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Sample records for aberrant gene regulation

  1. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating

  2. Regulation of MYC gene expression by aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rennoll, Sherri; Yochum, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway controls intestinal homeostasis and mutations in components of this pathway are prevalent in human colorectal cancers (CRCs). These mutations lead to inappropriate expression of genes controlled by Wnt responsive DNA elements (WREs). T-cell factor/Lymphoid enhancer factor transcription factors bind WREs and recruit the β-catenin transcriptional co-activator to activate target gene expression. Deregulated expression of the c-MYC proto-oncogene (MYC) by aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling drives colorectal carcinogenesis. In this review, we discuss the current literature pertaining to the identification and characterization of WREs that control oncogenic MYC expression in CRCs. A common theme has emerged whereby these WREs often map distally to the MYC genomic locus and control MYC gene expression through long-range chromatin loops with the MYC proximal promoter. We propose that by determining which of these WREs is critical for CRC pathogenesis, novel strategies can be developed to treat individuals suffering from this disease. PMID:26629312

  3. Cortisol-treated zebrafish embryos develop into pro-inflammatory adults with aberrant immune gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Hartig, Ellen I; Zhu, Shusen; King, Benjamin L; Coffman, James A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic early-life stress increases adult susceptibility to numerous health problems linked to chronic inflammation. One way that this may occur is via glucocorticoid-induced developmental programming. To gain insight into such programming we treated zebrafish embryos with cortisol and examined the effects on both larvae and adults. Treated larvae had elevated whole-body cortisol and glucocorticoid signaling, and upregulated genes associated with defense response and immune system processes. In adulthood the treated fish maintained elevated basal cortisol levels in the absence of exogenous cortisol, and constitutively mis-expressed genes involved in defense response and its regulation. Adults derived from cortisol-treated embryos displayed defective tailfin regeneration, heightened basal expression of pro-inflammatory genes, and failure to appropriately regulate those genes following injury or immunological challenge. These results support the hypothesis that chronically elevated glucocorticoid signaling early in life directs development of a pro-inflammatory adult phenotype, at the expense of immunoregulation and somatic regenerative capacity. PMID:27444789

  4. Cortisol-treated zebrafish embryos develop into pro-inflammatory adults with aberrant immune gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartig, Ellen I.; Zhu, Shusen; King, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic early-life stress increases adult susceptibility to numerous health problems linked to chronic inflammation. One way that this may occur is via glucocorticoid-induced developmental programming. To gain insight into such programming we treated zebrafish embryos with cortisol and examined the effects on both larvae and adults. Treated larvae had elevated whole-body cortisol and glucocorticoid signaling, and upregulated genes associated with defense response and immune system processes. In adulthood the treated fish maintained elevated basal cortisol levels in the absence of exogenous cortisol, and constitutively mis-expressed genes involved in defense response and its regulation. Adults derived from cortisol-treated embryos displayed defective tailfin regeneration, heightened basal expression of pro-inflammatory genes, and failure to appropriately regulate those genes following injury or immunological challenge. These results support the hypothesis that chronically elevated glucocorticoid signaling early in life directs development of a pro-inflammatory adult phenotype, at the expense of immunoregulation and somatic regenerative capacity. PMID:27444789

  5. Genetic association analyses implicate aberrant regulation of innate and adaptive immunity genes in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Deborah S Cunninghame; Pinder, Christopher L; Tombleson, Philip; Behrens, Timothy W; Martín, Javier; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Knight, Julian C; Chen, Lingyan; Replogle, Joseph; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Rönnblom, Lars; Graham, Robert R; Wither, Joan E; Rioux, John D; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Vyse, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; OMIM 152700) is a genetically complex autoimmune disease characterized by loss of immune tolerance to nuclear and cell surface antigens. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) had modest sample sizes, reducing their scope and reliability. Our study comprised 7,219 cases and 15,991 controls of European ancestry: a new GWAS, meta-analysis with a published GWAS and a replication study. We have mapped 43 susceptibility loci, including 10 novel associations. Assisted by dense genome coverage, imputation provided evidence for missense variants underpinning associations in eight genes. Other likely causal genes were established by examining associated alleles for cis-acting eQTL effects in a range of ex vivo immune cells. We found an over-representation (n=16) of transcription factors among SLE susceptibility genes. This supports the view that aberrantly regulated gene expression networks in multiple cell types in both the innate and adaptive immune response contribute to the risk of developing SLE. PMID:26502338

  6. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Biankin, Andrew V.; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Johns, Amber L.; Miller, David K.; Wilson, Peter J.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K.; Cowley, Mark J.; Gardiner, Brooke B.; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Gill, Anthony J.; Pinho, Andreia V.; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J. Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R. Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L.; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D.; Colvin, Emily K.; Nagrial, Adnan M.; Humphrey, Emily S.; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T.; Chantrill, Lorraine A.; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Kench, James G.; Lovell, Jessica A.; Daly, Roger J.; Merrett, Neil D.; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q.; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M.; Fisher, William E.; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Hodges, Sally E.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R.; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J.; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E.; Yung, Christina K.; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Morgan, Richard A.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A.; Mann, Karen M.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Adams, David J.; Largaespada, David A.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Rust, Alistair G.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Tuveson, David A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Wheeler, David A.; Pearson, John V.; McPherson, John D.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:23103869

  7. Functional annotation of rare gene aberration drivers of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Yiu Huen; Dogruluk, Turgut; Tedeschi, Philip M.; Wardwell-Ozgo, Joanna; Lu, Hengyu; Espitia, Maribel; Nair, Nikitha; Minelli, Rosalba; Chong, Zechen; Chen, Fengju; Chang, Qing Edward; Dennison, Jennifer B.; Dogruluk, Armel; Li, Min; Ying, Haoqiang; Bertino, Joseph R.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Ittmann, Michael; Kerrigan, John; Chen, Ken; Creighton, Chad J.; Eterovic, Karina; Mills, Gordon B.; Scott, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    As we enter the era of precision medicine, characterization of cancer genomes will directly influence therapeutic decisions in the clinic. Here we describe a platform enabling functionalization of rare gene mutations through their high-throughput construction, molecular barcoding and delivery to cancer models for in vivo tumour driver screens. We apply these technologies to identify oncogenic drivers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This approach reveals oncogenic activity for rare gene aberrations in genes including NAD Kinase (NADK), which regulates NADP(H) homeostasis and cellular redox state. We further validate mutant NADK, whose expression provides gain-of-function enzymatic activity leading to a reduction in cellular reactive oxygen species and tumorigenesis, and show that depletion of wild-type NADK in PDAC cell lines attenuates cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that annotating rare aberrations can reveal important cancer signalling pathways representing additional therapeutic targets. PMID:26806015

  8. Functional annotation of rare gene aberration drivers of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Yiu Huen; Dogruluk, Turgut; Tedeschi, Philip M; Wardwell-Ozgo, Joanna; Lu, Hengyu; Espitia, Maribel; Nair, Nikitha; Minelli, Rosalba; Chong, Zechen; Chen, Fengju; Chang, Qing Edward; Dennison, Jennifer B; Dogruluk, Armel; Li, Min; Ying, Haoqiang; Bertino, Joseph R; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Ittmann, Michael; Kerrigan, John; Chen, Ken; Creighton, Chad J; Eterovic, Karina; Mills, Gordon B; Scott, Kenneth L

    2016-01-01

    As we enter the era of precision medicine, characterization of cancer genomes will directly influence therapeutic decisions in the clinic. Here we describe a platform enabling functionalization of rare gene mutations through their high-throughput construction, molecular barcoding and delivery to cancer models for in vivo tumour driver screens. We apply these technologies to identify oncogenic drivers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This approach reveals oncogenic activity for rare gene aberrations in genes including NAD Kinase (NADK), which regulates NADP(H) homeostasis and cellular redox state. We further validate mutant NADK, whose expression provides gain-of-function enzymatic activity leading to a reduction in cellular reactive oxygen species and tumorigenesis, and show that depletion of wild-type NADK in PDAC cell lines attenuates cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that annotating rare aberrations can reveal important cancer signalling pathways representing additional therapeutic targets. PMID:26806015

  9. Aberrant expression of homeobox gene SIX1 in Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A.F.

    2015-01-01

    In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) we recently identified deregulated expression of homeobox genes MSX1 and OTX2 which are physiologically involved in development of the embryonal neural plate border region. Here, we examined in HL homeobox gene SIX1 an additional regulator of this embryonal region mediating differentiation of placodal precursors. SIX1 was aberrantly activated in 12 % of HL patient samples in silico, indicating a pathological role in a subset of this B-cell malignancy. In addition, SIX1 expression was detected in HL cell lines which were used as models to reveal upstream factors and target genes of this basic developmental regulator. We detected increased copy numbers of the SIX1 locus at chromosome 14q23 correlating with enhanced expression while chromosomal translocations were absent. Moreover, comparative expression profiling data and pertinent gene modulation experiments indicated that the WNT-signalling pathway and transcription factor MEF2C regulate SIX1 expression. Genes encoding the transcription factors GATA2, GATA3, MSX1 and SPIB – all basic lymphoid regulators - were identified as targets of SIX1 in HL. In addition, cofactors EYA1 and TLE4, respectively, contrastingly mediated activation and suppression of SIX1 target gene expression. Thus, the protein domain interfaces may represent therapeutic targets in SIX1-positive HL subsets. Collectively, our data reveal a gene regulatory network with SIX1 centrally deregulating lymphoid differentiation and support concordance of lymphopoiesis/lymphomagenesis and developmental processes in the neural plate border region. PMID:26473286

  10. Genes and gene regulation

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, N.

    1988-01-01

    Genetics has long been a central topic for biologists, and recent progress has captured the public imagination as well. This book addresses questions that are at the leading edge of this continually advancing discipline. In tune with the increasing emphasis on molecular biology and genetic engineering, this text emphasizes the molecular aspects of gene expression, and the evolution of gene sequence organization and control. It reviews the genetic material of viruses, bacteria, and of higher organisms. Cells and organisms are compared in terms of gene numbers, their arrangements within a cell, and the control mechanisms which regulate the activity of genes.

  11. E2a-Pbx1 induces aberrant expression of tissue-specific and developmentally regulated genes when expressed in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, X; Kamps, M P

    1997-01-01

    The E2a-Pbx1 oncoprotein contains the transactivation domain of E2a joined to the DNA-binding homeodomain (HD) of Pbx1. In mice, E2a-Pbx1 transforms T lymphoblasts and fibroblasts and blocks myeloblast differentiation. Pbx1 and E2a-Pbx1 bind DNA as heterodimers with other HD proteins whose expression is tissue specific. While the transactivation domain of E2a is required for all forms of transformation, DNA binding by the Pbx1 HD is essential for blocking myeloblast differentiation but dispensable for fibroblast or T-lymphoblast transformation. These properties suggest (i) that E2a-Pbx1 causes cellular transformation by activating gene transcription, (ii) that transcription of E2a-Pbx1 target genes is normally regulated by ubiquitous Pbx proteins and tissue-specific partners, and (iii) that DNA-binding mutants of E2a-Pbx1 activate a subset of all gene targets. To test these predictions, genes induced in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts by E2a-Pbx1 were identified and examined for tissue- and stage-specific expression and their differential abilities to be upregulated by E2a-Pbx1 in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and myeloblasts and by a DNA-binding mutant of E2a-Pbx1 in NIH 3T3 cells. Of 12 RNAs induced by E2a-Pbx1, 4 encoded known proteins (a J-C region of the immunoglobulin kappa light chain, natriuretic peptide receptor C, mitochondrial fumarase, and the 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, PDE1A) and 5 encoded new proteins related to angiogenin, ion channels, villin, epidermal growth factor repeat proteins, and the human 2.19 gene product. Expression of many of these genes was tissue specific or developmentally regulated, and most were not expressed in fibroblasts, indicating that E2a-Pbx1 can induce ectopic expression of genes associated with lineage-specific differentiation. PMID:9032278

  12. Aberrant Regulation and Function of MicroRNAs in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Brian D.; Kasinski, Andrea L.; Slack, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Malignant neoplasms are consistently among the top four leading causes of death in all age groups in the United States, despite a concerted effort toward developing novel therapeutic approaches[1]. Our understanding of and therapeutic strategy for treating each of these neoplastic diseases has been elevated through decades of research on the genetics, signaling pathways, and cellular biology that govern tumor cell initiation, progression and maintenance. Much of this work has concentrated on post-translational modifications and abnormalities at the DNA level, including point mutations, amplifications/deletions, and chromosomal translocations, and how these aberrant events affect the expression and function of protein-coding genes. Only recently has a novel class of conserved gene regulatory molecules been identified as major contributors to malignant neoplastic disease. This review focuses on how these small non-coding RNA molecules, termed microRNAs (miRNAs), can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, and how the misexpression of miRNAs and dysregulation of factors that regulate miRNAs contributes to the tumorigenic process. Specific focus is given to more recently discovered regulatory mechanisms that go awry in cancer, and how these changes alter miRNA expression, processing, and function. PMID:25137592

  13. Gene aberrations for precision medicine against lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saito, Motonobu; Shiraishi, Kouya; Kunitoh, Hideo; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Yokota, Jun; Kohno, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), the most frequent histological type of lung cancer, is often triggered by an aberration in a driver oncogene in tumor cells. Examples of such aberrations are EGFR mutation and ALK fusion. Lung adenocarcinoma harboring such mutations can be treated with anticancer drugs that target the aberrant gene products. Additional oncogene aberrations, including RET, ROS1, and NRG1 fusions, skipping of exon 14 of MET, and mutations in BRAF, HER2, NF1, and MEK1, were recently added to the list of such "druggable" driver oncogene aberrations, and their responses to targeted therapies are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. However, approximately 30% and 50% of LADCs in patients in Japan and Europe/USA, respectively, lack the driver oncogene aberrations listed above. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies, such as those that exploit the vulnerabilities of cancer cells with non-oncogene aberrations, are urgently required. This review summarizes the current status of research on precision medicine against LADC and enumerates the research priorities for the near future. PMID:27027665

  14. Deciphering causal and statistical relations of molecular aberrations and gene expressions in NCI-60 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer cells harbor a large number of molecular alterations such as mutations, amplifications and deletions on DNA sequences and epigenetic changes on DNA methylations. These aberrations may dysregulate gene expressions, which in turn drive the malignancy of tumors. Deciphering the causal and statistical relations of molecular aberrations and gene expressions is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms of clinical phenotypes. Results In this work, we proposed a computational method to reconstruct association modules containing driver aberrations, passenger mRNA or microRNA expressions, and putative regulators that mediate the effects from drivers to passengers. By applying the module-finding algorithm to the integrated datasets of NCI-60 cancer cell lines, we found that gene expressions were driven by diverse molecular aberrations including chromosomal segments' copy number variations, gene mutations and DNA methylations, microRNA expressions, and the expressions of transcription factors. In-silico validation indicated that passenger genes were enriched with the regulator binding motifs, functional categories or pathways where the drivers were involved, and co-citations with the driver/regulator genes. Moreover, 6 of 11 predicted MYB targets were down-regulated in an MYB-siRNA treated leukemia cell line. In addition, microRNA expressions were driven by distinct mechanisms from mRNA expressions. Conclusions The results provide rich mechanistic information regarding molecular aberrations and gene expressions in cancer genomes. This kind of integrative analysis will become an important tool for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in the era of personalized medicine. PMID:22051105

  15. Endocrine regulation of HOX genes.

    PubMed

    Daftary, Gaurang S; Taylor, Hugh S

    2006-06-01

    Hox genes have a well-characterized role in embryonic development, where they determine identity along the anteroposterior body axis. Hox genes are expressed not only during embryogenesis but also in the adult, where they are necessary for functional differentiation. Despite the known function of these genes as transcription factors, few regulatory mechanisms that drive Hox expression are known. Recently, several hormones and their cognate receptors have been shown to regulate Hox gene expression and thereby mediate development in the embryo as well as functional differentiation in the adult organism. Estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, retinoic acid, and vitamin D have been shown to regulate Hox gene expression. In the embryo, the endocrine system directs axial Hox gene expression; aberrant Hox gene expression due to exposure to endocrine disruptors contributes to the teratogenicity of these compounds. In the adult, endocrine regulation of Hox genes is necessary to enable such diverse functions as hematopoiesis and reproduction; endocrinopathies can result in dysregulated HOX gene expression affecting physiology. By regulating HOX genes, hormonal signals utilize a conserved mechanism that allows generation of structural and functional diversity in both developing and adult tissues. This review discusses endocrine Hox regulation and its impact on physiology and human pathology. PMID:16632680

  16. Gene expression analysis of aberrant signaling pathways in meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    TORRES-MARTÍN, MIGUEL; MARTINEZ-GLEZ, VICTOR; PEÑA-GRANERO, CAROLINA; ISLA, ALBERTO; LASSALETTA, LUIS; DE CAMPOS, JOSE M.; PINTO, GIOVANNY R.; BURBANO, ROMMEL R.; MELÉNDEZ, BÁRBARA; CASTRESANA, JAVIER S.; REY, JUAN A.

    2013-01-01

    Examining aberrant pathway alterations is one method for understanding the abnormal signals that are involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In the present study, expression arrays were performed on tumor-related genes in meningiomas. The GE Array Q Series HS-006 was used to determine the expression levels of 96 genes that corresponded to six primary biological regulatory pathways in a series of 42 meningiomas, including 32 grade I, four recurrent grade I and six grade II tumors, in addition to three normal tissue controls. Results showed that 25 genes that were primarily associated with apoptosis and angiogenesis functions were downregulated and 13 genes frequently involving DNA damage repair functions were upregulated. In addition to the inactivation of the neurofibromin gene, NF2, which is considered to be an early step in tumorigenesis, variations of other biological regulatory pathways may play a significant role in the development of meningioma. PMID:23946817

  17. Gene expression analysis of aberrant signaling pathways in meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Torres-Martín, Miguel; Martinez-Glez, Victor; Peña-Granero, Carolina; Isla, Alberto; Lassaletta, Luis; DE Campos, Jose M; Pinto, Giovanny R; Burbano, Rommel R; Meléndez, Bárbara; Castresana, Javier S; Rey, Juan A

    2013-07-01

    Examining aberrant pathway alterations is one method for understanding the abnormal signals that are involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In the present study, expression arrays were performed on tumor-related genes in meningiomas. The GE Array Q Series HS-006 was used to determine the expression levels of 96 genes that corresponded to six primary biological regulatory pathways in a series of 42 meningiomas, including 32 grade I, four recurrent grade I and six grade II tumors, in addition to three normal tissue controls. Results showed that 25 genes that were primarily associated with apoptosis and angiogenesis functions were downregulated and 13 genes frequently involving DNA damage repair functions were upregulated. In addition to the inactivation of the neurofibromin gene, NF2, which is considered to be an early step in tumorigenesis, variations of other biological regulatory pathways may play a significant role in the development of meningioma. PMID:23946817

  18. From DNA Copy Number to Gene Expression: Local aberrations, Trisomies and Monosomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, Tal

    The goal of my PhD research was to study the effect of DNA copy number changes on gene expression. DNA copy number aberrations may be local, encompassing several genes, or on the level of an entire chromosome, such as trisomy and monosomy. The main dataset I studied was of Glioblastoma, obtained in the framework of a collaboration, but I worked also with public datasets of cancer and Down's Syndrome. The molecular basis of expression changes in Glioblastoma. Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumors in adults. In collaboration with Prof. Hegi (CHUV, Switzerland), we analyzed a rich Glioblastoma dataset including clinical information, DNA copy number (array CGH) and expression profiles. We explored the correlation between DNA copy number and gene expression at the level of chromosomal arms and local genomic aberrations. We detected known amplification and over expression of oncogenes, as well as deletion and down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes. We exploited that information to map alterations of pathways that are known to be disrupted in Glioblastoma, and tried to characterize samples that have no known alteration in any of the studied pathways. Identifying local DNA aberrations of biological significance. Many types of tumors exhibit chromosomal losses or gains and local amplifications and deletions. A region that is aberrant in many tumors, or whose copy number change is stronger, is more likely to be clinically relevant, and not just a by-product of genetic instability. We developed a novel method that defines and prioritizes aberrations by formalizing these intuitions. The method scores each aberration by the fraction of patients harboring it, its length and its amplitude, and assesses the significance of the score by comparing it to a null distribution obtained by permutations. This approach detects genetic locations that are significantly aberrant, generating a 'genomic aberration profile' for each sample. The 'genomic

  19. Rice ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1, encoding an F-box protein, regulates meristem fate.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Momoyo; Nagasawa, Nobuhiro; Kyozuka, Junko; Nagato, Yasuo

    2007-09-01

    Inflorescence architecture is one of the most important agronomical traits. Characterization of rice aberrant panicle organization 1 (apo1) mutants revealed that APO1 positively controls spikelet number by suppressing the precocious conversion of inflorescence meristems to spikelet meristems. In addition, APO1 is associated with the regulation of the plastchron, floral organ identity, and floral determinacy. Phenotypic analyses of apo1 and floral homeotic double mutants demonstrate that APO1 positively regulates class-C floral homeotic genes, but not class-B genes. Molecular studies revealed that APO1 encodes an F-box protein, an ortholog of Arabidopsis UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGAN (UFO), which is a positive regulator of class-B genes. Overexpression of APO1 caused an increase in inflorescence branches and spikelets. As the mutant inflorescences and flowers differed considerably between apo1 and ufo, the functions of APO1 and UFO appear to have diverged during evolution. PMID:17666027

  20. Aberrant methylation of candidate tumor suppressor genes in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hoebeeck, Jasmien; Michels, Evi; Pattyn, Filip; Combaret, Valérie; Vermeulen, Joëlle; Yigit, Nurten; Hoyoux, Claire; Laureys, Geneviève; De Paepe, Anne; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2009-01-18

    CpG island hypermethylation has been recognized as an alternative mechanism for tumor suppressor gene inactivation. In this study, we performed methylation-specific PCR (MSP) to investigate the methylation status of 10 selected tumor suppressor genes in neuroblastoma. Seven of the investigated genes (CD44, RASSF1A, CASP8, PTEN, ZMYND10, CDH1, PRDM2) showed high frequencies (> or =30%) of methylation in 33 neuroblastoma cell lines. In 42 primary neuroblastoma tumors, the frequencies of methylation were 69%, CD44; 71%, RASSF1A; 56%, CASP8; 25%, PTEN; 15%, ZMYND10; 8%, CDH1; and 0%, PRDM2. Furthermore, CASP8 and CDH1 hypermethylation was significantly associated with poor event-free survival. Meta-analysis of 115 neuroblastoma tumors demonstrated a significant correlation between CASP8 methylation and MYCN amplification. In addition, there was a correlation between ZMYND10 methylation and MYCN amplification. The MSP data, together with optimized mRNA re-expression experiments (in terms of concentration and time of treatment and use of proper reference genes) further strengthen the notion that epigenetic alterations could play a significant role in NB oncogenesis. This study thus warrants the need for a global profiling of gene promoter hypermethylation to identify genome-wide aberrantly methylated genes in order to further understand neuroblastoma pathogenesis and to identify prognostic methylation markers. PMID:18819746

  1. Genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes in chordoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-07-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ∼8 Mb segment at 3p21.1-p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (∼23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (∼40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072194

  2. Aberrantly Expressed Genes in HaCaT Keratinocytes Chronically Exposed to Arsenic Trioxide

    PubMed Central

    Udensi, Udensi K.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Graham-Evans, Barbara E.; Ndebele, Kenneth; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Nanduri, Bindu; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a known environmental toxicant and carcinogen of global public health concern. Arsenic is genotoxic and cytotoxic to human keratinocytes. However, the biological pathways perturbed in keratinocytes by low chronic dose inorganic arsenic are not completely understood. The objective of the investigation was to discover the mechanism of arsenic carcinogenicity in human epidermal keratinocytes. We hypothesize that a combined strategy of DNA microarray, qRT-PCR and gene function annotation will identify aberrantly expressed genes in HaCaT keratinocyte cell line after chronic treatment with arsenic trioxide. Microarray data analysis identified 14 up-regulated genes and 21 down-regulated genes in response to arsenic trioxide. The expression of 4 up-regulated genes and 1 down-regulated gene were confirmed by qRT-PCR. The up-regulated genes were AKR1C3 (Aldo-Keto Reductase family 1, member C3), IGFL1 (Insulin Growth Factor-Like family member 1), IL1R2 (Interleukin 1 Receptor, type 2), and TNFSF18 (Tumor Necrosis Factor [ligand] SuperFamily, member 18) and down-regulated gene was RGS2 (Regulator of G-protein Signaling 2). The observed over expression of TNFSF18 (167 fold) coupled with moderate expression of IGFL1 (3.1 fold), IL1R2 (5.9 fold) and AKR1C3 (9.2 fold) with a decreased RGS2 (2.0 fold) suggests that chronic arsenic exposure could produce sustained levels of TNF with modulation by an IL-1 analogue resulting in chronic immunologic insult. A concomitant decrease in growth inhibiting gene (RGS2) and increase in AKR1C3 may contribute to chronic inflammation leading to metaplasia, which may eventually lead to carcinogenicity in the skin keratinocytes. Also, increased expression of IGFL1 may trigger cancer development and progression in HaCaT keratinocytes. PMID:21461292

  3. Aberrant Gene Promoter Methylation Associated with Sporadic Multiple Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalo, Victoria; Lozano, Juan José; Muñoz, Jenifer; Balaguer, Francesc; Pellisé, Maria; de Miguel, Cristina Rodríguez; Andreu, Montserrat; Jover, Rodrigo; Llor, Xavier; Giráldez, M. Dolores; Ocaña, Teresa; Serradesanferm, Anna; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Jimeno, Mireya; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Sendino, Oriol; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Castells, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) multiplicity has been mainly related to polyposis and non-polyposis hereditary syndromes. In sporadic CRC, aberrant gene promoter methylation has been shown to play a key role in carcinogenesis, although little is known about its involvement in multiplicity. To assess the effect of methylation in tumor multiplicity in sporadic CRC, hypermethylation of key tumor suppressor genes was evaluated in patients with both multiple and solitary tumors, as a proof-of-concept of an underlying epigenetic defect. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined a total of 47 synchronous/metachronous primary CRC from 41 patients, and 41 gender, age (5-year intervals) and tumor location-paired patients with solitary tumors. Exclusion criteria were polyposis syndromes, Lynch syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. DNA methylation at the promoter region of the MGMT, CDKN2A, SFRP1, TMEFF2, HS3ST2 (3OST2), RASSF1A and GATA4 genes was evaluated by quantitative methylation specific PCR in both tumor and corresponding normal appearing colorectal mucosa samples. Overall, patients with multiple lesions exhibited a higher degree of methylation in tumor samples than those with solitary tumors regarding all evaluated genes. After adjusting for age and gender, binomial logistic regression analysis identified methylation of MGMT2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.97; p = 0.008) and RASSF1A (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.13; p = 0.047) as variables independently associated with tumor multiplicity, being the risk related to methylation of any of these two genes 4.57 (95% CI, 1.53 to 13.61; p = 0.006). Moreover, in six patients in whom both tumors were available, we found a correlation in the methylation levels of MGMT2 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17), SFRP1 (r = 0.83, 0.06), HPP1 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17), 3OST2 (r = 0.83, p = 0.06) and GATA4 (r = 0.6, p = 0.24). Methylation in normal appearing colorectal mucosa from patients with multiple

  4. Aberrantly Expressed OTX Homeobox Genes Deregulate B-Cell Differentiation in Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.

    2015-01-01

    In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) we recently reported that deregulated homeobox gene MSX1 mediates repression of the B-cell specific transcription factor ZHX2. In this study we investigated regulation of MSX1 in this B-cell malignancy. Accordingly, we analyzed expression and function of OTX homeobox genes which activate MSX1 transcription during embryonal development in the neural plate border region. Our data demonstrate that OTX1 and OTX2 are aberrantly expressed in both HL patients and cell lines. Moreover, both OTX loci are targeted by genomic gains in overexpressing cell lines. Comparative expression profiling and subsequent pathway modulations in HL cell lines indicated that aberrantly enhanced FGF2-signalling activates the expression of OTX2. Downstream analyses of OTX2 demonstrated transcriptional activation of genes encoding transcription factors MSX1, FOXC1 and ZHX1. Interestingly, examination of the physiological expression profile of ZHX1 in normal hematopoietic cells revealed elevated levels in T-cells and reduced expression in B-cells, indicating a discriminatory role in lymphopoiesis. Furthermore, two OTX-negative HL cell lines overexpressed ZHX1 in correlation with genomic amplification of its locus at chromosomal band 8q24, supporting the oncogenic potential of this gene in HL. Taken together, our data demonstrate that deregulated homeobox genes MSX1 and OTX2 respectively impact transcriptional inhibition of (B-cell specific) ZHX2 and activation of (T-cell specific) ZHX1. Thus, we show how reactivation of a specific embryonal gene regulatory network promotes disturbed B-cell differentiation in HL. PMID:26406991

  5. Alzheimer's disease shares gene expression aberrations with purinergic dysregulation of HPRT deficiency (Lesch-Nyhan disease).

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Hyuk; Friedmann, Theodore

    2015-03-17

    Transcriptomic studies of murine D3 embryonic stem (ES) cells deficient in the purinergic biosynthetic function hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and undergoing dopaminergic neuronal differentiation has demonstrated a marked shift from neuronal to glial gene expression and aberrant expression of multiple genes also known to be aberrantly expressed in Alzheimer's and other CNS disorders. Such genetic dysregulations may indicate some shared pathogenic metabolic mechanisms in diverse CNS diseases. PMID:25636690

  6. Aberrant Expression of Posterior HOX Genes in Well Differentiated Histotypes of Thyroid Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cantile, Monica; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; La Sala, Lucia; La Mantia, Elvira; Scaramuzza, Veronica; Valentino, Elena; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Losito, Simona; Pezzullo, Luciano; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Fulciniti, Franco; Franco, Renato; Botti, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Molecular etiology of thyroid cancers has been widely studied, and several molecular alterations have been identified mainly associated with follicular and papillary histotypes. However, the molecular bases of the complex pathogenesis of thyroid carcinomas remain poorly understood. HOX genes regulate normal embryonic development, cell differentiation and other critical processes in eukaryotic cell life. Several studies have shown that HOX genes play a role in neoplastic transformation of several human tissues. In particular, the genes belonging to HOX paralogous group 13 seem to hold a relevant role in both tumor development and progression. We have identified a significant prognostic role of HOX D13 in pancreatic cancer and we have recently showed the strong and progressive over-expression of HOX C13 in melanoma metastases and deregulation of HOX B13 expression in bladder cancers. In this study we have investigated, by immunohistochemisty and quantitative Real Time PCR, the HOX paralogous group 13 genes/proteins expression in thyroid cancer evolution and progression, also evaluating its ability to discriminate between main histotypes. Our results showed an aberrant expression, both at gene and protein level, of all members belonging to paralogous group 13 (HOX A13, HOX B13, HOX C13 and HOX D13) in adenoma, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers samples. The data suggest a potential role of HOX paralogous group 13 genes in pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of thyroid cancers. PMID:24189220

  7. Aberrant RNA splicing in cancer; expression changes and driver mutations of splicing factor genes.

    PubMed

    Sveen, A; Kilpinen, S; Ruusulehto, A; Lothe, R A; Skotheim, R I

    2016-05-12

    Alternative splicing is a widespread process contributing to structural transcript variation and proteome diversity. In cancer, the splicing process is commonly disrupted, resulting in both functional and non-functional end-products. Cancer-specific splicing events are known to contribute to disease progression; however, the dysregulated splicing patterns found on a genome-wide scale have until recently been less well-studied. In this review, we provide an overview of aberrant RNA splicing and its regulation in cancer. We then focus on the executors of the splicing process. Based on a comprehensive catalog of splicing factor encoding genes and analyses of available gene expression and somatic mutation data, we identify cancer-associated patterns of dysregulation. Splicing factor genes are shown to be significantly differentially expressed between cancer and corresponding normal samples, and to have reduced inter-individual expression variation in cancer. Furthermore, we identify enrichment of predicted cancer-critical genes among the splicing factors. In addition to previously described oncogenic splicing factor genes, we propose 24 novel cancer-critical splicing factors predicted from somatic mutations. PMID:26300000

  8. Focal Chromosomal Copy Number Aberrations Identify CMTM8 and GPR177 as New Candidate Driver Genes in Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Johannes; Schaap, Gerard R.; Baas, Frank; Ylstra, Bauke; Hulsebos, Theo J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor that preferentially develops in adolescents. The tumor is characterized by an abundance of genomic aberrations, which hampers the identification of the driver genes involved in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. Our study aims to identify these genes by the investigation of focal copy number aberrations (CNAs, <3 Mb). For this purpose, we subjected 26 primary tumors of osteosarcoma patients to high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analyses and identified 139 somatic focal CNAs. Of these, 72 had at least one gene located within or overlapping the focal CNA, with a total of 94 genes. For 84 of these genes, the expression status in 31 osteosarcoma samples was determined by expression microarray analysis. This enabled us to identify the genes of which the over- or underexpression was in more than 35% of cases in accordance to their copy number status (gain or loss). These candidate genes were subsequently validated in an independent set and furthermore corroborated as driver genes by verifying their role in other tumor types. We identified CMTM8 as a new candidate tumor suppressor gene and GPR177 as a new candidate oncogene in osteosarcoma. In osteosarcoma, CMTM8 has been shown to suppress EGFR signaling. In other tumor types, CMTM8 is known to suppress the activity of the oncogenic protein c-Met and GPR177 is known as an overexpressed upstream regulator of the Wnt-pathway. Further studies are needed to determine whether these proteins also exert the latter functions in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. PMID:25551557

  9. Fibrinogen gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Fish, Richard J; Neerman-Arbez, Marguerite

    2012-09-01

    The Aα, Bβ and γ polypeptide chains of fibrinogen are encoded by a three gene cluster on human chromosome four. The fibrinogen genes (FGB-FGA-FGG) are expressed almost exclusively in hepatocytes where their output is coordinated to ensure a sufficient mRNA pool for each chain and maintain an abundant plasma fibrinogen protein level. Fibrinogen gene expression is controlled by the activity of proximal promoters which contain binding sites for hepatocyte transcription factors, including proteins which influence fibrinogen transcription in response to acute-phase inflammatory stimuli. The fibrinogen gene cluster also contains cis regulatory elements; enhancer sequences with liver activities identified by sequence conservation and functional genomics. While the transcriptional control of this gene cluster is fascinating biology, the medical impetus to understand fibrinogen gene regulation stems from the association of cardiovascular disease risk with high level circulating fibrinogen. In the general population this level varies from about 1.5 to 3.5 g/l. This variation between individuals is influenced by genotype, suggesting there are genetic variants contributing to fibrinogen levels which reside in fibrinogen regulatory loci. A complete picture of how fibrinogen genes are regulated will therefore point towards novel sources of regulatory variants. In this review we discuss regulation of the fibrinogen genes from proximal promoters and enhancers, the influence of acute-phase stimulation, post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs and functional regulatory variants identified in genetic studies. Finally, we discuss the fibrinogen locus in light of recent advances in understanding chromosomal architecture and suggest future directions for researching the mechanisms that control fibrinogen expression. PMID:22836683

  10. ABERRANT PROMOTER METHYLATION OF MULTIPLE GENES IN SPUTUM FROM INDIVIDUALS EXPOSED TO SMOKY COAL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aberrant methylation in the promoter region of cancer-related genes leads to gene transcriptional inactivation and plays an integral role in lung tumorigenesis. Recent studies demonstrated that promoter methylation was detected not only in lung tumors from patients with lung canc...

  11. Exploiting aberrant mRNA expression in autism for gene discovery and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jinting; Yang, Ence; Yang, Jizhou; Zeng, Yong; Ji, Guoli; Cai, James J

    2016-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by substantial phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity, which greatly complicates the identification of genetic factors that contribute to the disease. Study designs have mainly focused on group differences between cases and controls. The problem is that, by their nature, group difference-based methods (e.g., differential expression analysis) blur or collapse the heterogeneity within groups. By ignoring genes with variable within-group expression, an important axis of genetic heterogeneity contributing to expression variability among affected individuals has been overlooked. To this end, we develop a new gene expression analysis method-aberrant gene expression analysis, based on the multivariate distance commonly used for outlier detection. Our method detects the discrepancies in gene expression dispersion between groups and identifies genes with significantly different expression variability. Using this new method, we re-visited RNA sequencing data generated from post-mortem brain tissues of 47 ASD and 57 control samples. We identified 54 functional gene sets whose expression dispersion in ASD samples is more pronounced than that in controls, as well as 76 co-expression modules present in controls but absent in ASD samples due to ASD-specific aberrant gene expression. We also exploited aberrantly expressed genes as biomarkers for ASD diagnosis. With a whole blood expression data set, we identified three aberrantly expressed gene sets whose expression levels serve as discriminating variables achieving >70 % classification accuracy. In summary, our method represents a novel discovery and diagnostic strategy for ASD. Our findings may help open an expression variability-centered research avenue for other genetically heterogeneous disorders. PMID:27131873

  12. Aberrant crypt foci: detection, gene abnormalities, and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Tetsuji; Miyanishi, Koji; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kukitsu, Takehiro; Takanashi, Kunihiro; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Kogawa, Takahiro; Abe, Tomoyuki; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2005-07-01

    Human aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were first identified as lesions consisting of large thick crypts in colonic mucosa of surgical specimens after staining with methylene blue. Previously we succeeded in identifying ACF by using magnifying endoscopy and analyzed the number, size, and dysplastic features of ACF in normal controls and patients with adenoma or cancer patients. On the basis of these analyses, we strongly suggested that ACF, particularly dysplastic ACF, are precursor lesions of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in humans. In most sporadic ACF, K-ras mutations were positive, but APC mutations were negative irrespective of nondysplastic or dysplastic features. Conversely, in most ACF from familial adenomatous polyposis patients, APC mutations were positive but K-ras mutations were negative. These results may suggest that the molecular mechanism of sporadic colon carcinogenesis is not necessarily the same as that of familial adenomatous polyposis. It was shown that ACF acquired resistance to apoptosis induced by bile salts, whereas normal colonic epithelial cells are turning over consistently by apoptosis. This apoptosis resistance was closely associated with glutathione S-transferase P1-1 expression. One of the most important clinical applications of ACF observation with magnifying endoscopy is its use as a target lesion for chemoprevention. Because ACF are tiny lesions, they should be eradicated during a short time by administration of chemopreventive agents. In fact, we performed an open chemopreventive trial of sulindac and found that the number of ACF was reduced markedly in 2 months. We currently are proceeding with a randomized double-blind trial targeting ACF. PMID:16012995

  13. Aberrant subcellular neuronal calcium regulation in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P

    2011-05-01

    In this mini-review/opinion article we describe evidence that multiple cellular and molecular alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis involve perturbed cellular calcium regulation, and that alterations in synaptic calcium handling may be early and pivotal events in the disease process. With advancing age neurons encounter increased oxidative stress and impaired energy metabolism, which compromise the function of proteins that control membrane excitability and subcellular calcium dynamics. Altered proteolytic cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in response to the aging process in combination with genetic and environmental factors results in the production and accumulation of neurotoxic forms of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ). Aβ undergoes a self-aggregation process and concomitantly generates reactive oxygen species that can trigger membrane-associated oxidative stress which, in turn, impairs the functions of ion-motive ATPases and glutamate and glucose transporters thereby rendering neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Mutations in presenilin-1 that cause early-onset AD increase Aβ production, but also result in an abnormal increase in the size of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. Some of the events in the neurodegenerative cascade can be counteracted in animal models by manipulations that stabilize neuronal calcium homeostasis including dietary energy restriction, agonists of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors and drugs that activate mitochondrial potassium channels. Emerging knowledge of the actions of calcium upstream and downstream of Aβ provides opportunities to develop novel preventative and therapeutic interventions for AD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 11th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:20950656

  14. Aberrant expression of Notch1, HES1, and DTX1 genes in glioblastoma formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Narayanappa, Rajeswari; Rout, Pritilata; Aithal, Madhuri G S; Chand, Ashis Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor accounting for more than 54 % of all gliomas. Despite aggressive treatments, median survival remains less than 1 year. This might be due to the unavailability of effective molecular diagnostic markers and targeted therapy. Thus, it is essential to discover molecular mechanisms underlying disease by identifying dysregulated pathways involved in tumorigenesis. Notch signaling is one such pathway which plays an important role in determining cell fates. Since it is found to play a critical role in many cancers, we investigated the role of Notch genes in glioblastoma with an aim to identify biomarkers that can improve diagnosis. Using real-time PCR, we assessed the expression of Notch genes including receptors (Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, and Notch4), ligands (JAG1, JAG2, and DLL3), downstream targets (HES1 and HEY2), regulator Deltex1 (DTX1), inhibitor NUMB along with transcriptional co-activator MAML1, and a component of gamma-secretase complex APH1A in 15 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) patient samples. Relative quantification was done by the 2(-ΔΔCt) method; the data are presented as fold change in gene expression normalized to an internal control gene and relative to the calibrator. The data revealed aberrant expression of Notch genes in glioblastoma compared to normal brain. More than 85 % of samples showed high Notch1 (P = 0.0397) gene expression and low HES1 (P = 0.011) and DTX1 (P = 0.0001) gene expression. Our results clearly show aberrant expression of Notch genes in glioblastoma which can be used as putative biomarkers together with histopathological observation to improve diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, and patient prognosis. PMID:26662803

  15. Trichostatin A specifically improves the aberrant expression of transcription factor genes in embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kimiko; Oikawa, Mami; Kamimura, Satoshi; Ogonuki, Narumi; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Nakano, Toru; Abe, Kuniya; Ogura, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Although mammalian cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been established in various species, the low developmental efficiency has hampered its practical applications. Treatment of SCNT-derived embryos with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can improve their development, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. To address this question, we analysed gene expression profiles of SCNT-derived 2-cell mouse embryos treated with trichostatin A (TSA), a potent HDAC inhibitor that is best used for mouse cloning. Unexpectedly, TSA had no effect on the numbers of aberrantly expressed genes or the overall gene expression pattern in the embryos. However, in-depth investigation by gene ontology and functional analyses revealed that TSA treatment specifically improved the expression of a small subset of genes encoding transcription factors and their regulatory factors, suggesting their positive involvement in de novo RNA synthesis. Indeed, introduction of one of such transcription factors, Spi-C, into the embryos at least partially mimicked the TSA-induced improvement in embryonic development by activating gene networks associated with transcriptional regulation. Thus, the effects of TSA treatment on embryonic gene expression did not seem to be stochastic, but more specific than expected, targeting genes that direct development and trigger zygotic genome activation at the 2-cell stage. PMID:25974394

  16. Aberrant mRNA processing of the maize Rp1-D rust resistance gene in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Michael A; Steinau, Martin; Park, Robert F; Rooke, Lee; Pacheco, Maria G; Hulbert, Scot H; Trick, Harold N; Pryor, Anthony J

    2004-08-01

    The maize Rp1-D gene confers race-specific resistance against Puccinia sorghi (common leaf rust) isolates containing a corresponding avrRp1-D avirulence gene. An Rp1-D genomic clone and a similar Rp1-D transgene regulated by the maize ubiquitin promoter were transformed independently into susceptible maize lines and shown to confer Rp1-D resistance, demonstrating that this resistance can be transferred as a single gene. Transfer of these functional transgenes into wheat and barley did not result in novel resistances when these plants were challenged with isolates of wheat stem rust (P. graminis), wheat leaf rust (P. triticina), or barley leaf rust (P. hordei). Regardless of the promoter employed, low levels of gene expression were observed. When constitutive promoters were used for transgene expression, a majority of Rp1-D transcripts were truncated in the nucleotide binding site-encoding region by premature polyadenylation. This aberrant mRNA processing was unrelated to gene function because an inactive version of the gene also generated such transcripts. These data demonstrate that resistance gene transfer between species may not be limited only by divergence of signaling effector molecules and pathogen avirulence ligands, but potentially also by more fundamental gene expression and transcript processing limitations. PMID:15305606

  17. Trichostatin A specifically improves the aberrant expression of transcription factor genes in embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kimiko; Oikawa, Mami; Kamimura, Satoshi; Ogonuki, Narumi; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Nakano, Toru; Abe, Kuniya; Ogura, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Although mammalian cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been established in various species, the low developmental efficiency has hampered its practical applications. Treatment of SCNT-derived embryos with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can improve their development, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. To address this question, we analysed gene expression profiles of SCNT-derived 2-cell mouse embryos treated with trichostatin A (TSA), a potent HDAC inhibitor that is best used for mouse cloning. Unexpectedly, TSA had no effect on the numbers of aberrantly expressed genes or the overall gene expression pattern in the embryos. However, in-depth investigation by gene ontology and functional analyses revealed that TSA treatment specifically improved the expression of a small subset of genes encoding transcription factors and their regulatory factors, suggesting their positive involvement in de novo RNA synthesis. Indeed, introduction of one of such transcription factors, Spi-C, into the embryos at least partially mimicked the TSA-induced improvement in embryonic development by activating gene networks associated with transcriptional regulation. Thus, the effects of TSA treatment on embryonic gene expression did not seem to be stochastic, but more specific than expected, targeting genes that direct development and trigger zygotic genome activation at the 2-cell stage. PMID:25974394

  18. Regulation of Airway Mucin Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Philip; Loukoianov, Artem; Wachi, Shinichiro; Wu, Reen

    2015-01-01

    Mucins are important components that exert a variety of functions in cell-cell interaction, epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, and airways protection. In the conducting airways of the lungs, mucins are the major contributor to the viscoelastic property of mucous secretion, which is the major barrier to trapping inhaled microbial organism, particulates, and oxidative pollutants. The homeostasis of mucin production is an important feature in conducting airways for the maintenance of mucociliary function. Aberrant mucin secretion and accumulation in airway lumen are clinical hallmarks associated with various lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, and lung cancer. Among 20 known mucin genes identified, 11 of them have been verified at either the mRNA and/or protein level in airways. The regulation of mucin genes is complicated, as are the mediators and signaling pathways. This review summarizes the current view on the mediators, the signaling pathways, and the transcriptional units that are involved in the regulation of airway mucin gene expression. In addition, we also point out essential features of epigenetic mechanisms for the regulation of these genes. PMID:17961085

  19. Aberrant immunoglobulin and c-myc gene rearrangements in patients with nonmalignant monoclonal cryoglobulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, A.; Wang, N.; Williams, J.M.; Hunt, M.J.; Rosenfeld, S.I.; Condemi, J.J.; Packman, C.H.; Abraham, G.N.

    1987-11-15

    The status of the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes was investigated in patients with idiopathic nonmalignant monoclonal IgG cryoglobulinemia (NCG). In NCG, monoclonal antibodies are synthesized at an accelerated rate by nonmalignant B lymphocytes. In order to determine whether this high production rate is related to a clonal B cell expansion, the rearrangement of the Ig genes was investigated by Southern blot analysis of genomic, /sup 32/P-labelled, DNA extracted from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of four NCG patients. In three of four (VI, BR, and CH) clonal expansion of B cells was detected using probes specific for the genes. BamHI digestion of DNA from VI and BR produced three rearranged fragments which cohybridized with two of the probes. This finding suggested the presence of additional nonsecretory B cell clones and/or disruption of the gene segments spanned by and detected with the probes. In addition, the possibility of aberrant gene rearrangements was supported by noting the alteration of the c-myc gene locus in genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of VI and CH. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from peripheral blood B cells of VI and CH demonstrated aberrant transcripts of the c-myc gene, showing an active role of the altered c-myc locus. Detection of c-myc rearrangement in NCG patients clearly shows that this event may not be a final step in malignant B cell transformation.

  20. Aberrant Alternative Polyadenylation is Responsible for Survivin Up-regulation in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiang-Jun; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Li-Ping; Li, Na; Chang, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Yu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survivin is an oncoprotein silenced in normal mature tissues but reactivated in serous ovarian cancer (SOC). Although transcriptional activation is assumed for its overexpression, the long 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) in survivin gene, which contains many alternate polyadenylation (APA) sites, implies a propensity for posttranscriptional control and therefore was the aim of our study. Methods: The abundance of the coding region, the proximal and the distal region of survivin mRNA 3'-UTR, was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in SOC samples, cell lines, and normal fallopian tube (NFT) tissues. The APA sites were confirmed by rapid amplification of cDNA 3' ends and DNA sequencing. Real-time PCR were used to screen survivin-targeting microRNAs (miRNAs) that were inversely correlated with survivin. The expression of an inversely correlated miRNA was restored by pre-miRNA transfection or induction with a genotoxic agent to test its inhibitory effect on survivin overexpression. Results: Varying degrees of APA were observed in SOC by comparing the abundance of the proximal and the distal region of survivin 3'-UTR, and changes of 3'-UTR correlated significantly with survivin expression (r = 0.708, P < 0.01). The main APA sites are proved at 1197 and 1673 of survivin 3'-UTR by DNA sequencing. Higher level of 3'-UTR proximal region than coding region was observed in NFT, as well as in SOC and cell lines. Among the survivin-targeting miRNAs, only a few highly expressed miRNAs were inversely correlated with survivin levels, and they mainly targeted the distal part of the 3'-UTR. However, in ovarian cancer cells, restoration of an inversely correlated miRNA (miR-34c) showed little effect on survivin expression. Conclusions: In NFT tissues, survivin is not transcriptionally silenced but regulate posttranscriptionally. In SOC, aberrant APA leads to the shortening of survivin 3'-UTR which enables it to escape the negative regulation of mi

  1. ERα propelled aberrant global DNA hypermethylation by activating the DNMT1 gene to enhance anticancer drug resistance in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jinghuan; Ding, Haijian; Zhang, Xin A.; Shao, Lipei; Yang, Nan; Cheng, He; Sun, Luan; Zhu, Dongliang; Yang, Yin; Li, Andi; Han, Xiao; Sun, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced aberrant DNA methylation is the first identified epigenetic marker involved in chemotherapy resistance. Understanding how the aberrant DNA methylation is acquired would impact cancer treatment in theory and practice. In this study we systematically investigated whether and how ERα propelled aberrant global DNA hypermethylation in the context of breast cancer drug resistance. Our data demonstrated that anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) augmented ERα binding to the DNMT1 and DNMT3b promoters to activate DNMT1 and DNMT3b genes, enhancing the PTX resistance of breast cancer cells. In support of these observations, estrogen enhanced multi-drug resistance of breast cancer cells by up-regulation of DNMT1 and DNMT3b genes. Nevertheless, the aberrant global DNA hypermethylation was dominantly induced by ERα-activated-DNMT1, since DNMT1 over-expression significantly increased global DNA methylation and DNMT1 knockdown reversed the ERα-induced global DNA methylation. Altering DNMT3b expression had no detectable effect on global DNA methylation. Consistently, the expression level of DNMT1 was positively correlated with ERα in 78 breast cancer tissue samples shown by our immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis and negatively correlated with relapse-free survival (RFS) and distance metastasis-free survival (DMFS) of ERα-positive breast cancer patients. This study provides a new perspective for understanding the mechanism underlying drug-resistance-facilitating aberrant DNA methylation in breast cancer and other estrogen dependent tumors. PMID:26980709

  2. Association of epigenetic alterations in the human C7orf24 gene with the aberrant gene expression in malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yuji; Hattori, Akira; Yoshiki, Tatsuhiro; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2013-10-01

    Human chromosome 7 open reading frame 24 (C7orf24)/γ-glutamyl cyclotransferase has been suggested to be a potential diagnostic marker for several cancers, including carcinomas in the bladder urothelium, breast and endometrial epithelium. We here investigated the epigenetic regulation of the human C7orf24 promoter in normal diploid ARPE-19 and IMR-90 cells and in the MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines to understand the transcriptional basis for the malignant-associated high expression of C7orf24. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that histone modifications associated with active chromatin were enriched in the proximal region but not in the distal region of the C7orf24 promoter in HeLa and MCF-7 cells. In contrast, elevated levels of histone modifications leading to transcriptional repression and accumulation of heterochromatin proteins in the C7orf24 promoter were observed in the ARPE-19 and IMR-90 cells, compared to the levels in HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells. In parallel, the CpG island of the C7orf24 promoter was methylated to a greater extent in the normal cells than in the cancer cells. These results suggest that the transcriptional silencing of the C7orf24 gene in the non-malignant cells is elicited through heterochromatin formation in its promoter region; aberrant expression of C7orf24 associated with malignant alterations results from changes in chromatin dynamics. PMID:23853312

  3. Aberrant regulation of the LIN28A/LIN28B and let-7 loop in human malignant tumors and its effects on the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianzhen; Wang, Guangyu; Hao, Dapeng; Liu, Xi; Wang, Dong; Ning, Ning; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are two of the most important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, and their aberrant expression contributes to the development of human malignancies. Let-7, one of the most well-known tumor suppressors, is frequently down-regulated in a variety of human cancers. The RBP LIN28A/LIN28B, a direct target of the let-7 family of miRNAs, is an inhibitor of let-7 biogenesis and is frequently up-regulated in cancers. Aberrant regulation of the LIN28A/LIN28B and let-7 loop in human malignant tumors is reportedly involved in cancer development, contributing to cellular proliferation, cell death resistance, angiogenesis, metastasis, metabolism reprogramming, tumor-associated inflammation, genome instability, acquiring immortality and evading immune destruction. In this review, we summarized the mechanisms of LIN28A/LIN28B and let-7 loop aberrant regulation in human cancer and discussed the roles and potential mechanisms of the LIN28A/LIN28B and let-7 loop in regulating the hallmarks of cancer. The crosstalk between LIN28A/LIN28B and let-7 loop and certain oncogenes (such as MYC, RAS, PI3K/AKT, NF-κB and β-catenin) in regulating hallmarks of cancer has also been discussed. PMID:26123544

  4. PAX8 is transcribed aberrantly in cervical tumors and derived cell lines due to complex gene rearrangements.

    PubMed

    López-Urrutia, Eduardo; Pedroza-Torres, Abraham; Fernández-Retana, Jorge; De Leon, David Cantu; Morales-González, Fermín; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; García-Mendez, Jorge; García-Castillo, Verónica; Bautista-Isidro, Osvaldo; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor PAX8, a member of the paired box-containing gene family with an important role in embryogenesis of the kidney, thyroid gland and nervous system, has been described as a biomarker in tumors of the thyroid, parathyroid, kidney and thymus. The PAX8 gene gives rise to four isoforms, through alternative mRNA splicing, but the splicing pattern in tumors is not yet established. Cervical cancer has a positive expression of PAX8; however, there is no available data determining which PAX8 isoform or isoforms are present in cervical cancer tissues as well as in cervical carcinoma-derived cell lines. Instead of a differential pattern of splicing isoforms, we found numerous previously unreported PAX8 aberrant transcripts ranging from 378 to 542 bases and present in both cervical carcinoma-derived cell lines and tumor samples. This is the first report of PAX8 aberrant transcript production in cervical cancer. Reported PAX8 isoforms possess differential transactivation properties; therefore, besides being a helpful marker for detection of cancer, PAX8 isoforms can plausibly exert differential regulation properties during carcinogenesis. PMID:27175788

  5. Chromosomal Aberrations in Canine Gliomas Define Candidate Genes and Common Pathways in Dogs and Humans.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Peter J; York, Dan; Higgins, Robert J; LeCouteur, Richard A; Joshi, Nikhil; Bannasch, Danika

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous gliomas in dogs occur at a frequency similar to that in humans and may provide a translational model for therapeutic development and comparative biological investigations. Copy number alterations in 38 canine gliomas, including diffuse astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed oligoastrocytomas, were defined using an Illumina 170K single nucleotide polymorphism array. Highly recurrent alterations were seen in up to 85% of some tumor types, most notably involving chromosomes 13, 22, and 38, and gliomas clustered into 2 major groups consisting of high-grade IV astrocytomas, or oligodendrogliomas and other tumors. Tumor types were characterized by specific broad and focal chromosomal events including focal loss of the INK4A/B locus in glioblastoma and loss of the RB1 gene and amplification of the PDGFRA gene in oligodendrogliomas. Genes associated with the 3 critical pathways in human high-grade gliomas (TP53, RB1, and RTK/RAS/PI3K) were frequently associated with canine aberrations. Analysis of oligodendrogliomas revealed regions of chromosomal losses syntenic to human 1p involving tumor suppressor genes, such as CDKN2C, as well as genes associated with apoptosis, autophagy, and response to chemotherapy and radiation. Analysis of high frequency chromosomal aberrations with respect to human orthologues may provide insight into both novel and common pathways in gliomagenesis and response to therapy. PMID:27251041

  6. Identification of aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation in primordial germ cells between E13 and E16 rat F3 generation vinclozolin lineage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Transgenerational epigenetics (TGE) are currently considered important in disease, but the mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. TGE abnormalities expected to cause disease are likely to be initiated during development and to be mediated by aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation that is heritable between generations. However, because methylation is removed and then re-established during development, it is not easy to identify promoter methylation abnormalities by comparing normal lineages with those expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities. Methods This study applied the recently proposed principal component analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction to previously reported and publically available gene expression/promoter methylation profiles of rat primordial germ cells, between E13 and E16 of the F3 generation vinclozolin lineage that are expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities, to identify multiple genes that exhibited aberrant gene expression/promoter methylation during development. Results The biological feasibility of the identified genes were tested via enrichment analyses of various biological concepts including pathway analysis, gene ontology terms and protein-protein interactions. All validations suggested superiority of the proposed method over three conventional and popular supervised methods that employed t test, limma and significance analysis of microarrays, respectively. The identified genes were globally related to tumors, the prostate, kidney, testis and the immune system and were previously reported to be related to various diseases caused by TGE. Conclusions Among the genes reported by PCA-based unsupervised feature extraction, we propose that chemokine signaling pathways and leucine rich repeat proteins are key factors that initiate transgenerational epigenetic-mediated diseases, because multiple genes included in these two categories were identified in this study. PMID:26677731

  7. Deletion and aberrant CpG island methylation of Caspase 8 gene in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Pilar; Bello, M Josefa; Inda, M Mar; Alonso, M Eva; Arjona, Dolores; Amiñoso, Cinthia; Lopez-Marin, Isabel; de Campos, Jose M; Sarasa, Jose L; Castresana, Javier S; Rey, Juan A

    2004-09-01

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands in human genes is an alternative genetic inactivation mechanism that contributes to the development of human tumors. Nevertheless, few studies have analyzed methylation in medulloblastomas. We determined the frequency of aberrant CpG island methylation for Caspase 8 (CASP8) in a group of 24 medulloblastomas arising in 8 adult and 16 pediatric patients. Complete methylation of CASP8 was found in 15 tumors (62%) and one case displayed hemimethylation. Three samples amplified neither of the two primer sets for methylated or unmethylated alleles, suggesting that genomic deletion occurred in the 5' flanking region of CASP8. Our findings suggest that methylation commonly contributes to CASP8 silencing in medulloblastomas and that homozygous deletion or severe sequence changes involving the promoter region may be another mechanism leading to CASP8 inactivation in this neoplasm. PMID:15289853

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans TRPV Channels Function in a Modality-Specific Pathway to Regulate Response to Aberrant Sensory Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ezak , Meredith J.; Hong , Elizabeth; Chaparro-Garcia , Angela; Ferkey , Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Olfaction and some forms of taste (including bitter) are mediated by G protein-coupled signal transduction pathways. Olfactory and gustatory ligands bind to chemosensory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in specialized sensory cells to activate intracellular signal transduction cascades. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are negative regulators of signaling that specifically phosphorylate activated GPCRs to terminate signaling. Although loss of GRK function usually results in enhanced cellular signaling, Caenorhabditis elegans lacking GRK-2 function are not hypersensitive to chemosensory stimuli. Instead, grk-2 mutant animals do not chemotax toward attractive olfactory stimuli or avoid aversive tastes and smells. We show here that loss-of-function mutations in the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels OSM-9 and OCR-2 selectively restore grk-2 behavioral avoidance of bitter tastants, revealing modality-specific mechanisms for TRPV channel function in the regulation of C. elegans chemosensation. Additionally, a single amino acid point mutation in OCR-2 that disrupts TRPV channel-mediated gene expression, but does not decrease channel function in chemosensory primary signal transduction, also restores grk-2 bitter taste avoidance. Thus, loss of GRK-2 function may lead to changes in gene expression, via OSM-9/OCR-2, to selectively alter the levels of signaling components that transduce or regulate bitter taste responses. Our results suggest a novel mechanism and multiple modality-specific pathways that sensory cells employ in response to aberrant signal transduction. PMID:20176974

  9. Aberrant epigenetic regulation in clear cell sarcoma of the kidney featuring distinct DNA hypermethylation and EZH2 overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Caroline; O'Sullivan, Maureen J.; Mengelbier, Linda Holmquist; Gisselsson, David

    2016-01-01

    The global methylation profile and the mutational status of 633 specific epigenetic regulators were analyzed in the pediatric tumor clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK). Methylation array analyses of 30 CCSKs revealed CCSK tumor DNA to be globally hypermethylated compared to Wilms tumor, normal fetal kidney, and adult kidney. The aberrant methylation pattern of CCSKs was associated with activation of genes involved in embryonic processes and with silencing of genes linked to normal kidney function. No epigenetic regulator was recurrently mutated in our cohort, but a mutation in the key epigenetic regulator EZH2 was discovered in one case. EZH2 mRNA was significantly higher in CCSK compared to Wilms tumor and normal kidney, and the EZH2 protein was strongly expressed in more than 90 % of CCSK tumor cells in 9/9 tumors analyzed. This was in striking contrast to the lack of EZH2 protein expression in Wilms tumor stromal elements, indicating that EZH2 could be explored further as a diagnostic marker and a potential drug target for CCSK. PMID:26848979

  10. An integrative genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals molecular pathways and networks regulated by copy number aberrations in basal-like, HER2 and luminal cancers.

    PubMed

    Natrajan, Rachael; Weigelt, Britta; Mackay, Alan; Geyer, Felipe C; Grigoriadis, Anita; Tan, David S P; Jones, Chris; Lord, Christopher J; Vatcheva, Radost; Rodriguez-Pinilla, Socorro M; Palacios, Jose; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-06-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease caused by the accumulation of genetic changes in neoplastic cells. We hypothesised that molecular subtypes of breast cancer may be driven by specific constellations of genes whose expression is regulated by gene copy number aberrations. To address this question, we analysed a series of 48 microdissected grade III ductal carcinomas using high resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridisation and mRNA expression arrays. There were 5,931 genes whose expression significantly correlates with copy number identified; out of these, 1,897 genes were significantly differentially expressed between basal-like, HER2 and luminal tumours. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed that 'G1/S cell cycle regulation' and 'BRCA1 in DNA damage control' pathways were significantly enriched for genes whose expression correlates with copy number and are differentially expressed between the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. IPA of genes whose expression significantly correlates with copy number in each molecular subtype individually revealed that canonical pathways involved in oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling and DNA repair are enriched for these genes. We also identified 32, 157 and 265 genes significantly overexpressed when amplified in basal-like, HER2 and luminal cancers, respectively. These lists include known and novel potential therapeutic targets (e.g. HER2 and PPM1D in HER2 cancers). Our results provide strong circumstantial evidence that different patterns of genetic aberrations in distinct molecular subtypes of breast cancer contribute to their specific transcriptomic profiles and that biological phenomena characteristic of each subtype (e.g. proliferation, HER2 and ER signalling) may be driven by specific patterns of copy number aberrations. PMID:19688261

  11. Aberrant promoter methylation of multiple genes in sputum from individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Lan, Qing; Shen, Min; Mumford, Judy; Keohavong, Phouthone

    2010-01-01

    Summary Aberrant methylation in the promoter region of cancer-related genes leads to gene transcriptional inactivation and plays an integral role in lung tumorigenesis. Recent studies demonstrated that promoter methylation was detected not only in lung tumors from patients with lung cancer but also in sputum of smokers without the disease, suggesting the potential for aberrant gene promoter methylation in sputum as a predictive marker for lung cancer. In the present study, we investigated promoter methylation of 4 genes frequently detected in lung tumors, including p16, MGMT, RASSF1A and DAPK genes, in sputum samples obtained from 107 individuals, including 34 never-smoking females and 73 mostly smoking males, who had no evidence of lung cancer but who were exposed to smoky coal emission in Xuan Wei County, China, where lung cancer rate is more than 6 times the Chinese national average rate. Forty nine of the individuals showed evidence of chronic bronchitis while the remaining 58 individuals showed no such a symptom. Promoter methylation of p16, MGMT, RASSF1A and DAPK was detected in 51.4% (55/107), 17.8% (19/107), 29.9% (32/107), and 15.9% (17/107) of the sputum samples from these individuals, respectively. There were no differences in promoter methylation frequencies of any of these genes according to smoking status or gender of the subjects or between individuals with chronic bronchitis and those without evidence of such a symptom. Therefore, individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions in this region harbored in their sputum frequent promoter methylation of these genes that have been previously found in lung tumors and implicated in lung cancer development. PMID:18751376

  12. Association of Cigarette Smoking with Aberrant Methylation of the Tumor Suppressor Gene RARβ2 in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Xing, Mingzhao

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant gene methylation is often seen in thyroid cancer, a common endocrine malignancy. Tobacco smoking has been shown to be associated with aberrant gene methylation in several cancers, but its relationship with gene methylation in thyroid cancer has not been examined. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between smoking of patients and aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes for TIMP3, SLC5A8, death-associated protein kinase, and retinoic acid receptor β2 (RARβ2) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), the most common type of thyroid cancer. The promoter methylation status of these genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time methylation-specific PCR on bisulfite-treated genomic DNA isolated from tumor tissues and correlated with smoking history of the patients. Among the four genes, methylation of the RARβ2 gene was significantly associated with smoking and other three genes showed a trend of association. Specifically, among the 138 patients investigated, 13/42 (31.0%) ever smokers vs. 10/96 (10.4%) never smokers harbored methylation of the RARβ2 gene (P = 0.003). This association was highly significant also in the subset of conventional variant PTC (P = 0.005) and marginally significant in follicular variant PTC (P = 0.06). The results demonstrate that smoking-associated aberrant methylation of the RARβ2 gene is a specific molecular event that may represent an important mechanism in thyroid tumorigenesis in smokers. PMID:22649395

  13. Screening targeted testis‑specific genes for molecular assessment of aberrant sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue Xia; Shen, Xiao Fang; Liu, Fu-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Teratospermia is a heterogeneous and complex disorder, which is closely associated with male fertility. Genes and gene products associated with teratospermia may serve as targeted biomarkers that help understand the underlying mechanisms of male infertility; however, systematic information on the subject remains to be elucidated. The present study performed a comparative bioinformatics analysis to identify biomarkers associated with sperm quality, particular focusing on testis‑specific biomarkers. A stepwise screening approach identified 1,085 testis/epididymis‑specific genes and 3,406 teratospermia‑associated genes, resulting in 348 testis‑specific genes associated with aberrant sperm quality. These genes were functionally associated with the reproduction process. Gene products corresponding to heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 4 like (HSPA4L) and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 were characterized at the cellular level in human testes and ejaculated spermatozoa. HSPA4L expression in sperm was revealed to be associated with sperm quality. The present study provided a novel insight into the understanding of sperm quality, and a potential method for the diagnosis and assessment of sperm quality in the event of male infertility. PMID:27356588

  14. Screening targeted testis-specific genes for molecular assessment of aberrant sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue Xia; Shen, Xiao Fang; Liu, Fu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Teratospermia is a heterogeneous and complex disorder, which is closely associated with male fertility. Genes and gene products associated with teratospermia may serve as targeted biomarkers that help understand the underlying mechanisms of male infertility; however, systematic information on the subject remains to be elucidated. The present study performed a comparative bioinformatics analysis to identify biomarkers associated with sperm quality, particular focusing on testis-specific biomarkers. A stepwise screening approach identified 1,085 testis/epididymis-specific genes and 3,406 teratospermia-associated genes, resulting in 348 testis-specific genes associated with aberrant sperm quality. These genes were functionally associated with the reproduction process. Gene products corresponding to heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 4 like (HSPA4L) and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 were characterized at the cellular level in human testes and ejaculated spermatozoa. HSPA4L expression in sperm was revealed to be associated with sperm quality. The present study provided a novel insight into the understanding of sperm quality, and a potential method for the diagnosis and assessment of sperm quality in the event of male infertility. PMID:27356588

  15. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. Material/Methods Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. Results We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. Conclusions Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  16. Aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes in gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST).

    PubMed

    Balassiano, Karen; Lima, Sheila; Jenab, Mazda; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Canzian, Federico; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Meidtner, Karina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Laglou, Pagona; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Lund, Eiliv; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Numans, Mattjis E; Peeters, Petra H M; Ramon Quirós, J; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Hallmans, Göran; Stenling, Roger; Ehrnström, Roy; Regner, Sara; Allen, Naomi E; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Sala, Nuria; Riboli, Elio; Hainaut, Pierre; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Sylla, Bakary S; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Herceg, Zdenko

    2011-12-01

    Epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in the regulation of critical biological processes and in the development of a wide variety of human malignancies, including gastric cancer (GC), however precise gene targets of aberrant DNA methylation in GC remain largely unknown. Here, we have combined pyrosequencing-based quantitative analysis of DNA methylation in 98 GC cases and 64 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and in cancer tissue and non-tumorigenic adjacent tissue of an independent series of GC samples. A panel of 10 cancer-associated genes (CHRNA3, DOK1, MGMT, RASSF1A, p14ARF, CDH1, MLH1, ALDH2, GNMT and MTHFR) and LINE-1 repetitive elements were included in the analysis and their association with clinicopathological characteristics (sex, age at diagnosis, anatomical sub-site, histological sub-type) was examined. Three out of the 10 genes analyzed exhibited a marked hypermethylation, whereas two genes (ALDH2 and MTHFR) showed significant hypomethylation, in gastric tumors. Among differentially methylated genes, we identified new genes (CHRNA3 and DOK1) as targets of aberrant hypermethylation in GC, suggesting that epigenetic deregulation of these genes and their corresponding cellular pathways may promote the development and progression of GC. We also found that global demethylation of tumor cell genomes occurs in GC, consistent with the notion that abnormal hypermethylation of specific genes occurs concomitantly with genome-wide hypomethylation. Age and gender had no significant influence on methylation states, but an association was observed between LINE-1 and MLH1 methylation levels with histological sub-type and anatomical sub-site. This study identifies aberrant methylation patters in specific genes in GC thus providing information that could be exploited as novel biomarkers in clinics and molecular epidemiology of GC. PMID:21831520

  17. Analysis of genomic aberrations and gene expression profiling identifies novel lesions and pathways in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K L; Lin, X; Wolniak, K; Ebert, B L; Berkofsky-Fessler, W; Buzzai, M; Sun, Y; Xi, C; Elkin, P; Levine, R; Golub, T; Gilliland, D G; Crispino, J D; Licht, J D; Zhang, W

    2011-01-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, are myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) with distinct clinical features and are associated with the JAK2V617F mutation. To identify genomic anomalies involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders, we profiled 87 MPN patients using Affymetrix 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Aberrations affecting chr9 were the most frequently observed and included 9pLOH (n=16), trisomy 9 (n=6) and amplifications of 9p13.3–23.3 (n=1), 9q33.1–34.13 (n=1) and 9q34.13 (n=6). Patients with trisomy 9 were associated with elevated JAK2V617F mutant allele burden, suggesting that gain of chr9 represents an alternative mechanism for increasing JAK2V617F dosage. Gene expression profiling of patients with and without chr9 abnormalities (+9, 9pLOH), identified genes potentially involved in disease pathogenesis including JAK2, STAT5B and MAPK14. We also observed recurrent gains of 1p36.31–36.33 (n=6), 17q21.2–q21.31 (n=5) and 17q25.1–25.3 (n=5) and deletions affecting 18p11.31–11.32 (n=8). Combined SNP and gene expression analysis identified aberrations affecting components of a non-canonical PRC2 complex (EZH1, SUZ12 and JARID2) and genes comprising a ‘HSC signature' (MLLT3, SMARCA2 and PBX1). We show that NFIB, which is amplified in 7/87 MPN patients and upregulated in PV CD34+ cells, protects cells from apoptosis induced by cytokine withdrawal. PMID:22829077

  18. Reversible histone methylation regulates brain gene expression and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Andreassi, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic chromatin remodeling, including reversible histone methylation, regulates gene transcription in brain development and synaptic plasticity. Aberrant chromatin modifications due to mutant chromatin enzymes or chemical exposures have been associated with neurological or psychiatric disorders such as mental retardation, schizophrenia, depression, and drug addiction. Some chromatin enzymes, such as histone demethylases JARID1C and UTX, are coded by X-linked genes which are not X-inactivated in females. The higher expression of JARID1C and UTX in females could contribute to sex differences in brain development and behavior. PMID:20816965

  19. The aberrant expression of MEG3 regulated by UHRF1 predicts the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Han; Tang, Junwei; Lin, Zhe; Jiang, Runqiu; Zhang, Xudong; Ji, Jie; Wang, Ping; Sun, Beicheng

    2016-02-01

    MEG3 as a tumor suppressor has been reported to be linked with pathogenesis of malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism of MEG3 in HCC still remains unclear. In our study, the aberrant decreased level of MEG3 in 72 tumor tissues obtained from HCC patients and cell lines was examined by using real-time PCR. The inhibition affection in proliferation and inducing affection in apoptosis was further confirmed in vivo and vitro, we also demonstrated that MEG3 regulates HCC cell proliferation and apoptosis partially via the accumulation of p53. Besides, the hypermethylation of MEG3 in promoter region was identified by bisulfite sequencing while MEG3 increased with the inhibition of methylation. Subsequently, UHRF1, a new identified oncogene which is required for DNA methylation and recruits, was investigated. A negative correlation of MEG3 and UHRF1 expression was verified in primary HCC tissues. Down-regulation of UHRF1 induced MEG3 expression in HCC cell lines, which could be reversed by the up-regulation of UHRF1. In addition, up-regulation of MEG3 in HCC cells partially diminished the promotion of proliferation induced by UHRF1. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the patients with low expression of MEG3 indicated worse overall and relapse-free survivals compared with high expression of MEG3. Cox proportional hazards analyses showed that MEG3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients. In conclusion, we demonstrated MEG3, acting as a potential biomarker in predicting the prognosis of HCC, was regulated by UHRF1 via recruiting DNMT1 and regulated p53 expression. PMID:25641194

  20. Genetic variation in the major mitotic checkpoint genes associated with chromosomal aberrations in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Försti, Asta; Frank, Christoph; Smolkova, Bozena; Kazimirova, Alena; Barancokova, Magdalena; Vymetalkova, Veronika; Kroupa, Michal; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodickova, Ludmila; Buchancova, Janka; Dusinska, Maria; Musak, Ludovit; Vodicka, Pavel; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-10-01

    Non-specific chromosomal aberrations (CAs) are microscopically detected in about 1% of lymphocytes drawn from healthy persons. Causes of CAs in general population are not known but they may be related to risk of cancer. In view of the importance of the mitotic checkpoint machinery on maintaining chromosomal integrity we selected 9 variants in main checkpoint related genes (BUB1B, BUB3, MAD2L1, CENPF, ESPL1/separase, NEK2, PTTG1/securin, ZWILCH and ZWINT) for a genotyping study on samples from healthy individuals (N = 330 to 729) whose lymphocytes had an increased number of CAs compared to persons with a low number of CAs. Genetic variation in individual genes played a minor importance, consistent with the high conservation and selection pressure of the checkpoint system. However, gene pairs were significantly associated with CAs: PTTG1-ZWILCH and PTTG1-ZWINT. MAD2L1 and PTTG1 were the most common partners in any of the two-way interactions. The results suggest that interactions at the level of cohesin (PTTG1) and kinetochore function (ZWINT, ZWILCH and MAD2L1) contribute to the frequency of CAs, suggesting that gene variants at different checkpoint functions appeared to be required for the formation of CAs. PMID:27424524

  1. Phytochrome-regulated Gene Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of all genes involved in the phytochrome (phy)-mediated responses of plants to their light environment is an important goal in providing an overall understanding of light-regulated growth and development. This article highlights and integrates the central findings of two recent compre...

  2. [Chromosomal aberrations and genetic polymorphism in genes of the xenobiotic detoxification and DNA repair enzymes in thermoelectric power plant employers].

    PubMed

    Savchenko, Ia A; Minina, V I; Bakanova, M L

    2012-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the interrelationship between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and detoxification enzymes (GSTM1, GSTT1) and DNA repair (hOGG1, XPD) genes in the employees of fuel energy complex in Kemerovo are presented In the group of the workers frequency of metaphases with aberrations (3,9 +/- 0,2%: n = 288) was shown to be significantly higher than in the comparison group (2,1 0, 2%: n = +/- 141). In the group of workers and control donors statistically significant differences were revealed in the frequency of distribution of the GSTT1 and hOGG1 genes. The level of chromosomal aberrations was established to be higher in patients with GSTM1 genotype "0/0" in the group of control donors. PMID:23458003

  3. The Histone Demethylase Jarid1b Ensures Faithful Mouse Development by Protecting Developmental Genes from Aberrant H3K4me3

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, Susanne M.; Malatesta, Martina; Morales Torres, Cristina; Rekling, Jens C.; Johansen, Jens V.; Abarrategui, Iratxe; Helin, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic development is tightly regulated by transcription factors and chromatin-associated proteins. H3K4me3 is associated with active transcription and H3K27me3 with gene repression, while the combination of both keeps genes required for development in a plastic state. Here we show that deletion of the H3K4me2/3 histone demethylase Jarid1b (Kdm5b/Plu1) results in major neonatal lethality due to respiratory failure. Jarid1b knockout embryos have several neural defects including disorganized cranial nerves, defects in eye development, and increased incidences of exencephaly. Moreover, in line with an overlap of Jarid1b and Polycomb target genes, Jarid1b knockout embryos display homeotic skeletal transformations typical for Polycomb mutants, supporting a functional interplay between Polycomb proteins and Jarid1b. To understand how Jarid1b regulates mouse development, we performed a genome-wide analysis of histone modifications, which demonstrated that normally inactive genes encoding developmental regulators acquire aberrant H3K4me3 during early embryogenesis in Jarid1b knockout embryos. H3K4me3 accumulates as embryonic development proceeds, leading to increased expression of neural master regulators like Pax6 and Otx2 in Jarid1b knockout brains. Taken together, these results suggest that Jarid1b regulates mouse development by protecting developmental genes from inappropriate acquisition of active histone modifications. PMID:23637629

  4. Methylation of tumor suppressor genes is related with copy number aberrations in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murria, Rosa; Palanca, Sarai; de Juan, Inmaculada; Egoavil, Cecilia; Alenda, Cristina; García-Casado, Zaida; Juan, María J; Sánchez, Ana B; Santaballa, Ana; Chirivella, Isabel; Segura, Ángel; Hervás, David; Llop, Marta; Barragán, Eva; Bolufer, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship of promoter methylation in tumor suppressor genes with copy-number aberrations (CNA) and with tumor markers in breast cancer (BCs). The study includes 98 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded BCs in which promoter methylation of 24 tumour suppressor genes were assessed by Methylation-Specific Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MS-MLPA), CNA of 20 BC related genes by MLPA and ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, CK18, EGFR, Cadherin-E, P53, Ki-67 and PARP expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cluster analysis classed BCs in two groups according to promoter methylation percentage: the highly-methylated group (16 BCs), containing mostly hyper-methylated genes, and the sparsely-methylated group (82 BCs) with hypo-methylated genes. ATM, CDKN2A, VHL, CHFR and CDKN2B showed the greatest differences in the mean methylation percentage between these groups. We found no relationship of the IHC parameters or pathological features with methylation status, except for Catherin-E (p = 0.008). However the highly methylated BCs showed higher CNA proportion than the sparsely methylated BCs (p < 0.001, OR = 1.62; IC 95% [1.26, 2.07]). CDC6, MAPT, MED1, PRMD14 and AURKA showed the major differences in the CNA percentage between the two groups, exceeding the 22%. Methylation in RASSF1, CASP8, DAPK1 and GSTP1 conferred the highest probability of harboring CNA. Our results show a new link between promoter methylation and CNA giving support to the importance of methylation events to establish new BCs subtypes. Our findings may be also of relevance in personalized therapy assessment, which could benefit the hyper methylated BC patients group. PMID:25628946

  5. Focal and aberrant prefrontal engagement during emotion regulation in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rabinak, Christine A.; MacNamara, Annmarie; Kennedy, Amy E.; Angstadt, Mike; Stein, Murray B.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

    2014-01-01

    Background Collectively, functional neuroimaging studies implicate frontal-limbic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as reflected by altered amygdala reactivity and deficient prefrontal responses. These neural patterns are often elicited by social signals of threat (fearful/angry faces) and traumatic reminders (combat sounds, script-driven imagery). Although PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder of emotion dysregulation, few studies to-date have directly investigated the neural correlates of volitional attempts at regulating negative affect in PTSD. Methods Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a well-validated task involving cognitive regulation of negative affect via reappraisal and known to engage prefrontal cortical regions, the authors compared brain activation in veterans with PTSD (n=21) and without PTSD (n=21, combat-exposed controls/CEC), following military combat trauma experience during deployments in Afghanistan or Iraq. The primary outcome measure was brain activation during cognitive reappraisal (i.e., decrease negative affect) as compared to passive viewing (i.e., maintain negative affect) of emotionally-evocative aversive images. Results The subjects in both groups reported similar successful reduction in negative affect following reappraisal. The PTSD group engaged the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during cognitive reappraisal, albeit to a lesser extent than the CEC group. Although the amygdala was engaged in both groups during passive viewing of aversive images, neither group exhibited attenuation of amygdala activation during cognitive reappraisal. Conclusions Veterans with combat-related PTSD showed less recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex involved in cognitive reappraisal, suggesting focal and aberrant neural activation during volitional, self-regulation of negative affective states. PMID:24677490

  6. Aberrant expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene DAL-1 due to hypermethylation in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Xu, Man; Cui, Xiaobo; Liu, Yixin; Zhang, Yi; Sui, Yu; Wang, Dong; Peng, Lei; Wang, Dexu; Yu, Jingcui

    2016-01-01

    By allelotyping for loss of heterozygosity (LOH), we previously identified a deletion region that harbors the candidate tumor suppressor gene DAL-1 at 18p11.3 in sporadic gastric cancers (GCs). The expression and function of DAL-1 in GCs remained unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the absence of or notable decreases in the expression of DAL-1 mRNA and protein was highly correlated with CpG hypermethylation of the DAL-1 promoter in primary GC tissues and in GC cell lines. Furthermore, abnormal DAL-1 subcellular localization was also observed in GC cells. Exogenous DAL-1 effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); exogenous DAL-1 also promoted apoptosis in GC AGS cells. When endogenous DAL-1 was knocked down in GC HGC-27 cells, the cells appeared highly aggressive. Taken together, these findings provide solid evidence that aberrant expression of DAL-1 by hypermethylation in the promoter region results in tumor suppressor gene behavior that plays important roles in the malignancy of GCs. Understanding the role of it played in the molecular pathogenesis of GC, DAL-1 might be a potential biomarker for molecular diagnosis and evaluation of the GC. PMID:26923709

  7. Aberrant Regulation of the BST2 (Tetherin) Promoter Enhances Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis Evasion in High Grade Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sayeed, Aejaz; Luciani-Torres, Gloria; Meng, Zhenhang; Bennington, James L.; Moore, Dan H.; Dairkee, Shanaz H.

    2013-01-01

    Normal cellular phenotypes that serve an oncogenic function during tumorigenesis are potential candidates for cancer targeting drugs. Within a subset of invasive primary breast carcinoma, we observed relatively abundant expression of Tetherin, a cell surface protein encoded by the Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen (BST2) known to play an inhibitory role in viral release from infected immune cells of the host. Using breast cancer cell lines derived from low and intermediate histopathologic grade invasive primary tumors that maintain growth-suppressive TGFβ signaling, we demonstrate that BST2 is negatively regulated by the TGFβ axis in epithelial cells. Binding of the transcription factor AP2 to the BST2 promoter was attenuated by inhibition of the TGFβ pathway thereby increasing BST2 expression in tumor cells. In contrast, inherent TGFβ resistance characteristic of high grade breast tumors is a key factor underlying compromised BST2 regulation, and consequently its constitutive overexpression relative to non-malignant breast epithelium, and to most low and intermediate grade cancer cells. In both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional growth conditions, BST2-silenced tumor cells displayed an enhancement in tamoxifen or staurosporine-induced apoptotic cell death together with a reduction in the S-phase fraction compared to BST2 overexpressing counterparts. In a subset of breast cancer patients treated with pro apoptotic hormonal therapy, BST2 expression correlated with a trend for poor clinical outcome, further supporting its role in conferring an anti apoptotic phenotype. Similar to the effects of gene manipulation, declining levels of endogenous BST2 induced by the phytoalexin – resveratrol, restored apoptotic function, and curbed cell proliferation. We provide evidence for a direct approach that diminishes aberrant BST2 expression in cancer cells as an early targeting strategy to assist in surmounting resistance to pro apoptotic therapies. PMID:23840623

  8. Aberrant Splicing of Estrogen Receptor, HER2, and CD44 Genes in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazushi; Fry, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death among women under the age of 50 years. Established biomarkers, such as hormone receptors (estrogen receptor [ER]/progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), play significant roles in the selection of patients for endocrine and trastuzumab therapies. However, the initial treatment response is often followed by tumor relapse with intrinsic resistance to the first-line therapy, so it has been expected to identify novel molecular markers to improve the survival and quality of life of patients. Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNAs is a ubiquitous and flexible mechanism for the control of gene expression in mammalian cells. It provides cells with the opportunity to create protein isoforms with different, even opposing, functions from a single genomic locus. Aberrant alternative splicing is very common in cancer where emerging tumor cells take advantage of this flexibility to produce proteins that promote cell growth and survival. While a number of splicing alterations have been reported in human cancers, we focus on aberrant splicing of ER, HER2, and CD44 genes from the viewpoint of BC development. ERα36, a splice variant from the ER1 locus, governs nongenomic membrane signaling pathways triggered by estrogen and confers 4-hydroxytamoxifen resistance in BC therapy. The alternative spliced isoform of HER2 lacking exon 20 (Δ16HER2) has been reported in human BC; this isoform is associated with transforming ability than the wild-type HER2 and recapitulates the phenotypes of endocrine therapy-resistant BC. Although both CD44 splice isoforms (CD44s, CD44v) play essential roles in BC development, CD44v is more associated with those with favorable prognosis, such as luminal A subtype, while CD44s is linked to those with poor prognosis, such as HER2 or basal cell subtypes that are often metastatic. Hence, the detection of splice variants from these loci will provide keys

  9. Prediction of epigenetically regulated genes in breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Loss, Leandro A; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Durinck, Steffen; Nautiyal, Shivani; Flaucher, Diane; Carlton, Victoria EH; Moorhead, Martin; Lu, Yontao; Gray, Joe W; Faham, Malek; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-05-04

    Methylation of CpG islands within the DNA promoter regions is one mechanism that leads to aberrant gene expression in cancer. In particular, the abnormal methylation of CpG islands may silence associated genes. Therefore, using high-throughput microarrays to measure CpG island methylation will lead to better understanding of tumor pathobiology and progression, while revealing potentially new biomarkers. We have examined a recently developed high-throughput technology for measuring genome-wide methylation patterns called mTACL. Here, we propose a computational pipeline for integrating gene expression and CpG island methylation profles to identify epigenetically regulated genes for a panel of 45 breast cancer cell lines, which is widely used in the Integrative Cancer Biology Program (ICBP). The pipeline (i) reduces the dimensionality of the methylation data, (ii) associates the reduced methylation data with gene expression data, and (iii) ranks methylation-expression associations according to their epigenetic regulation. Dimensionality reduction is performed in two steps: (i) methylation sites are grouped across the genome to identify regions of interest, and (ii) methylation profles are clustered within each region. Associations between the clustered methylation and the gene expression data sets generate candidate matches within a fxed neighborhood around each gene. Finally, the methylation-expression associations are ranked through a logistic regression, and their significance is quantified through permutation analysis. Our two-step dimensionality reduction compressed 90% of the original data, reducing 137,688 methylation sites to 14,505 clusters. Methylation-expression associations produced 18,312 correspondences, which were used to further analyze epigenetic regulation. Logistic regression was used to identify 58 genes from these correspondences that showed a statistically signifcant negative correlation between methylation profles and gene expression in the

  10. Chromatin Structure Regulates Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, W. Jason; Yabuki, Munehisa; Ordinario, Ellen C; Bednarski, David W; Quay, Simon; Maizels, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Homology-directed repair is a powerful mechanism for maintaining and altering genomic structure. We asked how chromatin structure contributes to the use of homologous sequences as donors for repair using the chicken B cell line DT40 as a model. In DT40, immunoglobulin genes undergo regulated sequence diversification by gene conversion templated by pseudogene donors. We found that the immunoglobulin Vλ pseudogene array is characterized by histone modifications associated with active chromatin. We directly demonstrated the importance of chromatin structure for gene conversion, using a regulatable experimental system in which the heterochromatin protein HP1 (Drosophila melanogaster Su[var]205), expressed as a fusion to Escherichia coli lactose repressor, is tethered to polymerized lactose operators integrated within the pseudo-Vλ donor array. Tethered HP1 diminished histone acetylation within the pseudo-Vλ array, and altered the outcome of Vλ diversification, so that nontemplated mutations rather than templated mutations predominated. Thus, chromatin structure regulates homology-directed repair. These results suggest that histone modifications may contribute to maintaining genomic stability by preventing recombination between repetitive sequences. PMID:17880262

  11. A survey of splice variants of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase and DNA polymerase beta genes: products of alternative or aberrant splicing?

    PubMed Central

    Skandalis, Adonis; Uribe, Elke

    2004-01-01

    Errors during the pre-mRNA splicing of metazoan genes can degrade the transmission of genetic information, and have been associated with a variety of human diseases. In order to characterize the mutagenic and pathogenic potential of mis-splicing, we have surveyed and quantified the aberrant splice variants in the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) and DNA polymerase β (POLB) in the presence and the absence of the Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD) pathway, which removes transcripts with premature termination codons. POLB exhibits a high frequency of splice variants (40–60%), whereas the frequency of HPRT splice variants is considerably lower (∼1%). Treatment of cells with emetine to inactivate NMD alters both the spectrum and frequency of splice variants of POLB and HPRT. It is not certain at this point, whether POLB and HPRT splice variants are the result of regulated alternative splicing processes or the result of aberrant splicing, but it appears likely that at least some of the variants are the result of splicing errors. Several mechanisms that may contribute to aberrant splicing are discussed. PMID:15601998

  12. Aberrant splicing and truncated-protein expression due to a newly identified XPA gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Nishigori, C; Yagi, T; Takebe, H

    1996-02-15

    A group A xeroderma pigmentosum (XPA) patient, XP2NI, is a compound heterozygote with a newly identified G to C transversion at the last nucleotide in exon 5 in one chromosome, and with the known splicing mutation in intron 3 in another chromosome in the XPA gene. XP2NI had mild skin symptoms and the cells were slightly less sensitive to UV radiation than the cells of typical severe XPA patients who have the splicing mutation in intron 3 homozygously. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and sequencing of the PCR products revealed that the mutation in exon 5 resulted in producing three types of aberrant mRNA, lacking 7 nucleotides at the end of exon 5, lacking entire exon 5, and lacking exons 3, 4 and 5. A significant amount of a truncated type of protein was produced in XP2NI cells, and the size of the protein indicated that it should have been translated from the mRNA, lacking the 7 nucleotides and retained one of the zinc-finger domains required for the DNA repair activity. The clinical mildness of XP2NI may be due to the residual DNA repair activity of the truncated XPA protein, while no XPA protein was detected in the XPA cells with the homozygous intron 3 splicing mutation. PMID:8596539

  13. Positive and negative regulators of the metallothionein gene (review).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shinichiro

    2015-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding proteins involved in diverse processes, including metal homeostasis and detoxification, the oxidative stress response and cell proliferation. Aberrant expression and silencing of these genes are important in a number of diseases. Several positive regulators of MT genes, including metal-responsive element-binding transcription factor (MTF)-1 and upstream stimulatory factor (USF)-1, have been identified and mechanisms of induction have been well described. However, the negative regulators of MT genes remain to be elucidated. Previous studies from the group of the present review have revealed that the hematopoietic master transcription factor, PU.1, directly represses the expression levels of MT genes through its epigenetic activities, and upregulation of MT results in the potent inhibition of myeloid differentiation. The present review focuses on PU.1 and several other negative regulators of this gene, including PZ120, DNA methyltransferase 3a with Mbd3 and Brg1 complex, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α and Ku protein, and describes the suppression of the MT genes through these transcription factors. PMID:25760317

  14. QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Munsky, Brian

    2012-07-23

    Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

  15. Mathematical Models of Gene Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Michael C.

    2004-03-01

    This talk will focus on examples of mathematical models for the regulation of repressible operons (e.g. the tryptophan operon), inducible operons (e.g. the lactose operon), and the lysis/lysogeny switch in phage λ. These ``simple" gene regulatory elements can display characteristics experimentally of rapid response to perturbations and bistability, and biologically accurate mathematical models capture these aspects of the dynamics. The models, if realistic, are always nonlinear and contain significant time delays due to transcriptional and translational delays that pose substantial problems for the analysis of the possible ranges of dynamics.

  16. Gene regulation by mechanical forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oluwole, B. O.; Du, W.; Mills, I.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cells are subjected to various mechanical forces in vivo from the flow of blood across the luminal surface of the blood vessel. The purpose of this review was to examine the data available on how these mechanical forces, in particular cyclic strain, affect the expression and regulation of endothelial cell function. Studies from various investigators using models of cyclic strain in vitro have shown that various vasoactive mediators such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin are induced by the effect of mechanical deformation, and that the expression of these mediators may be regulated at the transcription level by mechanical forces. There also seems to be emerging evidence that endothelial cells may also act as mechanotransducers, whereby the transmission of external forces induces various cytoskeletal changes and second messenger cascades. Furthermore, it seems these forces may act on specific response elements of promoter genes.

  17. Aberrant Expression of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Ovarian Carcinoma Independent of Gene Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaoxian; Yang, Fei; Du, Xiang; Lu, Yongming; Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. The oncogenic role of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is well characterized in many hematopoietic and solid tumors. ALK expression in ovarian carcinoma has been reported but the exact status of ALK protein and its association with clinicopathologic features requires further investigation. ALK expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in 110 primary ovarian carcinomas, including 85 cases of serous carcinoma and 25 cases of mucinous carcinoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for evaluating ALK translocation in ALK-positive ovarian carcinomas. Among 110 ovarian carcinomas, 23 (20.9%) cases were ALK positive by immunohistochemistry. All ALK-positive cases were ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. ALK expression was detected in 23/85 (27.1%) ovarian serous carcinoma and 0/25 (0%) in ovarian mucinous carcinoma. None of the 23 ALK IHC-positive cases harbored ALK gene translocations by FISH or RT-PCR. ALK protein expression was associated with patient age, tumor stage, and histologic type. Specifically, the probability of ALK protein expression was significantly higher in high-grade serous carcinomas in older patients (above 50 y) with advanced disease (FIGO stage III and IV) compared with the low-grade serous and mucinous carcinomas in younger patients with relatively early disease. In conclusion, aberrant ALK expression is observed in ovarian serous carcinoma but not in mucinous carcinoma, is independent of gene translocation, and might be associated with progression and prognosis. PMID:27271776

  18. Regulation of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and expression.

    PubMed

    Taussig, M J; Sims, M J; Krawinkel, U

    1989-05-01

    The molecular genetic events leading to Ig expression and their control formed the topic of a recent EMBO workshop. This report by Michael Taussig, Martin Sims and Ulrich Krawinkel discusses contributions dealing with genes expressed in early pre-B cells, the mechanism of rearrangement, aberrant rearrangements seen in B cells of SCID mice, the feedback control of rearrangement as studied in transgenic mice, the control of Ig expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and class switching. PMID:2787158

  19. Pluripotency Genes and Their Functions in the Normal and Aberrant Breast and Brain

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Tracy; Twigger, Alecia-Jane; Kakulas, Foteini

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) attracted considerable interest with the successful isolation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from the inner cell mass of murine, primate and human embryos. Whilst it was initially thought that the only PSCs were ESCs, in more recent years cells with similar properties have been isolated from organs of the adult, including the breast and brain. Adult PSCs in these organs have been suggested to be remnants of embryonic development that facilitate normal tissue homeostasis during repair and regeneration. They share certain characteristics with ESCs, such as an inherent capacity to self-renew and differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, properties that are regulated by master pluripotency transcription factors (TFs) OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4), SOX2 (sex determining region Y-box 2), and homeobox protein NANOG. Aberrant expression of these TFs can be oncogenic resulting in heterogeneous tumours fueled by cancer stem cells (CSC), which are resistant to conventional treatments and are associated with tumour recurrence post-treatment. Further to enriching our understanding of the role of pluripotency TFs in normal tissue function, research now aims to develop optimized isolation and propagation methods for normal adult PSCs and CSCs for the purposes of regenerative medicine, developmental biology, and disease modeling aimed at targeted personalised cancer therapies. PMID:26580604

  20. Pluripotency Genes and Their Functions in the Normal and Aberrant Breast and Brain.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Tracy; Twigger, Alecia-Jane; Kakulas, Foteini

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) attracted considerable interest with the successful isolation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from the inner cell mass of murine, primate and human embryos. Whilst it was initially thought that the only PSCs were ESCs, in more recent years cells with similar properties have been isolated from organs of the adult, including the breast and brain. Adult PSCs in these organs have been suggested to be remnants of embryonic development that facilitate normal tissue homeostasis during repair and regeneration. They share certain characteristics with ESCs, such as an inherent capacity to self-renew and differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, properties that are regulated by master pluripotency transcription factors (TFs) OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4), SOX2 (sex determining region Y-box 2), and homeobox protein NANOG. Aberrant expression of these TFs can be oncogenic resulting in heterogeneous tumours fueled by cancer stem cells (CSC), which are resistant to conventional treatments and are associated with tumour recurrence post-treatment. Further to enriching our understanding of the role of pluripotency TFs in normal tissue function, research now aims to develop optimized isolation and propagation methods for normal adult PSCs and CSCs for the purposes of regenerative medicine, developmental biology, and disease modeling aimed at targeted personalised cancer therapies. PMID:26580604

  1. Aberrant large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) gene expression correlates with EGFR mutation and survival in lung adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Susan Y.; Sit, Ko-Yung; Sihoe, Alan D.L.; Suen, Wai-Sing; Au, Wing-Kuk; Tang, Ximing; Ma, Edmond S.K.; Chan, Wai-Kong; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Minna, John D.; Tsao, George S.W.; Lam, David C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) gene is a putative tumor suppressor gene with potential roles in regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in lung cancer. The aim of this study is to explore the association of aberrant LATS2 expression with EGFR mutation and survival in lung adenocarcinoma (AD), and the effects of LATS2 silencing in both lung AD cell lines. Methods LATS2 mRNA and protein expression in resected lung AD were correlated with demographic characteristics, EGFR mutation and survival. LATS2-specific siRNA was transfected into four EGFR wild-type (WT) and three EGFR mutant AD cell lines and the changes in LATS2 expression and relevant signaling molecules before and after LATS2 knockdown were assayed. Results Fifty resected lung AD were included (M:F = 23:27, smokers:non-smokers = 19:31, EGFR mutant:wild-type = 21:29) with LATS2 mRNA levels showed no significant difference between gender, age, smoking and pathological stages while LATS2 immunohistochemical staining on an independent set of 79 lung AD showed similar trend. LATS2 mRNA level was found to be a significant independent predictor for survival status (disease-free survival RR = 0.217; p = 0.003; Overall survival RR = 0.238; p = 0.036). siRNA-mediated suppression of LATS2 expression resulted in augmentation of ERK phosphorylation in EGFR wild-type AD cell lines with high basal LATS2 expression, discriminatory modulation of Akt signaling between EGFR wild-type and mutant cells, and induction of p53 accumulation in AD cell lines with low baseline p53 levels. Conclusions LATS2 expression level is predictive of survival in patients with resected lung AD. LATS2 may modulate and contribute to tumor growth via different signaling pathways in EGFR mutant and wild-type tumors. PMID:24976335

  2. Transcriptional regulation of tenascin genes

    PubMed Central

    Chiovaro, Francesca; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Chiquet, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins of the tenascin family resemble each other in their domain structure, and also share functions in modulating cell adhesion and cellular responses to growth factors. Despite these common features, the 4 vertebrate tenascins exhibit vastly different expression patterns. Tenascin-R is specific to the central nervous system. Tenascin-C is an “oncofetal” protein controlled by many stimuli (growth factors, cytokines, mechanical stress), but with restricted occurrence in space and time. In contrast, tenascin-X is a constituitive component of connective tissues, and its level is barely affected by external factors. Finally, the expression of tenascin-W is similar to that of tenascin-C but even more limited. In accordance with their highly regulated expression, the promoters of the tenascin-C and -W genes contain TATA boxes, whereas those of the other 2 tenascins do not. This article summarizes what is currently known about the complex transcriptional regulation of the 4 tenascin genes in development and disease. PMID:25793574

  3. Transcriptional regulation of tenascin genes.

    PubMed

    Chiovaro, Francesca; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Chiquet, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins of the tenascin family resemble each other in their domain structure, and also share functions in modulating cell adhesion and cellular responses to growth factors. Despite these common features, the 4 vertebrate tenascins exhibit vastly different expression patterns. Tenascin-R is specific to the central nervous system. Tenascin-C is an "oncofetal" protein controlled by many stimuli (growth factors, cytokines, mechanical stress), but with restricted occurrence in space and time. In contrast, tenascin-X is a constituitive component of connective tissues, and its level is barely affected by external factors. Finally, the expression of tenascin-W is similar to that of tenascin-C but even more limited. In accordance with their highly regulated expression, the promoters of the tenascin-C and -W genes contain TATA boxes, whereas those of the other 2 tenascins do not. This article summarizes what is currently known about the complex transcriptional regulation of the 4 tenascin genes in development and disease. PMID:25793574

  4. Molecular characterization of the mouse involuted thymus: aberrations in expression of transcription regulators in thymocyte and epithelial compartments.

    PubMed

    Ortman, Crystal L; Dittmar, Kimberly A; Witte, Pamela L; Le, Phong T

    2002-07-01

    Despite playing a critical role in the development of naive T cells, the thymus is involuted with age. Whether a single age-associated defect or multiple aberrations contribute to thymic involution remains controversial. Here, we determined molecular aberrations in the thymocyte and epithelium compartments of the aging thymus. We demonstrated that total thymocyte numbers declined with a stepwise kinetics; clear demarcations occurred at 1.5, 3, 12 and 22 months of age. By quantitative PCR, a 2.4-fold reduction in the copies of signal joint TCR-excised circle (sjTREC)/10(5) thymocytes was first detected at 3 months; no further reduction observed thereafter. Nevertheless, the combined reductions in thymocyte numbers and sjTREC/10(5) cells caused a 7-fold decrease in sjTREC/thymus by 3 months, 21-fold by 18 months and 72-fold by 22 months as compared to 1 month. We showed aberration in expression of E2A, a transcription regulator critical for TCR beta rearrangement. While E2A expression declined 3-fold by 3 months and 18-fold by 7 months, expression of LMO2, a negative regulator of E2A activities, increased 5-fold by 18 months. Interestingly, expression of pre-T alpha and its transcriptional regulator HEB were not reduced with age. Furthermore, keratin-8 expression, specific for cortical thymic epithelium, declined 3-fold by 7 months and remained stable thereafter. In contrast, Foxn1 expression was reduced 3-fold by 3 months, 16-fold by 12 months and 37-fold by 18 months. IL-7 expression was not reduced until 7 months and reached 15-fold reduction by 22 months. Thus, the data demonstrate that thymic involution results not from a single defect, but culminates from an array of molecular aberrations in both the developing thymocytes and thymic epithelials. PMID:12096041

  5. Developmental genes significantly afflicted by aberrant promoter methylation and somatic mutation predict overall survival of late-stage colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    An, Ning; Yang, Xue; Cheng, Shujun; Wang, Guiqi; Zhang, Kaitai

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is an exceedingly complicated process, which involves multi-level dysregulations, including genomics (majorly caused by somatic mutation and copy number variation), DNA methylomics, and transcriptomics. Therefore, only looking into one molecular level of cancer is not sufficient to uncover the intricate underlying mechanisms. With the abundant resources of public available data in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, an integrative strategy was conducted to systematically analyze the aberrant patterns of colorectal cancer on the basis of DNA copy number, promoter methylation, somatic mutation and gene expression. In this study, paired samples in each genomic level were retrieved to identify differentially expressed genes with corresponding genetic or epigenetic dysregulations. Notably, the result of gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that the differentially expressed genes with corresponding aberrant promoter methylation or somatic mutation were both functionally concentrated upon developmental process, suggesting the intimate association between development and carcinogenesis. Thus, by means of random walk with restart, 37 significant development-related genes were retrieved from a priori-knowledge based biological network. In five independent microarray datasets, Kaplan–Meier survival and Cox regression analyses both confirmed that the expression of these genes was significantly associated with overall survival of Stage III/IV colorectal cancer patients. PMID:26691761

  6. Reversibility of Aberrant Global DNA and Estrogen Receptor-α Gene Methylation Distinguishes Colorectal Precancer from Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Rulong; Tao, Lianhui; Xu, Yiqing; Chang, Shi; Van Brocklyn, James; Gao, Jian-Xin

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in the global methylation of DNA and in specific regulatory genes are two epigenetic alterations found in cancer. However, the significance of epigenetic changes for diagnosis and/or prognosis of colorectal cancer have not been established, although it has been extensively investigated. Recently we have identified a new type of cancer cell called precancerous stem cells (pCSCs) and proposed that cancer may arise from a lengthy development process of tumor initiating cells (TICs) → pCSCs → cancer stem cells (CSCs) → cancer, which is in parallel to histological changes of hyperplasia (TICs) → precancer (pCSCs) → carcinoma (CSCs/cancer cells), accompanied by clonal evolutionary epigenetic and genetic alterations. In this study, we investigated whether aberrant DNA methylation can be used as a biomarker for the differentiation between premalignant and malignant lesions in the colorectum. The profile of global DNA and estrogen receptor (ER)-α gene methylation during cancer development was determined by analysis of 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, dot blot analysis or a quantitative gene methylation assay (QGMA). Herein we show that global DNA hypomethylation and ER-α gene hypermethylation are progressively enhanced from hyperplastic polyps (HPs) → adenomatous polyps (APs) → adenomatous carcinoma (AdCa). The aberrant methylation can be completely reversed in APs, but not in AdCa by a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) celecoxib, which is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), suggesting that the epigenetic alterations between colorectal precancer (AP) and cancer (AdCa) are fundamentally different in response to anti-cancer therapy. In normal colorectal mucosa, while global DNA methylation was not affected by aging, ER-α gene methylation was significantly increased with aging. However, this increase did not reach the level observed in colorectal APs. Taken together, reversibility of

  7. DNA Copy Number Aberrations, and Human Papillomavirus Status in Penile Carcinoma. Clinico-Pathological Correlations and Potential Driver Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lambros, Maryou; Stankiewicz, Elzbieta; Ng, Charlotte K. Y.; Weigelt, Britta; Rajab, Ramzi; Tinwell, Brendan; Corbishley, Cathy; Watkin, Nick; Berney, Dan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease, in which somatic genetic aberrations have yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that gene copy aberrations might correlate with human papillomavirus status and clinico-pathological features. We sought to determine the spectrum of gene copy number aberrations in a large series of PSCCs and to define their correlations with human papillomavirus, histopathological subtype, and tumor grade, stage and lymph node status. Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded penile squamous cell carcinomas were centrally reviewed by expert uropathologists. DNA was extracted from micro-dissected samples, subjected to PCR-based human papillomavirus assessment and genotyping (INNO-LiPA human papillomavirus Genotyping Extra Assay) and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization using a 32K Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array platform. Sixty-four samples yielded interpretable results. Recurrent gains were observed in chromosomes 1p13.3-q44 (88%), 3p12.3-q29 (86%), 5p15.33-p11 (67%) and 8p12-q24.3 (84%). Amplifications of 5p15.33-p11 and 11p14.1-p12 were found in seven (11%) and four (6%) cases, respectively. Losses were observed in chromosomes 2q33-q37.3 (86%), 3p26.3-q11.1 (83%) and 11q12.2-q25 (81%). Although many losses and gains were similar throughout the cohort, there were small significant differences observed at specific loci, between human papillomavirus positive and negative tumors, between tumor types, and tumor grade and nodal status. These results demonstrate that despite the diversity of genetic aberrations in penile squamous cell carcinomas, there are significant correlations between the clinico-pathological data and the genetic changes that may play a role in disease natural history and progression and highlight potential driver genes, which may feature in molecular pathways for existing therapeutic agents. PMID:26901676

  8. Dynamics of bacterial gene regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Atul

    2009-03-01

    The phenomenon of diauxic growth is a classical problem of bacterial gene regulation. The most well studied example of this phenomenon is the glucose-lactose diauxie, which occurs because the expression of the lac operon is strongly repressed in the presence of glucose. This repression is often explained by appealing to molecular mechanisms such as cAMP activation and inducer exclusion. I will begin by analyzing data showing that these molecular mechanisms cannot explain the strong lac repression because they exert a relatively weak effect. I will then present a minimal model accounting only for enzyme induction and dilution, which yields strong repression despite the absence of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. The model also explains the growth patterns observed in batch and continuous cultures of various bacterial strains and substrate mixtures. The talk will conclude with a discussion of the experimental evidence regarding positive feedback, the key component of the minimal model.

  9. Gender differences in the induction of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations in rodent germ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, Ilse-Dore; Carere, Angelo; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula

    2007-05-15

    Germ cell mutagenicity testing provides experimental data to quantify genetic risk for exposed human populations. The majority of tests are performed with exposure of males, and female data are relatively rare. The reason for this paucity lies in the differences between male and female germ cell biology. Male germ cells are produced throughout reproductive life and all developmental stages can be ascertained by appropriate breeding schemes. In contrast, the female germ cell pool is limited, meiosis begins during embryogenesis and oocytes are arrested over long periods of time until maturation processes start for small numbers of oocytes during the oestrus cycle in mature females. The literature data are reviewed to point out possible gender differences of germ cells to exogenous agents such as chemicals or ionizing radiation. From the limited information, it can be concluded that male germ cells are more sensitive than female germ cells to the induction of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations. However, exceptions are described which shed doubt on the extrapolation of experimental data from male rodents to the genetic risk of the human population. Furthermore, the female genome may be more sensitive to mutation induction during peri-conceptional stages compared to the male genome of the zygote. With few exceptions, germ cell experiments have been carried out under high acute exposure to optimize the effects and to compensate for the limited sample size in animal experiments. Human exposure to environmental agents, on the other hand, is usually chronic and involves low doses. Under these conditions, gender differences may become apparent that have not been studied so far. Additionally, data are reviewed that suggest a false impression of safety when responses are negative under high acute exposure of male rodents while a mutational response is induced by low chronic exposure. The classical (morphological) germ cell mutation tests are not performed anymore

  10. Gaucher disease gene GBA functions in immune regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Halene, Stephanie; Yang, Mei; Iqbal, Jameel; Yang, Ruhua; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Chuang, Wei-Lien; Jain, Dhanpat; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Mistry, Pramod K.

    2012-01-01

    Inherited deficiency of acid β-glucosidase (GCase) due to biallelic mutations in the GBA (glucosidase, β, acid) gene causes the classic manifestations of Gaucher disease (GD) involving the viscera, the skeleton, and the lungs. Clinical observations point to immune defects in GD beyond the accumulation of activated macrophages engorged with lysosomal glucosylceramide. Here, we show a plethora of immune cell aberrations in mice in which the GBA gene is deleted conditionally in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The thymus exhibited the earliest and most striking alterations reminiscent of impaired T-cell maturation, aberrant B-cell recruitment, enhanced antigen presentation, and impaired egress of mature thymocytes. These changes correlated strongly with disease severity. In contrast to the profound defects in the thymus, there were only limited cellular defects in peripheral lymphoid organs, mainly restricted to mice with severe disease. The cellular changes in GCase deficiency were accompanied by elevated T-helper (Th)1 and Th2 cytokines that also tracked with disease severity. Finally, the proliferation of GCase-deficient HSCs was inhibited significantly by both GL1 and Lyso-GL1, suggesting that the “supply” of early thymic progenitors from bone marrow may, in fact, be reduced in GBA deficiency. The results not only point to a fundamental role for GBA in immune regulation but also suggest that GBA mutations in GD may cause widespread immune dysregulation through the accumulation of substrates. PMID:22665763

  11. ATYPICAL HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME AND GENETIC ABERRATIONS IN THE COMPLEMENT FACTOR H RELATED 5 GENE

    PubMed Central

    Westra, Dineke; Vernon, Katherine A.; Volokhina, Elena B.; Pickering, Matthew C.; van de Kar, Nicole C.A.J.; van den Heuvel, Lambert P.

    2012-01-01

    Atypical HUS (aHUS) is a severe renal disorder that is associated with mutations in the genes encoding proteins of the complement alternative pathway. Previously, we identified pathogenic variations in genes encoding complement regulators (CFH, CFI, and MCP) in our aHUS cohort. In this study, we screened for mutations in the alternative pathway regulator CFHR5 in 65 aHUS patients by means of PCR on genomic DNA and sequence analysis. Potential pathogenicity of genetic alterations was determined by published data on CFHR5 variants, evolutionary conservation, and in silico mutation prediction programs. Detection of serum CFHR5 was performed by western blot analysis and ELISA. A potentially pathogenic sequence variation was found in CFHR5 in three patients (4.6%). All variations were located in SCRs that might be involved in binding to C3b, heparin, or CRP. The identified CFHR5 mutations require functional studies to determine their relevance to aHUS, but they might be candidates for an altered genetic profile predisposing to the disease. PMID:22622361

  12. Transplacental exposure to inorganic arsenic at a hepatocarcinogenic dose induces fetal gene expression changes in mice indicative of aberrant estrogen signaling and disrupted steroid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jie . E-mail: Liu6@niehs.nih.gov; Xie Yaxiong; Cooper, Ryan; Ducharme, Danica M.K.; Tennant, Raymond; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2007-05-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic in utero in C3H mice produces hepatocellular carcinoma in male offspring when they reach adulthood. To help define the molecular events associated with the fetal onset of arsenic hepatocarcinogenesis, pregnant C3H mice were given drinking water containing 0 (control) or 85 ppm arsenic from day 8 to 18 of gestation. At the end of the arsenic exposure period, male fetal livers were removed and RNA isolated for microarray analysis using 22K oligo chips. Arsenic exposure in utero produced significant (p < 0.001) alterations in expression of 187 genes, with approximately 25% of aberrantly expressed genes related to either estrogen signaling or steroid metabolism. Real-time RT-PCR on selected genes confirmed these changes. Various genes controlled by estrogen, including X-inactive-specific transcript, anterior gradient-2, trefoil factor-1, CRP-ductin, ghrelin, and small proline-rich protein-2A, were dramatically over-expressed. Estrogen-regulated genes including cytokeratin 1-19 and Cyp2a4 were over-expressed, although Cyp3a25 was suppressed. Several genes involved with steroid metabolism also showed remarkable expression changes, including increased expression of 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-7 (HSD17{beta}7; involved in estradiol production) and decreased expression of HSD17{beta}5 (involved in testosterone production). The expression of key genes important in methionine metabolism, such as methionine adenosyltransferase-1a, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and thioether S-methyltransferase, were suppressed. Thus, exposure of mouse fetus to inorganic arsenic during a critical period in development significantly alters the expression of various genes encoding estrogen signaling and steroid or methionine metabolism. These alterations could disrupt genetic programming at the very early life stage, which could impact tumor formation much later in adulthood.

  13. Aberrant gene expression in mucosa adjacent to tumor reveals a molecular crosstalk in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A colorectal tumor is not an isolated entity growing in a restricted location of the body. The patient’s gut environment constitutes the framework where the tumor evolves and this relationship promotes and includes a complex and tight correlation of the tumor with inflammation, blood vessels formation, nutrition, and gut microbiome composition. The tumor influence in the environment could both promote an anti-tumor or a pro-tumor response. Methods A set of 98 paired adjacent mucosa and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 50 colon mucosa from healthy donors (246 samples in total) were included in this work. RNA extracted from each sample was hybridized in Affymetrix chips Human Genome U219. Functional relationships between genes were inferred by means of systems biology using both transcriptional regulation networks (ARACNe algorithm) and protein-protein interaction networks (BIANA software). Results Here we report a transcriptomic analysis revealing a number of genes activated in adjacent mucosa from CRC patients, not activated in mucosa from healthy donors. A functional analysis of these genes suggested that this active reaction of the adjacent mucosa was related to the presence of the tumor. Transcriptional and protein-interaction networks were used to further elucidate this response of normal gut in front of the tumor, revealing a crosstalk between proteins secreted by the tumor and receptors activated in the adjacent colon tissue; and vice versa. Remarkably, Slit family of proteins activated ROBO receptors in tumor whereas tumor-secreted proteins transduced a cellular signal finally activating AP-1 in adjacent tissue. Conclusions The systems-level approach provides new insights into the micro-ecology of colorectal tumorogenesis. Disrupting this intricate molecular network of cell-cell communication and pro-inflammatory microenvironment could be a therapeutic target in CRC patients. PMID:24597571

  14. Symmetry and Stochastic Gene Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre F.; Hornos, José E. M.

    2007-09-01

    Lorentz-like noncompact Lie symmetry SO(2,1) is found in a spin-boson stochastic model for gene expression. The invariant of the algebra characterizes the switch decay to equilibrium. The azimuthal eigenvalue describes the affinity between the regulatory protein and the gene operator site. Raising and lowering operators are constructed and their actions increase or decrease the affinity parameter. The classification of the noise regime of the gene arises from the group theoretical numbers.

  15. Coordinately up-regulated genes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hough, C D; Cho, K R; Zonderman, A B; Schwartz, D R; Morin, P J

    2001-05-15

    A better understanding of the molecular circuitry in normal ovarian tissues and in ovarian cancer will likely provide new targets for diagnosis and therapy. Recently, much has been learned about the genes expressed in ovarian cancer through studies with cDNA arrays and serial analysis of gene expression. However, these methods do not allow highly quantitative analysis of gene expression on a large number of specimens. Here, we have used quantitative real-time RT-PCR in a panel of 39 microdissected ovarian carcinomas of various subtypes to systematically analyze the expression of 13 genes, many of which were previously identified as up-regulated in a subset of ovarian cancers by serial analyses of gene expression. The genes analyzed are glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), apolipoprotein J/clusterin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2, epithelial cell adhesion molecule/GA733-2, Kop protease inhibitor, matrix gla protein, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3, folate receptor 1, S100A2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, and ceruloplasmin. All of the genes were found overexpressed, some at extremely high levels, in the vast majority of ovarian carcinomas irrespective of the subtype. Interestingly, GPX3 was found at much higher levels in tumors with clear cell histology and may represent a biomarker for this subtype. Some of the genes studied here may thus represent targets for early detection ovarian cancer. The gene expression patterns were not associated with age at diagnosis, stage, or K-ras mutation status in ovarian cancer. We find that several genes are coordinately regulated in ovarian cancer, likely representing the fact that many genes are activated as part of common signaling pathways or that extensive cross-talk exists between several pathways in ovarian cancer. A statistical analysis shows that genes commonly up-regulated in ovarian cancer may result from the aberrant

  16. Aberrant DNA methylation of WNT pathway genes in the development and progression of CIMP-negative colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Galamb, Orsolya; Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Csabai, István; Bodor, András; Ribli, Dezső; Krenács, Tibor; Patai, Árpád V; Wichmann, Barnabás; Barták, Barbara Kinga; Tóth, Kinga; Valcz, Gábor; Spisák, Sándor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2016-08-01

    The WNT signaling pathway has an essential role in colorectal carcinogenesis and progression, which involves a cascade of genetic and epigenetic changes. We aimed to analyze DNA methylation affecting the WNT pathway genes in colorectal carcinogenesis in promoter and gene body regions using whole methylome analysis in 9 colorectal cancer, 15 adenoma, and 6 normal tumor adjacent tissue (NAT) samples by methyl capture sequencing. Functional methylation was confirmed on 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-treated colorectal cancer cell line datasets. In parallel with the DNA methylation analysis, mutations of WNT pathway genes (APC, β-catenin/CTNNB1) were analyzed by 454 sequencing on GS Junior platform. Most differentially methylated CpG sites were localized in gene body regions (95% of WNT pathway genes). In the promoter regions, 33 of the 160 analyzed WNT pathway genes were differentially methylated in colorectal cancer vs. normal, including hypermethylated AXIN2, CHP1, PRICKLE1, SFRP1, SFRP2, SOX17, and hypomethylated CACYBP, CTNNB1, MYC; 44 genes in adenoma vs. NAT; and 41 genes in colorectal cancer vs. adenoma comparisons. Hypermethylation of AXIN2, DKK1, VANGL1, and WNT5A gene promoters was higher, while those of SOX17, PRICKLE1, DAAM2, and MYC was lower in colon carcinoma compared to adenoma. Inverse correlation between expression and methylation was confirmed in 23 genes, including APC, CHP1, PRICKLE1, PSEN1, and SFRP1. Differential methylation affected both canonical and noncanonical WNT pathway genes in colorectal normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Aberrant DNA methylation appears already in adenomas as an early event of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:27245242

  17. Pneumococcal Hydrogen Peroxide–Induced Stress Signaling Regulates Inflammatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Loose, Maria; Hudel, Martina; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Garcia, Ernesto; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Lucas, Rudolf; Chakraborty, Trinad; Pillich, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Microbial infections can induce aberrant responses in cellular stress pathways, leading to translational attenuation, metabolic restriction, and activation of oxidative stress, with detrimental effects on cell survival. Here we show that infection of human airway epithelial cells with Streptococcus pneumoniae leads to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress, activation of mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and regulation of their respective target genes. We identify pneumococcal H2O2 as the causative agent for these responses, as both catalase-treated and pyruvate oxidase-deficient bacteria lacked these activities. Pneumococcal H2O2 induced nuclear NF-κB translocation and transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of translational arrest and ER stress by salubrinal or of MAPK signaling pathways attenuate cytokine transcription. These results provide strong evidence for the notion that inhibition of translation is an important host pathway in monitoring harmful pathogen-associated activities, thereby enabling differentiation between pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. PMID:25183769

  18. Aberrant expression of the CHFR prophase checkpoint gene in human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Aiqin; Ye, Junli; Zhang, Kunpeng; Yu, Hongsheng; Gao, Yanhua; Wang, Hongfang; Sun, Lirong; Xing, Xiaoming; Yang, Kun; Zhao, Min

    2015-05-01

    Checkpoint with FHA and Ring Finger (CHFR) is a checkpoint protein that reportedly initiates a cell cycle delay in response to microtubule stress during prophase in mitosis, which has become an interesting target for understanding cancer pathogenesis. Recently, aberrant methylation of the CHFR gene associated with gene silencing has been reported in several cancers. In the present study, we examined the expression of CHFR in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that the expression level of CHFR mRNA and protein was reduced in B-NHL tissue samples and B cell lines. Furthermore, CHFR methylation was detected in 39 of 122 B-NHL patients, which was not found in noncancerous reactive hyperplasia of lymph node (RH) tissues. CHFR methylation correlated with the reduced expression of CHFR, high International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores and later pathologic Ann Arbor stages of B-NHL. Treatment with demethylation reagent, 5-Aza-dC, could eliminate the hypermethylation of CHFR, enhance CHFR expression and cell apoptosis and inhibit the cell proliferation of Raji cells, which could be induced by high expression of CHFR in Raji cells. Our results indicated that aberrant methylation of CHFR may be associated with the pathogenesis, progression for B-NHL, which might be a novel molecular marker as prognosis and treatment for B-NHL. PMID:25798877

  19. dBRWD3 Regulates Tissue Overgrowth and Ectopic Gene Expression Caused by Polycomb Group Mutations.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsueh-Tzu; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liu, Kwei-Yan; Shih, Zong-Siou; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hsieh, Paul-Chen; Kuo, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Kuo-How; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Liu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Shih-Peng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsiang; Tsai, Yu-Chen; Wu, June-Tai

    2016-09-01

    To maintain a particular cell fate, a unique set of genes should be expressed while another set is repressed. One way to repress gene expression is through Polycomb group (PcG) proteins that compact chromatin into a silent configuration. In addition to cell fate maintenance, PcG proteins also maintain normal cell physiology, for example cell cycle. In the absence of PcG, ectopic activation of the PcG-repressed genes leads to developmental defects and malignant tumors. Little is known about the molecular nature of ectopic gene expression; especially what differentiates expression of a given gene in the orthotopic tissue (orthotopic expression) and the ectopic expression of the same gene due to PcG mutations. Here we present that ectopic gene expression in PcG mutant cells specifically requires dBRWD3, a negative regulator of HIRA/Yemanuclein (YEM)-mediated histone variant H3.3 deposition. dBRWD3 mutations suppress both the ectopic gene expression and aberrant tissue overgrowth in PcG mutants through a YEM-dependent mechanism. Our findings identified dBRWD3 as a critical regulator that is uniquely required for ectopic gene expression and aberrant tissue overgrowth caused by PcG mutations. PMID:27588417

  20. Transcriptome Meta-Analysis of Lung Cancer Reveals Recurrent Aberrations in NRG1 and Hippo Pathway Genes

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Saravana M.; Balbin, O. Alejandro; Chen, Guoan; Nadal, Ernest; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Pan, Jincheng; Veeneman, Brendan; Cao, Xuhong; Malik, Rohit; Vats, Pankaj; Wang, Rui; Huang, Stephanie; Zhong, Jinjie; Jing, Xiaojun; Iyer, Matthew; Wu, Yi-Mi; Harms, Paul W.; Lin, Jules; Reddy, Rishindra; Brennan, Christine; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Chang, Andrew C.; Truini, Anna; Truini, Mauro; Robinson, Dan R.; Beer, David G.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is emerging as a paradigm for disease molecular subtyping, facilitating targeted therapy based on driving somatic alterations. Here, we perform transcriptome analysis of 153 samples representing lung adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, large cell lung cancer, adenoid cystic carcinomas and cell lines. By integrating our data with The Cancer Genome Atlas and published sources, we analyze 753 lung cancer samples for gene fusions and other transcriptomic alterations. We show that higher numbers of gene fusions is an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in lung cancer. Our analysis confirms the recently reported CD74-NRG1 fusion and suggests that NRG1, NF1 and Hippo pathway fusions may play important roles in tumors without known driver mutations. In addition, we observe exon skipping events in c-MET, which are attributable to splice site mutations. These classes of genetic aberrations may play a significant role in the genesis of lung cancers lacking known driver mutations. PMID:25531467

  1. Gene Regulation Networks for Modeling Drosophila Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mjolsness, E.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter will very briefly introduce and review some computational experiments in using trainable gene regulation network models to simulate and understand selected episodes in the development of the fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster.

  2. Chromatin-prebound Crm1 recruits Nup98-HoxA9 fusion to induce aberrant expression of Hox cluster genes

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Masahiro; Mura, Sonoko; Yamada, Kohji; Sangel, Percival; Hirata, Saki; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Kawakami, Koichi; Tachibana, Taro; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The nucleoporin Nup98 is frequently rearranged to form leukemogenic Nup98-fusion proteins with various partners. However, their function remains largely elusive. Here, we show that Nup98-HoxA9, a fusion between Nup98 and the homeobox transcription factor HoxA9, forms nuclear aggregates that frequently associate with facultative heterochromatin. We demonstrate that stable expression of Nup98-HoxA9 in mouse embryonic stem cells selectively induces the expression of Hox cluster genes. Genome-wide binding site analysis revealed that Nup98-HoxA9 is preferentially targeted and accumulated at Hox cluster regions where the export factor Crm1 is originally prebound. In addition, leptomycin B, an inhibitor of Crm1, disassembled nuclear Nup98-HoxA9 dots, resulting in the loss of chromatin binding of Nup98-HoxA9 and Nup98-HoxA9-mediated activation of Hox genes. Collectively, our results indicate that highly selective targeting of Nup98-fusion proteins to Hox cluster regions via prebound Crm1 induces the formation of higher order chromatin structures that causes aberrant Hox gene regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09540.001 PMID:26740045

  3. MicroRNA: Mechanism of Gene Regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNA (miR) are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts through activation of a specific cellular pathway. The small RNA classified as miR are short sequences of 18-26 nucleotide long, encoded by nuclear genes with distinctive...

  4. Aberrant cell cycle regulation in rat liver cells induced by post-initiation treatment with hepatocarcinogens/hepatocarcinogenic tumor promoters.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Onda, Nobuhiko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to determine the onset time of hepatocarcinogen/hepatocarcinogenic tumor promoter-specific cell proliferation, apoptosis and aberrant cell cycle regulation after post-initiation treatment. Six-week-old rats were treated with the genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, carbadox (CRB), the marginally hepatocarcinogenic leucomalachite green (LMG), the tumor promoter, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) or the non-carcinogenic hepatotoxicant, acetaminophen, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks during the post-initiation phase using a medium-term liver bioassay. Cell proliferation activity, expression of G2 to M phase- and spindle checkpoint-related molecules, and apoptosis were immunohistochemically analyzed at week 2 and 4, and tumor promotion activity was assessed at week 6. At week 2, hepatocarcinogen/tumor promoter-specific aberrant cell cycle regulation was not observed. At week 4, BNF and LMG increased cell proliferation together with hepatotoxicity, while CRB did not. Additionally, BNF and CRB reduced the number of cells expressing phosphorylated-histone H3 in both ubiquitin D (UBD)(+) cells and Ki-67(+) proliferating cells, suggesting development of spindle checkpoint dysfunction, regardless of cell proliferation activity. At week 6, examined hepatocarcinogens/tumor promoters increased preneoplastic hepatic foci expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form. These results suggest that some hepatocarcinogens/tumor promoters increase their toxicity after post-initiation treatment, causing regenerative cell proliferation. In contrast, some genotoxic hepatocarcinogens may disrupt the spindle checkpoint without facilitating cell proliferation at the early stage of tumor promotion. This suggests that facilitation of cell proliferation and disruption of spindle checkpoint function are induced by different mechanisms during hepatocarcinogenesis. Four weeks of post-initiation treatment may be sufficient to induce hepatocarcinogen/tumor promoter-specific cellular responses. PMID

  5. Cytoskeletal genes regulating brain size.

    PubMed

    Bond, Jacquelyn; Woods, C Geoffrey

    2006-02-01

    One of the most notable trends in human evolution is the dramatic increase in brain size that has occurred in the great ape clade, culminating in humans. Of particular interest is the vast expanse of the cerebral cortex, which is believed to have resulted in our ability to perform higher cognitive functions. Recent investigations of congenital microcephaly in humans have resulted in the identification of several genes that non-redundantly and specifically influence mammalian brain size. These genes appear to affect neural progenitor cell number through microtubular organisation at the centrosome. PMID:16337370

  6. How Europe regulates its genes

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1991-06-07

    As Europe moves toward unification in 1992, more than two dozen regulations and directives that will affect biotech are working their way through the complex European legislative system. The result could mean tough scrutiny for genetically engineered products. One reason is that the European Community (EC) has chosen to examine genetically engineered products as a special category - an approach the FDA has rejected. Another is that the EC is considering enacting regulations that would mandate consideration of the socioeconomic effects of biotech products in addition to their safety. In addition, some - particularly in industry - fear a nightmare of overlapping and contradictory regulations. It's too soon to tell how well the European system will work, or how stifling the regulations might be. In all likelihood the regulations emerging in Europe won't be demonstrably superior - or inferior - to the American ones, just different, with different strengths and weaknesses. But since many US biotech companies are looking to the huge market that a unified Europe represents, the specifics of those strengths and weaknesses will ultimately be of more than passing interest.

  7. The aberrantly expressed miR-193b-3p contributes to preeclampsia through regulating transforming growth factor-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinyao; Li, Qiaoli; Xu, Jiawei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Huijuan; Xiang, Yuqian; Fang, Chuantao; Wang, Teng; Xia, Shihui; Zhang, Qiang; Xing, Qinghe; He, Lin; Wang, Lei; Xu, Mingqing; Zhao, Xinzhi

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Several studies have detected some differentially expressed microRNAs in the preeclamptic placenta, but few of the identified microRNAs demonstrated consistent findings among different research studies. In this study, high-throughput microRNA sequencing (HTS) of 9 preeclamptic and 9 normal placentas was performed. Seventeen microRNAs were identified to be up-regulated, and 8 down-regulated in preeclamptic placentas. Eight differentially expressed microRNAs except one identified in our study were determined to be consistent with at least one previous study, while sixteen were newly found. We performed qRT-PCR with independent 22 preeclamptic placentas and 20 control placentas to verify the differentially expressed microRNAs, and ten microRNAs were validated. The predicted target genes of the aberrantly expressed miR-193b-3p were enriched in the following gene ontology categories: cell motility and migration, cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We also found that miR-193b-3p significantly decreased the migration and invasion of trophoblast (HTR-8/SVneo) cells and that miR-193b-3p could regulate trophoblasts migration and invasion through binding onto the 3′UTR target site of TGF-β2. In conclusion, we identified a list of differentially expressed microRNAs in PE placentas by HTS and provided preliminary evidence for the role of miR-193b-3p in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:26822621

  8. Involvement of aberrant DNA methylation on reduced expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene in rat tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi . E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp; Shimizu, Kyoko; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Fujii, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshio; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2006-10-27

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. Recently, it has been reported that alterations of LPA receptor expression might be important in the malignant transformation of tumor cells. Therefore, to assess an involvement of DNA methylation in reduced expression of the LPA receptor-1 (lpa1) gene, we investigated the expression of the lpa1 gene and its DNA methylation patterns in rat tumor cell lines. Both rat brain-derived neuroblastoma B103 and liver-derived hepatoma RH7777 cells used in this study indicated no expression of lpa1. For the analysis of methylation status, bisulfite sequencing was performed with B103 and RH7777 cells, comparing with other lpa1 expressed cells and normal tissues of brain and liver. The lpa1 expressed cells and tissues were all unmethylated in this region of lpa1. In contrast, both B103 and RH7777 cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expression of the lpa1. Treatment with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine induced expression of lpa1 gene in B103 and RH7777 cells after 24 h. In RH7777 cells treated with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine, stress fiber formation was also observed in response to LPA in RH7777 cells, but not in untreated RH7777 cells. These results suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of the lpa1 gene may be involved in its reduced expression in rat tumor cells.

  9. Gene Regulation by Cytokinin in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Wolfram G.; Ramireddy, Eswar; Heyl, Alexander; Schmülling, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The plant hormone cytokinin realizes at least part of its signaling output through the regulation of gene expression. A great part of the early transcriptional regulation is mediated by type-B response regulators, which are transcription factors of the MYB family. Other transcription factors, such as the cytokinin response factors of the AP2/ERF family, have also been shown to be involved in this process. Additional transcription factors mediate distinct parts of the cytokinin response through tissue- and cell-specific downstream transcriptional cascades. In Arabidopsis, only a single cytokinin response element, to which type-B response regulators bind, has been clearly proven so far, which has 5′-GAT(T/C)-3′ as a core sequence. This motif has served to construct a synthetic cytokinin-sensitive two-component system response element, which is useful for monitoring the cellular cytokinin status. Insight into the extent of transcriptional regulation has been gained by genome-wide gene expression analyses following cytokinin treatment and from plants having an altered cytokinin content or signaling. This review presents a meta analysis of such microarray data resulting in a core list of cytokinin response genes. Genes encoding type-A response regulators displayed the most stable response to cytokinin, but a number of cytokinin metabolism genes (CKX4, CKX5, CYP735A2, UGT76C2) also belong to them, indicating homeostatic mechanisms operating at the transcriptional level. The cytokinin core response genes are also the target of other hormones as well as biotic and abiotic stresses, documenting crosstalk of the cytokinin system with other hormonal and environmental signaling pathways. The multiple links of cytokinin to diverse functions, ranging from control of meristem activity, hormonal crosstalk, nutrient acquisition, and various stress responses, are also corroborated by a compilation of genes that have been repeatedly found by independent gene expression profiling

  10. Aberrant expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A (ALDH1A) subfamily genes in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is a common feature of T-lineage tumours.

    PubMed

    Longville, Brooke A C; Anderson, Denise; Welch, Mathew D; Kees, Ursula R; Greene, Wayne K

    2015-01-01

    The class 1A aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1A) subfamily of genes encode enzymes that function at the apex of the retinoic acid (RA) signalling pathway. We detected aberrant expression of ALDH1A genes, particularly ALDH1A2, in a majority (72%) of primary paediatric T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) specimens. ALDH1A expression was almost exclusive to T-lineage, but not B-lineage, ALL. To determine whether ALDH1A expression may have relevance to T-ALL cell growth and survival, the effect of inhibiting ALDH1A function was measured on a panel of human ALL cell lines. This revealed that T-ALL proliferation had a higher sensitivity to modulation of ALDH1A activity and RA signalling as compared to ALL cell lines of B-lineage. Consistent with these findings, the genes most highly correlated with ALDH1A2 expression were involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Evidence that such genes may be targets of regulation via RA signalling initiated by ALDH1A activity was provided by the TNFRSF10B gene, encoding the apoptotic death receptor TNFRSF10B (also termed TRAIL-R2), which negatively correlated with ALDH1A2 and showed elevated transcription following treatment of T-ALL cell lines with the ALDH1A inhibitor citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal). These data indicate that ALDH1A expression is a common event in T-ALL and supports a role for these enzymes in the pathobiology of this disease. PMID:25208926

  11. Amino acid regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Fafournoux, P; Bruhat, A; Jousse, C

    2000-01-01

    The impact of nutrients on gene expression in mammals has become an important area of research. Nevertheless, the current understanding of the amino acid-dependent control of gene expression is limited. Because amino acids have multiple and important functions, their homoeostasis has to be finely maintained. However, amino-acidaemia can be affected by certain nutritional conditions or various forms of stress. It follows that mammals have to adjust several of their physiological functions involved in the adaptation to amino acid availability by regulating the expression of numerous genes. The aim of the present review is to examine the role of amino acids in regulating mammalian gene expression and protein turnover. It has been reported that some genes involved in the control of growth or amino acid metabolism are regulated by amino acid availability. For instance, limitation of several amino acids greatly increases the expression of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein, where C/EBP is CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) and asparagine synthetase. Elevated mRNA levels result from both an increase in the rate of transcription and an increase in mRNA stability. Several observations suggest that the amino acid regulation of gene expression observed in mammalian cells and the general control process described in yeast share common features. Moreover, amino acid response elements have been characterized in the promoters of the CHOP and asparagine synthetase genes. Taken together, the results discussed in the present review demonstrate that amino acids, by themselves, can, in concert with hormones, play an important role in the control of gene expression. PMID:10998343

  12. Alpharetroviral Vector-mediated Gene Therapy for X-CGD: Functional Correction and Lack of Aberrant Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Kerstin B.; Brendel, Christian; Suerth, Julia D.; Mueller-Kuller, Uta; Chen-Wichmann, Linping; Schwäble, Joachim; Pahujani, Shweta; Kunkel, Hana; Schambach, Axel; Baum, Christopher; Grez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Comparative integrome analysis has revealed that the most neutral integration pattern among retroviruses is attributed to alpharetroviruses. We chose X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) as model to evaluate the potential of self-inactivating (SIN) alpharetroviral vectors for gene therapy of monogenic diseases. Therefore, we combined the alpharetroviral vector backbone with the elongation factor-1α short promoter, both considered to possess a low genotoxic profile, to drive transgene (gp91phox) expression. Following efficient transduction transgene expression was sustained and provided functional correction of the CGD phenotype in a cell line model at low vector copy number. Further analysis in a murine X-CGD transplantation model revealed gene-marking of bone marrow cells and oxidase positive granulocytes in peripheral blood. Transduction of human X-CGD CD34+ cells provided functional correction up to wild-type levels and long-term expression upon transplantation into a humanized mouse model. In contrast to lentiviral vectors, no aberrantly spliced transcripts containing cellular exons fused to alpharetroviral sequences were found in transduced cells, implying that the safety profile of alpharetroviral vectors may extend beyond their neutral integration profile. Taken together, this highlights the potential of this SIN alpharetroviral system as a platform for new candidate vectors for future gene therapy of hematopoietic disorders. PMID:23207695

  13. Aberrant silencing of the endocrine peptide gene tachykinin-1 in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    David, Stefan; Kan, Takatsugu; Cheng, Yulan; Agarwal, Rachana; Jin, Zhe; Mori, Yuriko

    2009-01-16

    Tachykinin-1 (TAC1) is the precursor protein for neuroendocrine peptides, including substance P, and is centrally involved in gastric secretion, motility, mucosal immunity, and cell proliferation. Here we report aberrant silencing of TAC1 in gastric cancer (GC) by promoter hypermethylation. TAC1 methylation and mRNA expression in 47 primary GCs and 41 noncancerous gastric mucosae (NLs) were analyzed by utilizing real-time quantitative PCR-based assays. TAC1 methylation was more prevalent in GCs than in NLs: 21 (45%) of 47 GCs versus 6 (15%) of 41 NLs (p < 0.01). Microsatellite instability was also associated with TAC1 methylation in GCs. There was no significant association between TAC1 methylation and age, gender, stage, histological differentiation, or the presence of Helicobacter pylori. TAC1 mRNA was markedly downregulated in GCs relative to NLs. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine-induced demethylation of the TAC1 promoter resulted in TAC1 mRNA upregulation. Further studies are indicated to elucidate the functional involvement of TAC1 in gastric carcinogenesis.

  14. A study on the buffeting aberrance regulation of TDICCD mapping camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhe; Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Boheng

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, the fundamental of the TDICCD mapping camera is introduced, and the influence of the satellite buffeting on the image quality of the TDICCD camera is analyzed. In order to reduce the influence, a regulated resolution is put forward. Compared with the traditional TDICCD mapping camera, a special TDICCD focal plane which several TDICCD devices splited joint end to end is designed. A great deal of information are captured through the focal plane, and a mathematical model is established to analyze the data information. Then the results are feed back to the satellite, and the attitude of the satellite is actively regulated in real time. Finally, make experiments and simulation to validate it. The experiment result indicate that the design is valid.

  15. Developmental regulation of embryonic genes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Borkird, C.; Choi, Jung, H.; Jin, Zhenghua; Franz, G.; Hatzopoulos, P.; Chorneaus, R.; Bonas, U.; Pelegri, F.; Sung, Z.R.

    1988-09-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from cultured carrot cells progresses through successive morphogenetic stages termed globular, heart, and torpedo. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying plant embryogenesis, the authors isolated two genes differentially expressed during embryo development. The expression of these two genes is associated with heart-stage embryogenesis. By altering the culture conditions and examining their expressions in a developmental variant cell line, they found that these genes were controlled by the developmental program of embryogenesis and were not directly regulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the growth regulator that promotes unorganized growth of cultured cells and suppresses embryo morphogenesis. These genes are also expressed in carrot zygotic embryos but not in seedlings or mature plants.

  16. Gene regulation by dietary microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Zempleni, Janos; Baier, Scott R; Howard, Katherine M; Cui, Juan

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) silence genes through destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA, thereby playing an essential role in gene silencing. Traditionally, miRNAs have been considered endogenous regulators of genes, i.e., miRNAs synthesized by an organism regulate the genes in that organism. Recently, that dogma has been challenged in studies suggesting that food-borne miRNAs are bioavailable and affect gene expression in mice and humans. While the evidence in support of this theory may be considered weak for miRNAs that originate in plants, there is compelling evidence to suggest that humans use bovine miRNAs in cow's milk and avian miRNAs in chicken eggs for gene regulation. Importantly, evidence also suggests that mice fed a miRNA-depleted diet cannot compensate for dietary depletion by increased endogenous synthesis. Bioinformatics predictions implicate bovine miRNAs in the regulation of genes that play roles in human health and development. Current challenges in this area of research include that some miRNAs are unable to establish a cause-and-effect between miRNA depletion and disease in miRNA knockout mice, and sequence similarities and identities for bovine and human miRNAs render it difficult to distinguish between exogenous and endogenous miRNAs. Based on what is currently known about dietary miRNAs, the body of evidence appears to be sufficient to consider milk miRNA bioactive compounds in foods, and to increase research activities in this field. PMID:26222444

  17. Functional annotation of rare gene aberration drivers of pancreatic cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    As we enter the era of precision medicine, characterization of cancer genomes will directly influence therapeutic decisions in the clinic. Here we describe a platform enabling functionalization of rare gene mutations through their high-throughput construction, molecular barcoding and delivery to cancer models for in vivo tumour driver screens. We apply these technologies to identify oncogenic drivers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

  18. Mutational Profiles Reveal an Aberrant TGF-β-CEA Regulated Pathway in Colon Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Jogunoori, Wilma; Menon, Vipin; Majumdar, Avijit; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Gi, Young Jin; Jeong, Yun Seong; Phan, Liem; Belkin, Mitchell; Gu, Shoujun; Kundra, Suchin; Mistry, Nipun A.; Zhang, Jianping; Su, Xiaoping; Li, Shulin; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Javle, Milind; McMurray, John S.; Rahlfs, Thomas F.; Mishra, Bibhuti; White, Jon; Rashid, Asif; Beauchemin, Nicole; Weston, Brian R.; Shafi, Mehnaz A.; Stroehlein, John R.; Davila, Marta; Akbani, Rehan; Weinstein, John N.; Wu, Xifeng; Mishra, Lopa

    2016-01-01

    Mutational processes and signatures that drive early tumorigenesis are centrally important for early cancer prevention. Yet, to date, biomarkers and risk factors for polyps (adenomas) that inordinately and rapidly develop into colon cancer remain poorly defined. Here, we describe surprisingly high mutational profiles through whole-genome sequence (WGS) analysis in 2 of 4 pairs of benign colorectal adenoma tissue samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustered transcriptomic analysis of a further 7 pairs of adenomas reveals distinct mutational signatures regardless of adenoma size. Transitional single nucleotide substitutions of C:G>T:A predominate in the adenoma mutational spectrum. Strikingly, we observe mutations in the TGF-β pathway and CEA-associated genes in 4 out of 11 adenomas, overlapping with the Wnt pathway. Immunohistochemical labeling reveals a nearly 5-fold increase in CEA levels in 23% of adenoma samples with a concomitant loss of TGF-β signaling. We also define a functional role by which the CEA B3 domain interacts with TGFBR1, potentially inactivating the tumor suppressor function of TGF-β signaling. Our study uncovers diverse mutational processes underlying the transition from early adenoma to cancer. This has broad implications for biomarker-driven targeting of CEA/TGF-β in high-risk adenomas and may lead to early detection of aggressive adenoma to CRC progression. PMID:27100181

  19. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice exhibit aberrant gastrointestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Susan V; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Wild, Yvette K; Kong, Weidong; De Lisle, Robert C; Brodie, Eoin L

    2013-01-01

    The composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome is increasingly recognized as a crucial contributor to immune and metabolic homeostasis-deficiencies in which are characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The murine model (CFTR (-/-) , CF), has, in previous studies, demonstrated characteristic CF gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations including slowed transit and significant upregulation of genes associated with inflammation. To determine if characteristics of the microbiome are associated with these phenotypes we used a phylogenetic microarray to compare small intestine bacterial communities of wild type and congenic CF mice. Loss of functional CFTR is associated with significant decreases in GI bacterial community richness, evenness and diversity and reduced relative abundance of putative protective species such as Acinetobacter lwoffii and a multitude of Lactobacilliales members. CF mice exhibited significant enrichment of Mycobacteria species and Bacteroides fragilis, previously associated with GI infection and immunomodulation. Antibiotic administration to WT and CF animals resulted in convergence of their microbiome composition and significant increases in community diversity in CF mice. These communities were characterized by enrichment of members of the Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae and reduced abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridiaceae. These data suggest that Enterobacteria and Clostridia species, long associated with small intestinal overgrowth and inflammatory bowel disease, may suppress both ileal bacterial diversity and the particular species which maintain motility and immune homeostasis in this niche. Thus, these data provide the first indications that GI bacterial colonization is strongly impacted by the loss of functional CFTR and opens up avenues for alternative therapeutic approaches to improve CF disease management. PMID:23060053

  20. Mutational Profiles Reveal an Aberrant TGF-β-CEA Regulated Pathway in Colon Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Jogunoori, Wilma; Menon, Vipin; Majumdar, Avijit; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Gi, Young Jin; Jeong, Yun Seong; Phan, Liem; Belkin, Mitchell; Gu, Shoujun; Kundra, Suchin; Mistry, Nipun A; Zhang, Jianping; Su, Xiaoping; Li, Shulin; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Javle, Milind; McMurray, John S; Rahlfs, Thomas F; Mishra, Bibhuti; White, Jon; Rashid, Asif; Beauchemin, Nicole; Weston, Brian R; Shafi, Mehnaz A; Stroehlein, John R; Davila, Marta; Akbani, Rehan; Weinstein, John N; Wu, Xifeng; Mishra, Lopa

    2016-01-01

    Mutational processes and signatures that drive early tumorigenesis are centrally important for early cancer prevention. Yet, to date, biomarkers and risk factors for polyps (adenomas) that inordinately and rapidly develop into colon cancer remain poorly defined. Here, we describe surprisingly high mutational profiles through whole-genome sequence (WGS) analysis in 2 of 4 pairs of benign colorectal adenoma tissue samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustered transcriptomic analysis of a further 7 pairs of adenomas reveals distinct mutational signatures regardless of adenoma size. Transitional single nucleotide substitutions of C:G>T:A predominate in the adenoma mutational spectrum. Strikingly, we observe mutations in the TGF-β pathway and CEA-associated genes in 4 out of 11 adenomas, overlapping with the Wnt pathway. Immunohistochemical labeling reveals a nearly 5-fold increase in CEA levels in 23% of adenoma samples with a concomitant loss of TGF-β signaling. We also define a functional role by which the CEA B3 domain interacts with TGFBR1, potentially inactivating the tumor suppressor function of TGF-β signaling. Our study uncovers diverse mutational processes underlying the transition from early adenoma to cancer. This has broad implications for biomarker-driven targeting of CEA/TGF-β in high-risk adenomas and may lead to early detection of aggressive adenoma to CRC progression. PMID:27100181

  1. Epigenetic regulation of the RHOX homeobox gene cluster and its association with human male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Marcy E.; Bleiziffer, Andreas; Tüttelmann, Frank; Gromoll, Jörg; Wilkinson, Miles F.

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked RHOX cluster encodes a set of homeobox genes that are selectively expressed in the reproductive tract. Members of the RHOX cluster regulate target genes important for spermatogenesis promote male fertility in mice. Studies show that demethylating agents strongly upregulate the expression of mouse Rhox genes, suggesting that they are regulated by DNA methylation. However, whether this extends to human RHOX genes, whether DNA methylation directly regulates RHOX gene transcription and how this relates to human male infertility are unknown. To address these issues, we first defined the promoter regions of human RHOX genes and performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments to determine whether human RHOX gene transcription is regulated by DNA methylation. Our results indicated that DNA methylation is necessary and sufficient to silence human RHOX gene expression. To determine whether RHOX cluster methylation associates with male infertility, we evaluated the methylation status of RHOX genes in sperm from a large cohort of infertility patients. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong association between RHOX gene cluster hypermethylation and three independent types of semen abnormalities. Hypermethylation was restricted specifically to the RHOX cluster; we did not observe it in genes immediately adjacent to it on the X chromosome. Our results strongly suggest that human RHOX homeobox genes are under an epigenetic control mechanism that is aberrantly regulated in infertility patients. We propose that hypermethylation of the RHOX gene cluster serves as a marker for idiopathic infertility and that it is a candidate to exert a causal role in male infertility. PMID:23943794

  2. Virulence Gene Regulation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mellies, Jay L; Barron, Alex M S

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia colicauses three types of illnesses in humans: diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and meningitis in newborns. The acquisition of virulence-associated genes and the ability to properly regulate these, often horizontally transferred, loci distinguishes pathogens from the normally harmless commensal E. coli found within the human intestine. This review addresses our current understanding of virulence gene regulation in several important diarrhea-causing pathotypes, including enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic,enterotoxigenic, and enteroaggregativeE. coli-EPEC, EHEC, ETEC and EAEC, respectively. The intensely studied regulatory circuitry controlling virulence of uropathogenicE. coli, or UPEC, is also reviewed, as is that of MNEC, a common cause of meningitis in neonates. Specific topics covered include the regulation of initial attachment events necessary for infection, environmental cues affecting virulence gene expression, control of attaching and effacing lesionformation, and control of effector molecule expression and secretion via the type III secretion systems by EPEC and EHEC. How phage control virulence and the expression of the Stx toxins of EHEC, phase variation, quorum sensing, and posttranscriptional regulation of virulence determinants are also addressed. A number of important virulence regulators are described, including the AraC-like molecules PerA of EPEC, CfaR and Rns of ETEC, and AggR of EAEC;the Ler protein of EPEC and EHEC;RfaH of UPEC;and the H-NS molecule that acts to silence gene expression. The regulatory circuitry controlling virulence of these greatly varied E. colipathotypes is complex, but common themes offerinsight into the signals and regulators necessary forE. coli disease progression. PMID:26443571

  3. The impact of microRNA gene regulation on the survival and function of mature cell types in the eye.

    PubMed

    Sundermeier, Thomas R; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate multiple genes, often within the same pathway, fine-tuning expression of key factors and stabilizing gene networks against aberrant fluctuations. The demanding physiologic functions of photoreceptor cells and the retinal pigmented epithelium necessitate precise gene regulation to maintain their homeostasis and function, thus rendering these postmitotic cells vulnerable to premature death in retinal degenerative disorders. Recent studies of the physiologic impact of miRNAs in these cells clearly demonstrate that miRNAs are an essential component of that gene regulation. These important advances provide the foundation for future exploration of miRNA-regulated gene networks in the eye to facilitate the development of miRNA-targeted therapeutics to combat blinding diseases. PMID:26399786

  4. GENE REGULATION BY MAPK SUBSTRATE COMPETITION

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoosik; Andreu, María José; Lim, Bomyi; Chung, Kwanghun; Terayama, Mark; Jiménez, Gerardo; Berg, Celeste A.; Lu, Hang; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Developing tissues are patterned by coordinated activities of signaling systems, which can be integrated by a regulatory region of a gene that binds multiple transcription factors or by a transcription factor that is modified by multiple enzymes. Based on a combination of genetic and imaging experiments in the early Drosophila embryo, we describe a signal integration mechanism that cannot be reduced to a single gene regulatory element or a single transcription factor. This mechanism relies on an enzymatic network formed by Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and its substrates. Specifically, anteriorly localized MAPK substrates, such as Bicoid, antagonize MAPK-dependent downregulation of Capicua, a repressor which is involved in gene regulation along the dorsoventral axis of the embryo. MAPK substrate competition provides a basis for ternary interaction of the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems. A mathematical model of this interaction can explain gene expression patterns with both anteroposterior and dorsoventral polarities. PMID:21664584

  5. Ozone-Induced Rice Grain Yield Loss Is Triggered via a Change in Panicle Morphology That Is Controlled by ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Keita; Sawada, Hiroko; Kohno, Yoshihisa; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C; Terao, Tomio; Ioki, Motohide; Tamaoki, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Rice grain yield is predicted to decrease in the future because of an increase in tropospheric ozone concentration. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated the responses to ozone of two rice (Oryza Sativa L.) cultivars, Sasanishiki and Habataki. Sasanishiki showed ozone-induced leaf injury, but no grain yield loss. By contrast, Habataki showed grain yield loss with minimal leaf injury. A QTL associated with grain yield loss caused by ozone was identified in Sasanishiki/Habataki chromosome segment substitution lines and included the ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1 (APO1) gene. The Habataki allele of the APO1 locus in a near-isogenic line also resulted in grain yield loss upon ozone exposure, suggesting APO1 involvement in ozone-induced yield loss. Only a few differences in the APO1 amino acid sequences were detected between the cultivars, but the APO1 transcript level was oppositely regulated by ozone exposure: i.e., it increased in Sasanishiki and decreased in Habataki. Interestingly, the levels of some phytohormones (jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, and abscisic acid) known to be involved in attenuation of ozone-induced leaf injury tended to decrease in Sasanishiki but to increase in Habataki upon ozone exposure. These data indicate that ozone-induced grain yield loss in Habataki is caused by a reduction in the APO1 transcript level through an increase in the levels of phytohormones that reduce leaf damage. PMID:25923431

  6. Transposable element origins of epigenetic gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Lisch, Damon; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2011-04-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are massively abundant and unstable in all plant genomes, but are mostly silent because of epigenetic suppression. Because all known epigenetic pathways act on all TEs, it is likely that the specialized epigenetic regulation of regular host genes (RHGs) was co-opted from this ubiquitous need for the silencing of TEs and viruses. With their internally repetitive and rearranging structures, and the acquisition of fragments of RHGs, the expression of TEs commonly makes antisense RNAs for both TE genes and RHGs. These antisense RNAs, particularly from heterochromatic reservoirs of 'zombie' TEs that are rearranged to form variously internally repetitive structures, may be advantageous because their induction will help rapidly suppress active TEs of the same family. RHG fragments within rapidly rearranging TEs may also provide the raw material for the ongoing generation of miRNA genes. TE gene expression is regulated by both environmental and developmental signals, and insertions can place nearby RHGs under the regulation (both standard and epigenetic) of the TE. The ubiquity of TEs, their frequent preferential association with RHGs, and their ability to be programmed by epigenetic signals all indicate that RGHs have nearly unlimited access to novel regulatory cassettes to assist plant adaptation. PMID:21444239

  7. Gene expression regulation in roots under drought.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwaśniewski, Mirosław; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    Stress signalling and regulatory networks controlling expression of target genes are the basis of plant response to drought. Roots are the first organs exposed to water deficiency in the soil and are the place of drought sensing. Signalling cascades transfer chemical signals toward the shoot and initiate molecular responses that lead to the biochemical and morphological changes that allow plants to be protected against water loss and to tolerate stress conditions. Here, we present an overview of signalling network and gene expression regulation pathways that are actively induced in roots under drought stress. In particular, the role of several transcription factor (TF) families, including DREB, AP2/ERF, NAC, bZIP, MYC, CAMTA, Alfin-like and Q-type ZFP, in the regulation of root response to drought are highlighted. The information provided includes available data on mutual interactions between these TFs together with their regulation by plant hormones and other signalling molecules. The most significant downstream target genes and molecular processes that are controlled by the regulatory factors are given. These data are also coupled with information about the influence of the described regulatory networks on root traits and root development which may translate to enhanced drought tolerance. This is the first literature survey demonstrating the gene expression regulatory machinery that is induced by drought stress, presented from the perspective of roots. PMID:26663562

  8. IBD Candidate Genes and Intestinal Barrier Regulation

    PubMed Central

    McCole, Declan F.

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances in the large scale analysis of human genetics have generated profound insights into possible genetic contributions to chronic diseases including the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. To date, 163 distinct genetic risk loci have been associated with either Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, with a substantial degree of genetic overlap between these 2 conditions. Although many risk variants show a reproducible correlation with disease, individual gene associations only affect a subset of patients, and the functional contribution(s) of these risk variants to the onset of IBD is largely undetermined. Although studies in twins have demonstrated that the development of IBD is not mediated solely by genetic risk, it is nevertheless important to elucidate the functional consequences of risk variants for gene function in relevant cell types known to regulate key physiological processes that are compromised in IBD. This article will discuss IBD candidate genes that are known to be, or are suspected of being, involved in regulating the intestinal epithelial barrier and several of the physiological processes presided over by this dynamic and versatile layer of cells. This will include assembly and regulation of tight junctions, cell adhesion and polarity, mucus and glycoprotein regulation, bacterial sensing, membrane transport, epithelial differentiation, and restitution. PMID:25215613

  9. Linker histones in hormonal gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Vicent, G P; Wright, R H G; Beato, M

    2016-03-01

    In the present review, we summarize advances in our knowledge on the role of the histone H1 family of proteins in breast cancer cells, focusing on their response to progestins. Histone H1 plays a dual role in gene regulation by hormones, both as a structural component of chromatin and as a dynamic modulator of transcription. It contributes to hormonal regulation of the MMTV promoter by stabilizing a homogeneous nucleosome positioning, which reduces basal transcription whereas at the same time promoting progesterone receptor binding and nucleosome remodeling. These combined effects enhance hormone dependent gene transcription, which eventually requires H1 phosphorylation and displacement. Various isoforms of histone H1 have specific functions in differentiated breast cancer cells and compact nucleosomal arrays to different extents in vitro. Genome-wide studies show that histone H1 has a key role in chromatin dynamics of hormone regulated genes. A complex sequence of enzymatic events, including phosphorylation by CDK2, PARylation by PARP1 and the ATP-dependent activity of NURF, are required for H1 displacement and gene de-repression, as a prerequisite for further nucleosome remodeling. Similarly, during hormone-dependent gene repression a dedicated enzymatic mechanism controls H1 deposition at promoters by a complex containing HP1γ, LSD1 and BRG1, the ATPase of the BAF complex. Thus, a broader vision of the histone code should include histone H1, as the linker histone variants actively participate in the regulation of the chromatin structure. How modifications of the core histones tails affect H1 modifications and vice versa is one of the many questions that remains to be addressed to provide a more comprehensive view of the histone cross-talk mechanisms. PMID:26518266

  10. Virulence gene regulation inside and outside.

    PubMed

    DiRita, V J; Engleberg, N C; Heath, A; Miller, A; Crawford, J A; Yu, R

    2000-05-29

    Much knowledge about microbial gene regulation and virulence is derived from genetic and biochemical studies done outside of hosts. The aim of this review is to correlate observations made in vitro and in vivo with two different bacterial pathogens in which the nature of regulated gene expression leading to virulence is quite different. The first is Vibrio cholerae, in which the concerted action of a complicated regulatory cascade involving several transcription activators leads ultimately to expression of cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus. The regulatory cascade is active in vivo and is also required for maintenance of V. cholerae in the intestinal tract during experimental infection. Nevertheless, specific signals predicted to be generated in vivo, such as bile and a temperature of 37 degrees C, have a severe down-modulating effect on activation of toxin and pilus expression. Another unusual aspect of gene regulation in this system is the role played by inner membrane proteins that activate transcription. Although the topology of these proteins suggests an appealing model for signal transduction leading to virulence gene expression, experimental evidence suggests that such a model may be simplistic. In Streptococcus pyogenes, capsule production is critical for virulence in an animal model of necrotizing skin infection. Yet capsule is apparently produced to high levels only from mutation in a two-component regulatory system, CsrR and CsrS. Thus it seems that in V. cholerae a complex regulatory pathway has evolved to control virulence by induction of gene expression in vivo, whereas in S. pyogenes at least one mode of pathogenicity is potentiated by the absence of regulation. PMID:10874738

  11. Aberrant Methylation of Gene Associated CpG Sites Occurs in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Künzel, Natascha; Schmidt, Christian; Kiehl, Steffen; Dammann, Gerhard; Dammann, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex psychiatric disease with an increased impact in the last years. While the diagnosis and therapy are well established, little is known on the pathogenesis of borderline personality disorder. Previously, a significant increase in DNA methylation of relevant neuropsychiatric genes in BPD patients has been reported. In our study we performed genome wide methylation analysis and revealed specific CpG sites that exhibited increased methylation in 24 female BPD patients compared to 11 female healthy controls. Bead chip technology and quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing showed a significantly increased methylation at CpG sites of APBA2 (1.1 fold) and APBA3 (1.1 fold), KCNQ1 (1.5 fold), MCF2 (1.1 fold) and NINJ2 (1.2 fold) in BPD patients. For the CpG sites of GATA4 and HLCS an increase in DNA methylation was observed, but was only significant in the bead chip assay. Moreover genome wide methylation levels of blood samples of BPD patients and control samples are similar. In summary, our results show a significant 1.26 fold average increase in methylation at the analyzed gene associated CpG sites in the blood of BPD patients compared to controls samples (p<0.001). This data may provide new insights into epigenetic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of BPD. PMID:24367640

  12. Gene regulation and speciation in house mice.

    PubMed

    Mack, Katya L; Campbell, Polly; Nachman, Michael W

    2016-04-01

    One approach to understanding the process of speciation is to characterize the genetic architecture of post-zygotic isolation. As gene regulation requires interactions between loci, negative epistatic interactions between divergent regulatory elements might underlie hybrid incompatibilities and contribute to reproductive isolation. Here, we take advantage of a cross between house mouse subspecies, where hybrid dysfunction is largely unidirectional, to test several key predictions about regulatory divergence and reproductive isolation. Regulatory divergence betweenMus musculus musculusandM. m. domesticuswas characterized by studying allele-specific expression in fertile hybrid males using mRNA-sequencing of whole testes. We found extensive regulatory divergence betweenM. m. musculusandM. m. domesticus, largely attributable tocis-regulatory changes. When bothcisandtranschanges occurred, they were observed in opposition much more often than expected under a neutral model, providing strong evidence of widespread compensatory evolution. We also found evidence for lineage-specific positive selection on a subset of genes related to transcriptional regulation. Comparisons of fertile and sterile hybrid males identified a set of genes that were uniquely misexpressed in sterile individuals. Lastly, we discovered a nonrandom association between these genes and genes showing evidence of compensatory evolution, consistent with the idea that regulatory interactions might contribute to Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities and be important in speciation. PMID:26833790

  13. Promoter architectures and developmental gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Haberle, Vanja; Lenhard, Boris

    2016-09-01

    Core promoters are minimal regions sufficient to direct accurate initiation of transcription and are crucial for regulation of gene expression. They are highly diverse in terms of associated core promoter motifs, underlying sequence composition and patterns of transcription initiation. Distinctive features of promoters are also seen at the chromatin level, including nucleosome positioning patterns and presence of specific histone modifications. Recent advances in identifying and characterizing promoters using next-generation sequencing-based technologies have provided the basis for their classification into functional groups and have shed light on their modes of regulation, with important implications for transcriptional regulation in development. This review discusses the methodology and the results of genome-wide studies that provided insight into the diversity of RNA polymerase II promoter architectures in vertebrates and other Metazoa, and the association of these architectures with distinct modes of regulation in embryonic development and differentiation. PMID:26783721

  14. Aberrant 5′ splice sites in human disease genes: mutation pattern, nucleotide structure and comparison of computational tools that predict their utilization

    PubMed Central

    Buratti, Emanuele; Chivers, Martin; Královičová, Jana; Romano, Maurizio; Baralle, Marco; Krainer, Adrian R.; Vořechovský, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Despite a growing number of splicing mutations found in hereditary diseases, utilization of aberrant splice sites and their effects on gene expression remain challenging to predict. We compiled sequences of 346 aberrant 5′splice sites (5′ss) that were activated by mutations in 166 human disease genes. Mutations within the 5′ss consensus accounted for 254 cryptic 5′ss and mutations elsewhere activated 92 de novo 5′ss. Point mutations leading to cryptic 5′ss activation were most common in the first intron nucleotide, followed by the fifth nucleotide. Substitutions at position +5 were exclusively G>A transitions, which was largely attributable to high mutability rates of C/G>T/A. However, the frequency of point mutations at position +5 was significantly higher than that observed in the Human Gene Mutation Database, suggesting that alterations of this position are particularly prone to aberrant splicing, possibly due to a requirement for sequential interactions with U1 and U6 snRNAs. Cryptic 5′ss were best predicted by computational algorithms that accommodate nucleotide dependencies and not by weight-matrix models. Discrimination of intronic 5′ss from their authentic counterparts was less effective than for exonic sites, as the former were intrinsically stronger than the latter. Computational prediction of exonic de novo 5′ss was poor, suggesting that their activation critically depends on exonic splicing enhancers or silencers. The authentic counterparts of aberrant 5′ss were significantly weaker than the average human 5′ss. The development of an online database of aberrant 5′ss will be useful for studying basic mechanisms of splice-site selection, identifying splicing mutations and optimizing splice-site prediction algorithms. PMID:17576681

  15. Aberrant Methylation of the E-Cadherin Gene Promoter Region in the Endometrium of Women With Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Ran, Ran; Guan, Yingxia; Zhu, Xiaoxiong; Kang, Shan

    2016-08-01

    A uterine fibroid is a leiomyoma that originates from the smooth muscle layer of the uterus. A variety of endometrial abnormalities are associated with uterine fibroids. This study aims to investigate the methylation status of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) promoter region in the endometrium of patients with uterine fibroids. The methylation of CDH1 was studied using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction in the endometrial tissue of 102 patients with uterine fibroids and 50 control patients. The E-cadherin expression was examined by flow cytometry. The methylation rate of CDH1 promoter region was 33.3% in the endometrium of patients with uterine fibroids and 8% in the endometrium of women without fibroids. The frequency of CDH1 promoter methylation in the endometrium of patients with fibroids was significantly higher than that in the endometrium of women without fibroids (P = .001). Furthermore, the E-cadherin expression level in methylation-positive tissues was significantly lower than that in methylation-negative tissues (P = .017). These results suggest that epigenetic aberration of CDH1 may occur in the endometrium of patients with fibroids, which may be associated with E-cadherin protein expression in endometrial tissue. PMID:26880767

  16. Role of Plc1p in regulation of Mcm1p-dependent genes

    PubMed Central

    Guzinska, Katarzyna; Varghese, Roger; Vancura, Ales

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (Plc1p encoded by PLC1 gene) and several inositol polyphosphate kinases represent a nuclear pathway for synthesis of inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) that are involved in several aspects of DNA and RNA metabolism, including transcriptional regulation. Plc1p-produced InsP3 is phosphorylated by Ipk2p/Arg82p to yield InsP4/InsP5. Ipk2p/Arg82p is also a component of ArgR-Mcm1p complex that regulates transcription of genes involved in arginine metabolism. The role of Ipk2p/Arg82p in this complex is to stabilize the essential MADS box protein Mcm1p. Consequently, ipk2Δ cells display reduced level of Mcm1p and attenuated expression of Mcm1p-dependent genes. Since plc1Δ cells display aberrant expression of several groups of genes, including genes involved in stress response, the objective of this study was to determine whether Plc1p also affects expression of Mcm1p-dependent genes. We report here that not only ipk2Δ, but also plc1Δ cells display decreased expression of Mcm1p-dependent genes. However, Plc1p is not involved in stabilization of Mcm1p and affects transcription of Mcm1p-dependent genes by a different mechanism, probably involving regulation of chromatin remodeling complexes. PMID:19459978

  17. High-resolution detection of recurrent aberrations in lung adenocarcinomas by array comparative genomic hybridization and expression analysis of selective genes by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Wong, Maria Pik; Tin, Vicky

    2014-06-01

    Genomic abnormalities are the hallmark of cancers and may harbor potential candidate genes important for cancer development and progression. We performed array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) on 36 cases of primary lung adenocarcinoma (AD) using an array containing 2621 BAC or PAC clones spanning the genome at an average interval of 1 Mb. Array CGH identified the commonest aberrations consisting of DNA gains within 1p, 1q, 5p, 5q, 7p, 7q, 8q, 11q, 12p, 13q, 16p, 17q, 20q, and losses with 6q, 9p, 10q and 18q. High-level copy gains involved mainly 7p21-p15 and 20q13.3. Dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on a selective locus for validation of array CGH results. Genomic aberrations were compared with different clinicopathological features and a trend of higher number of aberrations in tumors with aggressive phenotypes and current tobacco exposure was identified. According to array CGH data, 23 candidate genes were selected for quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. The concordance observed between the genomic and expression changes in most of the genes suggested that they could be candidate cancer-related genes that contributed to the development of lung AD. PMID:24728343

  18. Regulation of methane genes and genome expression

    SciTech Connect

    John N. Reeve

    2009-09-09

    At the start of this project, it was known that methanogens were Archaeabacteria (now Archaea) and were therefore predicted to have gene expression and regulatory systems different from Bacteria, but few of the molecular biology details were established. The goals were then to establish the structures and organizations of genes in methanogens, and to develop the genetic technologies needed to investigate and dissect methanogen gene expression and regulation in vivo. By cloning and sequencing, we established the gene and operon structures of all of the “methane” genes that encode the enzymes that catalyze methane biosynthesis from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. This work identified unique sequences in the methane gene that we designated mcrA, that encodes the largest subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, that could be used to identify methanogen DNA and establish methanogen phylogenetic relationships. McrA sequences are now the accepted standard and used extensively as hybridization probes to identify and quantify methanogens in environmental research. With the methane genes in hand, we used northern blot and then later whole-genome microarray hybridization analyses to establish how growth phase and substrate availability regulated methane gene expression in Methanobacterium thermautotrophicus ΔH (now Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus). Isoenzymes or pairs of functionally equivalent enzymes catalyze several steps in the hydrogen-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. We established that hydrogen availability determine which of these pairs of methane genes is expressed and therefore which of the alternative enzymes is employed to catalyze methane biosynthesis under different environmental conditions. As were unable to establish a reliable genetic system for M. thermautotrophicus, we developed in vitro transcription as an alternative system to investigate methanogen gene expression and regulation. This led to the discovery that an archaeal protein

  19. Gene therapy on demand: site specific regulation of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Jazwa, Agnieszka; Florczyk, Urszula; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2013-08-10

    Since 1990 when the first clinical gene therapy trial was conducted, much attention and considerable promise have been given to this form of treatment. Gene therapy has been used with success in patients suffering from severe combined immunodeficiency syndromes (X-SCID and ADA-deficiency), Leber's congenital amaurosis, hemophilia, β-thalassemia and adrenoleukodystrophy. Last year, the first therapeutic vector (Glybera) for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency has been registered in the European Union. Nevertheless, there are still several numerous issues that need to be improved to make this technique more safe, effective and easily accessible for patients. Introduction of the therapeutic gene to the given cells should provide the level of expression which will restore the production of therapeutic protein to normal values or will provide therapeutic efficacy despite not fully physiological expression. However, in numerous diseases the expression of therapeutic genes has to be kept at certain level for some time, and then might be required to be switched off to be activated again when worsening of the symptoms may aggravate the risk of disease relapse. In such cases the promoters which are regulated by local conditions may be more required. In this article the special emphasis is to discuss the strategies of regulation of gene expression by endogenous stimuli. Particularly, the hypoxia- or miRNA-regulated vectors offer the possibilities of tight but, at the same time, condition-dependent and cell-specific expression. Such means have been already tested in certain pathophysiological conditions. This creates the chance for the translational approaches required for development of effective treatments of so far incurable diseases. PMID:23566848

  20. Posttranscriptional gene regulation by long noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Je-Hyun; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Gorospe, Myriam

    2013-10-01

    Eukaryotic cells transcribe a vast number of noncoding RNA species. Among them, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been widely implicated in the regulation of gene transcription. However, examples of posttranscriptional gene regulation by lncRNAs are emerging. Through extended base-pairing, lncRNAs can stabilize or promote the translation of target mRNAs, while partial base-pairing facilitates mRNA decay or inhibits target mRNA translation. In the absence of complementarity, lncRNAs can suppress precursor mRNA splicing and translation by acting as decoys of RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs and can compete for microRNA-mediated inhibition leading to increased expression of the mRNA. Through these regulatory mechanisms, lncRNAs can elicit differentiation, proliferation, and cytoprotective programs, underscoring the rising recognition of lncRNA roles in human disease. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of posttranscriptional gene regulation by lncRNAs identified until now. PMID:23178169

  1. Coactivators in PPAR-Regulated Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Viswakarma, Navin; Jia, Yuzhi; Bai, Liang; Vluggens, Aurore; Borensztajn, Jayme; Xu, Jianming; Reddy, Janardan K.

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, β (also known as δ), and γ function as sensors for fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives and control important metabolic pathways involved in the maintenance of energy balance. PPARs also regulate other diverse biological processes such as development, differentiation, inflammation, and neoplasia. In the nucleus, PPARs exist as heterodimers with retinoid X receptor-α bound to DNA with corepressor molecules. Upon ligand activation, PPARs undergo conformational changes that facilitate the dissociation of corepressor molecules and invoke a spatiotemporally orchestrated recruitment of transcription cofactors including coactivators and coactivator-associated proteins. While a given nuclear receptor regulates the expression of a prescribed set of target genes, coactivators are likely to influence the functioning of many regulators and thus affect the transcription of many genes. Evidence suggests that some of the coactivators such as PPAR-binding protein (PBP/PPARBP), thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein 220 (TRAP220), and mediator complex subunit 1 (MED1) may exert a broader influence on the functions of several nuclear receptors and their target genes. Investigations into the role of coactivators in the function of PPARs should strengthen our understanding of the complexities of metabolic diseases associated with energy metabolism. PMID:20814439

  2. Gene regulation in parthenocarpic tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L; Reagan, Russell L; Chen, Ying; Tricoli, David; Fiehn, Oliver; Rocke, David M; Gasser, Charles S; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2009-01-01

    Parthenocarpy is potentially a desirable trait for many commercially grown fruits if undesirable changes to structure, flavour, or nutrition can be avoided. Parthenocarpic transgenic tomato plants (cv MicroTom) were obtained by the regulation of genes for auxin synthesis (iaaM) or responsiveness (rolB) driven by DefH9 or the INNER NO OUTER (INO) promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Fruits at a breaker stage were analysed at a transcriptomic and metabolomic level using microarrays, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a Pegasus III TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer. Although differences were observed in the shape of fully ripe fruits, no clear correlation could be made between the number of seeds, transgene, and fruit size. Expression of auxin synthesis or responsiveness genes by both of these promoters produced seedless parthenocarpic fruits. Eighty-three percent of the genes measured showed no significant differences in expression due to parthenocarpy. The remaining 17% with significant variation (P <0.05) (1748 genes) were studied by assigning a predicted function (when known) based on BLAST to the TAIR database. Among them several genes belong to cell wall, hormone metabolism and response (auxin in particular), and metabolism of sugars and lipids. Up-regulation of lipid transfer proteins and differential expression of several indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)- and ethylene-associated genes were observed in transgenic parthenocarpic fruits. Despite differences in several fatty acids, amino acids, and other metabolites, the fundamental metabolic profile remains unchanged. This work showed that parthenocarpy with ovule-specific alteration of auxin synthesis or response driven by the INO promoter could be effectively applied where such changes are commercially desirable. PMID:19700496

  3. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  4. Non-DBS DNA Repair Genes Regulate Radiation-induced Cytogenetic Damage Repair and Cell Cycle Progression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Casey, Rachael; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in DSB repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been systematically studied. In the present study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by transfection with small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of these selected genes on regulating DSB repair and cell cycle progression , as measured in the micronuclei formation and chromosome aberration. In response to IR, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of 5 genes: Ku70 in the DSB repair pathway, XPA in the NER pathway, RPA1 in the MMR pathway, and RAD17 and RBBP8 in cell cycle control. Knocked-down expression of 4 genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Furthermore, loss of XPA, P21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Most of the 11 genes that affected cytogenetic responses are not known to have clear roles influencing DBS repair. Nine of these 11 genes were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate the biological consequences after IR.

  5. Aberrant Promoter Methylation of p16 and MGMT Genes in Lung Tumors from Smoking and Never-Smoking Lung Cancer Patients1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Lan, Qing; Siegfried, Jill M; Luketich, James D; Keohavong, Phouthone

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Aberrant methylation in gene promoter regions leads to transcriptional inactivation of cancer-related genes and plays an integral role in tumorigenesis. This alteration has been investigated in lung tumors primarily from smokers, whereas only a few studies involved never-smokers. Here, we applied methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction to compare the frequencies of the methylated promoter of p16 and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) genes in lung tumors from 122 patients with non-small cell lung cancer, including 81 smokers and 41 never-smokers. Overall, promoter methylation was detected in 52.5% (64 of 122) and 30.3% (37 of 122) of the p16 and MGMT genes, respectively. Furthermore, the frequency of promoter methylation was significantly higher among smokers, compared with never-smokers, for both the p16 [odds ratio (OR) = 3.28; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28-8.39; P = .013] and MGMT (OR = 3.93; 95% CI = 1.27-12.21; P = .018) genes. The trend for a higher promoter methylation frequency of these genes was also observed among female smokers compared with female never-smokers. Our results suggest an association between tobacco smoking and an increased incidence of aberrant promoter methylation of the p16 and MGMT genes in non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:16533425

  6. Regulation of ceruloplasmin gene in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gyulikhandanova, N E; Tsymbalenko, N V; Platonova, N A; Babich, V S; Puchkova, L V

    2004-05-01

    A site of rat DNA (about 1800 b. p.) adjacent to the first ceruloplasmin gene contains, apart from regulatory sequences common for all eukaryotic promotors, cis-elements, which are potential binding sites for soluble nuclear receptors of some hormones. Sequences characteristic of genes expressed in liver cells and mammary gland cells during lactation were detected. Full-length fragment of this locus of ceruloplasmin gene (1800 b. p.) was synthesized by PCR and used in gel shift experiments. It was found that soluble proteins extracted from purified nuclei of mammary gland cells during lactation and from the liver of adult and newborn rats, contain proteins specifically interacting with the PCR product. A fragment of chromosome gene containing exons encoding the central part of rat ceruloplasmin was cloned in pTZ19 bacterial vector. Gel shift assay showed that the cloned fragment contained binding sites for specific transcription factor YY1, whose level in nuclear protein fractions varied during ontogeny (according to immunoblotting data). Monoclonal antibodies detected protein YY1 in the complex of cloned DNA-nuclear proteins. Possible mechanisms of tissue-specific regulation of ceruloplasmin gene varying during ontogeny are discussed. PMID:15455125

  7. Identification and characterisation of a novel aberrant pattern of intron 1 inversion with concomitant large insertion and deletion within the F8 gene.

    PubMed

    You, G; Chi, K; Lu, Y; Ding, Q; Dai, J; Xi, X; Wang, H; Wang, X

    2014-08-01

    Intron 1 inversion (Inv1) is a recurrent causative mutation of haemophilia A (HA) and is responsible for 1-5% of severe HA. Inv1 occurs as a result of intra-chromosomal homologous recombination between int1h-1 within intron 1 and int1h-2 located in approximately 125 kb telomeric to the F8 gene. In this report, we presented a previously undescribed aberrant type of Inv1 with complex genomic rearrangement in a pedigree with severe HA. The breakpoints of the rearrangement were identified by the genome walking technique; copy number variations (CNVs) of the F8 gene and X chromosome were detected by AccuCopy technique, Affymetrix CytoScan HD CNV assay and quantitative PCR (qPCR); the F8 transcripts related to the aberrant Inv1 were analysed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). We have characterised the exact breakpoints of the complex rearrangement, and determined the location and size of the insertion and deletion. The rearrangements can be summarised as an aberrant pattern of Inv1 with a deletion of 2.56 kb and a duplication of 227.3 kb inserted in the rejoining junction within the F8 gene. Our results suggested that this complex genomic rearrangement was generated by two distinct repair mechanisms of fork stalling and template switching/microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (FoSTeS/MMBIR) and nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). PMID:24696066

  8. Reversion of Aberrant Plants Transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes Is Associated with the Transcriptional Inactivation of the TL-DNA Genes 1

    PubMed Central

    Sinkar, Vilas P.; White, Frank F.; Furner, Ian J.; Abrahamsen, Mitchell; Pythoud, Francois; Gordon, Milton P.

    1988-01-01

    Transgenic plants harboring the left transfer DNA (TL-DNA) of the root inducing plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes show many developmental abnormalities. We observed frequent appearance of normal looking lateral (revertant) shoots from such aberrant plants. Unlike aberrant shoots of the plant, revertant shoots exhibited a very high growth rate and set viable seeds. Sexual and vegetative reproduction studies showed inheritance of the revertant phenotype. Southern hybridization experiments demonstrated that the T-DNA pattern was identical in aberrant and revertant shoots, indicating that the revertant phenotype was not due to deletion or rearrangement of the T-DNA genes. Specific T-DNA transcripts were not expressed in revertant shoots. Thus, the revertant phenotype appears to result from the transcriptional inactivation of T-DNA genes. We propose that similar events in the past may have mediated horizontal acquisition of TL-DNA genes by ancestors of the genus Nicotiana, which are still found as silent endogenous T-DNA in present day untransformed Nicotiana species. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16665950

  9. Following the Footsteps of Chlamydial Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Domman, D.; Horn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression ensures an organism responds to stimuli and undergoes proper development. Although the regulatory networks in bacteria have been investigated in model microorganisms, nearly nothing is known about the evolution and plasticity of these networks in obligate, intracellular bacteria. The phylum Chlamydiae contains a vast array of host-associated microbes, including several human pathogens. The Chlamydiae are unique among obligate, intracellular bacteria as they undergo a complex biphasic developmental cycle in which large swaths of genes are temporally regulated. Coupled with the low number of transcription factors, these organisms offer a model to study the evolution of regulatory networks in intracellular organisms. We provide the first comprehensive analysis exploring the diversity and evolution of regulatory networks across the phylum. We utilized a comparative genomics approach to construct predicted coregulatory networks, which unveiled genus- and family-specific regulatory motifs and architectures, most notably those of virulence-associated genes. Surprisingly, our analysis suggests that few regulatory components are conserved across the phylum, and those that are conserved are involved in the exploitation of the intracellular niche. Our study thus lends insight into a component of chlamydial evolution that has otherwise remained largely unexplored. PMID:26424812

  10. Following the Footsteps of Chlamydial Gene Regulation.

    PubMed

    Domman, D; Horn, M

    2015-12-01

    Regulation of gene expression ensures an organism responds to stimuli and undergoes proper development. Although the regulatory networks in bacteria have been investigated in model microorganisms, nearly nothing is known about the evolution and plasticity of these networks in obligate, intracellular bacteria. The phylum Chlamydiae contains a vast array of host-associated microbes, including several human pathogens. The Chlamydiae are unique among obligate, intracellular bacteria as they undergo a complex biphasic developmental cycle in which large swaths of genes are temporally regulated. Coupled with the low number of transcription factors, these organisms offer a model to study the evolution of regulatory networks in intracellular organisms. We provide the first comprehensive analysis exploring the diversity and evolution of regulatory networks across the phylum. We utilized a comparative genomics approach to construct predicted coregulatory networks, which unveiled genus- and family-specific regulatory motifs and architectures, most notably those of virulence-associated genes. Surprisingly, our analysis suggests that few regulatory components are conserved across the phylum, and those that are conserved are involved in the exploitation of the intracellular niche. Our study thus lends insight into a component of chlamydial evolution that has otherwise remained largely unexplored. PMID:26424812

  11. miRNAs in multiple myeloma – a survival relevant complex regulator of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Seckinger, Anja; MeiΔner, Tobias; Moreaux, Jérôme; Benes, Vladimir; Hillengass, Jens; Castoldi, Mirco; Zimmermann, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Jauch, Anna; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard; Hose, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose microRNAs regulate gene-expression in biological and pathophysiological processes, including multiple myeloma. Here we address i) What are the number and magnitude of changes in miRNA-expression between normal plasma cells and myeloma- or MGUS-samples, and the latter two? ii) What is the biological relevance and how does miRNA-expression impact on gene-expression? iii) Is there a prognostic significance, and what is its background? Experimental design Ninety-two purified myeloma-, MGUS-, normal plasma cell- and myeloma cell line-samples were investigated using miChip-arrays interrogating 559 human miRNAs. Impact on gene-expression was assessed by Affymetrix DNA-microarrays in two cohorts of myeloma patients (n = 677); chromosomal aberrations were assessed by iFISH, survival for 592 patients undergoing up-front high-dose chemotherapy. Results Compared to normal plasma cells, 67/559 miRNAs (12%) with fold changes of 4.6 to −3.1 are differentially expressed in myeloma-, 20 (3.6%) in MGUS-samples, and three (0.5%) between MGUS and myeloma. Expression of miRNAs is associated with proliferation, chromosomal aberrations, tumor mass, and gene expression-based risk-scores. This holds true for target-gene signatures of regulated mRNAs. miRNA-expression confers prognostic significance for event-free and overall survival, as do respective target-gene signatures. Conclusions The myeloma-miRNome confers a pattern of small changes of individual miRNAs impacting on gene-expression, biological functions, and survival. PMID:26472281

  12. Retrotransposons as regulators of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Elbarbary, Reyad A; Lucas, Bronwyn A; Maquat, Lynne E

    2016-02-12

    Transposable elements (TEs) are both a boon and a bane to eukaryotic organisms, depending on where they integrate into the genome and how their sequences function once integrated. We focus on two types of TEs: long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs). LINEs and SINEs are retrotransposons; that is, they transpose via an RNA intermediate. We discuss how LINEs and SINEs have expanded in eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution. An emerging body of evidence indicates that LINEs and SINEs function to regulate gene expression by affecting chromatin structure, gene transcription, pre-mRNA processing, or aspects of mRNA metabolism. We also describe how adenosine-to-inosine editing influences SINE function and how ongoing retrotransposition is countered by the body's defense mechanisms. PMID:26912865

  13. 3D Shortcuts to Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Ofir; Sung, Myong-Hee; Hager, Gordon L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Recent technologies have allowed high resolution genome-wide binding profiles of numerous transcription factor and other proteins. A widespread observation has emerged from studies in diverse mammalian systems: most binding events are located at great distances from gene promoters. It is becoming apparent that the traditional one-dimensional view of gene regulation via the proximal cis regulatory elements is over-simplified. True proximity and functional relevance can be revealed by studying the three-dimensional structure of the genome packaged inside the nucleus. Thus the spatial architecture of the genome has attracted a lot of interest and has intensified its significance in modern cell biology. Here we discuss current methods, concepts, and controversies in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:20466532

  14. Regulation of interferon-gamma gene expression.

    PubMed

    Young, H A

    1996-08-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), also known as type II interferon, is an important immunoregulatory gene that has multiple effects on the development, maturation, and function of the immune system. IFN-gamma mRNA and protein are expressed predominantly by T cells and large granular lymphocytes. The IFN-gamma mRNA is induced/inhibited in these cell types by a wide variety of extracellular signals, thus implicating a number of diverse, yet convergent signal transduction pathways in its transcriptional control. In this review, I describe how DNA methylation and specific DNA binding proteins may regulate transcription of the IFN-gamma gene in response to extracellular signals. PMID:8877725

  15. Dietary methanol regulates human gene activity.

    PubMed

    Shindyapina, Anastasia V; Petrunia, Igor V; Komarova, Tatiana V; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V; Kosorukov, Vyacheslav S; Kiryanov, Gleb I; Dorokhov, Yuri L

    2014-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH) is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA), which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC) from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling. PMID:25033451

  16. Dietary Methanol Regulates Human Gene Activity

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kosorukov, Vyacheslav S.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH) is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA), which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC) from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling. PMID:25033451

  17. Regulation of gene transcription by Polycomb proteins

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Sergi; Mas, Gloria; Di Croce, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins defines a subset of factors that physically associate and function to maintain the positional identity of cells from the embryo to adult stages. PcG has long been considered a paradigmatic model for epigenetic maintenance of gene transcription programs. Despite intensive research efforts to unveil the molecular mechanisms of action of PcG proteins, several fundamental questions remain unresolved: How many different PcG complexes exist in mammalian cells? How are PcG complexes targeted to specific loci? How does PcG regulate transcription? In this review, we discuss the diversity of PcG complexes in mammalian cells, examine newly identified modes of recruitment to chromatin, and highlight the latest insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of PcGs in transcription regulation and three-dimensional chromatin conformation. PMID:26665172

  18. Biphasic Effects of Nitric Oxide Radicals on Radiation-Induced Lethality and Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lung Cancer Cells Carrying Different p53 Gene Status

    SciTech Connect

    Su Xiaoming; Takahashi, Akihisa; Guo Guozhen; Mori, Eiichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Ohnishi, Ken; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on radiation-induced cell killing and chromosome aberrations in two human lung cancer cell lines with a different p53 gene status. Methods and Materials: We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 cell lines that were derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53 null. The wtp53 and mp53 cell lines were generated by transfection of the appropriate p53 constructs into the parental cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) (an NO donor) and/or 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) (an NO scavenger) and then exposed to X-rays. Cell survival, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored by use of a colony-forming assay, Hoechst 33342 staining assay and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP [deoxyuridine triphosphate] nick end labeling) assay, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In wtp53 cells the induction of radioresistance and the inhibition of apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in the presence of ISDN at low 2- to 10-{mu}mol/L concentrations before X-irradiation. The addition of c-PTIO and ISDN into the culture medium 6 h before irradiation almost completely suppressed these effects. However, at high concentrations of ISDN (100-500 {mu}mol/L), clear evidence of radiosensitization, enhancement of apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations was detected. However, these phenomena were not observed in mp53 cells at either concentration range with ISDN. Conclusions: These results indicate that low and high concentrations of NO radicals can choreograph inverse radiosensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations in human lung cancer cells and that NO radicals can affect the fate of wtp53 cells.

  19. Epigenetic regulation of inflammatory cytokines and associated genes in human malignancies.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Rehana; Siraj, Sami; Hassan, Amjad; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Abbasi, Rashda; Ahmad, Nafees

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a multifaceted defense response of immune system against infection. Chronic inflammation has been implicated as an imminent threat for major human malignancies and is directly linked to various steps involved in tumorigenesis. Inflammatory cytokines, interleukins, interferons, transforming growth factors, chemokines, and adhesion molecules have been associated with chronic inflammation. Numerous cytokines are reported to be aberrantly regulated by different epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation and histone modifications in tumor tissues, contributing to pathogenesis of tumor in multiple ways. Some of these cytokines also work as epigenetic regulators of other crucial genes in tumor biology, either directly or indirectly. Such regulations are reported in lung, breast, cervical, gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, prostate, and head and neck cancers. Epigenetics of inflammatory mediators in cancer is currently subject of extensive research. These investigations may help in understanding cancer biology and to develop effective therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this paper is to have a brief view of the aberrant regulation of inflammatory cytokines in human malignancies. PMID:25814785

  20. Epigenetic Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines and Associated Genes in Human Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Yasmin, Rehana; Hassan, Amjad; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Abbasi, Rashda; Ahmad, Nafees

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a multifaceted defense response of immune system against infection. Chronic inflammation has been implicated as an imminent threat for major human malignancies and is directly linked to various steps involved in tumorigenesis. Inflammatory cytokines, interleukins, interferons, transforming growth factors, chemokines, and adhesion molecules have been associated with chronic inflammation. Numerous cytokines are reported to be aberrantly regulated by different epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation and histone modifications in tumor tissues, contributing to pathogenesis of tumor in multiple ways. Some of these cytokines also work as epigenetic regulators of other crucial genes in tumor biology, either directly or indirectly. Such regulations are reported in lung, breast, cervical, gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, prostate, and head and neck cancers. Epigenetics of inflammatory mediators in cancer is currently subject of extensive research. These investigations may help in understanding cancer biology and to develop effective therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this paper is to have a brief view of the aberrant regulation of inflammatory cytokines in human malignancies. PMID:25814785

  1. Regulation of gene expression by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Millhorn, D E; Czyzyk-Krzeska, M; Bayliss, D A; Lawson, E E

    1993-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine if gene expression for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, is regulated in the carotid body, sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla by hypoxia. We found that a reduction in oxygen tension from 21% to 10% caused a substantial increase (200% at 1 hour and 500% at 6 hours exposure) in the concentration of TH mRNA in carotid body type I cells but not in either the sympathetic ganglia or adrenal gland. In addition, we found that hypercapnia, another natural stimulus of carotid body activity, failed to enhance TH mRNA in type I cells. Removal of the sensory and sympathetic innervation of the carotid body failed to prevent the induction of TH mRNA by hypoxia in type I cells. Our results show that TH gene expression is regulated by hypoxia in the carotid body but not in other peripheral catecholamine synthesizing tissue and that the regulatory mechanism is intrinsic to type I cells. PMID:7909954

  2. The transcriptional regulation of regucalcin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    Regucalcin, which is discovered as a calcium-binding protein in 1978, has been shown to play a multifunctional role in many tissues and cell types; regucalcin has been proposed to play a pivotal role in keeping cell homeostasis and function for cell response. Regucalcin and its gene are identified in over 15 species consisting of regucalcin family. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of regucalcin from vertebrate species is highly conserved in their coding region with throughout evolution. The regucalcin gene is localized on the chromosome X in rat and human. The organization of rat regucalcin gene consists of seven exons and six introns and several consensus regulatory elements exist upstream of the 5'-flanking region. AP-1, NF1-A1, RGPR-p117, β-catenin, and other factors have been found to be a transcription factor in the enhancement of regucalcin gene promoter activity. The transcription activity of regucalcin gene is enhanced through intracellular signaling factors that are mediated through the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear protein in vitro. Regucalcin mRNA and its protein are markedly expressed in the liver and kidney cortex of rats. The expression of regucalcin mRNA in the liver and kidney cortex has been shown to stimulate by hormonal factors (including calcium, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, insulin, estrogen, and dexamethasone) in vivo. Regucalcin mRNA expression is enhanced in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy of rats in vivo. The expression of regucalcin mRNA in the liver and kidney with pathophysiological state has been shown to suppress, suggesting an involvement of regucalcin in disease. Liver regucalcin expression is down-regulated in tumor cells, suggesting a suppressive role in the development of carcinogenesis. Liver regucalcin is markedly released into the serum of rats with chemically induced liver injury in vivo. Serum regucalcin has a potential sensitivity as a specific biochemical marker of chronic

  3. Endogenous Methanol Regulates Mammalian Gene Activity

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Silachev, Denis N.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis. PMID:24587296

  4. Epigenetic Gene Regulation in the Bacterial World

    PubMed Central

    Casadesús, Josep; Low, David

    2006-01-01

    Like many eukaryotes, bacteria make widespread use of postreplicative DNA methylation for the epigenetic control of DNA-protein interactions. Unlike eukaryotes, however, bacteria use DNA adenine methylation (rather than DNA cytosine methylation) as an epigenetic signal. DNA adenine methylation plays roles in the virulence of diverse pathogens of humans and livestock animals, including pathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Yersinia, Haemophilus, and Brucella. In Alphaproteobacteria, methylation of adenine at GANTC sites by the CcrM methylase regulates the cell cycle and couples gene transcription to DNA replication. In Gammaproteobacteria, adenine methylation at GATC sites by the Dam methylase provides signals for DNA replication, chromosome segregation, mismatch repair, packaging of bacteriophage genomes, transposase activity, and regulation of gene expression. Transcriptional repression by Dam methylation appears to be more common than transcriptional activation. Certain promoters are active only during the hemimethylation interval that follows DNA replication; repression is restored when the newly synthesized DNA strand is methylated. In the E. coli genome, however, methylation of specific GATC sites can be blocked by cognate DNA binding proteins. Blockage of GATC methylation beyond cell division permits transmission of DNA methylation patterns to daughter cells and can give rise to distinct epigenetic states, each propagated by a positive feedback loop. Switching between alternative DNA methylation patterns can split clonal bacterial populations into epigenetic lineages in a manner reminiscent of eukaryotic cell differentiation. Inheritance of self-propagating DNA methylation patterns governs phase variation in the E. coli pap operon, the agn43 gene, and other loci encoding virulence-related cell surface functions. PMID:16959970

  5. Aberrant Expression of Shared Master-Key Genes Contributes to the Immunopathogenesis in Patients with Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lamot, Lovro; Borovecki, Fran; Tambic Bukovac, Lana; Vidovic, Mandica; Perica, Marija; Gotovac, Kristina; Harjacek, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Association of juvenile spondyloarthritis (jSpA) with the HLA-B27 genotype is well established, but there is little knowledge of other genetic factors with a role in the development of the disease. To date, only a few studies have tried to find those associated genes by obtaining expression profiles, but with inconsistent results due to various patient selection criteria and methodology. The aim of the present study was to identify and confirm gene signatures and novel biomarkers in highly homogeneous cohorts of untreated and treated patients diagnosed with jSpA and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) according to ILAR criteria. For the purposes of the research, total RNA was isolated from whole blood of 45 children with jSpA and known HLA genotype, 11 children with oligo- and polyarticular forms of JIA, as well as 12 age and sex matched control participants without diagnosis of inflammatory disease. DNA microarray gene expression was performed in 11 patients with jSpA and in four healthy controls, along with bioinformatical analysis of retrieved data. Carefully selected differentially expressed genes where analyzed by qRT-PCR in all participants of the study. Microarray results and bioinformatical analysis revealed 745 differentially expressed genes involved in various inflammatory processes, while qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes confirmed data universality and specificity of expression profiles in jSpA patients. The present study indicates that jSpA could be a polygenic disease with a possible malfunction in antigen recognition and activation of immunological response, migration of inflammatory cells and regulation of the immune system. Among genes involved in these processes TLR4, NLRP3, CXCR4 and PTPN12 showed almost consistent expression in study patients diagnosed with jSpA. Those genes and their products could therefore potentially be used as novel biomarkers, possibly predictive of disease prognosis and response to therapy, or even as a

  6. Redox regulation of photosynthetic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine H.

    2012-01-01

    Redox chemistry and redox regulation are central to the operation of photosynthesis and respiration. However, the roles of different oxidants and antioxidants in the regulation of photosynthetic or respiratory gene expression remain poorly understood. Leaf transcriptome profiles of a range of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes that are deficient in either hydrogen peroxide processing enzymes or in low molecular weight antioxidant were therefore compared to determine how different antioxidant systems that process hydrogen peroxide influence transcripts encoding proteins targeted to the chloroplasts or mitochondria. Less than 10 per cent overlap was observed in the transcriptome patterns of leaves that are deficient in either photorespiratory (catalase (cat)2) or chloroplastic (thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tapx)) hydrogen peroxide processing. Transcripts encoding photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle components were lower in glutathione-deficient leaves, as were the thylakoid NAD(P)H (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)) dehydrogenases (NDH) mRNAs. Some thylakoid NDH mRNAs were also less abundant in tAPX-deficient and ascorbate-deficient leaves. Transcripts encoding the external and internal respiratory NDHs were increased by low glutathione and low ascorbate. Regulation of transcripts encoding specific components of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains by hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate and glutathione may serve to balance non-cyclic and cyclic electron flow pathways in relation to oxidant production and reductant availability. PMID:23148274

  7. Transcriptional regulation of the human biglycan gene.

    PubMed

    Ungefroren, H; Krull, N B

    1996-06-28

    The small leucine-rich proteoglycan biglycan is involved in several physiological and pathophysiological processes through the ability of its core protein to interact with other extracellular matrix molecules and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). To learn more about the regulation of biglycan core protein expression, we have cloned and sequenced 1218 base pairs from the 5'-flanking region of the human biglycan gene, demonstrated functional promoter activity, and investigated the molecular mechanisms through which various agents modulate its transcriptional activity. Sequencing revealed the presence of several cis-acting elements including multiple AP-2 sites and interleukin-6 response elements, a NF-kappaB site, a TGF-beta negative element, and an E-box. The TATA and CAAT box-lacking promoter possesses many features of a growth-related gene, e.g. a GC-rich immediate 5' region, many Sp1 sites, and the use of multiple transcriptional start sites. Transient transfections of the tumor cell lines MG-63, SK-UT-1, and T47D with various biglycan 5'-flanking region-luciferase reporter gene constructs showed that the proximal 78 base pairs are sufficient for full promoter activity. Several agents among them interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. were capable of altering biglycan promoter activity. However, in MG-63 cells, TGF-beta1 failed to increase either activity of the biglycan promoter constructs or specific transcription from the endogenous biglycan gene. Since TGF-beta1 also did not alter the stability of cytoplasmic biglycan mRNA as determined from Northern analysis after inhibition of transcription with 5,6-dichloro-1beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, an as yet unidentified nuclear post-transcriptional mechanism was considered responsible for the TGF-beta effect in this cell type. These results might help to elucidate the molecular pathways leading to pathological alterations of biglycan expression observed in atherosclerosis, glomerulonephritis

  8. Further studies on aberrant gene expression associated with arsenic-induced malignant transformation in rat liver TRL1215 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jie . E-mail: Liu6@niehs.nih.gov; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Qian Xun; Yu, Limei; Xie Yaxiong; Boos, Jennifer; Qu Wei; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-11-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure of rat liver epithelial TRL1215 cells induced malignant transformation in a concentration-dependent manner. To further define the molecular events of these arsenic-transformed cells (termed CAsE cells), gene expressions associated with arsenic carcinogenesis or influenced by methylation were examined. Real-time RT-PCR showed that at carcinogenic concentrations (500 nM, and to a less extent 250 nM of arsenite), the expressions of {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP), Wilm's tumor protein-1 (WT-1), c-jun, c-myc, H-ras, c-met and hepatocyte growth factor, heme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione-S-transferase-{pi} and metallothionein-1 (MT) were increased between 3 to 12-fold, while expressions of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR1) were essentially abolished. These changes were not significant at the non-carcinogenic concentration (125 nM), except for IGF-II. The positive cell-cycle regulators cyclin D1 and PCNA were overexpressed in CAsE cells, while the negative regulators p21 and p16 were suppressed. Western-blot confirmed increases in AFP, WT-1, cyclin D1 and decreases in p16 and p21 protein in CAsE cells. The CAsE cells over-expressed MT but the demethylating agent 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC, 2.5 {mu}M, 72 h) stimulated further MT expression. 5-Aza-deoxycytidine restored the loss of expression of p21 in CAsE cells to control levels, but did not restore the expression of p16, IGF-II, or FGFR1, indicating the loss of expression of these genes is due to factors other than DNA methylation changes. Overall, an intricate variety of gene expression changes occur in arsenic-induced malignant transformation of liver cells including oncogene activation and alterations in expression of genes critical to growth regulation.

  9. Molecularly targeted radiosensitization chances towards gene aberration-due organ confined/regionally advanced prostate cancer radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    ALBERTI, C.

    2015-01-01

    Considering that the prostate cancer radioresistance occurs in a significant percentage – as 20–40% of prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergone external beam radiation therapy developing, within ten years, recurrent and more aggressive tumor – the resort to customized radiosensitizer measures, focusly targeting PCa radioresistance-linked individual molecular aberrations, can increase the successful outcomes of PCa radiotherapy. PMID:26188759

  10. Transcriptional control of human p53-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Riley, Todd; Sontag, Eduardo; Chen, Patricia; Levine, Arnold

    2008-05-01

    The p53 protein regulates the transcription of many different genes in response to a wide variety of stress signals. Following DNA damage, p53 regulates key processes, including DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis, in order to suppress cancer. This Analysis article provides an overview of the current knowledge of p53-regulated genes in these pathways and others, and the mechanisms of their regulation. In addition, we present the most comprehensive list so far of human p53-regulated genes and their experimentally validated, functional binding sites that confer p53 regulation. PMID:18431400

  11. A Maize Glutaredoxin Gene, Abphyl2, Regulates Shoot Meristem Size and Phyllotaxy[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Bui, Huyen Thanh; Pautler, Michael; Llaca, Victor; Johnston, Robyn; Lee, Byeong-ha; Kolbe, Allison; Sakai, Hajime; Jackson, David

    2015-01-01

    Phyllotaxy describes the geometric arrangement of leaves and is important for plant productivity. Auxin is well known to regulate phyllotactic patterns via PIN1-dependent auxin polar transport, and studies of maize (Zea mays) aberrant phyllotaxy1 (abph1) mutants suggest the importance of auxin and cytokinin signaling for control of phyllotaxy. However, whether additional regulators control these patterns is poorly understood. Here, we report a new dominant maize mutant, Aberrant phyllotaxy2 (Abph2), in which the shoot meristems are enlarged and the phyllotactic pattern switches from alternate to decussate. Map-based cloning revealed that the Abph2 mutation was caused by transposition of a glutaredoxin gene, MALE STERILE CONVERTED ANTHER1 (MSCA1), which gained an altered expression pattern in Abph2 mutant embryos. msca1 loss-of-function mutants have reduced meristem size and revealed a novel function of glutaredoxins in meristem growth. In addition, MSCA1 interacts with a TGA transcription factor, FASCIATED EAR4, suggesting a novel regulatory module for regulating shoot meristem size. PMID:25616873

  12. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of PBRM1, BAP1, SETD2, KDM6A and other chromatin-modifying genes is absent or rare in clear cell RCC

    PubMed Central

    Ibragimova, Ilsiya; Maradeo, Marie E.; Dulaimi, Essel; Cairns, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Recent sequencing studies of clear cell (conventional) renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have identified inactivating point mutations in the chromatin-modifying genes PBRM1, KDM6A/UTX, KDM5C/JARID1C, SETD2, MLL2 and BAP1. To investigate whether aberrant hypermethylation is a mechanism of inactivation of these tumor suppressor genes in ccRCC, we sequenced the promoter region within a bona fide CpG island of PBRM1, KDM6A, SETD2 and BAP1 in bisulfite-modified DNA of a representative series of 50 primary ccRCC, 4 normal renal parenchyma specimens and 5 RCC cell lines. We also interrogated the promoter methylation status of KDM5C and ARID1A in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ccRCC Infinium data set. PBRM1, KDM6A, SETD2 and BAP1 were unmethylated in all tumor and normal specimens. KDM5C and ARID1A were unmethylated in the TCGA 219 ccRCC and 119 adjacent normal specimens. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of PBRM1, BAP1 and the other chromatin-modifying genes examined here is therefore absent or rare in ccRCC. PMID:23644518

  13. Morphology and Immunohistochemistry for 2SC and FH Aid in Detection of Fumarate Hydratase Gene Aberrations in Uterine Leiomyomas From Young Patients.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Nancy M; Solomon, David A; Frizzell, Norma; Rabban, Joseph T; Zaloudek, Charles; Garg, Karuna

    2015-11-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome that results from mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Patients with HLRCC are at risk for smooth muscle tumors of the uterus and skin as well as renal tumors. The renal cell carcinomas associated with HLRCC are usually high stage at presentation, aggressive, and have poor clinical outcomes. Therefore these patients and family members would benefit from early identification and appropriate surveillance. In small studies, HLRCC-associated uterine leiomyomas have been noted to display characteristic morphologic features including eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, prominent eosinophilic nucleoli, and perinucleolar halos. Limited data suggest that positive staining for 2-succinocysteine (2SC) and loss of staining for FH by immunohistochemistry (IHC) can help with identification of HLRCC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of morphology and IHC for FH and 2SC to help identify HLRCC in young patients with uterine smooth muscle tumors. We identified 194 evaluable uterine leiomyomas from women less than 40 years of age. We found FH gene aberrations by mutation analysis in 5 cases, a 2.6% incidence. Of these 5 cases, 4 displayed the characteristic morphologic features outlined above, whereas 1 did not. All 5 tumors with FH gene abnormalities showed positive staining for 2SC, whereas no FH gene aberrations were found in the 2SC-negative cases. Loss of FH staining was seen in 2 of the 5 cases, 1 with frameshift mutation and the other with homozygous deletion, whereas the remaining 3 cases with missense FH gene mutations were FH positive. Our study shows that morphologic features can be helpful for detection of HLRCC in uterine leiomyomas, although they may not be present in every case. IHC for 2SC and FH can be helpful: presence of positive staining for 2SC is sensitive and specific for detection of FH gene aberrations, whereas loss of staining for

  14. Asymmetric Regulation of Peripheral Genes by Two Transcriptional Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Ru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Nishimura, Hajime; Kishima, Mami; Maeda, Shiori; Suzuki, Harukazu

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) reconstitution and deconstruction occur simultaneously during reprogramming; however, it remains unclear how the starting and targeting TRNs regulate the induction and suppression of peripheral genes. Here we analyzed the regulation using direct cell reprogramming from human dermal fibroblasts to monocytes as the platform. We simultaneously deconstructed fibroblastic TRN and reconstituted monocytic TRN; monocytic and fibroblastic gene expression were analyzed in comparison with that of fibroblastic TRN deconstruction only or monocytic TRN reconstitution only. Global gene expression analysis showed cross-regulation of TRNs. Detailed analysis revealed that knocking down fibroblastic TRN positively affected half of the upregulated monocytic genes, indicating that intrinsic fibroblastic TRN interfered with the expression of induced genes. In contrast, reconstitution of monocytic TRN showed neutral effects on the majority of fibroblastic gene downregulation. This study provides an explicit example that demonstrates how two networks together regulate gene expression during cell reprogramming processes and contributes to the elaborate exploration of TRNs. PMID:27483142

  15. A Rule-Based Framework for Gene Regulation Pathways Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczynski, B; Hvidsten, T; Kryshtafovych, A; Stubbs, L; Komorowski, J; Fidelis, K

    2003-07-21

    We present novel approach to discover the rules that govern gene regulation mechanisms. The method is based on supervised machine learning and is designed to reveal relationships between transcription factors and gene promoters. As the representation of the gene regulatory circuit we have chosen a special form of IF-THEN rules associating certain features (a generalized idea of a Transcription Factor Binding Site) in gene promoters with specific gene expression profiles.

  16. Gene regulation in hepatic stellate cell.

    PubMed

    Lang, A; Brenner, D A

    1999-03-01

    Hepatic stellate cells are now recognized as the major source of extracellular matrix in hepatic fibrosis. Following liver injury the hepatic stellate cell changes from a quiescent to an activated cell. The activation process includes an increased proliferation rate, a phenotypic change to a myofibroblast-like cell, loss of vitamin A stores, increased extra-cellular matrix protein synthesis and contractility. Furthermore, hepatic stellate cells have been implicated in hepatic inflammation through their ability to secrete cytokines and chemokines. Here, we review the literature on the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic stellate cells activation with emphasis on the most recent findings. The reviewed topics include transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding type I collagen in hepatic stellate cells; the role of the transcription factor nuclear factor Kappa B in the hepatic stellate cell activation; focal adhesion kinase and integrin-mediated signal transduction in hepatic stellate cell, and apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells. New insight into hepatic stellate cell activation and death may lead to the development of novel therapies for hepatic fibrosis. PMID:10363203

  17. A mutation in PLC1, a candidate phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes aberrant mitotic chromosome segregation.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W E; Fitzgerald-Hayes, M

    1993-01-01

    We identified a putative Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) gene, PLC1, which encodes a protein most similar to the delta class of PI-PLC enzymes. The PLC1 gene was isolated during a study of yeast strains that exhibit defects in chromosome segregation. plc1-1 cells showed a 10-fold increase in aberrant chromosome segregation compared with the wild type. Molecular analysis revealed that PLC1 encodes a predicted protein of 101 kDa with approximately 50 and 26% identity to the highly conserved X and Y domains of PI-PLC isozymes from humans, bovines, rats, and Drosophila melanogaster. The putative yeast protein also contains a consensus EF-hand domain that is predicted to bind calcium. Interestingly, the temperature-sensitive and chromosome missegregation phenotypes exhibited by plc1-1 cells were partially suppressed by exogenous calcium. Images PMID:8391635

  18. Pluralistic and stochastic gene regulation: examples, models and consistent theory

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Elisa N.; Shu, Jiang; Cserhati, Matyas F.; Weeks, Donald P.; Ladunga, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    We present a theory of pluralistic and stochastic gene regulation. To bridge the gap between empirical studies and mathematical models, we integrate pre-existing observations with our meta-analyses of the ENCODE ChIP-Seq experiments. Earlier evidence includes fluctuations in levels, location, activity, and binding of transcription factors, variable DNA motifs, and bursts in gene expression. Stochastic regulation is also indicated by frequently subdued effects of knockout mutants of regulators, their evolutionary losses/gains and massive rewiring of regulatory sites. We report wide-spread pluralistic regulation in ≈800 000 tightly co-expressed pairs of diverse human genes. Typically, half of ≈50 observed regulators bind to both genes reproducibly, twice more than in independently expressed gene pairs. We also examine the largest set of co-expressed genes, which code for cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. Numerous regulatory complexes are highly significant enriched in ribosomal genes compared to highly expressed non-ribosomal genes. We could not find any DNA-associated, strict sense master regulator. Despite major fluctuations in transcription factor binding, our machine learning model accurately predicted transcript levels using binding sites of 20+ regulators. Our pluralistic and stochastic theory is consistent with partially random binding patterns, redundancy, stochastic regulator binding, burst-like expression, degeneracy of binding motifs and massive regulatory rewiring during evolution. PMID:26823500

  19. Pluralistic and stochastic gene regulation: examples, models and consistent theory.

    PubMed

    Salas, Elisa N; Shu, Jiang; Cserhati, Matyas F; Weeks, Donald P; Ladunga, Istvan

    2016-06-01

    We present a theory of pluralistic and stochastic gene regulation. To bridge the gap between empirical studies and mathematical models, we integrate pre-existing observations with our meta-analyses of the ENCODE ChIP-Seq experiments. Earlier evidence includes fluctuations in levels, location, activity, and binding of transcription factors, variable DNA motifs, and bursts in gene expression. Stochastic regulation is also indicated by frequently subdued effects of knockout mutants of regulators, their evolutionary losses/gains and massive rewiring of regulatory sites. We report wide-spread pluralistic regulation in ≈800 000 tightly co-expressed pairs of diverse human genes. Typically, half of ≈50 observed regulators bind to both genes reproducibly, twice more than in independently expressed gene pairs. We also examine the largest set of co-expressed genes, which code for cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. Numerous regulatory complexes are highly significant enriched in ribosomal genes compared to highly expressed non-ribosomal genes. We could not find any DNA-associated, strict sense master regulator. Despite major fluctuations in transcription factor binding, our machine learning model accurately predicted transcript levels using binding sites of 20+ regulators. Our pluralistic and stochastic theory is consistent with partially random binding patterns, redundancy, stochastic regulator binding, burst-like expression, degeneracy of binding motifs and massive regulatory rewiring during evolution. PMID:26823500

  20. Antipsychotic Induced Gene Regulation in Multiple Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Girgenti, Matthew James; Nisenbaum, Laura K.; Bymaster, Franklin; Terwilliger, Rosemarie; Duman, Ronald S; Newton, Samuel Sathyanesan

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs is not well understood. Their complex receptor affinity profiles indicate that their action could extend beyond dopamine receptor blockade. Single gene expression studies and high-throughput gene profiling have shown the induction of genes from several molecular classes and functional categories. Using a focused microarray approach we investigated gene regulation in rat striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus after chronic administration of haloperidol or olanzapine. Regulated genes were validated by in-situ hybridization, realtime PCR and immunohistochemistry. Only limited overlap was observed in genes regulated by haloperidol and olanzapine. Both drugs elicited maximal gene regulation in the striatum and least in the hippocampus. Striatal gene induction by haloperidol was predominantly in neurotransmitter signaling, G-protein coupled receptors and transcription factors. Olanzapine prominently induced retinoic acid and trophic factor signaling genes in the frontal cortex. The data also revealed the induction of several genes that could be targeted in future drug development efforts. The study uncovered the induction of several novel genes, including somatostatin receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The results demonstrating the regulation of multiple receptors and transcription factors suggests that both typical and atypical antipsychotics could possess a complex molecular mechanism of action. PMID:20070867

  1. Trainable Gene Regulation Networks with Applications to Drosophila Pattern Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mjolsness, Eric

    2000-01-01

    This chapter will very briefly introduce and review some computational experiments in using trainable gene regulation network models to simulate and understand selected episodes in the development of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. For details the reader is referred to the papers introduced below. It will then introduce a new gene regulation network model which can describe promoter-level substructure in gene regulation. As described in chapter 2, gene regulation may be thought of as a combination of cis-acting regulation by the extended promoter of a gene (including all regulatory sequences) by way of the transcription complex, and of trans-acting regulation by the transcription factor products of other genes. If we simplify the cis-action by using a phenomenological model which can be tuned to data, such as a unit or other small portion of an artificial neural network, then the full transacting interaction between multiple genes during development can be modelled as a larger network which can again be tuned or trained to data. The larger network will in general need to have recurrent (feedback) connections since at least some real gene regulation networks do. This is the basic modeling approach taken, which describes how a set of recurrent neural networks can be used as a modeling language for multiple developmental processes including gene regulation within a single cell, cell-cell communication, and cell division. Such network models have been called "gene circuits", "gene regulation networks", or "genetic regulatory networks", sometimes without distinguishing the models from the actual modeled systems.

  2. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium. A report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program.

    PubMed

    Grant, W F

    1982-11-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for the clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction (i.e., causing chromosome aberrations), 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals. PMID:7177154

  3. Evolution of gene regulation during transcription and translation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Sun, Xuepeng; Zhao, Yi; Guo, Xiaoxian; Jiang, Huifeng; Li, Hongye; Gu, Zhenglong

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how gene regulation evolves is a key area in the current evolutionary field. Gene regulation occurs at various levels. Previous work on the evolution of gene regulation has largely focused on gene transcription. In this study, we used a recently developed ribosomal footprint profiling method to investigate how gene regulation evolves at both the transcription (mRNA abundance) and translation (ribosomal density) levels. By constructing a hybrid between Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Scer) and Saccharomyces bayanus (Sbay), which diverged ∼20 Ma, and quantifying transcriptome and translatome in both parental strains and their hybrid, we showed that translation is much more conserved than transcription, mostly due to the buffering effect of translational regulation for the transcriptional divergence. More conservation in translation than transcription is also confirmed by the inheritance mode of transcription and translation between two species. Furthermore, cis and trans effects are widely involved in changes at both transcription and translation levels. Finally, our results showed that genes with certain functions and sequence features might employ specific modes for evolution at these two critical levels of gene regulation. Our results demonstrated that it is essential to investigate the evolution of gene regulation at various levels from different genetic backgrounds to obtain a complete picture of its evolutionary modes in nature. PMID:25877616

  4. The apoptosis associated tyrosine kinase gene is frequently hypermethylated in human cancer and is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Tanja; Herkt, Christina E.; Walesch, Sara K.; Richter, Antje M.; Dammann, Reinhard H.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic gene inactivation through promoter hypermethylation is an important aberration involved in the silencing of tumor-associated genes in cancer. Here we identified the apoptosis associated tyrosine kinase (AATK) as an epigenetically downregulated tumor related gene. We analyzed the epigenetic regulation of AATK in several human cancer cell lines and normal tissues by methylation and expression analysis. Hypermethylation of AATK was also analyzed in 25 primary lung tumors, 30 breast cancers and 24 matching breast tissues. In normal tissues the AATK CpG island promoter was unmethylated and AATK was expressed. Hypermethylation of AATK occurred frequently in 13 out of 14 (93%) human cancer cell lines. Methylation was reversed by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment leading to re-expression of AATK in cancer cell lines. Aberrant methylation of AATK was also revealed in primary lung (40%) and breast (53%) cancers, but was found to be significantly less methylated in matching normal breast tissues (17%; p<0.01). In addition, we observed that AATK is epigenetically reactivated through the chromatin regulator CTCF. We further show that overexpression of Aatk significantly suppresses colony formation in cancer cell lines. Our findings suggest that the apoptosis associated tyrosine kinase is frequently inactivated in human cancers and acts as a tumor suppressive gene. PMID:25352953

  5. Expression noise facilitates the evolution of gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Luise; Silander, Olin K; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Although it is often tacitly assumed that gene regulatory interactions are finely tuned, how accurate gene regulation could evolve from a state without regulation is unclear. Moreover, gene expression noise would seem to impede the evolution of accurate gene regulation, and previous investigations have provided circumstantial evidence that natural selection has acted to lower noise levels. By evolving synthetic Escherichia coli promoters de novo, we here show that, contrary to expectations, promoters exhibit low noise by default. Instead, selection must have acted to increase the noise levels of highly regulated E. coli promoters. We present a general theory of the interplay between gene expression noise and gene regulation that explains these observations. The theory shows that propagation of expression noise from regulators to their targets is not an unwanted side-effect of regulation, but rather acts as a rudimentary form of regulation that facilitates the evolution of more accurate regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05856.001 PMID:26080931

  6. Transplacental arsenic plus postnatal 12-O-teradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate exposures associated with hepatocarcinogenesis induce similar aberrant gene expression patterns in male and female mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jie . E-mail: Liu6@niehs.nih.gov; Xie Yaxiong; Merrick, B. Alex; Shen Jun; Ducharme, Danica M.K.; Collins, Jennifer; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Logsdon, Daniel; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-06-15

    Our prior work shows that in utero arsenic exposure alone is a complete transplacental carcinogen, producing hepatocellular carcinoma in adult male offspring but not in females. In a follow-up study to potentially promote arsenic-initiated tumors, mice were exposed to arsenic (85 ppm) from gestation day 8 to 18 and then exposed to 12-O-teradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a well-known tumor promoter after weaning. The dermal application of TPA (2 {mu}g/0.1 ml acetone, twice/week for 21 weeks) after transplacental arsenic did not further increase arsenic-induced liver tumor formation in adult males but significantly increased liver tumor formation in adult females. Thus, for comparison, liver tumors and normal liver samples taken from adult male and female mice at necropsy were analyzed for aberrant gene/protein expression by microarray, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Arsenic/TPA treatment resulted in increased expression of {alpha}-fetoprotein, k-ras, c-myc, estrogen receptor-{alpha}, cyclin D1, cdk2na, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, cytokeratin-8, cytokeratin-18, glutathione S-transferases and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in liver and liver tumors from both male and female mice. Arsenic/TPA also decreased the expression of BRCA1, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, CYP7B1, CYP2F2 and insulin-like growth factor-1 in normal and cancerous livers. Alterations in these gene products were associated with arsenic/TPA-induced liver tumors, regardless of sex. Thus, transplacental arsenic plus postnatal TPA exposure induced similar aberrant gene expression patterns in male and female mouse liver, which are persistent and potentially important to the mechanism of arsenic initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  7. Aberrant DNA Methylation of P16, MGMT, and hMLH1 Genes in Combination with MTHFR C677T Genetic Polymorphism in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Binbin; Ai, Jiang; Kong, Xianghong; Liu, Dexin; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to explore the association of P16, MGMT and HMLH1 with gastric cancer and their relation with Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Methods: 322 gastric patients who were confirmed with pathological diagnosis were included in our study. Aberrant DNA methylation of P16, MGMT and HMLH1 and polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T and A1298C were detected using PCR-RFLP. Results: The proportions of DNA hypermethylation in P16, MGMT and hMLH1 genes in gastric cancer tissues were 75.2% (242/322), 27.6% (89/322) and 5.3% (17/322), respectively. In the remote normal-appearing tissues, 29.5% (95/322) and 16.1%(52/322) showed hypermethylation in P16 and MGMT genes, respectively. We found a significantly higher proportion of DNA hypermethylation of P16 in patients with N1 TNM stage in cancer tissues and remote normal-appearing tissues (P<0.05). Similarly, we found DNA hypermethylation of MGMT had significantly higher proportion in N1 and M1 TNM stage (P<0.05). Individuals with homozygotes (TT) of MTHFR C677T had significant risk of DNA hypermethylation of MGMT in cancer tissues [OR (95% CI)=4.27(1.76-7.84)], and a significant risk was also found in those carrying MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype [OR (95% CI)= 3.27(1.21-4.77)]. Conclusion: We found the aberrant hypermethylation of cancer-related genes, such as P16, MGMT and HMLH1, could be predictive biomarkers for detection of gastric cancer. PMID:24550949

  8. Aberrant CpG methylation of the TFAP2A gene constitutes a mechanism for loss of TFAP2A expression in human metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, Andrea R; Vorrink, Sabine U; Hudachek, Danielle R; Cramer-Morales, Kimberly; Milhem, Mohammed M; Cornell, Robert A; Domann, Frederick E

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a deadly treatment-resistant form of skin cancer whose global incidence is on the rise. During melanocyte transformation and melanoma progression the expression profile of many genes changes. Among these, a gene implicated in several steps of melanocyte development, TFAP2A, is frequently silenced; however, the molecular mechanism of TFAP2A silencing in human melanoma remains unknown. In this study, we measured TFAP2A mRNA expression in primary human melanocytes compared to 11 human melanoma samples by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In addition, we assessed CpG DNA methylation of the TFAP2A promoter in these samples using bisulfite sequencing. Compared to primary melanocytes, which showed high TFAP2A mRNA expression and no promoter methylation, human melanoma samples showed decreased TFAP2A mRNA expression and increased promoter methylation. We further show that increased CpG methylation correlates with decreased TFAP2A mRNA expression. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, we further identified TFAP2A as a gene displaying among the most decreased expression in stage 4 melanomas vs. non-stage 4 melanomas, and whose CpG methylation was frequently associated with lack of mRNA expression. Based on our data, we conclude that TFAP2A expression in human melanomas can be silenced by aberrant CpG methylation of the TFAP2A promoter. We have identified aberrant CpG DNA methylation as an epigenetic mark associated with TFAP2A silencing in human melanoma that could have significant implications for the therapy of human melanoma using epigenetic modifying drugs. PMID:25625848

  9. Argonaute 2-dependent Regulation of Gene Expression by Single-stranded miRNA Mimics

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Masayuki; Prakash, Thazha P; Corey, David R

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding transcripts that regulate gene expression. Aberrant expression of miRNAs can affect development of cancer and other diseases. Synthetic miRNA mimics can modulate gene expression and offer an approach to therapy. Inside cells, mature miRNAs are produced as double-stranded RNAs and miRNA mimics typically retain both strands. This need for two strands has the potential to complicate drug development. Recently, synthetic chemically modified single-stranded silencing RNAs (ss-siRNA) have been shown to function through the RNAi pathway to induce gene silencing in cell culture and animals. Here, we test the hypothesis that single-stranded miRNA (ss-miRNA) can also mimic the function of miRNAs. We show that ss-miRNAs can act as miRNA mimics to silence the expression of target genes. Gene silencing requires expression of argonaute 2 (AGO2) protein and involves recruitment of AGO2 to the target transcripts. Chemically modified ss-miRNAs function effectively inside cells through endogenous RNAi pathways and broaden the options for miRNA-based oligonucleotide drug development. PMID:26903376

  10. Regulation of prokaryotic gene expression by eukaryotic-like enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Burnside, Kellie; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Summary A growing body of evidence indicates that serine/threonine kinases (STK) and phosphatases (STP) regulate gene expression in prokaryotic organisms. As prokaryotic STKs and STPs are not DNA binding proteins, regulation of gene expression is accomplished through post-translational modification of their targets. These include two-component response regulators, DNA binding proteins and proteins that mediate transcription and translation. This review summarizes our current understanding of how STKs and STPs mediate gene expression in prokaryotes. Further studies to identify environmental signals that trigger the signaling cascade and elucidation of mechanisms that regulate cross-talk between eukaryotic-like signaling enzymes, two-component systems, and components of the transcriptional and translational machinery will facilitate a greater understanding of prokaryotic gene regulation. PMID:22221896

  11. Drosophila mutants of the autism candidate gene neurobeachin (rugose) exhibit neuro-developmental disorders, aberrant synaptic properties, altered locomotion, impaired adult social behavior and activity patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Alexandra; Tenezaca, Luis; Fernandez, Robert W.; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Ueda, Atsushi; Zhong, Xiaotian; Wu, Chun-Fang; Simon, Anne F.; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans characterized by complex behavioral deficits, including intellectual disability, impaired social interactions and hyperactivity. ASD exhibits a strong genetic component with underlying multi-gene interactions. Candidate gene studies have shown that the neurobeachin gene is disrupted in human patients with idiopathic autism (Castermans et al., 2003). The gene for neurobeachin (NBEA) spans the common fragile site FRA 13A and encodes a signal scaffold protein (Savelyeva et al., 2006). In mice, NBEA has been shown to be involved in the trafficking and function of a specific subset of synaptic vesicles. (Medrihan et al., 2009; Savelyeva, Sagulenko, Schmitt, & Schwab, 2006). rugose (rg) is the Drosophila homologue of the mammalian and human neurobeachin. Our previous genetic and molecular analyses have shown that rg encodes an A kinase anchor protein (DAKAP 550), which interacts with components of the EGFR and Notch mediated signaling pathways, facilitating cross-talk between these and other pathways (Shamloula et al., 2002). We now present functional data from studies on the larval neuromuscular junction that reveal abnormal synaptic architecture and physiology. In addition, adult rg loss-of-function mutants exhibit defective social interactions, impaired habituation, aberrant locomotion and hyperactivity. These results demonstrate that Drosophila neurobeachin (rugose) mutants exhibit phenotypic characteristics reminiscent of human ASD and thus could serve as a genetic model for studying autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26100104

  12. Overexpression of HOX genes is prevalent in Ewing sarcoma and is associated with altered epigenetic regulation of developmental transcription programs

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Laurie K; Harris, Ashley; Bailey, Natashay J; Schwentner, Raphaela; Tomazou, Eleni; von Levetzow, Cornelia; Magnuson, Brian; Ljungman, Mats; Kovar, Heinrich; Lawlor, Elizabeth R

    2014-01-01

    The polycomb proteins BMI-1 and EZH2 are highly overexpressed by Ewing sarcoma (ES), a tumor of stem cell origin that is driven by EWS-ETS fusion oncogenes, most commonly EWS-FLI1. In the current study we analyzed expression of transcription programs that are controlled by polycomb proteins during embryonic development to determine if they are abnormal in ES. Our results show that polycomb target gene expression in ES deviates from normal tissues and stem cells and that, as expected, most targets are relatively repressed. However, we also discovered a paradoxical up regulation of numerous polycomb targets and these were highly enriched for homeobox (HOX) genes. Comparison of HOX profiles between malignant and non-malignant tissues revealed a distinctive HOX profile in ES, which was characterized by overexpression of posterior HOXD genes. In addition, ectopic expression of EWS-FLI1 during stem cell differentiation led to aberrant up regulation of posterior HOXD genes. Mechanistically, this up regulation was associated with altered epigenetic regulation. Specifically, ES and EWS-FLI1+ stem cells displayed a relative loss of polycomb-dependent H3K27me3 and gain of trithorax-dependent H3K4me3 at the promoters of posterior HOXD genes and also at the HOXD11.12 polycomb response element. In addition, a striking correlation was evident between HOXD13 and other genes whose regulation is coordinately regulated during embryonic development by distal enhancer elements. Together, these studies demonstrate that epigenetic regulation of polycomb target genes, in particular HOXD genes, is altered in ES and that these changes are mediated downstream of EWS-FLI1. PMID:25625846

  13. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of the death-associated protein kinase gene is early and frequent in murine lung tumors induced by cigarette smoke and tobacco carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Pulling, Leah C; Vuillemenot, Brian R; Hutt, Julie A; Devereux, Theodora R; Belinsky, Steven A

    2004-06-01

    Loss of expression of the death-associated protein (DAP)-kinase gene by aberrant promoter methylation may play an important role in cancer development and progression. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the commonality for inactivation of the DAP-kinase gene in adenocarcinomas induced in mice by chronic exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke, the tobacco carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and vinyl carbamate, and the occupational carcinogen methylene chloride. The timing for inactivation was also determined in alveolar hyperplasias that arise in lung cancer induced in the A/J mouse by NNK. The DAP-kinase gene was not expressed in three of five NNK-induced lung tumor-derived cell lines or in a spontaneously arising lung tumor-derived cell line. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored expression; dense methylation throughout the DAP-kinase CpG island detected by bisulfite sequencing supported methylation as the inactivating event in these cell lines. Methylation-specific PCR detected inactivation of the DAP-kinase gene in 43% of tumors associated with cigarette smoke, a frequency similar to those reported in human non-small cell lung cancer. In addition, DAP-kinase methylation was detected in 52%, 60%, and 50% of tumors associated with NNK, vinyl carbamate, and methylene chloride, respectively. Methylation was observed at similar prevalence in both NNK-induced hyperplasias and adenocarcinomas (46% versus 52%), suggesting that inactivation of this gene is one pathway for tumor development in the mouse lung. Bisulfite sequencing of both premalignant and malignant lesions revealed dense methylation, substantiating that this gene is functionally inactivated at the earliest histological stages of adenocarcinoma development. This study is the first to use a murine model of cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer and demonstrate commonality for inactivation by promoter hypermethylation of a gene implicated in the development

  14. Identification of Sinorhizobium meliloti Genes Regulated during Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Cabanes, Didier; Boistard, Pierre; Batut, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    RNA fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed PCR was used to isolate Sinorhizobium meliloti genes regulated during the symbiotic interaction with alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Sixteen partial cDNAs were isolated whose corresponding genes were differentially expressed between symbiotic and free-living conditions. Thirteen sequences corresponded to genes up-regulated during symbiosis, whereas three were instead repressed during establishment of the symbiotic interaction. Seven cDNAs corresponded to known or predicted nif and fix genes. Four presented high sequence similarity with genes not yet identified in S. meliloti, including genes encoding a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a cell surface protein component, a copper transporter, and an argininosuccinate lyase. Finally, five cDNAs did not exhibit any similarity with sequences present in databases. A detailed expression analysis of the nine non-nif-fix genes provided evidence for an unexpected variety of regulatory patterns, most of which have not been described so far. PMID:10850975

  15. Transcriptional regulation of secretin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, J; Rindi, G; Lopez, M J; Upchurch, B H; Leiter, A B

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the gene encoding the hormone secretin is restricted to a specific enteroendocrine cell type and to beta-cells in developing pancreatic islets. To characterize regulatory elements in the secretin gene responsible for its expression in secretin-producing cells, we used a series of reporter genes for transient expression assays in transfection studies carried out in secretin-producing islet cell lines. Analysis of the transcriptional activity of deletion mutants identified a positive cis regulatory domain between 174 and 53 base pairs upstream from the transcriptional initiation site which was required for secretin gene expression in secretin-producing HIT insulinoma cells. Within this enhancer were sequences resembling two binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1, as well as a consensus sequence for binding to helix-loop-helix proteins. Analysis of these three elements by site-directed mutagenesis suggests that each is important for full transcriptional activity. The role of proximal enhancer sequences in directing secretin gene expression to appropriate tissues is further supported by studies in transgenic mice revealing that 1.6 kilobases of the secretin gene 5' flanking sequence were sufficient to direct the expression of either human growth hormone or simian virus 40 large T-antigen reporter genes to all major secretin-producing tissues. PMID:8774991

  16. A Discovery Lab for Studying Gene Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents a laboratory in which students are provided with cultures of three bacterial strains. Using the results, students will determine which of the strains corresponds to a mutant lacking a particular functional gene. (DDR)

  17. Mechanisms of specificity in neuronal activity-regulated gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Michelle R.; West, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    The brain is a highly adaptable organ that is capable of converting sensory information into changes in neuronal function. This plasticity allows behavior to be accommodated to the environment, providing an important evolutionary advantage. Neurons convert environmental stimuli into long-lasting changes in their physiology in part through the synaptic activity-regulated transcription of new gene products. Since the neurotransmitter-dependent regulation of Fos transcription was first discovered nearly 25 years ago, a wealth of studies have enriched our understanding of the molecular pathways that mediate activity-regulated changes in gene transcription. These findings show that a broad range of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators can be engaged by neuronal activity to sculpt complex programs of stimulus-regulated gene transcription. However, the shear scope of the transcriptional pathways engaged by neuronal activity raises the question of how specificity in the nature of the transcriptional response is achieved in order to encode physiologically relevant responses to divergent stimuli. Here we summarize the general paradigms by which neuronal activity regulates transcription while focusing on the molecular mechanisms that confer differential stimulus-, cell-type-, and developmental-specificity upon activity-regulated programs of neuronal gene transcription. In addition, we preview some of the new technologies that will advance our future understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of activity-regulated gene transcription in the brain. PMID:21620929

  18. Germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppresssor gene are similar to somatic VHL aberrations in sporadic renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley, J.M.; Naglich, J.; Gelbert, L.

    1994-09-01

    A candidate gene for von Hippel Lindau disease was recently identified that led to the isolation of a partial cDNA clone with extended open reading frame without significant homology to known genes or obvious functional motifs, except for an acidic pentamer repeat domain. To further characterize the functional domains of the VHL gene and assess its involvement in hereditary and non-hereditary tumors, we performed mutation analyses and studied its expresssion in normal and tumor tissue. We identified germline mutations in 39% of VHL disease families. Moreover, 33% of sporadic RCCs, and all (6/6) sporadic RCC cell lines analyzed, showed mutations within the VHL gene. Both germline and somatic mutations included deletions, insertions, splice site mutations, missense and nonsense mutations, all of which clustered at the 3{prime} end of the corresponding partial VHL cDNA open reading frame including an alternatively-spliced exon of 123 nucleotides in length, suggesting functionally important domains encoded by the VHL gene in this region. Over 180 sporadic tumors of other types have shown no detectable base changes within the presumed coding sequence of the VHL gene to date. We conclude that the gene causing VHL has an important and specific role in the etiology of sporadic renal cell carcinomas, acts as a recessive tumor suppressor gene, and appears to encode important functional domains within the 3{prime} end of the known open reading frame.

  19. Regulation of gene expression in the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Stella, A.M.G. ); de Vellis, J. ); Perez-Polo, J.R. 62230.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers subjects under the following topics: Plenary Lecture; Growth factors; Regulation of gene expression in neurons; Cell adhesion molecules and development; Nervous tissue reaction to injury-aging; and Poster presentation.

  20. Transcriptional regulation of human small nuclear RNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Jawdekar, Gauri W.; Henry, R. William

    2009-01-01

    The products of human snRNA genes have been frequently described as performing housekeeping functions and their synthesis refractory to regulation. However, recent studies have emphasized that snRNA and other related non-coding RNA molecules control multiple facets of the central dogma, and their regulated expression is critical to cellular homeostasis during normal growth and in response to stress. Human snRNA genes contain compact and yet powerful promoters that are recognized by increasingly well-characterized transcription factors, thus providing a premier model system to study gene regulation. This review summarizes many recent advances deciphering the mechanism by which the transcription of human snRNA and related genes are regulated. PMID:18442490

  1. Comprehensive Screening of Gene Copy Number Aberrations in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Solid Tumors Using Molecular Inversion Probe-Based Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Array.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajesh R; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Chen, Hui; Almohammedsalim, Alaa A; Sahin, Ayesagul; Bosamra, Alex; Patel, Keyur P; Routbort, Mark J; Lu, Xinyan; Ronald, Abraham; Mishra, Bal Mukund; Virani, Shumaila; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi

    2016-09-01

    Gene copy number aberrations (CNAs) represent a major class of cancer-related genomic alterations that drive solid tumors. Comprehensive and sensitive detection of CNAs is challenging because of often low quality and quantity of DNA isolated from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) solid tumor samples. Here, in a clinical molecular diagnostic laboratory, we tested the utility and validated a molecular inversion probe-based (MIP) array to routinely screen for CNAs in solid tumors. Using low-input FFPE DNA, the array detects genome-wide CNAs with a special focus on 900 cancer-related genes. A cohort of 76 solid tumors of various types and tumor cellularity (20% to 100%), and four cancer cell lines were used. These harbored CNAs in clinically important genes (ERBB2, EGFR, FGFR1, KRAS, MYC) as detected by orthogonal techniques like next-generation sequencing or fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results of the MIP array were concordant with results from orthogonal techniques, and also provided additional information regarding the allelic nature of the CNAs. Limit-of-detection and assay reproducibility studies showed a high degree of sensitivity and reproducibility of detection, respectively. FFPE compatibility, ability to detect CNAs with high sensitivity, accuracy, and provide valuable information such as loss of heterozygosity along with relatively short turnaround times makes the MIP array a desirable clinical platform for routine screening of solid tumors in a clinical laboratory. PMID:27392636

  2. Regulation of toxin gene expression in Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Kaori; Shimizu, Tohru

    2015-05-01

    The Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped Clostridium perfringens is widely distributed in nature, especially in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. C. perfringens causes clostridial myonecrosis (or gas gangrene), enteritis and enterotoxemia in humans and livestock by producing numerous extracellular toxins and enzymes. The toxin gene expression is regulated by a two-component regulatory system and regulatory RNA VirR/VirS-VR-RNA cascade. The VirR/VirS system was originally found in a type A strain, but a recent report showed that it is also important for the toxin gene regulation in other types of strains. Two types of cell-cell signaling, i.e., agr-system and AI-2 signaling, are also important for the regulation of toxin genes. Several regulatory systems independent from the VirR/VirS system, including virX, the orphan histidine kinase ReeS and orphan response regulator RevR, are also involved in the regulation of toxin genes. In addition, the expression of toxin genes is upregulated after contact with Caco-2 cells. C. perfringens has a complex regulatory network for toxin gene expression and thus the coordination of toxin gene expression is important for the process of infection. PMID:25303832

  3. Regulation of gene expression in the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Camilla A; Breault, David T

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression within the intestinal epithelium is complex and controlled by various signaling pathways that regulate the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Proliferation is required both to grow and to replace cells lost through apoptosis and attrition, yet in all but a few cells, differentiation must take place to prevent uncontrolled growth (cancer) and to provide essential functions. In this chapter, we review the major signaling pathways underlying regulation of gene expression within the intestinal epithelium, based primarily on data from mouse models, as well as specific morphogens and transcription factor families that have a major role in regulating intestinal gene expression, including the Hedgehog family, Forkhead Box (FOX) factors, Homeobox (HOX) genes, ParaHox genes, GATA transcription factors, canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, EPH/Ephrins, Sox9, BMP signaling, PTEN/PI3K, LKB1, K-RAS, Notch pathway, HNF, and MATH1. We also briefly highlight important emerging areas of gene regulation, including microRNA (miRNA) and epigenetic regulation. PMID:21075346

  4. Stochastic models of gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendar, Hodjat; Kulkarni, Rahul; Jia, Tao

    2011-10-01

    The intrinsic stochasticity of gene expression can give rise to phenotypic heterogeneity in a population of genetically identical cells. Correspondingly, there is considerable interest in understanding how different molecular mechanisms impact the 'noise' in gene expression. Of particular interest are post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involving genes called small RNAs, which control important processes such as development and cancer. We propose and analyze general stochastic models of gene expression and derive exact analytical expressions quantifying the noise in protein distributions [1]. Focusing on specific regulatory mechanisms, we analyze a general model for post-transcriptional regulation of stochastic gene expression [2]. The results obtained provide new insights into the role of post-transcriptional regulation in controlling the noise in gene expression. [4pt] [1] T. Jia and R. V. Kulkarni, Phys. Rev. Lett.,106, 058102 (2011) [0pt] [2] T. Jia and R. V. Kulkarni, Phys. Rev. Lett., 105, 018101 (2010)

  5. CONSERVATION OF THE RESPONSE REGULATOR GENE GACA IN PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The regulator gene gacA influences production of several secondary metabolites in Pseudomonas spp. Primers and a probe for the gacA gene of Pseudomonas spp. were developed and a gacA fragment was sequenced from 10 strains isolated from different plant-associated environments. PCR analysis and Sou...

  6. Identification of LytSR-regulated genes from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, E W; Bayles, K W

    1996-10-01

    In this report, the characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus operon containing two LytSR-regulated genes, lrgA and lrgB, is described. Sequence and mutagenesis studies of these genes suggest that lrgA encodes a murein hydrolase exporter similar to bacteriophage holin proteins while lrgB may encode a protein having murein hydrolase activity. PMID:8824633

  7. Biotic Stress Globally Down-Regulates Photosynthesis Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upon herbivore and pathogen attacks, plants switch from processes supporting growth and reproduction to defense by inducing a set of defense genes and down-regulating most of the nuclear encoded photosynthetic genes. To determine if this transcriptional response is universal we used transcriptome da...

  8. Lack of Muc1-regulated beta-catenin stability results in aberrant expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells from the bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Tze Wei; Bradley, Judy M.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Gendler, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells that inhibit T cell activity and contribute to the immune suppression characteristic of most tumors. We discovered that bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells from the Muc1 knockout (KO) mice differentiated into CD11b+Gr1+ MDSCs in vitro under GM-CSF and IL-4 signaling. MUC1 is a tumor-associated mucin and its cytoplasmic tail (MUC1-CT) can regulate beta-catenin to promote oncogenesis. Given the importance of beta-catenin in hematopoiesis, we hypothesized that the MUC1 regulation of beta-catenin is important for MDSC development. Our current study shows that the aberrant development of BM progenitors into CD11b+Gr1+ MDSCs is dependent on the down regulation of beta-catenin levels that occurs in the absence of Muc1. In light of this, KO mice showed enhanced EL4 tumor growth and were able to better tolerate allogeneic BM185 tumor growth, with an accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells in the blood and tumor draining lymph nodes. WT mice were able to similarly tolerate allogeneic tumor growth when they were injected with CD11b+Gr1+ cells from tumor-bearing KO mice, suggesting that tolerance of allogeneic tumors is dependent on MDSC-mediated immune suppression. This further delineates the ability of Muc1 to control MDSC development which could directly impact tumorigenesis. Knowledge of the biology by which Muc1 regulates the development of myeloid progenitors into MDSCs would also be very useful in enhancing the efficacy of cancer vaccines in the face of tumor immune suppression. PMID:19351842

  9. Prognostic value of aberrant promoter hypermethylation of tumor-related genes in early-stage head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Kiyoshi; Mochizuki, Daiki; Imai, Atsushi; Endo, Shiori; Mima, Masato; Misawa, Yuki; Kanazawa, Takeharu; Carey, Thomas E; Mineta, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Staging and pathological grading are useful, but imperfect predictors of recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Accordingly, molecular biomarkers that predict the risk of recurrence are necessary to improve clinical outcomes. The methylation statuses of the promoters of 11 tumor-related genes (p16, RASSF1A, E-cadherin, H-cadherin, MGMT, DAPK, DCC, COL1A2, TAC1, SST, and GALR1) were analyzed in 133 HNSCC cases using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. We detected frequent methylation of p16 (44%), RASSF1A (18%), E-cadherin (53%), H-cadherin (35%), MGMT (35%), DAPK (53%), DCC (42%), COL1A2 (44%), TAC1 (61%), SST (64%), and GALR1 (44%) in HNSCC. Disease-free survival was lower in patients with 6-11 methylated genes than in those with 0-5 methylated genes (log-rank test, P = 0.001). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, the methylation of E-cadherin, COL1A2, TAC1, and GALR1 was associated with poor survival, with hazard ratios of 4.474 (95% CI, 1.241-16.124). In a joint analysis of these four genes, patients with 2-4 methylated genes had a significantly lower survival rate than those with 0-1 methylated genes in early-stage HNSCC. Importantly, the methylation of some genes was closely related to poor prognosis in early-stage HNSCC, providing strong evidence that these hypermethylated genes are valuable biomarkers for prognostic evaluation. PMID:27027429

  10. Characterization of gene rearrangements resulted from genomic structural aberrations in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma KYSE150 cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jia-Jie; Gong, Ting; Zhang, Yu; Shi, Zhi-Zhou; Xu, Xin; Dong, Jin-Tang; Zhan, Qi-Min; Fu, Song-Bin; Wang, Ming-Rong

    2013-01-15

    Chromosomal rearrangements and involved genes have been reported to play important roles in the development and progression of human malignancies. But the gene rearrangements in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain to be identified. In the present study, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was performed on the ESCC cell line KYSE150. Eight disrupted genes were detected according to the obviously distinct unbalanced breakpoints. The splitting of these genes was validated by dual-color fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). By using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), genome walking and sequencing analysis, we further identified gene disruptions and rearrangements. A fusion transcript DTL-1q42.2 was derived from an intrachromosomal rearrangement of chromosome 1. Highly amplified segments of DTL and PTPRD were self-rearranged. The sequences on either side of the junctions possess micro-homology with each other. FISH results indicated that the split DTL and PTPRD were also involved in comprising parts of the derivative chromosomes resulted from t(1q;9p;12p) and t(9;1;9). Further, we found that regions harboring DTL (1q32.3) and PTPRD (9p23) were also splitting in ESCC tumors. The data supplement significant information on the existing genetic background of KYSE150, which may be used as a model for studying these gene rearrangements. PMID:23026210

  11. TBR1 regulates autism risk genes in the developing neocortex.

    PubMed

    Notwell, James H; Heavner, Whitney E; Darbandi, Siavash Fazel; Katzman, Sol; McKenna, William L; Ortiz-Londono, Christian F; Tastad, David; Eckler, Matthew J; Rubenstein, John L R; McConnell, Susan K; Chen, Bin; Bejerano, Gill

    2016-08-01

    Exome sequencing studies have identified multiple genes harboring de novo loss-of-function (LoF) variants in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including TBR1, a master regulator of cortical development. We performed ChIP-seq for TBR1 during mouse cortical neurogenesis and show that TBR1-bound regions are enriched adjacent to ASD genes. ASD genes were also enriched among genes that are differentially expressed in Tbr1 knockouts, which together with the ChIP-seq data, suggests direct transcriptional regulation. Of the nine ASD genes examined, seven were misexpressed in the cortices of Tbr1 knockout mice, including six with increased expression in the deep cortical layers. ASD genes with adjacent cortical TBR1 ChIP-seq peaks also showed unusually low levels of LoF mutations in a reference human population and among Icelanders. We then leveraged TBR1 binding to identify an appealing subset of candidate ASD genes. Our findings highlight a TBR1-regulated network of ASD genes in the developing neocortex that are relatively intolerant to LoF mutations, indicating that these genes may play critical roles in normal cortical development. PMID:27325115

  12. Identifying the genes regulated by IDH1 via gene-chip in glioma cell U87

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jie; Lou, Meiqing; Shi, Jinlong; Xue, Yajun; Cui, Daming

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most common form of primary brain tumor. Increasing evidence show that IDH1 gene mutation is implicated in glioma. However, the mechanism involved in the progression of glioma remains unclear until now. In the study reported here, we used gene chip to identifying the genes regulated with IDH mutanted at R132. The results showed that IDH1-mutant leads to 1255 up-regulated genes and 1862 down-regulated genes in U87 cell lines. Meanwhile, GO and gene-network was performed and shown IDH1-mutant mainly affect small molecule metabolic process, mitotic cell cycle and apoptosis. This result will lay a foundation for further study of IDH1 gene function in the future. PMID:26770405

  13. Chromosome aberrations induced by zebularine in triticale.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuhui; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yanzhi; Ma, Jieyun; Wu, Nan; Ni, Shuang; Luo, Tengxiao; Zhuang, Lifang; Chu, Chenggen; Cho, Seong-Woo; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Qi, Zengjun

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome engineering is an important approach for generating wheat germplasm. Efficient development of chromosome aberrations will facilitate the introgression and application of alien genes in wheat. In this study, zebularine, a DNA methylation transferase inhibitor, was successfully used to induce chromosome aberrations in the octoploid triticale cultivar Jinghui#1. Dry seeds were soaked in zebularine solutions (250, 500, and 750 μmol/L) for 24 h, and the 500 μmol/L treatment was tested in three additional treatment times, i.e., 12, 36, and 48 h. All treatments induced aberrations involving wheat and rye chromosomes. Of the 920 cells observed in 67 M1 plants, 340 (37.0%) carried 817 aberrations with an average of 0.89 aberrations per cell (range: 0-12). The aberrations included probable deletions, telosomes and acentric fragments (49.0%), large segmental translocations (28.9%), small segmental translocations (17.1%), intercalary translocations (2.6%), long chromosomes that could carry more than one centromere (2.0%), and ring chromosomes (0.5%). Of 510 M2 plants analyzed, 110 (21.6%) were found to carry stable aberrations. Such aberrations included 79 with varied rye chromosome numbers, 7 with wheat and rye chromosome translocations, 15 with possible rye telosomes/deletions, and 9 with complex aberrations involving variation in rye chromosome number and wheat-rye translocations. These indicated that aberrations induced by zebularine can be steadily transmitted, suggesting that zebularine is a new efficient agent for chromosome manipulation. PMID:27334255

  14. Plant defense genes are regulated by ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, J.R.; Davis, R.W.

    1987-08-01

    One of the earliest detectable events during plant-pathogen interaction is a rapid increase in ethylene biosynthesis. This gaseous plant stress hormone may be a signal for plants to activate defense mechanisms against invading pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The effect of ethylene on four plant genes involved in three separate plant defense response pathways was examined; these included (i and ii) genes that encode L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4-coumarate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.2.1.12), enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, (iii) the gene encoding chalcone synthase, an enzyme of the flavonoid glycoside pathway, and (iv) the genes encoding hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein, a major protein component(s) of plant cell walls. Blot hybridization analysis of mRNA from ethylene-treated carrot roots reveals marked increases in the levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase mRNA, 4-coumarate CoA ligase mRNA, chalcone synthase mRNA, and certain hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein transcripts. The effect of ethylene on hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNA accumulation was different from that of wounding. Ethylene induces two hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNAs (1.8 and 4.0 kilobases), whereas wounding of carrot root leads to accumulation of an additional hydroxyproline-rich mRNA (1.5 kilobases). These results indicate that at least two distinct signals, ethylene and a wound signal, can affect the expression of plant defense-response genes.

  15. Adding In Silico Assessment of Potential Splice Aberration to the Integrated Evaluation of BRCA Gene Unclassified Variants.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Maxime P; Di Sera, Tonya L; Nix, David A; Paquette, Andrew M; Parsons, Michael T; Bell, Russel; Hoffman, Andrea; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Goldgar, David E; Spurdle, Amanda B; Tavtigian, Sean V

    2016-07-01

    Clinical mutation screening of the cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 generates many unclassified variants (UVs). Most of these UVs are either rare missense substitutions or nucleotide substitutions near the splice junctions of the protein coding exons. Previously, we developed a quantitative method for evaluation of BRCA gene UVs-the "integrated evaluation"-that combines a sequence analysis-based prior probability of pathogenicity with patient and/or tumor observational data to arrive at a posterior probability of pathogenicity. One limitation of the sequence analysis-based prior has been that it evaluates UVs from the perspective of missense substitution severity but not probability to disrupt normal mRNA splicing. Here, we calibrated output from the splice-site fitness program MaxEntScan to generate spliceogenicity-based prior probabilities of pathogenicity for BRCA gene variants; these range from 0.97 for variants with high probability to damage a donor or acceptor to 0.02 for exonic variants that do not impact a splice junction and are unlikely to create a de novo donor. We created a database http://priors.hci.utah.edu/PRIORS/ that provides the combined missense substitution severity and spliceogenicity-based probability of pathogenicity for BRCA gene single-nucleotide substitutions. We also updated the BRCA gene Ex-UV LOVD, available at http://hci-exlovd.hci.utah.edu, with 77 re-evaluable variants. PMID:26913838

  16. Adding In Silico Assessment of Potential Splice Aberration to the Integrated Evaluation of BRCA Gene Unclassified Variants

    PubMed Central

    Vallée, Maxime P.; Di Sera, Tonya L.; Nix, David A.; Paquette, Andrew M.; Parsons, Michael T.; Bell, Russel; Hoffman, Andrea; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Goldgar, David E.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clinical mutation screening of the cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 generates many unclassified variants (UVs). Most of these UVs are either rare missense substitutions or nucleotide substitutions near the splice junctions of the protein coding exons. Previously, we developed a quantitative method for evaluation of BRCA gene UVs—the “integrated evaluation”—that combines a sequence analysis‐based prior probability of pathogenicity with patient and/or tumor observational data to arrive at a posterior probability of pathogenicity. One limitation of the sequence analysis‐based prior has been that it evaluates UVs from the perspective of missense substitution severity but not probability to disrupt normal mRNA splicing. Here, we calibrated output from the splice‐site fitness program MaxEntScan to generate spliceogenicity‐based prior probabilities of pathogenicity for BRCA gene variants; these range from 0.97 for variants with high probability to damage a donor or acceptor to 0.02 for exonic variants that do not impact a splice junction and are unlikely to create a de novo donor. We created a database http://priors.hci.utah.edu/PRIORS/ that provides the combined missense substitution severity and spliceogenicity‐based probability of pathogenicity for BRCA gene single‐nucleotide substitutions. We also updated the BRCA gene Ex‐UV LOVD, available at http://hci‐exlovd.hci.utah.edu, with 77 re‐evaluable variants. PMID:26913838

  17. The Housekeeping Gene Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Regulates Multiple Developmental and Metabolic Pathways of Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Neuronal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Joel S.; Friedmann, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which mutations of the purinergic housekeeping gene hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) cause the severe neurodevelopmental Lesch Nyhan Disease (LND) are poorly understood. The best recognized neural consequences of HPRT deficiency are defective basal ganglia expression of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and aberrant DA neuronal function. We have reported that HPRT deficiency leads to dysregulated expression of multiple DA-related developmental functions and cellular signaling defects in a variety of HPRT-deficient cells, including human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. We now describe results of gene expression studies during neuronal differentiation of HPRT-deficient murine ESD3 embryonic stem cells and report that HPRT knockdown causes a marked switch from neuronal to glial gene expression and dysregulates expression of Sox2 and its regulator, genes vital for stem cell pluripotency and for the neuronal/glial cell fate decision. In addition, HPRT deficiency dysregulates many cellular functions controlling cell cycle and proliferation mechanisms, RNA metabolism, DNA replication and repair, replication stress, lysosome function, membrane trafficking, signaling pathway for platelet activation (SPPA) multiple neurotransmission systems and sphingolipid, sulfur and glycan metabolism. We propose that the neural aberrations of HPRT deficiency result from combinatorial effects of these multi-system metabolic errors. Since some of these aberrations are also found in forms of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, we predict that some of these systems defects play similar neuropathogenic roles in diverse neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases in common and may therefore provide new experimental opportunities for clarifying pathogenesis and for devising new potential therapeutic targets in developmental and genetic disease. PMID:24130677

  18. Glucose Regulates the Expression of the Apolipoprotein A5 Gene

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchart, Jamila; Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Moitrot, Emmanuelle; Rommens, Corinne; Pennacchio, Len A.; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2008-04-07

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) is a key player in determining triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. Since diabetes is often associated with hypertriglyceridemia, this study explores whether APOA5 gene expression is regulated by alteration in glucose homeostasis and the related pathways. D-glucose activates APOA5 gene expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes, and the glycolytic pathway involved was determined using D-glucose analogs and metabolites. Together, transient transfections, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level through an increase of USF1/2 binding to an E-box in the APOA5 promoter. We show that this phenomenon is not due to an increase of mRNA or protein expression levels of USF. Using protein phosphatases 1 and 2A inhibitor, we demonstrate that D-glucose regulates APOA5 gene via a dephosphorylation mechanism, thereby resulting in an enhanced USF1/2-promoter binding. Last, subsequent suppressions of USF1/2 and phosphatases mRNA through siRNA gene silencing abolished the regulation. We demonstrate that APOA5 gene is up regulated by D-glucose and USF through phosphatase activation. These findings may provide a new cross talk between glucose and lipid metabolism.

  19. Cost benefit theory and optimal design of gene regulation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisky, Tomer; Dekel, Erez; Alon, Uri

    2007-12-01

    Cells respond to the environment by regulating the expression of genes according to environmental signals. The relation between the input signal level and the expression of the gene is called the gene regulation function. It is of interest to understand the shape of a gene regulation function in terms of the environment in which it has evolved and the basic constraints of biological systems. Here we address this by presenting a cost-benefit theory for gene regulation functions that takes into account temporally varying inputs in the environment and stochastic noise in the biological components. We apply this theory to the well-studied lac operon of E. coli. The present theory explains the shape of this regulation function in terms of temporal variation of the input signals, and of minimizing the deleterious effect of cell-cell variability in regulatory protein levels. We also apply the theory to understand the evolutionary tradeoffs in setting the number of regulatory proteins and for selection of feed-forward loops in genetic circuits. The present cost-benefit theory can be used to understand the shape of other gene regulatory functions in terms of environment and noise constraints.

  20. Cold-responsive gene regulation during cold acclimation in plants.

    PubMed

    Lissarre, Mickael; Ohta, Masaru; Sato, Aiko; Miura, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    Regulation of the transcriptome is necessary for plants to acquire cold tolerance, and cold induces several genes via a cold signaling pathway. The transcription factors CBF/DREB1 (C-repeat binding factor/dehydration responsive element binding1) and ICE1 (inducer of CBF expression1) have important roles in the regulation of cold-responsive gene expression. ICE1 is post-translationally regulated by ubiquitylation-mediated proteolysis and sumoylation. This mini-review highlights some recent studies on plant cold signaling. The relationships among cold signaling, salicylic acid accumulation and stomatal development are also discussed. PMID:20699657

  1. Cohesin: a critical chromatin organizer in mammalian gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Richard; Zeng, Weihua; Ball, Alexander R.; Yokomori, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Cohesins are evolutionarily conserved essential multi-protein complexes important for higher-order chromatin organization. They play pivotal roles in the maintenance of genome integrity through mitotic chromosome regulation, DNA repair and replication, as well as gene regulation critical for proper development and cellular differentiation. In this review, we will discuss the multifaceted functions of mammalian cohesins and their apparent functional hierarchy in the cell, with particular focus on their actions in gene regulation and their relevance to human developmental disorders. PMID:21851156

  2. Segment-specific regulation of epididymal gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Petra; Björkgren, Ida

    2016-09-01

    The epididymis is necessary for post-testicular sperm maturation. During their epididymal transit, spermatozoa gain ability for progressive movement and fertilization. The epididymis is composed of several segments that have distinct gene expression profiles that enable the establishment of the changing luminal environment required for sperm maturation. The epididymal gene expression is regulated by endocrine, lumicrine, and paracrine factors in a segment-specific manner. Thus, in addition to its importance for male fertility, the epididymis is a valuable model tissue for studying the regulation of gene expression. This review concentrates on recent advances in understanding the androgen, small RNA, and epigenetically mediated regulation of segment-specific gene expression in the epididymis. PMID:27222594

  3. In the loop: long range chromatin interactions and gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Enhancers, silencer and insulators are DNA elements that play central roles in regulation of the genome that are crucial for development and differentiation. In metazoans, these elements are often separated from target genes by distances that can reach 100 Kb. How regulation can be accomplished over long distances has long been intriguing. Current data indicate that although the mechanisms by which these diverse regulatory elements affect gene transcription may vary, an underlying feature is the establishment of close contacts or chromatin loops. With the generalization of this principle, new questions emerge, such as how the close contacts are formed and stabilized and, importantly, how they contribute to the regulation of transcriptional output at target genes. This review will concentrate on examples where a functional role and a mechanistic understanding has been explored for loops formed between genes and their regulatory elements or among the elements themselves. PMID:21258045

  4. Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Tamar; Prizak, Roshan; Guet, Călin C.; Barton, Nicholas H.; Tkačik, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulation relies on the specificity of transcription factor (TF)–DNA interactions. Limited specificity may lead to crosstalk: a regulatory state in which a gene is either incorrectly activated due to noncognate TF–DNA interactions or remains erroneously inactive. As each TF can have numerous interactions with noncognate cis-regulatory elements, crosstalk is inherently a global problem, yet has previously not been studied as such. We construct a theoretical framework to analyse the effects of global crosstalk on gene regulation. We find that crosstalk presents a significant challenge for organisms with low-specificity TFs, such as metazoans. Crosstalk is not easily mitigated by known regulatory schemes acting at equilibrium, including variants of cooperativity and combinatorial regulation. Our results suggest that crosstalk imposes a previously unexplored global constraint on the functioning and evolution of regulatory networks, which is qualitatively distinct from the known constraints that act at the level of individual gene regulatory elements. PMID:27489144

  5. Intrinsic limits to gene regulation by global crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Tamar; Prizak, Roshan; Guet, Călin C; Barton, Nicholas H; Tkačik, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulation relies on the specificity of transcription factor (TF)-DNA interactions. Limited specificity may lead to crosstalk: a regulatory state in which a gene is either incorrectly activated due to noncognate TF-DNA interactions or remains erroneously inactive. As each TF can have numerous interactions with noncognate cis-regulatory elements, crosstalk is inherently a global problem, yet has previously not been studied as such. We construct a theoretical framework to analyse the effects of global crosstalk on gene regulation. We find that crosstalk presents a significant challenge for organisms with low-specificity TFs, such as metazoans. Crosstalk is not easily mitigated by known regulatory schemes acting at equilibrium, including variants of cooperativity and combinatorial regulation. Our results suggest that crosstalk imposes a previously unexplored global constraint on the functioning and evolution of regulatory networks, which is qualitatively distinct from the known constraints that act at the level of individual gene regulatory elements. PMID:27489144

  6. Sperm is epigenetically programmed to regulate gene transcription in embryos.

    PubMed

    Teperek, Marta; Simeone, Angela; Gaggioli, Vincent; Miyamoto, Kei; Allen, George E; Erkek, Serap; Kwon, Taejoon; Marcotte, Edward M; Zegerman, Philip; Bradshaw, Charles R; Peters, Antoine H F M; Gurdon, John B; Jullien, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    For a long time, it has been assumed that the only role of sperm at fertilization is to introduce the male genome into the egg. Recently, ideas have emerged that the epigenetic state of the sperm nucleus could influence transcription in the embryo. However, conflicting reports have challenged the existence of epigenetic marks on sperm genes, and there are no functional tests supporting the role of sperm epigenetic marking on embryonic gene expression. Here, we show that sperm is epigenetically programmed to regulate embryonic gene expression. By comparing the development of sperm- and spermatid-derived frog embryos, we show that the programming of sperm for successful development relates to its ability to regulate transcription of a set of developmentally important genes. During spermatid maturation into sperm, these genes lose H3K4me2/3 and retain H3K27me3 marks. Experimental removal of these epigenetic marks at fertilization de-regulates gene expression in the resulting embryos in a paternal chromatin-dependent manner. This demonstrates that epigenetic instructions delivered by the sperm at fertilization are required for correct regulation of gene expression in the future embryos. The epigenetic mechanisms of developmental programming revealed here are likely to relate to the mechanisms involved in transgenerational transmission of acquired traits. Understanding how parental experience can influence development of the progeny has broad potential for improving human health. PMID:27034506

  7. Sperm is epigenetically programmed to regulate gene transcription in embryos

    PubMed Central

    Teperek, Marta; Simeone, Angela; Gaggioli, Vincent; Miyamoto, Kei; Allen, George E.; Erkek, Serap; Kwon, Taejoon; Marcotte, Edward M.; Zegerman, Philip; Bradshaw, Charles R.; Peters, Antoine H.F.M.; Gurdon, John B.; Jullien, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, it has been assumed that the only role of sperm at fertilization is to introduce the male genome into the egg. Recently, ideas have emerged that the epigenetic state of the sperm nucleus could influence transcription in the embryo. However, conflicting reports have challenged the existence of epigenetic marks on sperm genes, and there are no functional tests supporting the role of sperm epigenetic marking on embryonic gene expression. Here, we show that sperm is epigenetically programmed to regulate embryonic gene expression. By comparing the development of sperm- and spermatid-derived frog embryos, we show that the programming of sperm for successful development relates to its ability to regulate transcription of a set of developmentally important genes. During spermatid maturation into sperm, these genes lose H3K4me2/3 and retain H3K27me3 marks. Experimental removal of these epigenetic marks at fertilization de-regulates gene expression in the resulting embryos in a paternal chromatin-dependent manner. This demonstrates that epigenetic instructions delivered by the sperm at fertilization are required for correct regulation of gene expression in the future embryos. The epigenetic mechanisms of developmental programming revealed here are likely to relate to the mechanisms involved in transgenerational transmission of acquired traits. Understanding how parental experience can influence development of the progeny has broad potential for improving human health. PMID:27034506

  8. Attenuating Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Regulation: A Medicinal Chemistry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus is tightly regulated by intricate networks of transcriptional regulators and two-component signal transduction systems. There is now an emerging body of evidence to suggest that the blockade of S. aureus virulence gene expression significantly attenuates infection in experimental models. In this Perspective, we will provide insights into medicinal chemistry strategies for the development of chemical reagents that have the capacity to inhibit staphylococcal virulence expression. These reagents can be broadly grouped into four categories: (1) competitive inhibitors of the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system, (2) inhibitors of AgrA–DNA interactions, (3) RNAIII transcription inhibitors, and (4) inhibitors of the SarA family of transcriptional regulators. We discuss the potential of specific examples of antivirulence agents for the management and treatment of staphylococcal infections. PMID:23294220

  9. From analog to digital models of gene regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsky, Brian; Neuert, Gregor

    2015-07-01

    Recently, major progress has been made to develop computational models to predict and explain the mechanisms and behaviors of gene regulation. Here, we review progress on how these mechanisms and behaviors have been interpreted with analog models, where cell properties continuously modulate transcription, and digital models, where gene modulation involves discrete activation and inactivation events. We introduce recent experimental approaches, which measure these gene regulatory behaviors at single-cell and single-molecule resolution, and we discuss the integration of these approaches with computational models to reveal biophysical insight. By analyzing simple toy models in the context of existing experimental capabilities, we discuss the interplay between different experiments and different models to measure and interpret gene regulatory behaviors. Finally, we review recent successes in the development of predictive computational models for the control of gene regulation behaviors.

  10. From Analog to Digital Models of Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Munsky, Brian; Neuert, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Recently, major progress has been made to develop computational models to predict and explain the mechanisms and behaviors of gene regulation. Here, we review progress on how these mechanisms and behaviors have been interpreted with analog models, where cell properties continuously modulate transcription, and digital models, where gene modulation involves discrete activation and inactivation events. We introduce recent experimental approaches, which measure these gene regulatory behaviors at single-cell and single-molecule resolution, and we discuss the integration of these approaches with computational models to reveal biophysical insight. By analyzing simple toy models in the context of existing experimental capabilities, we discuss the interplay between different experiments and different models to measure and interpret gene regulatory behaviors. Finally, we review recent successes in the development of predictive computational models for the control of gene regulation behaviors. PMID:26086470

  11. DNA Methylation is Developmentally Regulated for Genes Essential for Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Alyssa A.; Lin, Mingyan; Lister, Rolanda L.; Maslov, Alex A.; Wang, Yidong; Suzuki, Masako; Wu, Bingruo; Greally, John M.; Zheng, Deyou; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism altering gene expression in development and disease. However, its role in the regulation of gene expression during heart development is incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to reveal DNA methylation in mouse embryonic hearts and its role in regulating gene expression during heart development. Methods and Results We performed the genome‐wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse embryonic hearts using methyl‐sensitive, tiny fragment enrichment/massively parallel sequencing to determine methylation levels at ACGT sites. The results showed that while global methylation of 1.64 million ACGT sites in developing hearts remains stable between embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E14.5, a small fraction (2901) of them exhibit differential methylation. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these sites are enriched at genes involved in heart development. Quantitative real‐time PCR analysis of 350 genes with differential DNA methylation showed that the expression of 181 genes is developmentally regulated, and 79 genes have correlative changes between methylation and expression, including hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2). Required for heart valve formation, Has2 expression in the developing heart valves is downregulated at E14.5, accompanied with increased DNA methylation in its enhancer. Genetic knockout further showed that the downregulation of Has2 expression is dependent on DNA methyltransferase 3b, which is co‐expressed with Has2 in the forming heart valve region, indicating that the DNA methylation change may contribute to the Has2 enhancer's regulating function. Conclusions DNA methylation is developmentally regulated for genes essential to heart development, and abnormal DNA methylation may contribute to congenital heart disease. PMID:24947998

  12. Differential Epigenetic Regulation of TOX Subfamily High Mobility Group Box Genes in Lung and Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Mathewos; Yingling, Christin M.; Grimes, Marcie J.; Thomas, Cynthia L.; Liu, Yushi; Leng, Shuguang; Joste, Nancy; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant cytosine methylation affects regulation of hundreds of genes during cancer development. In this study, a novel aberrantly hypermethylated CpG island in cancer was discovered within the TOX2 promoter. TOX2 was unmethylated in normal cells but 28% lung (n = 190) and 23% breast (n = 80) tumors were methylated. Expression of two novel TOX2 transcripts identified was significantly reduced in primary lung tumors than distant normal lung (p<0.05). These transcripts were silenced in methylated lung and breast cancer cells and 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment re-expressed both. Extension of these assays to TOX, TOX3, and TOX4 genes that share similar genomic structure and protein homology with TOX2 revealed distinct methylation profiles by smoking status, histology, and cancer type. TOX was almost exclusively methylated in breast (43%) than lung (5%) cancer, whereas TOX3 was frequently methylated in lung (58%) than breast (30%) tumors. TOX4 was unmethylated in all samples and showed the highest expression in normal lung. Compared to TOX4, expression of TOX, TOX2 and TOX3 in normal lung was 25, 44, and 88% lower, respectively, supporting the premise that reduced promoter activity confers increased susceptibility to methylation during lung carcinogenesis. Genome-wide assays revealed that siRNA-mediated TOX2 knockdown modulated multiple pathways while TOX3 inactivation targeted neuronal development and function. Although these knockdowns did not result in further phenotypic changes of lung cancer cells in vitro, the impact on tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, and cell differentiation pathways suggest a potential role for TOX2 in modulating tumor microenvironment. PMID:22496870

  13. Impaired Contextual Fear Extinction Learning is Associated with Aberrant Regulation of CHD-Type Chromatin Remodeling Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wille, Alexandra; Maurer, Verena; Piatti, Paolo; Whittle, Nigel; Rieder, Dietmar; Singewald, Nicolas; Lusser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Successful attenuation of fearful memories is a cognitive process requiring initiation of highly coordinated transcription programs. Chromatin-modulating mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, including acetylation, are key regulators of these processes. However, knowledge concerning the role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ChRFs) being required for successful fear extinction is lacking. Underscoring the potential importance of these factors that alter histone-DNA contacts within nucleosomes are recent genome-wide association studies linking several ChRFs to various human cognitive and psychiatric disorders. To better understand the role of ChRFs in the brain, and since to date little is known about ChRF expression in the brain, we performed a comprehensive survey of expression levels of 24 ATP-dependent remodelers across different brain areas, and we identified several distinct high molecular weight complexes by chromatographic methods. We next aimed to gain novel insight into the potential regulation of ChRFs in different brain regions in association with normal and impaired fear extinction learning. To this end, we established the 129S1/SvImJ (S1) laboratory mouse strain as a model for compromised contextual fear extinction learning that can be rescued by dietary zinc restriction (ZnR). Using this model along with genetically related but fear extinction-competent 129S6/SvEv (S6) mice as controls, we found that impaired fear extinction in S1 was associated with enhanced ventral hippocampal expression of CHD1 and reduced expression of CHD5 that was normalized following successful rescue of impaired fear extinction. Moreover, a select reduction in CHD3 expression was observed in the ventral hippocampus (vHC) following successful rescue of fear extinction in S1 mice. Taken together, these data provide novel insight into the regulation of specific ChRFs following an impaired cognitive process and its rescue, and they suggest that

  14. Impaired Contextual Fear Extinction Learning is Associated with Aberrant Regulation of CHD-Type Chromatin Remodeling Factors.

    PubMed

    Wille, Alexandra; Maurer, Verena; Piatti, Paolo; Whittle, Nigel; Rieder, Dietmar; Singewald, Nicolas; Lusser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Successful attenuation of fearful memories is a cognitive process requiring initiation of highly coordinated transcription programs. Chromatin-modulating mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, including acetylation, are key regulators of these processes. However, knowledge concerning the role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ChRFs) being required for successful fear extinction is lacking. Underscoring the potential importance of these factors that alter histone-DNA contacts within nucleosomes are recent genome-wide association studies linking several ChRFs to various human cognitive and psychiatric disorders. To better understand the role of ChRFs in the brain, and since to date little is known about ChRF expression in the brain, we performed a comprehensive survey of expression levels of 24 ATP-dependent remodelers across different brain areas, and we identified several distinct high molecular weight complexes by chromatographic methods. We next aimed to gain novel insight into the potential regulation of ChRFs in different brain regions in association with normal and impaired fear extinction learning. To this end, we established the 129S1/SvImJ (S1) laboratory mouse strain as a model for compromised contextual fear extinction learning that can be rescued by dietary zinc restriction (ZnR). Using this model along with genetically related but fear extinction-competent 129S6/SvEv (S6) mice as controls, we found that impaired fear extinction in S1 was associated with enhanced ventral hippocampal expression of CHD1 and reduced expression of CHD5 that was normalized following successful rescue of impaired fear extinction. Moreover, a select reduction in CHD3 expression was observed in the ventral hippocampus (vHC) following successful rescue of fear extinction in S1 mice. Taken together, these data provide novel insight into the regulation of specific ChRFs following an impaired cognitive process and its rescue, and they suggest that

  15. Ligand-Bound GeneSwitch Causes Developmental Aberrations in Drosophila that Are Alleviated by the Alternative Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Andjelković, Ana; Kemppainen, Kia K.; Jacobs, Howard T.

    2016-01-01

    Culture of Drosophila expressing the steroid-dependent GeneSwitch transcriptional activator under the control of the ubiquitous α-tubulin promoter was found to produce extensive pupal lethality, as well as a range of dysmorphic adult phenotypes, in the presence of high concentrations of the inducing drug RU486. Prominent among these was cleft thorax, seen previously in flies bearing mutant alleles of the nuclear receptor Ultraspiracle and many other mutants, as well as notched wings, leg malformations, and bristle abnormalities. Neither the α-tubulin-GeneSwitch driver nor the inducing drug on their own produced any of these effects. A second GeneSwitch driver, under the control of the daughterless promoter, which gave much lower and more tissue-restricted transgene expression, exhibited only mild bristle abnormalities in the presence of high levels of RU486. Coexpression of the alternative oxidase (AOX) from Ciona intestinalis produced a substantial shift in the developmental outcome toward a wild-type phenotype, which was dependent on the AOX expression level. Neither an enzymatically inactivated variant of AOX, nor GFP, or the alternative NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1 from yeast gave any such rescue. Users of the GeneSwitch system should be aware of the potential confounding effects of its application in developmental studies. PMID:27412986

  16. Identification of genes directly regulated by the oncogene ZNF217using ChIP-chip assays.

    SciTech Connect

    Krig, S.R.; Jin, V.X.; Bieda, M.C.; O'geen, H.; Yaswen, P.; Green, R.; Farnham, P.J.

    2007-01-26

    It has been proposed that ZNF217, which is amplified at 20q13 in various tumors, plays a key role during neoplastic transformation. ZNF217 has been purified in complexes that contain repressor proteins such as CtBP2, suggesting that it acts as a transcriptional repressor. However, the function of ZNF217 has not been well characterized due to a lack of known target genes. Using a global chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip approach, we identified thousands of ZNF217 binding sites in three tumor cell lines (MCF7, SW480, and Ntera2). Further analysis of ZNF217 in Ntera2 cells showed that many promoters are bound by ZNF217 and CtBP2 and that a subset of these promoters are activated upon removal of ZNF217. Thus, our in vivo studies corroborate the in vitro biochemical analyses of ZNF217-containing complexes and support the hypothesis that ZNF217 functions as a transcriptional repressor. Gene ontology analysis showed that ZNF217 targets in Ntera2 cells are involved in organ development, suggesting that one function of ZNF217 may be to repress differentiation. Accordingly we show that differentiation of Ntera2 cells with retinoic acid led to down-regulation of ZNF217. Our identification of thousands of ZNF217 target genes will enable further studies of the consequences of aberrant expression of ZNF217 during neoplastic transformation.

  17. Aberrant gene methylation in non-neoplastic mucosa as a predictive marker of ulcerative colitis-associated CRC

    PubMed Central

    Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Erroi, Francesca; Kotsafti, Andromachi; Basato, Silvia; Brun, Paola; D'Incà, Renata; Rugge, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Promoter hypermethylation plays a major role in cancer through transcriptional silencing of critical genes. The aim of our study is to evaluate the methylation status of these genes in the colonic mucosa without dysplasia or adenocarcinoma at the different steps of sporadic and UC-related carcinogenesis and to investigate the possible role of genomic methylation as a marker of CRC. Results The expression of Dnmts 1 and 3A was significantly increased in UC-related carcinogenesis compared to non inflammatory colorectal carcinogenesis. In non-neoplastic colonic mucosa, the number of methylated genes resulted significantly higher in patients with CRC and in those with UC-related CRC compared to the HC and UC patients and patients with dysplastic lesion of the colon. The number of methylated genes in non-neoplastic colonic mucosa predicted the presence of CRC with good accuracy either in non inflammatory and inflammatory related CRC. Methods Colonic mucosal samples were collected from healthy subjects (HC) (n = 30) and from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 29), UC and dysplasia (n = 14), UC and cancer (n = 10), dysplastic adenoma (n = 14), and colon adenocarcinoma (n = 10). DNA methyltransferases-1, -3a, -3b, mRNA expression were quantified by real time qRT-PCR. The methylation status of CDH13, APC, MLH1, MGMT1 and RUNX3 gene promoters was assessed by methylation-specific PCR. Conclusions Methylation status of APC, CDH13, MGMT, MLH1 and RUNX3 in the non-neoplastic mucosa may be used as a marker of CRC: these preliminary results could allow for the adjustment of a patient's surveillance interval and to select UC patients who should undergo intensive surveillance. PMID:26862732

  18. Pancreatic regeneration: basic research and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Okita, Kenji; Mizuguchi, Toru; Shigenori, Ota; Ishii, Masayuki; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Ueki, Tomomi; Meguro, Makoto; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Tanimizu, Naoki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Kojima, Takashi; Mitaka, Toshihiro; Sato, Noriyuki; Sawada, Norimasa; Hirata, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic regeneration (PR) is an interesting phenomenon that could provide clues as to how the control of diabetes mellitus might be achieved. Due to the different regenerative abilities of the pancreas and liver, the molecular mechanism responsible for PR is largely unknown. In this review, we describe five representative murine models of PR and thirteen humoral mitogens that stimulate β-cell proliferation. We also describe pancreatic ontogenesis, including the molecular transcriptional differences between α-cells and β-cells. Furthermore, we review 14 murine models which carry defects in genes related to key transcription factors for pancreatic ontogenesis to gain further insight into pancreatic development. PMID:26148809

  19. Distance Matters: The Impact of Gene Proximity in Bacterial Gene Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, Otto; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    Following recent discoveries of colocalization of downstream-regulating genes in living cells, the impact of the spatial distance between such genes on the kinetics of gene product formation is increasingly recognized. We here show from analytical and numerical analysis that the distance between a transcription factor (TF) gene and its target gene drastically affects the speed and reliability of transcriptional regulation in bacterial cells. For an explicit model system, we develop a general theory for the interactions between a TF and a transcription unit. The observed variations in regulation efficiency are linked to the magnitude of the variation of the TF concentration peaks as a function of the binding site distance from the signal source. Our results support the role of rapid binding site search for gene colocalization and emphasize the role of local concentration differences.

  20. Ezrin Inhibition Up-regulates Stress Response Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Haydar; Bulut, Gülay; Han, Jenny; Graham, Garrett T; Minas, Tsion Z; Conn, Erin J; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Pauly, Gary T; Hayran, Mutlu; Li, Xin; Özdemirli, Metin; Ayhan, Ayşe; Rudek, Michelle A; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Üren, Aykut

    2016-06-17

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family of proteins that links cortical cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. High expression of ezrin correlates with poor prognosis and metastasis in osteosarcoma. In this study, to uncover specific cellular responses evoked by ezrin inhibition that can be used as a specific pharmacodynamic marker(s), we profiled global gene expression in osteosarcoma cells after treatment with small molecule ezrin inhibitors, NSC305787 and NSC668394. We identified and validated several up-regulated integrated stress response genes including PTGS2, ATF3, DDIT3, DDIT4, TRIB3, and ATF4 as novel ezrin-regulated transcripts. Analysis of transcriptional response in skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NSC305787-treated mice compared with a control group revealed that, among those genes, the stress gene DDIT4/REDD1 may be used as a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker of ezrin inhibitor compound activity. In addition, we validated the anti-metastatic effects of NSC305787 in reducing the incidence of lung metastasis in a genetically engineered mouse model of osteosarcoma and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of NSC305787 and NSC668394 in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cytoplasmic ezrin, previously considered a dormant and inactive protein, has important functions in regulating gene expression that may result in down-regulation of stress response genes. PMID:27137931

  1. Endometrial CXCL13 Expression Is Cycle Regulated in Humans and Aberrantly Expressed in Humans and Rhesus Macaques With Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Franasiak, Jason M.; Burns, Katherine A.; Slayden, Ov; Yuan, Lingwen; Fritz, Marc A.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Lessey, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    C-X-C ligand 13 (CXCL13), a regulator of mucosal immunity, is secreted by human endometrial epithelium and may be involved in embryo implantation. However, cyclic expression of human endometrial CXCL13 in health and disease is not well studied. This study examines cycle stage-specific endometrial CXCL13 expression in normal humans when compared to those with biopsy-confirmed, stage 1 to 4 endometriosis using real-time reverse transcriptase, real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Eutopic endometrial CXCL13 expression was also compared between normal, control Rhesus macaques, and macaques with advanced endometriosis. In healthy women, CXLC13 messenger RNA expression was minimal in the proliferative phase and maximal in the secretory phase. However, in the presence of endometriosis, proliferative-phase endometrial expression markedly increased in both humans and rhesus subjects (P < .05). The cross-species and cross-stage concordance suggests a pathophysiologic role for CXCL13 in endometriosis and its use as a biomarker for disease. PMID:25031316

  2. Epigenetic regulation of transposable element derived human gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Huda, Ahsan; Bowen, Nathan J; Conley, Andrew B; Jordan, I King

    2011-04-01

    It was previously thought that epigenetic histone modifications of mammalian transposable elements (TEs) serve primarily to defend the genome against deleterious effects associated with their activity. However, we recently showed that, genome-wide, human TEs can also be epigenetically modified in a manner consistent with their ability to regulate host genes. Here, we explore the ability of TE sequences to epigenetically regulate individual human genes by focusing on the histone modifications of promoter sequences derived from TEs. We found 1520 human genes that initiate transcription from within TE-derived promoter sequences. We evaluated the distributions of eight histone modifications across these TE-promoters, within and between the GM12878 and K562 cell lines, and related their modification status with the cell-type specific expression patterns of the genes that they regulate. TE-derived promoters are significantly enriched for active histone modifications, and depleted for repressive modifications, relative to the genomic background. Active histone modifications of TE-promoters peak at transcription start sites and are positively correlated with increasing expression within cell lines. Furthermore, differential modification of TE-derived promoters between cell lines is significantly correlated with differential gene expression. LTR-retrotransposon derived promoters in particular play a prominent role in mediating cell-type specific gene regulation, and a number of these LTR-promoter genes are implicated in lineage-specific cellular functions. The regulation of human genes mediated by histone modifications targeted to TE-derived promoters is consistent with the ability of TEs to contribute to the epigenomic landscape in a way that provides functional utility to the host genome. PMID:21215797

  3. Cigarette Smoking, BPDE-DNA Adducts, and Aberrant Promoter Methylations of Tumor Suppressor Genes (TSGs) in NSCLC from Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yongtang; Xu, Peiwei; Liu, Xinneng; Zhang, Chunye; Tan, Cong; Chen, Chunmei; Sun, Xiaoyu; Xu, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is related to the genetic and epigenetic factors. The goal of this study was to determine association of cigarette smoking and BPDE-DNA adducts with promoter methylations of several genes in NSCLC. Methylation of the promoters of p16, RARβ, DAPK, MGMT, and TIMP-3 genes of tumor tissues from 199 lung cancer patients was analyzed with methylation-specific PCR (MSP), and BPDE-DNA adduct level in lung cancer tissue was obtained by ELISA. Level of BPDE-DNA adduct increased significantly in males, aged people (over 60 years), and smokers; however, no significant difference was found while comparing the BPDE-DNA adduct levels among different tumor types, locations, and stages. Cigarette smoking was also associated with increased BPDE-DNA adducts level (OR = 2.43, p > .05) and increased methylation level in at least 1 gene (OR = 5.22, p < .01), both in dose-response manner. Similarly, cigarette smoking also significantly increase the risk of p16 or DAPK methylation (OR = 3.02, p < .05 for p16, and 3.66, p < .05 for DAPK). The highest risk of BPDE-DNA adducts was detected among individuals with cigarette smoking for more than 40 pack-years (OR = 4.21, p < .01). Furthermore, the present study did not show that BPDE-DNA adducts are significantly associated with abnormal TSGs methylations in NSCLC, including SCC and AdO, respectively. Conclusively, cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the increase of BPDE-DNA adduct level, promoter hypermethylation of p16 and DAPK genes, while BPDE-DNA adduct was not significantly related to abnormal promoter hypermethylation in TSGs, suggesting that BPDE-DNA adducts and TSGs methylations play independent roles in NSCLC. PMID:27042875

  4. Motor-skill learning-associated gene regulation in the striatum: effects of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Willuhn, Ingo; Steiner, Heinz

    2006-12-01

    Psychostimulant-induced molecular changes in cortico-basal ganglia-cortical circuits play a critical role in addiction and dependence. These changes include alterations in gene regulation particularly in projection neurons of the sensorimotor striatum. We previously showed that cocaine-induced gene regulation in such neurons is dependent on the behavior performed during drug action. Rats trained on a running wheel under the influence of cocaine for 4 days subsequently displayed greater c-fos induction by cocaine than untrained controls. This effect was selective for the sensorimotor striatum, which is known to mediate forms of motor learning. In the present study, we investigated whether this enhanced cellular responsiveness was associated with learning of wheel running or with prolonged running (exercising), by assessing c-fos inducibility after 1, 2, or 8 days of training. Wheel training was performed after injection of cocaine (25 mg/kg) or vehicle, and c-fos induction by a cocaine challenge was measured 24 h later. Rats that trained under cocaine (but not vehicle) showed a greater c-fos response in the striatum compared to locked-wheel controls. This effect was present after the 1-day training, peaked after 2 days, and dissipated by 8 days of training. Similar effects were found for substance P, but not enkephalin, expression. These changes in striatal gene regulation paralleled improvement in wheel running, which was facilitated by cocaine. Thus, these training-induced molecular changes do not appear to represent exercising effects, but may reflect motor learning-associated neuronal changes altered by cocaine. Such cocaine effects may contribute to aberrant motor learning implicated in psychostimulant addiction. PMID:16395306

  5. Social Regulation of Gene Expression in Threespine Sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Anna K.; Peichel, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying genes that are differentially expressed in response to social interactions is informative for understanding the molecular basis of social behavior. To address this question, we described changes in gene expression as a result of differences in the extent of social interactions. We housed threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) females in either group conditions or individually for one week, then measured levels of gene expression in three brain regions using RNA-sequencing. We found that numerous genes in the hindbrain/cerebellum had altered expression in response to group or individual housing. However, relatively few genes were differentially expressed in either the diencephalon or telencephalon. The list of genes upregulated in fish from social groups included many genes related to neural development and cell adhesion as well as genes with functions in sensory signaling, stress, and social and reproductive behavior. The list of genes expressed at higher levels in individually-housed fish included several genes previously identified as regulated by social interactions in other animals. The identified genes are interesting targets for future research on the molecular mechanisms of normal social interactions. PMID:26367311

  6. All-optical regulation of gene expression in targeted cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yisen; He, Hao; Li, Shiyang; Liu, Dayong; Lan, Bei; Hu, Minglie; Cao, Youjia; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-06-01

    Controllable gene expression is always a challenge and of great significance to biomedical research and clinical applications. Recently, various approaches based on extra-engineered light-sensitive proteins have been developed to provide optogenetic actuators for gene expression. Complicated biomedical techniques including exogenous genes engineering, transfection, and material delivery are needed. Here we present an all-optical method to regulate gene expression in targeted cells. Intrinsic or exogenous genes can be activated by a Ca2+-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) driven by a short flash of femtosecond-laser irradiation. When applied to mesenchymal stem cells, expression of a differentiation regulator Osterix can be activated by this method to potentially induce differentiation of them. A laser-induced ``Ca2+-comb'' (LiCCo) by multi-time laser exposure is further developed to enhance gene expression efficiency. This noninvasive method hence provides an encouraging advance of gene expression regulation, with promising potential of applying in cell biology and stem-cell science.

  7. Epigenetics, cellular memory and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Henikoff, Steven; Greally, John M

    2016-07-25

    The field described as 'epigenetics' has captured the imagination of scientists and the lay public. Advances in our understanding of chromatin and gene regulatory mechanisms have had impact on drug development, fueling excitement in the lay public about the prospects of applying this knowledge to address health issues. However, when describing these scientific advances as 'epigenetic', we encounter the problem that this term means different things to different people, starting within the scientific community and amplified in the popular press. To help researchers understand some of the misconceptions in the field and to communicate the science accurately to each other and the lay audience, here we review the basis for many of the assumptions made about what are currently referred to as epigenetic processes. PMID:27458904

  8. B-RAF mutation and accumulated gene methylation in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) and cancer in SSA/P

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, A; Okamoto, K; Fujino, Y; Nakagawa, T; Muguruma, N; Sannomiya, K; Mitsui, Y; Takaoka, T; Kitamura, S; Miyamoto, H; Okahisa, T; Fujimori, T; Imoto, I; Takayama, T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) are a putative precursor of colon cancer with microsatellite instability (MSI). However, the developmental mechanism of SSA/P remains unknown. We performed genetic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), SSA/P, and cancer in SSA/P specimens to show a close association between ACF and the SSA/P-cancer sequence. We also evaluated the prevalence and number of ACF in SSA/P patients. Methods: ACF in the right-side colon were observed in 36 patients with SSA/Ps alone, 2 with cancers in SSA/P, and 20 normal subjects and biopsied under magnifying endoscopy. B-RAF mutation and MSI were analysed by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR–SSCP, respectively, in 15 ACF, 20 SSA/P, and 2 cancer specimens. DNA methylation array analysis of seven ACF, seven SSA/P, and two cancer in SSA/P specimens was performed using the microarray-based integrated analysis of methylation by isochizomers (MIAMI) method. Results: B-RAF mutations were frequently detected in ACF, SSA/P, and cancer in SSA/P tissues. The number of methylated genes increased significantly in the order of ACFgenes in SSA/P were PQLC1, HDHD3, RASL10B, FLI1, GJA3, and SLC26A2. Some of these genes were methylated in ACF, whereas all genes were methylated in cancers. Immunohistochemistry revealed their silenced expression. Microsatellite instability and MLH1 methylation were observed only in cancer. The prevalence and number of ACF were significantly higher in SSA/P patients than in normal subjects. A significant correlation was seen between the numbers of SSA/P and ACF in SSA/P patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that ACF are precursor lesions of the SSA/P-cancer sequence in patients with SSA/P, where ACF arise by B-RAF mutation and methylation of some of the six identified genes and develop into SSA/Ps through accumulated methylation of these genes. PMID

  9. Methylation of microRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development in andromonoecious poplar

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuepeng; Tian, Min; Ci, Dong; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed sex-specific DNA methylation and expression of candidate genes in bisexual flowers of andromonoecious poplar, but the regulatory relationship between methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) remains unclear. To investigate whether the methylation of miRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development, the methylome, microRNA, and transcriptome were examined in female and male flowers of andromonoecious poplar. 27 636 methylated coding genes and 113 methylated miRNA genes were identified. In the coding genes, 64.5% of the methylated reads mapped to the gene body region; by contrast, 60.7% of methylated reads in miRNA genes mainly mapped in the 5′ and 3′ flanking regions. CHH methylation showed the highest methylation levels and CHG showed the lowest methylation levels. Correlation analysis showed a significant, negative, strand-specific correlation of methylation and miRNA gene expression (r=0.79, P <0.05). The methylated miRNA genes included eight long miRNAs (lmiRNAs) of 24 nucleotides and 11 miRNAs related to flower development. miRNA172b might play an important role in the regulation of bisexual flower development-related gene expression in andromonoecious poplar, via modification of methylation. Gynomonoecious, female, and male poplars were used to validate the methylation patterns of the miRNA172b gene, implying that hyper-methylation in andromonoecious and gynomonoecious poplar might function as an important regulator in bisexual flower development. Our data provide a useful resource for the study of flower development in poplar and improve our understanding of the effect of epigenetic regulation on genes other than protein-coding genes. PMID:25617468

  10. Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks Using Conditional Regulation Pattern to Guide Candidate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fei; Gao, Lin; Ye, Yusen; Hu, Yuxuan; He, Ruijie

    2016-01-01

    Combining path consistency (PC) algorithms with conditional mutual information (CMI) are widely used in reconstruction of gene regulatory networks. CMI has many advantages over Pearson correlation coefficient in measuring non-linear dependence to infer gene regulatory networks. It can also discriminate the direct regulations from indirect ones. However, it is still a challenge to select the conditional genes in an optimal way, which affects the performance and computation complexity of the PC algorithm. In this study, we develop a novel conditional mutual information-based algorithm, namely RPNI (Regulation Pattern based Network Inference), to infer gene regulatory networks. For conditional gene selection, we define the co-regulation pattern, indirect-regulation pattern and mixture-regulation pattern as three candidate patterns to guide the selection of candidate genes. To demonstrate the potential of our algorithm, we apply it to gene expression data from DREAM challenge. Experimental results show that RPNI outperforms existing conditional mutual information-based methods in both accuracy and time complexity for different sizes of gene samples. Furthermore, the robustness of our algorithm is demonstrated by noisy interference analysis using different types of noise. PMID:27171286

  11. A genomic screen for long noncoding RNA genes epigenetically silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumegawa, Kohei; Maruyama, Reo; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Ashida, Masami; Kitajima, Hiroshi; Tsuyada, Akihiro; Niinuma, Takeshi; Kai, Masahiro; Yamano, Hiro-o; Sugai, Tamotsu; Tokino, Takashi; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Imai, Kohzoh; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key components in multiple cellular processes, although their physiological and pathological functions are not fully understood. To identify cancer-related lncRNAs, we screened for those that are epigenetically silenced in colorectal cancer (CRC). Through a genome-wide analysis of histone modifications in CRC cells, we found that the transcription start sites (TSSs) of 1,027 lncRNA genes acquired trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) after DNA demethylation. Integrative analysis of chromatin signatures and the DNA methylome revealed that the promoter CpG islands (CGIs) of 66 lncRNA genes contained cancer-specific methylation. By validating the expression and methylation of lncRNA genes in CRC cells, we ultimately identified 20 lncRNAs, including ZNF582-AS1, as targets of epigenetic silencing in CRC. ZNF582-AS1 is frequently methylated in CRC cell lines (87.5%), primary CRCs (77.2%), colorectal adenomas (44.7%) and advanced adenomas (87.8%), suggesting that this methylation is an early event during colorectal tumorigenesis. Methylation of ZNF582-AS1 is associated with poor survival of CRC patients, and ectopic expression of ZNF582-AS1 suppressed colony formation by CRC cells. Our findings offer insight into the association between epigenetic alterations and lncRNA dysregulation in cancer and suggest that ZNF582-AS1 may be a novel tumor-suppressive lncRNA. PMID:27215978

  12. A genomic screen for long noncoding RNA genes epigenetically silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumegawa, Kohei; Maruyama, Reo; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Ashida, Masami; Kitajima, Hiroshi; Tsuyada, Akihiro; Niinuma, Takeshi; Kai, Masahiro; Yamano, Hiro-O; Sugai, Tamotsu; Tokino, Takashi; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Imai, Kohzoh; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key components in multiple cellular processes, although their physiological and pathological functions are not fully understood. To identify cancer-related lncRNAs, we screened for those that are epigenetically silenced in colorectal cancer (CRC). Through a genome-wide analysis of histone modifications in CRC cells, we found that the transcription start sites (TSSs) of 1,027 lncRNA genes acquired trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) after DNA demethylation. Integrative analysis of chromatin signatures and the DNA methylome revealed that the promoter CpG islands (CGIs) of 66 lncRNA genes contained cancer-specific methylation. By validating the expression and methylation of lncRNA genes in CRC cells, we ultimately identified 20 lncRNAs, including ZNF582-AS1, as targets of epigenetic silencing in CRC. ZNF582-AS1 is frequently methylated in CRC cell lines (87.5%), primary CRCs (77.2%), colorectal adenomas (44.7%) and advanced adenomas (87.8%), suggesting that this methylation is an early event during colorectal tumorigenesis. Methylation of ZNF582-AS1 is associated with poor survival of CRC patients, and ectopic expression of ZNF582-AS1 suppressed colony formation by CRC cells. Our findings offer insight into the association between epigenetic alterations and lncRNA dysregulation in cancer and suggest that ZNF582-AS1 may be a novel tumor-suppressive lncRNA. PMID:27215978

  13. Toehold Switches: De-Novo-Designed Regulators of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Green, Alexander A.; Silver, Pamela A.; Collins, James J.; Yin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Efforts to construct synthetic networks in living cells have been hindered by the limited number of regulatory components that provide wide dynamic range and low crosstalk. Here, we report a new class of de-novo-designed prokaryotic riboregulators called toehold switches that activate gene expression in response to cognate RNAs with arbitrary sequences. Toehold switches provide a high level of orthogonality and can be forward-engineered to provide average dynamic range above 400. We show that switches can be integrated into the genome to regulate endogenous genes and use them as sensors that respond to endogenous RNAs. We exploit the orthogonality of toehold switches to regulate 12 genes independently and to construct a genetic circuit that evaluates 4-input AND logic. Toehold switches, with their wide dynamic range, orthogonality, and programmability, represent a versatile and powerful platform for regulation of translation, offering diverse applications in molecular biology, synthetic biology, and biotechnology. PMID:25417166

  14. Let there be light: Regulation of gene expression in plants

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Ezequiel; Godoy Herz, Micaela A; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression regulation relies on a variety of molecular mechanisms affecting different steps of a messenger RNA (mRNA) life: transcription, processing, splicing, alternative splicing, transport, translation, storage and decay. Light induces massive reprogramming of gene expression in plants. Differences in alternative splicing patterns in response to environmental stimuli suggest that alternative splicing plays an important role in plant adaptation to changing life conditions. In a recent publication, our laboratories showed that light regulates alternative splicing of a subset of Arabidopsis genes encoding proteins involved in RNA processing by chloroplast retrograde signals. The light effect on alternative splicing is also observed in roots when the communication with the photosynthetic tissues is not interrupted, suggesting that a signaling molecule travels through the plant. These results point at alternative splicing regulation by retrograde signals as an important mechanism for plant adaptation to their environment. PMID:25590224

  15. Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Reinke, Valerie; Krause, Michael; Okkema, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Protein coding gene sequences are converted to mRNA by the highly regulated process of transcription. The precise temporal and spatial control of transcription for many genes is an essential part of development in metazoans. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional control is essential to understanding cell fate determination during embryogenesis, post-embryonic development, many environmental interactions, and disease-related processes. Studies of transcriptional regulation in C. elegans exploit its genomic simplicity and physical characteristics to define regulatory events with single cell and minute time scale resolution. When combined with the genetics of the system, C. elegans offers a unique and powerful vantage point from which to study how chromatin-associated protein and their modifications interact with transcription factors and their binding sites to yield precise control of gene expression through transcriptional regulation. PMID:23801596

  16. Absence of canonical active chromatin marks in developmentally regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Romero, Marina; Corominas, Montserrat; Guigó, Roderic

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of active and repressive histone modifications is assumed to play a key role in the regulation of gene expression. In contrast to this generally accepted view, we show that transcription of genes temporally regulated during fly and worm development occurs in the absence of canonically active histone modifications. Conversely, strong chromatin marking is related to transcriptional and post-transcriptional stability, an association that we also observe in mammals. Our results support a model in which chromatin marking is associated to stable production of RNA, while unmarked chromatin would permit rapid gene activation and de-activation during development. In this case, regulation by transcription factors would play a comparatively more important regulatory role. PMID:26280901

  17. Multidimensional regulation of gene expression in the C. elegans embryo

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John Isaac; Boyle, Thomas J.; Preston, Elicia; Vafeados, Dionne; Mericle, Barbara; Weisdepp, Peter; Zhao, Zhongying; Bao, Zhirong; Boeck, Max; Waterston, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    How cells adopt different expression patterns is a fundamental question of developmental biology. We quantitatively measured reporter expression of 127 genes, primarily transcription factors, in every cell and with high temporal resolution in C. elegans embryos. Embryonic cells are highly distinct in their gene expression; expression of the 127 genes studied here can distinguish nearly all pairs of cells, even between cells of the same tissue type. We observed recurrent lineage-regulated expression patterns for many genes in diverse contexts. These patterns are regulated in part by the TCF-LEF transcription factor POP-1. Other genes' reporters exhibited patterns correlated with tissue, position, and left–right asymmetry. Sequential patterns both within tissues and series of sublineages suggest regulatory pathways. Expression patterns often differ between embryonic and larval stages for the same genes, emphasizing the importance of profiling expression in different stages. This work greatly expands the number of genes in each of these categories and provides the first large-scale, digitally based, cellular resolution compendium of gene expression dynamics in live animals. The resulting data sets will be a useful resource for future research. PMID:22508763

  18. Regulation of gene expression by a metabolic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hall, David A; Zhu, Heng; Zhu, Xiaowei; Royce, Thomas; Gerstein, Mark; Snyder, Michael

    2004-10-15

    Gene expression in eukaryotes is normally believed to be controlled by transcriptional regulators that activate genes encoding structural proteins and enzymes. To identify previously unrecognized DNA binding activities, a yeast proteome microarray was screened with DNA probes; Arg5,6, a well-characterized mitochondrial enzyme involved in arginine biosynthesis, was identified. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Arg5,6 is associated with specific nuclear and mitochondrial loci in vivo, and Arg5,6 binds to specific fragments in vitro. Deletion of Arg5,6 causes altered transcript levels of both nuclear and mitochondrial target genes. These results indicate that metabolic enzymes can directly regulate eukaryotic gene expression. PMID:15486299

  19. Chromatin Remodeling Inactivates Activity Genes and Regulates Neural Coding

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kelly K.; Hemberg, Martin; Reddy, Naveen C.; Cho, Ha Y.; Guthrie, Arden N.; Oldenborg, Anna; Heiney, Shane A.; Ohmae, Shogo; Medina, Javier F.; Holy, Timothy E.; Bonni, Azad

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent transcription influences neuronal connectivity, but the roles and mechanisms of inactivation of activity-dependent genes have remained poorly understood. Genome-wide analyses in the mouse cerebellum revealed that the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex deposits the histone variant H2A.z at promoters of activity-dependent genes, thereby triggering their inactivation. Purification of translating mRNAs from synchronously developing granule neurons (Sync-TRAP) showed that conditional knockout of the core NuRD subunit Chd4 impairs inactivation of activity-dependent genes when neurons undergo dendrite pruning. Chd4 knockout or expression of NuRD-regulated activity genes impairs dendrite pruning. Imaging of behaving mice revealed hyperresponsivity of granule neurons to sensorimotor stimuli upon Chd4 knockout. Our findings define an epigenetic mechanism that inactivates activity-dependent transcription and regulates dendrite patterning and sensorimotor encoding in the brain. PMID:27418512

  20. Detection of aberrant methylation of a six-gene panel in serum DNA for diagnosis of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junnan; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Dong; Su, Yonghui; Niu, Ming; Zhong, Zhenbin; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Xianyu; Kang, Wenli; Pang, Da

    2016-01-01

    Detection of breast cancer at an early stage is the key for successful treatment and improvement of outcome. However the limitations of mammography are well recognized, especially for those women with premenopausal breast cancer. Novel approaches to breast cancer screening are necessary, especially in the developing world where mammography is not feasible. In this study, we examined the promoter methylation of six genes (SFN, P16, hMLH1, HOXD13, PCDHGB7 and RASSF1a) in circulating free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from serum. We used a high-throughput DNA methylation assay (MethyLight) to examine serum from 749 cases including breast cancer patients, patients with benign breast diseases and healthy women. The six-gene methylation panel test achieved 79.6% and 82.4% sensitivity with a specificity of 72.4% and 78.1% in diagnosis of breast cancer when compared with healthy and benign disease controls, respectively. Moreover, the methylation panel positive group showed significant differences in the following independent variables: (a) involvement of family history of tumors; (b) a low proliferative index, ki-67; (c) high ratios in luminal subtypes. Additionally the panel also complemented some breast cancer cases which were neglected by mammography or ultrasound. These data suggest that epigenetic markers in serum have potential for diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:26918343

  1. Detection of aberrant methylation of a six-gene panel in serum DNA for diagnosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ming; Yin, Huizi; Li, Junnan; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Dong; Su, Yonghui; Niu, Ming; Zhong, Zhenbin; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Xianyu; Kang, Wenli; Pang, Da

    2016-04-01

    Detection of breast cancer at an early stage is the key for successful treatment and improvement of outcome. However the limitations of mammography are well recognized, especially for those women with premenopausal breast cancer. Novel approaches to breast cancer screening are necessary, especially in the developing world where mammography is not feasible. In this study, we examined the promoter methylation of six genes (SFN, P16, hMLH1, HOXD13, PCDHGB7 and RASSF1a) in circulating free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from serum. We used a high-throughput DNA methylation assay (MethyLight) to examine serum from 749 cases including breast cancer patients, patients with benign breast diseases and healthy women. The six-gene methylation panel test achieved 79.6% and 82.4% sensitivity with a specificity of 72.4% and 78.1% in diagnosis of breast cancer when compared with healthy and benign disease controls, respectively. Moreover, the methylation panel positive group showed significant differences in the following independent variables: (a) involvement of family history of tumors; (b) a low proliferative index, ki-67; (c) high ratios in luminal subtypes. Additionally the panel also complemented some breast cancer cases which were neglected by mammography or ultrasound. These data suggest that epigenetic markers in serum have potential for diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:26918343

  2. Regulation of Salmonella typhimurium ilvYC genes.

    PubMed

    Blazey, D L; Burns, R O

    1984-09-01

    The Salmonella typhimurium LT2 ilvYC genes were studied by fusion of each gene to the Escherichia coli K-12 galK gene. The expression of ilvY and ilvC could then be determined by measurement of the galK-encoded galactokinase enzyme. The promoter for ilvC, pC, was located by this technique to a 0.42-kilobase BglII-EcoRI fragment of the S. typhimurium ilvGEDAYC gene cluster. This sequence was completely sufficient for alpha-acetohydroxyacid-inducible galK expression. The ilvY gene was located within a 1.0-kilobase XhoI-SalI fragment. ilvY gene expression was constitutive with respect to ilv-specific control signals. The ilvY gene was transcribed in the same direction as the other two transcriptional units in the ilvGEDAYC gene cluster, ilvGEDA and ilvC. Transcription of the ilvC gene was completely dependent upon the activity of its own promoter, pC, and independent from transcription of the ilvY gene. The role of the intervening region between ilvY and ilvC in regulation of ilvC expression was explored. PMID:6090400

  3. ULTRAPETALA trxG genes interact with KANADI transcription factor genes to regulate Aradopsis Gynoecium patterning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organ formation relies upon precise patterns of gene expression that are under tight spatial and temporal regulation. Transcription patterns are specified by several cellular processes during development, including chromatin remodeling, but little is known about how chromatin remodeling factors cont...

  4. Cell cycle regulation of the human cdc2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, S

    1992-01-01

    Transcription of the human cdc2 gene is cell cycle regulated and restricted to proliferating cells. Nuclear run-on assays show that cdc2 transcription is high in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle but low in G1. To investigate transcriptional control further, genomic clones of the human cdc2 gene containing 5' flanking sequences were isolated and shown to function as a growth regulated promoter in vivo when fused to a CAT reporter gene. In primary human fibroblasts, the human cdc2 promoter is negatively regulated by arrest of cell growth in a similar fashion to the endogenous gene. This requires specific 5' flanking upstream negative control (UNC) sequences which mediate repression. The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (Rb) specifically represses cdc2 transcription in cycling cells via 136 bp of 5' flanking sequence located between -245 and -109 within the UNC region. E2F binding sites in this region were shown to be essential for optimal repression. A model is proposed where Rb negatively regulates the cdc2 promoter in non-cycling and cycling G1 cells. Images PMID:1582409

  5. Regulation of Gene Expression Patterns in Mosquito Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sourav; Saha, Tusar T; Johnson, Lisa; Zhao, Bo; Ha, Jisu; White, Kevin P; Girke, Thomas; Zou, Zhen; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2015-08-01

    In multicellular organisms, development, growth and reproduction require coordinated expression of numerous functional and regulatory genes. Insects, in addition to being the most speciose animal group with enormous biological and economical significance, represent outstanding model organisms for studying regulation of synchronized gene expression due to their rapid development and reproduction. Disease-transmitting female mosquitoes have adapted uniquely for ingestion and utilization of the huge blood meal required for swift reproductive events to complete egg development within a 72-h period. We investigated the network of regulatory factors mediating sequential gene expression in the fat body, a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver and adipose tissue, of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. Transcriptomic and bioinformatics analyses revealed that ~7500 transcripts are differentially expressed in four sequential waves during the 72-h reproductive period. A combination of RNA-interference gene-silencing and in-vitro organ culture identified the major regulators for each of these waves. Amino acids (AAs) regulate the first wave of gene activation between 3 h and 12 h post-blood meal (PBM). During the second wave, between 12 h and 36 h, most genes are highly upregulated by a synergistic action of AAs, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the Ecdysone-Receptor (EcR). Between 36 h and 48 h, the third wave of gene activation-regulated mainly by HR3-occurs. Juvenile Hormone (JH) and its receptor Methoprene-Tolerant (Met) are major regulators for the final wave between 48 h and 72 h. Each of these key regulators also has repressive effects on one or more gene sets. Our study provides a better understanding of the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms related to temporal coordination of gene expression during reproduction. We have detected the novel function of 20E/EcR responsible for transcriptional repression. This study also reveals the previously

  6. Molecular nutrition: Interaction of nutrients, gene regulations and performances.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kan

    2016-07-01

    Nutrition deals with ingestion of foods, digestion, absorption, transport of nutrients, intermediary metabolism, underlying anabolism and catabolism, and excretion of unabsorbed nutrients and metabolites. In addition, nutrition interacts with gene expressions, which are involved in the regulation of animal performances. Our laboratory is concerned with the improvement of animal productions, such as milks, meats and eggs, with molecular nutritional aspects. The present review shows overviews on the nutritional regulation of metabolism, physiological functions and gene expressions to improve animal production in chickens and dairy cows. PMID:27110862

  7. Regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by nuclear receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Honkakoski, P; Negishi, M

    2000-01-01

    Members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily mediate crucial physiological functions by regulating the synthesis of their target genes. Nuclear receptors are usually activated by ligand binding. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms often catalyse both formation and degradation of these ligands. CYPs also metabolize many exogenous compounds, some of which may act as activators of nuclear receptors and disruptors of endocrine and cellular homoeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings that indicate that major classes of CYP genes are selectively regulated by certain ligand-activated nuclear receptors, thus creating tightly controlled networks. PMID:10749660

  8. Global regulation of Staphylococcus aureus genes by Rot.

    PubMed

    Saïd-Salim, B; Dunman, P M; McAleese, F M; Macapagal, D; Murphy, E; McNamara, P J; Arvidson, S; Foster, T J; Projan, S J; Kreiswirth, B N

    2003-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide array of cell surface and extracellular proteins involved in virulence. Expression of these virulence factors is tightly controlled by numerous regulatory loci, including agr, sar, sigB, sae, and arl, as well as by a number of proteins with homology to SarA. Rot (repressor of toxins), a SarA homologue, was previously identified in a library of transposon-induced mutants created in an agr-negative strain by screening for restored protease and alpha-toxin. To date, all of the SarA homologues have been shown to act as global regulators of virulence genes. Therefore, we investigated the extent of transcriptional regulation of staphylococcal genes by Rot. We compared the transcriptional profile of a rot agr double mutant to that of its agr parental strain by using custom-made Affymetrix GeneChips. Our findings indicate that Rot is not only a repressor but a global regulator with both positive and negative effects on the expression of S. aureus genes. Our data also indicate that Rot and agr have opposing effects on select target genes. These results provide further insight into the role of Rot in the regulatory cascade of S. aureus virulence gene expression. PMID:12511508

  9. Denitrification Genes Regulate Brucella Virulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Splitter, Gary A.; Shapleigh, James P.

    2004-01-01

    Brucella is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis, which is endemic in many parts of the world. Genome sequencing of B. suis and B. melitensis revealed that both are complete denitrifiers. To learn more about the role of denitrification in these animal pathogens, a study of the role of denitrification in the closely related B. neotomae was undertaken. In contrast to B. suis and B. melitensis, it was found that B. neotomae is a partial denitrifier that can reduce nitrate to nitrite but no further. Examination of the B. neotomae genome showed that a deletion in the denitrification gene cluster resulted in complete loss of nirV and the partial deletion of nirK and nnrA. Even though the nor operon is intact, a norC-lacZ promoter fusion was not expressed in B. neotomae. However, the norC-lacZ fusion was expressed in the related denitrifier Agrobacterium tumefaciens, suggesting that the lack of expression in B. neotomae is due to inactivation of NnrA. A narK-lacZ promoter fusion was found to exhibit nitrate-dependent expression consistent with the partial denitrifier phenotype. Complementation of the deleted region in B. neotomae by using nirK, nirV, and nnrA from B. melitensis restored the ability of B. neotomae to reduce nitrite. There was a significant difference in the death of IRF-1−/− mice when infected with B. neotomae containing nirK, nirV, and nnrA and those infected with wild-type B. neotomae. The wild-type strain killed all the infected mice, whereas most of the mice infected with B. neotomae containing nirK, nirV, and nnrA survived. PMID:15342571

  10. Harnessing mobile genetic elements to explore gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Shakes, Leighcraft A; Wolf, Hope M; Norford, Derek C; Grant, Delores J; Chatterjee, Pradeep K

    2014-01-01

    Sequences that regulate expression of a gene in cis but are located at large distances along the DNA from the gene, as found with most developmentally regulated genes in higher vertebrates, are difficult to identify if those sequences are not conserved across species. Mutating suspected gene-regulatory sequences to alter expression then becomes a hit-or-miss affair. The relaxed specificity of transposon insertions offers an opportunity to develop alternate strategies, to scan in an unbiased manner, pieces of chromosomal DNA cloned in BACs for transcription enhancing elements. This article illustrates how insertions of Tn10 with enhancer-traps into BAC DNA containing the gene, and its germ-line expression in zebrafish, have identified distal regulatory elements functionally. Transposition of Tn10 first introduces the enhancer-trap with a loxP site randomly into BAC DNA. Cre-recombination between the inserted loxP and the loxP endogenous to a BAC-end positions the enhancer-trap to the newly created truncated end of BAC DNA. The procedure generates a library of integration-ready enhancer-trap BACs with progressive truncations from an end in a single experiment. Individual enhancer-trap BACs from the library can be evaluated functionally in zebrafish or mice. Furthermore, the ability to readily alter sequences in a small transposon plasmid containing a regulatory domain of the gene allows re-introduction of altered parts of a BAC back into itself. It serves as a useful strategy to functionally dissect multiple discontinuous regulatory domains of a gene quickly. These methodologies have been successfully used in identifying novel regulatory domains of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (appb) gene in zebrafish, and provided important clues for regulation of the gene in humans. PMID:25054085

  11. A Missense Change in the ATG4D Gene Links Aberrant Autophagy to a Neurodegenerative Vacuolar Storage Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Syrjä, Pernilla; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Chandrasekar, Gayathri; Jokinen, Tarja S.; Seppälä, Eija H.; Becker, Doreen; Drögemüller, Michaela; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Drögemüller, Cord; Lang, Johann; Steffen, Frank; Rohdin, Cecilia; Jäderlund, Karin H.; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Hahn, Kerstin; Wohlsein, Peter; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Henke, Diana; Oevermann, Anna; Kere, Juha; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

    2015-01-01

    Inherited neurodegenerative disorders are debilitating diseases that occur across different species. We have performed clinical, pathological and genetic studies to characterize a novel canine neurodegenerative disease present in the Lagotto Romagnolo dog breed. Affected dogs suffer from progressive cerebellar ataxia, sometimes accompanied by episodic nystagmus and behavioral changes. Histological examination revealed unique pathological changes, including profound neuronal cytoplasmic vacuolization in the nervous system, as well as spheroid formation and cytoplasmic aggregation of vacuoles in secretory epithelial tissues and mesenchymal cells. Genetic analyses uncovered a missense change, c.1288G>A; p.A430T, in the autophagy-related ATG4D gene on canine chromosome 20 with a highly significant disease association (p = 3.8 x 10-136) in a cohort of more than 2300 Lagotto Romagnolo dogs. ATG4D encodes a poorly characterized cysteine protease belonging to the macroautophagy pathway. Accordingly, our histological analyses indicated altered autophagic flux in affected tissues. The knockdown of the zebrafish homologue atg4da resulted in a widespread developmental disturbance and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. Our study describes a previously unknown canine neurological disease with particular pathological features and implicates the ATG4D protein as an important autophagy mediator in neuronal homeostasis. The canine phenotype serves as a model to delineate the disease-causing pathological mechanism(s) and ATG4D function, and can also be used to explore treatment options. Furthermore, our results reveal a novel candidate gene for human neurodegeneration and enable the development of a genetic test for veterinary diagnostic and breeding purposes. PMID:25875846

  12. A missense change in the ATG4D gene links aberrant autophagy to a neurodegenerative vacuolar storage disease.

    PubMed

    Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Syrjä, Pernilla; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Chandrasekar, Gayathri; Jokinen, Tarja S; Seppälä, Eija H; Becker, Doreen; Drögemüller, Michaela; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Drögemüller, Cord; Lang, Johann; Steffen, Frank; Rohdin, Cecilia; Jäderlund, Karin H; Lappalainen, Anu K; Hahn, Kerstin; Wohlsein, Peter; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Henke, Diana; Oevermann, Anna; Kere, Juha; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

    2015-04-01

    Inherited neurodegenerative disorders are debilitating diseases that occur across different species. We have performed clinical, pathological and genetic studies to characterize a novel canine neurodegenerative disease present in the Lagotto Romagnolo dog breed. Affected dogs suffer from progressive cerebellar ataxia, sometimes accompanied by episodic nystagmus and behavioral changes. Histological examination revealed unique pathological changes, including profound neuronal cytoplasmic vacuolization in the nervous system, as well as spheroid formation and cytoplasmic aggregation of vacuoles in secretory epithelial tissues and mesenchymal cells. Genetic analyses uncovered a missense change, c.1288G>A; p.A430T, in the autophagy-related ATG4D gene on canine chromosome 20 with a highly significant disease association (p = 3.8 x 10-136) in a cohort of more than 2300 Lagotto Romagnolo dogs. ATG4D encodes a poorly characterized cysteine protease belonging to the macroautophagy pathway. Accordingly, our histological analyses indicated altered autophagic flux in affected tissues. The knockdown of the zebrafish homologue atg4da resulted in a widespread developmental disturbance and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. Our study describes a previously unknown canine neurological disease with particular pathological features and implicates the ATG4D protein as an important autophagy mediator in neuronal homeostasis. The canine phenotype serves as a model to delineate the disease-causing pathological mechanism(s) and ATG4D function, and can also be used to explore treatment options. Furthermore, our results reveal a novel candidate gene for human neurodegeneration and enable the development of a genetic test for veterinary diagnostic and breeding purposes. PMID:25875846

  13. Regulation of HDL genes: transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational.

    PubMed

    Kardassis, Dimitris; Gafencu, Anca; Zannis, Vassilis I; Davalos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    HDL regulation is exerted at multiple levels including regulation at the level of transcription initiation by transcription factors and signal transduction cascades; regulation at the posttranscriptional level by microRNAs and other noncoding RNAs which bind to the coding or noncoding regions of HDL genes regulating mRNA stability and translation; as well as regulation at the posttranslational level by protein modifications, intracellular trafficking, and degradation. The above mechanisms have drastic effects on several HDL-mediated processes including HDL biogenesis, remodeling, cholesterol efflux and uptake, as well as atheroprotective functions on the cells of the arterial wall. The emphasis is on mechanisms that operate in physiologically relevant tissues such as the liver (which accounts for 80% of the total HDL-C levels in the plasma), the macrophages, the adrenals, and the endothelium. Transcription factors that have a significant impact on HDL regulation such as hormone nuclear receptors and hepatocyte nuclear factors are extensively discussed both in terms of gene promoter recognition and regulation but also in terms of their impact on plasma HDL levels as was revealed by knockout studies. Understanding the different modes of regulation of this complex lipoprotein may provide useful insights for the development of novel HDL-raising therapies that could be used to fight against atherosclerosis which is the underlying cause of coronary heart disease. PMID:25522987

  14. A genome landscape of SRSF3-regulated splicing events and gene expression in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Jia, Rong; Yang, Yanqin; Zhu, Jun; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2016-02-29

    Alternative RNA splicing is an essential process to yield proteomic diversity in eukaryotic cells, and aberrant splicing is often associated with numerous human diseases and cancers. We recently described serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3 or SRp20) being a proto-oncogene. However, the SRSF3-regulated splicing events responsible for its oncogenic activities remain largely unknown. By global profiling of the SRSF3-regulated splicing events in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells, we found that SRSF3 regulates the expression of 60 genes including ERRFI1, ANXA1 and TGFB2, and 182 splicing events in 164 genes, including EP300, PUS3, CLINT1, PKP4, KIF23, CHK1, SMC2, CKLF, MAP4, MBNL1, MELK, DDX5, PABPC1, MAP4K4, Sp1 and SRSF1, which are primarily associated with cell proliferation or cell cycle. Two SRSF3-binding motifs, CCAGC(G)C and A(G)CAGCA, are enriched to the alternative exons. An SRSF3-binding site in the EP300 exon 14 is essential for exon 14 inclusion. We found that the expression of SRSF1 and SRSF3 are mutually dependent and coexpressed in normal and tumor tissues/cells. SRSF3 also significantly regulates the expression of at least 20 miRNAs, including a subset of oncogenic or tumor suppressive miRNAs. These data indicate that SRSF3 affects a global change of gene expression to maintain cell homeostasis. PMID:26704980

  15. A genome landscape of SRSF3-regulated splicing events and gene expression in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells

    PubMed Central

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Jia, Rong; Yang, Yanqin; Zhu, Jun; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Alternative RNA splicing is an essential process to yield proteomic diversity in eukaryotic cells, and aberrant splicing is often associated with numerous human diseases and cancers. We recently described serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3 or SRp20) being a proto-oncogene. However, the SRSF3-regulated splicing events responsible for its oncogenic activities remain largely unknown. By global profiling of the SRSF3-regulated splicing events in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells, we found that SRSF3 regulates the expression of 60 genes including ERRFI1, ANXA1 and TGFB2, and 182 splicing events in 164 genes, including EP300, PUS3, CLINT1, PKP4, KIF23, CHK1, SMC2, CKLF, MAP4, MBNL1, MELK, DDX5, PABPC1, MAP4K4, Sp1 and SRSF1, which are primarily associated with cell proliferation or cell cycle. Two SRSF3-binding motifs, CCAGC(G)C and A(G)CAGCA, are enriched to the alternative exons. An SRSF3-binding site in the EP300 exon 14 is essential for exon 14 inclusion. We found that the expression of SRSF1 and SRSF3 are mutually dependent and coexpressed in normal and tumor tissues/cells. SRSF3 also significantly regulates the expression of at least 20 miRNAs, including a subset of oncogenic or tumor suppressive miRNAs. These data indicate that SRSF3 affects a global change of gene expression to maintain cell homeostasis. PMID:26704980

  16. Regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Nancy M.; Majumder, Parimal; Boss, Jeremy M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) genes are regulated at the level of transcription. Recent studies have shown that chromatin modification is critical for efficient transcription of these genes, and a number of chromatin modifying complexes recruited to MHC-II genes have been described. The MHC-II genes are segregated from each other by a series of chromatin elements, termed MHC-II insulators. Interactions between MHC-insulators and the promoters of MHC-II genes are mediated by the insulator factor CCCTC-binding protein and are critical for efficient expression. This regulatory mechanism provides a novel view of how the entire MHC-II locus is assembled architecturally and can be coordinately controlled. PMID:20970972

  17. Regulated Expression of Adenoviral Vectors-Based Gene Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, James F.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Muhammad, A. K. M.; Kroeger, Kurt; Mondkar, Sonali; Liu, Chunyan; Bondale, Niyati; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Regulatable promoter systems allow gene expression to be tightly controlled in vivo. This is highly desirable for the development of safe, efficacious adenoviral vectors that can be used to treat human diseases in the clinic. Ideally, regulatable cassettes should have minimal gene expression in the “OFF” state, and expression should quickly reach therapeutic levels in the “ON” state. In addition, the components of regulatable cassettes should be non-toxic at physiological concentrations and should not be immunogenic, especially when treating chronic illness that requires long-lasting gene expression. In this chapter, we will describe in detail protocols to develop and validate first generation (Ad) and high-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors that express therapeutic genes under the control of the TetON regulatable system. Our laboratory has successfully used these protocols to regulate the expression of marker genes, immune stimulatory genes, and toxins for cancer gene therapeutics, i.e., glioma that is a deadly form of brain cancer. We have shown that this third generation TetON regulatable system, incorporating a doxycycline (DOX)-sensitive rtTA2S-M2 inducer and tTSKid silencer, is non-toxic, relatively non-immunogenic, and can tightly regulate reporter transgene expression downstream of a TRE promoter from adenoviral vectors in vitro and also in vivo. PMID:18470649

  18. Querying Co-regulated Genes on Diverse Gene Expression Datasets Via Biclustering.

    PubMed

    Deveci, Mehmet; Küçüktunç, Onur; Eren, Kemal; Bozdağ, Doruk; Kaya, Kamer; Çatalyürek, Ümit V

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development and increasing popularity of gene expression microarrays have resulted in a number of studies on the discovery of co-regulated genes. One important way of discovering such co-regulations is the query-based search since gene co-expressions may indicate a shared role in a biological process. Although there exist promising query-driven search methods adapting clustering, they fail to capture many genes that function in the same biological pathway because microarray datasets are fraught with spurious samples or samples of diverse origin, or the pathways might be regulated under only a subset of samples. On the other hand, a class of clustering algorithms known as biclustering algorithms which simultaneously cluster both the items and their features are useful while analyzing gene expression data, or any data in which items are related in only a subset of their samples. This means that genes need not be related in all samples to be clustered together. Because many genes only interact under specific circumstances, biclustering may recover the relationships that traditional clustering algorithms can easily miss. In this chapter, we briefly summarize the literature using biclustering for querying co-regulated genes. Then we present a novel biclustering approach and evaluate its performance by a thorough experimental analysis. PMID:26626937

  19. Gravity-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sederoff, Heike; Brown, Christopher S.; Heber, Steffen; Kajla, Jyoti D.; Kumar, Sandeep; Lomax, Terri L.; Wheeler, Benjamin; Yalamanchili, Roopa

    Plant growth and development is regulated by changes in environmental signals. Plants sense environmental changes and respond to them by modifying gene expression programs to ad-just cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. Functional expression of genes comprises many different processes including transcription, translation, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications, as well as the degradation of RNA and proteins. Recently, it was discovered that small RNAs (sRNA, 18-24 nucleotides long), which are heritable and systemic, are key elements in regulating gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic changes. Sev-eral different classes of sRNAs have been identified that are part of a non-cell autonomous and phloem-mobile network of regulators affecting transcript stability, translational kinetics, and DNA methylation patterns responsible for heritable transcriptional silencing (epigenetics). Our research has focused on gene expression changes in response to gravistimulation of Arabidopsis roots. Using high-throughput technologies including microarrays and 454 sequencing, we iden-tified rapid changes in transcript abundance of genes as well as differential expression of small RNA in Arabidopsis root apices after minutes of reorientation. Some of the differentially regu-lated transcripts are encoded by genes that are important for the bending response. Functional mutants of those genes respond faster to reorientation than the respective wild type plants, indicating that these proteins are repressors of differential cell elongation. We compared the gravity responsive sRNAs to the changes in transcript abundances of their putative targets and identified several potential miRNA: target pairs. Currently, we are using mutant and transgenic Arabidopsis plants to characterize the function of those miRNAs and their putative targets in gravitropic and phototropic responses in Arabidopsis.

  20. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  1. Circadian Gene Clock Regulates Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Noriko; Nakamura, Yuki; Aoki, Rui; Ishimaru, Kayoko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Shimada, Shinji; Nakao, Atsuhito

    2015-01-01

    There are several reports suggesting that the pathophysiology of psoriasis may be associated with aberrant circadian rhythms. However, the mechanistic link between psoriasis and the circadian time-keeping system, “the circadian clock,” remains unclear. This study determined whether the core circadian gene, Clock, had a regulatory role in the development of psoriasis. For this purpose, we compared the development of psoriasis-like skin inflammation induced by the Toll-like receptor 7 ligand imiquimod (IMQ) between wild-type mice and mice with a loss-of-function mutation of Clock. We also compared the development of IMQ-induced dermatitis between wild-type mice and mice with a loss-of-function mutation of Period2 (Per2), another key circadian gene that inhibits CLOCK activity. We found that Clock mutation ameliorated IMQ-induced dermatitis, whereas the Per2 mutation exaggerated IMQ-induced dermatitis, when compared with wild-type mice associated with decreased or increased IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) expression in γ/δ+ T cells, respectively. In addition, CLOCK directly bound to the promoter of IL-23R in γ/δ+ T cells, and IL-23R expression in the mouse skin was under circadian control. These findings suggest that Clock is a novel regulator of psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice via direct modulation of IL-23R expression in γ/δ+ T cells, establishing a mechanistic link between psoriasis and the circadian clock. PMID:26291684

  2. The spfash mouse: a missense mutation in the ornithine transcarbamylase gene also causes aberrant mRNA splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, P E; Rosenberg, L E

    1989-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (ornithine carbamoyltransferase; carbamoyl-phosphate:L-ornithine carbamoyltransferase, EC 2.1.3.3) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme of the mammalian urea cycle. The X chromosome-linked spfash mutation in the mouse causes partial ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and has served as a model for the human disease. We show here that the spfash mutation is a guanine to adenine transition of the last nucleotide of the fourth exon of the ornithine transcarbamylase gene. This nucleotide change produces two remarkably different effects. First, this transition causes ornithine transcarbamylase mRNA deficiency because the involved exon nucleotide plays a part in the recognition of the adjacent splice donor site. As a result of the mutation, ornithine transcarbamylase pre-mRNA is spliced inefficiently both at this site and at a cryptic splice donor site 48 bases into the adjacent intron. Second, two mutant proteins are translated from these mRNAs. From the correctly spliced mRNA, the transition results in a change of amino acid 129 from arginine to histidine. This missense substitution has no discernable effect on mitochondrial import, subunit assembly, or enzyme activity. On the other hand, the elongated mRNA resulting from mis-splicing is translated into a dysfunctional ornithine transcarbamylase subunit elongated by the insertion of 16 amino acid residues. Images PMID:2471197

  3. Aberrant Methylation of RASSF1A gene Contribute to the Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gan-Shen; Lai, Cai-Yong; Xu, Yin; Bu, Chen-Feng; Su, Ze-Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of RASSF1A methylation in renal cell carcinoma. Systematically search were performed using the Pubmed, ProQest and Web of Science for all articles on the association between RASSF1A methylation and renal cell carcinoma before 15 April 2015. After the filtration, 13 studies involving 677 cases and 497 controls met our criteria. Our meta-analysis suggested that hypermethylation of RASSF1A gene was associated with the increased risk of RCC(OR:4.14, 95%CI:1.06-16.1). Stratified analyses showed a similar risk in qualitative detection method(OR:28.4, 95%CI:10.2-79.6), body fluid sample(OR:12.8, 95%CI:5.35-30.8), and American(OR:10.5, 95%CI:1.97-55.9). Our result identified that RASSF1A methylation had a strong potential in prediction the risk of Renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26107221

  4. Aberrant Autolysosomal Regulation Is Linked to The Induction of Embryonic Senescence: Differential Roles of Beclin 1 and p53 in Vertebrate Spns1 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Lian, Shanshan; Qi, Jie; Bayliss, Peter E.; Carr, Christopher E.; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Guha, Sujay; Kobler, Patrick; Catz, Sergio D.; Gill, Matthew; Jia, Kailiang; Klionsky, Daniel J.; Kishi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Spinster (Spin) in Drosophila or Spinster homolog 1 (Spns1) in vertebrates is a putative lysosomal H+-carbohydrate transporter, which functions at a late stage of autophagy. The Spin/Spns1 defect induces aberrant autolysosome formation that leads to embryonic senescence and accelerated aging symptoms, but little is known about the mechanisms leading to the pathogenesis in vivo. Beclin 1 and p53 are two pivotal tumor suppressors that are critically involved in the autophagic process and its regulation. Using zebrafish as a genetic model, we show that Beclin 1 suppression ameliorates Spns1 loss-mediated senescence as well as autophagic impairment, whereas unexpectedly p53 deficit exacerbates both of these characteristics. We demonstrate that ‘basal p53’ activity plays a certain protective role(s) against the Spns1 defect-induced senescence via suppressing autophagy, lysosomal biogenesis, and subsequent autolysosomal formation and maturation, and that p53 loss can counteract the effect of Beclin 1 suppression to rescue the Spns1 defect. By contrast, in response to DNA damage, ‘activated p53’ showed an apparent enhancement of the Spns1-deficient phenotype, by inducing both autophagy and apoptosis. Moreover, we found that a chemical and genetic blockage of lysosomal acidification and biogenesis mediated by the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase, as well as of subsequent autophagosome-lysosome fusion, prevents the appearance of the hallmarks caused by the Spns1 deficiency, irrespective of the basal p53 state. Thus, these results provide evidence that Spns1 operates during autophagy and senescence differentially with Beclin 1 and p53. PMID:24967584

  5. Regulation of Cellulase and Hemicellulase Gene Expression in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Amore, Antonella; Giacobbe, Simona; Faraco, Vincenza

    2013-01-01

    Research on regulation of cellulases and hemicellulases gene expression may be very useful for increasing the production of these enzymes in their native producers. Mechanisms of gene regulation of cellulase and hemicellulase expression in filamentous fungi have been studied, mainly in Aspergillus and Trichoderma. The production of these extracellular enzymes is an energy-consuming process, so the enzymes are produced only under conditions in which the fungus needs to use plant polymers as an energy and carbon source. Moreover, production of many of these enzymes is coordinately regulated, and induced in the presence of the substrate polymers. In addition to induction by mono- and oligo-saccharides, genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction in filamentous fungi can be repressed during growth in the presence of easily metabolizable carbon sources, such as glucose. Carbon catabolite repression is an important mechanism to repress the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes during growth on preferred carbon sources. This manuscript reviews the recent advancements in elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for regulation of expression of cellulase and hemicellulase genes in fungi. PMID:24294104

  6. Tbx16 regulates hox gene activation in mesodermal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Payumo, Alexander Y; McQuade, Lindsey E; Walker, Whitney J; Yamazoe, Sayumi; Chen, James K

    2016-09-01

    The transcription factor T-box 16 (Tbx16, or Spadetail) is an essential regulator of paraxial mesoderm development in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Mesodermal progenitor cells (MPCs) fail to differentiate into trunk somites in tbx16 mutants and instead accumulate within the tailbud in an immature state. However, the mechanisms by which Tbx16 controls mesoderm patterning have remained enigmatic. We describe here the use of photoactivatable morpholino oligonucleotides to determine the Tbx16 transcriptome in MPCs. We identified 124 Tbx16-regulated genes that were expressed in zebrafish gastrulae, including several developmental signaling proteins and regulators of gastrulation, myogenesis and somitogenesis. Unexpectedly, we observed that a loss of Tbx16 function precociously activated posterior hox genes in MPCs, and overexpression of a single posterior hox gene was sufficient to disrupt MPC migration. Our studies support a model in which Tbx16 regulates the timing of collinear hox gene activation to coordinate the anterior-posterior fates and positions of paraxial MPCs. PMID:27376691

  7. Role for LSM genes in the regulation of circadian rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Santángelo, Soledad; Mancini, Estefanía; Francey, Lauren J.; Schlaen, Ruben Gustavo; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Hogenesch, John B.; Yanovsky, Marcelo J.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that core spliceosomal components differentially affect RNA processing of specific genes; however, whether changes in the levels or activities of these factors control specific signaling pathways is largely unknown. Here we show that some SM-like (LSM) genes, which encode core components of the spliceosomal U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex, regulate circadian rhythms in plants and mammals. We found that the circadian clock regulates the expression of LSM5 in Arabidopsis plants and several LSM genes in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus. Further, mutations in LSM5 or LSM4 in Arabidopsis, or down-regulation of LSM3, LSM5, or LSM7 expression in human cells, lengthens the circadian period. Although we identified changes in the expression and alternative splicing of some core clock genes in Arabidopsis lsm5 mutants, the precise molecular mechanism causing period lengthening remains to be identified. Genome-wide expression analysis of either a weak lsm5 or a strong lsm4 mutant allele in Arabidopsis revealed larger effects on alternative splicing than on constitutive splicing. Remarkably, large splicing defects were not observed in most of the introns evaluated using RNA-seq in the strong lsm4 mutant allele used in this study. These findings support the idea that some LSM genes play both regulatory and constitutive roles in RNA processing, contributing to the fine-tuning of specific signaling pathways. PMID:25288739

  8. Synapsins are late activity-induced genes regulated by birdsong

    PubMed Central

    Velho, Tarciso A. F.; Mello, Claudio V.

    2008-01-01

    The consolidation of long-lasting sensory memories requires the activation of gene expression programs in the brain. In spite of considerable knowledge about the early components of this response, little is known about late components (i.e. genes regulated 2-6 hr after stimulation) and the relationship between early and late genes. Birdsong represents one of the best natural behaviors to study sensory-induced gene expression in awake, freely behaving animals. Here we show that the expression of several isoforms of synapsins, a group of phosphoproteins thought to regulate the dynamics of synaptic vesicle storage and release, is induced by auditory stimulation with birdsong in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) brain. This induction occurs mainly in excitatory (non-GABAergic) neurons and is modulated (suppressed) by early song-inducible proteins. We also show that ZENK, an early song-inducible transcription factor, interacts with the syn3 promoter in vivo, consistent with a direct regulatory effect and an emerging novel view of ZENK action. These results demonstrate that synapsins are a late component of the genomic response to neuronal activation and that their expression depends on a complex set of regulatory interactions between early and late regulated genes. PMID:19005052

  9. Transcriptional regulation of cathelicidin genes in chicken bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang In; Jang, Hyun June; Jeon, Mi-hyang; Lee, Mi Ock; Kim, Jeom Sun; Jeon, Ik-Soo; Byun, Sung June

    2016-04-01

    Cathelicidins form a family of vertebrate-specific immune molecules with an evolutionarily conserved gene structure. We analyzed the expression patterns of cathelicidin genes (CAMP, CATH3, and CATHB1) in chicken bone marrow cells (BMCs) and chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs). We found that CAMP and CATHB1 were significantly up-regulated in BMCs, whereas the expression of CATH3 did not differ significantly between BMCs and CEFs. To study the mechanism underlying the up-regulation of cathelicidin genes in BMCs, we predicted the transcription factors (TFs) that bind to the 5'-flanking regions of cathelicidin genes. CEBPA, EBF1, HES1, MSX1, and ZIC3 were up-regulated in BMCs compared to CEFs. Subsequently, when a siRNA-mediated knockdown assay was performed for MSX1, the expression of CAMP and CATHB1 was decreased in BMCs. We also showed that the transcriptional activity of the CAMP promoter was decreased by mutation of the MSX1-binding sites present within the 5'-flanking region of CAMP. These results increase our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling cathelicidin genes in BMCs. PMID:26908883

  10. Regulation of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, T A; Evangelista, C; Trumpower, B L

    1995-01-01

    Selection for mutants which release glucose repression of the CYB2 gene was used to identify genes which regulate repression of mitochondrial biogenesis. We have identified two of these as the previously described GRR1/CAT80 and ROX3 genes. Mutations in these genes not only release glucose repression of CYB2 but also generally release respiration of the mutants from glucose repression. In addition, both mutants are partially defective in CYB2 expression when grown on nonfermentable carbon sources, indicating a positive regulatory role as well. ROX3 was cloned by complementation of a glucose-inducible flocculating phenotype of an amber mutant and has been mapped as a new leftmost marker on chromosome 2. The ROX3 mutant has only a modest defect in glucose repression of GAL1 but is substantially compromised in galactose induction of GAL1 expression. This mutant also has increased SUC2 expression on nonrepressing carbon sources. We have also characterized the regulation of CYB2 in strains carrying null mutation in two other glucose repression genes, HXK2 and SSN6, and show that HXK2 is a negative regulator of CYB2, whereas SSN6 appears to be a positive effector of CYB2 expression. PMID:7592476

  11. Regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Helen H

    2007-09-01

    Reproductive function is influenced by several internal and external cues, which ultimately exert their effects on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron. As the final common pathway in the brain for regulating reproduction, GnRH neurons receive signals from multiple cell types, and alterations in GnRH production impact reproductive competence. Historically, the paucity of GnRH neurons and their scattered distribution in the brain have limited the study of GnRH gene expression. With transgenic technology, newer model systems (such as immortalized GnRH-expressing cell lines and GnRH-reporter gene transgenic mice) have been developed, making molecular studies possible. This article provides an update on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of GnRH gene expression, focusing on tissue-specific expression and transcriptional regulation. After an overview of GnRH gene structure, synthesis, and secretion, the model systems for studying GnRH neurons are examined. The molecular mechanisms that translate physiologic stimuli, such as nutritional status or stress, into changes in GnRH expression will be reviewed, concentrating on the regulatory regions within the GnRH gene promoter and the critical transcription factors. PMID:17710727

  12. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Gene Expression and Transcriptional Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemus, Enrique Hernández

    2009-12-01

    In recent times whole-genome gene expression analysis has turned out to be a highly important tool to study the coordinated function of a very large number of genes within their corresponding cellular environment, especially in relation to phenotypic diversity and disease. A wide variety of methods of quantitative analysis has been developed to cope with high throughput data sets generated by gene expression profiling experiments. Due to the complexity associated with transcriptomics, especially in the case of gene regulation phenomena, most of these methods are of a probabilistic or statistical nature. Even if these methods have reached a central status in the development of an integrative, systematic understanding of the associated biological processes, they very rarely constitute a concrete guide to the actual physicochemical mechanisms behind biological function, and the role of these methods is more on a hypotheses generating line. An important improvement could lie in the development of a thermodynamic theory for gene expression and transcriptional regulation that will build the foundations for a proper integration of the vast amount of molecular biophysical data and could lead, in the future, to a systemic view of genetic transcription and regulation.

  13. Early development of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiomata and developmentally regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' broom, a disease of Theobroma cacao. The pathogen life cycle ends with the production of basidiocarps in dead tissues of the infected host. This structure generates millions of basidiospores that reinfect young tissues of the same or other plants. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sexual phase of this fungus may help develop chemical, biological or genetic strategies to control the disease. Results Mycelium was morphologically analyzed prior to emergence of basidiomata by stereomicroscopy, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphological changes in the mycelium before fructification show a pattern similar to other members of the order Agaricales. Changes and appearance of hyphae forming a surface layer by fusion were correlated with primordia emergence. The stages of hyphal nodules, aggregation, initial primordium and differentiated primordium were detected. The morphological analysis also allowed conclusions on morphogenetic aspects. To analyze the genes involved in basidiomata development, the expression of some selected EST genes from a non-normalized cDNA library, representative of the fruiting stage of M. perniciosa, was evaluated. A macroarray analysis was performed with 192 selected clones and hybridized with two distinct RNA pools extracted from mycelium in different phases of basidiomata formation. This analysis showed two groups of up and down-regulated genes in primordial phases of mycelia. Hydrophobin coding, glucose transporter, Rho-GEF, Rheb, extensin precursor and cytochrome p450 monooxygenase genes were grouped among the up-regulated. In the down-regulated group relevant genes clustered coding calmodulin, lanosterol 14 alpha demethylase and PIM1. In addition, 12 genes with more detailed expression profiles were analyzed by RT-qPCR. One aegerolysin gene had a peak of expression in mycelium with primordia and a

  14. Light-Inducible Gene Regulation with Engineered Zinc Finger Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Polstein, Lauren R.; Gersbach, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The coupling of light-inducible protein-protein interactions with gene regulation systems has enabled the control of gene expression with light. In particular, heterodimer protein pairs from plants can be used to engineer a gene regulation system in mammalian cells that is reversible, repeatable, tunable, controllable in a spatiotemporal manner, and targetable to any DNA sequence. This system, Light-Inducible Transcription using Engineered Zinc finger proteins (LITEZ), is based on the blue light-induced interaction of GIGANTEA and the LOV domain of FKF1 that drives the localization of a transcriptional activator to the DNA-binding site of a highly customizable engineered zinc finger protein. This chapter provides methods for modifying LITEZ to target new DNA sequences, engineering a programmable LED array to illuminate cell cultures, and using the modified LITEZ system to achieve spatiotemporal control of transgene expression in mammalian cells. PMID:24718797

  15. Regulation of methanol utilisation pathway genes in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Hartner, Franz S; Glieder, Anton

    2006-01-01

    Methylotrophic yeasts such as Candida boidinii, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia methanolica and Pichia pastoris are an emerging group of eukaryotic hosts for recombinant protein production with an ever increasing number of applications during the last 30 years. Their applications are linked to the use of strong methanol-inducible promoters derived from genes of the methanol utilisation pathway. These promoters are tightly regulated, highly repressed in presence of non-limiting concentrations of glucose in the medium and strongly induced if methanol is used as carbon source. Several factors involved in this tight control and their regulatory effects have been described so far. This review summarises available data about the regulation of promoters from methanol utilisation pathway genes. Furthermore, the role of cis and trans acting factors (e.g. transcription factors, glucose processing enzymes) in the expression of methanol utilisation pathway genes is reviewed both in the context of the native cell environment as well as in heterologous hosts. PMID:17169150

  16. Self-targeting by CRISPR: gene regulation or autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Adi; Keren, Leeat; Wurtzel, Omri; Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2010-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas is a recently discovered prokaryotic immune system, which is based on small RNAs (“spacers”) that restrict phage and plasmid infection. It has been hypothesized that CRISPRs can also regulate self gene expression by utilizing spacers that target self genes. By analyzing CRISPRs from 330 organisms we found that one in every 250 spacers is self targeting, and that such self-targeting occurs in 18% of all CRISPR-bearing organisms. However, complete lack of conservation across species, combined with abundance of degraded repeats near self-targeting spacers, suggests that self-targeting is a consequence of autoimmunity rather than gene regulation. We propose that accidental incorporation of self nucleic-acids by CRISPR can incur an autoimmune fitness cost, which may explain the abundance of degraded CRISPR systems across prokaryotes. PMID:20598393

  17. Regulation of Cell and Gene Therapy Medicinal Products in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chu; Wang, Po-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Lin, Chien-Liang; Tai, Hsuen-Yung; Lo, Chi-Fang; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Chiang, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the rapid and mature development of emerging biotechnology in the fields of cell culture, cell preservation, and recombinant DNA technology, more and more cell or gene medicinal therapy products have been approved for marketing, to treat serious diseases which have been challenging to treat with current medical practice or medicine. This chapter will briefly introduce the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) and elaborate regulation of cell and gene therapy medicinal products in Taiwan, including regulatory history evolution, current regulatory framework, application and review procedures, and relevant jurisdictional issues. Under the promise of quality, safety, and efficacy of medicinal products, it is expected the regulation and environment will be more flexible, streamlining the process of the marketing approval of new emerging cell or gene therapy medicinal products and providing diverse treatment options for physicians and patients. PMID:26374219

  18. Hypoxia-mediated regulation of gene expression in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Shu-Ching; Claffey, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying oxygen sensing in mammalian cells has been extensively investigated in the areas of glucose transport, glycolysis, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis and catecholamine metabolism. Expression of functionally operative representative proteins in these specific areas, such as the glucose transporter 1, glycolytic enzymes, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor and tyrosine hydroxylase are all induced by hypoxia. Recent studies demonstrated that both transcriptional activation and post-transcriptional mechanisms are important to the hypoxia-mediated regulation of gene expression. In this article, the cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors involved in the transcriptional activation of gene expression will be reviewed. In addition, the mechanisms of post-transcriptional mRNA stabilization will also be addressed. We will discuss whether these two processes of regulation of hypoxia-responsive genes are mechanistically linked and co-operative in nature. PMID:10319016

  19. Deciphering c-MYC-regulated genes in two distinct tissues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The transcription factor MYC is a critical regulator of diverse cellular processes, including both replication and apoptosis. Differences in MYC-regulated gene expression responsible for such opposing outcomes in vivo remain obscure. To address this we have examined time-dependent changes in global gene expression in two transgenic mouse models in which MYC activation, in either skin suprabasal keratinocytes or pancreatic islet β-cells, promotes tissue expansion or involution, respectively. Results Consistent with observed phenotypes, expression of cell cycle genes is increased in both models (albeit enriched in β-cells), as are those involved in cell growth and metabolism, while expression of genes involved in cell differentiation is down-regulated. However, in β-cells, which unlike suprabasal keratinocytes undergo prominent apoptosis from 24 hours, there is up-regulation of genes associated with DNA-damage response and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, including Atr, Arf, Bax and Cycs. In striking contrast, this is not the case for suprabasal keratinocytes, where pro-apoptotic genes such as Noxa are down-regulated and key anti-apoptotic pathways (such as Igf1-Akt) and those promoting angiogenesis are up-regulated. Moreover, dramatic up-regulation of steroid hormone-regulated Kallikrein serine protease family members in suprabasal keratinocytes alone could further enhance local Igf1 actions, such as through proteolysis of Igf1 binding proteins. Conclusions Activation of MYC causes cell growth, loss of differentiation and cell cycle entry in both β-cells and suprabasal keratinocytes in vivo. Apoptosis, which is confined to β-cells, may involve a combination of a DNA-damage response and downstream activation of pro-apoptotic signalling pathways, including Cdc2a and p19Arf/p53, and downstream targets. Conversely, avoidance of apoptosis in suprabasal keratinocytes may result primarily from the activation of key anti-apoptotic signalling pathways

  20. Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of neuronal "clock" gene expression.

    PubMed

    Imbesi, M; Yildiz, S; Dirim Arslan, A; Sharma, R; Manev, H; Uz, T

    2009-01-23

    Using a transgenic mice model (i.e. "clock" knockouts), clock transcription factors have been suggested as critical regulators of dopaminergic behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Moreover, it has been shown that systemic administration of psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine regulates the striatal expression of clock genes. However, it is not known whether dopamine receptors mediate these regulatory effects of psychostimulants at the cellular level. Primary striatal neurons in culture express dopamine receptors as well as clock genes and have been successfully used in studying dopamine receptor functioning. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors on neuronal clock gene expression in this model using specific receptor agonists. We found an inhibitory effect on the expression of mClock and mPer1 genes with the D2-class (i.e. D2/D3) receptor agonist quinpirole. We also found a generalized stimulatory effect on the expression of clock genes mPer1, mClock, mNPAS2 (neuronal PAS domain protein 2), and mBmal1 with the D1-class (i.e. D1) receptor agonist SKF38393. Further, we tested whether systemic administration of dopamine receptor agonists causes similar changes in striatal clock gene expression in vivo. We found quinpirole-induced alterations in mPER1 protein levels in the mouse striatum (i.e. rhythm shift). Collectively, our results indicate that the dopamine receptor system may mediate psychostimulant-induced changes in clock gene expression. Using striatal neurons in culture as a model, further research is needed to better understand how dopamine signaling modulates the expression dynamics of clock genes (i.e. intracellular signaling pathways) and thereby influences neuronal gene expression, neuronal transmission, and brain functioning. PMID:19017537

  1. Identification of Master Regulator Genes in Human Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sawle, A D; Kebschull, M; Demmer, R T; Papapanou, P N

    2016-08-01

    Analytic approaches confined to fold-change comparisons of gene expression patterns between states of health and disease are unable to distinguish between primary causal disease drivers and secondary noncausal events. Genome-wide reverse engineering approaches can facilitate the identification of candidate genes that may distinguish between causal and associative interactions and may account for the emergence or maintenance of pathologic phenotypes. In this work, we used the algorithm for the reconstruction of accurate cellular networks (ARACNE) to analyze a large gene expression profile data set (313 gingival tissue samples from a cross-sectional study of 120 periodontitis patients) obtained from clinically healthy (n = 70) or periodontitis-affected (n = 243) gingival sites. The generated transcriptional regulatory network of the gingival interactome was subsequently interrogated with the master regulator inference algorithm (MARINA) and gene expression signature data from healthy and periodontitis-affected gingiva. Our analyses identified 41 consensus master regulator genes (MRs), the regulons of which comprised between 25 and 833 genes. Regulons of 7 MRs (HCLS1, ZNF823, XBP1, ZNF750, RORA, TFAP2C, and ZNF57) included >500 genes each. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated differential expression of these regulons in gingival health versus disease with a type 1 error between 2% and 0.5% and with >80% of the regulon genes in the leading edge. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed significant enrichment of 36 regulons for several pathways, while 6 regulons (those of MRs HCLS1, IKZF3, ETS1, NHLH2, POU2F2, and VAV1) were enriched for >10 pathways. Pathways related to immune system signaling and development were the ones most frequently enriched across all regulons. The unbiased analysis of genome-wide regulatory networks can enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of human periodontitis and, after appropriate validation, ultimately identify target molecules of

  2. Living without Oxygen: Anoxia-Responsive Gene Expression and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Larade, Kevin; Storey, Kenneth B

    2009-04-01

    Many species of marine mollusks demonstrate exceptional capacities for long term survival without oxygen. Analysis of gene expression under anoxic conditions, including the subsequent translational responses, allows examination of the functional mechanisms that support and regulate natural anaerobiosis and permit noninjurious transitions between aerobic and anoxic states. Identification of stress-specific gene expression can provide important insights into the metabolic adaptations that are needed for anoxia tolerance, with potential applications to anoxia-intolerant systems. Various methods are available to do this, including high throughput microarray screening and construction and screening of cDNA libraries. Anoxia-responsive genes have been identified in mollusks; some have known functions in other organisms but were not previously linked with anoxia survival. In other cases, completely novel anoxia-responsive genes have been discovered, some that show known motifs or domains that hint at function. Selected genes are expressed at different times over an anoxia-recovery time course with their transcription and translation being actively regulated to ensure protein expression at the optimal time. An examination of transcript status over the course of anoxia exposure and subsequent aerobic recovery identifies genes, and the proteins that they encode, that enhance cell survival under oxygen-limited conditions. Analysis of data generated from non-mainstream model systems allows for insight into the response by cells to anoxia stress. PMID:19794879

  3. Non-equilibrium dynamics of stochastic gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anandamohan

    2015-01-01

    The process of gene regulation is comprised of intrinsically random events resulting in large cell-to-cell variability in mRNA and protein numbers. With gene expression being the central dogma of molecular biology, it is essential to understand the origin and role of these fluctuations. An intriguing observation is that the number of mRNA present in a cell are not only random and small but also that they are produced in bursts. The gene switches between an active and an inactive state, and the active gene transcribes mRNA in bursts. Transcriptional noise being bursty, so are the number of proteins and the subsequent gene expression levels. It is natural to ask the question: what is the reason for the bursty mRNA dynamics? And can the bursty dynamics be shown to be entropically favorable by studying the reaction kinetics underlying the gene regulation mechanism? The dynamics being an out-of-equilibrium process, the fluctuation theorem for entropy production in the reversible reaction channel is discussed. We compute the entropy production rate for varying degrees of burstiness. We find that the reaction parameters that maximize the burstiness simultaneously maximize the entropy production rate. PMID:25288134

  4. RBM20, a gene for hereditary cardiomyopathy, regulates titin splicing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Schafer, Sebastian; Greaser, Marion L.; Radke, Michael H.; Liss, Martin; Govindarajan, Thirupugal; Maatz, Henrike; Schulz, Herbert; Li, Shijun; Parrish, Amanda M.; Dauksaite, Vita; Vakeel, Padmanabhan; Klaassen, Sabine; Gerull, Brenda; Thierfelder, Ludwig; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Hacker, Timothy A.; Saupe, Kurt W.; Dec, G. William; Ellinor, Patrick T.; MacRae, Calum A.; Spallek, Bastian; Fischer, Robert; Perrot, Andreas; Özcelik, Cemil; Saar, Kathrin; Hubner, Norbert; Gotthardt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays a major role in the adaptation of cardiac function exemplified by the isoform switch of titin, which adjusts ventricular filling. We previously identified a rat strain deficient in titin splicing. Using genetic mapping, we found a loss-of-function mutation in RBM20 as the underlying cause for the pathological titin isoform expression. Mutations in human RBM20 have previously been shown to cause dilated cardiomyopathy. We showed that the phenotype of Rbm20 deficient rats resembles the human pathology. Deep sequencing of the human and rat cardiac transcriptome revealed an RBM20 dependent regulation of alternative splicing. Additionally to titin we identified a set of 30 genes with conserved regulation between human and rat. This network is enriched for genes previously linked to cardiomyopathy, ion-homeostasis, and sarcomere biology. Our studies emphasize the importance of posttranscriptional regulation in cardiac function and provide mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of human heart failure. PMID:22466703

  5. Quantitative characterization of gene regulation by Rho dependent transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Razika; Lee, Tiffany Y; Lim, Han N

    2015-08-01

    Rho factor dependent transcription termination (RTT) is common within the coding sequences of bacterial genes and it acts to couple transcription and translation levels. Despite the importance of RTT for gene regulation, its effects on mRNA and protein concentrations have not been quantitatively characterized. Here we demonstrate that the exogenous cfp gene encoding the cyan fluorescent protein can serve as a model for gene regulation by RTT. This was confirmed by showing that Psu and bicyclomycin decrease RTT and increase full length cfp mRNAs (but remarkably they have little effect on protein production). We then use cfp to characterize the relationship between its protein and full length mRNA concentrations when the translation initiation rate is varied by sequence modifications of the translation initiation region (TIR). These experiments reveal that the fold change in protein concentration (RP) and the fold change in full length mRNA concentration (Rm) have the relationship RP≈Rm(b), where b is a constant. The average value of b was determined from three separate data sets to be ~3.6. We demonstrate that the above power law function can predict how altering the translation initiation rate of a gene in an operon will affect the mRNA concentrations of downstream genes and specify a lower bound for the associated changes in protein concentrations. In summary, this study defines a simple phenomenological model to help program expression from single genes and operons that are regulated by RTT, and to guide molecular models of RTT. PMID:25982507

  6. Drosha Regulates Gene Expression Independently of RNA Cleavage Function

    PubMed Central

    Gromak, Natalia; Dienstbier, Martin; Macias, Sara; Plass, Mireya; Eyras, Eduardo; Cáceres, Javier F.; Proudfoot, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Drosha is the main RNase III-like enzyme involved in the process of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in the nucleus. Using whole-genome ChIP-on-chip analysis, we demonstrate that, in addition to miRNA sequences, Drosha specifically binds promoter-proximal regions of many human genes in a transcription-dependent manner. This binding is not associated with miRNA production or RNA cleavage. Drosha knockdown in HeLa cells downregulated nascent gene transcription, resulting in a reduction of polyadenylated mRNA produced from these gene regions. Furthermore, we show that this function of Drosha is dependent on its N-terminal protein-interaction domain, which associates with the RNA-binding protein CBP80 and RNA Polymerase II. Consequently, we uncover a previously unsuspected RNA cleavage-independent function of Drosha in the regulation of human gene expression. PMID:24360955

  7. Stochastic Gene Expression in Networks of Post-transcriptional Regulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles; Jia, Tao; Pendar, Hodjat; Kulkarni, Rahul

    2012-02-01

    Post-transcriptional regulators, such as small RNAs and microRNAs, are critical elements of diverse cellular pathways. It has been postulated that, in several important cases, the role of these regulators is to to modulate the noise in gene expression for the regulated target. Correspondingly, general stochastic models have been developed, and results obtained, for the case in which a single sRNA regulates a single mRNA target. We generalize these results to networks containing a single mRNA regulated by multiple sRNAs and to networks containing multiple mRNAs regulated by a single sRNA. For these systems, we obtain exact expressions relating the mean levels of the sRNAs to the mean levels of the mRNAs. Additionally, we consider the convergence of the original model to an approximate model which considers sRNA concentrations to be high; for the latter model we derive an analytic form for the generating function of the protein distribution. Finally, we discuss potential experimental protocols which, in combination with the derived results, can be used to infer the underlying gene expression parameters.

  8. Epigenetic Characterization of the FMR1 Gene and Aberrant Neurodevelopment in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Surya A.; Zhou, Fen; Madison, Jon M.; Daheron, Laurence; Loring, Jeanne F.; Haggarty, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability. In addition to cognitive deficits, FXS patients exhibit hyperactivity, attention deficits, social difficulties, anxiety, and other autistic-like behaviors. FXS is caused by an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5′ untranslated region of the Fragile X Mental Retardation (FMR1) gene leading to epigenetic silencing and loss of expression of the Fragile X Mental Retardation protein (FMRP). Despite the known relationship between FMR1 CGG repeat expansion and FMR1 silencing, the epigenetic modifications observed at the FMR1 locus, and the consequences of the loss of FMRP on human neurodevelopment and neuronal function remain poorly understood. To address these limitations, we report on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from multiple patients with FXS and the characterization of their differentiation into post-mitotic neurons and glia. We show that clones from reprogrammed FXS patient fibroblast lines exhibit variation with respect to the predominant CGG-repeat length in the FMR1 gene. In two cases, iPSC clones contained predominant CGG-repeat lengths shorter than measured in corresponding input population of fibroblasts. In another instance, reprogramming a mosaic patient having both normal and pre-mutation length CGG repeats resulted in genetically matched iPSC clonal lines differing in FMR1 promoter CpG methylation and FMRP expression. Using this panel of patient-specific, FXS iPSC models, we demonstrate aberrant neuronal differentiation from FXS iPSCs that is directly correlated with epigenetic modification of the FMR1 gene and a loss of FMRP expression. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a key role for FMRP early in human neurodevelopment prior to synaptogenesis and have implications for modeling of FXS using iPSC technology. By revealing disease-associated cellular phenotypes in human neurons, these iPSC models will aid in the

  9. Reactivation of latently infected HIV-1 viral reservoirs and correction of aberrant alternative splicing in the LMNA gene via AMPK activation: Common mechanism of action linking HIV-1 latency and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Finley, Jahahreeh

    2015-09-01

    Although the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven highly effective in controlling and suppressing HIV-1 replication, the persistence of latent but replication-competent proviruses in a small subset of CD4(+) memory T cells presents significant challenges to viral eradication from infected individuals. Attempts to eliminate latent reservoirs are epitomized by the 'shock and kill' approach, a strategy involving the combinatorial usage of compounds that influence epigenetic modulation and initiation of proviral transcription. However, efficient regulation of viral pre-mRNA splicing through manipulation of host cell splicing machinery is also indispensible for HIV-1 replication. Interestingly, aberrant alternative splicing of the LMNA gene via the usage of a cryptic splice site has been shown to be the cause of most cases of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a rare genetic condition characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype due to the accumulation of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. Recent evidence has shown that inhibition of the splicing factors ASF/SF2 (or SRSF1) and SRp55 (or SRSF6) leads to a reduction or an increase in progerin at both the mRNA and protein levels, respectively, thus altering the LMNA pre-mRNA splicing ratio. It is also well-established that during the latter stages of HIV-1 infection, an increase in the production and nuclear export of unspliced viral mRNA is indispensible for efficient HIV-1 replication and that the presence of ASF/SF2 leads to excessive viral pre-mRNA splicing and a reduction of unspliced mRNA, while the presence of SRp55 inhibits viral pre-mRNA splicing and aids in the generation and translation of unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs. The splicing-factor associated protein and putative mitochondrial chaperone p32 has also been shown to inhibit ASF/SF2, increase unspliced HIV-1 viral mRNA, and enhance mitochondrial DNA replication and oxidative phosphorylation. It is our hypothesis that activation of

  10. Transcriptome profiling reveals roles of meristem regulators and polarity genes during fruit trichome development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Meiling; Jiang, Li; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jianyu; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    Trichomes are epidermal hair-like structures that function in plant defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive studies have been performed on foliar trichomes development in Arabidopsis and tomato, but the molecular mechanism of fruit trichome formation remains elusive. Cucumber fruit is covered with trichomes (spines) that directly affect the appearance and quality of cucumber products. Here, we characterized the fruit spine development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, tiny branched hair (tbh). Our data showed that the cucumber trichome was multicellular and non-glandular, with malformed organelles and no endoreduplication. Fruit spine development was generally homogenous and marked by a rapid base expansion stage. Trichomes in the tbh mutant were tiny and branched, with increased density and aberrant cell shape. Transcriptome profiling indicated that meristem-related genes were highly enriched in the upregulated genes in the tbh versus the WT, as well as in WT spines after versus before base expansion, and that polarity regulators were greatly induced during spine base expansion. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) during spine development. Therefore, cucumber trichomes are morphologically different from those of Arabidopsis and tomato, and their development may be regulated by a distinct pathway involving meristem genes and polarity regulators. PMID:24962999

  11. Transcriptome profiling reveals roles of meristem regulators and polarity genes during fruit trichome development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Meiling; Jiang, Li; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jianyu; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2014-09-01

    Trichomes are epidermal hair-like structures that function in plant defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive studies have been performed on foliar trichomes development in Arabidopsis and tomato, but the molecular mechanism of fruit trichome formation remains elusive. Cucumber fruit is covered with trichomes (spines) that directly affect the appearance and quality of cucumber products. Here, we characterized the fruit spine development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, tiny branched hair (tbh). Our data showed that the cucumber trichome was multicellular and non-glandular, with malformed organelles and no endoreduplication. Fruit spine development was generally homogenous and marked by a rapid base expansion stage. Trichomes in the tbh mutant were tiny and branched, with increased density and aberrant cell shape. Transcriptome profiling indicated that meristem-related genes were highly enriched in the upregulated genes in the tbh versus the WT, as well as in WT spines after versus before base expansion, and that polarity regulators were greatly induced during spine base expansion. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) during spine development. Therefore, cucumber trichomes are morphologically different from those of Arabidopsis and tomato, and their development may be regulated by a distinct pathway involving meristem genes and polarity regulators. PMID:24962999

  12. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chory, Joanne

    2006-01-16

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  13. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chory, Joanne

    2004-12-31

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  14. Intron retention-dependent gene regulation in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Hilarion, Sara; Paulet, Damien; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Hon, Chung-Chau; Lechat, Pierre; Mogensen, Estelle; Moyrand, Frédérique; Proux, Caroline; Barboux, Rony; Bussotti, Giovanni; Hwang, Jungwook; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Janbon, Guilhem

    2016-01-01

    The biological impact of alternative splicing is poorly understood in fungi, although recent studies have shown that these microorganisms are usually intron-rich. In this study, we re-annotated the genome of C. neoformans var. neoformans using RNA-Seq data. Comparison with C. neoformans var. grubii revealed that more than 99% of ORF-introns are in the same exact position in the two varieties whereas UTR-introns are much less evolutionary conserved. We also confirmed that alternative splicing is very common in C. neoformans, affecting nearly all expressed genes. We also observed specific regulation of alternative splicing by environmental cues in this yeast. However, alternative splicing does not appear to be an efficient method to diversify the C. neoformans proteome. Instead, our data suggest the existence of an intron retention-dependent mechanism of gene expression regulation that is not dependent on NMD. This regulatory process represents an additional layer of gene expression regulation in fungi and provides a mechanism to tune gene expression levels in response to any environmental modification. PMID:27577684

  15. New roles of SHOX as regulator of target genes.

    PubMed

    Rappold, G A; Durand, C; Decker, E; Marchini, A; Schneider, K U

    2012-05-01

    The homeobox gene SHOX encodes a transcription factor which is important for normal limb development. Approximately 5 to 10% of short patients exhibit a mutation or deletion in either the SHOX gene or its downstream enhancer regions. In humans, SHOX deficiency has been associated with various short stature syndromes as well as non-syndromic idiopathic short stature. A common feature of these syndromes is disproportionate short stature with a particular shortening of the forearms and lower legs. Madelung deformity, cubitus valgus, high-arched palate and muscular hypertrophy also differed markedly between patients with or without SHOX gene defects. A clinical trial in patients with SHOX deficiency and Turner syndrome demonstrated highly significant growth hormone-stimulated increases in height velocity and height SDS in both groups. Employing microarray analyses and cell culture experiments, a strong effect of SHOX on the expression of the natriuretic peptide BNP and the fibroblast growth factor receptor gene FGFR3 could be demonstrated. We found that BNP was positively regulated, while Fgfr3 was negatively regulated by SHOX. A regulation that occurs mainly in the mesomelic segments, a region where SHOX is known to be strongly expressed, offers a possible explanation for the phenotypes seen in patients with FGFR3 (e.g. achondroplasia) and SHOX defects (e.g. Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis). PMID:22946287

  16. Combinatorial gene regulation by modulation of relative pulse timing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yihan; Sohn, Chang Ho; Dalal, Chiraj K.; Cai, Long; Elowitz, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of individual living cells have revealed that many transcription factors activate in dynamic, and often stochastic, pulses within the same cell. However, it has remained unclear whether cells might modulate the relative timing of these pulses to control gene expression. Here, using quantitative single-cell time-lapse imaging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that the pulsatile transcription factors Msn2 and Mig1 combinatorially regulate their target genes through modulation of their relative pulse timing. The activator Msn2 and repressor Mig1 pulsed in either a temporally overlapping or non-overlapping manner during their transient response to different inputs, with only the non-overlapping dynamics efficiently activating target gene expression. Similarly, under constant environmental conditions, where Msn2 and Mig1 exhibit sporadic pulsing, glucose concentration modulated the temporal overlap between pulses of the two factors. Together, these results reveal a time-based mode of combinatorial gene regulation. Regulation through relative signal timing is common in engineering and neurobiology, and these results suggest that it could also function broadly within the signaling and regulatory systems of the cell. PMID:26466562

  17. Intron retention-dependent gene regulation in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Hilarion, Sara; Paulet, Damien; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Hon, Chung-Chau; Lechat, Pierre; Mogensen, Estelle; Moyrand, Frédérique; Proux, Caroline; Barboux, Rony; Bussotti, Giovanni; Hwang, Jungwook; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Janbon, Guilhem

    2016-01-01

    The biological impact of alternative splicing is poorly understood in fungi, although recent studies have shown that these microorganisms are usually intron-rich. In this study, we re-annotated the genome of C. neoformans var. neoformans using RNA-Seq data. Comparison with C. neoformans var. grubii revealed that more than 99% of ORF-introns are in the same exact position in the two varieties whereas UTR-introns are much less evolutionary conserved. We also confirmed that alternative splicing is very common in C. neoformans, affecting nearly all expressed genes. We also observed specific regulation of alternative splicing by environmental cues in this yeast. However, alternative splicing does not appear to be an efficient method to diversify the C. neoformans proteome. Instead, our data suggest the existence of an intron retention-dependent mechanism of gene expression regulation that is not dependent on NMD. This regulatory process represents an additional layer of gene expression regulation in fungi and provides a mechanism to tune gene expression levels in response to any environmental modification. PMID:27577684

  18. Gene bionetworks that regulate ovarian primordial follicle assembly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Primordial follicle assembly is the process by which ovarian primordial follicles are formed. During follicle assembly oocyte nests break down and a layer of pre-granulosa cells surrounds individual oocytes to form primordial follicles. The pool of primordial follicles formed is the source of oocytes for ovulation during a female’s reproductive life. Results The current study utilized a systems approach to detect all genes that are differentially expressed in response to seven different growth factor and hormone treatments known to influence (increase or decrease) primordial follicle assembly in a neonatal rat ovary culture system. One novel factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), was experimentally determined to inhibit follicle assembly. The different growth factor and hormone treatments were all found to affect similar physiological pathways, but each treatment affected a unique set of differentially expressed genes (signature gene set). A gene bionetwork analysis identified gene modules of coordinately expressed interconnected genes and it was found that different gene modules appear to accomplish distinct tasks during primordial follicle assembly. Predictions of physiological pathways important to follicle assembly were validated using ovary culture experiments in which ERK1/2 (MAPK1) activity was increased. Conclusions A number of the highly interconnected genes in these gene networks have previously been linked to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and polycystic ovarian disease syndrome (PCOS). Observations have identified novel factors and gene networks that regulate primordial follicle assembly. This systems biology approach has helped elucidate the molecular control of primordial follicle assembly and provided potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of ovarian disease. PMID:23875758

  19. Identification of novel TCDD-regulated genes by microarray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, Paul R.; Zheng, Wenchao; Ko, Alex Y.; Jefcoate, Colin R. . E-mail: jefcoate@facstaff.wisc.edu

    2005-02-01

    TCDD exposure of multipotential C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts for 72 h altered the expression of over 1000 genes, including coordinated changes across large functionally similar gene clusters. TCDD coordinately induced 23 cell cycle-related genes similar to epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced levels but without any affect on the major mitogenic signaling pathway (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK). TCDD treatment also decreased glycolytic and ribosomal clusters. Most of these TCDD-induced changes were attenuated by the presence of EGF or an adipogenic stimulus, each added during the final 24 h. TCDD prevented 10% of EGF-induced gene responses and 40% of adipogenic responses. Over 100 other genes responded to TCDD during adipogenesis. This group of responses included complete suppression of three proliferins and stimulations of several cytokine receptors. Despite these varied secondary effects of TCDD, direct AhR activation measured by integrated AhR-responsive luciferase reporters was similar under quiescent, EGF-stimulated or adipogenic conditions. Only 23 genes were similarly induced by TCDD regardless of conditions and 10 were suppressed. These 23 genes include: 4 genes previously recognized to contain AhR response elements (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1, CYP1A1, NAD(P)H quinone reductase 1 (NQO1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1); two novel oxidative genes (alcohol dehydrogenase 3 and superoxide dismutase 3); and glypican 1, a plasma membrane proteoglycan that affects cell signaling. Further experiments demonstrated that TCDD maximally induced NQO1, glypican 1 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 by 6 h. Glypican 1 activates the actions of many growth factors and therefore may contribute to secondary effects on gene expression.

  20. Six genes strongly regulated by mercury in Pisum sativum roots.

    PubMed

    Sävenstrand, Helena; Strid, Ake

    2004-02-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridisation was used to isolate heavy metal-induced genes from Pisum sativum roots hydroponically exposed to 5 microM HgCl2 and 10 microM EDTA. Six genes were induced out of which one, PsHMIP6B, was novel. The other genes (PsSAMT, PsI2'H, PsNDA, PsAPSR, PsPOD) had not previously been isolated from pea and sequenced. All six genes were also induced after exposure to 5 microM HgCl2 in the absence of EDTA. The induction pattern was in some cases different for the two Hg species, demonstrating a quicker response to-free Hg2+ than Hg-EDTA. The stress-specificity of the gene regulation was investigated by hydroponically adding 5 microM Cd2+. Most Hg-induced cDNAs were also induced by Cd2+ but to a smaller extent than after Hg exposure. In addition, the gene expression was also probed for tissue specificity, which showed that all six genes were expressed in roots and not in leaves. PMID:15283129

  1. Regulation of proboscipedia in Drosophila by homeotic selector genes.

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, D B; Kaufman, T C

    2000-01-01

    The gene proboscipedia (pb) is a member of the Antennapedia complex in Drosophila and is required for the proper specification of the adult mouthparts. In the embryo, pb expression serves no known function despite having an accumulation pattern in the mouthpart anlagen that is conserved across several insect orders. We have identified several of the genes necessary to generate this embryonic pattern of expression. These genes can be roughly split into three categories based on their time of action during development. First, prior to the expression of pb, the gap genes are required to specify the domains where pb may be expressed. Second, the initial expression pattern of pb is controlled by the combined action of the genes Deformed (Dfd), Sex combs reduced (Scr), cap'n'collar (cnc), and teashirt (tsh). Lastly, maintenance of this expression pattern later in development is dependent on the action of a subset of the Polycomb group genes. These interactions are mediated in part through a 500-bp regulatory element in the second intron of pb. We further show that Dfd protein binds in vitro to sequences found in this fragment. This is the first clear demonstration of autonomous positive cross-regulation of one Hox gene by another in Drosophila melanogaster and the binding of Dfd to a cis-acting regulatory element indicates that this control might be direct. PMID:10978284

  2. Gene regulation by structured mRNA elements.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The precise temporal and spatial coordination of gene activity, based on the integration of internal and external signals, is crucial for the accurate functioning of all biological processes. Although the basic principles of gene expression were established some 60 years ago, recent research has revealed a surprising complexity in the control of gene activity. Many of these gene regulatory mechanisms occur at the level of the mRNA, including sophisticated gene control tasks mediated by structured mRNA elements. We now know that mRNA folds can serve as highly specific receptors for various types of molecules, as exemplified by metabolite-binding riboswitches, and interfere with pro- and eukaryotic gene expression at the level of transcription, translation, and RNA processing. Gene regulation by structured mRNA elements comprises versatile strategies including self-cleaving ribozymes, RNA-folding-mediated occlusion or presentation of cis-regulatory sequences, and sequestration of trans-acting factors including other RNAs and proteins. PMID:24780087

  3. Complex structure and regulation of the ABP/SHBG gene.

    PubMed

    Joseph, D R; Sullivan, P M; Wang, Y M; Millhorn, D E; Bayliss, D M

    1991-01-01

    Extracellular androgen-binding proteins (ABPs) are thought to modulate the regulatory functions of androgens and the trans-acting nuclear androgen receptor. Testicular ABP and plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which is produced in the liver, are encoded by the same gene. We report here that the ABP/SHBG gene is also expressed in fetal rat liver and adult brain. Immunoreactive ABP was localized in the brain and fetal liver and mRNAs were identified in both tissues by northern blot hybridization. Analysis of brain and fetal liver cDNA clones revealed alternatively processed RNAs with sequence characteristics suggesting the encoded proteins could act as competitors of ABP/SHBG binding to cell surface receptors. One cDNA represented a fused transcript of the ABP/SHBG gene and the histidine decarboxylase gene that was apparently formed by a trans-splicing process. Gene sequencing experiments indicate that tissue-specific ABP/SHBG gene promoter-enhancer elements are utilized in testis, brain and fetal liver. These data demonstrate that the structure, RNA transcript processing and likely regulation of the ABP/SHBG gene are very complex. PMID:1958575

  4. The TORMOZ Gene Encodes a Nucleolar Protein Required for Regulated Division Planes and Embryo Development in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Megan E.; Mayer, Ulrike; Capron, Arnaud; Ngo, Quy A.; Surendrarao, Anandkumar; McClinton, Regina; Jürgens, Gerd; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2007-01-01

    Embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana is marked by a predictable sequence of oriented cell divisions, which precede cell fate determination. We show that mutation of the TORMOZ (TOZ) gene yields embryos with aberrant cell division planes and arrested embryos that appear not to have established normal patterning. The defects in toz mutants differ from previously described mutations that affect embryonic cell division patterns. Longitudinal division planes of the proembryo are frequently replaced by transverse divisions and less frequently by oblique divisions, while divisions of the suspensor cells, which divide only transversely, appear generally unaffected. Expression patterns of selected embryo patterning genes are altered in the mutant embryos, implying that the positional cues required for their proper expression are perturbed by the misoriented divisions. The TOZ gene encodes a nucleolar protein containing WD repeats. Putative TOZ orthologs exist in other eukaryotes including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the protein is predicted to function in 18S rRNA biogenesis. We find that disruption of the Sp TOZ gene results in cell division defects in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Previous studies in yeast and animal cells have identified nucleolar proteins that regulate the exit from M phase and cytokinesis, including factors involved in pre-rRNA processing. Our study suggests that in plant cells, nucleolar functions might interact with the processes of regulated cell divisions and influence the selection of longitudinal division planes during embryogenesis. PMID:17616738

  5. Mechanism of cardiomyocyte PGC-1α gene regulation by ERRα.

    PubMed

    Ramjiawan, Angela; Bagchi, Rushita A; Albak, Laura; Czubryt, Michael P

    2013-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) regulates critical genes involved in cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, and its loss is associated with impaired metabolism and various cardiac pathologies. Estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) targets many of the same genes as PGC-1α, and extensive cross talk exists between these 2 regulators. Here we report the identification of an evolutionarily conserved ERRα binding site within the PGC-1α promoter. Using luciferase reporter assays and overexpression, inhibition, or knockdown of ERRα, we show that PGC-1α expression is critically dependent upon ERRα in primary cardiomyocytes. We demonstrate that short-term hypoxia results in reduced ERRα mRNA expression, which precedes a similar loss of PGC-1α mRNA. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that despite a key role for ERRα in regulating PGC-1α in normoxic cardiomyocytes, ERRα loss is not responsible for PGC-1α loss in hypoxia. Histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) has previously been demonstrated to strongly inhibit expression of PGC-1α, and we show that overexpression of ERRα is sufficient to overcome this repressive effect. Our data elucidates the mechanism by which ERRα regulates cardiac PGC-1α gene expression, and suggests that ERRα may provide a means to normalize PGC-1α expression that could be useful in the development of strategies aimed at improving cardiac metabolism in disease. PMID:23668787

  6. Epigenetic Regulation of Bovine Spermatogenic Cell-Specific Gene Boule

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hua; Xu, Hongtao; Pan, Zengxiang; Xie, Zhuang; Li, Qifa

    2015-01-01

    Non-primate mammals have two deleted azoospermia (DAZ) family genes, DAZL and Boule; genes in this family encode RNA-binding proteins essential for male fertility in diverse animals. Testicular DAZL transcription is regulated by epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation. However, nothing is known about the epigenetic regulation of Boule. Here, we explored the role of DNA methylation in the regulation of the bovine Boule (bBoule) gene. We found that a long CpG island (CGI) in the bBoule promoter was hypermethylated in the testes of cattle-yak hybrids with low bBoule expression, whereas cattle had relatively low methylation levels (P < 0.01), and there was no difference in the methylation level in the short CGI of the gene body between cattle and cattle-yak hybrids (P > 0.05). We identified a 107 bp proximal core promoter region of bBoule. Intriguingly, the differences in the methylation level between cattle and cattle-yak hybrids were larger in the core promoter than outside the core promoter. An in vitro methylation assay showed that the core promoter activity of bBoule decreased significantly after M.SssI methylase treatment (P < 0.01). We also observed dramatically increased bBoule transcription in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) after treatment with the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-dC. Taken together, our results establish that methylation status of the core promoter might be involved in testicular bBoule transcription, and may provide new insight into the epigenetic regulation of DAZ family genes and clinical insights regarding male infertility. PMID:26030766

  7. Local and global responses in complex gene regulation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Masa; Selvarajoo, Kumar; Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    An exacerbated sensitivity to apparently minor stimuli and a general resilience of the entire system stay together side-by-side in biological systems. This apparent paradox can be explained by the consideration of biological systems as very strongly interconnected network systems. Some nodes of these networks, thanks to their peculiar location in the network architecture, are responsible for the sensitivity aspects, while the large degree of interconnection is at the basis of the resilience properties of the system. One relevant feature of the high degree of connectivity of gene regulation networks is the emergence of collective ordered phenomena influencing the entire genome and not only a specific portion of transcripts. The great majority of existing gene regulation models give the impression of purely local ‘hard-wired’ mechanisms disregarding the emergence of global ordered behavior encompassing thousands of genes while the general, genome wide, aspects are less known. Here we address, on a data analysis perspective, the discrimination between local and global scale regulations, this goal was achieved by means of the examination of two biological systems: innate immune response in macrophages and oscillating growth dynamics in yeast. Our aim was to reconcile the ‘hard-wired’ local view of gene regulation with a global continuous and scalable one borrowed from statistical physics. This reconciliation is based on the network paradigm in which the local ‘hard-wired’ activities correspond to the activation of specific crucial nodes in the regulation network, while the scalable continuous responses can be equated to the collective oscillations of the network after a perturbation.

  8. Cloning and regulation of the rat mdr2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P C; Thorgeirsson, S S; Silverman, J A

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned the complete cDNA encoding the rat mdr2 gene by a combination of library screening and the polymerase chain reaction. The sequence of rat mdr2 cDNA is highly similar to other members of the mdr gene family but the initiation of transcription, tissue distribution and regulation of expression of rat mdr2 diverge from the other isoforms. Primer extension analysis showed rat mdr2 mRNA to have a major transcription start point at -277 and a minor one at approximately -518. We constructed gene specific probes for rat mdr2 and mdr1b and compared the expression patterns of these two genes. The highest expression of mdr2 mRNA was in the muscle, heart, liver and spleen. Both mdr2 and 1b mRNA levels were elevated in the livers of rats treated with CCl4 or following partial hepatectomies although the time course of induction of each gene differed. Mdr1b increased by 12 to 24 hours while mdr2 did not increase until 48 hours. Treatment of isolated hepatocytes or RC3 cells with cycloheximide did not effect mdr2 mRNA. In contrast, mdr1b expression was increased. These data suggest that rat mdr2, unlike mdr1b, is not regulated by a negative trans-acting protein factor. Images PMID:8103593

  9. Common genes regulate food and ethanol intake in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Morgan L; Lamina, Omoteniola; Hogan, Kerry E; Kliethermes, Christopher L

    2016-06-01

    The abuse liability of alcohol (ethanol) is believed to result in part from its actions on neurobiological substrates that underlie the motivation toward food and other natural reinforcers, and a growing body of evidence indicates that these substrates are broadly conserved among animal phyla. Understanding the extent to which the substrates regulating ethanol and food intake overlap is an important step toward developing therapeutics that selectively reduce ethanol intake. In the current experiments, we measured food and ethanol intake in Recombinant Inbred (RI) lines of Drosophila melanogaster using several assays, and then calculated genetic correlations to estimate the degree to which common genes might underlie behavior in these assays. We found that food intake and ethanol intake as measured in the capillary assay are genetically correlated traits in D. melanogaster, as well as in a panel of 11 Drosophila species that we tested subsequently. RI line differences in food intake in a dyed food assay were genetically unrelated to ethanol intake in the capillary assay or to ethanol preference measured using an olfactory trap apparatus. Using publicly available gene expression data, we found that expression profiles across the RI lines of a number of genes (including the D2-like dopamine receptor, DOPA decarboxylase, and fruitless) correlated with the RI line differences in food and ethanol intake we measured, while the expression profiles of other genes, including NPF, and the NPF and 5-HT2 receptors, correlated only with ethanol intake or preference. Our results suggest that food and ethanol intake are regulated by some common genes in Drosophila, but that other genes regulate ethanol intake independently of food intake. These results have implications toward the development of therapeutics that preferentially reduce ethanol intake. PMID:27286934

  10. Cold stress regulation of gene expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Zhu, Jianhua; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2007-10-01

    Cold stress adversely affects plant growth and development. Most temperate plants acquire freezing tolerance by a process called cold acclimation. Here, we focus on recent progress in transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation of gene expression that is critical for cold acclimation. Transcriptional regulation is mediated by the inducer of C-repeat binding factor (CBF) expression 1 (ICE1), the CBF transcriptional cascade and CBF-independent regulons during cold acclimation. ICE1 is negatively regulated by ubiquitination-mediated proteolysis and positively regulated by SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) E3 ligase-catalyzed sumoylation. Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export and small RNA-directed mRNA degradation, also play important roles in cold stress responses. PMID:17855156

  11. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  12. Zebrafish rest regulates developmental gene expression but not neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kok, Fatma O; Taibi, Andrew; Wanner, Sarah J; Xie, Xiayang; Moravec, Cara E; Love, Crystal E; Prince, Victoria E; Mumm, Jeff S; Sirotkin, Howard I

    2012-10-01

    The transcriptional repressor Rest (Nrsf) recruits chromatin-modifying complexes to RE1 'silencer elements', which are associated with hundreds of neural genes. However, the requirement for Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation of embryonic development and cell fate is poorly understood. Conflicting views of the role of Rest in controlling cell fate have emerged from recent studies. To address these controversies, we examined the developmental requirement for Rest in zebrafish using zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene targeting. We discovered that germ layer specification progresses normally in rest mutants despite derepression of target genes during embryogenesis. This analysis provides the first evidence that maternal rest is essential for repression of target genes during blastula stages. Surprisingly, neurogenesis proceeds largely normally in rest mutants, although abnormalities are observed within the nervous system, including defects in oligodendrocyte precursor cell development and a partial loss of facial branchiomotor neuron migration. Mutants progress normally through embryogenesis but many die as larvae (after 12 days). However, some homozygotes reach adulthood and are viable. We utilized an RE1/NRSE transgenic reporter system to dynamically monitor Rest activity. This analysis revealed that Rest is required to repress gene expression in mesodermal derivatives including muscle and notochord, as well as within the nervous system. Finally, we demonstrated that Rest is required for long-term repression of target genes in non-neural tissues in adult zebrafish. Our results point to a broad role for Rest in fine-tuning neural gene expression, rather than as a widespread regulator of neurogenesis or cell fate. PMID:22951640

  13. Core Promoter Functions in the Regulation of Gene Expression of Drosophila Dorsal Target Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Zehavi, Yonathan; Kuznetsov, Olga; Ovadia-Shochat, Avital; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Developmental processes are highly dependent on transcriptional regulation by RNA polymerase II. The RNA polymerase II core promoter is the ultimate target of a multitude of transcription factors that control transcription initiation. Core promoters consist of core promoter motifs, e.g. the initiator, TATA box, and the downstream core promoter element (DPE), which confer specific properties to the core promoter. Here, we explored the importance of core promoter functions in the dorsal-ventral developmental gene regulatory network. This network includes multiple genes that are activated by different nuclear concentrations of Dorsal, an NFκB homolog transcription factor, along the dorsal-ventral axis. We show that over two-thirds of Dorsal target genes contain DPE sequence motifs, which is significantly higher than the proportion of DPE-containing promoters in Drosophila genes. We demonstrate that multiple Dorsal target genes are evolutionarily conserved and functionally dependent on the DPE. Furthermore, we have analyzed the activation of key Dorsal target genes by Dorsal, as well as by another Rel family transcription factor, Relish, and the dependence of their activation on the DPE motif. Using hybrid enhancer-promoter constructs in Drosophila cells and embryo extracts, we have demonstrated that the core promoter composition is an important determinant of transcriptional activity of Dorsal target genes. Taken together, our results provide evidence for the importance of core promoter composition in the regulation of Dorsal target genes. PMID:24634215

  14. Identification of chromosomal aberrations associated with disease progression and a novel 3q13.31 deletion involving LSAMP gene in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chueh-Chuan; Chen, Wei-Ming; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Chen, Winby York-Kwan; Chen, Paul Chih-Hsueh; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Hung, Giun-Yi; Wu, Hung-Ta Hondar; Wei, Chao-Jung; Shiau, Cheng-Ying; Wu, Yu-Chung; Chao, Ta-Chung; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chen, Po-Min; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chen, Yann-Jang; Fletcher, Jonathan A

    2009-10-01

    Five osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines, 37 OS tumors and 9 corresponding non-neoplastic samples were genotyped by Affymetrix 10 K 2.0 SNP array. Regions of high level amplification and homozygous deletion were identified and validated by quantitative PCR and FISH. Certain recurrent cytogenetic alterations were more frequent in recurrent/metastatic than in primary OS. These included deletion of 6q14.1, 6q16.2-q22.31, and 8p23.2-p12, amplification of 8q21.12, 8q22.3-q24.3 and 17p12, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 2q24.3-q31.2, 5q11.2, 6p21.31-p21.1, 6q14.1-q16.2, 8p22-p12, 9q22.1, 10q21.1-q22.1, 10q23.31-q24.1, 12q15-q21.1 and 21q21.2-q21.3. Most of the LOH calls were associated with deletion, but a subset of them was associated with normal or increased copy number (CN). A consensus 3q13.31 deletion localized to a region within the limbic system-associated membrane protein (LSAMP) gene was also identified. The FISH evaluations demonstrated highly-localized homozygous or heterozygous LSAMP deletions in 6 of 11 primary OS. qRT-PCR evaluations of the two major alternative LSAMP transcripts demonstrated reduced expression of 1b isoform transcript in each of three OS with LSAMP exon 1b deletion. Further, the 1a isoform transcripts in these same OS had either reduced expression or a premature termination codon in LSAMP exon 2. This SNP genotyping study identified chromosomal aberrations associated with disease progression in OS and disclosed LSAMP as a novel tumor suppressor gene in OS. The study also demonstrated that CN and LOH analyses were able to detect distinct subsets of genetic abnormalities in OS. PMID:19724913

  15. Regulation of Caulobacter crescentus ilvBN gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Tarleton, J C; Malakooti, J; Ely, B

    1994-01-01

    As part of an effort to determine the mechanisms employed by Caulobacter crescentus to regulate gene expression, the ilvBN genes encoding the two subunits of an acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) have been characterized. Analysis of the DNA sequences indicated that the C. crescentus AHAS was highly homologous to AHAS isozymes from other organisms. S1 nuclease and primer extension studies demonstrated that transcription initiation occurred 172 bp upstream of the AHAS coding region. The region between the AHAS coding region and the transcription initiation site was shown to have the properties of a transcription attenuator. Deletion analysis of the region containing the stem-loop structure of the proposed attenuator resulted in the derepression of ilvBN expression. Thus, it appears that C. crescentus uses attenuation to regulate the expression of the ilvBN operon. Images PMID:8206855

  16. Obtain osteoarthritis related molecular signature genes through regulation network.

    PubMed

    Li, Yawei; Wang, Bing; Lv, Guohua; Xiong, Guangzhong; Liu, Wei Dong; Li, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease or osteoarthrosis, is the most common form of arthritis. OA occurs when cartilage in the joints wears down over time. We used the GSE1919 series to identify potential genes that correlated to OA. The aim of our study was to obtain a molecular signature of OA through the regulation network based on differentially expressed genes. From the result of regulation network construction in OA, a number of transcription factors (TFs) and pathways closely related to OA were linked by our method. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ also arises as hub nodes in our transcriptome network and certain TFs containing CEBPD, EGR2 and ETS2 were shown to be related to OA by a previous study. PMID:21946934

  17. Down-Regulation of Gene Expression by RNA-Induced Gene Silencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travella, Silvia; Keller, Beat

    Down-regulation of endogenous genes via post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a key to the characterization of gene function in plants. Many RNA-based silencing mechanisms such as post-transcriptional gene silencing, co-suppression, quelling, and RNA interference (RNAi) have been discovered among species of different kingdoms (plants, fungi, and animals). One of the most interesting discoveries was RNAi, a sequence-specific gene-silencing mechanism initiated by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), homologous in sequence to the silenced gene, which triggers degradation of mRNA. Infection of plants with modified viruses can also induce RNA silencing and is referred to as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). In contrast to insertional mutagenesis, these emerging new reverse genetic approaches represent a powerful tool for exploring gene function and for manipulating gene expression experimentally in cereal species such as barley and wheat. We examined how RNAi and VIGS have been used to assess gene function in barley and wheat, including molecular mechanisms involved in the process and available methodological elements, such as vectors, inoculation procedures, and analysis of silenced phenotypes.

  18. Sequence and regulation of the porcine FSHR gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wangjun; Han, Jing; Cao, Rui; Zhang, Jinbi; Li, Bojiang; Liu, Zequn; Liu, Kaiqing; Li, Qifa; Pan, Zengxiang; Chen, Jie; Liu, Honglin

    2015-03-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a crucial role in animal reproduction and exerts its physiological functions by interacting with the FSH receptor (FSHR). The FSHR is exclusively expressed in granulose cells in the ovary and its expression level is closely related to granulose cell differentiation and follicle maturation. In mammal, most of the follicles undergo atresia, while follicle atresia is mainly caused by granulosa cell apoptosis. However, knowledge on the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of the porcine FSHR gene in granulosa cell is still limited. In this study, approximately 2.1kb of the proximal promoter sequence of the porcine FSHR gene were obtained by genome walking, and the regulatory elements and transcription factors in the porcine FSHR promoter sequence were predicted. Furthermore, the core promoter region (-1195/-598) of the porcine FSHR gene was identified using a luciferase assay. Subsequently, the relationship between expression levels of the porcine FSHR gene and histone H3K9 acetylation levels around the core promoter region (-787/-572) in vivo and invitro were analyzed. Our results showed that an increased FSHR gene expression level was accompanied with an increase in histone H3K9 acetylation levels, suggesting that histone H3K9 acetylation could regulate the expression of the porcine FSHR gene. PMID:25599592

  19. Tools for regulated gene expression in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Rochaix, Jean-David; Surzycki, Raymond; Ramundo, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has emerged as a very attractive model system for chloroplast genetic engineering. Algae can be transformed readily at the chloroplast level through bombardment of cells with a gene gun, and transformants can be selected using antibiotic resistance or phototrophic growth. An inducible chloroplast gene expression system could be very useful for several reasons. First, it could be used to elucidate the function of essential chloroplast genes required for cell growth and survival. Second, it could be very helpful for expressing proteins which are toxic to the algal cells. Third, it would allow for the reversible depletion of photosynthetic complexes thus making it possible to study their biogenesis in a controlled fashion. Fourth, it opens promising possibilities for hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas. Here we describe an inducible/repressible chloroplast gene expression system in Chlamydomonas in which the copper-regulated Cyc6 promoter drives the expression of the nuclear Nac2 gene encoding a protein which is targeted to the chloroplast where it acts specifically on the chloroplast psbD 5'-untranslated region and is required for the stable accumulation of the psbD mRNA and photosystem II. The system can be used for any chloroplast gene or transgene by placing it under the control of the psbD 5'-untranslated region. PMID:24599871

  20. P53 in human melanoma fails to regulate target genes associated with apoptosis and the cell cycle and may contribute to proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metastatic melanoma represents a major clinical problem. Its incidence continues to rise in western countries and there are currently no curative treatments. While mutation of the P53 tumour suppressor gene is a common feature of many types of cancer, mutational inactivation of P53 in melanoma is uncommon; however, its function often appears abnormal. Methods In this study whole genome bead arrays were used to examine the transcript expression of P53 target genes in extracts from 82 melanoma metastases and 6 melanoma cell lines, to provide a global assessment of aberrant P53 function. The expression of these genes was also examined in extracts derived from diploid human melanocytes and fibroblasts. Results The results indicated that P53 target transcripts involved in apoptosis were under-expressed in melanoma metastases and melanoma cell lines, while those involved in the cell cycle were over-expressed in melanoma cell lines. There was little difference in the transcript expression of P53 target genes between cell lines with null/mutant P53 compared to those with wild-type P53, suggesting that altered expression in melanoma was not related to P53 status. Similarly, down-regulation of P53 by short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) had limited effect on P53 target gene expression in melanoma cells, whereas there were a large number of P53 target genes whose mRNA expression was significantly altered by P53 inhibition in melanocytes. Analysis of whole genome gene expression profiles indicated that the ability of P53 to regulate genes involved in the cell cycle was significantly reduced in melanoma cells. Moreover, inhibition of P53 in melanocytes induced changes in gene expression profiles that were characteristic of melanoma cells and resulted in increased proliferation. Conversely, knockdown of P53 in melanoma cells resulted in decreased proliferation. Conclusions These results indicate that P53 target genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation are aberrantly

  1. Regulation of cry gene expression in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Peng, Qi; Song, Fuping; Lereclus, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis differs from the closely related Bacillus cereus group species by its ability to produce crystalline inclusions. The production of these crystals mainly results from the expression of the cry genes, from the stability of their transcripts and from the synthesis, accumulation and crystallization of large amounts of insecticidal Cry proteins. This process normally coincides with sporulation and is regulated by various factors operating at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, metabolic and post-translational levels. PMID:25055802

  2. Regulation of clock-controlled genes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Relógio, Angela; Kielbasa, Szymon M; Heine, Markus; Dame, Christof; Kramer, Achim; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of tissue- and day time-specific regulation of thousands of clock-controlled genes (CCGs) suggests that many regulatory mechanisms contribute to the transcriptional output of the circadian clock. We aim to predict these mechanisms using a large scale promoter analysis of CCGs.Our study is based on a meta-analysis of DNA-array data from rodent tissues. We searched in the promoter regions of 2065 CCGs for highly overrepresented transcription factor binding sites. In order to compensate the relatively high GC-content of CCG promoters, a novel background model to avoid a bias towards GC-rich motifs was employed. We found that many of the transcription factors with overrepresented binding sites in CCG promoters exhibit themselves circadian rhythms. Among the predicted factors are known regulators such as CLOCKratioBMAL1, DBP, HLF, E4BP4, CREB, RORalpha and the recently described regulators HSF1, STAT3, SP1 and HNF-4alpha. As additional promising candidates of circadian transcriptional regulators PAX-4, C/EBP, EVI-1, IRF, E2F, AP-1, HIF-1 and NF-Y were identified. Moreover, GC-rich motifs (SP1, EGR, ZF5, AP-2, WT1, NRF-1) and AT-rich motifs (MEF-2, HMGIY, HNF-1, OCT-1) are significantly overrepresented in promoter regions of CCGs. Putative tissue-specific binding sites such as HNF-3 for liver, NKX2.5 for heart or Myogenin for skeletal muscle were found. The regulation of the erythropoietin (Epo) gene was analysed, which exhibits many binding sites for circadian regulators. We provide experimental evidence for its circadian regulated expression in the adult murine kidney. Basing on a comprehensive literature search we integrate our predictions into a regulatory network of core clock and clock-controlled genes. Our large scale analysis of the CCG promoters reveals the complexity and extensiveness of the circadian regulation in mammals. Results of this study point to connections of the circadian clock to other functional systems including metabolism

  3. Defining human insulin-like growth factor I gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Aditi; Alzhanov, Damir; Rotwein, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays an essential role in controlling somatic growth and in regulating multiple physiological processes in humans and other species. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a conserved, secreted 70-amino acid peptide, is a critical mediator of many of the biological effects of GH. Previous studies have demonstrated that GH rapidly and potently promotes IGF-I gene expression in rodents and in some other mammals through the transcription factor STAT5b, leading to accumulation of IGF-I mRNAs and production of IGF-I. Despite this progress, very little is known about how GH or other trophic factors control human IGF1 gene expression, in large part because of the absence of any cellular model systems that robustly express IGF-I. Here, we have addressed mechanisms of regulation of human IGF-I by GH after generating cells in which the IGF1 chromosomal locus has been incorporated into a mouse cell line. Using this model, we found that physiological levels of GH rapidly stimulate human IGF1 gene transcription and identify several potential transcriptional enhancers in chromatin that bind STAT5b in a GH-regulated way. Each of the putative enhancers also activates a human IGF1 gene promoter in reconstitution experiments in the presence of the GH receptor, STAT5b, and GH. Thus we have developed a novel experimental platform that now may be used to determine how human IGF1 gene expression is controlled under different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27406741

  4. Regulators of gene expression in Enteric Neural Crest Cells are putative Hirschsprung disease genes.

    PubMed

    Schriemer, Duco; Sribudiani, Yunia; IJpma, Arne; Natarajan, Dipa; MacKenzie, Katherine C; Metzger, Marco; Binder, Ellen; Burns, Alan J; Thapar, Nikhil; Hofstra, Robert M W; Eggen, Bart J L

    2016-08-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is required for peristalsis of the gut and is derived from Enteric Neural Crest Cells (ENCCs). During ENS development, the RET receptor tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in the proliferation and survival of ENCCs, their migration along the developing gut, and differentiation into enteric neurons. Mutations in RET and its ligand GDNF cause Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), a complex genetic disorder in which ENCCs fail to colonize variable lengths of the distal bowel. To identify key regulators of ENCCs and the pathways underlying RET signaling, gene expression profiles of untreated and GDNF-treated ENCCs from E14.5 mouse embryos were generated. ENCCs express genes that are involved in both early and late neuronal development, whereas GDNF treatment induced neuronal maturation. Predicted regulators of gene expression in ENCCs include the known HSCR genes Ret and Sox10, as well as Bdnf, App and Mapk10. The regulatory overlap and functional interactions between these genes were used to construct a regulatory network that is underlying ENS development and connects to known HSCR genes. In addition, the adenosine receptor A2a (Adora2a) and neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 (Npy2r) were identified as possible regulators of terminal neuronal differentiation in GDNF-treated ENCCs. The human orthologue of Npy2r maps to the HSCR susceptibility locus 4q31.3-q32.3, suggesting a role for NPY2R both in ENS development and in HSCR. PMID:27266404

  5. Mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Luary C.; Vadyvaloo, Viveka

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are characterized by a dense multicellular community of microorganisms that can be formed by the attachment of bacteria to an inert surface and to each other. The development of biofilm involves the initial attachment of planktonic bacteria to a surface, followed by replication, cell-to-cell adhesion to form microcolonies, maturation, and detachment. Mature biofilms are embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix composed primarily of bacterial-derived exopolysaccharides, specialized proteins, adhesins, and occasionally DNA. Because the synthesis and assembly of biofilm matrix components is an exceptionally complex process, the transition between its different phases requires the coordinate expression and simultaneous regulation of many genes by complex genetic networks involving all levels of gene regulation. The finely controlled intracellular level of the chemical second messenger molecule, cyclic-di-GMP is central to the post-transcriptional mechanisms governing the switch between the motile planktonic lifestyle and the sessile biofilm forming state in many bacteria. Several other post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are known to dictate biofilm development and assembly and these include RNA-binding proteins, small non-coding RNAs, toxin-antitoxin systems, riboswitches, and RNases. Post-transcriptional regulation is therefore a powerful molecular mechanism employed by bacteria to rapidly adjust to the changing environment and to fine tune gene expression to the developmental needs of the cell. In this review, we discuss post-transcriptional mechanisms that influence the biofilm developmental cycle in a variety of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24724055

  6. mRNA modifications: Dynamic regulators of gene expression?

    PubMed Central

    Hoernes, Thomas Philipp; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Erlacher, Matthias David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The expression of a gene is a tightly regulated process and is exerted by a myriad of different mechanisms. Recently, RNA modifications located in coding sequences of mRNAs, have been identified as potential regulators of gene expression. N6-methyladenosine (m6A), 5-methylcytosine (m5C), pseudouridine (Ψ) and N1-methyladenosine (m1A) have been found within open reading frames of mRNAs. The presence of these mRNA modifications has been implicated to modulate the fate of an mRNA, ranging from maturation to its translation and even degradation. However, many aspects concerning the biological functions of mRNA modifications remain elusive. Recently, systematic in vitro studies allowed a first glimpse of the direct interplay of mRNA modifications and the efficiency and fidelity of ribosomal translation. It thereby became evident that the effects of mRNA modifications were, astonishingly versatile, depending on the type, position or sequence context. The incorporation of a single modification could either prematurely terminate protein synthesis, reduce the peptide yield or alter the amino acid sequence identity. These results implicate that mRNA modifications are a powerful mechanism to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. PMID:27351916

  7. Alternative RNA Structure-Coupled Gene Regulations in Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Alternative RNA structures (ARSs), or alternative transcript isoforms, are critical for regulating cellular phenotypes in humans. In addition to generating functionally diverse protein isoforms from a single gene, ARS can alter the sequence contents of 5'/3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and intronic regions, thus also affecting the regulatory effects of these regions. ARS may introduce premature stop codon(s) into a transcript, and render the transcript susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay, which in turn can influence the overall gene expression level. Meanwhile, ARS can regulate the presence/absence of upstream open reading frames and microRNA targeting sites in 5'UTRs and 3'UTRs, respectively, thus affecting translational efficiencies and protein expression levels. Furthermore, since ARS may alter exon-intron structures, it can influence the biogenesis of intronic microRNAs and indirectly affect the expression of the target genes of these microRNAs. The connections between ARS and multiple regulatory mechanisms underline the importance of ARS in determining cell fate. Accumulating evidence indicates that ARS-coupled regulations play important roles in tumorigenesis. Here I will review our current knowledge in this field, and discuss potential future directions. PMID:25551597

  8. Mechanical regulation of osteoclastic genes in human osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kreja, Ludwika Liedert, Astrid; Hasni, Sofia; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

    2008-04-11

    Bone adaptation to mechanical load is accompanied by changes in gene expression of bone-forming cells. Less is known about mechanical effects on factors controlling bone resorption by osteoclasts. Therefore, we studied the influence of mechanical loading on several key genes modulating osteoclastogenesis. Human osteoblasts were subjected to various cell stretching protocols. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate gene expression. Cell stretching resulted in a significant up-regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) immediate after intermittent loading (3 x 3 h, 3 x 6 h, magnitude 1%). Continuous loading, however, had no effect on RANKL expression. The expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), and osteoclast inhibitory lectin (OCIL) was not significantly altered. The data suggested that mechanical loading could influence osteoclasts recruitment by modulating RANKL expression in human osteoblasts and that the effects might be strictly dependent on the quality of loading.

  9. Methods and compositions for regulating gene expression in plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beachy, Roger N. (Inventor); Luis, Maria Isabel Ordiz (Inventor); Dai, Shunhong (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Novel chimeric plant promoter sequences are provided, together with plant gene expression cassettes comprising such sequences. In certain preferred embodiments, the chimeric plant promoters comprise the BoxII cis element and/or derivatives thereof. In addition, novel transcription factors are provided, together with nucleic acid sequences encoding such transcription factors and plant gene expression cassettes comprising such nucleic acid sequences. In certain preferred embodiments, the novel transcription factors comprise the acidic domain, or fragments thereof, of the RF2a transcription factor. Methods for using the chimeric plant promoter sequences and novel transcription factors in regulating the expression of at least one gene of interest are provided, together with transgenic plants comprising such chimeric plant promoter sequences and novel transcription factors.

  10. Virulence Gene Regulation by l-Arabinose in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    López-Garrido, Javier; Puerta-Fernández, Elena; Cota, Ignacio; Casadesús, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Invasion of the intestinal epithelium is a critical step in Salmonella enterica infection and requires functions encoded in the gene cluster known as Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1). Expression of SPI-1 genes is repressed by l-arabinose, and not by other pentoses. Transport of l-arabinose is necessary to repress SPI-1; however, repression is independent of l-arabinose metabolism and of the l-arabinose-responsive regulator AraC. SPI-1 repression by l-arabinose is exerted at a single target, HilD, and the mechanism appears to be post-translational. As a consequence of SPI-1 repression, l-arabinose reduces translocation of SPI-1 effectors to epithelial cells and decreases Salmonella invasion in vitro. These observations reveal a hitherto unknown role of l-arabinose in gene expression control and raise the possibility that Salmonella may use L-arabinose as an environmental signal. PMID:25991823

  11. The DEK oncoprotein and its emerging roles in gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Sandén, C; Gullberg, U

    2015-08-01

    The DEK oncogene is highly expressed in cells from most human tissues and overexpressed in a large and growing number of cancers. It also fuses with the NUP214 gene to form the DEK-NUP214 fusion gene in a subset of acute myeloid leukemia. Originally characterized as a member of this translocation, DEK has since been implicated in epigenetic and transcriptional regulation, but its role in these processes is still elusive and intriguingly complex. Similarly multifaceted is its contribution to cellular transformation, affecting multiple cellular processes such as self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. Recently, the roles of the DEK and DEK-NUP214 proteins have been elucidated by global analysis of DNA binding and gene expression, as well as multiple functional studies. This review outlines recent advances in the understanding of the basic functions of the DEK protein and its role in leukemogenesis. PMID:25765544

  12. Regulation of Rubisco gene expression in C4 plants.

    PubMed

    Berry, James O; Mure, Christopher M; Yerramsetty, Pradeep

    2016-06-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) incorporates inorganic carbon into an organic form, making this chloroplastic enzyme one of the most essential factors for all life on earth. Despite its central role in photosynthesis, research into regulation of the chloroplast rbcL and nuclear RbcS genes that encode this enzyme has lagged behind other plant gene systems. A major characteristic of kranz-type C4 plants is the accumulation of Rubisco only within chloroplasts of internalized bundle sheath cells that surround the leaf vascular centers. In plants that utilize the less common single cell C4 system, Rubisco accumulates only within one type of dimorphic chloroplasts localized to a specific region of leaf chlorenchyma cells. Understanding regulatory processes that restrict Rubisco gene expression to only one cell type or chloroplast type is a major focus of C4 research. Regulatory steps may include transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational processes. PMID:27026038

  13. slo K+ channel gene regulation mediates rapid drug tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, Alfredo; Al-Hasan, Yazan M.; Larios, Leo E.; Bohm, Rudolf A.; Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2004-12-01

    Changes in neural activity caused by exposure to drugs may trigger homeostatic mechanisms that attempt to restore normal neural excitability. In Drosophila, a single sedation with the anesthetic benzyl alcohol changes the expression of the slo K+ channel gene and induces rapid drug tolerance. We demonstrate linkage between these two phenomena by using a mutation and a transgene. A mutation that eliminates slo expression prevents tolerance, whereas expression from an inducible slo transgene mimics tolerance in naïve animals. The behavioral response to benzyl alcohol can be separated into an initial phase of hyperkinesis and a subsequent phase of sedation. The hyperkinetic phase causes a drop in slo gene expression and makes animals more sensitive to benzyl alcohol. It is the sedative phase that stimulates slo gene expression and induces tolerance. We demonstrate that the expression level of slo is a predictor of drug sensitivity. drug abuse | potassium channel | transcription regulation

  14. Systematic identification of signal-activated stochastic gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Neuert, Gregor; Munsky, Brian; Tan, Rui Zhen; Teytelman, Leonid; Khammash, Mustafa; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    Although much has been done to elucidate the biochemistry of signal transduction and gene regulatory pathways, it remains difficult to understand or predict quantitative responses. We integrate single-cell experiments with stochastic analyses, to identify predictive models of transcriptional dynamics for the osmotic stress response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We generate models with varying complexity and use parameter estimation and cross-validation analyses to select the most predictive model. This model yields insight into several dynamical features, including multistep regulation and switchlike activation for several osmosensitive genes. Furthermore, the model correctly predicts the transcriptional dynamics of cells in response to different environmental and genetic perturbations. Because our approach is general, it should facilitate a predictive understanding for signal-activated transcription of other genes in other pathways or organisms. PMID:23372015

  15. Sex chromosome complement regulates expression of mood-related genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    , sex-related factors differentially influence expression of genes linked to mood regulation in the frontal cortex. The main factor influencing expression of GABA-, serotonin-, and dopamine-related genes was sex chromosome complement, with an unexpected pro-disease effect in XY mice relative to XX mice. This effect was partially opposed by gonadal sex and circulating testosterone, although all three factors influenced signal transduction pathways in males. Since GABA, serotonin, and dopamine changes are also observed in other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, these findings have broader implications for the understanding of sexual dimorphism in adult psychopathology. PMID:24199867

  16. LEF-1 Regulates Tyrosinase Gene Transcription In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueping; Liu, Yalan; Chen, Hongsheng; Mei, Lingyun; He, Chufeng; Jiang, Lu; Niu, Zhijie; Sun, Jie; Luo, Hunjin; Li, Jiada; Feng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    TYR, DCT and MITF are three important genes involved in maintaining the mature phenotype and producing melanin; they therefore participate in neural crest cell development into melanocytes. Previous studies have revealed that the Wnt signaling factor lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (LEF-1) can enhance DCT and MITF gene expression. However, whether LEF-1 also affects TYR gene expression remains unclear. In the present study, we found that LEF-1 regulated TYR transcription in vitro. LEF-1 overexpression increased TYR gene promoter activity, whereas LEF-1 knockdown by RNA interference significantly decreased TYR expression. Moreover, the core GTTTGAT sequence (-56 to -50) within the TYR promoter is essential for the effect of LEF-1 on TYR expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay indicated that endogenous LEF-1 interacts with the TYR promoter. In addition, we observed a synergistic transactivation of the TYR promoter by LEF-1 and MITF. These data suggest that Wnt signaling plays an important role in regulating melanocyte development and differentiation. PMID:26580798

  17. Regulated expression of a vitellogenin fusion gene in transgenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Spieth, J; MacMorris, M; Broverman, S; Greenspoon, S; Blumenthal, T

    1988-11-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans the vitellogenin genes are expressed abundantly in the adult hermaphrodite intestine, but are otherwise silent. In order to begin to understand the mechanisms by which this developmental regulation occurs, we used the transformation procedure developed for C. elegans by A. Fire (EMBO. J., 1986, 5, 2673-2680) to obtain regulated expression of an introduced vitellogenin fusion gene. A plasmid with vit-2 upstream and coding sequences fused to coding and downstream sequences of vit-6 was injected into oocytes and stable transgenic strains were selected. We obtained seven independent strains, in which the plasmid DNA is integrated at a low copy number. All strains synthesize substantial amounts of a novel vitellogenin-like polypeptide of 155 kDa that accumulates in the intestine and pseudocoelom, but is not transported efficiently into oocytes. In two strains examined in detail the fusion gene is expressed with correct sex, tissue, and stage specificity. Thus we have demonstrated that the nematode transgenic system can give proper developmental expression of introduced genes and so can be used to identify DNA regulatory regions. PMID:3181632

  18. Osmotic Pressure Can Regulate Matrix Gene Expression in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Shmuel M.; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Mcloon, Anna; Chai, Liraz; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard; Weitz, David A

    2012-01-01

    Many bacteria organize themselves into structurally complex communities known as biofilms in which the cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. In general, the amount of extracellular matrix is related to the robustness of the biofilm. Yet, the specific signals that regulate the synthesis of matrix remain poorly understood. Here we show that the matrix itself can be a cue that regulates the expression of the genes involved in matrix synthesis in Bacillus subtilis. The presence of the exopolysaccharide component of the matrix causes an increase in osmotic pressure that leads to an inhibition of matrix gene expression. We further show that non-specific changes in osmotic pressure also inhibit matrix gene expression and do so by activating the histidine kinase KinD. KinD, in turn, directs the phosphorylation of the master regulatory protein Spo0A, which at high levels represses matrix gene expression. Sensing a physical cue such as osmotic pressure, in addition to chemical cues, could be a strategy to non-specifically coordinate the behavior of cells in communities composed of many different species. PMID:22882172

  19. Mucin 1 Regulates Cox-2 Gene in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Sritama; Roy, Lopamudra Das; Grover, Priyanka; Rao, Shanti; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eighty percent of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAs) overexpress mucin 1 (MUC1), a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein. MUC1high PDA patients also express high levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and show poor prognosis. The cytoplasmic tail of MUC1 (MUC1-CT) partakes in oncogenic signaling, resulting in accelerated cancer progression. Our aim was to understand the regulation of Cox-2 expression by MUC1. Methods Levels of COX-2 and MUC1 were determined in MUC1−/−, MUC1low, and MUC1high PDA cells and tumors using reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Proliferative and invasive potential was assessed using MTT and Boyden chamber assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to evaluate binding of MUC1-CT to the promoter of COX-2 gene. Results Significantly higher levels of COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected in MUC1high versus MUC1low/null cells, which were recapitulated in vivo. In addition, deletion of MUC1 gene and transient knockdown of MUC1 led to decreased COX-2 level. Also, MUC1-CT associated with the COX-2 promoter at ∼1000 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site, the same gene locus where nuclear factor κB p65 associates with the COX-2 promoter. Conclusions Data supports a novel regulation of COX-2 gene by MUC1 in PDA, the intervention of which may lead to a better therapeutic targeting in PDA patients. PMID:26035123

  20. Genes regulated by Kctd15 in the developing neural crest

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Thomas Chi Bun; Rebbert, Martha; Wang, Chengdong; Chen, Xiongfong; Heffer, Alison; Zarelli, Valeria E.; Dawid, Igor B.; Zhao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Neural crest (NC) development is controlled precisely by a regulatory network with multiple signaling pathways and the involvement of many genes. The integration and coordination of these factors are still incompletely understood. Overexpression of Wnt3a and the BMP antagonist Chordin in animal cap cells from Xenopus blastulae induces a large number of NC specific genes. We previously suggested that Potassium Channel Tetramerization Domain containing 15 (Kctd15) regulates NC formation by affecting Wnt signaling and the activity of transcription factor AP-2. In order to advance understanding of the function of Kctd15 during NC development, we performed DNA microarray assays in explants injected with Wnt3a and Chordin, and identify genes that are affected by overexpression of Kctd15. Among many genes identified we chose Duf domain containing protein 1(ddcp1), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor a (pdgfra), Complement factor properdin (cfp), Zinc Finger SWIM-Type Containing 5 (zswim5), and complement component 3 (C3) to examine their expression by whole mount in situ hybridization. Our work points to a possible role for Kctd15 in the regulation of NC formation and other steps in embryonic development. PMID:27389986

  1. Aberrant phenotype and transcriptome expression during fiber cell wall thickening caused by the mutation of the Im gene in immature fiber (im) mutant in Gossypium hirsutum L

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The immature fiber (im) mutant of Gossypium hirsutum L. is a special cotton fiber mutant with non-fluffy fibers. It has low dry weight and fineness of fibers due to developmental defects in fiber secondary cell wall (SCW). Results We compared the cellulose content in fibers, thickness of fiber cell wall and fiber transcriptional profiling during SCW development in im mutant and its near-isogenic wild-type line (NIL) TM-1. The im mutant had lower cellulose content and thinner cell walls than TM-1 at same fiber developmental stage. During 25 ~ 35 day post-anthesis (DPA), sucrose content, an important carbon source for cellulose synthesis, was also significantly lower in im mutant than in TM-1. Comparative analysis of fiber transcriptional profiling from 13 ~ 25 DPA indicated that the largest transcriptional variations between the two lines occurred at the onset of SCW development. TM-1 began SCW biosynthesis approximately at 16 DPA, whereas the same fiber developmental program in im mutant was delayed until 19 DPA, suggesting an asynchronous fiber developmental program between TM-1 and im mutant. Functional classification and enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two NILs indicated that genes associated with biological processes related to cellulose synthesis, secondary cell wall biogenesis, cell wall thickening and sucrose metabolism, respectively, were significantly up-regulated in TM-1. Twelve genes related to carbohydrate metabolism were validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and confirmed a temporal difference at the earlier transition and SCW biosynthesis stages of fiber development between TM-1 and im mutant. Conclusions We propose that Im is an important regulatory gene influencing temporal differences in expression of genes related to fiber SCW biosynthesis. This study lays a foundation for cloning the Im gene, elucidating molecular mechanism of fiber SCW development and further

  2. Social regulation of gene expression in human leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steve W; Hawkley, Louise C; Arevalo, Jesusa M; Sung, Caroline Y; Rose, Robert M; Cacioppo, John T

    2007-01-01

    Background Social environmental influences on human health are well established in the epidemiology literature, but their functional genomic mechanisms are unclear. The present study analyzed genome-wide transcriptional activity in people who chronically experienced high versus low levels of subjective social isolation (loneliness) to assess alterations in the activity of transcription control pathways that might contribute to increased adverse health outcomes in social isolates. Results DNA microarray analysis identified 209 genes that were differentially expressed in circulating leukocytes from 14 high- versus low-lonely individuals, including up-regulation of genes involved in immune activation, transcription control, and cell proliferation, and down-regulation of genes supporting mature B lymphocyte function and type I interferon response. Promoter-based bioinformatic analyses showed under-expression of genes bearing anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid response elements (GREs; p = 0.032) and over-expression of genes bearing response elements for pro-inflammatory NF-κB/Rel transcription factors (p = 0.011). This reciprocal shift in pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling was not attributable to differences in circulating cortisol levels, or to other demographic, psychological, or medical characteristics. Additional transcription control pathways showing differential activity in bioinformatic analyses included the CREB/ATF, JAK/STAT, IRF1, C/EBP, Oct, and GATA pathways. Conclusion These data provide the first indication that human genome-wide transcriptional activity is altered in association with a social epidemiological risk factor. Impaired transcription of glucocorticoid response genes and increased activity of pro-inflammatory transcription control pathways provide a functional genomic explanation for elevated risk of inflammatory disease in individuals who experience chronically high levels of subjective social isolation. PMID:17854483

  3. Regulation of the Protocadherin Celsr3 Gene and Its Role in Globus Pallidus Development and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhilian; Guo, Ya; Tang, Yuanxiao; Xu, Quan; Li, Baojie

    2014-01-01

    The globus pallidus (GP) is a central component of basal ganglia whose malfunctions cause a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as cognitive impairments in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Here we report that the protocadherin gene Celsr3 is regulated by the insulator CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and the repressor neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF, also known as REST) and is required for the development and connectivity of GP. Specifically, CTCF/cohesin and NRSF inhibit the expression of Celsr3 through specific binding to its promoter. In addition, we found that the Celsr3 promoter interacts with CTCF/cohesin-occupied neighboring promoters. In Celsr3 knockout mice, we found that the ventral GP is occupied by aberrant calbindin-positive cholinergic neurons ectopic from the nucleus basalis of Meynert. Furthermore, the guidepost cells for thalamocortical axonal development are missing in the caudal GP. Finally, axonal connections of GP with striatum, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and raphe are compromised. These data reveal the essential role of Celsr3 in GP development in the basal forebrain and shed light on the mechanisms of the axonal defects caused by the Celsr3 deletion. PMID:25113559

  4. MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Miyazaki, Jun; Nishizawa, Haruki; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Leach, Richard; Wang, Kai

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Impaired MTA3, raised CGB5 and Snail expression are associated with preeclampsia. •Knock-down of MTA3 causes up-regulation of CGB5 and Snail genes in BeWo cells. •MTA3 occupies CGB5 and Snail gene promoters in BeWo cells. -- Abstract: Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG β-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3

  5. Alu Elements as Novel Regulators of Gene Expression in Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility Genes?

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies implicating Alu repeat elements in various diseases, there is sparse information available with respect to the potential functional and biological roles of the repeat elements in Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Therefore, we performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of T1D candidate genes to identify embedded Alu elements within these genes. We observed significant enrichment of Alu elements within the T1D genes (p-value < 10e−16), which highlights their importance in T1D. Functional annotation of T1D genes harboring Alus revealed significant enrichment for immune-mediated processes (p-value < 10e−6). We also identified eight T1D genes harboring inverted Alus (IRAlus) within their 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that are known to regulate the expression of host mRNAs by generating double stranded RNA duplexes. Our in silico analysis predicted the formation of duplex structures by IRAlus within the 3'UTRs of T1D genes. We propose that IRAlus might be involved in regulating the expression levels of the host T1D genes. PMID:26184322

  6. Hormones in Synergy: Regulation of the Pituitary Gonadotropin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Thackray, Varykina G.; Mellon, Pamela L.; Coss, Djurdjica

    2009-01-01

    The precise interplay of hormonal influences that governs gonadotropin hormone production by the pituitary includes endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), activin and steroids. However, most studies of hormonal regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gonadotrope have been limited to analyses of the isolated actions of individual hormones. LHβ and FSHβ subunits have distinct patterns of expression during the menstrual/estrous cycle as a result of the integration of activin, GnRH, and steroid hormone action. In this review, we focus on studies that delineate the interplay among these hormones in the regulation of LHβ and FSHβ gene expression in gonadotrope cells and discuss how signaling cross-talk contributes to differential expression. We also discuss how recent technological advances will help identify additional factors involved in the differential hormonal regulation of LH and FSH. PMID:19747958

  7. Decorin gene expression and its regulation in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Velez-DelValle, Cristina; Marsch-Moreno, Meytha; Castro-Munozledo, Federico; Kuri-Harcuch, Walid

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} We showed that cultured human diploid epidermal keratinocytes express and synthesize decorin. {yields} Decorin is found intracytoplasmic in suprabasal cells of cultures and in human epidermis. {yields} Decorin mRNA expression in cHEK is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. {yields} Decorin immunostaining of psoriatic lesions showed a lower intensity and altered intracytoplasmic arrangements. -- Abstract: In various cell types, including cancer cells, decorin is involved in regulation of cell attachment, migration and proliferation. In skin, decorin is seen in dermis, but not in keratinocytes. We show that decorin gene (DCN) is expressed in the cultured keratinocytes, and the protein is found in the cytoplasm of differentiating keratinocytes and in suprabasal layers of human epidermis. RT-PCR experiments showed that DCN expression is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. Our data suggest that decorin should play a significant role in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, cutaneous homeostasis and dermatological diseases.

  8. Turning the gene tap off; implications of regulating gene expression for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, James F.; Candolfi, Marianela; Xiong, Weidong; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer poses a tremendous therapeutic challenge worldwide, highlighting the critical need for developing novel therapeutics. A promising cancer treatment modality is gene therapy, which is a form of molecular medicine designed to introduce into target cells genetic material with therapeutic intent. Anticancer gene therapy strategies currently used in preclinical models, and in some cases in the clinic, include proapoptotic genes, oncolytic/replicative vectors, conditional cytotoxic approaches, inhibition of angiogenesis, inhibition of growth factor signaling, inactivation of oncogenes, inhibition of tumor invasion and stimulation of the immune system. The translation of these novel therapeutic modalities from the preclinical setting to the clinic has been driven by encouraging preclinical efficacy data and advances in gene delivery technologies. One area of intense research involves the ability to accurately regulate the levels of therapeutic gene expression to achieve enhanced efficacy and provide the capability to switch gene expression off completely if adverse side effects should arise. This feature could also be implemented to switch gene expression off when a successful therapeutic outcome ensues. Here, we will review recent developments related to the engineering of transcriptional switches within gene delivery systems, which could be implemented in clinical gene therapy applications directed at the treatment of cancer. PMID:18347132

  9. Phasevarion mediated epigenetic gene regulation in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Gorrell, Rebecca J; Steen, Jason A; Gawthorne, Jayde A; Kwok, Terry; Grimmond, Sean M; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Jennings, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Many host-adapted bacterial pathogens contain DNA methyltransferases (mod genes) that are subject to phase-variable expression (high-frequency reversible ON/OFF switching of gene expression). In Haemophilus influenzae and pathogenic Neisseria, the random switching of the modA gene, associated with a phase-variable type III restriction modification (R-M) system, controls expression of a phase-variable regulon of genes (a "phasevarion"), via differential methylation of the genome in the modA ON and OFF states. Phase-variable type III R-M systems are also found in Helicobacter pylori, suggesting that phasevarions may also exist in this key human pathogen. Phylogenetic studies on the phase-variable type III modH gene revealed that there are 17 distinct alleles in H. pylori, which differ only in their DNA recognition domain. One of the most commonly found alleles was modH5 (16% of isolates). Microarray analysis comparing the wild-type P12modH5 ON strain to a P12ΔmodH5 mutant revealed that six genes were either up- or down-regulated, and some were virulence-associated. These included flaA, which encodes a flagella protein important in motility and hopG, an outer membrane protein essential for colonization and associated with gastric cancer. This study provides the first evidence of this epigenetic mechanism of gene expression in H. pylori. Characterisation of H. pylori modH phasevarions to define stable immunological targets will be essential for vaccine development and may also contribute to understanding H. pylori pathogenesis. PMID:22162751

  10. A Plant Gene Up-Regulated at Rust Infection Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ayliffe, Michael A.; Roberts, James K.; Mitchell, Heidi J.; Zhang, Ren; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Pryor, Tony J.

    2002-01-01

    Expression of the fis1 gene from flax (Linum usitatissimum) is induced by a compatible rust (Melampsora lini) infection. Infection of transgenic plants containing a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene under the control of the fis1 promoter showed that induction is highly localized to those leaf mesophyll cells within and immediately surrounding rust infection sites. The level of induction reflects the extent of fungal growth. In a strong resistance reaction, such as the hypersensitive fleck mediated by the L6 resistance gene, there is very little fungal growth and a microscopic level of GUS expression. Partially resistant flax leaves show levels of GUS expression that were intermediate to the level observed in the fully susceptible infection. Sequence and deletion analysis using both transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens expression and stable transformation assays have shown that the rust-inducible fis1 promoter is contained within a 580-bp fragment. Homologs of fis1 were identified in expressed sequence tag databases of a range of plant species including dicots, monocots, and a gymnosperm. Homologous genes isolated from maize (Zea mays; mis1), barley (Hordeum vulgare; bis1), wheat (Triticum aestivum; wis1), and Arabidopsis encode proteins that are highly similar (76%–82%) to the FIS1 protein. The Arabidopsis homologue has been reported to encode a Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase that is involved in the catabolism of proline to glutamate. RNA-blot analysis showed that mis1 in maize and the bis1 homolog in barley are both up-regulated by a compatible infection with the corresponding species-specific rust. The rust-induced genes homologous to fis1 are present in many plants. The promoters of these genes have potential roles for the engineering of synthetic rust resistance genes by targeting transgene expression to the sites of rust infection. PMID:12011348

  11. Regulation of collagen I gene expression by ras.

    PubMed Central

    Slack, J L; Parker, M I; Robinson, V R; Bornstein, P

    1992-01-01

    Although transformation of rodent fibroblasts can lead to dramatic changes in expression of extracellular matrix genes, the molecular basis and physiological significance of these changes remain poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism(s) by which ras affects expression of the genes encoding type I collagen. Levels of both alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) collagen mRNAs were markedly reduced in Rat 1 fibroblasts overexpressing either the N-rasLys-61 or the Ha-rasVal-12 oncogene. In fibroblasts conditionally transformed with N-rasLys-61, alpha 1(I) transcript levels began to decline within 8 h of ras induction and reached 1 to 5% of control levels after 96 h. In contrast, overexpression of normal ras p21 had no effect on alpha 1(I) or alpha 2(I) mRNA levels. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that the transcription rates of both the alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) genes were significantly reduced in ras-transformed cells compared with those in parental cells. In addition, the alpha 1(I) transcript was less stable in transformed cells. Chimeric plasmids containing up to 3.6 kb of alpha 1(I) 5'-flanking DNA and up to 2.3 kb of the 3'-flanking region were expressed at equivalent levels in both normal and ras-transformed fibroblasts. However, a cosmid clone containing the entire mouse alpha 1(I) gene, including 3.7 kb of 5'- and 4 kb of 3'-flanking DNA, was expressed at reduced levels in fibroblasts overexpressing oncogenic ras. We conclude that oncogenic ras regulates the type I collagen genes at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels and that this effect, at least for the alpha 1(I) gene, may be mediated by sequences located either within the body of the gene itself or in the distal 3'-flanking region. Images PMID:1406656

  12. The regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1996-09-15

    Despite 15 years of intensive research we still do not have an effective treatment for AIDS, the disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent research is, however, revealing some of the secrets of the replication cycle of this complex retrovirus, and this may lead to the development of novel antiviral compounds. In particular the virus uses strategies for gene expression that seem to be unique in the eukaryotic world. These involve the use of virally encoded regulatory proteins that mediate their effects through interactions with specific viral target sequences present in the messenger RNA rather than in the proviral DNA. If there are no cellular counterparts of these RNA-dependent gene-regulation pathways then they offer excellent targets for the development of antiviral compounds. The viral promoter is also subject to complex regulation by combinations of cellular factors that may be functional in different cell types and at different cell states. Selective interference of specific cellular factors may also provide a route to inhibiting viral replication without disrupting normal cellular functions. The aim of this review is to discuss the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression and, as far as it is possible, to relate the observations to viral pathogenesis. Some areas of research into the regulation of HIV-1 replication have generated controversy and rather than rehearsing this controversy we have imposed our own bias on the field. To redress the balance and to give a broader view of HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis we refer you to a number of excellent reviews [Cullen, B. R. (1992) Microbiol. Rev. 56, 375-394; Levy, J. A. (1993) Microbiol. Rev. 57, 183-394; Antoni, B. A., Stein, S. & Rabson, A. B. (1994) Adv. Virus Res. 43, 53-145; Rosen, C. A. & Fenyoe, E. M. (1995) AIDS (Phila.) 9, S1-S3]. PMID:8856047

  13. Regulation of the ansB gene of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Jennings, M P; Scott, S P; Beacham, I R

    1993-07-01

    The expression of L-asparaginase II (encoded by ansB) in Salmonella enterica was found to be positively regulated by the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) and anaerobiosis. The anaerobic regulation of the S. enterica ansB gene is not mediated by the anaerobic transcriptional activator FNR. This is unlike the situation of the ansB gene of Escherichia coli, which is dependent on both CRP and FNR. To investigate this fundamental difference in the regulation of L-asparaginase II expression in S. enterica, the ansB gene was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of the promoter region determined. Sequence analysis and transcript mapping of the 5' promoter region revealed a single transcriptional start point (tsp) and two regulatory sites with substantial homology with those found in E. coli. One site, centred -90.5 bp from the tsp, is homologous to a hybrid CRP/FNR ('CF') site which is the site of CRP regulation in the E. coli promoter. The other site, centred 40.5 bp upstream of the tsp, is homologous to the FNR binding site of the E. coli promoter. Significantly, however, a single base-pair difference exists in this site, at a position of the related CRP and FNR DNA-binding site consensus sequences known to be involved in CRP versus FNR specificity. Site-directed mutagenesis indicates that this single difference, relative to the homologous E. coli site, results in a CRP binding site and the observed FNR-independent ansB expression in S. enterica.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8412661

  14. ARID3B Directly Regulates Ovarian Cancer Promoting Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bobbs, Alexander; Gellerman, Katrina; Hallas, William Morgan; Joseph, Stancy; Yang, Chao; Kurkewich, Jeffrey; Cowden Dahl, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-binding protein AT-Rich Interactive Domain 3B (ARID3B) is elevated in ovarian cancer and increases tumor growth in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer. However, relatively little is known about ARID3B's function. In this study we perform the first genome wide screen for ARID3B direct target genes and ARID3B regulated pathways. We identified and confirmed numerous ARID3B target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR. Using motif-finding algorithms, we characterized a binding site for ARID3B, which is similar to the previously known site for the ARID3B paralogue ARID3A. Functionality of this predicted site was demonstrated by ChIP analysis. We next demonstrated that ARID3B induces expression of its targets in ovarian cancer cell lines. We validated that ARID3B binds to an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) enhancer and increases mRNA expression. ARID3B also binds to the promoter of Wnt5A and its receptor FZD5. FZD5 is highly expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines, and is upregulated by exogenous ARID3B. Both ARID3B and FZD5 expression increase adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components including collagen IV, fibronectin and vitronectin. ARID3B-increased adhesion to collagens II and IV require FZD5. This study directly demonstrates that ARID3B binds target genes in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in increased gene expression. Furthermore, our data indicate that ARID3B regulation of direct target genes in the Wnt pathway promotes adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26121572

  15. Structural Mechanisms of Peptide Recognition and Allosteric Modulation of Gene Regulation by the RRNPP Family of Quorum-Sensing Regulators.

    PubMed

    Do, Hackwon; Kumaraswami, Muthiah

    2016-07-17

    The members of RRNPP family of bacterial regulators sense population density-specific secreted oligopeptides and modulate the expression of genes involved in cellular processes, such as sporulation, competence, virulence, biofilm formation, conjugative plasmid transfer and antibiotic resistance. Signaling by RRNPP regulators include several steps: generation and secretion of the signaling oligopeptides, re-internalization of the signaling molecules into the cytoplasm, signal sensing by the cytosolic RRNPP regulators, signal-specific allosteric structural changes in the regulators, and interaction of the regulators with their respective regulatory target and gene regulation. The recently determined structures of the RRNPP regulators provide insight into the mechanistic aspects for several steps in this signaling circuit. In this review, we discuss the structural principles underlying peptide specificity, regulatory target recognition, and ligand-induced allostery in RRNPP regulators and its impact on gene regulation. Despite the conserved tertiary structure of these regulators, structural analyses revealed unexpected diversity in the mechanism of activation and molecular strategies that couple the peptide-induced allostery to gene regulation. Although these structural studies provide a sophisticated understanding of gene regulation by RRNPP regulators, much needs to be learned regarding the target DNA binding by yet-to-be characterized RNPP regulators and the several aspects of signaling by Rgg regulators. PMID:27283781

  16. Riboswitch-Mediated Gene Regulation: Novel RNA Architectures Dictate Gene Expression Responses.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Anna V; Henkin, Tina M

    2016-09-01

    Riboswitches are RNA elements that act on the mRNA with which they are cotranscribed to modulate expression of that mRNA. These elements are widely found in bacteria, where they have a broad impact on gene expression. The defining feature of riboswitches is that they directly recognize a physiological signal, and the resulting shift in RNA structure affects gene regulation. The majority of riboswitches respond to cellular metabolites, often in a feedback loop to repress synthesis of the enzymes used to produce the metabolite. Related elements respond to the aminoacylation status of a specific tRNA or to a physical parameter, such as temperature or pH. Recent studies have identified new classes of riboswitches and have revealed new insights into the molecular mechanisms of signal recognition and gene regulation. Application of structural and biophysical approaches has complemented previous genetic and biochemical studies, yielding new information about how different riboswitches operate. PMID:27607554

  17. Up-regulation of glucocorticoid-regulated genes in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nuber, Ulrike A; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas; Roloff, Tim C; Guy, Jacky; Selfridge, Jim; Steinhoff, Christine; Schulz, Ralph; Lipkowitz, Bettina; Ropers, H Hilger; Holmes, Megan C; Bird, Adrian

    2005-08-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe form of mental retardation, which is caused by spontaneous mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. How the loss of MeCP2 function leads to RTT is currently unknown. Mice lacking the Mecp2 gene initially show normal postnatal development but later acquire neurological phenotypes, including heightened anxiety, that resemble RTT. The MECP2 gene encodes a methyl-CpG-binding protein that can act as a transcriptional repressor. Using cDNA microarrays, we found that Mecp2-null animals differentially express several genes that are induced during the stress response by glucocorticoids. Increased levels of mRNAs for serum glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk) and FK506-binding protein 51 (Fkbp5) were observed before and after onset of neurological symptoms, but plasma glucocorticoid was not significantly elevated in Mecp2-null mice. MeCP2 is bound to the Fkbp5 and Sgk genes in brain and may function as a modulator of glucocorticoid-inducible gene expression. Given the known deleterious effect of glucocorticoid exposure on brain development, our data raise the possibility that disruption of MeCP2-dependent regulation of stress-responsive genes contributes to the symptoms of RTT. PMID:16002417

  18. Synthetic RNAs for Gene Regulation: Design Principles and Computational Tools

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Alessandro; Shasha, Dennis; Croce, Carlo Maria

    2014-01-01

    The use of synthetic non-coding RNAs for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression has not only become a standard laboratory tool for gene functional studies but it has also opened up new perspectives in the design of new and potentially promising therapeutic strategies. Bioinformatics has provided researchers with a variety of tools for the design, the analysis, and the evaluation of RNAi agents such as small-interfering RNA (siRNA), short-hairpin RNA (shRNA), artificial microRNA (a-miR), and microRNA sponges. More recently, a new system for genome engineering based on the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), was shown to have the potential to also regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in a more specific way. In this mini review, we present RNAi and CRISPRi design principles and discuss the advantages and limitations of the current design approaches. PMID:25566532

  19. Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene RAD16.

    PubMed Central

    Bang, D D; Timmermans, V; Verhage, R; Zeeman, A M; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

    1995-01-01

    The RAD16 gene product has been shown to be essential for the repair of the silenced mating type loci [Bang et al. (1992) Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 3925-3931]. More recently we demonstrated that the RAD16 and RAD7 proteins are also required for repair of non-transcribed strands of active genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Waters et al. (1993) Mol. Gen. Genet. 239, 28-32]. We have studied the regulation of the RAD16 gene and found that the RAD16 transcript levels increased up to 7-fold upon UV irradiation. Heat shock at 42 degrees C also results in elevated levels of RAD16 mRNA. In sporulating MAT alpha/MATa diploid cells RAD16 mRNA is also induced. The basal level of the RAD16 transcript is constant during the mitotic cell cycle. G1-arrested cells show normal induction of RAD16 mRNA upon UV irradiation demonstrating that the induction is not a secondary consequence of G2 cell cycle arrest following UV irradiation. However, in cells arrested in G1 the induction of RAD16 mRNA after UV irradiation is not followed by a rapid decline as occurs in normal growing cells suggesting that the down regulation of RAD16 transcription is dependent on progression into the cell cycle. Images PMID:7784171

  20. Gene regulation during cold stress acclimation in plants.

    PubMed

    Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Sunkar, Ramanjulu

    2010-01-01

    Cold stress adversely affects plant growth and development and thus limits crop productivity. Diverse plant species tolerate cold stress to a varying degree, which depends on reprogramming gene expression to modify their physiology, metabolism, and growth. Cold signal in plants is transmitted to activate CBF-dependent (C-repeat/drought-responsive element binding factor-dependent) and CBF-independent transcriptional pathway, of which CBF-dependent pathway activates CBF regulon. CBF transcription factor genes are induced by the constitutively expressed ICE1 (inducer of CBF expression 1) by binding to the CBF promoter. ICE1-CBF cold response pathway is conserved in diverse plant species. Transgenic analysis in different plant species revealed that cold tolerance can be significantly enhanced by genetic engineering CBF pathway. Posttranscriptional regulation at pre-mRNA processing and export from nucleus plays a role in cold acclimation. Small noncoding RNAs, namely micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are emerging as key players of posttranscriptional gene silencing. Cold stress-regulated miRNAs have been identified in Arabidopsis and rice. In this chapter, recent advances on cold stress signaling and tolerance are highlighted. PMID:20387039

  1. Identification and Characterization of Clostridium sordellii Toxin Gene Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Sirigi Reddy, Apoorva Reddy; Girinathan, Brintha Parasumanna; Zapotocny, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Toxigenic Clostridium sordellii causes uncommon but highly lethal infections in humans and animals. Recently, an increased incidence of C. sordellii infections has been reported in women undergoing obstetric interventions. Pathogenic strains of C. sordellii produce numerous virulence factors, including sordellilysin, phospholipase, neuraminidase, and two large clostridial glucosylating toxins, TcsL and TcsH. Recent studies have demonstrated that TcsL toxin is an essential virulence factor for the pathogenicity of C. sordellii. In this study, we identified and characterized TcsR as the toxin gene (tcsL) regulator in C. sordellii. High-throughput sequencing of two C. sordellii strains revealed that tcsR lies within a genomic region that encodes TcsL, TcsH, and TcsE, a putative holin. By using ClosTron technology, we inactivated the tcsR gene in strain ATCC 9714. Toxin production and tcsL transcription were decreased in the tcsR mutant strain. However, the complemented tcsR mutant produced large amounts of toxins, similar to the parental strain. Expression of the Clostridium difficile toxin gene regulator tcdR also restored toxin production to the C. sordellii tcsR mutant, showing that these sigma factors are functionally interchangeable. PMID:23873908

  2. Neighboring Gene Regulation by Antisense Long Non-Coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Victoria E.; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Antisense transcription, considered until recently as transcriptional noise, is a very common phenomenon in human and eukaryotic transcriptomes, operating in two ways based on whether the antisense RNA acts in cis or in trans. This process can generate long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), one of the most diverse classes of cellular transcripts, which have demonstrated multifunctional roles in fundamental biological processes, including embryonic pluripotency, differentiation and development. Antisense lncRNAs have been shown to control nearly every level of gene regulation—pretranscriptional, transcriptional and posttranscriptional—through DNA–RNA, RNA–RNA or protein–RNA interactions. This review is centered on functional studies of antisense lncRNA-mediated regulation of neighboring gene expression. Specifically, it addresses how these transcripts interact with other biological molecules, nucleic acids and proteins, to regulate gene expression through chromatin remodeling at the pretranscriptional level and modulation of transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes by altering the sense mRNA structure or the cellular compartmental distribution, either in the nucleus or the cytoplasm. PMID:25654223

  3. Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthetic Genes in Germinating Arabidopsis Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Kubasek, WL; Shirley, BW; McKillop, A; Goodman, HM; Briggs, W; Ausubel, FM

    1992-01-01

    Many higher plants, including Arabidopsis, transiently display purple anthocyanin pigments just after seed germination. We observed that steady state levels of mRNAs encoded by four flavonoid biosynthetic genes, PAL1 (encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1), CHS (encoding chalcone synthase), CHI (encoding chalcone isomerase), and DFR (encoding dihydroflavonol reductase), were temporally regulated, peaking in 3-day-old seedlings grown in continuous white light. Except for the case of PAL1 mRNA, mRNA levels for these flavonoid genes were very low in seedlings grown in darkness. Light induction studies using seedlings grown in darkness showed that PAL1 mRNA began to accumulate before CHS and CHI mRNAs, which, in turn, began to accumulate before DFR mRNA. This order of induction is the same as the order of the biosynthetic steps in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is coordinately regulated by a developmental timing mechanism during germination. Blue light and UVB light induction experiments using red light- and dark-grown seedlings showed that the flavonoid biosynthetic genes are induced most effectively by UVB light and that blue light induction is mediated by a specific blue light receptor. PMID:12297632

  4. Evidence for differential regulation of genes in the chondroitin sulfate utilization pathway of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    PubMed Central

    Hwa, V; Salyers, A A

    1992-01-01

    Expression of the chondroitin sulfate utilization (csu) genes of Bacterioides thetaiotaomicron is regulated by chondroitin sulfate. We have now found, however, that the csu genes are not all regulated in the same way. In particular, the gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (csuE) is expressed under two different conditions that do not lead to expression of other csu genes. PMID:1729221

  5. The Discoidin I Gene Family of Dictyostelium Discoideum Is Linked to Genes Regulating Its Expression

    PubMed Central

    Welker, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The discoidin I protein has been studied extensively as a marker of early development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. However, like most other developmentally regulated proteins in this system, no reliable information was available on the linkage of the discoidin genes to other known genes. Analysis of the linkage of the discoidin I genes by use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed that all three discoidin I genes as well as a pseudogene are located on linkage group II. This evidence is consistent with the discoidin I genes forming a gene cluster that may be under the control of a single regulatory element. The discoidin I genes are linked to three genetic loci (disA, motA, daxA) that affect the expression of the discoidin I protein. Linkage of the gene family members to regulatory loci may be important in the coordinate maintenance of the gene family and regulatory loci. A duplication affecting the entire discoidin gene family is also linked to group II; this appears to be a small tandem duplication. This duplication was mapped using a DNA polymorphism generated by insertion of the Tdd-3 mobile genetic element into a Tdd-2 element flanking the γ gene. A probe for Tdd-2 identified a restriction fragment length polymorphism in strain AX3K that was consistent with generation by a previously proposed Tdd-3 insertion event. A putative duplication or rearrangement of a second Tdd-2 element on linkage group IV of strain AX3K was also identified. This is the first linkage information available for mobile genetic elements in D. discoideum. PMID:3402731

  6. Identification of sodium chloride-regulated genes in Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Shantanu; Weingart, Christine L

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have elevated sodium chloride (NaCl) levels due to the malfunctioning of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein. For bacteria to survive in this high-salt environment, they must adjust by altering the regulation of gene expression. Among the different bacteria inhabiting the airways of CF patients is the opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia. Previous studies have indicated that B. cenocepacia produces a toxin and cable pili under high osmolar conditions. We used transposon mutagenesis to identify NaCl-regulated genes in the clinical strain B. cenocepacia K56-2. Six transconjugants were induced with increasing NaCl concentration. The DNA flanking the transposon was sequenced and five distinct open reading frames were identified encoding the following putative proteins: an integrase, an NAD-dependent deacetylase, TolB, an oxidoreductase, and a novel hypothetical protein. The collective results of this study provide important information about the physiology of B. cenocepacia when faced with osmotic stress and suggest the identity of significant virulence mechanisms in this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:18288523

  7. The Aberration Corrected SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, David C.

    2005-09-09

    The performance of the conventional low-energy CD-SEM is limited by the aberrations inherent in the probe forming lens. Multi-pole correctors are now available which can reduce or eliminate these aberrations. An SEM equipped with such a corrector offers higher spatial resolution and more probe current from a given electron source, and other aspects of the optical performance are also improved, but the much higher numerical aperture associated with an aberration corrected lens results in a reduction in imaging depth of field.

  8. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Reveals that Cyclo-oxygenase-2 Gene Therapy Up-regulates Hematopoiesis and Down-regulates Inflammation During Endochondral Bone Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Lau, K.-H. William; Popa, Nicoleta L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is an inflammatory mediator that is necessary for the tissue repair, including bone fracture healing. Although the application of Cox-2 gene therapy to a murine closed femoral fracture has accelerated bony union, but the beneficial effect was not observed until the endochondral stage of bone repair that is well after the inflammatory stage normally subsides. Methods To identify the molecular pathways through which Cox-2 regulates fracture healing, we examined gene expression profile in fracture tissues in response to Cox-2 gene therapy during the endochondral bone repair phase. Cox-2 gene therapy was applied to the closed murine femur fracture model. Microarray analysis was performed at 10 days post-fracture to examine global gene expression profile in the fracture tissues during the endochondral bone repair phase. The entire repertoire of significantly expressed genes was examined by gene set enrichment analysis, and the most up-regulated individual genes were evaluated further. Results The genes that normally promote inflammation were under-represented in the microarray analysis, and the expression of several inflammatory chemokines was significantly down-regulated. There was an up-regulation of two key transcription factor genes that regulate hematopoiesis and erythropoiesis. More surprisingly, there was no significant up-regulation in the genes that are normally involved in angiogenesis or bone formation. However, the expression of two tissue remodeling genes was up-regulated. Conclusions The down-regulation of the inflammatory genes in response to Cox-2 gene therapy was unexpected, given the pro-inflammatory role of prostaglandins. Cox-2 gene therapy could promote bony union through hematopoietic precursor proliferation during endochondral bone repair and thereby enhances subsequently fracture callus remodeling that leads to bony union of the fracture gap. PMID:25247155

  9. Comparative studies of gene expression and the evolution of gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Irene Gallego; Ruvinsky, Ilya; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that differences in gene regulation play an important role in speciation and adaptation is more than 40 years old. With the advent of new sequencing technologies, we are able to characterize and study gene expression levels and associated regulatory mechanisms in a large number of individuals and species at unprecedented resolution and scale. We have thus gained new insights into the evolutionary pressures that shape gene expression levels, as well as developed an appreciation for the relative importance of evolutionary changes in different regulatory genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The current challenge is to link gene regulatory changes to adaptive evolution of complex phenotypes. Here we mainly focus on comparative studies in primates, and how they are complemented by studies in model organisms. PMID:22705669

  10. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    PubMed Central

    Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-01-01

    Here we characterize the low noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: there exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction. PMID:25768447

  11. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre F.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-02-01

    Here we characterize the low-noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: There exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of the genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction.

  12. Circuit-level input integration in bacterial gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Espinar, Lorena; Dies, Marta; Cagatay, Tolga; Süel, Gürol M; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2013-04-23

    Gene regulatory circuits can receive multiple simultaneous inputs, which can enter the system through different locations. It is thus necessary to establish how these genetic circuits integrate multiple inputs as a function of their relative entry points. Here, we use the dynamic circuit regulating competence for DNA uptake in Bacillus subtilis as a model system to investigate this issue. Specifically, we map the response of single cells in vivo to a combination of (i) a chemical signal controlling the constitutive expression of key competence genes, and (ii) a genetic perturbation in the form of copy number variation of one of these genes, which mimics the level of stress signals sensed by the bacteria. Quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy shows that a variety of dynamical behaviors can be reached by the combination of the two inputs. Additionally, the integration depends strongly on the relative locations where the two perturbations enter the circuit. Specifically, when the two inputs act upon different circuit elements, their integration generates novel dynamical behavior, whereas inputs affecting the same element do not. An in silico bidimensional bifurcation analysis of a mathematical model of the circuit offers good quantitative agreement with the experimental observations, and sheds light on the dynamical mechanisms leading to the different integrated responses exhibited by the gene regulatory circuit. PMID:23572583

  13. Pitx2 Regulates Procollagen Lysyl Hydroxylase (Plod) Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hjalt, Tord A.; Amendt, Brad A.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2001-01-01

    The Rieger syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by ocular, craniofacial, and umbilical defects. Patients have mutations in PITX2, a paired-bicoid homeobox gene, also involved in left/right polarity determination. In this study we have identified a family of genes for enzymes responsible for hydroxylizing lysines in collagens as one group of likely cognate targets of PITX2 transcriptional regulation. The mouse procollagen lysyl hydroxylase (Plod)-2 gene was enriched for by chromatin precipitation using a PITX2/Pitx2-specific antibody. Plod-2, as well as the human PLOD-1 promoters, contains multiple bicoid (PITX2) binding elements. We show these elements to bind PITX2 specifically in vitro. The PLOD-1 promoter induces the expression of a luciferase reporter gene in the presence of PITX2 in cotransfection experiments. The Rieger syndrome causing PITX2 mutant T68P fails to induce PLOD-1–luciferase. Mutations and rearrangements in PLOD-1 are known to be prevalent in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliosis type (type VI [EDVI]). Several of the same organ systems are involved in Rieger syndrome and EDVI. PMID:11157981

  14. Regulation of global gene expression and cell proliferation by APP.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Si; Xu, Qin; Zou, Haiyan; Zhou, Weihui; Cai, Fang; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is one of the most common genetic disorders. Patients with DS display growth retardation and inevitably develop characteristic Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is increased in both DS and AD patients. To reveal the function of APP and elucidate the pathogenic role of increased APP expression in DS and AD, we performed gene expression profiling using microarray method in human cells overexpressing APP. A set of genes are significantly altered, which are involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and p53 signaling. We found that overexpression of APP inhibits cell proliferation. Furthermore, we confirmed that the downregulation of two validated genes, PSMA5 and PSMB7, inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that the downregulation of PSMA5 and PSMB7 is involved in APP-induced cell proliferation impairment. Taken together, this study suggests that APP regulates global gene expression and increased APP expression inhibits cell proliferation. Our study provides a novel insight that APP overexpression may contribute to the growth impairment in DS patients and promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation including neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. PMID:26936520

  15. Regulation of global gene expression and cell proliferation by APP

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Si; Xu, Qin; Zou, Haiyan; Zhou, Weihui; Cai, Fang; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is one of the most common genetic disorders. Patients with DS display growth retardation and inevitably develop characteristic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is increased in both DS and AD patients. To reveal the function of APP and elucidate the pathogenic role of increased APP expression in DS and AD, we performed gene expression profiling using microarray method in human cells overexpressing APP. A set of genes are significantly altered, which are involved in cell cycle, cell proliferation and p53 signaling. We found that overexpression of APP inhibits cell proliferation. Furthermore, we confirmed that the downregulation of two validated genes, PSMA5 and PSMB7, inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that the downregulation of PSMA5 and PSMB7 is involved in APP-induced cell proliferation impairment. Taken together, this study suggests that APP regulates global gene expression and increased APP expression inhibits cell proliferation. Our study provides a novel insight that APP overexpression may contribute to the growth impairment in DS patients and promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation including neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. PMID:26936520

  16. Identification of genes regulated by UV/salicylic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Watson, C.; Milton, J.; Oryhon, J.; Salbego, D.; Milosavljevic, A.; Woloschak, G. E.; CuraGen Corp.

    2000-02-01

    Purpose : Previous work from the authors' group and others has demonstrated that some of the effects of UV irradiation on gene expression are modulated in response to the addition of salicylic acid to irradiated cells. The presumed effector molecule responsible for this modulation is NF-kappaB. In the experiments described here, differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify those cDNAs that are differentially modulated by UV radiation with and without the addition of salicylic acid. Materials and methods : Differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Results : Eight such cDNAs are presented: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-beta), nuclear encoded mitochondrial NADH ubiquinone reductase 24kDa (NDUFV2), elongation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B), nuclear dots protein SP100, nuclear encoded mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor (IF1), a cDNA similar to a subunit of yeast CCAAT transcription factor HAP5, and two expressed sequence tags (AA187906 and AA513156). Conclusions : Sequences of four of these genes contained NF-kappaB DNA binding sites of the type that may attract transrepressor p55/p55 NF-kappaB homodimers. Down-regulation of these genes upon UV irradiation may contribute to increased cell survival via suppression of p53 independent apoptosis.

  17. Glycerophosphorylcholine regulates Haemophilus influenzae glpQ gene expression.

    PubMed

    Alrousan, Enas; Fan, Xin

    2015-05-01

    An important virulence strategy adopted by Haemophilus influenzae to establish a niche on the mucosal surface of the host is the phosphorylcholine (ChoP) decoration of its lipopolysaccharides, which promotes adherence to the host cells. Haemophilus influenzae is able to use glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) from host for ChoP synthesis. Utilization of GPC requires glpQ, which encodes a glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase enzyme. In this study, we investigate the transcriptional regulation of glpQ gene using real-time PCR and transcriptional fusion of H. influenzae glpQ promoter to the Escherichia coli lacZ reporter gene. The glpQ promoter activities were examined under environmental conditions including changes in temperature, oxygen, high salt and minimal growth medium. Our data showed that under room temperature and anaerobic conditions, the glpQ gene expression levels were significantly higher than under other growth conditions. In addition, the glpQ gene expression levels were upregulated in the presence of GPC. These results suggest that H. influenzae may upregulate glpQ expression in response to different environments it encounters during infection, from the airway surfaces (room temperature) to deep tissues (anaerobic). Upregulation of glpQ by GPC may allow efficient use of abundant GPC from mammalian cells by H. influenzae as a source of nutrient and for ChoP decoration of lipopolysaccharide that facilitates bacterial adhesion to host cells and growth during infection. PMID:25837816

  18. Light regulation of gene expression in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, E.M.; Silverthorne, J.

    1985-01-01

    In this review areas of currently active research are considered which have demonstrated that a plant's response to light involves changes in the expression of specific genes at the level of RNA. The regulation of gene expression by phytochrome and the UV-sensitive photoreceptor have been studied most extensively at the molecular level, and this review particularly focuses on such studies in higher plants. Some of the observations made on the differences in gene expression between light-grown and dark-grown plants are also included, although the photoreceptor(s) responsible for the differences may not have been ascertained. In some of these cases, phytochrome involvement has been or may be demonstrated in later studies, while in others the observed differences may be a result of the action of other photoreceptors or of multiple light-affected processes. One such process is the development of chloroplasts, a major developmental step triggered by light in angiosperms. In addition, many of the genes whose expression is changed by light and which have been studied at a molecular level encode chloroplast proteins. 156 references.

  19. Coherent organization in gene regulation: a study on six networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aral, Neşe; Kabakçıoğlu, Alkan

    2016-04-01

    Structural and dynamical fingerprints of evolutionary optimization in biological networks are still unclear. Here we analyze the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks responsible for the regulation of cell cycle and cell differentiation in three organisms or cell types each, and show that they follow a version of Hebb's rule which we have termed coherence. More precisely, we find that simultaneously expressed genes with a common target are less likely to act antagonistically at the attractors of the regulatory dynamics. We then investigate the dependence of coherence on structural parameters, such as the mean number of inputs per node and the activatory/repressory interaction ratio, as well as on dynamically determined quantities, such as the basin size and the number of expressed genes.

  20. [Strategies for regulating multiple genes in microbial cell factories].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianyi; Li, Lixiang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2010-10-01

    Microbial metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are important disciplines of microbial technology nowadays. Microbial cells are fast growing, easy to be cultivated in large scale, clear in genetic background and convenient in genetic modification. They play an important role in many domains. Microbial cell factory means an artificial microbial metabolic system that can be used in chemical production. The construction of a microbial cell factory needs transferring of multiple genes or a whole metabolic pathway, which may cause some problems such as metabolism imbalance and accumulation of mesostates. This review focuses on the regulation strategies of different levels involving simultaneous engagement of multiple genes. Future perspectives on the development of this domain were also discussed. PMID:21218630

  1. Coherent organization in gene regulation: a study on six networks.

    PubMed

    Aral, Neşe; Kabakçıoğlu, Alkan

    2016-01-01

    Structural and dynamical fingerprints of evolutionary optimization in biological networks are still unclear. Here we analyze the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks responsible for the regulation of cell cycle and cell differentiation in three organisms or cell types each, and show that they follow a version of Hebb's rule which we have termed coherence. More precisely, we find that simultaneously expressed genes with a common target are less likely to act antagonistically at the attractors of the regulatory dynamics. We then investigate the dependence of coherence on structural parameters, such as the mean number of inputs per node and the activatory/repressory interaction ratio, as well as on dynamically determined quantities, such as the basin size and the number of expressed genes. PMID:27171925

  2. Ribozymes, riboswitches and beyond: regulation of gene expression without proteins

    PubMed Central

    Serganov, Alexander; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Although various functions of RNA are carried out in conjunction with proteins, some catalytic RNAs, or ribozymes, which contribute to a range of cellular processes, require little or no assistance from proteins. Furthermore, the discovery of metabolite-sensing riboswitches and other types of RNA sensors has revealed RNA-based mechanisms that cells use to regulate gene expression in response to internal and external changes. Structural studies have shown how these RNAs can carry out a range of functions. In addition, the contribution of ribozymes and riboswitches to gene expression is being revealed as far more widespread than was previously appreciated. These findings have implications for understanding how cellular functions might have evolved from RNA-based origins. PMID:17846637

  3. Genes Regulating Epithelial Polarity Are Critical Suppressors of Esophageal Oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Li-Li; Zhao, Run-Zhen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is an aggressive disease featured by early lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, and is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The proper formation of apicobasal polarity is essential for normal epithelium physiology and tissue homeostasis, while loss of polarity is a hallmark of cancer development including esophageal oncogenesis. In this review, we summarized the stages of esophageal cancer development associated with the loss or deregulation of epithelial cell apicobasal polarity. Loss of epithelial apicobasal polarity exerts an indispensable role in the initiation of esophageal oncogenesis, tumor progression, and the advancement of tumors from benign to malignant. In particular, we reviewed the involvement of several critical genes, including Lkb1, claudin-4, claudin-7, Par3, Lgl1, E-cadherin, and the Scnn1 gene family. Understanding the role of apicobasal regulators may lead to new paradigms for treatment of esophageal tumors, including improvement of prognostication, early diagnosis, and individually tailored therapeutic interventions in esophageal oncology. PMID:26185530

  4. MicroRNA-regulated viral vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Anja; Fechner, Henry

    2016-05-20

    Safe and effective gene therapy approaches require targeted tissue-specific transfer of a therapeutic transgene. Besides traditional approaches, such as transcriptional and transductional targeting, microRNA-dependent post-transcriptional suppression of transgene expression has been emerging as powerful new technology to increase the specificity of vector-mediated transgene expression. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs and often expressed in a tissue-, lineage-, activation- or differentiation-specific pattern. They typically regulate gene expression by binding to imperfectly complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA. To control exogenous transgene expression, tandem repeats of artificial microRNA target sites are usually incorporated into the 3' UTR of the transgene expression cassette, leading to subsequent degradation of transgene mRNA in cells expressing the corresponding microRNA. This targeting strategy, first shown for lentiviral vectors in antigen presenting cells, has now been used for tissue-specific expression of vector-encoded therapeutic transgenes, to reduce immune response against the transgene, to control virus tropism for oncolytic virotherapy, to increase safety of live attenuated virus vaccines and to identify and select cell subsets for pluripotent stem cell therapies, respectively. This review provides an introduction into the technical mechanism underlying microRNA-regulation, highlights new developments in this field and gives an overview of applications of microRNA-regulated viral vectors for cardiac, suicide gene cancer and hematopoietic stem cell therapy, as well as for treatment of neurological and eye diseases. PMID:27226955

  5. Lipocalin 2: a new mechanoresponding gene regulating bone homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rucci, Nadia; Capulli, Mattia; Piperni, Sara Gemini; Cappariello, Alfredo; Lau, Patrick; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Heer, Martina; Teti, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical loading represents a crucial factor in the regulation of skeletal homeostasis. Its reduction causes loss of bone mass, eventually leading to osteoporosis. In a previous global transcriptome analysis performed in mouse calvarial osteoblasts subjected to simulated microgravity, the most upregulated gene compared to unit gravity condition was Lcn2, encoding the adipokine Lipocalin 2 (LCN2), whose function in bone metabolism is poorly known. To investigate the mechanoresponding properties of LCN2, we evaluated LCN2 levels in sera of healthy volunteers subjected to bed rest, and found a significant time-dependent increase of this adipokine compared to time 0. We then evaluated the in vivo LCN2 regulation in mice subjected to experimentally-induced mechanical unloading by (1) tail suspension, (2) muscle paralysis by botulin toxin A (Botox), or (3) genetically-induced muscular dystrophy (MDX mice), and observed that Lcn2 expression was upregulated in the long bones of all of them, whereas physical exercise counteracted this increase. Mechanistically, in primary osteoblasts transfected with LCN2-expression-vector (OBs-Lcn2) we observed that Runx2 and its downstream genes, Osterix and Alp, were transcriptionally downregulated, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was less prominent versus empty-vector transduced osteoblasts (OBs-empty). OBs-Lcn2 also exhibited an increase of the Rankl/Opg ratio and IL-6 mRNA, suggesting that LCN2 could link poor differentiation of osteoblasts to enhanced osteoclast stimulation. In fact, incubation of purified mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells with conditioned media from OBs-Lcn2 cultures, or their coculture with OBs-Lcn2, improved osteoclastogenesis compared to OBs-empty, whereas treatment with recombinant LCN2 had no effect. In conclusion, our data indicate that LCN2 is a novel osteoblast mechanoresponding gene and that its regulation could be central to the pathological response of the bone tissue to low mechanical forces

  6. MicroRNA-regulated viral vectors for gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Anja; Fechner, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Safe and effective gene therapy approaches require targeted tissue-specific transfer of a therapeutic transgene. Besides traditional approaches, such as transcriptional and transductional targeting, microRNA-dependent post-transcriptional suppression of transgene expression has been emerging as powerful new technology to increase the specificity of vector-mediated transgene expression. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs and often expressed in a tissue-, lineage-, activation- or differentiation-specific pattern. They typically regulate gene expression by binding to imperfectly complementary sequences in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA. To control exogenous transgene expression, tandem repeats of artificial microRNA target sites are usually incorporated into the 3’ UTR of the transgene expression cassette, leading to subsequent degradation of transgene mRNA in cells expressing the corresponding microRNA. This targeting strategy, first shown for lentiviral vectors in antigen presenting cells, has now been used for tissue-specific expression of vector-encoded therapeutic transgenes, to reduce immune response against the transgene, to control virus tropism for oncolytic virotherapy, to increase safety of live attenuated virus vaccines and to identify and select cell subsets for pluripotent stem cell therapies, respectively. This review provides an introduction into the technical mechanism underlying microRNA-regulation, highlights new developments in this field and gives an overview of applications of microRNA-regulated viral vectors for cardiac, suicide gene cancer and hematopoietic stem cell therapy, as well as for treatment of neurological and eye diseases. PMID:27226955

  7. Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Stem Cells and Correlation to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Lesley A.; Crea, Francesco; Farrar, W. L.

    2009-01-01

    Through the classic study of genetics, much has been learned about the regulation and progression of human disease. Specifically, cancer has been defined as a disease driven by genetic alterations, including mutations in tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. However, the study of normal human development has identified that in addition to classical genetics, regulation of gene expression is also modified by ‘epigenetic’ alterations including chromatin remodeling and histone variants, DNA methylation, the regulation of polycomb group proteins and the epigenetic function of non-coding RNA. These changes are modifications inherited both during meiosis and mitosis, yet they do not result in alterations of the actual DNA sequence. A number of biological questions are directly influenced by epigenetics, such as how does a cell know when to divide, differentiate or remain quiescent, and more importantly, what happens when these pathways become altered? Do these alterations lead to the development and/or progression of cancer? This review will focus on summarizing the limited current literature involving epigenetic alterations in the context of human cancer stems cells (CSCs). The extent to which epigenetic changes define cell fate, identity, and phenotype are still under intense investigation, and many questions remain largely unanswered. Before discussing epigenetic gene silencing in CSCs, the different classifications of stem cells and their properties will be introduced. This will be followed by an introduction to the different epigenetic mechanisms Finally, there will be a discussion of the current knowledge of epigenetic modifications in stem cells, specifically what is known from rodent systems and established cancer cell lines, and how they are leading us to understand human stem cells. PMID:19443100

  8. Aberrant methylation during cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Virmani, A K; Muller, C; Rathi, A; Zoechbauer-Mueller, S; Mathis, M; Gazdar, A F

    2001-03-01

    We studied the pattern of aberrant methylation during the multistage pathogenesis of cervical cancers. We analyzed a total of 73 patient samples and 10 cervical cancer cell lines. In addition, tissue samples [peripheral blood lymphocytes (n = 10) and buccal epithelial cells (n = 12)] were obtained from 22 healthy volunteers. On the basis of the results of preliminary analysis, the cervical samples were grouped into three categories: (a) nondysplasia/low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; n = 37); (b) high-grade CIN (n = 17); and (c) invasive cancer (n = 19). The methylation status of six genes was determined (p16, RARbeta, FHIT, GSTP1, MGMT, and hMLH1). Our main findings are as follows: (a) methylation was completely absent in control tissues; (b) the frequencies of methylation for all of the genes except hMLH1 were >20% in cervical cancers; (c) aberrant methylation commenced early during multistage pathogenesis and methylation of at least one gene was noted in 30% of the nondysplasia/low-grade CIN group; (d) an increasing trend for methylation was seen with increasing pathological change; (e) methylation of RARbeta and GSTP1 were early events, p16 and MGMT methylation were intermediate events, and FHIT methylation was a late, tumor-associated event; and (f) methylation occurred independently of other risk factors including papillomavirus infection, smoking history, or hormone use. Although our findings need to be extended to a larger series, they suggest that the pattern of aberrant methylation in women with or without dysplasia may help identify subgroups at increased risk for histological progression or cancer development. PMID:11297252

  9. Genes, enzymes and regulation of arginine biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Robert D

    2005-08-01

    Arabidopsis genes encoding enzymes for each of the eight steps in L-arginine (Arg) synthesis were identified, based upon sequence homologies with orthologs from other organisms. Except for N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS; EC 2.3.1.1), which is encoded by two genes, all remaining enzymes are encoded by single genes. Targeting predictions for these enzymes, based upon their deduced sequences, and subcellular fractionation studies, suggest that most enzymes of Arg synthesis reside within the plastid. Synthesis of the L-ornthine (Orn) intermediate in this pathway from L-glutamate occurs as a series of acetylated intermediates, as in most other organisms. An N-acetylornithine:glutamate acetyltransferase (NAOGAcT; EC 2.3.1.35) facilitates recycling of the acetyl moiety during Orn formation (cyclic pathway). A putative N-acetylornithine deacetylase (NAOD; EC 3.5.1.16), which participates in the "linear" pathway for Orn synthesis in some organisms, was also identified. Previous biochemical studies have indicated that allosteric regulation of the first and, especially, the second steps in Orn synthesis (NAGS; N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK), EC 2.7.2.8) by the Arg end-product are the major sites of metabolic control of the pathway in organisms using the cyclic pathway. Gene expression profiling for pathway enzymes further suggests that NAGS, NAGK, NAOGAcT and NAOD are coordinately regulated in response to changes in Arg demand during plant growth and development. Synthesis of Arg from Orn is further coordinated with pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis, at the level of allocation of the common carbamoyl-P intermediate. PMID:16122935

  10. Up-regulation of SNCA gene expression: implications to synucleinopathies.

    PubMed

    Tagliafierro, L; Chiba-Falek, O

    2016-07-01

    Synucleinopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases that share a common pathological lesion of intracellular protein inclusions largely composed by aggregates of alpha-synuclein protein. Accumulating evidence, including genome wide association studies, has implicated alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene in the etiology of synucleinopathies. However, the precise variants within SNCA gene that contribute to the sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and other synucleinopathies and their molecular mechanisms of action remain elusive. It has been suggested that SNCA expression levels are critical for the development of these diseases. Here, we review several model systems that have been developed to advance the understanding of the role of SNCA expression levels in the etiology of synucleinopathies. We also describe different molecular mechanisms that regulate SNCA gene expression and discuss possible strategies for SNCA down-regulation as means for therapeutic approaches. Finally, we highlight some examples that underscore the relationships between the genetic association findings and the regulatory mechanisms of SNCA expression, which suggest that genetic variability in SNCA locus is directly responsible, at least in part, to the changes in gene expression and explain the reported associations of SNCA with synucleinopathies. Future studies utilizing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived neuronal lines and genome editing by CRISPR/Cas9, will allow us to validate, characterize, and manipulate the effects of particular cis-genetic variants on SNCA expression. Moreover, this model system will enable us to compare different neuronal and glial lineages involved in synucleinopathies representing an attractive strategy to elucidate-common and specific-SNCA-genetic variants, regulatory mechanisms, and vulnerable expression levels underlying synucleinopathy spectrum disorders. This forthcoming

  11. Dynamic model of gene regulation for the lac operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Ben-Halim, Asma

    2011-03-01

    Gene regulatory network is a collection of DNA which interact with each other and with other matter in the cell. The lac operon is an example of a relatively simple genetic network and is one of the best-studied structures in the Escherichia coli bacteria. In this work we consider a deterministic model of the lac operon with a noise term, representing the stochastic nature of the regulation. The model is written in terms of a system of simultaneous first order differential equations with delays. We investigate an analytical and numerical solution and analyse the range of values for the parameters corresponding to a stable solution.

  12. In silico analysis of miRNA-mediated gene regulation in OCA and OA genes.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Balu; Gopalakrishnan, Chandrasekhar; Purohit, Rituraj

    2014-12-01

    Albinism is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to low secretion of melanin. The oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and ocular albinism (OA) genes are responsible for melanin production and also act as a potential targets for miRNAs. The role of miRNA is to inhibit the protein synthesis partially or completely by binding with the 3'UTR of the mRNA thus regulating gene expression. In this analysis, we predicted the genetic variation that occurred in 3'UTR of the transcript which can be a reason for low melanin production thus causing albinism. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3'UTR cause more new binding sites for miRNA which binds with mRNA which leads to inhibit the translation process either partially or completely. The SNPs in the mRNA of OCA and OA genes can create new binding sites for miRNA which may control the gene expression and lead to hypopigmentation. We have developed a computational procedure to determine the SNPs in the 3'UTR region of mRNA of OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2) and OA (GPR143) genes which will be a potential cause for albinism. We identified 37 SNPs in five genes that are predicted to create 87 new binding sites on mRNA, which may lead to abrogation of the translation process. Expression analysis confirms that these genes are highly expressed in skin and eye regions. It is well supported by enrichment analysis that these genes are mainly involved in eye pigmentation and melanin biosynthesis process. The network analysis also shows how the genes are interacting and expressing in a complex network. This insight provides clue to wet-lab researches to understand the expression pattern of OCA and OA genes and binding phenomenon of mRNA and miRNA upon mutation, which is responsible for inhibition of translation process at genomic levels. PMID:25060099

  13. RASSF tumor suppressor gene family: biological functions and regulation.

    PubMed

    Volodko, Natalia; Gordon, Marilyn; Salla, Mohamed; Ghazaleh, Haya Abu; Baksh, Shairaz

    2014-08-19

    Genetic changes through allelic loss and nucleic acid or protein modifications are the main contributors to loss of function of tumor suppressor proteins. In particular, epigenetic silencing of genes by promoter hypermethylation is associated with increased tumor severity and poor survival. The RASSF (Ras association domain family) family of proteins consists of 10 members, many of which are tumor suppressor proteins that undergo loss of expression through promoter methylation in numerous types of cancers such as leukemia, melanoma, breast, prostate, neck, lung, brain, colorectal and kidney cancers. In addition to their tumor suppressor function, RASSF proteins act as scaffolding agents in microtubule stability, regulate mitotic cell division, modulate apoptosis, control cell migration and cell adhesion, and modulate NFκB activity and the duration of inflammation. The ubiquitous functions of these proteins highlight their importance in numerous physiological pathways. In this review, we will focus on the biological roles of the RASSF family members and their regulation. PMID:24607545

  14. Epigenetic Regulation of Virulence Gene Expression in Parasitic Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Duraisingh, Manoj T; Horn, David

    2016-05-11

    Protozoan parasites colonize numerous metazoan hosts and insect vectors through their life cycles, with the need to respond quickly and reversibly while encountering diverse and often hostile ecological niches. To succeed, parasites must also persist within individuals until transmission between hosts is achieved. Several parasitic protozoa cause a huge burden of disease in humans and livestock, and here we focus on the parasites that cause malaria and African trypanosomiasis. Efforts to understand how these pathogens adapt to survive in varied host environments, cause disease, and transmit between hosts have revealed a wealth of epigenetic phenomena. Epigenetic switching mechanisms appear to be ideally suited for the regulation of clonal antigenic variation underlying successful parasitism. We review the molecular players and complex mechanistic layers that mediate the epigenetic regulation of virulence gene expression. Understanding epigenetic processes will aid the development of antiparasitic therapeutics. PMID:27173931

  15. Chromatin higher-order structures and gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohong

    2011-01-01

    Genomic DNA in the eukaryotic nucleus is hierarchically packaged by histones into chromatin to fit inside the nucleus. The dynamics of higher-order chromatin compaction play a critical role in transcription and other biological processes inherent to DNA. Many factors, including histone variants, histone modifications, DNA methylation and the binding of non-histone architectural proteins regulate the structure of chromatin. Although the structure of nucleosomes, the fundamental repeating unit of chromatin, is clear, there is still much discussion on the higher-order levels of chromatin structure. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in elucidating the structure of the 30-nm chromatin fiber. We also discuss the structural plasticity/dynamics and epigenetic inheritance of higher-order chromatin and the roles of chromatin higher-order organization in eukaryotic gene regulation. PMID:21342762

  16. Gene Expression in Human Hippocampus from Cocaine Abusers Identifies Genes which Regulate Extracellular Matrix Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Deborah C.; ffrench-Mullen, Jarlath; Adi, Nikhil; Qin, Yujing; Buck, Andrew; Pablo, John

    2007-01-01

    The chronic effects of cocaine abuse on brain structure and function are blamed for the inability of most addicts to remain abstinent. Part of the difficulty in preventing relapse is the persisting memory of the intense euphoria or cocaine “rush”. Most abused drugs and alcohol induce neuroplastic changes in brain pathways subserving emotion and cognition. Such changes may account for the consolidation and structural reconfiguration of synaptic connections with exposure to cocaine. Adaptive hippocampal plasticity could be related to specific patterns of gene expression with chronic cocaine abuse. Here, we compare gene expression profiles in the human hippocampus from cocaine addicts and age-matched drug-free control subjects. Cocaine abusers had 151 gene transcripts upregulated, while 91 gene transcripts were downregulated. Topping the list of cocaine-regulated transcripts was RECK in the human hippocampus (FC = 2.0; p<0.05). RECK is a membrane-anchored MMP inhibitor that is implicated in the coordinated regulation of extracellular matrix integrity and angiogenesis. In keeping with elevated RECK expression, active MMP9 protein levels were decreased in the hippocampus from cocaine abusers. Pathway analysis identified other genes regulated by cocaine that code for proteins involved in the remodeling of the cytomatrix and synaptic connections and the inhibition of blood vessel proliferation (PCDH8, LAMB1, ITGB6, CTGF and EphB4). The observed microarray phenotype in the human hippocampus identified RECK and other region-specific genes that may promote long-lasting structural changes with repeated cocaine abuse. Extracellular matrix remodeling in the hippocampus may be a persisting effect of chronic abuse that contributes to the compulsive and relapsing nature of cocaine addiction. PMID:18000554

  17. Multiple Mechanisms Influence Regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Marzena A.; Costa, Fabricio F.; Bischof, Jared M.; Williams, Sarah H.; Soares, Marcelo B.; Harris, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is driven by a promoter that cannot alone account for the temporal and tissue-specific regulation of the gene. This has led to the search for additional regulatory elements that cooperate with the basal promoter to achieve coordinated expression. We previously identified two alternative upstream exons of the gene that were mutually exclusive of the first exon, and one of which showed temporal regulation in the human and sheep lung. We now demonstrate that this alternative splice product generates a stable protein, which initiates translation at an ATG in exon 4, and thus lacks the N terminus of CFTR. The other splice variant inhibits translation of the protein. In a search for the promoter used by the upstream exons, we identified a novel element that contributes to the activity of the basal CFTR promoter in airway epithelial cells, but does not function independently. Finally, we demonstrate that, in primary airway cells, skin fibroblasts, and both airway and intestinal cell lines, the CFTR promoter is unmethylated, irrespective of CFTR expression status. Thus, methylation is not the main cause of inactivation of CFTR transcription. PMID:19855085

  18. Impaired Cytogenetic Damage Repair and Cell Cycle Regulation in Response to Ionizing Radiation in Human Fibroblast Cells with Individual Knock-down of 25 Genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Casey, Rachael; Mehta, Satish; Jeevarajan, Antony; Pierson, Duane; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have demonstrated that genes with upregulated expression induced by IR may play important roles in DNA damage sensing, cell cycle checkpoint and chromosomal repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR and its impact on cytogenetic responses to ionizing radiation has not been systematically studied. In our present study, the expression of 25 genes selected based on their transcriptional changes in response to IR or from their known DNA repair roles were individually knocked down by siRNA transfection in human fibroblast cells. Chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) formation were measured as the cytogenetic endpoints. Our results showed that the yield of MN and/or CA formation were significantly increased by suppressed expression of 5 genes that included Ku70 in the DSB repair pathway; XPA in the NER pathway; RPA1 in the MMR pathway; RAD17 and RBBP8 in cell cycle control. Knocked-down expression of 4 genes including MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, and SESN1 and SUMO1 showed significant inhibition of cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Furthermore, loss of XPA, p21 and MLH1 expression resulted in both enhanced cell cycle progression and significantly higher yield of cytogenetic damage, indicating the involvement of these gene products in both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Of these 11 genes that affected the cytogenetic response, 9 were up-regulated in the cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulating the biological consequences after IR. Failure to express these IR-responsive genes, such as by gene mutation, could seriously change the outcome of the post IR scenario and lead to carcinogenesis.

  19. Neuronal identity genes regulated by super-enhancers are preferentially down-regulated in the striatum of Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Achour, Mayada; Le Gras, Stéphanie; Keime, Céline; Parmentier, Frédéric; Lejeune, François-Xavier; Boutillier, Anne-Laurence; Néri, Christian; Davidson, Irwin; Merienne, Karine

    2015-06-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with extensive down-regulation of genes controlling neuronal function, particularly in the striatum. Whether altered epigenetic regulation underlies transcriptional defects in HD is unclear. Integrating RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and chromatin-immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq), we show that down-regulated genes in HD mouse striatum associate with selective decrease in H3K27ac, a mark of active enhancers, and RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII). In addition, we reveal that decreased genes in HD mouse striatum display a specific epigenetic signature, characterized by high levels and broad patterns of H3K27ac and RNAPII. Our results indicate that this signature is that of super-enhancers, a category of broad enhancers regulating genes defining tissue identity and function. Specifically, we reveal that striatal super-enhancers display extensive H3K27 acetylation within gene bodies, drive transcription characterized by low levels of paused RNAPII, regulate neuronal function genes and are enriched in binding motifs for Gata transcription factors, such as Gata2 regulating striatal identity genes. Together, our results provide evidence for preferential down-regulation of genes controlled by super-enhancers in HD striatum and indicate that enhancer topography is a major parameter determining the propensity of a gene to be deregulated in a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25784504

  20. Molecular Basis of Gene-Gene Interaction: Cyclic Cross-Regulation of Gene Expression and Post-GWAS Gene-Gene Interaction Involved in Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chengqi; Zhang, Hongfu; Lu, Qiulun; Chang, Le; Wang, Fan; Wang, Pengxia; Zhang, Rongfeng; Hu, Zhenkun; Song, Qixue; Yang, Xiaowei; Li, Cong; Li, Sisi; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yang, Qin; Yin, Dan; Wang, Xiaojing; Si, Wenxia; Li, Xiuchun; Xiong, Xin; Wang, Dan; Huang, Yuan; Luo, Chunyan; Li, Jia; Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Jing; Wang, Longfei; Wang, Li; Han, Meng; Ye, Jian; Chen, Feifei; Liu, Jingqiu; Liu, Ying; Wu, Gang; Yang, Bo; Cheng, Xiang; Liao, Yuhua; Wu, Yanxia; Ke, Tie; Chen, Qiuyun; Tu, Xin; Elston, Robert; Rao, Shaoqi; Yang, Yanzong; Xia, Yunlong; Wang, Qing K.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia at the clinic. Recent GWAS identified several variants associated with AF, but they account for <10% of heritability. Gene-gene interaction is assumed to account for a significant portion of missing heritability. Among GWAS loci for AF, only three were replicated in the Chinese Han population, including SNP rs2106261 (G/A substitution) in ZFHX3, rs2200733 (C/T substitution) near PITX2c, and rs3807989 (A/G substitution) in CAV1. Thus, we analyzed the interaction among these three AF loci. We demonstrated significant interaction between rs2106261 and rs2200733 in three independent populations and combined population with 2,020 cases/5,315 controls. Compared to non-risk genotype GGCC, two-locus risk genotype AATT showed the highest odds ratio in three independent populations and the combined population (OR=5.36 (95% CI 3.87-7.43), P=8.00×10-24). The OR of 5.36 for AATT was significantly higher than the combined OR of 3.31 for both GGTT and AACC, suggesting a synergistic interaction between rs2106261 and rs2200733. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) analysis also revealed significant interaction between rs2106261 and rs2200733 when exposed two copies of risk alleles (RERI=2.87, P<1.00×10-4) or exposed to one additional copy of risk allele (RERI=1.29, P<1.00×10-4). The INTERSNP program identified significant genotypic interaction between rs2106261 and rs2200733 under an additive by additive model (OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.74-0.97, P=0.02). Mechanistically, PITX2c negatively regulates expression of miR-1, which negatively regulates expression of ZFHX3, resulting in a positive regulation of ZFHX3 by PITX2c; ZFHX3 positively regulates expression of PITX2C, resulting in a cyclic loop of cross-regulation between ZFHX3 and PITX2c. Both ZFHX3 and PITX2c regulate expression of NPPA, TBX5 and NKX2.5. These results suggest that cyclic cross-regulation of gene expression is a molecular basis for gene-gene

  1. The KM-Algorithm Identifies Regulated Genes in Time Series Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, Martina; Doerge, R. W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a statistical method to rank observed genes in gene expression time series experiments according to their degree of regulation in a biological process. The ranking may be used to focus on specific genes or to select meaningful subsets of genes from which gene regulatory networks can be built. Our approach is based on a state space model that incorporates hidden regulators of gene expression. Kalman (K) smoothing and maximum (M) likelihood estimation techniques are used to derive optimal estimates of the model parameters upon which a proposed regulation criterion is based. The statistical power of the proposed algorithm is investigated, and a real data set is analyzed for the purpose of identifying regulated genes in time dependent gene expression data. This statistical approach supports the concept that meaningful biological conclusions can be drawn from gene expression time series experiments by focusing on strong regulation rather than large expression values. PMID:19956417

  2. Thiol-Based Redox Switches and Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cysteine is notable among the universal, proteinogenic amino acids for its facile redox chemistry. Cysteine thiolates are readily modified by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive electrophilic species (RES), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Although thiol switches are commonly triggered by disulfide bond formation, they can also be controlled by S-thiolation, S-alkylation, or modification by RNS. Thiol-based switches are common in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and activate functions that detoxify reactive species and restore thiol homeostasis while repressing functions that would be deleterious if expressed under oxidizing conditions. Here, we provide an overview of the best-understood examples of thiol-based redox switches that affect gene expression. Intra- or intermolecular disulfide bond formation serves as a direct regulatory switch for several bacterial transcription factors (OxyR, OhrR/2-Cys, Spx, YodB, CrtJ, and CprK) and indirectly regulates others (the RsrA anti-σ factor and RegB sensory histidine kinase). In eukaryotes, thiol-based switches control the yeast Yap1p transcription factor, the Nrf2/Keap1 electrophile and oxidative stress response, and the Chlamydomonas NAB1 translational repressor. Collectively, these regulators reveal a remarkable range of chemical modifications exploited by Cys residues to effect changes in gene expression. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1049—1063. PMID:20626317

  3. Multiple aberrant hormone receptors in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Ghorayeb, Nada; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms regulating cortisol production when ACTH of pituitary origin is suppressed in primary adrenal causes of Cushing's syndrome (CS) include diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. These can lead either to constitutive activation of the cAMP system and steroidogenesis or to its regulation exerted by the aberrant adrenal expression of several hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) and their ligands. Screening for aberrant expression of GPCR in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) and unilateral adrenal tumors of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrates the frequent co-expression of several receptors. Aberrant hormone receptors can also exert their activity by regulating the paracrine secretion of ACTH or other ligands for those receptors in BMAH or unilateral tumors. The aberrant expression of hormone receptors is not limited to adrenal CS but can be implicated in other endocrine tumors including primary aldosteronism and Cushing's disease. Targeted therapies to block the aberrant receptors or their ligands could become useful in the future. PMID:25971648

  4. Differential regulation of the 70K heat shock gene and related genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ellwood, M S; Craig, E A

    1984-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a family of genes related to Hsp70, the major heat shock gene of Drosophila melanogaster. The transcription of three of these genes, which show no conservation of sequences 5' to the protein-coding region, was analyzed. The 5' flanking regions from the three genes were fused to the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase structural gene and introduced into yeasts on multicopy plasmids, putting the beta-galactosidase production under yeast promoter control. Analysis of beta-galactosidase mRNA and protein production in these transformed strains revealed that transcription from the three promoters is differentially regulated. The number of transcripts from one promoter is vastly increased for a brief period after heat shock, whereas mRNA from another declines. Transcripts from a third gene are slightly enhanced upon heat shock; however, multiple 5' ends of the mRNA are found, and a minor species increases in amount after heat shock. Transcription of these promoters in their native state on the chromosome appears to be modulated in the same manner. Images PMID:6436685

  5. Epigenetic regulation of the formyl peptide receptor 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Simiele, Felice; Recchiuti, Antonio; Patruno, Sara; Plebani, Roberto; Pierdomenico, Anna Maria; Codagnone, Marilina; Romano, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Lipoxin (LX) A4, a main stop signal of inflammation, exerts potent bioactions by activating a specific G protein-coupled receptor, termed formyl peptide receptor 2 and recently renamed ALX/FPR2. Knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms that drive ALX/FPR2 gene expression is key for the development of innovative anti-inflammatory pharmacology. Here, we examined chromatin patterns of the ALX/FPR2 gene. We report that in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells, the ALX/FPR2 gene undergoes epigenetic silencing characterized by low acetylation at lysine 27 and trimethylation at lysine 4, associated with high methylation at lysine 27 of histone 3. This pattern, which is consistent with transcriptionally inaccessible chromatin leading to low ALX/FPR2 mRNA and protein expression, is reversed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes that express high ALX/FPR2 levels. Activation of p300 histone acetyltransferase and inhibition of DNA methyltransferase restored chromatin accessibility and significantly increased ALX/FPR2 mRNA transcription and protein levels in MDA-MB231 cells, as well as in pulmonary artery endothelial cells. In both cells types, changes in the histone acetylation/methylation status enhanced ALX/FPR2 signaling in response to LXA4. Collectively, these results uncover unappreciated epigenetic regulation of ALX/FPR2 expression that can be exploited for innovative approaches to inflammatory disorders. PMID:27424221

  6. Bacteriophage-mediated toxin gene regulation in Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Govind, Revathi; Vediyappan, Govindsamy; Rolfe, Rial D; Dupuy, Bruno; Fralick, Joe A

    2009-12-01

    Clostridium difficile has been identified as the most important single identifiable cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. Virulent strains of C. difficile produce two large protein toxins, toxin A and toxin B, which are involved in pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of lysogeny by PhiCD119 on C. difficile toxin production. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated a decrease in the expression of pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) genes tcdA, tcdB, tcdR, tcdE, and tcdC in PhiCD119 lysogens. During this study we found that repR, a putative repressor gene of PhiCD119, was expressed in C. difficile lysogens and that its product, RepR, could downregulate tcdA::gusA and tcdR::gusA reporter fusions in Escherichia coli. We cloned and purified a recombinant RepR containing a C-terminal six-His tag and documented its binding to the upstream regions of tcdR in C. difficile PaLoc and in repR upstream region in PhiCD119 by gel shift assays. DNA footprinting experiments revealed similarities between the RepR binding sites in tcdR and repR upstream regions. These findings suggest that presence of a CD119-like temperate phage can influence toxin gene regulation in this nosocomially important pathogen. PMID:19776116

  7. Nucleosome-driven transcription factor binding and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Ballaré, Cecilia; Castellano, Giancarlo; Gaveglia, Laura; Althammer, Sonja; González-Vallinas, Juan; Eyras, Eduardo; Le Dily, Francois; Zaurin, Roser; Soronellas, Daniel; Vicent, Guillermo P; Beato, Miguel

    2013-01-10

    Elucidating the global function of a transcription factor implies the identification of its target genes and genomic binding sites. The role of chromatin in this context is unclear, but the dominant view is that factors bind preferentially to nucleosome-depleted regions identified as DNaseI-hypersensitive sites (DHS). Here we show by ChIP, MNase, and DNaseI assays followed by deep sequencing that the progesterone receptor (PR) requires nucleosomes for optimal binding and function. In breast cancer cells treated with progestins, we identified 25,000 PR binding sites (PRbs). The majority of these sites encompassed several copies of the hexanucleotide TGTYCY, which is highly abundant in the genome. We found that functional PRbs accumulate around progesterone-induced genes, mainly in enhancers. Most of these sites overlap with DHS but exhibit high nucleosome occupancy. Progestin stimulation results in remodeling of these nucleosomes with displacement of histones H1 and H2A/H2B dimers. Our results strongly suggest that nucleosomes are crucial for PR binding and hormonal gene regulation. PMID:23177737

  8. Staphylococcus aureus CodY Negatively Regulates Virulence Gene Expression▿

    PubMed Central

    Majerczyk, Charlotte D.; Sadykov, Marat R.; Luong, Thanh T.; Lee, Chia; Somerville, Greg A.; Sonenshein, Abraham L.

    2008-01-01

    CodY is a global regulatory protein that was first discovered in Bacillus subtilis, where it couples gene expression to changes in the pools of critical metabolites through its activation by GTP and branched-chain amino acids. Homologs of CodY can be found encoded in the genomes of nearly all low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. The introduction of a codY-null mutation into two S. aureus clinical isolates, SA564 and UAMS-1, through allelic replacement, resulted in the overexpression of several virulence genes. The mutant strains had higher levels of hemolytic activity toward rabbit erythrocytes in their culture fluid, produced more polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), and formed more robust biofilms than did their isogenic parent strains. These phenotypes were associated with derepressed levels of RNA for the hemolytic alpha-toxin (hla), the accessory gene regulator (agr) (RNAII and RNAIII/hld), and the operon responsible for the production of PIA (icaADBC). These data suggest that CodY represses, either directly or indirectly, the synthesis of a number of virulence factors of S. aureus. PMID:18156263

  9. Bacteriophage-Mediated Toxin Gene Regulation in Clostridium difficile▿

    PubMed Central

    Govind, Revathi; Vediyappan, Govindsamy; Rolfe, Rial D.; Dupuy, Bruno; Fralick, Joe A.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium difficile has been identified as the most important single identifiable cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. Virulent strains of C. difficile produce two large protein toxins, toxin A and toxin B, which are involved in pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of lysogeny by ΦCD119 on C. difficile toxin production. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated a decrease in the expression of pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) genes tcdA, tcdB, tcdR, tcdE, and tcdC in ΦCD119 lysogens. During this study we found that repR, a putative repressor gene of ΦCD119, was expressed in C. difficile lysogens and that its product, RepR, could downregulate tcdA::gusA and tcdR::gusA reporter fusions in Escherichia coli. We cloned and purified a recombinant RepR containing a C-terminal six-His tag and documented its binding to the upstream regions of tcdR in C. difficile PaLoc and in repR upstream region in ΦCD119 by gel shift assays. DNA footprinting experiments revealed similarities between the RepR binding sites in tcdR and repR upstream regions. These findings suggest that presence of a CD119-like temperate phage can influence toxin gene regulation in this nosocomially important pathogen. PMID:19776116

  10. Epigenetic regulation of inflammatory gene expression in macrophages by selenium.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Vivek; Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Liao, Chang; Kaushal, Naveen; Carlson, Bradley A; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins by histone acetyltransferases plays a pivotal role in the expression of proinflammatory genes. Given the importance of dietary selenium in mitigating inflammation, we hypothesized that selenium supplementation may regulate inflammatory gene expression at the epigenetic level. The effect of selenium towards histone acetylation was examined in both in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and immunoblotting. Our results indicated that selenium supplementation, as selenite, decreased acetylation of histone H4 at K12 and K16 in COX-2 and TNFα promoters, and of the p65 subunit of the redox sensitive transcription factor NFκB in primary and immortalized macrophages. On the other hand, selenomethionine had a much weaker effect. Selenite treatment of HIV-1-infected human monocytes also significantly decreased the acetylation of H4 at K12 and K16 on the HIV-1 promoter, supporting the down-regulation of proviral expression by selenium. A similar decrease in histone acetylation was also seen in the colonic extracts of mice treated with dextran sodium sulfate that correlated well with the levels of selenium in the diet. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages from Trsp(fl/fl)Cre(LysM) mice that lack expression of selenoproteins in macrophages confirmed the important role of selenoproteins in the inhibition of histone H4 acetylation. Our studies suggest that the ability of selenoproteins to skew the metabolism of arachidonic acid contributes, in part, to their ability to inhibit histone acetylation. In summary, our studies suggest a new role for selenoproteins in the epigenetic modulation of proinflammatory genes. PMID:25458528

  11. Androgens Regulate Gene Expression in Avian Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Barske, Julia; Du, Sienmi; Day, Lainy B.; Schlinger, Barney A.

    2012-01-01

    Circulating androgens in adult reproductively active male vertebrates influence a diversity of organ systems and thus are considered costly. Recently, we obtained evidence that androgen receptors (AR) are expressed in several skeletal muscles of three passeriform birds, the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus), zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata), and ochre-bellied flycatcher (Mionectes oleagieus). Because skeletal muscles that control wing movement make up the bulk of a bird’s body mass, evidence for widespread effects of androgen action on these muscles would greatly expand the functional impact of androgens beyond their well-characterized effects on relatively discrete targets throughout the avian body. To investigate this issue, we use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine if androgens alter gene mRNA expression patterns in wing musculature of wild golden-collared manakins and captive zebra finches. In manakins, the androgen testosterone (T) up-regulated expression of parvalbumin (PV) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), two genes whose products enhance cellular Ca2+ cycling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers. In T-treated zebra finches, the anti-androgen flutamide blunted PV and IGF-I expression. These results suggest that certain transcriptional effects of androgen action via AR are conserved in passerine skeletal muscle tissue. When we examined wing muscles of manakins, zebra finches and ochre-bellied flycatchers, we found that expression of PV and IGF-I varied across species and in a manner consistent with a function for AR-dependent gene regulation. Together, these findings imply that androgens have the potential to act on avian muscle in a way that may enhance the physicality required for successful reproduction. PMID:23284699

  12. The Aberrant Gene-End Transcription Signal of the Matrix M Gene of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Downregulates Fusion F Protein Expression and the F-Specific Antibody Response In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lingemann, Matthias; Surman, Sonja; Amaro-Carambot, Emérito; Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Collins, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    immunogenicity was unknown. Here, we show that the removal of this insert shifts F gene transcription from readthrough M-F mRNA to monocistronic F mRNA. This resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of F protein expressed in the cell and packaged in the virus particle. This did not affect virus replication but increased the F-specific antibody response in hamsters. Thus, in wild-type HPIV3, the aberrant M-GE signal operates a previously undescribed mechanism that reduces the expression of a major neutralization and protective antigen, resulting in reduced immunogenicity. This has implications for the design of live attenuated HPIV3 vaccines; specifically, the antibody response against F can be elevated by “repairing” the M-GE signal to achieve higher-level F antigen expression, with no effect on attenuation. PMID:25589643

  13. Aberrant Promoter Methylation at CpG Cytosines Induce the Upregulation of the E2F5 Gene in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Arshad; Ullah, Farman; Ali, Irum Sabir; Faraz, Ahmad; Khan, Mumtaz; Shah, Syed Tahir Ali; Ali, Nawab

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The promoter methylation status of cell cycle regulatory genes plays a crucial role in the regulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle. CpG cytosines are actively subjected to methylation during tumorigenesis, resulting in gain/loss of function. E2F5 gene has growth repressive activities; various studies suggest its involvement in tumorigenesis. This study aims to investigate the epigenetic regulation of E2F5 in breast cancer to better understand tumor biology. Methods The promoter methylation status of 50 breast tumor tissues and adjacent normal control tissues was analyzed. mRNA expression was determined using SYBR® green quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and methylation-specific PCR was performed for bisulfite-modified genomic DNA using E2F5-specific primers to assess promoter methylation. Data was statistically analyzed. Results Significant (p<0.001) upregulation was observed in E2F5 expression among tumor tissues, relative to the control group. These samples were hypo-methylated at the E2F5 promoter region in the tumor tissues, compared to the control. Change in the methylation status (Δmeth) was significantly lower (p=0.022) in the tumor samples, indicating possible involvement in tumorigenesis. Patients at the postmenopausal stage showed higher methylation (75%) than those at the premenopausal stage (23.1%). Interestingly, methylation levels gradually increased from the early to the advanced stages of the disease (p<0.001), which suggests a putative role of E2F5 methylation in disease progression that can significantly modulate tumor biology at more advanced stage and at postmenopausal age (Pearson's r=0.99 and 0.86, respectively). Among tissues with different histological status, methylation frequency was higher in invasive lobular carcinoma (80.0%), followed by invasive ductal carcinoma (46.7%) and ductal carcinoma in situ (20.0%). Conclusion Methylation is an important epigenetic factor that might be involved in the upregulation of E2F5

  14. Gene expression of ecdysteroid-regulated gene E74 of the honeybee in ovary and brain.

    PubMed

    Paul, R K; Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, Y; Kubo, T

    2005-01-01

    To facilitate studies of hormonal control in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.), a cDNA for a honeybee homologue of the ecdysteroid-regulated gene E74 (AmE74) was isolated and its expression was analysed. Northern blot analysis indicated strong expression in the adult queen abdomen, and no significant expression in the adult drone and worker abdomens. In situ hybridization demonstrated that this gene was expressed selectively in the ovary and gut in the queen abdomen. Furthermore, this gene was also expressed selectively in subsets of mushroom body interneurones in the brain of the adult worker bees. These findings suggest that AmE74 is involved in neural function as well as in reproduction in adult honeybees. PMID:15663771

  15. Up-Regulation of Oligodendrocyte Lineage Markers in the Cerebellum of Autistic Patients: Evidence from Network Analysis of Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; de Oliveira, Ben-Hur Neves; Casanova, Manuel F; Casanova, Emily L; Noda, Mami; Salmina, Alla B; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-08-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested by impaired social interaction, deficits in communication skills, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. In neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders, glial cells undergo morphological, biochemical, and functional rearrangements, which are critical for neuronal development, neurotransmission, and synaptic connectivity. Cerebellar function is not limited to motor coordination but also contributes to cognition and may be affected in autism. Oligodendrocytes and specifically oligodendroglial precursors are highly susceptible to oxidative stress and excitotoxic insult. In the present study, we searched for evidence for developmental oligodendropathy in the context of autism by performing a network analysis of gene expression of cerebellar tissue. We created an in silico network model (OLIGO) showing the landscape of interactions between oligodendrocyte markers and demonstrated that more than 50 % (16 out of 30) of the genes within this model displayed significant changes of expression (corrected p value <0.05) in the cerebellum of autistic patients. In particular, we found up-regulation of OLIG2-, MBP-, OLIG1-, and MAG-specific oligodendrocyte markers. We postulate that aberrant expression of oligodendrocyte-specific genes, potentially related to changes in oligodendrogenesis, may contribute to abnormal cerebellar development, impaired myelination, and anomalous synaptic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PMID:26189831

  16. Regulation of APETALA3 floral homeotic gene expression by meristem identity genes.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Rebecca S; Hill, Theresa A; Tan, Queenie K-G; Irish, Vivian F

    2002-05-01

    The Arabidopsis APETALA3 (AP3) floral homeotic gene is required for specifying petal and stamen identities, and is expressed in a spatially limited domain of cells in the floral meristem that will give rise to these organs. Here we show that the floral meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) are required for the activation of AP3. The LFY transcription factor binds to a sequence, with dyad symmetry, that lies within a region of the AP3 promoter required for early expression of AP3. Mutation of this region abolishes LFY binding in vitro and in yeast one hybrid assays, but has no obvious effect on AP3 expression in planta. Experiments using a steroid-inducible form of LFY show that, in contrast to its direct transcriptional activation of other floral homeotic genes, LFY acts in both a direct and an indirect manner to regulate AP3 expression. This LFY-induced expression of AP3 depends in part on the function of the APETALA1 (AP1) floral homeotic gene, since mutations in AP1 reduce LFY-dependent induction of AP3 expression. LFY therefore appears to act through several pathways, one of which is dependent on AP1 activity, to regulate AP3 expression. PMID:11959818

  17. Identification of microRNA-regulated gene networks by expression analysis of target genes.

    PubMed

    Gennarino, Vincenzo Alessandro; D'Angelo, Giovanni; Dharmalingam, Gopuraja; Fernandez, Serena; Russolillo, Giorgio; Sanges, Remo; Mutarelli, Margherita; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Ballabio, Andrea; Verde, Pasquale; Sardiello, Marco; Banfi, Sandro

    2012-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors control eukaryotic cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism through their specific gene regulatory networks. However, differently from transcription factors, our understanding of the processes regulated by miRNAs is currently limited. Here, we introduce gene network analysis as a new means for gaining insight into miRNA biology. A systematic analysis of all human miRNAs based on Co-expression Meta-analysis of miRNA Targets (CoMeTa) assigns high-resolution biological functions to miRNAs and provides a comprehensive, genome-scale analysis of human miRNA regulatory networks. Moreover, gene cotargeting analyses show that miRNAs synergistically regulate cohorts of genes that participate in similar processes. We experimentally validate the CoMeTa procedure through focusing on three poorly characterized miRNAs, miR-519d/190/340, which CoMeTa predicts to be associated with the TGFβ pathway. Using lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as a model system, we show that miR-519d and miR-190 inhibit, while miR-340 enhances TGFβ signaling and its effects on cell proliferation, morphology, and scattering. Based on these findings, we formalize and propose co-expression analysis as a general paradigm for second-generation procedures to recognize bona fide targets and infer biological roles and network communities of miRNAs. PMID:22345618

  18. Identification of microRNA-regulated gene networks by expression analysis of target genes

    PubMed Central

    Gennarino, Vincenzo Alessandro; D'Angelo, Giovanni; Dharmalingam, Gopuraja; Fernandez, Serena; Russolillo, Giorgio; Sanges, Remo; Mutarelli, Margherita; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Ballabio, Andrea; Verde, Pasquale; Sardiello, Marco; Banfi, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors control eukaryotic cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism through their specific gene regulatory networks. However, differently from transcription factors, our understanding of the processes regulated by miRNAs is currently limited. Here, we introduce gene network analysis as a new means for gaining insight into miRNA biology. A systematic analysis of all human miRNAs based on Co-expression Meta-analysis of miRNA Targets (CoMeTa) assigns high-resolution biological functions to miRNAs and provides a comprehensive, genome-scale analysis of human miRNA regulatory networks. Moreover, gene cotargeting analyses show that miRNAs synergistically regulate cohorts of genes that participate in similar processes. We experimentally validate the CoMeTa procedure through focusing on three poorly characterized miRNAs, miR-519d/190/340, which CoMeTa predicts to be associated with the TGFβ pathway. Using lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as a model system, we show that miR-519d and miR-190 inhibit, while miR-340 enhances TGFβ signaling and its effects on cell proliferation, morphology, and scattering. Based on these findings, we formalize and propose co-expression analysis as a general paradigm for second-generation procedures to recognize bona fide targets and infer biological roles and network communities of miRNAs. PMID:22345618

  19. Human Specific Regulation of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Cheng, De; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase, regulated primarily by the transcription of its catalytic subunit telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), is critical for controlling cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis by maintaining telomere length. Although there is a high conservation between human and mouse TERT genes, the regulation of their transcription is significantly different in these two species. Whereas mTERT expression is widely detected in adult mice, hTERT is expressed at extremely low levels in most adult human tissues and cells. As a result, mice do not exhibit telomere-mediated replicative aging, but telomere shortening is a critical factor of human aging and its stabilization is essential for cancer development in humans. The chromatin environment and epigenetic modifications of the hTERT locus, the binding of transcriptional factors to its promoter, and recruitment of nucleosome modifying complexes all play essential roles in restricting its transcription in different cell types. In this review, we will discuss recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of TERT regulation in human and mouse tissues and cells, and during cancer development. PMID:27367732

  20. Whole gene family expression and drought stress regulation of aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, Erik; Fraysse, Laure; Sjövall-Larsen, Sara; Gustavsson, Sofia; Fellert, Maria; Karlsson, Maria; Johanson, Urban; Kjellbom, Per

    2005-10-01

    Since many aquaporins (AQPs) act as water channels, they are thought to play an important role in plant water relations. It is therefore of interest to study the expression patterns of AQP isoforms in order to further elucidate their involvement in plant water transport. We have monitored the expression patterns of all 35 Arabidopsis AQPs in leaves, roots and flowers by cDNA microarrays, specially designed for AQPs, and by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (Q-RT-PCR). This showed that many AQPs are pre-dominantly expressed in either root or flower organs, whereas no AQP isoform seem to be leaf specific. Looking at the AQP subfamilies, most plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and some tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) have a high level of expression, while NOD26-like proteins (NIPs) are present at a much lower level. In addition, we show that PIP transcripts are generally down-regulated upon gradual drought stress in leaves, with the exception of AtPIP1;4 and AtPIP2;5, which are up-regulated. AtPIP2;6 and AtSIP1;1 are constitutively expressed and not significantly affected by the drought stress. The transcriptional down-regulation of PIP genes upon drought stress could also be observed on the protein level. PMID:16235111

  1. Transcriptional Regulation of Tlr11 Gene Expression in Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhenyu; Shi, Zhongcheng; Sanchez, Amir; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Mingyao; Yang, Jianghua; Wang, Fen; Zhang, Dekai

    2009-01-01

    As sensors of invading microorganisms, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed not only on macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) but also on epithelial cells. In the TLR family, Tlr11 appears to have the unique feature in that it is expressed primarily on epithelial cells, although it is also expressed on DCs and macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that transcription of the Tlr11 gene is regulated through two cis-acting elements, one Ets-binding site and one interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-binding site. The Ets element interacts with the epithelium-specific transcription factors, ESE-1 and ESE-3, and the IRF motif interacts with IRF-8. Thus, Tlr11 expression on epithelial cells is regulated by the transcription factors that are presumably distinct from transcription factors that regulate the expression of TLRs in innate immune cells such as macrophages and DCs. Our results imply that the distinctive transcription regulatory machinery for TLRs on epithelium may represent a promising new avenue for the development of epithelia-specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:19801549

  2. Human Specific Regulation of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Cheng, De; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase, regulated primarily by the transcription of its catalytic subunit telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), is critical for controlling cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis by maintaining telomere length. Although there is a high conservation between human and mouse TERT genes, the regulation of their transcription is significantly different in these two species. Whereas mTERT expression is widely detected in adult mice, hTERT is expressed at extremely low levels in most adult human tissues and cells. As a result, mice do not exhibit telomere-mediated replicative aging, but telomere shortening is a critical factor of human aging and its stabilization is essential for cancer development in humans. The chromatin environment and epigenetic modifications of the hTERT locus, the binding of transcriptional factors to its promoter, and recruitment of nucleosome modifying complexes all play essential roles in restricting its transcription in different cell types. In this review, we will discuss recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of TERT regulation in human and mouse tissues and cells, and during cancer development. PMID:27367732

  3. Determining Physical Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation from Single Cell Gene Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Daphne; Moignard, Victoria; Göttgens, Berthold; Adryan, Boris

    2016-08-01

    Many genes are expressed in bursts, which can contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. It is now possible to measure this heterogeneity with high throughput single cell gene expression assays (single cell qPCR and RNA-seq). These experimental approaches generate gene expression distributions which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of gene expression bursting, namely the rate that genes turn on, the rate that genes turn off, and the rate of transcription. We construct a complete pipeline for the analysis of single cell qPCR data that uses the mathematics behind bursty expression to develop more accurate and robust algorithms for analyzing the origin of heterogeneity in experimental samples, specifically an algorithm for clustering cells by their bursting behavior (Simulated Annealing for Bursty Expression Clustering, SABEC) and a statistical tool for comparing the kinetic parameters of bursty expression across populations of cells (Estimation of Parameter changes in Kinetics, EPiK). We applied these methods to hematopoiesis, including a new single cell dataset in which transcription factors (TFs) involved in the earliest branchpoint of blood differentiation were individually up- and down-regulated. We could identify two unique sub-populations within a seemingly homogenous group of hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, we could predict regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of eighteen key hematopoietic transcription factors throughout differentiation. Detailed information about gene regulatory mechanisms can therefore be obtained simply from high throughput single cell gene expression data, which should be widely applicable given the rapid expansion of single cell genomics. PMID:27551778

  4. Determining Physical Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation from Single Cell Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Moignard, Victoria; Göttgens, Berthold; Adryan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Many genes are expressed in bursts, which can contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. It is now possible to measure this heterogeneity with high throughput single cell gene expression assays (single cell qPCR and RNA-seq). These experimental approaches generate gene expression distributions which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of gene expression bursting, namely the rate that genes turn on, the rate that genes turn off, and the rate of transcription. We construct a complete pipeline for the analysis of single cell qPCR data that uses the mathematics behind bursty expression to develop more accurate and robust algorithms for analyzing the origin of heterogeneity in experimental samples, specifically an algorithm for clustering cells by their bursting behavior (Simulated Annealing for Bursty Expression Clustering, SABEC) and a statistical tool for comparing the kinetic parameters of bursty expression across populations of cells (Estimation of Parameter changes in Kinetics, EPiK). We applied these methods to hematopoiesis, including a new single cell dataset in which transcription factors (TFs) involved in the earliest branchpoint of blood differentiation were individually up- and down-regulated. We could identify two unique sub-populations within a seemingly homogenous group of hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, we could predict regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of eighteen key hematopoietic transcription factors throughout differentiation. Detailed information about gene regulatory mechanisms can therefore be obtained simply from high throughput single cell gene expression data, which should be widely applicable given the rapid expansion of single cell genomics. PMID:27551778

  5. Regulation of dorsal gene expression in Xenopus by the ventralizing homeodomain gene Vox.

    PubMed

    Melby, A E; Clements, W K; Kimelman, D

    1999-07-15

    Patterning in the vertebrate embryo is controlled by an interplay between signals from the dorsal organizer and the ventrally expressed BMPs. Here we examine the function of Vox, a homeodomain-containing gene that is activated by the ventralizing signal BMP-4. Inhibition of BMP signaling using a dominant negative BMP receptor (DeltaBMPR) leads to the ectopic activation of dorsal genes in the ventral marginal zone, and this activation is prevented by co-injection of Vox. chordin is the most strongly activated of those genes that are up-regulated by DeltaBMPR and is the gene most strongly inhibited by Vox expression. We demonstrate that Vox acts as a transcriptional repressor, showing that the activity of native Vox is mimicked by a Vox-repressor fusion (VoxEnR) and that a Vox-activator fusion (VoxG4A) acts as an antimorph, causing the formation of a partial secondary axis when expressed on the ventral side of the embryo. Although Vox can ectopically activate BMP-4 expression in whole embryos, we see no activation of BMP-4 by VoxG4A, demonstrating that this activation is indirect. Using a hormone-inducible version of VoxG4A, we find that a critical time window for Vox function is during the late blastula period. Using this construct, we demonstrate that only a subset of dorsal genes is directly repressed by Vox, revealing that there are different modes of regulation for organizer genes. Since the major direct target for Vox repression is chordin, we propose that Vox acts in establishing a BMP-4 morphogen gradient by restricting the expression domain of chordin. PMID:10395789

  6. Nature and regulation of pistil-expressed genes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Milligan, S B; Gasser, C S

    1995-07-01

    The specialized reproductive functions of angiosperm pistils are dependent in part upon the regulated activation of numerous genes expressed predominantly in this organ system. To better understand the nature of these pistil-predominant gene products we have analyzed seven cDNA clones isolated from tomato pistils through differential hybridization screening. Six of the seven cDNAs represent sequences previously undescribed in tomato, each having a unique pistil- and/or floral-predominant expression pattern. The putative protein products encoded by six of the cDNAs have been identified by their similarity to sequences in the database of previously sequenced genes, with a seventh sequence having no significant similarity with any previously reported sequence. Three of the putative proteins appear to be targeted to the endomembrane system and include an endo-beta-1,4-glucanase which is expressed exclusively in pistils at early stages of development, and proteins similar in sequence to gamma-thionin and miraculin which are expressed in immature pistils and stamens, and in either sepals or petals, respectively. Two other clones, similar in sequence to each other, were expressed primarily in immature pistils and stamens and encode distinct proteins with similarity to leucine aminopeptidases. An additional clone, which encodes a protein similar in sequence to the enzyme hyoscyamine 6-beta-hydroxylase and to other members of the family of Fe2+/ascorbate-dependent oxidases, was expressed at high levels in pistils, stamens and sepals, and at detectable levels in some vegetative organs. Together, these observations provide new insight into the nature and possible functional roles of genes expressed during reproductive development. PMID:7647301

  7. DNA methylation and differential gene regulation in photoreceptor cell death

    PubMed Central

    Farinelli, P; Perera, A; Arango-Gonzalez, B; Trifunovic, D; Wagner, M; Carell, T; Biel, M; Zrenner, E; Michalakis, S; Paquet-Durand, F; Ekström, P A R

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) defines a group of inherited degenerative retinal diseases causing progressive loss of photoreceptors. To this day, RP is still untreatable and rational treatment development will require a thorough understanding of the underlying cell death mechanisms. Methylation of the DNA base cytosine by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) is an important epigenetic factor regulating gene expression, cell differentiation, cell death, and survival. Previous studies suggested an involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in RP, and in this study, increased cytosine methylation was detected in dying photoreceptors in the rd1, rd2, P23H, and S334ter rodent models for RP. Ultrastructural analysis of photoreceptor nuclear morphology in the rd1 mouse model for RP revealed a severely altered chromatin structure during retinal degeneration that coincided with an increased expression of the DNMT isozyme DNMT3a. To identify disease-specific differentially methylated DNA regions (DMRs) on a genomic level, we immunoprecipitated methylated DNA fragments and subsequently analyzed them with a targeted microarray. Genome-wide comparison of DMRs between rd1 and wild-type retina revealed hypermethylation of genes involved in cell death and survival as well as cell morphology and nervous system development. When correlating DMRs with gene expression data, we found that hypermethylation occurred alongside transcriptional repression. Consistently, motif analysis showed that binding sites of several important transcription factors for retinal physiology were hypermethylated in the mutant model, which also correlated with transcriptional silencing of their respective target genes. Finally, inhibition of DNMTs in rd1 organotypic retinal explants using decitabine resulted in a substantial reduction of photoreceptor cell death, suggesting inhibition of DNA methylation as a potential novel treatment in RP. PMID:25476906

  8. Gene Expression Dosage Regulation in an Allopolyploid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Matos, I; Machado, M. P.; Schartl, M.; Coelho, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    How allopolyploids are able not only to cope but profit from their condition is a question that remains elusive, but is of great importance within the context of successful allopolyploid evolution. One outstanding example of successful allopolyploidy is the endemic Iberian cyprinid Squalius alburnoides. Previously, based on the evaluation of a few genes, it was reported that the transcription levels between diploid and triploid S. alburnoides were similar. If this phenomenon occurs on a full genomic scale, a wide functional ‘‘diploidization’’ could be related to the success of these polyploids. We generated RNA-seq data from whole juvenile fish and from adult livers, to perform the first comparative quantitative transcriptomic analysis between diploid and triploid individuals of a vertebrate allopolyploid. Together with an assay to estimate relative expression per cell, it was possible to infer the relative sizes of transcriptomes. This showed that diploid and triploid S. alburnoides hybrids have similar liver transcriptome sizes. This in turn made it valid to directly compare the S. alburnoides RNA-seq transcript data sets and obtain a profile of dosage responses across the S. alburnoides transcriptome. We found that 64% of transcripts in juveniles’ samples and 44% in liver samples differed less than twofold between diploid and triploid hybrids (similar expression). Yet, respectively 29% and 15% of transcripts presented accurate dosage compensation (PAA/PA expression ratio of 1 instead of 1.5). Therefore, an exact functional diploidization of the triploid genome does not occur, but a significant down regulation of gene expression in triploids was observed. However, for those genes with similar expression levels between diploids and triploids, expression is not globally strictly proportional to gene dosage nor is it set to a perfect diploid level. This quantitative expression flexibility may be a strong contributor to overcome the genomic shock, and be an

  9. DNA methylation and differential gene regulation in photoreceptor cell death.

    PubMed

    Farinelli, P; Perera, A; Arango-Gonzalez, B; Trifunovic, D; Wagner, M; Carell, T; Biel, M; Zrenner, E; Michalakis, S; Paquet-Durand, F; Ekström, P A R

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) defines a group of inherited degenerative retinal diseases causing progressive loss of photoreceptors. To this day, RP is still untreatable and rational treatment development will require a thorough understanding of the underlying cell death mechanisms. Methylation of the DNA base cytosine by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) is an important epigenetic factor regulating gene expression, cell differentiation, cell death, and survival. Previous studies suggested an involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in RP, and in this study, increased cytosine methylation was detected in dying photoreceptors in the rd1, rd2, P23H, and S334ter rodent models for RP. Ultrastructural analysis of photoreceptor nuclear morphology in the rd1 mouse model for RP revealed a severely altered chromatin structure during retinal degeneration that coincided with an increased expression of the DNMT isozyme DNMT3a. To identify disease-specific differentially methylated DNA regions (DMRs) on a genomic level, we immunoprecipitated methylated DNA fragments and subsequently analyzed them with a targeted microarray. Genome-wide comparison of DMRs between rd1 and wild-type retina revealed hypermethylation of genes involved in cell death and survival as well as cell morphology and nervous system development. When correlating DMRs with gene expression data, we found that hypermethylation occurred alongside transcriptional repression. Consistently, motif analysis showed that binding sites of several important transcription factors for retinal physiology were hypermethylated in the mutant model, which also correlated with transcriptional silencing of their respective target genes. Finally, inhibition of DNMTs in rd1 organotypic retinal explants using decitabine resulted in a substantial reduction of photoreceptor cell death, suggesting inhibition of DNA methylation as a potential novel treatment in RP. PMID:25476906

  10. Genes encoding members of the JAK-STAT pathway or epigenetic regulators are recurrently mutated in T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    López, Cristina; Bergmann, Anke K; Paul, Ulrike; Murga Penas, Eva M; Nagel, Inga; Betts, Matthew J; Johansson, Patricia; Ritgen, Matthias; Baumann, Tycho; Aymerich, Marta; Jayne, Sandrine; Russell, Robert B; Campo, Elias; Dyer, Martin Js; Dürig, Jan; Siebert, Reiner

    2016-04-01

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) is an aggressive leukaemia. The primary genetic alteration in T-PLL are the inv(14)(q11q32)/t(14;14)(q11;q32) leading to TRD/TRA-TCL1A fusion, or the t(X;14)(q28;q11) associated with TRD/TRA-MTCP1 fusion. However, additional cooperating abnormalities are necessary for emergence of the full neoplastic phenotype. Though the pattern of secondary chromosomal aberrations is remarkably conserved, targets of the changes are largely unknown. We analysed a cohort of 43 well-characterized T-PLL for hotspot mutations in the genes JAK3, STAT5B and RHOA. Additionally, we selected a subset of 23 T-PLL cases for mutational screening of 54 genes known to be recurrently mutated in T-cell and other haematological neoplasms. Activating mutations in the investigated regions of the JAK3 and STAT5B genes were detected in 30% (13/43) and 21% (8/39) of the cases, respectively, and were mutually exclusive. Further, we identified mutations in the genes encoding the epigenetic regulators EZH2 in 13% (3/23), TET2 in 17% (4/23) and BCOR in 9% (2/23) of the cases. We confirmed that the JAK-STAT pathway is a major mutational target, and identified epigenetic regulators recurrently mutated in T-PLL. These findings complement the mutational spectrum of secondary aberrations in T-PLL and underscore the potential therapeutical relevance of epigenetic regulators in T-PLL. PMID:26917488

  11. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; Clemenson, G. D.; Deng, W.; Gage, F. H.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages ofmore » maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.« less

  12. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; Clemenson, G. D.; Deng, W.; Gage, F. H.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.

  13. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis: From Genes to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, James B.; Li, Yan; Lee, Star W.; Clemenson, Gregory D.; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. This review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. The increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders. PMID:25287858

  14. Regulation of gene expression by hypoxia: a molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Beitner-Johnson, D; Shull, G E; Dedman, J R; Millhorn, D E

    1997-11-01

    Oxygen is a strict requirement for cell function. The cellular mechanisms by which organisms detect and respond to changes in oxygen tension remain a major unanswered question in pulmonary physiology. Part of the difficulty in addressing this question is due to the limited scope of experiments that can be performed in vivo. In the past few years, several laboratories have begun to make progress in this area, using a variety of cell culture model systems and sophisticated genetic manipulations. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of regulation of gene expression by hypoxia, and describe novel experimental approaches that promise to broaden our understanding of how cells and whole organisms respond to alterations in O2 tension. PMID:9407603

  15. Chromatin and epigenetic features of long-range gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Harmston, Nathan; Lenhard, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The precise regulation of gene transcription during metazoan development is controlled by a complex system of interactions between transcription factors, histone modifications and modifying enzymes and chromatin conformation. Developments in chromosome conformation capture technologies have revealed that interactions between regions of chromatin are pervasive and highly cell-type specific. The movement of enhancers and promoters in and out of higher-order chromatin structures within the nucleus are associated with changes in expression and histone modifications. However, the factors responsible for mediating these changes and determining enhancer:promoter specificity are still not completely known. In this review, we summarize what is known about the patterns of epigenetic and chromatin features characteristic of elements involved in long-range interactions. In addition, we review the insights into both local and global patterns of chromatin interactions that have been revealed by the latest experimental and computational methods. PMID:23766291

  16. Transcriptional regulation of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong Gui; Meech, Robyn; McKinnon, Ross A; Mackenzie, Peter I

    2014-11-01

    Glucuronidation is an important metabolic pathway for many small endogenous and exogenous lipophilic compounds, including bilirubin, steroid hormones, bile acids, carcinogens and therapeutic drugs. Glucuronidation is primarily catalyzed by the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A and two subfamilies, including nine functional UGT1A enzymes (1A1, 1A3-1A10) and 10 functional UGT2 enzymes (2A1, 2A2, 2A3, 2B4, 2B7, 2B10, 2B11, 2B15, 2B17 and 2B28). Most UGTs are expressed in the liver and this expression relates to the major role of hepatic glucuronidation in systemic clearance of toxic lipophilic compounds. Hepatic glucuronidation activity protects the body from chemical insults and governs the therapeutic efficacy of drugs that are inactivated by UGTs. UGT mRNAs have also been detected in over 20 extrahepatic tissues with a unique complement of UGT mRNAs seen in almost every tissue. This extrahepatic glucuronidation activity helps to maintain homeostasis and hence regulates biological activity of endogenous molecules that are primarily inactivated by UGTs. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue-specific UGT expression has been the subject of a large number of studies over the last two decades. These studies have shown that the constitutive and inducible expression of UGTs is primarily regulated by tissue-specific and ligand-activated transcription factors (TFs) via their binding to cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in UGT promoters and enhancers. This review first briefly summarizes published UGT gene transcriptional studies and the experimental models and tools utilized in these studies, and then describes in detail the TFs and their respective CREs that have been identified in the promoters and/or enhancers of individual UGT genes. PMID:25336387

  17. Co-modulation analysis of gene regulation in breast cancer reveals complex interplay between ESR1 and ERBB2 genes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene regulation is dynamic across cellular conditions and disease subtypes. From the aspect of regulation under modulation, regulation strength between a pair of genes can be modulated by (dependent on) expression abundance of another gene (modulator gene). Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of genes modulated by single modulator genes in cancers, including breast cancer. However, analysis of multi-modulator co-modulation that can further delineate the landscape of complex gene regulation is, to our knowledge, unexplored previously. In the present study we aim to explore the joint effects of multiple modulator genes in modulating global gene regulation and dissect the biological functions in breast cancer. Results To carry out the analysis, we proposed the Covariability-based Multiple Regression (CoMRe) method. The method is mainly built on a multiple regression model that takes expression levels of multiple modulators as inputs and regulation strength between genes as output. Pairs of genes were divided into groups based on their co-modulation patterns. Analyzing gene expression profiles from 286 breast cancer patients, CoMRe investigated ten candidate modulator genes that interacted and jointly determined global gene regulation. Among the candidate modulators, ESR1, ERBB2, and ADAM12 were found modulating the most numbers of gene pairs. The largest group of gene pairs was composed of ones that were modulated by merely ESR1. Functional annotation revealed that the group was significantly related to tumorigenesis and estrogen signaling in breast cancer. ESR1−ERBB2 co-modulation was the largest group modulated by more than one modulators. Similarly, the group was functionally associated with hormone stimulus, suggesting that functions of the two modulators are performed, at least partially, through modulation. The findings were validated in majorities of patients (> 99%) of two independent breast cancer datasets. Conclusions We have

  18. Coenzyme Recognition and Gene Regulation by a Flavin Mononucleotide Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Serganov, A.; Huang, L; Patel, D

    2009-01-01