secretion of FABP4 were also examined in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with EPA or DHA. Treatment with omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters significantly decreased triglycerides and serum FABP4 level (13.5 ± 1.5 vs. 11.5 ± 1.1 ng/ml, P = 0.017). Change in FABP4 level by omega-3 fatty acids was negatively correlated with change in levels of EPA + DHA (r = -0.643, P = 0.013), EPA (r = -0.540, P = 0.046) and DHA (r = -0.650, P = 0.011) but not change in the level of triglycerides or other fatty acid composition. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with EPA or DHA had no effect on short-term (2 h) secretion of FABP4. However, gene expression and long-term (24 h) secretion of FABP4 were significantly reduced by treatment with EPA or DHA. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease circulating FABP4 level, possibly by reducing expression and consecutive secretion of FABP4 in adipocytes. Reducing FABP4 level might be involved in suppression of cardiovascular events by omega-3 fatty acids.

  14. Determination of the cellular retinoic-acid-binding protein in dysplastic epithelia of the cervix uteri, differentiated into apo and holo forms.

    PubMed

    Volz-Köster, S; Volz, J; Kiefer, A; Biesalski, H K

    2000-01-01

    The appearance of the cervical mucosa is regulated by different factors including retinoic acid. Hormone-dependent alteration of the cervix uteri mucosa is accompanied by a decrease or increase of cytoplasmatic retinoic-acid-binding protein (CRABP). To elucidate whether this hormone-dependent alteration of CRABP is preserved in the case of neoplasms of the cervix uteri, we measured the level of total and apo-CRABP in normal and neoplastically transformed cervical cells. In a prospective pilot study, standardised biopsies of normal epithelium and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasm grade 3 (CIN III) were taken from 24 patients. A newly developed method was used to determine the intra-epithelial level of apo- and total CRABP. The concentration of total CRABP in normal squamous epithelium compared with that in intra-epithelial neoplasm grade 3 is very significantly lower in the CIN III areas (normal: 3.66 +/- 1.46 pmol/ mg wet weight +/- SD; CIN III 1.43 +/- 0.59 pmol/mg P < 0.01). In addition CRABP in the apo form is lower in normal than in neoplastic epithelium (Wilcoxon test for paired non-parametric values: P < 0.05; mean for all patients: normal: 1.65 + 0.82 pmol/mg; CIN III: 1.14 +/- 0.23 pmol/mg). From our results we conclude that, in neoplastically transformed cells, the hormone-dependent CRABP cycle is interrupted. Whether this has consequences for the further development of the neoplastic cells has to be elucidated.

  15. Structural determinants of ligand binding in the ternary complex of human ileal bile acid binding protein with glycocholate and glycochenodeoxycholate obtained from solution NMR.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gergő; Bencsura, Ákos; Simon, Ágnes; Tochtrop, Gregory P; DeKoster, Gregory T; Covey, Douglas F; Cistola, David P; Toke, Orsolya

    2016-02-01

    Besides aiding digestion, bile salts are important signal molecules exhibiting a regulatory role in metabolic processes. Human ileal bile acid binding protein (I-BABP) is an intracellular carrier of bile salts in the epithelial cells of the distal small intestine and has a key role in the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. Positive binding cooperativity combined with site selectivity of glycocholate and glycochenodeoxycholate, the two most abundant bile salts in the human body, make human I-BABP a unique member of the family of intracellular lipid binding proteins. Solution NMR structure of the ternary complex of human I-BABP with glycocholate and glycochenodeoxycholate reveals an extensive network of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions stabilizing the bound bile salts. Conformational changes accompanying bile salt binding affects four major regions in the protein including the C/D, E/F and G/H loops as well as the helical segment. Most of these protein regions coincide with a previously described network of millisecond time scale fluctuations in the apo protein, a motion absent in the bound state. Comparison of the heterotypic doubly ligated complex with the unligated form provides further evidence of a conformation selection mechanism of ligand entry. Structural and dynamic aspects of human I-BABP-bile salt interaction are discussed and compared with characteristics of ligand binding in other members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family. The coordinates of the 10 lowest energy structures of the human I-BABP : GCDA : GCA complex as well as the distance restraints used to calculate the final ensemble have been deposited in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank with accession number 2MM3. © 2015 FEBS.

  16. Chemical-modification studies of a unique sialic acid-binding lectin from the snail Achatina fulica. Involvement of tryptophan and histidine residues in biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Basu, S; Mandal, C; Allen, A K

    1988-01-01

    A unique sialic acid-binding lectin, achatininH (ATNH) was purified in single step from the haemolymph of the snail Achatina fulica by affinity chromatography on sheep submaxillary-gland mucin coupled to Sepharose 4B. The homogeneity was checked by alkaline gel electrophoresis, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. Amino acid analysis showed that the lectin has a fairly high content of acidic amino acid residues (22% of the total). About 1.3% of the residues are half-cystine. The glycoprotein contains 21% carbohydrate. The unusually high content of xylose (6%) and fucose (2.7%) in this snail lectin is quite interesting. The protein was subjected to various chemical modifications in order to detect the amino acid residues and carbohydrate residues present in its binding sites. Modification of tyrosine and arginine residues did not affect the binding activity of ATNH; however, modification of tryptophan and histidine residues led to a complete loss of its biological activity. A marked decrease in the fluorescence emission was found as the tryptophan residues of ATNH were modified. The c.d. data showed the presence of an identical type of conformation in the native and modified agglutinin. The modification of lysine and carboxy residues partially diminished the biological activity. The activity was completely lost after a beta-elimination reaction, indicating that the sugars are O-glycosidically linked to the glycoprotein's protein moiety. This result confirms that the carbohydrate moiety also plays an important role in the agglutination property of this lectin. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3140796

  17. History of fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  18. Five Decades with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Chemical Synthesis, Enzymatic Formation, Lipid Peroxidation and Its Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Catalá, Angel

    2013-01-01

    I have been involved in research on polyunsaturated fatty acids since 1964 and this review is intended to cover some of the most important aspects of this work. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have followed me during my whole scientific career and I have published a number of studies concerned with different aspects of them such as chemical synthesis, enzymatic formation, metabolism, transport, physical, chemical, and catalytic properties of a reconstructed desaturase system in liposomes, lipid peroxidation, and their effects. The first project I became involved in was the organic synthesis of [1-14C] eicosa-11,14-dienoic acid, with the aim of demonstrating the participation of that compound as a possible intermediary in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid “in vivo.” From 1966 to 1982, I was involved in several projects that study the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the eighties, we studied fatty acid binding protein. From 1990 up to now, our laboratory has been interested in the lipid peroxidation of biological membranes from various tissues and different species as well as liposomes prepared with phospholipids rich in PUFAs. We tested the effect of many antioxidants such as alpha tocopherol, vitamin A, melatonin and its structural analogues, and conjugated linoleic acid, among others. PMID:24490074

  19. Wavefront aberrations of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams.

    PubMed

    Liao, Keliang; Hong, Youli; Sheng, Weifan

    2014-10-01

    The effects of dynamical diffraction in x-ray diffractive optics with large numerical aperture render the wavefront aberrations difficult to describe using the aberration polynomials, yet knowledge of them plays an important role in a vast variety of scientific problems ranging from optical testing to adaptive optics. Although the diffraction theory of optical aberrations was established decades ago, its application in the area of x-ray dynamical diffraction theory (DDT) is still lacking. Here, we conduct a theoretical study on the aberration properties of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams. By treating the modulus of the complex envelope as the amplitude weight function in the orthogonalization procedure, we generalize the nonrecursive matrix method for the determination of orthonormal aberration polynomials, wherein Zernike DDT and Legendre DDT polynomials are proposed. As an example, we investigate the aberration evolution inside a tilted multilayer Laue lens. The corresponding Legendre DDT polynomials are obtained numerically, which represent balanced aberrations yielding minimum variance of the classical aberrations of an anamorphic optical system. The balancing of classical aberrations and their standard deviations are discussed. We also present the Strehl ratio of the primary and secondary balanced aberrations.

  20. Detecting independent and recurrent copy number aberrations using interval graphs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Ta; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2014-06-15

    Somatic copy number aberrations SCNAS: are frequent in cancer genomes, but many of these are random, passenger events. A common strategy to distinguish functional aberrations from passengers is to identify those aberrations that are recurrent across multiple samples. However, the extensive variability in the length and position of SCNA: s makes the problem of identifying recurrent aberrations notoriously difficult. We introduce a combinatorial approach to the problem of identifying independent and recurrent SCNA: s, focusing on the key challenging of separating the overlaps in aberrations across individuals into independent events. We derive independent and recurrent SCNA: s as maximal cliques in an interval graph constructed from overlaps between aberrations. We efficiently enumerate all such cliques, and derive a dynamic programming algorithm to find an optimal selection of non-overlapping cliques, resulting in a very fast algorithm, which we call RAIG (Recurrent Aberrations from Interval Graphs). We show that RAIG outperforms other methods on simulated data and also performs well on data from three cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). In contrast to existing approaches that employ various heuristics to select independent aberrations, RAIG optimizes a well-defined objective function. We show that this allows RAIG to identify rare aberrations that are likely functional, but are obscured by overlaps with larger passenger aberrations. http://compbio.cs.brown.edu/software. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Genomic aberrations in borderline ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background According to the scientific literature, less than 30 borderline ovarian tumors have been karyotyped and less than 100 analyzed for genomic imbalances by CGH. Methods We report a series of borderline ovarian tumors (n = 23) analyzed by G-banding and karyotyping as well as high resolution CGH; in addition, the tumors were analyzed for microsatellite stability status and by FISH for possible 6q deletion. Results All informative tumors were microsatellite stable and none had a deletion in 6q27. All cases with an abnormal karyotype had simple chromosomal aberrations with +7 and +12 as the most common. In three tumors with single structural rearrangements, a common breakpoint in 3q13 was detected. The major copy number changes detected in the borderline tumors were gains from chromosome arms 2q, 6q, 8q, 9p, and 13q and losses from 1p, 12q, 14q, 15q, 16p, 17p, 17q, 19p, 19q, and 22q. The series included five pairs of bilateral tumors and, in two of these pairs, informative data were obtained as to their clonal relationship. In both pairs, similarities were found between the tumors from the right and left side, strongly indicating that bilaterality had occurred via a metastatic process. The bilateral tumors as a group showed more aberrations than did the unilateral ones, consistent with the view that bilaterality is a sign of more advanced disease. Conclusion Because some of the imbalances found in borderline ovarian tumors seem to be similar to imbalances already known from the more extensively studied overt ovarian carcinomas, we speculate that the subset of borderline tumors with detectable imbalances or karyotypic aberrations may contain a smaller subset of tumors with a tendency to develop a more malignant phenotype. The group of borderline tumors with no imbalances would, in this line of thinking, have less or no propensity for clonal evolution and development to full-blown carcinomas. PMID:20184781

  2. Correction of large amplitude wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, S. A.; Bierden, P. A.; Bifano, T. G.; Webb, R. H.; Burns, S.; Pappas, S.

    2005-12-01

    Recently, a number of research groups around the world have developed ophthalmic instruments capable of in vivo diffraction limited imaging of the human retina. Adaptive optics was used in these systems to compensate for the optical aberrations of the eye and provide high contrast, high resolution images. Such compensation uses a wavefront sensor and a wavefront corrector (usually a deformable mirror) coordinated in a closed- loop control system that continuously works to counteract aberrations. While those experiments produced promising results, the deformable mirrors have had insufficient range of motion to permit full correction of the large amplitude aberrations of the eye expected in a normal population of human subjects. Other retinal imaging systems developed to date with MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) DMs suffer similar limitations. This paper describes the design, manufacture and testing of a 6um stroke polysilicon surface micromachined deformable mirror that, coupled with an new optical method to double the effective stroke of the MEMS-DM, will permit diffraction-limited retinal imaging through dilated pupils in at least 90% of the human population. A novel optical design using spherical mirrors provides a double pass of the wavefront over the deformable mirror such that a 6um mirror displacement results in 12um of wavefront compensation which could correct for 24um of wavefront error. Details of this design are discussed. Testing of the effective wavefront modification was performed using a commercial wavefront sensor. Results are presented demonstrating improvement in the amplitude of wavefront control using an existing high degree of freedom MEMS deformable mirror.

  3. Predicting aberrant CpG island methylation

    PubMed Central

    Feltus, F. A.; Lee, E. K.; Costello, J. F.; Plass, C.; Vertino, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one mechanism leading to loss of tumor suppressor function in human cancer. Profiling of CpG island methylation indicates that some genes are more frequently methylated than others, and that each tumor type is associated with a unique set of methylated genes. However, little is known about why certain genes succumb to this aberrant event. To address this question, we used Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning to analyze the susceptibility of 1,749 unselected CpG islands to de novo methylation driven by overexpression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We found that although the overall incidence of CpG island methylation was increased in cells overexpressing DNMT1, not all loci were equally affected. The majority of CpG islands (69.9%) were resistant to de novo methylation, regardless of DNMT1 overexpression. In contrast, we identified a subset of methylation-prone CpG islands (3.8%) that were consistently hypermethylated in multiple DNMT1 overexpressing clones. Methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG islands were not significantly different with respect to size, C+G content, CpG frequency, chromosomal location, or promoter association. We used DNA pattern recognition and supervised learning techniques to derive a classification function based on the frequency of seven novel sequence patterns that was capable of discriminating methylation-prone from methylation-resistant CpG islands with 82% accuracy. The data indicate that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to de novo methylation, and suggest that the propensity for a CpG island to become aberrantly methylated can be predicted based on its sequence context. PMID:14519846

  4. Predicting aberrant CpG island methylation.

    PubMed

    Feltus, F A; Lee, E K; Costello, J F; Plass, C; Vertino, P M

    2003-10-14

    Epigenetic silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one mechanism leading to loss of tumor suppressor function in human cancer. Profiling of CpG island methylation indicates that some genes are more frequently methylated than others, and that each tumor type is associated with a unique set of methylated genes. However, little is known about why certain genes succumb to this aberrant event. To address this question, we used Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning to analyze the susceptibility of 1,749 unselected CpG islands to de novo methylation driven by overexpression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We found that although the overall incidence of CpG island methylation was increased in cells overexpressing DNMT1, not all loci were equally affected. The majority of CpG islands (69.9%) were resistant to de novo methylation, regardless of DNMT1 overexpression. In contrast, we identified a subset of methylation-prone CpG islands (3.8%) that were consistently hypermethylated in multiple DNMT1 overexpressing clones. Methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG islands were not significantly different with respect to size, C+G content, CpG frequency, chromosomal location, or promoter association. We used DNA pattern recognition and supervised learning techniques to derive a classification function based on the frequency of seven novel sequence patterns that was capable of discriminating methylation-prone from methylation-resistant CpG islands with 82% accuracy. The data indicate that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to de novo methylation, and suggest that the propensity for a CpG island to become aberrantly methylated can be predicted based on its sequence context.

  5. Higher-order aberrations of lenticular opacities.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Nisha; Ormonde, Susan E; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2004-08-01

    To measure and quantify higher-order aberrations induced by different types of lenticular opacities. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Auckland, and Department of Ophthalmology, Auckland Public Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Patients with lenticular opacities were recruited from outpatient clinics of a major tertiary referral center for ophthalmology. Patients were included if they had clinically evident, mild to moderate lenticular opacity with no coexisting ocular pathology. Patients were examined using standard preoperative techniques with additional assessment by wavefront aberrometry (Zywave, Bausch & Lomb) and Scheimpflug photography (EAS-1000, Nidek). For comparison, 20 eyes of 10 subjects with no lenticular opacity (control group) were recruited and assessed in an identical manner. Thirty persons were recruited and 40 eyes assessed, 20 with lenticular opacities. Ten eyes had predominantly cortical opacification, and 10 had mainly nuclear opacification. In eyes with predominantly cortical opacification, the mean logMAR uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 0.5 +/- 0.2 (SD) (6/18 Snellen equivalent) and the mean logMAR best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), 0.2 +/- 0.2 (6/9). Analysis of aberrometry data for a 6.0 mm pupil in this group revealed an increase in coma of cosine phase (Z(3), P =.06) and tetrafoil of cosine phase (Z(4), P =.07) compared to eyes in the control group. Eyes with predominantly nuclear opacification had a mean logMAR UCVA of 0.7 +/- 0.2 (6/30) and a logMAR BSCVA of 0.4 +/- 0.2 (6/15). Aberrometry data for this cohort for a 6.0 mm pupil showed a statistically greater amount of spherical aberration (Z(4)(0), P =.001) and tetrafoil of cosine phase (Z(4), P =.005; Z(4)(-4), P =.004). This pilot study suggests that different types of early lenticular opacities induce different wavefront aberration profiles. Predominantly cortical opacification produced an increase in coma and nuclear opacification induced an increase in

  6. Fatty liver in children

    PubMed Central

    Rafeey, Mandana; Mortazavi, Fakhrossadat; Mogaddasi, Nafiseh; Robabeh, Ghergherehchi; Ghaffari, Shamsi; Hasani, Alka

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a referral center of pediatrics in the northwest of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study all subjects aged between six months to 15 years that were referred to the sonography unit, were investigated for fatty liver from March 2005 to August 2006. Patients with fatty liver change underwent detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. Results: From 1500 children who were investigated, 34 subjects with sonographic evidence of fatty liver were enrolled in this study (2.3%). The mean age was 6.53 ± 3.07 years. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was detected in 38.2% and 47.1% of patients, respectively. The mean level of cholesterol was 461 ± 182.23 mg/dl and 94.1% of patients had hypercholesterolemia. Total cholesterol level and serum aminotransferase levels had a significant positive correlation with severity of fatty liver (p < 0.05). Mean body mass index was significantly higher in patients with severe fatty liver (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The epidemiology of pediatric NAFLD should inform future attempts to develop evaluated screening protocols. Moreover, these data should guide efforts to delineate the pathophysiology of fatty liver in children. PMID:19536316

  7. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  8. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  9. Comparison of gene expression and fatty acid profiles in concentrate and forage finished beef.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, J W; Garmyn, A J; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Duan, Q; Beitz, D C; Mateescu, R G

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid profiles and intramuscular expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were characterized in concentrate- (CO) and forage- (FO) based finishing systems. Intramuscular samples from the adductor were taken at slaughter from 99 heifers finished on a CO diet and 58 heifers finished on a FO diet. Strip loins were obtained at fabrication to evaluate fatty acid profiles of LM muscle for all 157 heifers by using gas chromatography fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Composition was analyzed for differences by using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure in SAS. Differences in fatty acid profile included a greater atherogenic index, greater percentage total MUFA, decreased omega-3 to omega-6 ratio, decreased percentage total PUFA, and decreased percentage omega-3 fatty acids in CO- compared with FO-finished heifers (P<0.05). Fatty acid profiles from intramuscular samples were ranked by the atherogenic index, and 20 heifers with either a high (HAI; n=10) or low (LAI; n=10) atherogenic index were selected for gene expression analysis using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Gene expression data for the 20 individuals were analyzed as a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement of treatments using the GLM procedure in SAS. There was no significant diet × atherogenic index interaction identified for any gene (P>0.05). Upregulation was observed for PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in FO-finished compared with CO-finished heifers in both atherogenic index categories (P<0.05). Upregulation of diglyceride acyl transferase 2 (DGAT2) was observed in FO-finished heifers with a HAI (P<0.05). Expression of steroyl Co-A desaturase (SCD) was upregulated in CO-finished heifers with a LAI, and downregulated in FO-finished heifers with a HAI (P<0.05). Expression of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) was significantly downregulated in CO-finished heifers with a HAI compared with all other categories (P<0.05). The genes identified in this study which exhibit

  10. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  11. Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1998-06-01

    New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.

  12. Phosphotungstic acid binding in situ to K4Nb6O17 for the effective adsorption-photocatalytic removal of tetracycline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Huimin; Lang, Junyu; Ma, Yuli; Gu, Huayu; Song, Yanyong; Chai, Zhanli; Li, Guangshe; Wang, Xiaojing

    2018-05-01

    In this investigation, phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) was successfully self-assembly implanted into the interspace of K4Nb6O17 nanosheet via an impregnation method to form an adsorption-photocatalytic composite, in which n-type semiconductor K4Nb6O17 was selected as photo-electron emitter and H3PW12O40 was particularly used as an electronic transmitter. By characterizing with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission (TEM), scan electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and FT-IR spectrum (FT-IR), it confirmed that H3PW12O40 (HPW) was converted to the insoluble tiny particles of K3PW12O40 (KPW) with the remained primary Keggin group via an ion-exchanged H+ of HPW with K+ in K4Nb6O17 in the implanted process and was firmly bound to the surface of K4Nb6O17 to form well sandwich structure. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy revealed that the band gap of K4Nb6O17-K3PW12O40 have a slight red shift compared with the single K4Nb6O17. Its adsorption-photocatalytic properties were evaluated with the removal of tetracycline as model reaction. Compared with pure K4Nb6O17, tetracycline removal rate can be significantly improved for the as-prepared sandwich. Importantly, the removal could still maintain 70% after five reuses in recycle tests at an acidic solution, inferring a good stability which was mainly ascribed to the formation of water-insoluble K3PW12O40. The separation and transfer process of photogenerated electrons were investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPV). It proposed that the KPW anchored firmly on the interlayers of K4Nb6O17 through a O-K-O bridge plays a significantly role in promoting the separation of the photogenerated carriers and preventing the leakage and agglomeration of HPW. The present results showed that the strategy of the phosphotungstic acid binding in situ to K4Nb6O17 was favorable to promote the hetero-photocatalytic efficiency as well as reusability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Mutations during the Adaptation of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus to the Respiratory Epithelium of Pigs Enhance Sialic Acid Binding Activity and Virulence in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Punyadarsaniya, D; Lambertz, R L O; Lee, D C C; Liang, C H; Höper, D; Leist, S R; Hernández-Cáceres, A; Stech, J; Beer, M; Wu, C Y; Wong, C H; Schughart, K; Meng, F; Herrler, G

    2017-04-15

    passaging the virus three times in differentiated porcine respiratory epithelial cells. Among the four mutations detected, the two HA mutations were analyzed by generating recombinant viruses. Depending on the infection system used, the mutations differed in their phenotypic expression, e.g., sialic acid binding activity, replication kinetics, plaque size, and pathogenicity in inbred mice. However, none of the mutations affected the ciliary activity which serves as a virulence marker. Thus, early adaptive mutation enhances the replication kinetics, but more mutations are required for IAV of the H9N2 subtype to become virulent. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Third-rank chromatic aberrations of electron lenses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients of round electron lenses are analytically derived and numerically calculated by Mathematica. Furthermore, the numerical results are cross-checked by the differential algebraic (DA) method, which verifies that all the formulas for the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients are completely correct. It is hoped that this work would be helpful for further chromatic aberration correction in electron microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of focal spared areas in fatty liver using color Doppler imaging and contrast-enhanced microvessel display sonography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Ping; Dong, Bao-Wei; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Da-Kun; Li, Xin; Li, Hua

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether focal fatty sparing (FFS) formation in the liver relates to aberrant blood flow. Sixty-three FFSs of the liver in 52 patients were examined by color Doppler flow imaging and contrast-enhanced microvessel display sonography. The 63 FFSs included 16 FFSs in the porta hepatis, 14 FFSs around the gallbladder fossa, and 33 other FFSs. The control group included patients with a diagnosis of fatty liver but no FFSs or focal lesions near the porta hepatis. Fourteen of 16 FFSs in the porta hepatis showed venous blood toward those areas that were differentiated from the portal and hepatic veins. Focal fatty sparings in the hilus hepatis correlated with aberrant veins, having a statistical significance compared with the control group (P < .0001). Seven of 14 FFSs around the gallbladder fossa contained blood vessels, 5 of them veins and the remaining 2 arteries. Two FFSs were located around hemangiomas. Three FFSs were located around maldeveloped vessels. The blood supply to an FFS in the porta hepatis may be correlated with aberrant veins. Focal fatty sparings around the gallbladder fossa may be associated with aberrant blood flow.

  16. Comparison of Aberrations After Standard and Customized Refractive Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; He, X.; Wang, Y.

    2013-09-01

    To detect possible differences in residual wavefront aberrations between standard and customized laser refractive surgery based onmathematical modeling, the residual optical aberrations after conventional and customized laser refractive surgery were compared accordingto the ablation profile with transition zone. The results indicated that ablation profile has a significant impact on the residual aberrations.The amount of residual aberrations for conventional correction is higher than that for customized correction. Additionally, the residualaberrations for high myopia eyes are markedly larger than those for moderate myopia eyes. For a 5 mm pupil, the main residual aberrationterm is coma and yet it is spherical aberration for a 7 mm pupil. When the pupil diameter is the same as optical zone or greater, themagnitudes of residual aberrations is obviously larger than that for a smaller pupil. In addition, the magnitudes of the residual fifth orsixth order aberrations are relatively large, especially secondary coma in a 6 mm pupil and secondary spherical aberration in a 7 mm pupil.Therefore, the customized ablation profile may be superior to the conventional correction even though the transition zone and treatmentdecentration are taken into account. However, the customized ablation profile will still induce significant amount of residual aberrations.

  17. Whole eye wavefront aberrations in Mexican male subjects.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Roberto; Rosales, Marco A; Tepichín, Eduardo; Curioca, Andrée; Montes, Victor; Bonilla, Julio

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics, incidence, and appearance of wavefront aberrations in undilated, normal, unoperated eyes. Eighty-eight eyes of 44 healthy male Mexican subjects (mean age 25.32 years, range 18 to 36 yr) were divided into three groups based on uncorrected visual acuity of greater than or equal to 20/20, 20/30, or 20/40. UCVA measurements were obtained using an Acuity Max computer screen chart. Wavefront aberrations were measured with the Nidek OPD-Scan ARK 10000, Ver. 1.11b. All measurements were carried out at the same center by the same technician during a single session, following manufacturer instructions. Background illumination was 3 Lux. Wavefront aberration measurements for each group were statistically analyzed using StatView; an average eye was characterized and the resulting aberrations were simulated using MATLAB. We obtained wavefront aberration maps for the 20/20 undilated normal unoperated eyes for total, low, and high order aberration coefficients. Wavefront maps for right eyes were practically the same as those for left eyes. Higher aberrations did not contribute substantially to total wavefront analysis. Average aberrations of this "normal eye" will be used as criteria to decide the necessity of wavefront-guided ablation in our facilities. We will focus on the nearly zero average of high order aberrations in this normal whole eye as a reference to be matched.

  18. Dynamic accommodation with simulated targets blurred with high order aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Gambra, Enrique; Wang, Yinan; Yuan, Jing; Kruger, Philip B.; Marcos, Susana

    2010-01-01

    High order aberrations have been suggested to play a role in determining the direction of accommodation. We have explored the effect of retinal blur induced by high order aberrations on dynamic accommodation by measuring the accommodative response to sinusoidal variations in accommodative demand (1–3 D). The targets were blurred with 0.3 and 1 μm (for a 3-mm pupil) of defocus, coma, trefoil and spherical aberration. Accommodative gain decreased significantly when 1-μm of aberration was induced. We found a strong correlation between the relative accommodative gain (and phase lag) and the contrast degradation imposed on the target at relevant spatial frequencies. PMID:20600230

  19. Imaging characteristics of Zernike and annular polynomial aberrations.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Virendra N; Díaz, José Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The general equations for the point-spread function (PSF) and optical transfer function (OTF) are given for any pupil shape, and they are applied to optical imaging systems with circular and annular pupils. The symmetry properties of the PSF, the real and imaginary parts of the OTF, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a system with a circular pupil aberrated by a Zernike circle polynomial aberration are derived. The interferograms and PSFs are illustrated for some typical polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of one wave, and 3D PSFs and MTFs are shown for 0.1 wave. The Strehl ratio is also calculated for polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of 0.1 wave, and shown to be well estimated from the sigma value. The numerical results are compared with the corresponding results in the literature. Because of the same angular dependence of the corresponding annular and circle polynomial aberrations, the symmetry properties of systems with annular pupils aberrated by an annular polynomial aberration are the same as those for a circular pupil aberrated by a corresponding circle polynomial aberration. They are also illustrated with numerical examples.

  20. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  1. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Enhance the Lipid Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells by Modulating the Expression of Enzymes of Fatty Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haining; Li, Ran; Huang, Haiyong; Yao, Ru; Shen, Shengrong

    2018-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid are produced by fermentation by gut microbiota. In this paper, we investigate the effects of SCFA on 3T3-L1 cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The cells were treated with acetic acid, propionic acid, or butyric acid when cells were induced to differentiate into adipocytes. MTT assay was employed to detect the viability of 3T3-L1 cells. Oil Red O staining was used to visualize the lipid content in 3T3-L1 cells. A triglyceride assay kit was used to detect the triacylglycerol content in 3T3-L1 cells. qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of metabolic enzymes. MTT results showed that safe concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were less than 6.4, 3.2, and 0.8 mM, respectively. Oil Red O staining and triacylglycerols detection results showed that treatment with acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid accelerated the 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. qRT-PCR and Western blot results showed that the expressions of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were significantly increased by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid treatment during adipose differentiation (p < 0.05). In conclusion, SCFA promoted lipid accumulation by modulating the expression of enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. © 2018 AOCS.

  2. Combined Plasma Elevation of CRP, Intestinal-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (I-FABP), and sCD14 Identify Older Patients at High Risk for Health Care-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Paillaud, Elena; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Plonquet, Anne; Foucat, Emile; Fournier, Bénédicte; Boutin, Emmanuelle; Le Thuaut, Aurélie; Levy, Yves; Hue, Sophie

    2018-01-16

    We hypothesized that low-grade inflammation was driven by microbial translocation and associated with an increased risk of health care-associated infections (HAIs). We included 121 patients aged 75 years or over in this prospective cohort study. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), I-FABP, and sCD14-as markers for low-grade inflammation, intestinal epithelial barrier integrity, and monocyte activation, respectively-were measured at admission. HAIs occurred during hospitalization in 62 (51%) patients. Elevated hs-CRP (≥6.02 mg/L, ie, the median) was associated with a significantly higher HAI risk when I-FABP was in the highest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.39-11.49; p = .010). In patients with hs-CRP elevation and highest-quartile I-FABP, sCD14 elevation (≥0.65 µg/mL, ie, the median) was associated with an 11-fold higher HAI risk (OR, 10.8; 95% CI, 2.28-51.1; p = .003). Multivariate analyses adjusted for invasive procedures and comorbidities did not change the associations linking the three markers to the HAI risk. Increased levels of hs-CRP, I-FABP, and sCD14 may reflect loss of intestinal epithelial barrier integrity with microbial translocation leading to monocyte activation and low-grade inflammation. In our cohort, these markers identified patients at high risk for HAIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Co-administration of plasmid expressing IL-12 with 14-kDa Schistosoma mansoni fatty acid-binding protein cDNA alters immune response profiles and fails to enhance protection induced by Sm14 DNA vaccine alone.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Cristina T; Pacífico, Lucila G G; Barsante, Michele M; Rassi, Tatiana; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Sérgio C

    2006-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. DNA-based vaccine is a promising strategy to induce protective immunity against schistosomiasis, since both humoral and cellular immune responses are involved in parasite elimination. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Sm14 cDNA alone or in association with a plasmid expressing murine interleukin (IL)-12 to induce protection against challenge infection. Mice were immunized with four doses of the DNA vaccine and the levels of protection were determined by worm burden recovery after challenge infection. Specific antibody production to rSm14 was determined by ELISA, and cytokine production was measured in splenocyte culture supernatants stimulated with rSm14 and in bronchoalveolar lavage of vaccinated mice after challenge infection. DNA immunization with pCI/Sm14 alone induced 40.5% of worm reduction. However, the use of pCI/IL-12 as adjuvant to pCI/Sm14 immunization failed to enhance protection against challenge infection. Protection induced by pCI/Sm14 immunization correlates with specific IgG antibody production against Sm14, Th1 type of immune response with high levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma and low levels of IL-4 in splenocyte culture supernatants and in bronchoalveolar lavage after challenge infection. IL-12 co-administration with pCI/Sm14 induced a significant production of nitric oxide in splenocyte culture supernatants and also lymphocyte suppression, with reduced percentage of T cells producing IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

  4. Overlapped Fourier coding for optical aberration removal

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We present an imaging procedure that simultaneously optimizes a camera’s resolution and retrieves a sample’s phase over a sequence of snapshots. The technique, termed overlapped Fourier coding (OFC), first digitally pans a small aperture across a camera’s pupil plane with a spatial light modulator. At each aperture location, a unique image is acquired. The OFC algorithm then fuses these low-resolution images into a full-resolution estimate of the complex optical field incident upon the detector. Simultaneously, the algorithm utilizes redundancies within the acquired dataset to computationally estimate and remove unknown optical aberrations and system misalignments via simulated annealing. The result is an imaging system that can computationally overcome its optical imperfections to offer enhanced resolution, at the expense of taking multiple snapshots over time. PMID:25321982

  5. Modified Matching Ronchi Test to Visualize Lens Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Kh; Ziafi, H. Hooshmand

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work…

  6. Aberrated laser beams in terms of Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alda, Javier; Alonso, Jose; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    1996-11-01

    The characterization of light beams has devoted a lot of attention in the past decade. Several formalisms have been presented to treat the problem of parameter invariance and characterization in the propagation of light beam along ideal, ABCD, optical systems. The hard and soft apertured optical systems have been treated too. Also some aberrations have been analyzed, but it has not appeared a formalism able to treat the problem as a whole. In this contribution we use a classical approach to describe the problem of aberrated, and therefore apertured, light beams. The wavefront aberration is included in a pure phase term expanded in terms of the Zernike polynomials. Then, we can use the relation between the lower order Zernike polynomia and the Seidel or third order aberrations. We analyze the astigmatism, the spherical aberration and the coma, and we show how higher order aberrations can be taken into account. We have calculated the divergence, and the radius of curvature of such aberrated beams and the influence of these aberrations in the quality of the light beam. Some numerical simulations have been done to illustrate the method.

  7. Aberrant Breast in a Rare Site: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yeniay, Levent; Mulailwa, Kilongo; Asgerov, Elmir; Hoşcoşkun, Cüneyt; Zekioğlu, Osman

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant breast tissue is an anomaly in the embryogenesis of the breast that is found along the mammary ridge or out of that line. We report a case of a 71-year-old female patient with an abdominal aberrant breast tissue found incidentally in a piece of mesenteric biopsy. The histological features were consistent with breast tissue. PMID:22792115

  8. Sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, A.V.; Kopf, D.A.

    In an electron beam device in which an electron beam is developed and then focused by a lens to a particular spot, there is provided a means for eliminating spherical aberration. A sextupole electromagnetic lens is positioned between two focusing lenses. The interaction of the sextupole with the beam compensates for spherical aberration. (GHT)

  9. Statistical estimation of ultrasonic propagation path parameters for aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Waag, Robert C; Astheimer, Jeffrey P

    2005-05-01

    Parameters in a linear filter model for ultrasonic propagation are found using statistical estimation. The model uses an inhomogeneous-medium Green's function that is decomposed into a homogeneous-transmission term and a path-dependent aberration term. Power and cross-power spectra of random-medium scattering are estimated over the frequency band of the transmit-receive system by using closely situated scattering volumes. The frequency-domain magnitude of the aberration is obtained from a normalization of the power spectrum. The corresponding phase is reconstructed from cross-power spectra of subaperture signals at adjacent receive positions by a recursion. The subapertures constrain the receive sensitivity pattern to eliminate measurement system phase contributions. The recursion uses a Laplacian-based algorithm to obtain phase from phase differences. Pulse-echo waveforms were acquired from a point reflector and a tissue-like scattering phantom through a tissue-mimicking aberration path from neighboring volumes having essentially the same aberration path. Propagation path aberration parameters calculated from the measurements of random scattering through the aberration phantom agree with corresponding parameters calculated for the same aberrator and array position by using echoes from the point reflector. The results indicate the approach describes, in addition to time shifts, waveform amplitude and shape changes produced by propagation through distributed aberration under realistic conditions.

  10. Accuracy of modal wavefront estimation from eye transverse aberration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of random errors in measurement of eye transverse aberrations on the accuracy of reconstructing wave aberration as well as ametropia and astigmatism parameters is investigated. The dependence of mentioned errors on a ratio between the number of measurement points and the number of polynomial coefficients is found for different pupil location of measurement points. Recommendations are proposed for setting these ratios.

  11. Structural centrosome aberrations promote non-cell-autonomous invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Ganier, Olivier; Schnerch, Dominik; Oertle, Philipp; Lim, Roderick Yh; Plodinec, Marija; Nigg, Erich A

    2018-05-02

    Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells. Although centrosome aberrations are common in tumors, their consequences remain subject to debate. Here, we studied the impact of structural centrosome aberrations, induced by deregulated expression of ninein-like protein (NLP), on epithelial spheres grown in Matrigel matrices. We demonstrate that NLP-induced structural centrosome aberrations trigger the escape ("budding") of living cells from epithelia. Remarkably, all cells disseminating into the matrix were undergoing mitosis. This invasive behavior reflects a novel mechanism that depends on the acquisition of two distinct properties. First, NLP-induced centrosome aberrations trigger a re-organization of the cytoskeleton, which stabilizes microtubules and weakens E-cadherin junctions during mitosis. Second, atomic force microscopy reveals that cells harboring these centrosome aberrations display increased stiffness. As a consequence, mitotic cells are pushed out of mosaic epithelia, particularly if they lack centrosome aberrations. We conclude that centrosome aberrations can trigger cell dissemination through a novel, non-cell-autonomous mechanism, raising the prospect that centrosome aberrations contribute to the dissemination of metastatic cells harboring normal centrosomes. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  12. Optical aberrations measurement with a low cost optometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Walter D.; Muñoz-Escrivá, L.; Pons, A.; Martínez-Corral, M.

    2002-08-01

    A simple experimental method for measuring optical aberrations of a single lens is proposed. The technique is based on the use of an optometric instrument employed for the assessment of the refractive state of the eye: the retinoscope. Experimental results for spherical aberration and astigmatism are obtained.

  13. Statistical virtual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-Mei; Liu, Chun-Ling; Luo, Yi-Ning; Liu, Yi-Guang; Hu, Bing-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Wavefront aberration affects the quality of retinal image directly. This paper reviews the representation and reconstruction of wavefront aberration, as well as the construction of virtual eye model based on Zernike polynomial coefficients. In addition, the promising prospect of virtual eye model is emphasized. PMID:23173112

  14. Short- and medium-chain fatty acids in energy metabolism: the cellular perspective.

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, Peter; Wojtczak, Lech

    2016-06-01

    Short- and medium-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and MCFAs), independently of their cellular signaling functions, are important substrates of the energy metabolism and anabolic processes in mammals. SCFAs are mostly generated by colonic bacteria and are predominantly metabolized by enterocytes and liver, whereas MCFAs arise mostly from dietary triglycerides, among them milk and dairy products. A common feature of SCFAs and MCFAs is their carnitine-independent uptake and intramitochondrial activation to acyl-CoA thioesters. Contrary to long-chain fatty acids, the cellular metabolism of SCFAs and MCFAs depends to a lesser extent on fatty acid-binding proteins. SCFAs and MCFAs modulate tissue metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, as manifested by a mostly inhibitory effect on glycolysis and stimulation of lipogenesis or gluconeogenesis. SCFAs and MCFAs exert no or only weak protonophoric and lytic activities in mitochondria and do not significantly impair the electron transport in the respiratory chain. SCFAs and MCFAs modulate mitochondrial energy production by two mechanisms: they provide reducing equivalents to the respiratory chain and partly decrease efficacy of oxidative ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Short- and medium-chain fatty acids in energy metabolism: the cellular perspective

    PubMed Central

    Schönfeld, Peter; Wojtczak, Lech

    2016-01-01

    Short- and medium-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and MCFAs), independently of their cellular signaling functions, are important substrates of the energy metabolism and anabolic processes in mammals. SCFAs are mostly generated by colonic bacteria and are predominantly metabolized by enterocytes and liver, whereas MCFAs arise mostly from dietary triglycerides, among them milk and dairy products. A common feature of SCFAs and MCFAs is their carnitine-independent uptake and intramitochondrial activation to acyl-CoA thioesters. Contrary to long-chain fatty acids, the cellular metabolism of SCFAs and MCFAs depends to a lesser extent on fatty acid-binding proteins. SCFAs and MCFAs modulate tissue metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, as manifested by a mostly inhibitory effect on glycolysis and stimulation of lipogenesis or gluconeogenesis. SCFAs and MCFAs exert no or only weak protonophoric and lytic activities in mitochondria and do not significantly impair the electron transport in the respiratory chain. SCFAs and MCFAs modulate mitochondrial energy production by two mechanisms: they provide reducing equivalents to the respiratory chain and partly decrease efficacy of oxidative ATP synthesis. PMID:27080715

  16. Image based method for aberration measurement of lithographic tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Bo; Guo, Yongxing; Li, Gongfa

    2018-01-01

    Information of lens aberration of lithographic tools is important as it directly affects the intensity distribution in the image plane. Zernike polynomials are commonly used for a mathematical description of lens aberrations. Due to the advantage of lower cost and easier implementation of tools, image based measurement techniques have been widely used. Lithographic tools are typically partially coherent systems that can be described by a bilinear model, which entails time consuming calculations and does not lend a simple and intuitive relationship between lens aberrations and the resulted images. Previous methods for retrieving lens aberrations in such partially coherent systems involve through-focus image measurements and time-consuming iterative algorithms. In this work, we propose a method for aberration measurement in lithographic tools, which only requires measuring two images of intensity distribution. Two linear formulations are derived in matrix forms that directly relate the measured images to the unknown Zernike coefficients. Consequently, an efficient non-iterative solution is obtained.

  17. Surgical and healing changes to ocular aberrations following refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jochen; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To measure ocular aberrations before and at several time periods after LASIK surgery to determine the change to the aberration structure of the eye. Methods: A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure 88 LASIK patients pre-operatively and at 1 week and 12 months following surgery. Reconstructed wavefront errors are compared to look at induced differences. Manifest refraction was measured at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months following surgery. Sphere, cylinder, spherical aberration, and pupil diameter are analyzed. Results: A dramatic elevation in spherical aberration is seen following surgery. This elevation appears almost immediately and remains for the duration of the study. A temporary increase in pupil size is seen following surgery. Conclusions: LASIK surgery dramatically reduces defocus and astigmatism in the eye, but simultaneously increases spherical aberration levels. This increase occurs at the time of surgery and is not an effect of the healing response.

  18. Hydronephrosis by an Aberrant Renal Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung Seok; Jeong, Taek Kyun; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan; Kim, Nam Ho; Choi, Ki Chul; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2003-01-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction is usually intrinsic and is most common in children. Aberrant renal arteries are present in about 30% of individuals. Aberrant renal arteries to the inferior pole cross anteriorly to the ureter and may cause hydronephrosis. To the best of our knowledge, although there are some papers about aberrant renal arteries producing ureteropelvic junction obstruction, there is no report of a case which is diagnosed by the new modalities, such as computed tomography angiogram (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA). We describe a 36-year-old woman with right hydronephrosis. Kidney ultrasonogram and excretory urogram revealed right hydronephrosis. CTA and MRA clearly displayed an aberrant renal artery and hydronephrosis. The patient underwent surgical exploration. For the evaluation of hydronephrosis by an aberrant renal artery, use of CTA and MRA is advocated. PMID:12760271

  19. Aberration-free intraocular lenses - What does this really mean?

    PubMed

    Langenbucher, Achim; Schröder, Simon; Cayless, Alan; Eppig, Timo

    2017-09-01

    So-called aberration-free intraocular lenses (IOLs) are well established in modern cataract surgery. Usually, they are designed to perfectly refract a collimated light beam onto the focal point. We show how much aberration can be expected with such an IOL in a convergent light beam such as that found anterior to the human cornea. Additionally, the aberration in a collimated beam is estimated for an IOL that has no aberrations in the convergent beam. The convergent beam is modelled as the pencil of rays corresponding to the spherical wavefront resulting from a typical corneal power of 43m -1 . The IOLs are modelled as infinitely thin phase plates with 20m -1 optical power placed 5mm behind the cornea. Their aberrations are reported in terms of optical path length difference and longitudinal spherical aberration (LSA) of the marginal rays, as well as nominal spherical aberration (SA) calculated based on a Zernike representation of the wavefront-error at the corneal plane within a 6mm aperture. The IOL designed to have no aberrations in a collimated light beam has an optical path length difference of -1.8μm, and LSA of 0.15m -1 in the convergent beam of a typical eye. The corresponding nominal SA is 0.065μm. The IOL designed to have no aberrations in a convergent light beam has an optical path length difference of 1.8μm, and LSA of -0.15m -1 in the collimated beam. An IOL designed to have no aberrations in a collimated light beam will increase the SA of a patient's eye after implantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Huang, Juan; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and