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Sample records for aberrant gene silencing

  1. Inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase 1 by polyamine analogues results in reexpression of aberrantly silenced genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Greene, Eriko; Murray Stewart, Tracy; Goodwin, Andrew C; Baylin, Stephen B; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2007-05-08

    Epigenetic chromatin modification is a major regulator of eukaryotic gene expression, and aberrant epigenetic silencing of gene expression contributes to tumorigenesis. Histone modifications include acetylation, phosphorylation, and methylation, resulting in a combination of histone marks known collectively as the histone code. The chromatin marks at a given promoter determine, in part, whether specific promoters are in an open/active conformation or closed/repressed conformation. Dimethyl-lysine 4 histone H3 (H3K4me2) is a transcription-activating chromatin mark at gene promoters, and demethylation of this mark by the lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), a homologue of polyamine oxidases, may broadly repress gene expression. We now report that novel biguanide and bisguanidine polyamine analogues are potent inhibitors of LSD1. These analogues inhibit LSD1 in human colon carcinoma cells and affect a reexpression of multiple, aberrantly silenced genes important in the development of colon cancer, including members of the secreted frizzle-related proteins (SFRPs) and the GATA family of transcription factors. Furthermore, we demonstrate by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis that the reexpression is concurrent with increased H3K4me2 and acetyl-H3K9 marks, decreased H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 repressive marks. We thus define important new agents for reversing aberrant repression of gene transcription.

  2. Oligoamine analogues in combination with 2-difluoromethylornithine synergistically induce re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumour-suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Steinbergs, Nora; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Marton, Laurence J; Casero, Robert A

    2012-03-15

    Epigenetic gene silencing is an important mechanism in the initiation and progression of cancer. Abnormal DNA CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications are involved in aberrant silencing of tumour-suppressor genes. LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) was the first enzyme identified to specifically demethylate H3K4 (Lys(4) of histone H3). Methylated H3K4 is an important mark associated with transcriptional activation. The flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding amine oxidase domain of LSD1 is homologous with two polyamine oxidases, SMO (spermine oxidase) and APAO (N(1)-acetylpolyamine oxidase). We have demonstrated previously that long-chain polyamine analogues, the oligoamines, are inhibitors of LSD1. In the present paper we report the synergistic effects of specific oligoamines in combination with DFMO (2-difluoromethylornithine), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, in human colorectal cancer cells. DFMO treatment depletes natural polyamines and increases the uptake of exogenous polyamines. The combination of oligoamines and DFMO results in a synergistic re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumour-suppressor genes, including SFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2), which encodes a Wnt signalling pathway antagonist and plays an anti-tumorigenic role in colorectal cancer. The treatment-induced re-expression of SFRP2 is associated with increased H3K4me2 (di-methyl H3K4) in the gene promoter. The combination of LSD1-inhibiting oligoamines and DFMO represents a novel approach to epigenetic therapy of cancer.

  3. Oligoamine analogues in combination with 2-difluoromethylornithine synergistically induce re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumour-suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu; Steinbergs, Nora; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Marton, Laurence J.; Casero, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic gene silencing is an important mechanism in the initiation and progression of cancer. Abnormal DNA CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications are involved in aberrant silencing of tumour-suppressor genes. LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) was the first enzyme identified to specifically demethylate H3K4 (Lys4 of histone H3). Methylated H3K4 is an important mark associated with transcriptional activation. The flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding amine oxidase domain of LSD1 is homologous with two polyamine oxidases, SMO (spermine oxidase) and APAO (N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase). We have demonstrated previously that long-chain polyamine analogues, the oligoamines, are inhibitors of LSD1. In the present paper we report the synergistic effects of specific oligoamines in combination with DFMO (2-difluoromethylornithine), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, in human colorectal cancer cells. DFMO treatment depletes natural polyamines and increases the uptake of exogenous polyamines. The combination of oligoamines and DFMO results in a synergistic re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumour-suppressor genes, including SFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2), which encodes a Wnt signalling pathway antagonist and plays an anti-tumorigenic role in colorectal cancer. The treatment-induced re-expression of SFRP2 is associated with increased H3K4me2 (di-methyl H3K4) in the gene promoter. The combination of LSD1-inhibiting oligoamines and DFMO represents a novel approach to epigenetic therapy of cancer. PMID:22132744

  4. Aberrant silencing of the endocrine peptide gene tachykinin-1 in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    David, Stefan; Kan, Takatsugu; Cheng, Yulan; Agarwal, Rachana; Jin, Zhe; Mori, Yuriko

    2009-01-16

    Tachykinin-1 (TAC1) is the precursor protein for neuroendocrine peptides, including substance P, and is centrally involved in gastric secretion, motility, mucosal immunity, and cell proliferation. Here we report aberrant silencing of TAC1 in gastric cancer (GC) by promoter hypermethylation. TAC1 methylation and mRNA expression in 47 primary GCs and 41 noncancerous gastric mucosae (NLs) were analyzed by utilizing real-time quantitative PCR-based assays. TAC1 methylation was more prevalent in GCs than in NLs: 21 (45%) of 47 GCs versus 6 (15%) of 41 NLs (p < 0.01). Microsatellite instability was also associated with TAC1 methylation in GCs. There was no significant association between TAC1 methylation and age, gender, stage, histological differentiation, or the presence of Helicobacter pylori. TAC1 mRNA was markedly downregulated in GCs relative to NLs. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine-induced demethylation of the TAC1 promoter resulted in TAC1 mRNA upregulation. Further studies are indicated to elucidate the functional involvement of TAC1 in gastric carcinogenesis.

  5. Aberrantly Silenced Promoters Retain a Persistent Memory of the Silenced State After Long-Term Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Oyer, Jon A.; Yates, Phillip A.; Godsey, Sarah; Turker, Mitchell S.

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of aberrant DNA methylation-associated silencing is reversibility. However, long-term stability of reactivated promoters has not been explored. To examine this issue, spontaneous reactivant clones were isolated from mouse embryonal carcinoma cells bearing aberrantly silenced Aprt alleles and re-silencing frequencies were determined as long as three months after reactivation occurred. Despite continuous selection for expression of the reactivated Aprt alleles, exceptionally high spontaneous re-silencing frequencies were observed. A DNA methylation analysis demonstrated retention of sporadic methylation of CpG sites in a protected region of the Aprt promoter in many reactivant alleles suggesting a role for these methylated sites in the re-silencing process. In contrast, a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis for methyl-H3K4, acetyl-H3K9, and dimethyl-H3K9 levels failed to reveal a specific histone modification that could explain high frequency re-silencing. These results demonstrate that aberrantly silenced and reactivated promoters retain a persistent memory of having undergone the silencing process and suggest the failure to eliminate all CpG methylation as a potential contributing mechanism. PMID:21035468

  6. Transcriptional gene silencing in humans

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Marc S.; Morris, Kevin V.

    2016-01-01

    It has been over a decade since the first observation that small non-coding RNAs can functionally modulate epigenetic states in human cells to achieve functional transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). TGS is mechanistically distinct from the RNA interference (RNAi) gene-silencing pathway. TGS can result in long-term stable epigenetic modifications to gene expression that can be passed on to daughter cells during cell division, whereas RNAi does not. Early studies of TGS have been largely overlooked, overshadowed by subsequent discoveries of small RNA-directed post-TGS and RNAi. A reappraisal of early work has been brought about by recent findings in human cells where endogenous long non-coding RNAs function to regulate the epigenome. There are distinct and common overlaps between the proteins involved in small and long non-coding RNA transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, suggesting that the early studies using small non-coding RNAs to modulate transcription were making use of a previously unrecognized endogenous mechanism of RNA-directed gene regulation. Here we review how non-coding RNA plays a role in regulation of transcription and epigenetic gene silencing in human cells by revisiting these earlier studies and the mechanistic insights gained to date. We also provide a list of mammalian genes that have been shown to be transcriptionally regulated by non-coding RNAs. Lastly, we explore how TGS may serve as the basis for development of future therapeutic agents. PMID:27060137

  7. A Combinatorial Approach of Gene Silencing and Expression Profiling in Deciphering the Roles of Prion and Auxiliary Molecules in Aberrant Prion Replication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    neurologically normal and show resistant to scrapie infection than their wild-type counterparts, suggesting that disease progression may be rate...and newly identified targets in order to mitigate the aberrant prion replication. Scrapie infected neuroblastoma cells were cultured following standard...components of prion-based diseases. Prion null mice are fertile, neurologically normal and show resistant to scrapie infection than their wild-type

  8. Nickel and Epigenetic Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Costa, Max

    2013-01-01

    Insoluble nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Occupational exposure to these compounds leads to increased incidence of lung and nasal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Apart from its weak mutagenic activity and hypoxia mimicking effect there is mounting experimental evidence indicating that epigenetic alteration plays an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to mediate nickel-induced gene silencing. Nickel ion is able to induce heterochromatinization by binding to DNA-histone complexes and initiating chromatin condensation. The enzymes required for establishing or removing epigenetic marks can be targeted by nickel, leading to altered DNA methylation and histone modification landscapes. The current review will focus on the epigenetic changes that contribute to nickel-induced gene silencing. PMID:24705264

  9. Characteristics of post-transcriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Chicas, A; Macino, G

    2001-11-01

    A number of gene silencing phenomena that inactivate genes at the post-transcriptional level have been identified. Due to its potential for studying gene function, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has become an intense area of research. In this review we describe the different means of inducing PTGS and discuss the possible biological roles of these artificially induced phenomena. We also discuss other features of PTGS such as the mechanism of mRNA degradation, the nature of the silencing signal and the mechanism of PTGS inhibition by viral proteins.

  10. Characteristics of post-transcriptional gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Chicas, Agustin; Macino, Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    A number of gene silencing phenomena that inactivate genes at the post-transcriptional level have been identified. Due to its potential for studying gene function, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has become an intense area of research. In this review we describe the different means of inducing PTGS and discuss the possible biological roles of these artificially induced phenomena. We also discuss other features of PTGS such as the mechanism of mRNA degradation, the nature of the silencing signal and the mechanism of PTGS inhibition by viral proteins. PMID:11713190

  11. RNAi induced gene silencing in crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Subodh Kumar

    2010-12-01

    The RNA silencing is one of the innovative and efficient molecular biology tools to harness the down-regulation of expression of gene(s) specifically. To accomplish such selective modification of gene expression of a particular trait, homology dependent gene silencing uses a stunning variety of gene silencing viz. co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing, virus-induced gene silencing etc. This family of diverse molecular phenomena has a common exciting feature of gene silencing which is collectively called RNA interference abbreviated to as RNAi. This molecular phenomenon has become a focal point of plant biology and medical research throughout the world. As a result, this technology has turned out to be a powerful tool in understanding the function of individual gene and has ultimately led to the tremendous use in crop improvement. This review article illustrates the application of RNAi in a broad area of crop improvement where this technology has been successfully used. It also provides historical perspective of RNAi discovery and its contemporary phenomena, mechanism of RNAi pathway.

  12. Personalized gene silencing therapeutics for Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Kay, C; Skotte, N H; Southwell, A L; Hayden, M R

    2014-07-01

    Gene silencing offers a novel therapeutic strategy for dominant genetic disorders. In specific diseases, selective silencing of only one copy of a gene may be advantageous over non-selective silencing of both copies. Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin gene (HTT). Silencing both expanded and normal copies of HTT may be therapeutically beneficial, but preservation of normal HTT expression is preferred. Allele-specific methods can selectively silence the mutant HTT transcript by targeting either the expanded CAG repeat or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium with the expansion. Both approaches require personalized treatment strategies based on patient genotypes. We compare the prospect of safe treatment of HD by CAG- and SNP-specific silencing approaches and review HD population genetics used to guide target identification in the patient population. Clinical implementation of allele-specific HTT silencing faces challenges common to personalized genetic medicine, requiring novel solutions from clinical scientists and regulatory authorities.

  13. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes: Paradigms, puzzles, and potential.

    PubMed

    Kazanets, Anna; Shorstova, Tatiana; Hilmi, Khalid; Marques, Maud; Witcher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Cancer constitutes a set of diseases with heterogeneous molecular pathologies. However, there are a number of universal aberrations common to all cancers, one of these being the epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). The silencing of TSGs is thought to be an early, driving event in the oncogenic process. With this in consideration, great efforts have been made to develop small molecules aimed at the restoration of TSGs in order to limit tumor cell proliferation and survival. However, the molecular forces that drive the broad epigenetic reprogramming and transcriptional repression of these genes remain ill-defined. Undoubtedly, understanding the molecular underpinnings of transcriptionally silenced TSGs will aid us in our ability to reactivate these key anti-cancer targets. Here, we describe what we consider to be the five most logical molecular mechanisms that may account for this widely observed phenomenon: 1) ablation of transcription factor binding, 2) overexpression of DNA methyltransferases, 3) disruption of CTCF binding, 4) elevation of EZH2 activity, 5) aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs. The strengths and weaknesses of each proposed mechanism is highlighted, followed by an overview of clinical efforts to target these processes.

  14. Homology-dependent Gene Silencing in Paramecium

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Françoise; Vayssié, Laurence; Klotz, Catherine; Sperling, Linda; Madeddu, Luisa

    1998-01-01

    Microinjection at high copy number of plasmids containing only the coding region of a gene into the Paramecium somatic macronucleus led to a marked reduction in the expression of the corresponding endogenous gene(s). The silencing effect, which is stably maintained throughout vegetative growth, has been observed for all Paramecium genes examined so far: a single-copy gene (ND7), as well as members of multigene families (centrin genes and trichocyst matrix protein genes) in which all closely related paralogous genes appeared to be affected. This phenomenon may be related to posttranscriptional gene silencing in transgenic plants and quelling in Neurospora and allows the efficient creation of specific mutant phenotypes thus providing a potentially powerful tool to study gene function in Paramecium. For the two multigene families that encode proteins that coassemble to build up complex subcellular structures the analysis presented herein provides the first experimental evidence that the members of these gene families are not functionally redundant. PMID:9529389

  15. Applying gene silencing technology to contraception

    PubMed Central

    Dissen, Gregory A.; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Chen, Yong Hong; Davidson, Beverly L.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2013-01-01

    Contents Population control of feral animals is often difficult, as it can be dangerous for the animals, labor intensive, and expensive. Therefore, a useful tool for control of animal populations would be a nonsurgical method to induce sterility. Our laboratories utilize methods aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A useful framework for design of a new approach will be the combination of these methods with the intended goal to produce a technique that can be used to noninvasively sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed it has to meet several conditions: The target gene must be essential for fertility; the method must include a mechanism to effectively and specifically silence the gene of interest; the method of delivering the silencing agent must be minimally invasive, and finally, the silencing effect must be sustained for the lifespan of the target species, so that expansion of the population can be effectively prevented. In this article we discuss our work to develop gene silencing technology to induce sterility; we will use examples of our previous studies demonstrating that this approach is viable. These studies include: a) the use of viral vectors able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to the regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction, and b) experiments with viral vectors that are able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy. PMID:23279544

  16. Applying gene silencing technology to contraception.

    PubMed

    Dissen, G A; Lomniczi, A; Boudreau, R L; Chen, Y H; Davidson, B L; Ojeda, S R

    2012-12-01

    Population control of feral animals is often difficult, as it can be dangerous for the animals, labour intensive and expensive. Therefore, a useful tool for control of animal populations would be a non-surgical method to induce sterility. Our laboratories utilize methods aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A useful framework for design of a new approach will be the combination of these methods with the intended goal to produce a technique that can be used to non-invasively sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed, it has to meet several conditions: the target gene must be essential for fertility; the method must include a mechanism to effectively and specifically silence the gene of interest; the method of delivering the silencing agent must be minimally invasive, and finally, the silencing effect must be sustained for the lifespan of the target species, so that expansion of the population can be effectively prevented. In this article, we discuss our work to develop gene silencing technology to induce sterility; we will use examples of our previous studies demonstrating that this approach is viable. These studies include (i) the use of viral vectors able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to the regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction and (ii) experiments with viral vectors that are able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy.

  17. Targeted Gene Silencing to Induce Permanent Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Dissen, Gregory A.; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Chen, Yong Hong; Davidson, Beverly L.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2012-01-01

    Contents A nonsurgical method to induce sterility would be a useful tool to control feral populations of animals. Our laboratories have experience with approaches aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A combination/modification of these methods may provide a useful framework for the design of approaches that can be used to sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed it has to meet several conditions: It needs to target a gene essential for fertility. It must involve a method that can selectively silence the gene of interest. It also needs to deliver the silencing agent via a minimally invasive method. Finally, the silencing effect needs to be sustained for many years, so that expansion of the targeted population can be effectively prevented. In this article we discuss this subject and provide a succinct account of our previous experience with: a) molecular reagents able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction, and b) molecular reagents able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy. PMID:22827375

  18. Evolution and Functional Trajectory of Sir1 in Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Ellahi, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    We used the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii to examine the evolution of Sir-based silencing, focusing on Sir1, silencers, the molecular topography of silenced chromatin, and the roles of SIR and RNA interference (RNAi) genes in T. delbrueckii. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) analysis of Sir proteins in T. delbrueckii revealed a different topography of chromatin at the HML and HMR loci than was observed in S. cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae Sir1, enriched at the silencers of HMLα and HMRa, was absent from telomeres and did not repress subtelomeric genes. In contrast to S. cerevisiae SIR1's partially dispensable role in silencing, the T. delbrueckii SIR1 paralog KOS3 was essential for silencing. KOS3 was also found at telomeres with T. delbrueckii Sir2 (Td-Sir2) and Td-Sir4 and repressed subtelomeric genes. Silencer mapping in T. delbrueckii revealed single silencers at HML and HMR, bound by Td-Kos3, Td-Sir2, and Td-Sir4. The KOS3 gene mapped near HMR, and its expression was regulated by Sir-based silencing, providing feedback regulation of a silencing protein by silencing. In contrast to the prominent role of Sir proteins in silencing, T. delbrueckii RNAi genes AGO1 and DCR1 did not function in heterochromatin formation. These results highlighted the shifting role of silencing genes and the diverse chromatin architectures underlying heterochromatin. PMID:26811328

  19. Polycomb group protein gene silencing, non-coding RNA, stem cells, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Gieni, Randall S; Hendzel, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Epigenetic programming is an important facet of biology, controlling gene expression patterns and the choice between developmental pathways. The Polycomb group proteins (PcGs) silence gene expression, allowing cells to both acquire and maintain identity. PcG silencing is important for stemness, X chromosome inactivation (XCI), genomic imprinting, and the abnormally silenced genes in cancers. Stem and cancer cells commonly share gene expression patterns, regulatory mechanisms, and signalling pathways. Many microRNA species have oncogenic or tumor suppressor activity, and disruptions in these networks are common in cancer; however, long non-coding (nc)RNA species are also important. Many of these directly guide PcG deposition and gene silencing at the HOX locus, during XCI, and in examples of genomic imprinting. Since inappropriate HOX expression and loss of genomic imprinting are hallmarks of cancer, disruption of long ncRNA-mediated PcG silencing likely has a role in oncogenesis. Aberrant silencing of coding and non-coding loci is critical for both the genesis and progression of cancers. In addition, PcGs are commonly abnormally overexpressed years prior to cancer pathology, making early PcG targeted therapy an option to reverse tumor formation, someday replacing the blunt instrument of eradication in the cancer therapy arsenal.

  20. On the Mechanism of Gene Silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Steakley, David Lee; Rine, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for gene silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ranging from steric occlusion of DNA binding proteins from their recognition sequences in silenced chromatin to a specific block in the formation of the preinitiation complex to a block in transcriptional elongation. This study provided strong support for the steric occlusion mechanism by the discovery that RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 could be substantially blocked from transcribing from its cognate promoter when embedded in silenced chromatin. Moreover, unlike previous suggestions, we found no evidence for stalled RNA polymerase II within silenced chromatin. The effectiveness of the Sir protein–based silencing mechanism to block transcription activated by Gal4 at promoters in the domain of silenced chromatin was marginal, yet it improved when tested against mutant forms of the Gal4 protein, highlighting a role for specific activators in their sensitivity to gene silencing. PMID:26082137

  1. The transglutaminase 2 gene is aberrantly hypermethylated in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Lisa M.; Schooler, Kevin P.; Ai, Lingbao; Klop, Corinne; Qiu, Jingxin; Robertson, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that catalyzes protein/protein crosslinking. Because extracellular TG2 crosslinks components of the extracellular matrix, TG2 is thought to function as a suppressor of cellular invasion. We have recently uncovered that the TG2 gene (TGM2) is a target for epigenetic silencing in breast cancer, highlighting a molecular mechanism that drives reduced TG2 expression, and this aberrant molecular event may contribute to invasiveness in this tumor type. Because tumor invasiveness is a primary determinant of brain tumor aggressiveness, we sought to determine if TGM2 is targeted for epigenetic silencing in glioma. Analysis of TGM2 gene methylation in a panel of cultured human glioma cells indicated that the 5′ flanking region of the TGM2 gene is hypermethylated and that this feature is associated with reduced TG2 expression as judged by immunoblotting. Further, culturing glioma cells in the presence of the global DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A resulted in re-expression of TG2 in these lines. In primary brain tumors we observed that the TGM2 promoter is commonly hypermethylated and that this feature is a cancer-associated phenomenon. Using publically available databases, TG2 expression in gliomas was found to vary widely, with many tumors showing overexpression or underexpression of this gene. Since overexpression of TG2 leads to resistance to doxorubicin through the ectopic activation of NFκB, we sought to examine the effects of recombinant TG2 expression in glioma cells treated with commonly used brain tumor therapeutics. We observed that in addition to doxorubicin, TG2 expression drove resistance to CCNU; however, TG2 expression did not alter sensitivity to other drugs tested. Finally, a catalytically null mutant of TG2 was also able to support doxorubicin resistance in glioma cells indicating that transglutaminase activity is not necessary

  2. Bioinformatics tools for achieving better gene silencing in plants.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Firoz; Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick Xuechun

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the most popular and effective molecular technologies for knocking down the expression of an individual gene of interest in living organisms. Yet the technology still faces the major issue of nonspecific gene silencing, which can compromise gene functional characterization and the interpretation of phenotypes associated with individual gene knockdown. Designing an effective and target-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) for induction of RNAi is therefore the major challenge in RNAi-based gene silencing. A 'good' siRNA molecule must possess three key features: (a) the ability to specifically silence an individual gene of interest, (b) little or no effect on the expressions of unintended siRNA gene targets (off-target genes), and (c) no cell toxicity. Although several siRNA design and analysis algorithms have been developed, only a few of them are specifically focused on gene silencing in plants. Furthermore, current algorithms lack a comprehensive consideration of siRNA specificity, efficacy, and nontoxicity in siRNA design, mainly due to lack of integration of all known rules that govern different steps in the RNAi pathway. In this review, we first describe popular RNAi methods that have been used for gene silencing in plants and their serious limitations regarding gene-silencing potency and specificity. We then present novel, rationale-based strategies in combination with computational and experimental approaches to induce potent, specific, and nontoxic gene silencing in plants.

  3. New Construct Approaches for Efficient Gene Silencing in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hua; Chretien, Robert; Ye, Jingsong; Rommens, Caius M.

    2006-01-01

    An important component of conventional sense, antisense, and double-strand RNA-based gene silencing constructs is the transcriptional terminator. Here, we show that this regulatory element becomes obsolete when gene fragments are positioned between two oppositely oriented and functionally active promoters. The resulting convergent transcription triggers gene silencing that is at least as effective as unidirectional promoter-to-terminator transcription. In addition to short, variably sized, and nonpolyadenylated RNAs, terminator-free cassette produced rare, longer transcripts that reach into the flanking promoter. These read-through products did not influence the efficacy and expression levels of the neighboring hygromycin phosphotransferase gene. Replacement of gene fragments by promoter-derived sequences further increased the extent of gene silencing. This finding indicates that genomic DNA may be a more efficient target for gene silencing than gene transcripts. PMID:16766670

  4. TSLC1 gene silencing in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    You, Yan; Ma, Liangjuan; You, Min; Li, Xiaomei; Wang, Shuhai; Li, Hongli; Wu, Debin; Yang, Huimin; Li, Zhen Yu

    2010-06-01

    Tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is involved in the progression of some types of cancer. Several studies have shown that loss of TSLC1 expression is strongly correlated to methylation of the gene promoter, thus leading to poor prognosis in these cancers. However, the role of TSLC1 in cutaneous melanoma (CM) has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to understand the molecular mechanisms and clinical significance of TSLC1 inactivation in CM. The expression and promoter methylation of TSLC1 were analyzed in 120 CMs. TSLC1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, whereas its methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR. TSLC1 expression was lost in 84 of 120 (70%) CMs; 36 (30%) CMs were scored as positive for TSLC1 protein expression. The TSLC1 promoter was methylated in 58 (48.33%) of 120 CMs. The incidence of the loss of expression and methylation of TSLC1 significantly increased as the tumor stage advanced (P=0.032 and 0.0021, respectively). Furthermore, in CM, disease-related survival was significantly shorter in patients with tumors losing TSLC1 or harboring methylated TSLC1 (P=0.0003 and 0.0329, respectively). The epigenetic silencing of TSLC1 through methylation is an important event in the pathogenesis of CM, and TSLC1 provides an indicator for poor prognosis.

  5. Aberrant methylation-mediated silencing of microRNAs contributes to HPV-induced anchorage independence

    PubMed Central

    Wilting, Saskia M.; Boon, Debby; Sørgård, Hanne; Lando, Malin; Snoek, Barbara C.; van Wieringen, Wessel N.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Lyng, Heidi; Snijders, Peter J.F.; Steenbergen, Renske D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer and a subset of anogenital and head-and-neck carcinomas are caused by high-risk types of the human papillomavirus (hrHPV). During hrHPV-induced malignant transformation keratinocytes become able to grow anchorage independently, a tumorigenic trait at least partly associated with inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. We used hrHPV-containing keratinocytes to investigate the role of DNA methylation-mediated silencing of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the acquisition of anchorage independence. Anchorage dependent (n=11) and independent passages (n=19) of 4 hrHPV-immortalized keratinocyte cell lines were treated with 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine (DAC). Genome-wide miRNA expression profiles before and after treatment were compared to identify miRNAs silenced by methylation. Bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR showed increased methylation of hsa-mir-129-2/-137/-935/-3663/-3665 and -4281 in anchorage independent HPV-transformed keratinocytes and cervical cancer cell lines. Mature miRNAs derived from hsa-mir-129-2/-137/-3663 and -3665 showed functional relevance as they decreased anchorage independence in cervical cancer cell lines. Cervical (pre)cancerous lesions demonstrated increased methylation of hsa-mir-129-2/-935/-3663/-3665 and -4281, underlining the clinical relevance of our findings. In conclusion, methylation-mediated silencing of tumor suppressive miRNAs contributes to acquisition of an anchorage independent phenotype. This study further substantiates the importance of miRNAs during early stages of carcinogenesis and underlines their potential as both disease markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27270309

  6. Global identification of genes targeted by DNMT3b for epigenetic silencing in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Teneng, I; Tellez, C S; Picchi, M A; Klinge, D M; Yingling, C M; Snider, A M; Liu, Y; Belinsky, S A

    2015-01-29

    The maintenance cytosine DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 and de novo methyltransferase DNMT3b cooperate to establish aberrant DNA methylation and chromatin complexes to repress gene transcription during cancer development. The expression of DNMT3b was constitutively increased 5-20-fold in hTERT/CDK4-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) before treatment with low doses of tobacco carcinogens. Overexpression of DNMT3b increased and accelerated carcinogen-induced transformation. Genome-wide profiling of transformed HBECs identified 143 DNMT3b-target genes, many of which were transcriptionally regulated by the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) complex and silenced through aberrant methylation in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. Two genes studied in detail, MAL and OLIG2, were silenced during transformation, initially through enrichment for H3K27me3 and H3K9me2, commonly methylated in lung cancer, and exert tumor suppressor effects in vivo through modulating cancer-related pathways. Re-expression of MAL and OLIG2 to physiological levels dramatically reduced the growth of lung tumor xenografts. Our results identify a key role for DNMT3b in the earliest stages of initiation and provide a comprehensive catalog of genes targeted for silencing by this methyltransferase in non-small-cell lung cancer.

  7. Gold Nanobeacons for Tracking Gene Silencing in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Milton; Carvalho, Lara; Silva, Joana; Saúde, Leonor; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Baptista, Pedro V

    2017-01-11

    The use of gold nanoparticles for effective gene silencing has demonstrated its potential as a tool for gene expression experiments and for the treatment of several diseases. Here, we used a gold nanobeacon designed to specifically silence the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) mRNA in embryos of a fli-EGFP transgenic zebrafish line, while simultaneously allowing the tracking and localization of the silencing events via the beacon's emission. Fluorescence imaging measurements demonstrated a decrease of the EGFP emission with a concomitant increase in the fluorescence of the Au-nanobeacon. Furthermore, microinjection of the Au-nanobeacon led to a negligible difference in mortality and malformations in comparison to the free oligonucleotide, indicating that this system is a biocompatible platform for the administration of gene silencing moieties. Together, these data illustrate the potential of Au-nanobeacons as tools for in vivo zebrafish gene modulation with low toxicity which may be used towards any gene of interest.

  8. Transcriptional Gene Silencing Maintained by OTS1 SUMO Protease Requires a DNA-Dependent Polymerase V-Dependent Pathway1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Yan, Xiaojing; Zhao, Yiqiang

    2017-01-01

    The expression of genes with aberrant structure is prevented at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation levels. Aberrant gene silencing at the posttranscriptional level is well studied; however, it is not well understood how aberrant genes are silenced at the transcriptional level. In this study, through genetic screening a transgenic report line that harbors an aberrant gene (35S-LUC, lacking 3′-untranslated region [3′-UTR]) and lacks luciferase (LUC) activity, we identify that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease OTS1 gene is required for maintaining the silence of the reporter 35S-LUC and an endogenous mutator-like element MULE-F19G14 at the transcriptional level, which requires DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol) V and DDR complex, but not Pol IV. The increased transcripts in ots1 mutants are terminated by the 3′-UTRs of downstream genes. In addition to ots1 mutations, mutations in several known or putative SUMO proteases and two SUMO E3 ligases, SIZ1 and MMS21, have similar effects on this silencing regulation. Taken together, our results reveal that the enzymes involved in the SUMOylation process restrain aberrant gene transcription by using a downstream gene 3′-UTR, and this regulation requires a functional Pol V-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PMID:27852949

  9. The Arabidopsis HOMOLOGY-DEPENDENT GENE SILENCING1 Gene Codes for an S-Adenosyl-l-Homocysteine Hydrolase Required for DNA Methylation-Dependent Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Pedro S.C.F.; Sheikh, Mazhar; Melchiorre, Rosalba; Fagard, Mathilde; Boutet, Stéphanie; Loach, Rebecca; Moffatt, Barbara; Wagner, Conrad; Vaucheret, Hervé; Furner, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Genes introduced into higher plant genomes can become silent (gene silencing) and/or cause silencing of homologous genes at unlinked sites (homology-dependent gene silencing or HDG silencing). Mutations of the HOMOLOGY-DEPENDENT GENE SILENCING1 (HOG1) locus relieve transcriptional gene silencing and methylation-dependent HDG silencing and result in genome-wide demethylation. The hog1 mutant plants also grow slowly and have low fertility and reduced seed germination. Three independent mutants of HOG1 were each found to have point mutations at the 3′ end of a gene coding for S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) hydrolase, and hog1-1 plants show reduced SAH hydrolase activity. A transposon (hog1-4) and a T-DNA tag (hog1-5) in the HOG1 gene each behaved as zygotic embryo lethal mutants and could not be made homozygous. The results suggest that the homozygous hog1 point mutants are leaky and result in genome demethylation and poor growth and that homozygous insertion mutations result in zygotic lethality. Complementation of the hog1-1 point mutation with a T-DNA containing the gene coding for SAH hydrolase restored gene silencing, HDG silencing, DNA methylation, fast growth, and normal seed viability. The same T-DNA also complemented the zygotic embryo lethal phenotype of the hog1-4 tagged mutant. A model relating the HOG1 gene, DNA methylation, and methylation-dependent HDG silencing is presented. PMID:15659630

  10. Epigenetic silencing of the NR4A3 tumor suppressor, by aberrant JAK/STAT signaling, predicts prognosis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chung-Min; Chang, Liang-Yu; Lin, Shu-Hui; Chou, Jian-Liang; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yen; Zeng, Li-Han; Chuang, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Hsiao-Wen; Dittner, Claudia; Lin, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Jora M. J.; Huang, Yao-Ting; Ng, Enders K. W.; Cheng, Alfred S. L.; Wu, Shu-Fen; Lin, Jiayuh; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Chan, Michael W. Y.

    2016-01-01

    While aberrant JAK/STAT signaling is crucial to the development of gastric cancer (GC), its effects on epigenetic alterations of its transcriptional targets remains unclear. In this study, by expression microarrays coupled with bioinformatic analyses, we identified a putative STAT3 target gene, NR4A3 that was downregulated in MKN28 GC daughter cells overexpressing a constitutively activated STAT3 mutant (S16), as compared to an empty vector control (C9). Bisulphite pyrosequencing and demethylation treatment showed that NR4A3 was epigenetically silenced by promoter DNA methylation in S16 and other GC cell lines including AGS cells, showing constitutive activation of STAT3. Subsequent experiments revealed that NR4A3 promoter binding by STAT3 might repress its transcription. Long-term depletion of STAT3 derepressed NR4A3 expression, by promoter demethylation, in AGS GC cells. NR4A3 re-expression in GC cell lines sensitized the cells to cisplatin, and inhibited tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, in an animal model. Clinically, GC patients with high NR4A3 methylation, or lower NR4A3 protein expression, had significantly shorter overall survival. Intriguingly, STAT3 activation significantly associated only with NR4A3 methylation in low-stage patient samples. Taken together, aberrant JAK/STAT3 signaling epigenetically silences a potential tumor suppressor, NR4A3, in gastric cancer, plausibly representing a reliable biomarker for gastric cancer prognosis. PMID:27528092

  11. Epigenetic silencing of the NR4A3 tumor suppressor, by aberrant JAK/STAT signaling, predicts prognosis in gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chung-Min; Chang, Liang-Yu; Lin, Shu-Hui; Chou, Jian-Liang; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yen; Zeng, Li-Han; Chuang, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Hsiao-Wen; Dittner, Claudia; Lin, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Jora M. J.; Huang, Yao-Ting; Ng, Enders K. W.; Cheng, Alfred S. L.; Wu, Shu-Fen; Lin, Jiayuh; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Chan, Michael W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    While aberrant JAK/STAT signaling is crucial to the development of gastric cancer (GC), its effects on epigenetic alterations of its transcriptional targets remains unclear. In this study, by expression microarrays coupled with bioinformatic analyses, we identified a putative STAT3 target gene, NR4A3 that was downregulated in MKN28 GC daughter cells overexpressing a constitutively activated STAT3 mutant (S16), as compared to an empty vector control (C9). Bisulphite pyrosequencing and demethylation treatment showed that NR4A3 was epigenetically silenced by promoter DNA methylation in S16 and other GC cell lines including AGS cells, showing constitutive activation of STAT3. Subsequent experiments revealed that NR4A3 promoter binding by STAT3 might repress its transcription. Long-term depletion of STAT3 derepressed NR4A3 expression, by promoter demethylation, in AGS GC cells. NR4A3 re-expression in GC cell lines sensitized the cells to cisplatin, and inhibited tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, in an animal model. Clinically, GC patients with high NR4A3 methylation, or lower NR4A3 protein expression, had significantly shorter overall survival. Intriguingly, STAT3 activation significantly associated only with NR4A3 methylation in low-stage patient samples. Taken together, aberrant JAK/STAT3 signaling epigenetically silences a potential tumor suppressor, NR4A3, in gastric cancer, plausibly representing a reliable biomarker for gastric cancer prognosis.

  12. TRB3 Gene Silencing Alleviates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in a Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Ti, Yun; Xie, Guo-lu; Wang, Zhi-hao; Bi, Xiao-lei; Ding, Wen-yuan; Wang, Jia; Jiang, Gui-hua; Bu, Pei-li; Zhang, Yun; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Tribbles 3 (TRB3) is associated with insulin resistance, an important trigger in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We sought to determine whether TRB3 plays a major role in modulating DCM and the mechanisms involved. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin. We evaluated the characteristics of type 2 DCM by serial echocardiography and metabolite tests, Western blot analysis for TRB3 expression, and histopathologic analyses of cardiomyocyte density, lipids accumulation, cardiac inflammation, and fibrosis area. We then used gene silencing to investigate the role of TRB3 in the pathophysiologic features of DCM. RESULTS Rats with DCM showed severe insulin resistance, left ventricular dysfunction, aberrant lipids deposition, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, and TRB3 overexpression. We found that the silencing of TRB3 ameliorated metabolic disturbance and insulin resistance; myocardial hypertrophy, lipids accumulation, inflammation, fibrosis, and elevated collagen I-to-III content ratio in DCM rats were significantly decreased. These anatomic findings were accompanied by significant improvements in cardiac function. Furthermore, with TRB3 gene silencing, the inhibited phosphorylation of Akt was restored and the increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 and Jun NH2-terminal kinase in DCM was significantly decreased. Conclusions. TRB3 gene silencing may exert a protective effect on DCM by improving selective insulin resistance, implicating its potential role for treatment of human DCM. PMID:21933987

  13. Host-induced silencing of Fusarium culmorum genes protects wheat from infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanxin; Kastner, Christine; Nowara, Daniela; Oliveira-Garcia, Ely; Rutten, Twan; Zhao, Yusheng; Deising, Holger B.; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Plants producing antisense or double-stranded RNA molecules that target specific genes of eukaryotic pests or pathogens can become protected from their attack. This beneficial effect was also reported for plant–fungus interactions and is believed to reflect uptake of the RNAs by the fungus via an as yet unknown mechanism, followed by target gene silencing. Here we report that wheat plants pre-infected with Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) strains containing antisense sequences against target genes of the Fusarium head blight (FHB) fungus F. culmorum caused a reduction of corresponding transcript levels in the pathogen and reduced disease symptoms. Stable transgenic wheat plants carrying an RNAi hairpin construct against the β-1, 3-glucan synthase gene FcGls1 of F. culmorum or a triple combination of FcGls1 with two additional, pre-tested target genes also showed enhanced FHB resistance in leaf and spike inoculation assays under greenhouse and near-field conditions, respectively. Microscopic evaluation of F. culmorum development in plants transiently or stably expressing FcGls1 silencing constructs revealed aberrant, swollen fungal hyphae, indicating severe hyphal cell wall defects. The results lead us to propose host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) as a plant protection approach that may also be applicable to highly FHB-susceptible wheat genotypes. PMID:27540093

  14. In vivo chromatin accessibility correlates with gene silencing in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, A; Dura, J M

    1998-01-01

    Gene silencing by heterochromatin is a well-known phenomenon that, in Drosophila, is called position effect variegation (PEV). The long-held hypothesis that this gene silencing is associated with an altered chromatin structure received direct support only recently. Another gene-silencing phenomenon in Drosophila, although similar in its phenotype of variegation, has been shown to be associated with euchromatic sequences and is dependent on developmental regulators of the Polycomb group (Pc-G) of gene products. One model proposes that the Pc-G products may cause a local heterochromatinization that maintains a repressed state of transcription of their target genes. Here, we test these models by measuring the accessibility of white or miniwhite sequences, in different contexts, to the Escherichia coli dam DNA methyltransferase in vivo. We present evidence that PEV and Pc-G-mediated repression mechanisms, although based on different protein factors, may indeed involve similar higher-order chromatin structure. PMID:9832530

  15. MORC Family ATPases Required for Heterochromatin Condensation and Gene Silencing#

    PubMed Central

    Moissiard, Guillaume; Cokus, Shawn J.; Cary, Joshua; Feng, Suhua; Billi, Allison C.; Stroud, Hume; Husmann, Dylan; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan R.; McCord, Rachel Patton; Hale, Christopher J.; Feng, Wei; Michaels, Scott D.; Frand, Alison R.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Dekker, Job; Kim, John K.; Jacobsen, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) and DNA repeats are commonly targeted by DNA and histone methylation to achieve epigenetic gene silencing. We isolated mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, AtMORC1 and AtMORC6, which cause de-repression of DNA-methylated genes and TEs, but no losses of DNA or histone methylation. AtMORC1 and AtMORC6 are members of the conserved Microrchidia (MORC) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) family, predicted to catalyze alterations in chromosome superstructure. The atmorc1 and atmorc6 mutants show decondensation of pericentromeric heterochromatin, increased interaction of pericentromeric regions with the rest of the genome, and transcriptional defects that are largely restricted to loci residing in pericentromeric regions. Knockdown of the single MORC homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans also impairs transgene silencing. We propose that the MORC ATPases are conserved regulators of gene silencing in eukaryotes. PMID:22555433

  16. RNA editing regulates transposon-mediated heterochromatic gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Savva, Yiannis A; Jepson, James E C; Chang, Yao-Jen; Whitaker, Rachel; Jones, Brian C; St Laurent, Georges; Tackett, Michael R; Kapranov, Philipp; Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Helfand, Stephen L; Reenan, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Heterochromatin formation drives epigenetic mechanisms associated with silenced gene expression. Repressive heterochromatin is established through the RNA interference pathway, triggered by double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that can be modified via RNA editing. However, the biological consequences of such modifications remain enigmatic. Here we show that RNA editing regulates heterochromatic gene silencing in Drosophila. We utilize the binding activity of an RNA-editing enzyme to visualize the in vivo production of a long dsRNA trigger mediated by Hoppel transposable elements. Using homologous recombination, we delete this trigger, dramatically altering heterochromatic gene silencing and chromatin architecture. Furthermore, we show that the trigger RNA is edited and that dADAR serves as a key regulator of chromatin state. Additionally, dADAR auto-editing generates a natural suppressor of gene silencing. Lastly, systemic differences in RNA editing activity generates interindividual variation in silencing state within a population. Our data reveal a global role for RNA editing in regulating gene expression.

  17. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in barley seedling leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is one of the most potent reverse genetics technologies for gene functional characterization. This method exploits a dsRNA-mediated antiviral defense mechanism in plants. Using this method allows researchers to generate rapid phenotypic data in a relatively rapid ...

  18. Virus induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis gene homologues in wheat identify genes conferring improved drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat, functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for wheat breeding. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited tra...

  19. Structure and Gene-Silencing Mechanisms of Small Noncoding RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chia-Ying; Rana, Tariq M.

    Small (19-31-nucleotides) noncoding RNAs were identified in the past 10 years for their distinct function in gene silencing. The best known gene-silencing phenomenon, RNA interference (RNAi), is triggered in a sequence-specific manner by endogenously produced or exogenously introduced small doubled-stranded RNAs. As knowledge of the structure and function of the RNAi machinery has expanded, this phenomenon has become a powerful tool for biochemical research; it has enormous potential for therapeutics. This chapter summarizes significant aspects of three major classes of small noncoding, regulatory RNAs: small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Here, we focus on the biogenesis of these small RNAs, their structural features and coupled effectors as well as the mechanisms of each small regulatory RNA pathway which reveal fascinating ways by which gene silencing is controlled and fine-tuned at an epigenetic level.

  20. Gene Silencing in Crustaceans: From Basic Research to Biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Sagi, Amir; Manor, Rivka; Ventura, Tomer

    2013-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) is gaining momentum for crustaceans, both in basic research and for commercial development. RNAi has proven instrumental in a growing number of crustacean species, revealing the functionality of novel crustacean genes essential among others to development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Extensive studies have also been done on silencing of viral transcripts in crustaceans, contributing to the understanding of the defense mechanisms of crustaceans and strategies employed by viruses to overcome these. The first practical use of gene silencing in aquaculture industry has been recently achieved, through manipulation of a crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland hormone. This review summarizes the advancements in the use of RNAi in crustaceans, and assesses the advantages of this method, as well as the current hurdles that hinder its large-scale practice. PMID:24705266

  1. Phenotypic diversification by gene silencing in Phytophthora plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Asman, Anna Km; Jahan, Sultana N; Avrova, Anna O; Whisson, Stephen C; Dixelius, Christina

    2013-11-01

    Advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled generation of unprecedented information on genome content and organization. Eukaryote genomes in particular may contain large populations of transposable elements (TEs) and other repeated sequences. Active TEs can result in insertional mutations, altered transcription levels and ectopic recombination of DNA. The genome of the oomycete plant pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, contains vast numbers of TE sequences. There are also hundreds of predicted disease-promoting effector proteins, predominantly located in TE-rich genomic regions. Expansion of effector gene families is also a genomic signature of related oomycetes such as P. sojae. Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) from P. infestans has identified sRNAs derived from all families of transposons, highlighting the importance of RNA silencing for maintaining these genomic invaders in an inactive form. Small RNAs were also identified from specific effector encoding genes, possibly leading to RNA silencing of these genes and variation in pathogenicity and virulence toward plant resistance genes. Similar findings have also recently been made for the distantly related species, P. sojae. Small RNA "hotspots" originating from arrays of amplified gene sequences, or from genes displaying overlapping antisense transcription, were also identified in P. infestans. These findings suggest a major role for RNA silencing processes in the adaptability and diversification of these economically important plant pathogens. Here we review the latest progress and understanding of gene silencing in oomycetes with emphasis on transposable elements and sRNA-associated events.

  2. Aberrant JAK/STAT Signaling Suppresses TFF1 and TFF2 through Epigenetic Silencing of GATA6 in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Shyong; Wei, Kuo-Liang; Chou, Jian-Liang; Lu, Chung-Kuang; Hsieh, Ching-Chuan; Lin, Jora M. J.; Deng, Yi-Fang; Hsu, Wan-Ting; Wang, Hui-Min David; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Li, Chin; Chan, Michael W. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling is crucial to the development of gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the role of STAT3 in the expression and methylation of its targets in gastric cancer patients. Results from RNA sequencing identified an inverse correlation between the expression of STAT3 and GATA6 in 23 pairs of gastric cancer patient samples. We discovered that the expression of GATA6 is epigenetically silenced through promoter methylation in gastric cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the inhibition of STAT3 using a novel STAT3 inhibitor restored the expression of GATA6 and its targets, trefoil factors 1 and 2 (TFF1/2). Moreover, disruption of STAT3 binding to GATA6 promoter by small hairpin RNA restored GATA6 expression in AGS cells. A clinically significant correlation was also observed between the expression of GATA6 and TFF1/2 among tissue samples from 60 gastric cancer patients. Finally, bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed GATA6 methylation in 65% (39/60) of the patients, and those with higher GATA6 methylation tended to have shorter overall survival. In conclusion, we demonstrated that aberrant JAK/STAT signaling suppresses TFF1/2 partially through the epigenetic silencing of GATA6. Therapeutic intervention of STAT3 in reversing the epigenetic status of GATA6 could benefit the treatment of gastric cancer and is worthy of further investigation. PMID:27598141

  3. Deletion and aberrant CpG island methylation of Caspase 8 gene in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Pilar; Bello, M Josefa; Inda, M Mar; Alonso, M Eva; Arjona, Dolores; Amiñoso, Cinthia; Lopez-Marin, Isabel; de Campos, Jose M; Sarasa, Jose L; Castresana, Javier S; Rey, Juan A

    2004-09-01

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands in human genes is an alternative genetic inactivation mechanism that contributes to the development of human tumors. Nevertheless, few studies have analyzed methylation in medulloblastomas. We determined the frequency of aberrant CpG island methylation for Caspase 8 (CASP8) in a group of 24 medulloblastomas arising in 8 adult and 16 pediatric patients. Complete methylation of CASP8 was found in 15 tumors (62%) and one case displayed hemimethylation. Three samples amplified neither of the two primer sets for methylated or unmethylated alleles, suggesting that genomic deletion occurred in the 5' flanking region of CASP8. Our findings suggest that methylation commonly contributes to CASP8 silencing in medulloblastomas and that homozygous deletion or severe sequence changes involving the promoter region may be another mechanism leading to CASP8 inactivation in this neoplasm.

  4. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Chapman, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Gijzen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076) with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains. PMID:26930612

  5. Virus-induced gene silencing in Rauwolfia species.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Lafontaine, Florent; Sepúlveda, Liuda Johana; Carqueijeiro, Ines; Courtois, Martine; Lanoue, Arnaud; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Besseau, Sébastien; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Papon, Nicolas; Atehortúa, Lucia; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Clastre, Marc; St-Pierre, Benoit; Oudin, Audrey; Courdavault, Vincent

    2017-01-24

    Elucidation of the monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis has recently progressed in Apocynaceae through the concomitant development of transcriptomic analyses and reverse genetic approaches performed by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). While most of these tools have been primarily adapted for the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), the VIGS procedure has scarcely been used on other Apocynaceae species. For instance, Rauwolfia sp. constitutes a unique source of specific and valuable monoterpene indole alkaloids such as the hypertensive reserpine but are also well recognized models for studying alkaloid metabolism, and as such would benefit from an efficient VIGS procedure. By taking advantage of a recent modification in the inoculation method of the Tobacco rattle virus vectors via particle bombardment, we demonstrated that the biolistic-mediated VIGS approach can be readily used to silence genes in both Rauwolfia tetraphylla and Rauwolfia serpentina. After establishing the bombardment conditions minimizing injuries to the transformed plantlets, gene downregulation efficiency was evaluated at approximately a 70% expression decrease in both species by silencing the phytoene desaturase encoding gene. Such a gene silencing approach will thus constitute a critical tool to identify and characterize genes involved in alkaloid biosynthesis in both of these prominent Rauwolfia species.

  6. Gold Nanobeacons for Tracking Gene Silencing in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Milton; Carvalho, Lara; Silva, Joana; Saúde, Leonor; Fernandes, Alexandra R.; Baptista, Pedro V.

    2017-01-01

    The use of gold nanoparticles for effective gene silencing has demonstrated its potential as a tool for gene expression experiments and for the treatment of several diseases. Here, we used a gold nanobeacon designed to specifically silence the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) mRNA in embryos of a fli-EGFP transgenic zebrafish line, while simultaneously allowing the tracking and localization of the silencing events via the beacon’s emission. Fluorescence imaging measurements demonstrated a decrease of the EGFP emission with a concomitant increase in the fluorescence of the Au-nanobeacon. Furthermore, microinjection of the Au-nanobeacon led to a negligible difference in mortality and malformations in comparison to the free oligonucleotide, indicating that this system is a biocompatible platform for the administration of gene silencing moieties. Together, these data illustrate the potential of Au-nanobeacons as tools for in vivo zebrafish gene modulation with low toxicity which may be used towards any gene of interest. PMID:28336844

  7. Down-Regulation of Gene Expression by RNA-Induced Gene Silencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travella, Silvia; Keller, Beat

    Down-regulation of endogenous genes via post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a key to the characterization of gene function in plants. Many RNA-based silencing mechanisms such as post-transcriptional gene silencing, co-suppression, quelling, and RNA interference (RNAi) have been discovered among species of different kingdoms (plants, fungi, and animals). One of the most interesting discoveries was RNAi, a sequence-specific gene-silencing mechanism initiated by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), homologous in sequence to the silenced gene, which triggers degradation of mRNA. Infection of plants with modified viruses can also induce RNA silencing and is referred to as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). In contrast to insertional mutagenesis, these emerging new reverse genetic approaches represent a powerful tool for exploring gene function and for manipulating gene expression experimentally in cereal species such as barley and wheat. We examined how RNAi and VIGS have been used to assess gene function in barley and wheat, including molecular mechanisms involved in the process and available methodological elements, such as vectors, inoculation procedures, and analysis of silenced phenotypes.

  8. GENE SILENCING. Epigenetic silencing by the HUSH complex mediates position-effect variegation in human cells.

    PubMed

    Tchasovnikarova, Iva A; Timms, Richard T; Matheson, Nicholas J; Wals, Kim; Antrobus, Robin; Göttgens, Berthold; Dougan, Gordon; Dawson, Mark A; Lehner, Paul J

    2015-06-26

    Forward genetic screens in Drosophila melanogaster for modifiers of position-effect variegation have revealed the basis of much of our understanding of heterochromatin. We took an analogous approach to identify genes required for epigenetic repression in human cells. A nonlethal forward genetic screen in near-haploid KBM7 cells identified the HUSH (human silencing hub) complex, comprising three poorly characterized proteins, TASOR, MPP8, and periphilin; this complex is absent from Drosophila but is conserved from fish to humans. Loss of HUSH components resulted in decreased H3K9me3 both at endogenous genomic loci and at retroviruses integrated into heterochromatin. Our results suggest that the HUSH complex is recruited to genomic loci rich in H3K9me3, where subsequent recruitment of the methyltransferase SETDB1 is required for further H3K9me3 deposition to maintain transcriptional silencing.

  9. Polycomb-Mediated Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Sung, Sibum

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are conserved chromatin regulators involved in the control of key developmental programs in eukaryotes. They collectively provide the transcriptional memory unique to each cell identity by maintaining transcriptional states of developmental genes. PcG proteins form multi-protein complexes, known as Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). PRC1 and PRC2 contribute to the stable gene silencing in part through catalyzing covalent histone modifications. Components of PRC1 and PRC2 are well conserved from plants to animals. PcG-mediated gene silencing has been extensively investigated in efforts to understand molecular mechanisms underlying developmental programs in eukaryotes. Here, we describe our current knowledge on PcG-mediated gene repression which dictates developmental programs by dynamic layers of regulatory activities, with an emphasis given to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25410906

  10. INDUCIBLE RNAi-MEDIATED GENE SILENCING USING NANOSTRUCTURED GENE DELIVERY ARRAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, David George James; McKnight, Timothy E; Mcpherson, Jackson; Hoyt, Peter R; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich; Simpson, Michael L; Sayler, Gary Steven

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference has become a powerful biological tool over the last decade. In this study, a tetracycline-inducible shRNA vector system was designed for silencing CFP expression and introduced alongside the yfp marker gene into Chinese hamster ovary cells using spatially indexed vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays (VACNFs) in a gene delivery process termed impalefection. The VACNF architecture provided simultaneous delivery of multiple genes, subsequent adherence and proliferation of interfaced cells, and repeated monitoring of single cells over time. 24 hours after nanofiber-mediated delivery, 53.1% 10.4% of the cells that expressed the yfp marker gene were also fully silenced by the inducible CFP-silencing shRNA vector. Additionally, efficient CFP-silencing was observed in single cells among a population of cells that remained CFP-expressing. This effective transient expression system enables rapid analysis of gene silencing effects using RNAi in single cells and cell populations.

  11. Virus-induced gene silencing in transgenic plants: transgene silencing and reactivation associate with two patterns of transgene body methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingmin; San León, David; Delgadillo, Ma Otilia; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    We used bisulfite sequencing to study the methylation of a viral transgene whose expression was silenced upon plum pox virus infection of the transgenic plant and its subsequent recovery as a consequence of so-called virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). VIGS was associated with a general increase in the accumulation of small RNAs corresponding to the coding region of the viral transgene. After VIGS, the transgene promoter was not methylated and the coding region showed uneven methylation, with the 5' end being mostly unmethylated in the recovered tissue or mainly methylated at CG sites in regenerated silenced plants. The methylation increased towards the 3' end, which showed dense methylation in all three contexts (CG, CHG and CHH). This methylation pattern and the corresponding silenced status were maintained after plant regeneration from recovered silenced tissue and did not spread into the promoter region, but were not inherited in the sexual offspring. Instead, a new pattern of methylation was observed in the progeny plants consisting of disappearance of the CHH methylation, similar CHG methylation at the 3' end, and an overall increase in CG methylation in the 5' end. The latter epigenetic state was inherited over several generations and did not correlate with transgene silencing and hence virus resistance. These results suggest that the widespread CG methylation pattern found in body gene bodies located in euchromatic regions of plant genomes may reflect an older silencing event, and most likely these genes are no longer silenced.

  12. Virus-induced gene silencing in eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiping; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Yan, Huaxue; Shen, Xiaoying; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2012-06-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is an economically important vegetable requiring investigation into its various genomic functions. The current limitation in the investigation of genomic function in eggplant is the lack of effective tools available for conducting functional assays. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has played a critical role in the functional genetic analyses. In this paper, TRV-mediated VIGS was successfully elicited in eggplant. We first cloned the CDS sequence of PDS (PHYTOENE DESATURASE) in eggplant and then silenced the PDS gene. Photo-bleaching was shown on the newly-developed leaves four weeks after agroinoculation, indicating that VIGS can be used to silence genes in eggplant. To further illustrate the reliability of VIGS in eggplant, we selected Chl H, Su and CLA1 as reporters to elicit VIGS using the high-pressure spray method. Suppression of Chl H and Su led to yellow leaves, while the depletion of CLA1 resulted in albino. In conclusion, four genes, PDS, Chl H, Su (Sulfur), CLA1, were down-regulated significantly by VIGS, indicating that the VIGS system can be successfully applied in eggplant and is a reliable tool for the study of gene function.

  13. Tissue homogeneity requires inhibition of unequal gene silencing during development

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hai H.; Looney, Monika; Strauss, Benjamin; Bloodgood, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms can generate and maintain homogenous populations of cells that make up individual tissues. However, cellular processes that can disrupt homogeneity and how organisms overcome such disruption are unknown. We found that ∼100-fold differences in expression from a repetitive DNA transgene can occur between intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. These differences are caused by gene silencing in some cells and are actively suppressed by parental and zygotic factors such as the conserved exonuclease ERI-1. If unsuppressed, silencing can spread between some cells in embryos but can be repeat specific and independent of other homologous loci within each cell. Silencing can persist through DNA replication and nuclear divisions, disrupting uniform gene expression in developed animals. Analysis at single-cell resolution suggests that differences between cells arise during early cell divisions upon unequal segregation of an initiator of silencing. Our results suggest that organisms with high repetitive DNA content, which include humans, could use similar developmental mechanisms to achieve and maintain tissue homogeneity. PMID:27458132

  14. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Biankin, Andrew V.; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Johns, Amber L.; Miller, David K.; Wilson, Peter J.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K.; Cowley, Mark J.; Gardiner, Brooke B.; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Gill, Anthony J.; Pinho, Andreia V.; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J. Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R. Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L.; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D.; Colvin, Emily K.; Nagrial, Adnan M.; Humphrey, Emily S.; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T.; Chantrill, Lorraine A.; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Kench, James G.; Lovell, Jessica A.; Daly, Roger J.; Merrett, Neil D.; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q.; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M.; Fisher, William E.; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Hodges, Sally E.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R.; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J.; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E.; Yung, Christina K.; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Morgan, Richard A.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A.; Mann, Karen M.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Adams, David J.; Largaespada, David A.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Rust, Alistair G.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Tuveson, David A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Wheeler, David A.; Pearson, John V.; McPherson, John D.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:23103869

  15. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.

    PubMed

    Biankin, Andrew V; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B; Johns, Amber L; Miller, David K; Wilson, Peter J; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K; Cowley, Mark J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J; Gill, Anthony J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D; Colvin, Emily K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Humphrey, Emily S; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Lovell, Jessica A; Daly, Roger J; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles; Hodges, Sally E; Reid, Jeffrey G; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E; Yung, Christina K; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A; Petersen, Gloria M; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Mann, Karen M; Jenkins, Nancy A; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Adams, David J; Largaespada, David A; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Rust, Alistair G; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuveson, David A; Copeland, Neal G; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R; Hudson, Thomas J; Sutherland, Robert L; Wheeler, David A; Pearson, John V; McPherson, John D; Gibbs, Richard A; Grimmond, Sean M

    2012-11-15

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  16. INDUCIBLE RNAi-MEDIATED GENE SILENCING USING NANOSTRUCTURED GENE DELIVERY ARRAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, David George James; McKnight, Timothy E; Mcpherson, Jackson; Hoyt, Peter R; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich; Simpson, Michael L; Sayler, Gary Steven

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference has become a powerful biological tool over the last decade. In this study, a tetracycline-inducible shRNA vector system was designed for silencing CFP expression and delivered alongside the yfp marker gene into Chinese hamster ovary cells using impalefection on spatially indexed vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays (VACNFs). The VACNF architecture provided simultaneous delivery of multiple genes, subsequent adherence and proliferation of interfaced cells, and repeated monitoring of single cells over time. Following impalefection and tetracycline induction, 53.1% 10.4% of impalefected cells were fully silenced by the inducible CFP-silencing shRNA vector. Additionally, efficient CFP-silencing was observed in single cells among a population of cells that remained CFP-expressing. This effective transient expression system enables rapid analysis of gene silencing effects using RNAi in single cells and cell populations.

  17. Bacterial Cellular Engineering by Genome Editing and Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing is an important technology for bacterial cellular engineering, which is commonly conducted by homologous recombination-based procedures, including gene knockout (disruption), knock-in (insertion), and allelic exchange. In addition, some new recombination-independent approaches have emerged that utilize catalytic RNAs, artificial nucleases, nucleic acid analogs, and peptide nucleic acids. Apart from these methods, which directly modify the genomic structure, an alternative approach is to conditionally modify the gene expression profile at the posttranscriptional level without altering the genomes. This is performed by expressing antisense RNAs to knock down (silence) target mRNAs in vivo. This review describes the features and recent advances on methods used in genomic engineering and silencing technologies that are advantageously used for bacterial cellular engineering. PMID:24552876

  18. Developing Gene Silencing for the Study and Treatment of Dystonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    suppressing expression of torsinA(ΔE) through gene silencing techniques would be beneficial. We have already achieved this goal in cultured cells through RNA ...hypothesis is suppressing expression of torsinA(∆E) through RNA interference (RNAi) or antisense oligos (ASO) will be a safe an effective treatment...neuroanatomical substrate that causes motor dysfunction in dystonia. 2. KEYWORDS adeno-associated virus (AAV); antisense oligonucleotide (ASO); RNA

  19. Epigenetic Silencing of Plasmodium falciparum Genes Linked to Erythrocyte Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Alfred; Carret, Celine; Kaneko, Osamu; Yim Lim, Brian Y. S.; Ivens, Alasdair; Holder, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    The process of erythrocyte invasion by merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum involves multiple steps, including the formation of a moving junction between parasite and host cell, and it is characterised by the redundancy of many of the receptor–ligand interactions involved. Several parasite proteins that interact with erythrocyte receptors or participate in other steps of invasion are encoded by small subtelomerically located gene families of four to seven members. We report here that members of the eba, rhoph1/clag, acbp, and pfRh multigene families exist in either an active or a silenced state. In the case of two members of the rhoph1/clag family, clag3.1 and clag3.2, expression was mutually exclusive. Silencing was clonally transmitted and occurred in the absence of detectable DNA alterations, suggesting that it is epigenetic. This was demonstrated for eba-140. Our data demonstrate that variant or mutually exclusive expression and epigenetic silencing in Plasmodium are not unique to genes such as var, which encode proteins that are exported to the surface of the erythrocyte, but also occur for genes involved in host cell invasion. Clonal variant expression of invasion-related ligands increases the flexibility of the parasite to adapt to its human host. PMID:17676953

  20. Functional annotation of rare gene aberration drivers of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Yiu Huen; Dogruluk, Turgut; Tedeschi, Philip M.; Wardwell-Ozgo, Joanna; Lu, Hengyu; Espitia, Maribel; Nair, Nikitha; Minelli, Rosalba; Chong, Zechen; Chen, Fengju; Chang, Qing Edward; Dennison, Jennifer B.; Dogruluk, Armel; Li, Min; Ying, Haoqiang; Bertino, Joseph R.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Ittmann, Michael; Kerrigan, John; Chen, Ken; Creighton, Chad J.; Eterovic, Karina; Mills, Gordon B.; Scott, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    As we enter the era of precision medicine, characterization of cancer genomes will directly influence therapeutic decisions in the clinic. Here we describe a platform enabling functionalization of rare gene mutations through their high-throughput construction, molecular barcoding and delivery to cancer models for in vivo tumour driver screens. We apply these technologies to identify oncogenic drivers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This approach reveals oncogenic activity for rare gene aberrations in genes including NAD Kinase (NADK), which regulates NADP(H) homeostasis and cellular redox state. We further validate mutant NADK, whose expression provides gain-of-function enzymatic activity leading to a reduction in cellular reactive oxygen species and tumorigenesis, and show that depletion of wild-type NADK in PDAC cell lines attenuates cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that annotating rare aberrations can reveal important cancer signalling pathways representing additional therapeutic targets. PMID:26806015

  1. Oligonucleotide conjugates - Candidates for gene silencing therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Matt; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Evans, James C; Darcy, Raphael; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2016-10-01

    The potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications of oligonucleotides (ONs) have attracted great attention in recent years. The capability of ONs to selectively inhibit target genes through antisense and RNA interference mechanisms, without causing un-intended sideeffects has led them to be investigated for various biomedical applications, especially for the treatment of viral diseases and cancer. In recent years, many researchers have focused on enhancing the stability and target specificity of ONs by encapsulating/complexing them with polymers or lipid chains to formulate nanoparticles/nanocomplexes/micelles. Also, chemical modification of nucleic acids has emerged as an alternative to impart stability to ONs against nucleases and other degrading enzymes and proteins found in blood. In addition to chemically modifying the nucleic acids directly, another strategy that has emerged, involves conjugating polymers/peptide/aptamers/antibodies/proteins, preferably to the sense strand (3'end) of siRNAs. Conjugation to the siRNA not only enhances the stability and targeting specificity of the siRNA, but also allows for the development of self-administering siRNA formulations, with a much smaller size than what is usually observed for nanoparticle (∼200nm). This review concentrates mainly on approaches and studies involving ON-conjugates for biomedical applications.

  2. Altered promoter nucleosome positioning is an early event in gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Hesson, Luke B; Sloane, Mathew A; Wong, Jason Wh; Nunez, Andrea C; Srivastava, Sameer; Ng, Benedict; Hawkins, Nicholas J; Bourke, Michael J; Ward, Robyn L

    2014-10-01

    Gene silencing in cancer frequently involves hypermethylation and dense nucleosome occupancy across promoter regions. How a promoter transitions to this silent state is unclear. Using colorectal adenomas, we investigated nucleosome positioning, DNA methylation, and gene expression in the early stages of gene silencing. Genome-wide gene expression correlated with highly positioned nucleosomes upstream and downstream of a nucleosome-depleted transcription start site (TSS). Hypermethylated promoters displayed increased nucleosome occupancy, specifically at the TSS. We investigated 2 genes, CDH1 and CDKN2B, which were silenced in adenomas but lacked promoter hypermethylation. Instead, silencing correlated with loss of nucleosomes from the -2 position upstream of the TSS relative to normal mucosa. In contrast, permanent CDH1 silencing in carcinoma cells was characterized by promoter hypermethylation and dense nucleosome occupancy. Our findings suggest that silenced genes transition through an intermediary stage involving altered promoter nucleosome positioning, before permanent silencing by hypermethylation and dense nucleosome occupancy.

  3. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lan-Huan; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Solanum rostratum is a “super weed” that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS) and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH) of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum. PMID:27258320

  4. Functional genomic analysis of cotton genes with agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiquan; Shan, Libo

    2013-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the most agronomically important crops worldwide for its unique textile fiber production and serving as food and feed stock. Molecular breeding and genetic engineering of useful genes into cotton have emerged as advanced approaches to improve cotton yield, fiber quality, and resistance to various stresses. However, the understanding of gene functions and regulations in cotton is largely hindered by the limited molecular and biochemical tools. Here, we describe the method of an Agrobacterium infiltration-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay to transiently silence endogenous genes in cotton at 2-week-old seedling stage. The genes of interest could be readily silenced with a consistently high efficiency. To monitor gene silencing efficiency, we have cloned cotton GrCla1 from G. raimondii, a homolog gene of Arabidopsis Cloroplastos alterados 1 (AtCla1) involved in chloroplast development, and inserted into a tobacco rattle virus (TRV) binary vector pYL156. Silencing of GrCla1 results in albino phenotype on the newly emerging leaves, serving as a visual marker for silencing efficiency. To further explore the possibility of using VIGS assay to reveal the essential genes mediating disease resistance to Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing severe Verticillium wilt in cotton, we developed a seedling infection assay to inoculate cotton seedlings when the genes of interest are silenced by VIGS. The method we describe here could be further explored for functional genomic analysis of cotton genes involved in development and various biotic and abiotic stresses.

  5. Technical advances in trigger-induced RNA interference gene silencing in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Foda, Bardees M; Suresh, Susmitha; Singh, Upinder

    2016-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica has a robust endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. There are abundant 27 nucleotide (nt) anti-sense small RNAs (AS sRNAs) that target genes for silencing and the genome encodes many genes involved in the RNAi pathway such as Argonaute proteins. Importantly, an E. histolytica gene with numerous AS sRNAs can function as a "trigger" to induce silencing of a gene that is fused to the trigger. Thus, the amebic RNAi pathway regulates gene expression relevant to amebic biology and has additionally been harnessed as a tool for genetic manipulation. In this study we have further improved the trigger-induced gene silencing method. We demonstrate that rather than using the full-length gene, a short portion of the coding region fused to a trigger is sufficient to induce silencing; the first 537 bp of the E. histolytica rhomboid gene (EhROM1) fused in-frame to the trigger was sufficient to silence EhROM1. We also demonstrated that the trigger method could silence two amebic genes concomitantly; fusion of the coding regions of EhROM1 and transcription factor, EhMyb, in-frame to a trigger gene resulted in both genes being silenced. Alternatively, two genes can be silenced sequentially: EhROM1-silenced parasites with no drug selection plasmid were transfected with trigger-EhMyb, resulting in parasites with both EhROM1 and EhMyb silenced. With all approaches tested, the trigger-mediated silencing was substantive and silencing was maintained despite loss of the G418 selectable marker. All gene silencing was associated with generation of AS sRNAs to the silenced gene. We tested the reversibility of the trigger system using inhibitors of histone modifications but found that the silencing was highly stable. This work represents a technical advance in the trigger gene silencing method in E. histolytica. Approaches that readily silence multiple genes add significantly to the genetic toolkit available to the ameba research community.

  6. Dendrimeric siRNA for Efficient Gene Silencing.

    PubMed

    Hong, Cheol Am; Eltoukhy, Ahmed A; Lee, Hyukjin; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2015-06-01

    Programmable molecular self-assembly of siRNA molecules provides precisely controlled generation of dendrimeric siRNA nanostructures. The second-generation dendrimers of siRNA can be effectively complexed with a low-molecular-weight, cationic polymer (poly(β-amino ester), PBAE) to generate stable nanostructures about 160 nm in diameter via strong electrostatic interactions. Condensation and gene silencing efficiencies increase with the increased generation of siRNA dendrimers due to a high charge density and structural flexibility.

  7. Noise and correlations in genes silenced by small RNA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwa, Terence; Levine, Erel

    2006-03-01

    Many small regulatory RNAs have been identified in prokaryotes and eukaryotes in recent years. In many cases, RNA regulation is found in critical pathways. These include stress response and quorum sensing pathways in bacteria, and cell differentiation and programmed cell death in eukaryotes. In many cases, regulation by small RNA is used in switching off a response program as long as it is not required, allowing for a fast switching on when necessary. Clearly, accidental execution of such a program may bare grave consequences on the cell, and should be avoided. Here we analyze a stochastic model for gene regulation by the most abundant class of small RNA in bacteria. This class of small RNAs acts by base pairing with target mRNAs, silencing its translation and actively promoting its degradation. Importantly, the small RNA molecule is not recycled. Our model suggests that genes silenced by sRNA exhibits smooth noise, as opposed to the bursty noise characteristic to genes repressed at the level of transcription, with coupling between intrinsic noise and global, extrinsic fluctuations. In addition, we investigate how noise propagates through the indirect coupling between different targets of the same sRNA. These features are discussed in the context of circuits exhibiting multi-stability, where protein bursts have strong implications on spontaneous switching.

  8. Aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-related genes in giant breast fibroadenoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Giant fibroadenoma is an uncommon variant of benign breast lesions. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in promoter regions is known to be involved in the silencing of genes (for example, tumor-suppressor genes) and appears to be an early event in the etiology of breast carcinogenesis. Only hypermethylation of p16INK4a has been reported in non-giant breast fibroadenoma. In this particular case, there are no previously published data on epigenetic alterations in giant fibroadenomas. Our previous results, based on the analysis of 49 cancer-related CpG islands have confirmed that the aberrant methylation is specific to malignant breast tumors and that it is completely absent in normal breast tissue and breast fibroadenomas. Case presentation A 13-year-old Hispanic girl was referred after she had noted a progressive development of a mass in her left breast. On physical examination, a 10 × 10 cm lump was detected and axillary lymph nodes were not enlarged. After surgical removal the lump was diagnosed as a giant fibroadenoma. Because of the high growth rate of this benign tumor, we decided to analyze the methylation status of 49 CpG islands related to cell growth control. We have identified the methylation of five cancer-related CpG islands in the giant fibroadenoma tissue: ESR1, MGMT, WT-1, BRCA2 and CD44. Conclusion In this case report we show for the first time the methylation analysis of a giant fibroadenoma. The detection of methylation of these five cancer-related regions indicates substantial epigenomic differences with non-giant fibroadenomas. Epigenetic alterations could explain the higher growth rate of this tumor. Our data contribute to the growing knowledge of aberrant methylation in breast diseases. In this particular case, there exist no previous data regarding the role of methylation in giant fibroadenomas, considered by definition as a benign breast lesion. PMID:22011321

  9. Flexible tools for gene expression and silencing in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Ana I; Viron, Nicolas; Alhagdow, Moftah; Karimi, Mansour; Jones, Matthew; Amsellem, Ziva; Sicard, Adrien; Czerednik, Anna; Angenent, Gerco; Grierson, Donald; May, Sean; Seymour, Graham; Eshed, Yuval; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine; Rothan, Christophe; Hilson, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    As a genetic platform, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) benefits from rich germplasm collections and ease of cultivation and transformation that enable the analysis of biological processes impossible to investigate in other model species. To facilitate the assembly of an open genetic toolbox designed to study Solanaceae, we initiated a joint collection of publicly available gene manipulation tools. We focused on the characterization of promoters expressed at defined time windows during fruit development, for the regulated expression or silencing of genes of interest. Five promoter sequences were captured as entry clones compatible with the versatile MultiSite Gateway format: PPC2, PG, TPRP, and IMA from tomato and CRC from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Corresponding transcriptional fusions were made with the GUS gene, a nuclear-localized GUS-GFP reporter, and the chimeric LhG4 transcription factor. The activity of the promoters during fruit development and in fruit tissues was confirmed in transgenic tomato lines. Novel Gateway destination vectors were generated for the transcription of artificial microRNA (amiRNA) precursors and hairpin RNAs under the control of these promoters, with schemes only involving Gateway BP and LR Clonase reactions. Efficient silencing of the endogenous phytoene desaturase gene was demonstrated in transgenic tomato lines producing a matching amiRNA under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or PPC2 promoter. Lastly, taking advantage of the pOP/LhG4 two-component system, we found that well-characterized flower-specific Arabidopsis promoters drive the expression of reporters in patterns generally compatible with heterologous expression. Tomato lines and plasmids will be distributed through a new Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre service unit dedicated to Solanaceae resources.

  10. Silencing of the PiAvr3a effector-encoding gene from Phytophthora infestans by transcriptional fusion to a short interspersed element.

    PubMed

    Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Tian, Zhendong; Avrova, Anna O; Savenkov, Eugene I; Dixelius, Christina; Whisson, Stephen C

    2011-12-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the notorious oomycete causing late blight of potato and tomato. A large proportion of the P. infestans genome is composed of transposable elements, the activity of which may be controlled by RNA silencing. Accumulation of small RNAs is one of the hallmarks of RNA silencing. Here we demonstrate the presence of small RNAs corresponding to the sequence of a short interspersed retrotransposable element (SINE) suggesting that small RNAs might be involved in silencing of SINEs in P. infestans. This notion was exploited to develop novel tools for gene silencing in P. infestans by engineering transcriptional fusions of the PiAvr3a gene, encoding an RXLR avirulence effector, to the infSINEm retroelement. Transgenic P. infestans lines expressing either 5'-infSINEm::PiAvr3a-3' or 5'-PiAvr3a::SINEm-3' chimeric transcripts initially exhibited partial silencing of PiAvr3a. Over time, PiAvr3a either recovered wild type transcript levels in some lines, or became fully silenced in others. Introduction of an inverted repeat construct was also successful in yielding P. infestans transgenic lines silenced for PiAvr3a. In contrast, constructs expressing antisense or aberrant RNA transcripts failed to initiate silencing of PiAvr3a. Lines exhibiting the most effective silencing of PiAvr3a were either weakly or non-pathogenic on susceptible potato cv. Bintje. This study expands the repertoire of reverse genetics tools available for P. infestans research, and provides insights into a possible mode of variation in effector expression through spread of silencing from adjacent retroelements.

  11. Artificial trans-acting siRNAs confer consistent and effective gene silencing.

    PubMed

    de la Luz Gutiérrez-Nava, Maria; Aukerman, Milo J; Sakai, Hajime; Tingey, Scott V; Williams, Robert W

    2008-06-01

    Manipulating gene expression is critical to exploring gene function and a useful tool for altering commercial traits. Techniques such as hairpin-based RNA interference, virus-induced gene silencing, and artificial microRNAs take advantage of endogenous posttranscriptional gene silencing pathways to block translation of designated transcripts. Here we present a novel gene silencing method utilizing artificial trans-acting small interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Replacing the endogenous small interfering RNAs encoded in the TAS1c gene with sequences from the FAD2 gene silenced FAD2 activity to levels comparable to the fad2-1 null allele in nearly all transgenic events. Interestingly, exchanging the endogenous miR173 target sequence in TAS1c with an miR167 target sequence led to variable, inefficient silencing of FAD2, suggesting a specific requirement for the miR173 trigger for production of small interfering RNAs from the TAS1c locus.

  12. RNA silencing as a tool to uncover gene function and engineer novel traits in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Megumi; Kanazawa, Akira

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing refers collectively to diverse RNA-mediated pathways of nucleotide-sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression. It has been used to analyze gene function and engineer novel traits in various organisms. Here, we review the application of RNA silencing in soybean. To produce soybean lines, in which a particular gene is stably silenced, researchers have frequently used a transgene that transcribes inverted repeats of a target gene segment. Suppression of gene expression in developing soybean embryos has been one of the main focuses of metabolic engineering using transgene-induced silencing. Plants that have enhanced resistance against diseases caused by viruses or cyst nematode have also been produced. Meanwhile, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation has been used to induce RNA silencing in roots, which enabled analysis of the roles of gene products in nodulation or disease resistance. RNA silencing has also been induced using viral vectors, which is particularly useful for gene function analysis. So far, three viral vectors for virus-induced gene silencing have been developed for soybean. One of the features of the soybean genome is the presence of a large number of duplicated genes. Potential use of RNA silencing technology in combination with forward genetic approaches for analyzing duplicated genes is discussed. PMID:23136487

  13. Aberrant expression of homeobox gene SIX1 in Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A.F.

    2015-01-01

    In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) we recently identified deregulated expression of homeobox genes MSX1 and OTX2 which are physiologically involved in development of the embryonal neural plate border region. Here, we examined in HL homeobox gene SIX1 an additional regulator of this embryonal region mediating differentiation of placodal precursors. SIX1 was aberrantly activated in 12 % of HL patient samples in silico, indicating a pathological role in a subset of this B-cell malignancy. In addition, SIX1 expression was detected in HL cell lines which were used as models to reveal upstream factors and target genes of this basic developmental regulator. We detected increased copy numbers of the SIX1 locus at chromosome 14q23 correlating with enhanced expression while chromosomal translocations were absent. Moreover, comparative expression profiling data and pertinent gene modulation experiments indicated that the WNT-signalling pathway and transcription factor MEF2C regulate SIX1 expression. Genes encoding the transcription factors GATA2, GATA3, MSX1 and SPIB – all basic lymphoid regulators - were identified as targets of SIX1 in HL. In addition, cofactors EYA1 and TLE4, respectively, contrastingly mediated activation and suppression of SIX1 target gene expression. Thus, the protein domain interfaces may represent therapeutic targets in SIX1-positive HL subsets. Collectively, our data reveal a gene regulatory network with SIX1 centrally deregulating lymphoid differentiation and support concordance of lymphopoiesis/lymphomagenesis and developmental processes in the neural plate border region. PMID:26473286

  14. Transcriptional gene silencing as a tool for uncovering gene function in maize.

    PubMed

    Cigan, A Mark; Unger-Wallace, Erica; Haug-Collet, Kristin

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptional gene silencing has broad applications for studying gene function in planta. In maize, a large number of genes have been identified as tassel-preferred in their expression pattern, both by traditional genetic methods and by recent high-throughput expression profiling platforms. Approaches using RNA suppression may provide a rapid alternative means to identify genes directly related to pollen development in maize. The male fertility gene Ms45 and several anther-expressed genes of unknown function were used to evaluate the efficacy of generating male-sterile plants by transcriptional gene silencing. A high frequency of male-sterile plants was obtained by constitutively expressing inverted repeats (IR) of the Ms45 promoter. These sterile plants lacked MS45 mRNA due to transcriptional inactivity of the target promoter. Moreover, fertility was restored to these promoter IR-containing plants by expressing the Ms45 coding region using heterologous promoters. Transcriptional silencing of other anther-expressed genes also significantly affected male fertility phenotypes and led to increased methylation of the target promoter DNA sequences. These studies provide evidence of disruption of gene activity in monocots by RNA interference constructs directed against either native or transformed promoter regions. This approach not only enables the correlation of monocot anther-expressed genes with functions that are important for reproduction in maize, but may also provide a tool for studying gene function and identifying regulatory components unique to transcriptional gene control.

  15. Gene duplication, silencing and expression alteration govern the molecular evolution of PRC2 genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Hazuka Y; Suenaga, Kazuya; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Yoshida, Takanori; Kawabe, Akira

    2016-10-13

    PRC2 genes were analyzed for their number of gene duplications, dN/dS ratios and expression patterns among Brassicaceae and Gramineae species. Although both amino acid sequences and copy number of the PRC2 genes were generally well conserved in both Brassicaceae and Gramineae species, we observed that some rapidly evolving genes experienced duplications and expression pattern changes. After multiple duplication events, all but one or two of the duplicated copies tend to be silenced. Silenced copies were reactivated in the endosperm and showed ectopic expression in developing seeds. The results indicated that rapid evolution of some PRC2 genes is initially caused by a relaxation of selective constraint following the gene duplication events. Several loci could become maternally expressed imprinted genes and acquired functional roles in the endosperm.

  16. RNAi pathway genes are resistant to small RNA mediated gene silencing in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Pompey, Justine M; Morf, Laura; Singh, Upinder

    2014-01-01

    The RNA interference pathway in the protist Entamoeba histolytica plays important roles in permanent gene silencing as well as in the regulation of virulence determinants. Recently, a novel RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing technique was developed in this parasite that uses a gene endogenously silenced by small RNAs as a "trigger" to induce silencing of other genes that are fused to it. Fusion to a trigger gene induces the production of gene-specific antisense small RNAs, resulting in robust and permanent silencing of the cognate gene. This approach has silenced multiple genes including those involved in virulence and transcriptional regulation. We now demonstrate that all tested genes of the amebic RNAi pathway are unable to be silenced using the trigger approach, including Argonaute genes (Ago2-1, Ago2-2, and Ago2-3), RNaseIII, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). In all situations (except for RdRP), fusion to a trigger successfully induces production of gene-specific antisense small RNAs to the cognate gene. These small RNAs are capable of silencing a target gene in trans, indicating that they are functional; despite this, however, they cannot silence the RNAi pathway genes. Interestingly, when a trigger is fused to RdRP, small RNA induction to RdRP does not occur, a unique phenotype hinting that either RdRP is highly resistant to being a target of small RNAs or that small RNA generation may be controlled by RdRP. The inability of the small RNA pathway to silence RNAi genes in E. histolytica, despite the generation of functional small RNAs to these loci suggest that epigenetic factors may protect certain genomic loci and thus determine susceptibility to small RNA mediated silencing.

  17. Genomic Aberrations Frequently Alter Chromatin Regulatory Genes in Chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F.; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C. David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ~8 Mb segment at 3p21.1–p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (~23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (~40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. PMID:27072194

  18. Reactivation of developmentally silenced globin genes by forced chromatin looping

    PubMed Central

    Krivega, Ivan; Breda, Laura; Motta, Irene; Jahn, Kristen S.; Reik, Andreas; Gregory, Philip D.; Rivella, Stefano; Dean, Ann; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Distal enhancers commonly contact target promoters via chromatin looping. In erythroid cells, the locus control region (LCR) contacts β-type globin genes in a developmental stage-specific manner to stimulate transcription. Previously, we induced LCR-promoter looping by tethering the self-association domain (SA) of Ldb1 to the β-globin promoter via artificial zinc fingers. Here, we show that targeting the SA to a developmentally silenced embryonic globin gene in adult murine erythroblasts triggered its transcriptional reactivation. This activity depended on the LCR, consistent with an LCR-promoter looping mechanism. Strikingly, targeting SA to the fetal γ-globin promoter in primary adult human erythroblasts increased γ-globin promoter-LCR contacts, stimulating transcription to approximately 85% of total β-globin synthesis with a reciprocal reduction in adult β-globin expression. Our findings demonstrate that forced chromatin looping can override a stringent developmental gene expression program and suggest a novel approach to control the balance of globin gene transcription for therapeutic applications. PMID:25126789

  19. Inheritable Silencing of Endogenous Genes by Hit-and-Run Targeted Epigenetic Editing.

    PubMed

    Amabile, Angelo; Migliara, Alessandro; Capasso, Paola; Biffi, Mauro; Cittaro, Davide; Naldini, Luigi; Lombardo, Angelo

    2016-09-22

    Gene silencing is instrumental to interrogate gene function and holds promise for therapeutic applications. Here, we repurpose the endogenous retroviruses' silencing machinery of embryonic stem cells to stably silence three highly expressed genes in somatic cells by epigenetics. This was achieved by transiently expressing combinations of engineered transcriptional repressors that bind to and synergize at the target locus to instruct repressive histone marks and de novo DNA methylation, thus ensuring long-term memory of the repressive epigenetic state. Silencing was highly specific, as shown by genome-wide analyses, sharply confined to the targeted locus without spreading to nearby genes, resistant to activation induced by cytokine stimulation, and relieved only by targeted DNA demethylation. We demonstrate the portability of this technology by multiplex gene silencing, adopting different DNA binding platforms and interrogating thousands of genomic loci in different cell types, including primary T lymphocytes. Targeted epigenome editing might have broad application in research and medicine.

  20. RNA interference is ineffective as a routine method for gene silencing in chick embryos as monitored by fgf8 silencing

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The in vivo accessibility of the chick embryo makes it a favoured model system for experimental developmental biology. Although the range of available techniques now extends to miss-expression of genes through in ovo electroporation, it remains difficult to knock out individual gene expression. Recently, the possibility of silencing gene expression by RNAi in chick embryos has been reported. However, published studies show only discrete quantitative differences in the expression of the endogenous targeted genes and unclear morphological alterations. To elucidate whether the tools currently available are adequate to silence gene expression sufficiently to produce a clear and specific null-like mutant phenotype, we have performed several experiments with different molecules that trigger RNAi: dsRNA, siRNA, and shRNA produced from a plasmid coexpressing green fluorescent protein as an internal marker. Focussing on fgf8 expression in the developing isthmus, we show that no morphological defects are observed, and that fgf8 expression is neither silenced in embryos microinjected with dsRNA nor in embryos microinjected and electroporated with a pool of siRNAs. Moreover, fgf8 expression was not significantly silenced in most isthmic cells transformed with a plasmid producing engineered shRNAs to fgf8. We also show that siRNA molecules do not spread significantly from cell to cell as reported for invertebrates, suggesting the existence of molecular differences between different model systems that may explain the different responses to RNAi. Although our results are basically in agreement with previously reported studies, we suggest, in contrast to them, that with currently available tools and techniques the number of cells in which fgf8 gene expression is decreased, if any, is not sufficient to generate a detectable mutant phenotype, thus making RNAi useless as a routine method for functional gene analysis in chick embryos. PMID:15951844

  1. Simple gene silencing using the trans-acting siRNA pathway.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Thomas B; Lawler, Noah J; LaFayette, Peter R; Vodkin, Lila O; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    In plants, particular micro-RNAs (miRNAs) induce the production of a class of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) called trans-acting siRNA (ta-siRNA) that lead to gene silencing. A single miRNA target is sufficient for the production of ta-siRNAs, which target can be incorporated into a vector to induce the production of siRNAs, and ultimately gene silencing. The term miRNA-induced gene silencing (MIGS) has been used to describe such vector systems in Arabidopsis. Several ta-siRNA loci have been identified in soybean, but, prior to this work, few of the inducing miRNAs have been experimentally validated, much less used to silence genes. Nine ta-siRNA loci and their respective miRNA targets were identified, and the abundance of the inducing miRNAs varies dramatically in different tissues. The miRNA targets were experimentally verified by silencing a transgenic GFP gene and two endogenous genes in hairy roots and transgenic plants. Small RNAs were produced in patterns consistent with the utilization of the ta-siRNA pathway. A side-by-side experiment demonstrated that MIGS is as effective at inducing gene silencing as traditional hairpin vectors in soybean hairy roots. Soybean plants transformed with MIGS vectors produced siRNAs and silencing was observed in the T1 generation. These results complement previous reports in Arabidopsis by demonstrating that MIGS is an efficient way to produce siRNAs and induce gene silencing in other species, as shown with soybean. The miRNA targets identified here are simple to incorporate into silencing vectors and offer an effective and efficient alternative to other gene silencing strategies.

  2. Genes duplicated by polyploidy show unequal contributions to the transcriptome and organ-specific reciprocal silencing

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Keith L.; Cronn, Richard; Percifield, Ryan; Wendel, Jonathan F.

    2003-01-01

    Most eukaryotes have genomes that exhibit high levels of gene redundancy, much of which seems to have arisen from one or more cycles of genome doubling. Polyploidy has been particularly prominent during flowering plant evolution, yielding duplicated genes (homoeologs) whose expression may be retained or lost either as an immediate consequence of polyploidization or on an evolutionary timescale. Expression of 40 homoeologous gene pairs was assayed by cDNA-single-stranded conformation polymorphism in natural (1- to 2-million-yr-old) and synthetic tetraploid cotton (Gossypium) to determine whether homoeologous gene pairs are expressed at equal levels after polyploid formation. Silencing or unequal expression of one homoeolog was documented for 10 of 40 genes examined in ovules of Gossypium hirsutum. Assays of homoeolog expression in 10 organs revealed variable expression levels and silencing, depending on the gene and organ examined. Remarkably, silencing and biased expression of some gene pairs are reciprocal and developmentally regulated, with one homoeolog showing silencing in some organs and the other being silenced in other organs, suggesting rapid subfunctionalization. Duplicate gene expression was examined in additional natural polyploids to characterize the pace at which expression alteration evolves. Analysis of a synthetic tetraploid revealed homoeolog expression and silencing patterns that sometimes mirrored those of the natural tetraploid. Both long-term and immediate responses to polyploidization were implicated. Data suggest that some silencing events are epigenetically induced during the allopolyploidization process. PMID:12665616

  3. Methylation-mediated gene silencing as biomarkers of gastric cancer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Jun; Tanaka, Tomokazu; Kitajima, Yoshihiko; Noshiro, Hirokazu; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    Despite a decline in the overall incidence of gastric cancer (GC), the disease remains the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is thus a significant global health problem. The best means of improving the survival of GC patients is to screen for and treat early lesions. However, GC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and is associated with a poor prognosis. Current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have not been successful in decreasing the global burden of the disease; therefore, the identification of reliable biomarkers for an early diagnosis, predictive markers of recurrence and survival and markers of drug sensitivity and/or resistance is urgently needed. The initiation and progression of GC depends not only on genetic alterations but also epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation and histone modification. Aberrant DNA methylation is the most well-defined epigenetic change in human cancers and is associated with inappropriate gene silencing. Therefore, an increasing number of genes methylated at the promoter region have been targeted as possible biomarkers for different purposes, including early detection, classification, the assessment of the tumor prognosis, the development of therapeutic strategies and patient follow-up. This review article summarizes the current understanding and recent evidence regarding DNA methylation markers in GC with a focus on the clinical potential of these markers. PMID:25232236

  4. A microRNA embedded AAV alpha-synuclein gene silencing vector for dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ye; Khodr, Christina E.; Sapru, Mohan K.; Pedapati, Jyothi; Bohn, Martha C.

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (SNCA), an abundantly expressed presynaptic protein, is implicated in Parkinson disease (PD). Since over-expression of human SNCA (hSNCA) leads to death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in human, rodent and fly brain, hSNCA gene silencing may reduce levels of toxic forms of SNCA and ameliorate degeneration of DA neurons in PD. To begin to develop a gene therapy for PD based on hSNCA gene silencing, two AAV gene silencing vectors were designed, and tested for efficiency and specificity of silencing, as well as toxicity in vitro. The same hSNCA silencing sequence (shRNA) was used in both vectors, but in one vector, the shRNA was embedded in a microRNA backbone and driven by a pol II promoter, and in the other the shRNA was not embedded in a microRNA and was driven by a pol III promoter. Both vectors silenced hSNCA to the same extent in 293T cells transfected with hSNCA. In DA PC12 cells, neither vector decreased expression of rat SNCA, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) or the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT). However, the mir30 embedded vector was significantly less toxic to both PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells. Our in vitro data suggest that this miRNA-embedded silencing vector may be ideal for chronic in vivo SNCA gene silencing in DA neurons. PMID:21338582

  5. Silencing structural and nonstructural genes in baculovirus by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Flores-Jasso, C Fabian; Valdes, Victor Julian; Sampieri, Alicia; Valadez-Graham, Viviana; Recillas-Targa, Felix; Vaca, Luis

    2004-06-01

    We review several aspects of RNAi and gene silencing with baculovirus. We show that the potency of RNAi in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cells correlates well with the efficiency of transfection of the siRNA. Using a fluorescein-labeled siRNA we found that the siRNA localized in areas surrounding the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Both long (700 nucleotides long) and small ( approximately 25 nucleotides long) interfering RNAs were equally effective in initiating RNA interference (RNAi), and the duration of the interfering effect was indistinguishable. Even though RNAi in Sf21 cells is very effective, in vitro experiments show that these cells fragment the long dsRNA into siRNA poorly, when compared to HEK cells. Finally, we show that in vivo inhibition of baculovirus infection with dsRNA homologous to genes that are essential for baculovirus infectivity depends strongly on the amount of dsRNA used in the assays. Five hundred nanogram of dsRNA directly injected into the haemolymph of insects prevent animal death to over 95%. In control experiments, over 96% of insects not injected with dsRNA or injected with an irrelevant dsRNA died within a week. These results demonstrate the efficiency of dsRNA for in vivo prevention of a viral infection by virus that is very cytotoxic and lytic in animals.

  6. Mechanisms guiding Polycomb activities during gene silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    He, Chongsheng; Huang, Hai; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins act in an evolutionarily conserved epigenetic pathway that regulates chromatin structures in plants and animals, repressing many developmentally important genes by modifying histones. PcG proteins can form at least two multiprotein complexes: Polycomb Repressive Complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2, respectively). The functions of Arabidopsis thaliana PRCs have been characterized in multiple stages of development and have diverse roles in response to environmental stimuli. Recently, the mechanism that precisely regulates Arabidopsis PcG activity was extensively studied. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries in the regulations of PcG at the three different layers: the recruitment of PRCs to specific target loci, the polyubiquitination and degradation of PRC2, and the antagonism of PRC2 activity by the Trithorax group proteins. Current knowledge indicates that the powerful activity of the PcG pathway is strictly controlled for specific silencing of target genes during plant development and in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:24312106

  7. Identification of Novel Pepper Genes Involved in Bax- or INF1-Mediated Cell Death Responses by High-Throughput Virus-Induced Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Young Cheol; Choi, Doil; Park, Jeong Mee

    2013-01-01

    Hot pepper is one of the economically important crops in Asia. A large number of gene sequences, including expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic sequences are publicly available. However, it is still a daunting task to determine gene function due to difficulties in genetic modification of a pepper plants. Here, we show the application of the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) repression for the study of 459 pepper ESTs selected as non-host pathogen-induced cell death responsive genes from pepper microarray experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana. Developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana plants are observed in the 32 (7%) pepper ESTs-silenced plants. Aberrant morphological phenotypes largely comprised of three groups: stunted, abnormal leaf, and dead. In addition, by employing the combination of VIGS and Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays, we identified novel pepper ESTs that involved in Bax or INF1-mediated cell death responses. Silencing of seven pepper ESTs homologs suppressed Bax or INF1-induced cell death, five of which suppressed both cell death responses in N. benthamiana. The genes represented by these five ESTs encode putative proteins with functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid signaling. The genes represented by the other two pepper ESTs showing only Bax-mediated cell death inhibition encode a CCCH-type zinc finger protein containing an ankyrin-repeat domain and a probable calcium-binding protein, CML30-like. Taken together, we effectively isolated novel pepper clones that are involved in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death using VIGS, and identified silenced clones that have different responses to Bax and INF1 exposure, indicating separate signaling pathways for Bax- and INF1-mediated cell death. PMID:24256816

  8. Identification of novel pepper genes involved in Bax- or INF1-mediated cell death responses by high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Young Cheol; Choi, Doil; Park, Jeong Mee

    2013-11-19

    Hot pepper is one of the economically important crops in Asia. A large number of gene sequences, including expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic sequences are publicly available. However, it is still a daunting task to determine gene function due to difficulties in genetic modification of a pepper plants. Here, we show the application of the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) repression for the study of 459 pepper ESTs selected as non-host pathogen-induced cell death responsive genes from pepper microarray experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana. Developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana plants are observed in the 32 (7%) pepper ESTs-silenced plants. Aberrant morphological phenotypes largely comprised of three groups: stunted, abnormal leaf, and dead. In addition, by employing the combination of VIGS and Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays, we identified novel pepper ESTs that involved in Bax or INF1-mediated cell death responses. Silencing of seven pepper ESTs homologs suppressed Bax or INF1-induced cell death, five of which suppressed both cell death responses in N. benthamiana. The genes represented by these five ESTs encode putative proteins with functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid signaling. The genes represented by the other two pepper ESTs showing only Bax-mediated cell death inhibition encode a CCCH-type zinc finger protein containing an ankyrin-repeat domain and a probable calcium-binding protein, CML30-like. Taken together, we effectively isolated novel pepper clones that are involved in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death using VIGS, and identified silenced clones that have different responses to Bax and INF1 exposure, indicating separate signaling pathways for Bax- and INF1-mediated cell death.

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing in cultivated cotton (Gossypium spp.) using Tobacco rattle virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study described here has optimized the conditions for virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) in three cultivated cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum, G. arboreum and G. herbaceum) using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vector. The system was used to silence the homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana chloro...

  10. DNA methylation and histone modifications cause silencing of Wnt antagonist gene in human renal cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Ken; Hirata, Hiroshi; Kikuno, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2008-08-01

    Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) is a negative modulator of the Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling pathway, and shown to be inactivated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the molecular mechanism of silencing of sFRP2 is not fully understood. Our study was designed to elucidate the silencing mechanism of sFRP2 in RCC. Expression of sFRP2 was examined in 20 pairs of primary cancers by immunohistochemistry. Kidney cell lines (HK-2, Caki-1, Caki-2, A-498 and ACHN) were analyzed for sFRP2 expression using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. The methylation status at 46 CpG sites of the 2 CpG islands in the sFRP2 promoter was characterized by bisulfite DNA sequencing. Histone modifications were assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay using antibodies against AcH3, AcH4, H3K4 and H3K9. sFRP2 was frequently repressed in primary cancers and in RCC cells. The majority of sFRP2 negative cells had a methylated promoter. Meanwhile, sFRP2 expression was repressed by a hypomethylated promoter in Caki-1 cells, and these cells had a repressive histone modification at the promoter. In Caki-1 cells, sFRP2 was reactivated by trichostatin A (TSA). Repressive histone modifications were also observed in RCC cells with hypermethylated promoters, but sFRP2 was reactivated only by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) and not by TSA. However, the activation of the silenced sFRP2 gene could be achieved in all cells using a combination of DAC and TSA. This is the first report indicating that aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications work together to silence the sFRP2 gene in RCC cells.

  11. Efficient virus-induced gene silencing in plants using a modified geminivirus DNA1 component.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changjun; Xie, Yan; Zhou, Xueping

    2009-04-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is currently recognized as a powerful reverse genetics tool for application in functional genomics. DNA1, a satellite-like and single-stranded DNA molecule associated with begomoviruses (Family Geminiviridae), has been shown to replicate autonomously but requires the helper virus for its dissemination. We developed a VIGS vector based on the DNA1 component of tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV), a monopartite begomovirus, by inserting a multiple cloning site between the replication-associated protein open reading frame and the A-rich region for subsequent insertion of DNA fragments of genes targeted for silencing. When a host gene (sulphur, Su) or transgene (green fluorescent protein, GFP) was inserted into the modified DNA1 vector and co-agroinoculated with TbCSV, efficient silencing of the cognate gene was observed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. More interestingly, we demonstrated that this modified DNA1 could effectively suppress GFP in transgenic N. benthamiana or endogenous Su in tobacco plants when co-agroinoculated with tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), another monopartite begomovirus that does not induce any viral symptoms. A gene-silencing system in Nicotiana spp., Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants was then established using TYLCCNV and the modified DNA1 vector. The system can be used to silence genes involved in meristem and flower development. The modified DNA1 vector was used to silence the AtTOM homologous genes (NbTOM1 and NbTOM3) in N. benthamiana. Silencing of NbTOM1 or NbTOM3 can reduce tobamovirus multiplication to a lower level, and silencing of both genes simultaneously can completely inhibit tobamovirus multiplication. Previous studies have reported that DNA1 is associated with both monopartite and bipartite begomoviruses, as well as curtoviruses. This vector system can therefore be applied for the study, analysis and discovery of gene function in a variety of important crop plants.

  12. The Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein SmD1 Interplays with Splicing, RNA Quality Control, and Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Matelot, Emilie; Bardou, Florian; Ariel, Federico; Jauvion, Vincent; Bouteiller, Nathalie; Le Masson, Ivan; Cao, Jun; Crespi, Martin D; Vaucheret, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    RNA quality control (RQC) eliminates aberrant RNAs based on their atypical structure, whereas posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) eliminates both aberrant and functional RNAs through the sequence-specific action of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant smd1b was identified in a genetic screen for PTGS deficiency, revealing the involvement of SmD1, a component of the Smith (Sm) complex, in PTGS. The smd1a and smd1b single mutants are viable, but the smd1a smd1b double mutant is embryo-lethal, indicating that SmD1 function is essential. SmD1b resides in nucleoli and nucleoplasmic speckles, colocalizing with the splicing-related factor SR34. Consistent with this, the smd1b mutant exhibits intron retention at certain endogenous mRNAs. SmD1 binds to RNAs transcribed from silenced transgenes but not nonsilenced ones, indicating a direct role in PTGS. Yet, mutations in the RQC factors UPFRAMESHIFT3, EXORIBONUCLEASE2 (XRN2), XRN3, and XRN4 restore PTGS in smd1b, indicating that SmD1 is not essential for but rather facilitates PTGS. Moreover, the smd1b mtr4 double mutant is embryo-lethal, suggesting that SmD1 is essential for mRNA TRANSPORT REGULATOR4-dependent RQC. These results indicate that SmD1 interplays with splicing, RQC, and PTGS. We propose that SmD1 facilitates PTGS by protecting transgene-derived aberrant RNAs from degradation by RQC in the nucleus, allowing sufficient amounts to enter cytoplasmic siRNA bodies to activate PTGS.

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Suppresses RNA-Induced Gene Silencing in Mammalian Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zetang; Zhu, Yali; Bisaro, David M.; Parris, Deborah S.

    2009-01-01

    RNA-induced silencing is a potent innate antiviral defense strategy in plants, and suppression of silencing is a hallmark of pathogenic plant viruses. However, the impact of silencing as a mammalian antiviral defense mechanism and the ability of mammalian viruses to suppress silencing in natural host cells have remained controversial. The ability of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to suppress silencing was examined in a transient expression system that employed an imperfect hairpin to target degradation of transcripts encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). HSV-1 infection suppressed EGFP-specific silencing as demonstrated by increased EGFP mRNA levels and an increase in the EGFP mRNA half-life. The increase in EGFP mRNA stability occurred despite the well-characterized host macromolecular shutoff functions of HSV-1 that globally destabilize mRNAs. Moreover, mutant viruses defective in these functions increased the stability of EGFP mRNA even more than did the wild-type virus in silenced cells compared to results in control cells. The importance of RNA silencing to HSV-1 replication was confirmed by a significantly enhanced virus burst size in cells in which silencing was knocked down with small inhibitory RNAs directed to Argonaute 2, an integral component of the silencing complex. Given that HSV-1 encodes several microRNAs, it is possible that a dynamic equilibrium exists between silencing and silencing suppression that is capable of modulating viral gene expression to promote replication, to evade host defenses, and/or to promote latency. PMID:19369325

  14. Reporter Gene Silencing in Targeted Mouse Mutants Is Associated with Promoter CpG Island Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Julia V.; Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A. J.; Cipollone, Andreana; Willis, Brandon; Engelhard, Eric K.; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; de Jong, Pieter; West, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted mutations in mouse disrupt local chromatin structure and may lead to unanticipated local effects. We evaluated targeted gene promoter silencing in a group of six mutants carrying the tm1a Knockout Mouse Project allele containing both a LacZ reporter gene driven by the native promoter and a neo selection cassette. Messenger RNA levels of the reporter gene and targeted gene were assessed by qRT-PCR, and methylation of the promoter CpG islands and LacZ coding sequence were evaluated by sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA. Mutants were stratified by LacZ staining into presumed Silenced and Expressed reporter genes. Silenced mutants had reduced relative quantities LacZ mRNA and greater CpG Island methylation compared with the Expressed mutant group. Within the silenced group, LacZ coding sequence methylation was significantly and positively correlated with CpG Island methylation, while promoter CpG methylation was only weakly correlated with LacZ gene mRNA. The results support the conclusion that there is promoter silencing in a subset of mutants carrying the tm1a allele. The features of targeted genes which promote local silencing when targeted remain unknown. PMID:26275310

  15. Development of RNA Interference Trigger-Mediated Gene Silencing in Entamoeba invadens

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Susmitha; Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen; Zhang, Hanbang

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite, is an important human pathogen and a leading parasitic cause of death. The organism has two life cycle stages, trophozoites, which are responsible for tissue invasion, and cysts, which are involved in pathogen transmission. Entamoeba invadens is the model system to study Entamoeba developmental biology, as high-grade regulated encystation and excystation are readily achievable. However, the lack of gene-silencing tools in E. invadens has limited the molecular studies that can be performed. Using the endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in Entamoeba, we developed an RNAi-based trigger gene-silencing approach in E. invadens. We demonstrate that a gene's coding region that has abundant antisense small RNAs (sRNAs) can trigger silencing of a gene that is fused to it. The trigger fusion leads to the generation of abundant antisense sRNAs that map to the target gene, with silencing occurring independently of trigger location at the 5′ or 3′ end of a gene. Gene silencing is stably maintained during development, including encystation and excystation. We have used this approach to successfully silence two E. invadens genes: a putative rhomboid protease gene and a SHAQKY family Myb gene. The Myb gene is upregulated during oxidative stress and development, and its downregulation led, as predicted, to decreased viability under oxidative stress and decreased cyst formation. Thus, the RNAi trigger silencing method can be used to successfully investigate the molecular functions of genes in E. invadens. Dissection of the molecular basis of Entamoeba stage conversion is now possible, representing an important technical advance for the system. PMID:26787723

  16. Gene silencing triggered by non-LTR retrotransposons in the female germline of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Stéphanie; Chambeyron, Séverine; Bucheton, Alain; Busseau, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have recently shown that the activity of some eukaryotic transposable elements is sensitive to the presence of homologous transgenes, suggesting the involvement of homology-dependent gene-silencing mechanisms in their regulation. Here we provide data indicating that two non-LTR retrotransposons of Drosophila melanogaster are themselves natural triggers of homology-dependent gene silencing. We show that, in the female germline of D. melanogaster, fragments from the R1 or from the I retrotransposons can mediate silencing of chimeric transcription units into which they are inserted. This silencing is probably mediated by sequence identity with endogenous copies of the retrotransposons because it does not occur with a fragment from the divergent R1 elements of Bombyx mori, and, when a fragment of I is used, it occurs only in females containing functional copies of the I element. This silencing is not accompanied by cosuppression of the endogenous gene homologous to the chimeric transcription unit, which contrasts to some other silencing mechanisms in Drosophila. These observations suggest that in the female germline of D. melanogaster the R1 and I retrotransposons may self-regulate their own activity and their copy number by triggering homology-dependent gene silencing. PMID:12807773

  17. EZH2 mediates epigenetic silencing of neuroblastoma suppressor genes CASZ1, CLU, RUNX3 and NGFR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunxi; Liu, Zhihui; Woo, Chan-Wook; Li, Zhijie; Wang, Lifeng; Wei, Jun S.; Marquez, Victor E.; Bates, Susan E.; Jin, Qihuang; Khan, Javed; Ge, Kai; Thiele, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor with an undifferentiated status and generally poor prognosis, but the basis for these characteristics remains unknown. In this study, we show that upregulation of the Polycomb complex histone methytransferase EZH2, which limits differentiation in many tissues, is critical to maintain the undifferentiated state and poor prognostic status of NB by epigenetic repression of multiple tumor suppressor genes. We identified this role for EZH2 by examining the regulation of CASZ1, a recently identified NB tumor suppressor gene whose ectopic restoration inhibits NB cell growth and induces differentiation. Reducing EZH2 expression by RNAi-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibiton with 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) increased CASZ1 expression, inhibited NB cell growth and induced neurite extension. Similarly, EZH2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) displayed 3-fold higher levels of CASZ1 mRNA compared to EZH2+/+ MEFs. In cells with increased expression of CASZ1, treatment with HDAC inhibitors decreased expression of EZH2 and the Polycomb complex component SUZ12. Under steady-state conditions H3K27me3 and PRC2 components bound to the CASZ1 gene were enriched, but this enrichment was decreased after HDAC inhibitor treatment. We determined that the tumor suppressors CLU, NGFR and RUNX3 were also directly repressed by EZH2 like CASZ1 in NB cells. Together, our findings establish that aberrant upregulation of EZH2 in NB cells silences several tumor suppressors, which contribute to the genesis and maintenance of the undifferentiated phenotype of NB tumors. PMID:22068036

  18. Cationic liposome–nucleic acid complexes for gene delivery and gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Kai K.; Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Leal, Cecília

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) are studied worldwide as carriers of DNA and short interfering RNA (siRNA) for gene delivery and gene silencing, and related clinical trials are ongoing. Optimization of transfection efficiency and silencing efficiency by cationic liposome carriers requires a comprehensive understanding of the structures of CL–nucleic acid complexes and the nature of their interactions with cell membranes as well as events leading to release of active nucleic acids within the cytoplasm. Synchrotron x-ray scattering has revealed that CL–nucleic acid complexes spontaneously assemble into distinct liquid crystalline phases including the lamellar, inverse hexagonal, hexagonal, and gyroid cubic phases, and fluorescence microscopy has revealed CL–DNA pathways and interactions with cells. The combining of custom synthesis with characterization techniques and gene expression and silencing assays has begun to unveil structure–function relations in vitro. As a recent example, this review will briefly describe experiments with surface-functionalized PEGylated CL–DNA nanoparticles. The functionalization, which is achieved through custom synthesis, is intended to address and overcome cell targeting and endosomal escape barriers to nucleic acid delivery faced by PEGylated nanoparticles designed for in vivo applications. PMID:25587216

  19. Optimizing virus-induced gene silencing efficiency with Cymbidium mosaic virus in Phalaenopsis flower.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Yeh, Hsin-Hung; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a good way to study floral gene functions of orchids, especially those with a long life cycle. To explore the applicability and improve viral silencing efficiency for application of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV)-induced gene silencing, we examined several variables, including the optimal length of the DNA fragment, the effect of developmental maturation status of inflorescence, and suitable inoculation sites. A CymMV-based VIGS system can be used with orchids to silence genes including PeUFGT3, PeMADS5 and PeMADS6 and induce prominent phenotypes with silencing efficiency up to 95.8% reduction. The DNA fragment size used for silencing can be as small as 78-85 bp and still reach 61.5-95.8% reduction. The effect of cDNA location as a target in VIGS varies among genes because of non-target gene influence when using the 5' terminus of the coding region of both PeMADS5 and PeMADS6. Use of VIGS to knock down a B-class MADS-box gene (PeMADS6) in orchids with different maturation status of inflorescence allowed for observing discernable knockdown phenotypes in flowers. Furthermore, silencing effects with Agro-infiltration did not differ with both leaf and inflorescence injections, but injection in the leaf saved time and produced less damage to plants. We propose an optimized approach for VIGS using CymMV as a silencing vector for floral functional genomics in Phalaenopsis orchid with Agro-infiltration: (1) DNA fragment length about 80 bp, (2) a more mature status of inflorescence and (3) leaf injection.

  20. Conversion of a gene-specific repressor to a regional silencer

    PubMed Central

    Rine, Laura N. Rusché and Jasper

    2001-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, gene silencing at the HMR and HML loci is normally dependent on Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p, which are structural components of silenced chromatin. Sir2p is a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase required for silencing. Silencing can be restored in cells lacking Sir proteins by a dominant mutation in SUM1, which normally acts as a mitotic repressor of meiotic genes. This study found that mutant Sum1-1p, but not wild-type Sum1p, associated directly with HM loci. The origin recognition complex (ORC) was required for Sum1-1p-mediated silencing, and mutations in ORC genes reduced association of Sum1-1p with the HM loci. Sum1-1p-mediated silencing also depended on HST1, a paralog of SIR2. Both Sum1-1p and wild-type Sum1p interacted with Hst1p in coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Therefore, the SUM1-1 mutation did not change the affinity of Sum1p for Hst1p, but rather relocalized Sum1p to the HM loci. Sum1-1–Hst1p action led to hypoacetylation of the nucleosomes at HM loci. Thus, Sum1-1p and Hst1p could substitute for Sir proteins to achieve silencing through formation of a compositionally distinct type of heterochromatin. PMID:11316790

  1. The neuron-restrictive silencer element: A dual enhancer/silencer crucial for patterned expression of a nicotinic receptor gene in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Bessis, Alain; Champtiaux, Nicolas; Chatelin, Laurent; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    1997-01-01

    The neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) has been identified in several neuronal genes and confers neuron specificity by silencing transcription in nonneuronal cells. NRSE is present in the promoter of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β2-subunit gene that determines its neuron-specific expression in the nervous system. Using transgenic mice, we show that NRSE may either silence or enhance transcription depending on the cellular context within the nervous system. In vitro in neuronal cells, NRSE activates transcription of synthetic promoters when located downstream in the 5′ untranslated region, or at less than 50 bp upstream from the TATA box, but switches to a silencer when located further upstream. In contrast, in nonneuronal cells NRSE always functions as a silencer. Antisense RNA inhibition shows that the NRSE-binding protein REST contributes to the activation of transcription in neuronal cells. PMID:9159173

  2. Functional analyses of cellulose synthase genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum) by virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Chantreau, Maxime; Chabbert, Brigitte; Billiard, Sylvain; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey

    2015-12-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) bast fibres are located in the stem cortex where they play an important role in mechanical support. They contain high amounts of cellulose and so are used for linen textiles and in the composite industry. In this study, we screened the annotated flax genome and identified 14 distinct cellulose synthase (CESA) genes using orthologous sequences previously identified. Transcriptomics of 'primary cell wall' and 'secondary cell wall' flax CESA genes showed that some were preferentially expressed in different organs and stem tissues providing clues as to their biological role(s) in planta. The development for the first time in flax of a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to functionally evaluate the biological role of different CESA genes in stem tissues. Quantification of transcript accumulation showed that in many cases, silencing not only affected targeted CESA clades, but also had an impact on other CESA genes. Whatever the targeted clade, inactivation by VIGS affected plant growth. In contrast, only clade 1- and clade 6-targeted plants showed modifications in outer-stem tissue organization and secondary cell wall formation. In these plants, bast fibre number and structure were severely impacted, suggesting that the targeted genes may play an important role in the establishment of the fibre cell wall. Our results provide new fundamental information about cellulose biosynthesis in flax that should facilitate future plant improvement/engineering.

  3. Identification of promising host-induced silencing targets among genes preferentially transcribed in haustoria of Puccinia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of dsRNA fragments of rust pathogen genes in wheat seedlings through the barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) based host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) system can reduce the expression of the corresponding genes in the rust fungus. The highest levels of suppression have generally been observe...

  4. TRV Based Virus Induced Gene Silencing in Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.), A Monocotyledonous Ornamental Plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has not yet successfully been used as a tool for gene functional analysis in non-grass monocotyledonous geophytes. We therefore tested VIGS in gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflora L) using a Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV) vector containing a fragment of the gladiolus gene...

  5. The Paf1 complex represses small RNA-mediated epigenetic gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Flury, Valentin; Stadler, Michael Beda; Batki, Julia; Bühler, Marc

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the ability of exogenously introduced double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to silence expression of homologous sequences. Silencing is initiated when the enzyme Dicer processes the dsRNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Small RNA molecules are incorporated into Argonaute protein-containing effector complexes, which they guide to complementary targets to mediate different types of gene silencing, specifically post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and chromatin-dependent gene silencing1. Although endogenous small RNAs play critical roles in chromatin-mediated processes across kingdoms, efforts to initiate chromatin modifications in trans by using siRNAs have been inherently difficult to achieve in all eukaryotic cells. Using fission yeast, we show that RNAi-directed heterochromatin formation is negatively controlled by the highly conserved RNA polymerase-associated factor 1 complex (Paf1C). Temporary expression of a synthetic hairpin RNA in Paf1C mutants triggers stable heterochromatin formation at homologous loci, effectively silencing genes in trans. This repressed state is propagated across generations by continual production of secondary siRNAs, independently of the synthetic hairpin RNA. Our data support a model where Paf1C prevents targeting of nascent transcripts by the siRNA-containing RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex and thereby epigenetic gene silencing, by promoting efficient transcription termination and rapid release of the RNA from the site of transcription. We show that although compromised transcription termination is sufficient to initiate the formation of bi-stable heterochromatin by trans-acting siRNAs, impairment of both transcription termination and nascent transcript release is imperative to confer stability to the repressed state. Our work uncovers a novel mechanism for small RNA- mediated epigenome regulation and highlights fundamental roles for Paf1C and the RNAi machinery in building

  6. Silencing of the FRO1 gene and its effects on iron partition in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Gama, Florinda; Saavedra, Teresa; Dandlen, Susana; de Varennes, Amarilis; Correia, Pedro J; Pestana, Maribela; Nolasco, Gustavo

    2017-03-06

    To evaluate the dynamic role of the ferric-chelate reductase enzyme (FCR) and to identify possible pathways of regulation of its activity in different plant organs an investigation was conducted by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) using tobacco rattle virus (TRV) to silence the ferric reductase oxidase gene (FRO1) that encodes the FCR enzyme. Half of Nicotiana benthamiana plants received the VIGS vector and the rest remained as control. Four treatments were imposed: two levels of Fe in the nutrient solution (0 or 2.5 μM of Fe), each one with silenced or non-silenced (VIGS-0; VIGS-2.5) plants. Plants grown without iron (0; VIGS-0) developed typical symptoms of iron deficiency in the youngest leaves. To prove that FRO1 silencing had occurred, resupply of Fe (R) was done by adding 2.5 μM of Fe to the nutrient solution in a subset of chlorotic plants (0-R; VIGS-R). Twelve days after resupply, 0-R plants had recovered from Fe deficiency while plants containing the VIGS vector (VIGS-R) remained chlorotic and both FRO1 gene expression and FCR activity were considerably reduced, consequently preventing Fe uptake. With the VIGS technique we were able to silence the FRO1 gene in N. benthamiana and point out its importance in chlorophyll synthesis and Fe partition.

  7. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Cultivated Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Using Tobacco Rattle Virus.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Roma; Shafiq, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W; Scheffler, Brian E; Scheffler, Jodi; Amin, Imran

    2016-01-01

    The study described here has optimized the conditions for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in three cultivated cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum, G. arboreum, and G. herbaceum) using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vector. The system was used to silence the homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplastos alterados 1 (AtCLA1) gene, involved in chloroplast development, in G. herbaceum, G. arboreum, and six commercial G. hirsutum cultivars. All plants inoculated with the TRV vector to silence CLA1 developed a typical albino phenotype indicative of silencing this gene. Although silencing in G. herbaceum and G. arboreum was complete, silencing efficiency differed for each G. hirsutum cultivar. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR showed a reduction in mRNA levels of the CLA1 homolog in all three species, with the highest efficiency (lowest CLA1 mRNA levels) in G. arboreum followed by G. herbaceum and G. hirsutum. The results indicate that TRV is a useful vector for VIGS in Gossypium species. However, selection of host cultivar is important. With the genome sequences of several cotton species recently becoming publicly available, this system has the potential to provide a very powerful tool for the rapid, large-scale reverse-genetic analysis of genes in Gossypium spp.

  8. Checks and balances between cohesin and polycomb in gene silencing and transcription.

    PubMed

    Dorsett, Dale; Kassis, Judith A

    2014-06-02

    The cohesin protein complex was discovered for its roles in sister chromatid cohesion and segregation, and the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins for their roles in epigenetic gene silencing during development. Cohesin also controls gene transcription via multiple mechanisms. Genetic and molecular evidence from Drosophila argue that cohesin and the PRC1 PcG complex interact to control transcription of many active genes that are critical for development, and that via these interactions cohesin also controls the availability of PRC1 for gene silencing.

  9. Chemical induction of hairpin RNAi molecules to silence vital genes in plant roots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siming; Yoder, John I.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the functions encoded by plant genes can be facilitated by reducing transcript levels by hairpin RNA (hpRNA) mediated silencing. A bottleneck to this technology occurs when a gene encodes a phenotype that is necessary for cell viability and silencing the gene inhibits transformation. Here we compared the use of two chemically inducible plant promoter systems to drive hpRNA mediated gene silencing in transgenic, hairy roots. We cloned the gene encoding the Yellow Fluorescence Protein (YFP) into the dexamethasone inducible vector pOpOff2 and into the estradiol induced vector pER8. We then cloned a hpRNA targeting YFP under the regulation of the inducible promoters, transformed Medicago truncatula roots, and quantified YFP fluorescence and mRNA levels. YFP fluorescence was normal in pOpOff2 transformed roots without dexamethasone but was reduced with dexamethasone treatment. Interestingly, dexamethasone removal did not reverse YFP inhibition. YFP expression in roots transformed with pER8 was low even in the absence of inducer. We used the dexamethasone system to silence acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene and observed prolific root growth when this construct was transformed into Medicago until dexamethasone was applied. Our study shows that dexamethasone inducibility can be useful to silence vital genes in transgenic roots. PMID:27898105

  10. Chemical induction of hairpin RNAi molecules to silence vital genes in plant roots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siming; Yoder, John I

    2016-11-29

    Understanding the functions encoded by plant genes can be facilitated by reducing transcript levels by hairpin RNA (hpRNA) mediated silencing. A bottleneck to this technology occurs when a gene encodes a phenotype that is necessary for cell viability and silencing the gene inhibits transformation. Here we compared the use of two chemically inducible plant promoter systems to drive hpRNA mediated gene silencing in transgenic, hairy roots. We cloned the gene encoding the Yellow Fluorescence Protein (YFP) into the dexamethasone inducible vector pOpOff2 and into the estradiol induced vector pER8. We then cloned a hpRNA targeting YFP under the regulation of the inducible promoters, transformed Medicago truncatula roots, and quantified YFP fluorescence and mRNA levels. YFP fluorescence was normal in pOpOff2 transformed roots without dexamethasone but was reduced with dexamethasone treatment. Interestingly, dexamethasone removal did not reverse YFP inhibition. YFP expression in roots transformed with pER8 was low even in the absence of inducer. We used the dexamethasone system to silence acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene and observed prolific root growth when this construct was transformed into Medicago until dexamethasone was applied. Our study shows that dexamethasone inducibility can be useful to silence vital genes in transgenic roots.

  11. Artificial trans-Acting siRNAs Confer Consistent and Effective Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    de la Luz Gutiérrez-Nava, Maria; Aukerman, Milo J.; Sakai, Hajime; Tingey, Scott V.; Williams, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulating gene expression is critical to exploring gene function and a useful tool for altering commercial traits. Techniques such as hairpin-based RNA interference, virus-induced gene silencing, and artificial microRNAs take advantage of endogenous posttranscriptional gene silencing pathways to block translation of designated transcripts. Here we present a novel gene silencing method utilizing artificial trans-acting small interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Replacing the endogenous small interfering RNAs encoded in the TAS1c gene with sequences from the FAD2 gene silenced FAD2 activity to levels comparable to the fad2-1 null allele in nearly all transgenic events. Interestingly, exchanging the endogenous miR173 target sequence in TAS1c with an miR167 target sequence led to variable, inefficient silencing of FAD2, suggesting a specific requirement for the miR173 trigger for production of small interfering RNAs from the TAS1c locus. PMID:18441221

  12. Sex-specific silencing of X-linked genes by Xist RNA.

    PubMed

    Gayen, Srimonta; Maclary, Emily; Hinten, Michael; Kalantry, Sundeep

    2016-01-19

    X-inactive specific transcript (Xist) long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is thought to catalyze silencing of X-linked genes in cis during X-chromosome inactivation, which equalizes X-linked gene dosage between male and female mammals. To test the impact of Xist RNA on X-linked gene silencing, we ectopically induced endogenous Xist by ablating the antisense repressor Tsix in mice. We find that ectopic Xist RNA induction and subsequent X-linked gene silencing is sex specific in embryos and in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). A higher frequency of X(ΔTsix)Y male cells displayed ectopic Xist RNA coating compared with X(ΔTsix)X female cells. This increase reflected the inability of X(ΔTsix)Y cells to efficiently silence X-linked genes compared with X(ΔTsix)X cells, despite equivalent Xist RNA induction and coating. Silencing of genes on both Xs resulted in significantly reduced proliferation and increased cell death in X(ΔTsix)X female cells relative to X(ΔTsix)Y male cells. Thus, whereas Xist RNA can inactivate the X chromosome in females it may not do so in males. We further found comparable silencing in differentiating X(ΔTsix)Y and 39,X(ΔTsix) (X(ΔTsix)O) ESCs, excluding the Y chromosome and instead implicating the X-chromosome dose as the source of the sex-specific differences. Because X(ΔTsix)X female embryonic epiblast cells and EpiSCs harbor an inactivated X chromosome prior to ectopic inactivation of the active X(ΔTsix) X chromosome, we propose that the increased expression of one or more X-inactivation escapees activates Xist and, separately, helps trigger X-linked gene silencing.

  13. Foxtail Mosaic Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Monocot Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Xie, Ke; Jia, Qi; Zhao, Jinping; Chen, Tianyuan; Li, Huangai; Wei, Xiang; Diao, Xianmin; Hong, Yiguo

    2016-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful technique to study gene function in plants. However, very few VIGS vectors are available for monocot plants. Here we report that Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) can be engineered as an effective VIGS system to induce efficient silencing of endogenous genes in monocot plants including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica). This is evidenced by FoMV-based silencing of phytoene desaturase (PDS) and magnesium chelatase in barley, of PDS and Cloroplastos alterados1 in foxtail millet and wheat, and of an additional gene IspH in foxtail millet. Silencing of these genes resulted in photobleached or chlorosis phenotypes in barley, wheat, and foxtail millet. Furthermore, our FoMV-based gene silencing is the first VIGS system reported for foxtail millet, an important C4 model plant. It may provide an efficient toolbox for high-throughput functional genomics in economically important monocot crops. PMID:27225900

  14. Virus-induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Lapitan, Nora

    2013-01-01

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat (Triticum aestivumI L.), functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for breeding. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited transformation potential that hamper functional validation studies in wheat. In this study, three potential candidate genes shown to be involved in abiotic stress response pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana were selected for VIGS experiments in wheat. These include Era1 (enhanced response to abscisic acid), Cyp707a (ABA 8’-hydroxylase), and Sal1 (inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase). Gene homologues for these three genes were identified in wheat and cloned in the viral vector barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) in the antisense direction, followed by rub inoculation of BSMV viral RNA transcripts onto wheat plants. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated wheat plants had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. When VIGS-treated plants generated for Era1 and Sal1 were subjected to limiting water conditions, they showed increased relative water content, improved water use efficiency, reduced gas exchange, and better vigour compared to water-stressed control plants inoculated with RNA from the empty viral vector (BSMV0). In comparison, the Cyp707a-silenced plants showed no improvement over BSMV0-inoculated plants under limited water condition. These results indicate that Era1 and Sal1 play important roles in conferring drought tolerance in wheat. Other traits affected by Era1 silencing were also studied. Delayed seed germination in Era1-silenced plants suggests this gene may be a useful target for developing resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. PMID:23364940

  15. Antisense targeting of 3' end elements involved in DUX4 mRNA processing is an efficient therapeutic strategy for facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: a new gene-silencing approach.

    PubMed

    Marsollier, Anne-Charlotte; Ciszewski, Lukasz; Mariot, Virginie; Popplewell, Linda; Voit, Thomas; Dickson, George; Dumonceaux, Julie

    2016-04-15

    Defects in mRNA 3'end formation have been described to alter transcription termination, transport of the mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, stability of the mRNA and translation efficiency. Therefore, inhibition of polyadenylation may lead to gene silencing. Here, we choose facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) as a model to determine whether or not targeting key 3' end elements involved in mRNA processing using antisense oligonucleotide drugs can be used as a strategy for gene silencing within a potentially therapeutic context. FSHD is a gain-of-function disease characterized by the aberrant expression of the Double homeobox 4 (DUX4) transcription factor leading to altered pathogenic deregulation of multiple genes in muscles. Here, we demonstrate that targeting either the mRNA polyadenylation signal and/or cleavage site is an efficient strategy to down-regulate DUX4 expression and to decrease the abnormally high-pathological expression of genes downstream of DUX4. We conclude that targeting key functional 3' end elements involved in pre-mRNA to mRNA maturation with antisense drugs can lead to efficient gene silencing and is thus a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for at least FSHD. Moreover, polyadenylation is a crucial step in the maturation of almost all eukaryotic mRNAs, and thus all mRNAs are virtually eligible for this antisense-mediated knockdown strategy.

  16. Photochemically induced gene silencing using small interfering RNA molecules in combination with lipid carriers.

    PubMed

    Bøe, S; Longva, A S; Hovig, E

    2007-01-01

    Novel strategies for efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules with a potential for targeting are required for development of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics. Here, we present a strategy that is based on delivery of siRNA molecules through the endocytic pathway, in order to develop a method for site-specific gene silencing. To achieve this, we combined the use of cationic lipids and photochemical internalization (PCI). Using the human S100A4 gene as a model system, we obtained potent gene silencing in four tested human cancer cell lines following PCI induction when using the cationic lipid jetSI-ENDO. Gene silencing was shown at both the RNA and protein levels, with no observed PCI toxicity when using the jetSI reagent and an optimized PCI protocol. This novel induction method opens for in vivo site-specific delivery of siRNA molecules toward a sequence of interest.

  17. RNAi mediated gene silencing against betasatellite associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Anurag Kumar; Marwal, Avinash; Nehra, Chitra; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar; Sharma, Pradeep; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Plant viruses encode suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing, an adaptive antiviral defense responses that confines virus infection. Previously, we identified single-stranded DNA satellite (also known as DNA-β) of ~1,350 nucleotides in length associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus (CYVMV) in croton plants. The expression of genes from DNA-β requires the begomovirus for packaged, replication, insect transmission and movement in plants. The present study demonstrates the effect of the βC1 gene on the silencing pathway as analysed by using both transgenic systems and transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens based delivery. Plants that carry an intron-hairpin construct covering the βC1 gene accumulated cognate small-interfering RNAs and remained symptom-free after exposure to CYVMV and its satellite. These results suggest that βC1 interferes with silencing mechanism.

  18. Silencing of the SlNAP7 gene influences plastid development and lycopene accumulation in tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Da-Qi; Meng, Lan-Huan; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Yan, Hua-Xue; Luo, Yun-Bo

    2016-12-01

    Ripening is an important stage of fruit development. To screen the genes associated with pigment formation in tomato fruit, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed by using tomato fruit in the green ripe and break ripe stages, and 129 differential genes were obtained. Using redness as a screening marker, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the differential genes was performed with a sprout vacuum-infiltration system (SVI). The results showed that silencing the SlNAP7 gene affected the chloroplast development of tomato leaves, manifesting as a photo-bleaching phenotype, and silenced fruit significantly affected the accumulation of lycopene, manifested as a yellow phenotype. In our study, we found that silencing the SlNAP7 gene downregulates the expression of the POR and PORA genes and destroys the normal development of the chloroplast. The expression of related genes included in the lycopene biosynthesis pathway was not significantly changed, but lycopene accumulation was significantly reduced in tomato fruit. Perhaps it was caused by the destruction of the chromoplast, which leads to the oxidation of lycopene. The results show that the SlNAP7 gene influences chloroplast development and lycopene accumulation in tomato.

  19. Silencing of the SlNAP7 gene influences plastid development and lycopene accumulation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fu, Da-Qi; Meng, Lan-Huan; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Yan, Hua-Xue; Luo, Yun-Bo

    2016-12-08

    Ripening is an important stage of fruit development. To screen the genes associated with pigment formation in tomato fruit, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed by using tomato fruit in the green ripe and break ripe stages, and 129 differential genes were obtained. Using redness as a screening marker, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the differential genes was performed with a sprout vacuum-infiltration system (SVI). The results showed that silencing the SlNAP7 gene affected the chloroplast development of tomato leaves, manifesting as a photo-bleaching phenotype, and silenced fruit significantly affected the accumulation of lycopene, manifested as a yellow phenotype. In our study, we found that silencing the SlNAP7 gene downregulates the expression of the POR and PORA genes and destroys the normal development of the chloroplast. The expression of related genes included in the lycopene biosynthesis pathway was not significantly changed, but lycopene accumulation was significantly reduced in tomato fruit. Perhaps it was caused by the destruction of the chromoplast, which leads to the oxidation of lycopene. The results show that the SlNAP7 gene influences chloroplast development and lycopene accumulation in tomato.

  20. Silencing of the SlNAP7 gene influences plastid development and lycopene accumulation in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Da-Qi; Meng, Lan-Huan; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Yan, Hua-Xue; Luo, Yun-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Ripening is an important stage of fruit development. To screen the genes associated with pigment formation in tomato fruit, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed by using tomato fruit in the green ripe and break ripe stages, and 129 differential genes were obtained. Using redness as a screening marker, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the differential genes was performed with a sprout vacuum-infiltration system (SVI). The results showed that silencing the SlNAP7 gene affected the chloroplast development of tomato leaves, manifesting as a photo-bleaching phenotype, and silenced fruit significantly affected the accumulation of lycopene, manifested as a yellow phenotype. In our study, we found that silencing the SlNAP7 gene downregulates the expression of the POR and PORA genes and destroys the normal development of the chloroplast. The expression of related genes included in the lycopene biosynthesis pathway was not significantly changed, but lycopene accumulation was significantly reduced in tomato fruit. Perhaps it was caused by the destruction of the chromoplast, which leads to the oxidation of lycopene. The results show that the SlNAP7 gene influences chloroplast development and lycopene accumulation in tomato. PMID:27929131

  1. Aberrant CpG methylation of the TFAP2A gene constitutes a mechanism for loss of TFAP2A expression in human metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, Andrea R; Vorrink, Sabine U; Hudachek, Danielle R; Cramer-Morales, Kimberly; Milhem, Mohammed M; Cornell, Robert A; Domann, Frederick E

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a deadly treatment-resistant form of skin cancer whose global incidence is on the rise. During melanocyte transformation and melanoma progression the expression profile of many genes changes. Among these, a gene implicated in several steps of melanocyte development, TFAP2A, is frequently silenced; however, the molecular mechanism of TFAP2A silencing in human melanoma remains unknown. In this study, we measured TFAP2A mRNA expression in primary human melanocytes compared to 11 human melanoma samples by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In addition, we assessed CpG DNA methylation of the TFAP2A promoter in these samples using bisulfite sequencing. Compared to primary melanocytes, which showed high TFAP2A mRNA expression and no promoter methylation, human melanoma samples showed decreased TFAP2A mRNA expression and increased promoter methylation. We further show that increased CpG methylation correlates with decreased TFAP2A mRNA expression. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, we further identified TFAP2A as a gene displaying among the most decreased expression in stage 4 melanomas vs. non-stage 4 melanomas, and whose CpG methylation was frequently associated with lack of mRNA expression. Based on our data, we conclude that TFAP2A expression in human melanomas can be silenced by aberrant CpG methylation of the TFAP2A promoter. We have identified aberrant CpG DNA methylation as an epigenetic mark associated with TFAP2A silencing in human melanoma that could have significant implications for the therapy of human melanoma using epigenetic modifying drugs. PMID:25625848

  2. Aberrant gene expression in organs of bovine clones that die within two days after birth.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijie; Li, Yanxin; Du, Weihua; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Shuyang; Dai, Yunping; Zhao, Chunjiang; Li, Ning

    2005-02-01

    Cloning by somatic nuclear transfer is an inefficient process in which some of the cloned animals die shortly after birth and display organ abnormalities. In an effort to determine the possible genetic causes of neonatal death and organ abnormalities, we used real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine expression patterns of eight developmentally important genes (PCAF, Xist, FGFR2, PDGFRa, FGF10, BMP4, Hsp70.1, and VEGF) in six organs (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and brain) of both cloned bovines that died soon after birth (n=9) and normal control calves produced by artificial insemination. In somatic cloning of cattle, fibroblasts have often been used for doner nuclei, and the effect of the age of the fibroblast donor cells on gene expression profiles was investigated. Aberrant expressions of seven genes were found in these clones. The majority of aberrantly expressed genes were common in clones derived from adult fibroblast (AF) and in clones derived from fetal fibroblast (FF) compared to controls, whereas some genes were dysregulated either in AF cell-derived or in FF cell-derived clones. For the studied genes, kidney was the organ least affected by gene dysregulation, and heart was the organ most affected, in which five genes were aberrant. Most dysregulations (12 of 19) were up-regulation, but PDGFRa only showed down-regulation. VEGF, BMP-4, PCAF, and Hsp70.1 were extremely dysregulated, whereas the other four genes had a low level of gene dysregulation. Our results suggest that the aberrant gene expression occurred in most tissues of cloned bovines that died soon after birth. For each specific gene, aberrant expression resulting from nuclear transfer was tissue-specific. Because these genes play important roles in embryo development and organogenesis, the aberrant transcription patterns detected in these clones may contribute to the defects of organs reported in neonatal death of clones.

  3. [The analysis of rbcS gene function by post-transcription gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Fu; Ma, Peng-Da; Wang, Ren-Hou; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Bao; Wang, Xing-Zhi

    2005-06-01

    A system of virus-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing for studying rbcS gene function was established and optimized using tobacco rattle virus vector and Nicotiana benthamiana as experimental materiaes. The following analyses were conducted: phenotypic characterization of rbcS gene silenced plants, transcription levels of rbcS gene by RT-PCR; protein levels of rbcS by the antibodies of rbcS and rbcL and photosynthetic pigments wntents in rbcS silenced plants by HPLC method. The results showed that the seedlings at 21-24-day-old and Agrobacterium concentration at OD600 = 1-1.5 gave the best results for gene silencing. The expression level of rbcL was very likely regulated by rbcS, and rbcS gene did not relate to the collection of photosynthetic energy. Probability analysis showed that the tobacco rattle virus vector system is a useful and effective technique to study rbcS gene function via post-transcriptional gene silencing.

  4. Artificial micro RNA (amiRNA) induced gene silencing in alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene silencing is a powerful technique that allows the study of the function of specific genes by selectively reducing their transcription. Several different approaches can be used; however, they all have in common the artificial generation of single-stranded small RNAs that are utilized by the endo...

  5. Virus-induced gene silencing and transient gene expression in soybean using Bean pod mottle virus infectious clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful and rapid approach for determining the functions of plant genes. The basis of VIGS is that a viral genome is engineered so that it can carry fragments of plant genes, typically in the 200-300 base pair size range. The recombinant viruses are used to ...

  6. Aberrant TGFβ/SMAD4 signaling contributes to epigenetic silencing of a putative tumor suppressor, RunX1T1 in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kun-Tu; Chen, Tze-Ho; Yang, Hui-Wen; Chou, Jian-Liang; Chen, Lin-Yu; Yeh, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Ru-Inn; Su, Her-Young; Chen, Gary C W; Deatherage, Daniel E; Huang, Yi-Wen; Yan, Pearlly S; Lin, Huey-Jen; Nephew, Kenneth P; Huang, Tim H-M; Lai, Hung-Cheng; Chan, Michael W Y

    2011-06-01

    Aberrant TGFβ signaling pathway may alter the expression of down-stream targets and promotes ovarian carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism of this impairment is not fully understood. Our previous study has identified RunX1T1 as a putative SMAD4 target in an immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cell line, IOSE. In this study, we report that transcription of RunX1T1 was confirmed to be positively regulated by SMAD4 in IOSE cells and epigenetically silenced in a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines by promoter hypermethylation and histone methylation at H3 lysine 9. SMAD4 depletion increased repressive histone modifications of RunX1T1 promoter without affecting promoter methylation in IOSE cells. Epigenetic treatment can restore RunX1T1 expression by reversing its epigenetic status in MCP3 ovarian cancer cells. When transiently treated with a demethylating agent, the expression of RunX1T1 was partially restored in MCP3 cells, but gradual re-silencing through promoter re-methylation was observed after the treatment. Interestingly, SMAD4 knockdown accelerated this re-silencing process, suggesting that normal TGF-beta signaling is essential for the maintenance of RunX1T1 expression. In vivo analysis confirmed that hypermethylation of RunX1T1 was detected in 35.7% (34/95) of ovarian tumors with high clinical stages (P=0.035) and in 83% (5/6) of primary ovarian cancer-initiating cells. Additionally, concurrent methylation of RunX1T1 and another SMAD4 target, FBXO32 which was previously found to be hypermethylated in ovarian cancer was observed in this same sample cohort (P< 0.05). Restoration of RunX1T1 inhibited cancer cell growth. Taken together, dysregulated TGFβ/SMAD4 signaling may lead to epigenetic silencing of a putative tumor suppressor, RunX1T1, during ovarian carcinogenesis.

  7. RNA Quality Control as a Key to Suppressing RNA Silencing of Endogenous Genes in Plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Chen, Xuemei

    2016-06-06

    RNA quality control of endogenous RNAs is an integral part of eukaryotic gene expression and often relies on exonucleolytic degradation to eliminate dysfunctional transcripts. In parallel, exogenous and selected endogenous RNAs are degraded through RNA silencing, which is a genome defense mechanism used by many eukaryotes. In plants, RNA silencing is triggered by the production of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) by RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASEs (RDRs) and proceeds through small interfering (si) RNA-directed, ARGONAUTE (AGO)-mediated cleavage of homologous transcripts. Many studies revealed that plants avert inappropriate posttranscriptional gene silencing of endogenous coding genes by using RNA surveillance mechanisms as a safeguard to protect their transcriptome profiles. The tug of war between RNA surveillance and RNA silencing ensures the appropriate partitioning of endogenous RNA substrates among these degradation pathways. Here we review recent advances on RNA quality control and its role in the suppression of RNA silencing at endogenous genes and discuss the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk among these pathways.

  8. Rationale for developing new virus vectors to analyze gene function in grasses through virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Ramanna, Hema; Ding, Xin Shun; Nelson, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    The exploding availability of genome and EST-based sequences from grasses requires a technology that allows rapid functional analysis of the multitude of genes that these resources provide. There are several techniques available to determine a gene's function. For gene knockdown studies, silencing through RNAi is a powerful tool. Gene silencing can be accomplished through stable transformation or transient expression of a fragment of a target gene sequence. Stable transformation in rice, maize, and a few other species, although routine, remains a relatively low-throughput process. Transformation in other grass species is difficult and labor-intensive. Therefore, transient gene silencing methods including Agrobacterium-mediated and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) have great potential for researchers studying gene function in grasses. VIGS in grasses already has been used to determine the function of genes during pathogen challenge and plant development. It also can be used in moderate-throughput reverse genetics screens to determine gene function. However, the number of viruses modified to serve as silencing vectors in grasses is limited, and the silencing phenotype induced by these vectors is not optimal: the phenotype being transient and with moderate penetration throughout the tissue. Here, we review the most recent information available for VIGS in grasses and summarize the strengths and weaknesses in current virus-grass host systems. We describe ways to improve current virus vectors and the potential of other grass-infecting viruses for VIGS studies. This work is necessary because VIGS for the foreseeable future remains a higher throughput and more rapid system to evaluate gene function than stable transformation.

  9. RAP1 is essential for silencing telomeric variant surface glycoprotein genes in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Figueiredo, Luisa M; Espinal, Amin; Okubo, Eiji; Li, Bibo

    2009-04-03

    Trypanosoma brucei expresses variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes in a strictly monoallelic fashion in its mammalian hosts, but it is unclear how this important virulence mechanism is enforced. Telomere position effect, an epigenetic phenomenon, has been proposed to play a critical role in VSG regulation, yet no telomeric protein has been identified whose disruption led to VSG derepression. We now identify tbRAP1 as an intrinsic component of the T. brucei telomere complex and a major regulator for silencing VSG expression sites (ESs). Knockdown of tbRAP1 led to derepression of all VSGs in silent ESs, but not VSGs located elsewhere, and resulted in stronger derepression of genes located within 10 kb from telomeres than genes located further upstream. This graduated silencing pattern suggests that telomere integrity plays a key role in tbRAP1-dependent silencing and VSG regulation.

  10. Sequence homology requirements for transcriptional silencing of 35S transgenes and post-transcriptional silencing of nitrite reductase (trans)genes by the tobacco 271 locus.

    PubMed

    Thierry, D; Vaucheret, H

    1996-12-01

    The transgene locus of the tobacco plant 271 (271 locus) is located on a telomere and consists of multiple copies of a plasmid carrying an NptII marker gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 19S promoter and the leaf-specific nitrite reductase Nii1 cDNA cloned in the antisense orientation under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Previous analysis of gene expression in leaves has shown that this locus triggers both post-transcriptional silencing of the host leaf-specific Nii genes and transcriptional silencing of transgenes driven by the 19S or 35S promoter irrespective of their coding sequence and of their location in the genome. In this paper we show that silencing of transgenes carrying Nii1 sequences occurs irrespective of the promoter driving their expression and of their location within the genome. This phenomenon occurs in roots as well as in leaves although root Nii genes share only 84% identity with leaf-specific Nii1 sequences carried by the 271 locus. Conversely, transgenes carrying the bean Nii gene (which shares 76% identity with the tobacco Nii1 gene) escape silencing by the 271 locus. We also show that transgenes driven by the figwort mosaic virus 34S promoter (which shares 63% identity with the 35S promoter) also escape silencing by the 271 locus. Taken together, these results indicate that a high degree of sequence similarity is required between the sequences of the silencing locus and of the target (trans)genes for both transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing.

  11. Chromatin immunoprecipitation microarrays for identification of genes silenced by histone H3 lysine 9 methylation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yutaka; Shen, Lanlan; Yan, Pearlly S; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2004-05-11

    Switching from acetylation to methylation at histone H3 lysine 9 (K9) has recently been shown to contribute to euchromatin gene silencing. To identify genes silenced by K9 modifications, we probed a human CpG island microarray with DNA obtained by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in a cancer cell line using an anti-H3-K9 methylated antibody or an anti-H3-K9 acetylated antibody. Of the 27 clones with the highest signal ratio of K9 methylation over acetylation (Me/Ac), 13 contained repetitive sequences. Among 14 nonrepetitive clones, we identified 11 genes (seven known and four previously undescribed), one EST, and two unknown fragments. Using ChIP-PCR, all 18 examined clones showed higher ratios of H3-K9 Me/Ac than the active gene control, P21, thus confirming the microarray data. In addition, we found a strong correlation between the K9 Me/Ac ratio and CpG island DNA methylation (R = 0.92, P < 0.01), and five of seven genes examined (megalin, thrombospondin-4, KR18, latrophilin-3, and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase P101 subunit) showed lack of expression by RT-PCR and reactivation by DNA methylation and/or histone deacetylase inhibition, suggesting that these genes are true targets of silencing through histone modifications. All five genes also showed significant DNA methylation in a cell line panel and in primary colon cancers. Our data suggest that CpG island microarray coupled with ChIP can identify novel targets of gene silencing in cancer. This unbiased approach confirms the tight coupling between DNA methylation and histone modifications in cancer and could be used to probe gene silencing in nonneoplastic conditions as well.

  12. Development of a virus induced gene silencing vector from a legumes infecting tobamovirus.

    PubMed

    Várallyay, Eva; Lichner, Zsuzsanna; Sáfrány, Judit; Havelda, Z; Salamon, P; Bisztray, Gy; Burgyán, J

    2010-12-01

    Medicago truncatula, the model plant of legumes, is well characterized, but there is only a little knowledge about it as a viral host. Viral vectors can be used for expressing foreign genes or for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), what is a fast and powerful tool to determine gene functions in plants. Viral vectors effective on Nicotiana benthamiana have been constructed from a number of viruses, however, only few of them were effective in other plants. A Tobamovirus, Sunnhemp mosaic virus (SHMV) systemically infects Medicago truncatula without causing severe symptoms. To set up a viral vector for Medicago truncatula, we prepared an infectious cDNA clone of SHMV. We constructed two VIGS vectors differing in the promoter element to drive foreign gene expression. The vectors were effective both in the expression and in the silencing of a transgene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and in silencing of an endogenous gene Phytoene desaturase (PDS) on N. benthamiana. Still only one of the vectors was able to successfully silence the endogenous Chlorata 42 gene in M. truncatula.

  13. Gene silencing by DNA methylation and dual inheritance in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Paulin, R P; Ho, T; Balzer, H J; Holliday, R

    1998-06-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells strain D422, which has one copy of the adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) gene, were permeabilized by electroporation and treated with 5-methyl deoxycytidine triphosphate. Cells with a silenced APRT gene were selected on 2, 6-diaminopurine. Colonies were isolated and shown to be reactivated to APRT+ by 5-aza-cytidine and by selection in medium containing adenine, aminopterin and thymidine. Genomic DNA was prepared from eight isolates of independent origin and subjected to bisulphite treatment. This deaminates cytosine to uracil in single-stranded DNA but does not deaminate 5-methyl cytosine. PCR, cloning and sequencing revealed the methylation pattern of CpG doublets in the promoter region of the APRT- gene, whereas the active APRT gene had nonmethylated DNA. CHO strain K1, which has two copies of the APRT+ gene, could also be silenced by the same procedure but at a lower frequency. The availability of the 5-methyl dCTP-induced silencing, 5-aza-CR and a standard mutagen, ethyl methane sulphonate, makes it possible to follow concomitantly the inheritance of active, mutant or silenced gene copies. This analysis demonstrates "dual inheritance" at the APRT locus in CHO cells.

  14. Post-transcriptional regulation of meiotic genes by a nuclear RNA silencing complex

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Emily D.; Braun, Craig R.; Gygi, Steven P.; Moazed, Danesh

    2014-01-01

    RNA is a central component of gene-silencing pathways that regulate diverse cellular processes. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an RNA-based mechanism represses meiotic gene expression during vegetative growth. This pathway depends on the zinc finger protein Red1, which is required to degrade meiotic mRNAs as well as to target histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, a repressive chromatin mark, to a subset of meiotic genes. However, the mechanism of Red1 function is unknown. Here we use affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify a Red1-containing nuclear RNA silencing (NURS) complex. In addition to Red1, this complex includes the Mtl1, Red5, Ars2, Rmn1, and Iss10 proteins and associates with several other complexes that are involved in either signaling or mediating RNA silencing. By analyzing the effects of gene knockouts and inducible knockdown alleles, we show that NURS subunits regulate RNA degradation and H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes. We also identify roles for individual NURS subunits in interactions with Mmi1, an RNA-binding protein that marks meiotic RNAs for destruction, and the nuclear exosome RNA degradation complex. Finally, we show that the levels of H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes are not sufficient to restrict RNA polymerase II access or repress gene expression during vegetative growth. Our results demonstrate that Red1 partners with other proteins to silence meiotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Conservation of a NURS-like complex in human cells suggests that this pathway plays an ancient and fundamental role in RNA silencing. PMID:24713849

  15. dsRNA-induced gene silencing in Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao.

    PubMed

    Caribé dos Santos, A C; Sena, J A L; Santos, S C; Dias, C V; Pirovani, C P; Pungartnik, C; Valle, R R; Cascardo, J C M; Vincentz, M

    2009-11-01

    The genome sequence of the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa revealed genes possibly participating in the RNAi machinery. Therefore, studies were performed in order to investigate the efficiency of gene silencing by dsRNA. We showed that the reporter gfp gene stably introduced into the fungus genome can be silenced by transfection of in vitro synthesized gfpdsRNA. In addition, successful dsRNA-induced silencing of endogenous genes coding for hydrophobins and a peroxiredoxin were also achieved. All genes showed a silencing efficiency ranging from 18% to 98% when compared to controls even 28d after dsRNA treatment, suggesting systemic silencing. Reduction of GFP fluorescence, peroxidase activity levels and survival responses to H(2)O(2) were consistent with the reduction of GFP and peroxidase mRNA levels, respectively. dsRNA transformation of M. perniciosa is shown here to efficiently promote genetic knockdown and can thus be used to assess gene function in this pathogen.

  16. Conditional gene silencing of multiple genes with antisense RNAs and generation of a mutator strain of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Nobutaka; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we describe a method of simultaneous conditional gene silencing of up to four genes in Escherichia coli by using antisense RNAs. We used antisense RNAs with paired termini, which carried flanking inverted repeats to create paired double-stranded RNA termini; these RNAs have been proven to have high silencing efficacy. To express antisense RNAs, we constructed four IPTG-inducible vectors carrying different but compatible replication origins. When the lacZ antisense RNA was expressed using these vectors, lacZ expression was successfully silenced by all the vectors, but the expression level of the antisense RNA and silencing efficacy differed depending on the used vectors. All the vectors were co-transformable; the antisense RNAs against lacZ, ackA, pta and pepN were co-expressed, and silencing of all the target genes was confirmed. Furthermore, when antisense RNAs were targeted to the mutator genes mutS, mutD (dnaQ) and ndk, which are involved in DNA replication or DNA mismatch repair, spontaneous mutation frequencies increased over 2000-fold. The resulting mutator strain is useful for random mutagenesis of plasmids. The method provides a robust tool for investigating functional relationships between multiple genes or altering cell phenotypes for biotechnological and industrial applications. PMID:19515932

  17. RNA interference as a gene silencing tool to control Tuta absoluta in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Camargo, Roberto A; Barbosa, Guilherme O; Possignolo, Isabella Presotto; Peres, Lazaro E P; Lam, Eric; Lima, Joni E; Figueira, Antonio; Marques-Souza, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing mechanism that involves providing double-stranded RNA molecules that match a specific target gene sequence, is now widely used in functional genetic studies. The potential application of RNAi-mediated control of agricultural insect pests has rapidly become evident. The production of transgenic plants expressing dsRNA molecules that target essential insect genes could provide a means of specific gene silencing in larvae that feed on these plants, resulting in larval phenotypes that range from loss of appetite to death. In this report, we show that the tomato leafminer ( Tuta absoluta ), a major threat to commercial tomato production, can be targeted by RNAi. We selected two target genes (Vacuolar ATPase-A and Arginine kinase) based on the RNAi response reported for these genes in other pest species. In view of the lack of an artificial diet for T. absoluta, we used two approaches to deliver dsRNA into tomato leaflets. The first approach was based on the uptake of dsRNA by leaflets and the second was based on "in planta-induced transient gene silencing" (PITGS), a well-established method for silencing plant genes, used here for the first time to deliver in planta-transcribed dsRNA to target insect genes. Tuta absoluta larvae that fed on leaves containing dsRNA of the target genes showed an ∼60% reduction in target gene transcript accumulation, an increase in larval mortality and less leaf damage. We then generated transgenic 'Micro-Tom' tomato plants that expressed hairpin sequences for both genes and observed a reduction in foliar damage by T. absoluta in these plants. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi as an alternative method for controlling this critical tomato pest.

  18. Development of Virus-Induced Gene Expression and Silencing Vector Derived from Grapevine Algerian Latent Virus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Ho; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Semin; Cho, Won Kyong; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus in the Tombusviridae and infects not only woody perennial grapevine plant but also herbaceous Nicotiana benthamiana plant. In this study, we developed GALV-based gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors in N. benthamiana. The GALV coat protein deletion vector, pGMG, was applied to express the reporter gene, green fluorescence protein (GFP), but the expression of GFP was not detected due to the necrotic cell death on the infiltrated leaves. The p19 silencing suppressor of GALV was engineered to inactivate its expression and GFP was successfully expressed with unrelated silencing suppressor, HC-Pro, from soybean mosaic virus. The pGMG vector was used to knock down magnesium chelatase (ChlH) gene in N. benthamaina and the silencing phenotype was clearly observed on systemic leaves. Altogether, the GALV-derived vector is expected to be an attractive tool for useful gene expression and VIGS vectors in grapevine as well as N. benthamiana. PMID:27493613

  19. ABERRANT PROMOTER METHYLATION OF MULTIPLE GENES IN SPUTUM FROM INDIVIDUALS EXPOSED TO SMOKY COAL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aberrant methylation in the promoter region of cancer-related genes leads to gene transcriptional inactivation and plays an integral role in lung tumorigenesis. Recent studies demonstrated that promoter methylation was detected not only in lung tumors from patients with lung canc...

  20. Transcriptome analyses and virus induced gene silencing identify genes in the Rpp4-mediated Asian soybean rust resistance pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rpp4 (Resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi 4) confers resistance to P. pachyrhizi, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust (ASR). By combining expression profiling and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS), we are developing a genetic framework for Rpp4-mediated resistance. We measured gene expression i...

  1. High molecular weight RNAs and small interfering RNAs induce systemic posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants

    PubMed Central

    Klahre, Ulrich; Crété, Patrice; Leuenberger, Sabrina A.; Iglesias, Victor A.; Meins, Frederick

    2002-01-01

    Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in transgenic plants is an epigenetic form of RNA degradation related to PTGS and RNA interference (RNAi) in fungi and animals. Evidence suggests that transgene loci and RNA viruses can generate double-stranded RNAs similar in sequence to the transcribed region of target genes, which then undergo endonucleolytic cleavage to generate small interfering RNAs (siRNA) that promote degradation of cognate RNAs. The silent state in transgenic plants and in Caenorhabditis elegans can spread systemically, implying that mobile silencing signals exist. Neither the chemical nature of these signals nor their exact source in the PTGS pathway is known. Here, we use a positive marker system and real-time monitoring of green fluorescent protein expression to show that large sense, antisense, and double-stranded RNAs as well as double-stranded siRNAs delivered biolistically into plant cells trigger silencing capable of spreading locally and systemically. Systemically silenced leaves show greatly reduced levels of target RNA and accumulate siRNAs, confirming that RNA can induce systemic PTGS. The induced siRNAs represent parts of the target RNA that are outside of the region of homology with the triggering siRNA. Our results imply that siRNAs themselves or intermediates induced by siRNAs could comprise silencing signals and that these signals induce self-amplifying production of siRNAs. PMID:12181491

  2. Systematic knockdown of morphine pathway enzymes in opium poppy using virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, Champa P; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) remains the sole commercial source for several pharmaceutical alkaloids including the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine, and the semi-synthetic drugs oxycodone, buprenorphine and naltrexone. Although most of the biosynthetic genes have been identified, the post-transcriptional regulation of the morphinan alkaloid pathway has not been determined. We have used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a functional genomics tool to investigate the regulation of morphine biosynthesis via a systematic reduction in enzyme levels responsible for the final six steps in the pathway. Specific gene silencing was confirmed at the transcript level by real-time quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction), and at the protein level by immunoblot analysis using antibodies raised against salutaridine synthase (SalSyn), salutaridine reductase (SalR), salutaridine 7-O-acetyltransferase (SalAT), thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM), codeinone reductase (COR), and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). In some cases, silencing a specific biosynthetic gene resulted in a predictable accumulation of the substrate for the corresponding enzyme. Reduced SalSyn, SalR, T6ODM and CODM protein levels correlated with lower morphine levels and a substantial increase in the accumulation of reticuline, salutaridine, thebaine and codeine, respectively. In contrast, the silencing of genes encoding SalAT and COR resulted in the accumulation of salutaridine and reticuline, respectively, which are not the corresponding enzymatic substrates. The silencing of alkaloid biosynthetic genes using VIGS confirms the physiological function of enzymes previously characterized in vitro, provides insight into the biochemical regulation of morphine biosynthesis, and demonstrates the immense potential for metabolic engineering in opium poppy.

  3. A key role for EZH2 in epigenetic silencing of HOX genes in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kanduri, Meena; Sander, Birgitta; Ntoufa, Stavroula; Papakonstantinou, Nikos; Sutton, Lesley-Ann; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar; Rosenquist, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The chromatin modifier EZH2 is overexpressed and associated with inferior outcome in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Recently, we demonstrated preferential DNA methylation of HOX genes in MCL compared with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), despite these genes not being expressed in either entity. Since EZH2 has been shown to regulate HOX gene expression, to gain further insight into its possible role in differential silencing of HOX genes in MCL vs. CLL, we performed detailed epigenetic characterization using representative cell lines and primary samples. We observed significant overexpression of EZH2 in MCL vs. CLL. Chromatin immune precipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that EZH2 catalyzed repressive H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), which was sufficient to silence HOX genes in CLL, whereas in MCL H3K27me3 is accompanied by DNA methylation for a more stable repression. More importantly, hypermethylation of the HOX genes in MCL resulted from EZH2 overexpression and subsequent recruitment of the DNA methylation machinery onto HOX gene promoters. The importance of EZH2 upregulation in this process was further underscored by siRNA transfection and EZH2 inhibitor experiments. Altogether, these observations implicate EZH2 in the long-term silencing of HOX genes in MCL, and allude to its potential as a therapeutic target with clinical impact.

  4. DNA-intercalators Causing Rapid Re-expression of Methylated and Silenced Genes in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Zulfiquer; Healey, Megan A.; Lee, Calvin; Poh, Weijie; Yerram, Sashidhar R.; Patel, Kalpesh; Azad, Nilofer S.; Herman, James G.; Kern, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic inactivation of tumor-suppressor and other regulatory genes plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. Transcriptional silencing is often maintained by DNA methyl transferase (DNMT)-mediated hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoter DNA. Nucleoside analogs including azacytidine and decitabine have been used to inhibit DNMT and re-activate genes, and are clinically used. Their shortcomings include a short half-life and a slow onset of action due to required nucleotide incorporation during DNA replication, which may limit clinical utility. It might be useful to begin to identify lead compounds having novel properties, specifically distinct and fast-acting gene desilencing. We previously identified chemicals augmenting gene expression in multiple reporter systems. We now report that a subset of these compounds that includes quinacrine re-expresses epigenetically silenced genes implicated in carcinogenesis. p16, TFPI2, the cadherins E-cadherin and CDH13, and the secreted frizzle-related proteins (SFRPs) SFRP1 and SFRP5 were desilenced in cancer cell lines. These lead compounds were fast-acting: re-expression occurred by 12-24 hours. Reactivation of silenced genes was accompanied by depletion of DNMT1 at the promoters of activated genes and demethylation of DNA. A model compound, 5175328, induced changes more rapidly than decitabine. These gene desilencing agents belonged to a class of acridine compounds, intercalated into DNA, and inhibited DNMT1 activity in vitro. Although to define the mechanism would be outside the scope of this initial report, this class may re-activate silenced genes in part by intercalating into DNA and subsequently inhibiting full DNMT1 activity. Rapid mechanisms for chemical desilencing of methylated genes therefore exist. PMID:23593653

  5. Protective effect of caffeine against high sugar-induced transcription of microRNAs and consequent gene silencing: A study using lenses of galactosemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kovtun, Svitlana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have shown that caffeine prevents the formation of cataracts induced by a high-galactose diet and consequent oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate if this protective effect is reflected in the attenuation of the transcription of microRNAs (miRNAs) known to induce apoptosis and cell death by gene silencing. Methods Young CD-1 mice were fed either a normal laboratory diet or a diet containing 25% galactose with or without 1% caffeine. One week later, the animals were euthanized, and the lenses isolated and promptly processed for RNA isolation and subsequent preparation of cDNAs by reverse transcriptase reaction. Mature miRNA (miR)-specific cDNAs were then quantified with PCR in a 96-well microRNA-specific cassette using an ABI7900HT PCR machine. Results As expected from previous studies, the lenses were positive for all 84 miRs corresponding to the miRNA probes present in the cassette wells. However, the levels of at least 19 miRs were significantly elevated in galactosemic lenses compared to those in the normal lenses. The majority are proapoptotic. Such elevation was inhibited by caffeine. This has been demonstrated for the first time. Conclusions Since aberrant elevation of miRNAs silences various genes and consequently deactivates protein translation, and since caffeine downregulates such aberration, the beneficial effect of caffeine could be attributed to its ability to suppress elevation of toxic miRs and consequent gene silencing. PMID:23441122

  6. The Silencing of CCND2 by Promoter Aberrant Methylation in Renal Cell Cancer and Analysis of the Correlation between CCND2 Methylation Status and Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Cui, Yun; Zhang, Lian; Sheng, Jindong; Yang, Yang; Kuang, Guanyu; Fan, Yu; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin D2 (CCND2) is a member of the D-type cyclins, which plays a pivotal role in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and malignant transformation. However, its expression status and relative regulation mechanism remains unclear in renal cell cancer (RCC). In our study, the mRNA expression level of CCND2 is down-regulated in 22/23 paired RCC tissues (p<0.05). In addition, its protein expression level is also decreased in 43/43 RCC tumor tissues compared with its corresponding non-malignant tissues (p<0.001). We further detected that CCND2 was down-regulated or silenced in 6/7 RCC cell lines, but expressed in “normal” human proximal tubular (HK-2) cell line. Subsequently, MSP and BGS results showed that the methylation status in CCND2 promoter region is closely associated with its expression level in RCC cell lines. Treatment with 5-Aza with or without TSA restored CCND2 expression in several methylated RCC cell lines. Among the 102 RCC tumors, methylation of CCND2 was detected in 29/102 (28%) cases. Only 2/23 (8.7%) adjacent non-malignant tissues showed methylation. We then analyzed the correlation of clinical features and its promoter methylation. Collectively, our data suggested that loss of CCND2 expression is closely associated with the promoter aberrant methylation. PMID:27583477

  7. Development and application of an efficient virus-induced gene silencing system in Nicotiana tabacum using geminivirus alphasatellite*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chang-jun; Zhang, Tong; Li, Fang-fang; Zhang, Xin-yue; Zhou, Xue-ping

    2011-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a recently developed technique for characterizing the function of plant genes by gene transcript suppression and is increasingly used to generate transient loss-of-function assays. Here we report that the 2mDNA1, a geminivirus satellite vector, can induce efficient gene silencing in Nicotiana tabacum with Tobacco curly shoot virus. We have successfully silenced the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in GUS transgenic N. tabacum plants and the sulphur desaturase (Su) gene in five different N. tabacum cultivars. These pronounced and severe silencing phenotypes are persistent and ubiquitous. Once initiated in seedlings, the silencing phenotype lasted for the entire life span of the plants and silencing could be induced in a variety of tissues and organs including leaf, shoot, stem, root, and flower, and achieved at any growth stage. This system works well between 18–32 °C. We also silenced the NtEDS1 gene and demonstrated that NtEDS1 is essential for N gene mediated resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus in N. tabacum. The above results indicate that this system has great potential as a versatile VIGS system for routine functional analysis of genes in N. tabacum. PMID:21265040

  8. TMV induces RNA decay pathways to modulate gene silencing and disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Conti, Gabriela; Zavallo, Diego; Venturuzzi, Andrea L; Rodriguez, Maria C; Crespi, Martin; Asurmendi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    RNA decay pathways comprise a combination of RNA degradation mechanisms that are implicated in gene expression, development and defense responses in eukaryotes. These mechanisms are known as the RNA Quality Control or RQC pathways. In plants, another important RNA degradation mechanism is the post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) mediated by small RNAs (siRNAs). Notably, the RQC pathway antagonizes PTGS by preventing the entry of dysfunctional mRNAs into the silencing pathway to avoid global degradation of mRNA by siRNAs. Viral transcripts must evade RNA degrading mechanisms, thus viruses encode PTGS suppressor proteins to counteract viral RNA silencing. Here, we demonstrate that tobacco plants infected with TMV and transgenic lines expressing TMV MP and CP (coat protein) proteins (which are not linked to the suppression of silencing) display increased transcriptional levels of RNA decay genes. These plants also showed accumulation of cytoplasmic RNA granules with altered structure, increased rates of RNA decay for transgenes and defective transgene PTGS amplification. Furthermore, knockdown of RRP41 or RRP43 RNA exosome components led to lower levels of TMV accumulation with milder symptoms after infection, several developmental defects and miRNA deregulation. Thus, we propose that TMV proteins induce RNA decay pathways (in particular exosome components) to impair antiviral PTGS and this defensive mechanism would constitute an additional counter-defense strategy that lead to disease symptoms.

  9. Role of Arabidopsis AGO6 in siRNA accumulation, DNA methylation and transcriptional gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xianwu; Zhu, Jianhua; Kapoor, Avnish; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2007-01-01

    Argonautes (AGOs) are conserved proteins that contain an RNA-binding PAZ domain and an RNase H-like PIWI domain. In Arabidopsis, except for AGO1, AGO4 and AGO7, the roles of seven other AGOs in gene silencing are not known. We found that a mutation in AGO6 partially suppresses transcriptional gene silencing in the DNA demethylase mutant ros1-1. In ago6-1ros1-1 plants, RD29A promoter short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are less abundant, and cytosine methylation at both transgenic and endogenous RD29A promoters is reduced, compared to that in ros1-1. Interestingly, the ago4-1 mutation has a stronger suppression of the transcriptional silencing phenotype of ros1-1 mutant. Analysis of cytosine methylation at the endogenous MEA-ISR, AtREP2 and SIMPLEHAT2 loci revealed that the CpNpG and asymmetric methylation levels are lower in either of the ago6-1 and ago4-1 single mutants than those in the wild type, and the levels are the lowest in the ago6-1ago4-1 double mutant. These results suggest that AGO6 is important for the accumulation of specific heterochromatin-related siRNAs, and for DNA methylation and transcriptional gene silencing, this function is partly redundant with AGO4. PMID:17332757

  10. Aquaporin-4 gene silencing protects injured neurons after early cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhan-ping; Lu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 regulates water molecule channels and is important in tissue regulation and water transportation in the brain. Upregulation of aquaporin-4 expression is closely related to cellular edema after early cerebral infarction. Cellular edema and aquaporin-4 expression can be determined by measuring cerebral infarct area and apparent diffusion coefficient using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We examined the effects of silencing aquaporin-4 on cerebral infarction. Rat models of cerebral infarction were established by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery and siRNA-aquaporin-4 was immediately injected via the right basal ganglia. In control animals, the area of high signal intensity and relative apparent diffusion coefficient value on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and DWI gradually increased within 0.5–6 hours after cerebral infarction. After aquaporin-4 gene silencing, the area of high signal intensity on T2WI and DWI reduced, relative apparent diffusion coefficient value was increased, and cellular edema was obviously alleviated. At 6 hours after cerebral infarction, the apparent diffusion coefficient value was similar between treatment and model groups, but angioedema was still obvious in the treatment group. These results indicate that aquaporin-4 gene silencing can effectively relieve cellular edema after early cerebral infarction; and when conducted accurately and on time, the diffusion coefficient value and the area of high signal intensity on T2WI and DWI can reflect therapeutic effects of aquaporin-4 gene silencing on cellular edema. PMID:26330830

  11. Transcriptional gene silencing by Arabidopsis microrchidia homologues involves the formation of heteromers.

    PubMed

    Moissiard, Guillaume; Bischof, Sylvain; Husmann, Dylan; Pastor, William A; Hale, Christopher J; Yen, Linda; Stroud, Hume; Papikian, Ashot; Vashisht, Ajay A; Wohlschlegel, James A; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2014-05-20

    Epigenetic gene silencing is of central importance to maintain genome integrity and is mediated by an elaborate interplay between DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and chromatin remodeling complexes. DNA methylation and repressive histone marks usually correlate with transcriptionally silent heterochromatin, however there are exceptions to this relationship. In Arabidopsis, mutation of Morpheus Molecule 1 (MOM1) causes transcriptional derepression of heterochromatin independently of changes in DNA methylation. More recently, two Arabidopsis homologues of mouse microrchidia (MORC) genes have also been implicated in gene silencing and heterochromatin condensation without altering genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. In this study, we show that Arabidopsis microrchidia (AtMORC6) physically interacts with AtMORC1 and with its close homologue, AtMORC2, in two mutually exclusive protein complexes. RNA-sequencing analyses of high-order mutants indicate that AtMORC1 and AtMORC2 act redundantly to repress a common set of loci. We also examined genetic interactions between AtMORC6 and MOM1 pathways. Although AtMORC6 and MOM1 control the silencing of a very similar set of genomic loci, we observed synergistic transcriptional regulation in the mom1/atmorc6 double mutant, suggesting that these epigenetic regulators act mainly by different silencing mechanisms.

  12. Synthetic versions of firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Down-regulation or silencing of transgene expression can be a major hurdle to both molecular studies and biotechnology applications in many plant species. Sugarcane is particularly effective at silencing introduced transgenes, including reporter genes such as the firefly luciferase gene. Synthesizing transgene coding sequences optimized for usage in the host plant is one method of enhancing transgene expression and stability. Using specified design rules we have synthesised new coding sequences for both the firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes. We have tested these optimized versions for enhanced levels of luciferase activity and for increased steady state luciferase mRNA levels in sugarcane. Results The synthetic firefly luciferase (luc*) and Renilla luciferase (Renluc*) coding sequences have elevated G + C contents in line with sugarcane codon usage, but maintain 75% identity to the native firefly or Renilla luciferase nucleotide sequences and 100% identity to the protein coding sequences. Under the control of the maize pUbi promoter, the synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes yielded 60x and 15x higher luciferase activity respectively, over the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes in transient assays on sugarcane suspension cell cultures. Using a novel transient assay in sugarcane suspension cells combining co-bombardment and qRT-PCR, we showed that synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes generate increased transcript levels compared to the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes. In stable transgenic lines, the luc* transgene generated significantly higher levels of expression than the native firefly luciferase transgene. The fold difference in expression was highest in the youngest tissues. Conclusions We developed synthetic versions of both the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane. These transgenes will be particularly useful for evaluating the expression patterns conferred

  13. Exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA silences genes linked to severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Siegel, T Nicolai; Martins, Rafael M; Wang, Fei; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi; Cheng, Xiu; Jiang, Lubin; Hon, Chung-Chau; Scheidig-Benatar, Christine; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Turner, Louise; Jensen, Anja T R; Claes, Aurelie; Guizetti, Julien; Malmquist, Nicholas A; Scherf, Artur

    2014-09-18

    Antigenic variation of the Plasmodium falciparum multicopy var gene family enables parasite evasion of immune destruction by host antibodies. Expression of a particular var subgroup, termed upsA, is linked to the obstruction of blood vessels in the brain and to the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria. The mechanism determining upsA activation remains unknown. Here we show that an entirely new type of gene silencing mechanism involving an exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA controls the silencing of genes linked to severe malaria. We identify a novel chromatin-associated exoribonuclease, termed PfRNase II, that controls the silencing of upsA var genes by marking their transcription start site and intron-promoter regions leading to short-lived cryptic RNA. Parasites carrying a deficient PfRNase II gene produce full-length upsA var transcripts and intron-derived antisense long non-coding RNA. The presence of stable upsA var transcripts overcomes monoallelic expression, resulting in the simultaneous expression of both upsA and upsC type PfEMP1 proteins on the surface of individual infected red blood cells. In addition, we observe an inverse relationship between transcript levels of PfRNase II and upsA-type var genes in parasites from severe malaria patients, implying a crucial role of PfRNase II in severe malaria. Our results uncover a previously unknown type of post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism in malaria parasites with repercussions for other organisms. Additionally, the identification of RNase II as a parasite protein controlling the expression of virulence genes involved in pathogenesis in patients with severe malaria may provide new strategies for reducing malaria mortality.

  14. The role of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transgenic plants to reduce gene silencing phenomena.

    PubMed

    El-Shemy, Hany A; Khalafalla, Mutasim M; Ishimoto, Masao

    2009-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) of jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) has significant advantages over other reporter genes, because expression can be detected in living cells without any substrates. Recently, epigenetic phenomena are important to consider in plant biotechnology experiments for elucidate unknown mechanism. Therefore, soybean immature cotyledons were generated embryogenesis cells and engineered with two different gene constructs (pHV and pHVS) using gene gun method. Both constructs contain a gene conferring resistance to hygromycin (hpt) as a selective marker and a modified glycinin (11S globulin) gene (V3-1) as a target. However, sGFP(S65T) as a reporter gene was used only in pHVS as a reporter gene for study the relation between using sGFP(S65T) and gene silencing phenomena. Fluorescence microscopic was used for screening after the selection of hygromycin, identified clearly the expression of sGFP(S65T) in the transformed soybean embryos bombarded with the pHVS construct. Protein analysis was used to detect gene expression overall seeds using SDS-PAGE. Percentage of gene down regulation was highly in pHV construct compared with pHVS. Thus, sGFP(S65T ) as a reporter gene in vector system may be play useful role for transgenic evaluation and avoid gene silencing in plants for the benefit of plant transformation system.

  15. Folic acid rivals methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene-silencing effect on MEPM cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen-Lin; Wu, Min; Shi, Bing

    2006-11-01

    It's clear that environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of orofacial clefting (OFC) and an important area of future research will be to unravel interactions that occur between candidate genes and environmental factors during early development of the embryo. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation may reduce the risk of OFC. Polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene reduce availability of 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, the predominant circulating form of folic acid. To determine the effect of MTHFR gene mutation on murine embryonic palatal mesenchymal (MEPM) cells and the interaction with folic acid supplement, we used RNAi study in the primary cultures of MEPM cells. The cells of MTHFR gene silencing grew slower and the apoptosis cell number was more than the cells of control. Supplement with 20 microg/ml folic acid was the best to preventing teratogenic effect of MTHFR gene silencing. By flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle, results were shown that the MEPM cells were retarded in G(0)/G(1) after MTHFR gene silencing. While using 20 microg/ml folic acid supplements could make cell transit the G(1)/S restriction point and the cells growth was close to normal level.

  16. Can silencing of transposons contribute to variation in effector gene expression in Phytophthora infestans?

    PubMed

    Whisson, Stephen; Vetukuri, Ramesh; Avrova, Anna; Dixelius, Christina

    2012-03-01

    Transposable elements are ubiquitous residents in eukaryotic genomes. Often considered to be genomic parasites, they can lead to dramatic changes in genome organization, gene expression, and gene evolution. The oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has evolved a genome organization where core biology genes are predominantly located in genome regions that have relatively few resident transposons. In contrast, disease effector-encoding genes are most frequently located in rapidly evolving genomic regions that are rich in transposons. P. infestans, as a eukaryote, likely uses RNA silencing to minimize the activity of transposons. We have shown that fusion of a short interspersed element (SINE) to an effector gene in P. infestans leads to the silencing of both the introduced fusion and endogenous homologous sequences. This is also likely to occur naturally in the genome of P. infestans, as transcriptional inactivation of effectors is known to occur, and over half of the translocated "RXLR class" of effectors are located within 2 kb of transposon sequences in the P. infestans genome. In this commentary, we review the diverse transposon inventory of P. infestans, its control by RNA silencing, and consequences for expression modulation of nearby effector genes in this economically important plant pathogen.

  17. Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars.

  18. Diverse gene-silencing mechanisms with distinct requirements for RNA polymerase subunits in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Amy E; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; McGinnis, Karen M

    2014-11-01

    In Zea mays, transcriptional regulation of the b1 (booster1) gene requires a distal enhancer and MEDIATOR OF PARAMUTATION1 (MOP1), MOP2, and MOP3 proteins orthologous to Arabidopsis components of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation pathway. We compared the genetic requirements for MOP1, MOP2, and MOP3 for endogenous gene silencing by two hairpin transgenes with inverted repeats of the a1 (anthocyaninless1) gene promoter (a1pIR) and the b1 gene enhancer (b1IR), respectively. The a1pIR transgene induced silencing of endogenous A1 in mop1-1 and mop3-1, but not in Mop2-1 homozygous plants. This finding suggests that transgene-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) circumvented the requirement for MOP1, a predicted RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and MOP3, the predicted largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV). Because the Arabidopsis protein orthologous to MOP2 is the second largest subunit of Pol IV and V, our results may indicate that hairpin-induced siRNAs cannot bypass the requirement for the predicted scaffolding activity of Pol V. In contrast to a1pIR, the b1IR transgene silenced endogenous B1 in all three homozygous mutant genotypes--mop1-1, Mop2-1, and mop3-1--suggesting that transgene mediated b1 silencing did not involve MOP2-containing Pol V complexes. Based on the combined results for a1, b1, and three previously described loci, we propose a speculative hypothesis of locus-specific deployment of Pol II, MOP2-containing Pol V, or alternative versions of Pol V with second largest subunits other than MOP2 to explain the mechanistic differences in silencing at specific loci, including one example associated with paramutation.

  19. Mechanisms of epigenetic silencing of the Rassf1a gene during estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis in ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Starlard-Davenport, Athena; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P; James, Smitha R; Karpf, Adam R; Latendresse, John R; Beland, Frederick A; Pogribny, Igor P

    2010-03-01

    Breast cancer, the most common malignancy in women, emerges through a multistep process, encompassing the progressive sequential evolution of morphologically distinct stages from a normal cell to hyperplasia (with and without atypia), carcinoma in situ, invasive carcinoma and metastasis. The success of treatment of breast cancer could be greatly improved by the detection at early stages of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in breast carcinogenesis in Augustus and Copenhagen-Irish female rats, a cross between the ACI strains, induced by continuous exposure to 17beta-estradiol. The results of our study demonstrate that early stages of estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis are characterized by altered global DNA methylation, aberrant expression of proteins responsible for the proper maintenance of DNA methylation pattern and epigenetic silencing of the critical Rassf1a (Ras-association domain family 1, isoform A) tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, transcriptional repression of the Rassf1a gene in mammary glands during early stages of breast carcinogenesis was associated with an increase in trimethylation of histones H3 lysine 9 and H3 lysine 27 and de novo CpG island methylation and at the Rassf1a promoter and first exon. In conclusion, we demonstrate that epigenetic alterations precede formation of preneoplastic lesions indicating the significance of epigenetic events in induction of oncogenic pathways in early stages of carcinogenesis.

  20. Deciphering causal and statistical relations of molecular aberrations and gene expressions in NCI-60 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer cells harbor a large number of molecular alterations such as mutations, amplifications and deletions on DNA sequences and epigenetic changes on DNA methylations. These aberrations may dysregulate gene expressions, which in turn drive the malignancy of tumors. Deciphering the causal and statistical relations of molecular aberrations and gene expressions is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms of clinical phenotypes. Results In this work, we proposed a computational method to reconstruct association modules containing driver aberrations, passenger mRNA or microRNA expressions, and putative regulators that mediate the effects from drivers to passengers. By applying the module-finding algorithm to the integrated datasets of NCI-60 cancer cell lines, we found that gene expressions were driven by diverse molecular aberrations including chromosomal segments' copy number variations, gene mutations and DNA methylations, microRNA expressions, and the expressions of transcription factors. In-silico validation indicated that passenger genes were enriched with the regulator binding motifs, functional categories or pathways where the drivers were involved, and co-citations with the driver/regulator genes. Moreover, 6 of 11 predicted MYB targets were down-regulated in an MYB-siRNA treated leukemia cell line. In addition, microRNA expressions were driven by distinct mechanisms from mRNA expressions. Conclusions The results provide rich mechanistic information regarding molecular aberrations and gene expressions in cancer genomes. This kind of integrative analysis will become an important tool for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in the era of personalized medicine. PMID:22051105

  1. RNA interference as a gene silencing tool to control Tuta absoluta in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Roberto A.; Barbosa, Guilherme O.; Possignolo, Isabella Presotto; Peres, Lazaro E. P.; Lam, Eric; Lima, Joni E.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), a gene-silencing mechanism that involves providing double-stranded RNA molecules that match a specific target gene sequence, is now widely used in functional genetic studies. The potential application of RNAi-mediated control of agricultural insect pests has rapidly become evident. The production of transgenic plants expressing dsRNA molecules that target essential insect genes could provide a means of specific gene silencing in larvae that feed on these plants, resulting in larval phenotypes that range from loss of appetite to death. In this report, we show that the tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta), a major threat to commercial tomato production, can be targeted by RNAi. We selected two target genes (Vacuolar ATPase-A and Arginine kinase) based on the RNAi response reported for these genes in other pest species. In view of the lack of an artificial diet for T. absoluta, we used two approaches to deliver dsRNA into tomato leaflets. The first approach was based on the uptake of dsRNA by leaflets and the second was based on “in planta-induced transient gene silencing” (PITGS), a well-established method for silencing plant genes, used here for the first time to deliver in planta-transcribed dsRNA to target insect genes. Tuta absoluta larvae that fed on leaves containing dsRNA of the target genes showed an ∼60% reduction in target gene transcript accumulation, an increase in larval mortality and less leaf damage. We then generated transgenic ‘Micro-Tom’ tomato plants that expressed hairpin sequences for both genes and observed a reduction in foliar damage by T. absoluta in these plants. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi as an alternative method for controlling this critical tomato pest. PMID:27994959

  2. Expression of RNA-Interference/Antisense Transgenes by the Cognate Promoters of Target Genes Is a Better Gene-Silencing Strategy to Study Gene Functions in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai; Li, Feng; Yang, Jiawei; Hong, Laifa; Fu, Xiao; Li, Zhibin; Liu, Zhenlan; Li, Jianming; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2011-01-01

    Antisense and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing systems are powerful reverse genetic methods for studying gene function. Most RNAi and antisense experiments used constitutive promoters to drive the expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes; however, several reports showed that constitutive promoters were not expressed in all cell types in cereal plants, suggesting that the constitutive promoter systems are not effective for silencing gene expression in certain tissues/organs. To develop an alternative method that complements the constitutive promoter systems, we constructed RNAi and/or antisense transgenes for four rice genes using a constitutive promoter or a cognate promoter of a selected rice target gene and generated many independent transgenic lines. Genetic, molecular, and phenotypic analyses of these RNAi/antisense transgenic rice plants, in comparison to previously-reported transgenic lines that silenced similar genes, revealed that expression of the cognate promoter-driven RNAi/antisense transgenes resulted in novel growth/developmental defects that were not observed in transgenic lines expressing constitutive promoter-driven gene-silencing transgenes of the same target genes. Our results strongly suggested that expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes by cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing approach to discovery gene function in rice. PMID:21408609

  3. Expression of RNA-interference/antisense transgenes by the cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing strategy to study gene functions in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Dagang; Zhou, Hai; Li, Feng; Yang, Jiawei; Hong, Laifa; Fu, Xiao; Li, Zhibin; Liu, Zhenlan; Li, Jianming; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2011-03-03

    Antisense and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing systems are powerful reverse genetic methods for studying gene function. Most RNAi and antisense experiments used constitutive promoters to drive the expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes; however, several reports showed that constitutive promoters were not expressed in all cell types in cereal plants, suggesting that the constitutive promoter systems are not effective for silencing gene expression in certain tissues/organs. To develop an alternative method that complements the constitutive promoter systems, we constructed RNAi and/or antisense transgenes for four rice genes using a constitutive promoter or a cognate promoter of a selected rice target gene and generated many independent transgenic lines. Genetic, molecular, and phenotypic analyses of these RNAi/antisense transgenic rice plants, in comparison to previously-reported transgenic lines that silenced similar genes, revealed that expression of the cognate promoter-driven RNAi/antisense transgenes resulted in novel growth/developmental defects that were not observed in transgenic lines expressing constitutive promoter-driven gene-silencing transgenes of the same target genes. Our results strongly suggested that expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes by cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing approach to discovery gene function in rice.

  4. X chromosome inactivation: new players in the initiation of gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ines; Heard, Edith

    2017-01-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation process that was adopted by female mammals to balance gene dosage between XX females and XY males. XCI starts with the upregulation of the non-coding RNA Xist, after which most X-linked genes are silenced and acquire a repressive chromatin state. Even though the chromatin marks of the inactive X have been fairly well described, the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of XCI remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss recent developments that revealed unexpected factors playing a role in XCI and that might be of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms responsible for the very first steps of this chromosome-wide gene-silencing event.

  5. HIGS: host-induced gene silencing in the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis.

    PubMed

    Nowara, Daniela; Gay, Alexandra; Lacomme, Christophe; Shaw, Jane; Ridout, Christopher; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Powdery mildew fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that only grow on living hosts and cause damage in thousands of plant species. Despite their agronomical importance, little direct functional evidence for genes of pathogenicity and virulence is currently available because mutagenesis and transformation protocols are lacking. Here, we show that the accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) of double-stranded or antisense RNA targeting fungal transcripts affects the development of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis. Proof of concept for host-induced gene silencing was obtained by silencing the effector gene Avra10, which resulted in reduced fungal development in the absence, but not in the presence, of the matching resistance gene Mla10. The fungus could be rescued from the silencing of Avra10 by the transient expression of a synthetic gene that was resistant to RNA interference (RNAi) due to silent point mutations. The results suggest traffic of RNA molecules from host plants into B. graminis and may lead to an RNAi-based crop protection strategy against fungal pathogens.

  6. Host-induced gene silencing compromises Verticillium wilt in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yin; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2016-10-17

    Verticillium wilt, caused by soil-borne fungi of the genus Verticillium, is an economically important disease that affects a wide range of host plants. Unfortunately, host resistance against Verticillium wilts is not available for many plant species, and the disease is notoriously difficult to combat. Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is an RNA interference (RNAi)-based process in which small RNAs are produced by the host plant to target parasite transcripts. HIGS has emerged as a promising strategy for the improvement of plant resistance against pathogens by silencing genes that are essential for these pathogens. Here, we assessed whether HIGS can be utilized to suppress Verticillium wilt disease by silencing three previously identified virulence genes of V. dahliae (encoding Ave1, Sge1 and NLP1) through the host plants tomato and Arabidopsis. In transient assays, tomato plants were agroinfiltrated with Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) constructs to target V. dahliae transcripts. Subsequent V. dahliae inoculation revealed the suppression of Verticillium wilt disease on treatment with only one of the three TRV constructs. Next, expression of RNAi constructs targeting transcripts of the same three V. dahliae virulence genes was pursued in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. In this host, V. dahliae inoculation revealed reduced Verticillium wilt disease in two of the three targets. Thus, our study suggests that, depending on the target gene chosen, HIGS against V. dahliae is operational in tomato and A. thaliana plants and may be exploited to engineer resistance in Verticillium wilt-susceptible crops.

  7. Efficiency of gene silencing in Arabidopsis: direct inverted repeats vs. transitive RNAi vectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Filichkin, Sergei A; DiFazio, Steven P; Brunner, Amy M; Davis, John M; Yang, Zamin Koo; Kalluri, Udaya C; Arias, Renee S; Etherington, Elizabeth; Tuskan, Gerald A; Strauss, S

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of RNA interference (RNAi) in Arabidopsis using transitive and homologous inverted repeat (hIR) vectors. hIR constructs carry self-complementary intron-spliced fragments of the target gene whereas transitive vectors have the target sequence fragment adjacent to an intron-spliced, inverted repeat of heterologous origin. Both transitive and hIR constructs facilitated specific and heritable silencing in the three genes studied (AP1, ETTIN and TTG1). Both types of vectors produced a phenotypic series that phenocopied reduction of function mutants for the respective target gene. The hIR yielded up to fourfold higher proportions of events with strongly manifested reduction of function phenotypes compared to transitive RNAi. We further investigated the efficiency and potential off-target effects of AP1 silencing by both types of vectors using genome-scale microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR. The depletion of AP1 transcripts coincided with reduction of function phenotypic changes among both hIR and transitive lines and also showed similar expression patterns among differentially regulated genes. We did not detect significant silencing directed against homologous potential off-target genes when constructs were designed with minimal sequence similarity. Both hIR and transitive methods are useful tools in plant biotechnology and genomics. The choice of vector will depend on specific objectives such as cloning throughput, number of events and degree of suppression required.

  8. The distribution of repressive histone modifications on silenced FMR1 alleles provides clues to the mechanism of gene silencing in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Daman; Usdin, Karen

    2010-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and the most common known cause of autism. Most cases of FXS result from the expansion of a CGG·CCG repeat in the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene that leads to gene silencing. It has previously been shown that silenced alleles are associated with histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 9 (H3K9Me2) and H3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27Me3), modified histones typical of developmentally repressed genes. We show here that these alleles are also associated with elevated levels of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9 (H3K9Me3) and histone H4 trimethylated at lysine 20 (H4K20Me3). All four of these modified histones are present on exon 1 of silenced alleles at levels comparable to that seen on pericentric heterochromatin. The two groups of histone modifications show a different distribution on fragile X alleles: H3K9Me2 and H3K27Me3 have a broad distribution, whereas H3K9Me3 and H4K20Me3 have a more focal distribution with the highest level of these marks being present in the vicinity of the repeat. This suggests that the trigger for gene silencing may be local to the repeat itself and perhaps involves a mechanism similar to that involved in the formation of pericentric heterochromatin.

  9. From DNA Copy Number to Gene Expression: Local aberrations, Trisomies and Monosomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, Tal

    The goal of my PhD research was to study the effect of DNA copy number changes on gene expression. DNA copy number aberrations may be local, encompassing several genes, or on the level of an entire chromosome, such as trisomy and monosomy. The main dataset I studied was of Glioblastoma, obtained in the framework of a collaboration, but I worked also with public datasets of cancer and Down's Syndrome. The molecular basis of expression changes in Glioblastoma. Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumors in adults. In collaboration with Prof. Hegi (CHUV, Switzerland), we analyzed a rich Glioblastoma dataset including clinical information, DNA copy number (array CGH) and expression profiles. We explored the correlation between DNA copy number and gene expression at the level of chromosomal arms and local genomic aberrations. We detected known amplification and over expression of oncogenes, as well as deletion and down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes. We exploited that information to map alterations of pathways that are known to be disrupted in Glioblastoma, and tried to characterize samples that have no known alteration in any of the studied pathways. Identifying local DNA aberrations of biological significance. Many types of tumors exhibit chromosomal losses or gains and local amplifications and deletions. A region that is aberrant in many tumors, or whose copy number change is stronger, is more likely to be clinically relevant, and not just a by-product of genetic instability. We developed a novel method that defines and prioritizes aberrations by formalizing these intuitions. The method scores each aberration by the fraction of patients harboring it, its length and its amplitude, and assesses the significance of the score by comparing it to a null distribution obtained by permutations. This approach detects genetic locations that are significantly aberrant, generating a 'genomic aberration profile' for each sample. The 'genomic

  10. Glycolic Acid Silences Inflammasome Complex Genes, NLRC4 and ASC, by Inducing DNA Methylation in HaCaT Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheau-Chung; Yeh, Jih-I; Hung, Sung-Jen; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Liu, Fu-Tong; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2016-03-01

    AHAs (α-hydroxy acids), including glycolic acid (GA), have been widely used in cosmetic products and superficial chemical peels. Inflammasome complex has been shown to play critical roles in inflammatory pathways in human keratinocytes. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of GA is still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the expression of the inflammasome complex and epigenetic modification to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of GA in HaCaT cells. We evaluated NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2, and ASC inflammasome complex gene expression on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methylation changes were detected in these genes following treatment with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) with or without the addition of GA using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). GA inhibited the expressions of these inflammasome complex genes, and the decreases in the expressions of mRNA were reversed by 5-Aza treatment. Methylation was detected in NLRC4 and ASC on MSP, but not in NLRP3 or AIM2. GA decreased NLRC4 and ASC gene expression by increasing not only DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT-3B) protein level, but also total DNMT activity. Furthermore, silencing of DNMT-3B (shDNMT-3B) increased the expressions of NLRC4 and ASC. Our data demonstrated that GA treatment induces hypermethylation of promoters of NLRC4 and ASC genes, which may subsequently lead to the hindering of the assembly of the inflammasome complex in HaCaT cells. These results highlight the anti-inflammatory potential of GA-containing cosmetic agents in human skin cells and demonstrate for the first time the role of aberrant hypermethylation in this process.

  11. The insulation of genes from external enhancers and silencing chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Burgess-Beusse, Bonnie; Farrell, Catherine; Gaszner, Miklos; Litt, Michael; Mutskov, Vesco; Recillas-Targa, Felix; Simpson, Melanie; West, Adam; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Insulators are DNA sequence elements that can serve in some cases as barriers to protect a gene against the encroachment of adjacent inactive condensed chromatin. Some insulators also can act as blocking elements to protect against the activating influence of distal enhancers associated with other genes. Although most of the insulators identified so far derive from Drosophila, they also are found in vertebrates. An insulator at the 5′ end of the chicken β-globin locus marks a boundary between an open chromatin domain and a region of constitutively condensed chromatin. Detailed analysis of this element shows that it possesses both enhancer blocking activity and the ability to screen reporter genes against position effects. Enhancer blocking is associated with binding of the protein CTCF; sites that bind CTCF are found at other critical points in the genome. Protection against position effects involves other properties that appear to be associated with control of histone acetylation and methylation. Insulators thus are complex elements that can help to preserve the independent function of genes embedded in a genome in which they are surrounded by regulatory signals they must ignore. PMID:12154228

  12. GENE SILENCING BY PARENTAL RNA INTERFERENCE IN THE GREEN RICE LEAFHOPPER, Nephotettix cincticeps (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukiko; Hattori, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely used for investigating gene function in many nonmodel insect species. Parental RNAi causes gene knockdown in the next generation through the administration of double-strand RNA (dsRNA) to the mother generation. In this study, we demonstrate that parental RNAi mediated gene silencing is effective in determining the gene function of the cuticle and the salivary glands in green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler). Injection of dsRNA of NcLac2 (9 ng/female) to female parents caused a strong knockdown of laccase-2 gene of first instar nymphs, which eventually led to high mortality rates and depigmentation of side lines on the body. The effects of parental RNAi on the mortality of the nymphs were maintained through 12-14 days after the injections. We also confirmed the effectiveness of parental RNAi induced silencing on the gene expressed in the salivary gland, the gene product of which is passed from instar to instar. The parental RNAi method can be used to examine gene function by phenotyping many offspring nymphs with injection of dsRNA into a small number of parent females, and may be applicable to high-efficiency determination of gene functions in this species.

  13. Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

  14. An siRNA-based method for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Isidor, Marie S.; Winther, Sally; Basse, Astrid L.; Petersen, M. Christine H.; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Hansen, Jacob B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target for opposing obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The ability to modulate gene expression in mature brown adipocytes is important to understand brown adipocyte function and delineate novel regulatory mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis. The aim of this study was to optimize a lipofection-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection protocol for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We determined that a critical parameter was to deliver the siRNA to mature adipocytes by reverse transfection, i.e. transfection of non-adherent cells. Using this protocol, we effectively knocked down both high- and low-abundance transcripts in a model of mature brown adipocytes (WT-1) as well as in primary mature mouse brown adipocytes. A functional consequence of the knockdown was confirmed by an attenuated increase in uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in response to β-adrenergic stimulation of mature WT-1 brown adipocytes transfected with uncoupling protein 1 siRNA. Efficient gene silencing was also obtained in various mouse and human white adipocyte models (3T3-L1, primary mouse white adipocytes, hMADS) with the ability to undergo “browning.” In summary, we report an easy and versatile reverse siRNA transfection protocol to achieve specific silencing of gene expression in various models of mature brown and browning-competent white adipocytes, including primary cells. PMID:27386153

  15. Heat-Induced Release of Epigenetic Silencing Reveals the Concealed Role of an Imprinted Plant Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Diego H.; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms suppress the transcription of transposons and DNA repeats; however, this suppression can be transiently released under prolonged heat stress. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana imprinted gene SDC, which is silent during vegetative growth due to DNA methylation, is activated by heat and contributes to recovery from stress. SDC activation seems to involve epigenetic mechanisms but not canonical heat-shock perception and signaling. The heat-mediated transcriptional induction of SDC occurs particularly in young developing leaves and is proportional to the level of stress. However, this occurs only above a certain window of absolute temperatures and, thus, resembles a thermal-sensing mechanism. In addition, the re-silencing kinetics during recovery can be entrained by repeated heat stress cycles, suggesting that epigenetic regulation in plants may conserve memory of stress experience. We further demonstrate that SDC contributes to the recovery of plant biomass after stress. We propose that transcriptional gene silencing, known to be involved in gene imprinting, is also co-opted in the specific tuning of SDC expression upon heat stress and subsequent recovery. It is therefore possible that dynamic properties of the epigenetic landscape associated with silenced or imprinted genes may contribute to regulation of their expression in response to environmental challenges. PMID:25411840

  16. Efficient Gene Silencing in Metastatic Tumor by siRNA Formulated in Surface-modified Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shyh-Dar; Chono, Sumio; Huang, Leaf

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a nanoparticle (NP) formulation for systemically delivering siRNA into metastatic tumors. The NP, composed of nucleic acids, a polycationic peptide and cationic liposome, was prepared in a self-assembling process. The NP was then modified by PEG-lipid containing a targeting ligand, anisamide, and thus was decorated for targeting sigma receptor expressing B16F10 tumor. The activity of the targeted NP was compared with the naked NP (no PEGylation) and non-targeted NP (no ligand). The delivery efficiency of the targeted NP was 4-fold higher than the non-targeted NP and could be competed by excess free ligand. Luciferase siRNA was used to evaluate the gene silencing activity in the B16F10 cells, which were stably transduced with a luciferase gene, in a lung metastasis model. The gene silencing activity of the targeted NP was significantly higher than the other formulations and lasted for 4 days. While confocal microscopy showed the naked NP provided no tissue selectivity and non-targeted NP was ineffective for tumor uptake, the targeted NP effectively penetrated the lung metastasis, but not the liver. It resulted in 70-80% gene silencing in the metastasis model after a single i.v. injection (150 μg siRNA/kg). This effective formulation also showed very little immunotoxicity. PMID:18083264

  17. Intravaginal gene silencing using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles densely loaded with small-interfering RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodrow, Kim A.; Cu, Yen; Booth, Carmen J.; Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Wood, Monica J.; Mark Saltzman, W.

    2009-06-01

    Vaginal instillation of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) using liposomes has led to silencing of endogenous genes in the genital tract and protection against challenge from infectious disease. Although siRNA lipoplexes are easily formulated, several of the most effective transfection agents available commercially may be toxic to the mucosal epithelia and none are able to provide controlled or sustained release. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach using nanoparticles composed entirely of FDA-approved materials. To render these materials effective for gene silencing, we developed novel approaches to load them with high amounts of siRNA. A single dose of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles to the mouse female reproductive tract caused efficient and sustained gene silencing. Knockdown of gene expression was observed proximal (in the vaginal lumen) and distal (in the uterine horns) to the site of topical delivery. In addition, nanoparticles penetrated deep into the epithelial tissue. This is the first report demonstrating that biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are effective delivery vehicles for siRNA to the vaginal mucosa.

  18. Tomato Mosaic Virus Replication Protein Suppresses Virus-Targeted Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kenji; Tsuda, Shinya; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a homology-dependent RNA degradation system, has a role in defending against virus infection in plants, but plant viruses encode a suppressor to combat PTGS. Using transgenic tobacco in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is posttranscriptionally silenced, we investigated a tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)-encoded PTGS suppressor. Infection with wild-type ToMV (L strain) interrupted GFP silencing in tobacco, coincident with visible symptoms, whereas some attenuated strains of ToMV (L11 and L11A strains) failed to suppress GFP silencing. Analyses of recombinant viruses containing the L and L11A strains revealed that a single base change in the replicase gene, which causes an amino acid substitution, is responsible for the symptomless and suppressor-defective phenotypes of the attenuated strains. An agroinfiltration assay indicated that the 130K replication protein acts as a PTGS suppressor. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of 21 to 25 nucleotides accumulated during ToMV infection, suggesting that the major target of the ToMV-encoded suppressor is downstream from the production of siRNAs in the PTGS pathway. Analysis with GFP-tagged recombinant viruses revealed that the suppressor inhibits the establishment of the ToMV-targeted PTGS system in the inoculated leaves but does not detectably suppress the activity of the preexisting, sequence-specific PTGS machinery there. Taken together, these results indicate that it is likely that the ToMV-encoded suppressor, the 130K replication protein, blocks the utilization of silencing-associated small RNAs, so that a homology-dependent RNA degradation machinery is not newly formed. PMID:14512550

  19. Silencing of Two Insulin Receptor Genes Disrupts Nymph-Adult Transition of Alate Brown Citrus Aphid

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bi-Yue; Shang, Feng; Zhang, Qiang; Xiong, Ying; Yang, Qun; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Insulin receptors play key roles in growth, development, and polymorphism in insects. Here, we report two insulin receptor genes (AcInR1 and AcInR2) from the brown citrus aphid, Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus. Transcriptional analyses showed that AcInR1 increased during the nymph–adult transition in alate aphids, while AcInR2 had the highest expression level in second instar nymphs. AcInR1 is important in aphid development from fourth instar nymphs to adults as verified by dsRNA feeding mediated RNAi. The silencing of AcInR1 or/and AcInR2 produced a variety of phenotypes including adults with normal wings, malformed wings, under-developed wings, and aphids failing to develop beyond the nymphal stages. Silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone, and co-silencing of both genes, resulted in 73% or 60%, and 87% of aphids with problems in the transition from nymph to normal adult. The co-silencing of AcInR1 and AcInR2 resulted in 62% dead nymphs, but no mortality occurred by silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone. Phenotypes of adults in the dsInR1 and dsInR2 were similar. The results demonstrate that AcInR1 and AcInR2 are essential for successful nymph–adult transition in alate aphids and show that RNAi methods may be useful for the management of this pest. PMID:28230772

  20. Requirements for gene silencing mediated by U1 snRNA binding to a target sequence

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Xabi; Vera, Maria; Jung, Stephen P.; Oswald, Evelyn; Romero, Inés; Amin, Vaibhav; Fortes, Puri; Gunderson, Samuel I.

    2008-01-01

    U1 interference (U1i) is a novel method to block gene expression. U1i requires expression of a 5′-end-mutated U1 snRNA designed to base pair to the 3′-terminal exon of the target gene's pre-mRNA that leads to inhibition of polyadenylation. Here, we show U1i is robust (≥95%) and a 10-nt target length is sufficient for good silencing. Surprisingly, longer U1 snRNAs, which could increase annealing to the target, fail to improve silencing. Extensive mutagenesis of the 10-bp U1 snRNA:target duplex shows that any single mismatch different from GU at positions 3–8, destroys silencing. However, mismatches within the other positions give partial silencing, suggesting that off-target inhibition could occur. The specificity of U1i may be enhanced, however, by the fact that silencing is impaired by RNA secondary structure or by splicing factors binding nearby, the latter mediated by Arginine-Serine (RS) domains. U1i inhibition can be reconstituted in vivo by tethering of RS domains of U1-70K and U2AF65. These results help to: (i) define good target sites for U1i; (ii) identify and understand natural cellular examples of U1i; (iii) clarify the contribution of hydrogen bonding to U1i and to U1 snRNP binding to 5′ splice sites and (iv) understand the mechanism of U1i. PMID:18299285

  1. Gene silencing following siRNA delivery to skin via coated steel microneedles: In vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept.

    PubMed

    Chong, Rosalind H E; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Lara, Maria F; Speaker, Tycho J; Contag, Christopher H; Kaspar, Roger L; Coulman, Sion A; Hargest, Rachel; Birchall, James C

    2013-03-28

    The development of siRNA-based gene silencing therapies has significant potential for effectively treating debilitating genetic, hyper-proliferative or malignant skin conditions caused by aberrant gene expression. To be efficacious and widely accepted by physicians and patients, therapeutic siRNAs must access the viable skin layers in a stable and functional form, preferably without painful administration. In this study we explore the use of minimally-invasive steel microneedle devices to effectively deliver siRNA into skin. A simple, yet precise microneedle coating method permitted reproducible loading of siRNA onto individual microneedles. Following recovery from the microneedle surface, lamin A/C siRNA retained full activity, as demonstrated by significant reduction in lamin A/C mRNA levels and reduced lamin A/C protein in HaCaT keratinocyte cells. However, lamin A/C siRNA pre-complexed with a commercial lipid-based transfection reagent (siRNA lipoplex) was less functional following microneedle coating. As Accell-modified "self-delivery" siRNA targeted against CD44 also retained functionality after microneedle coating, this form of siRNA was used in subsequent in vivo studies, where gene silencing was determined in a transgenic reporter mouse skin model. Self-delivery siRNA targeting the reporter (luciferase/GFP) gene was coated onto microneedles and delivered to mouse footpad. Quantification of reporter mRNA and intravital imaging of reporter expression in the outer skin layers confirmed functional in vivo gene silencing following microneedle delivery of siRNA. The use of coated metal microneedles represents a new, simple, minimally-invasive, patient-friendly and potentially self-administrable method for the delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to the skin.

  2. Bidirectional transfer of RNAi between honey bee and Varroa destructor: Varroa gene silencing reduces Varroa population.

    PubMed

    Garbian, Yael; Maori, Eyal; Kalev, Haim; Shafir, Sharoni; Sela, Ilan

    2012-12-01

    The mite Varroa destructor is an obligatory ectoparasite of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and is one of the major threats to apiculture worldwide. We previously reported that honey bees fed on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) with a sequence homologous to that of the Israeli acute paralysis virus are protected from the viral disease. Here we show that dsRNA ingested by bees is transferred to the Varroa mite and from mite on to a parasitized bee. This cross-species, reciprocal exchange of dsRNA between bee and Varroa engendered targeted gene silencing in the latter, and resulted in an over 60% decrease in the mite population. Thus, transfer of gene-silencing-triggering molecules between this invertebrate host and its ectoparasite could lead to a conceptually novel approach to Varroa control.

  3. Compromised virus-induced gene silencing in RDR6-deficient plants.

    PubMed

    Vaistij, Fabián E; Jones, Louise

    2009-03-01

    RNA silencing in plants serves as a potent antiviral defense mechanism through the action of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which direct RNA degradation. siRNAs can be derived directly from the viral genome or via the action of host-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs). Plant genomes encode multiple RDRs, and it has been demonstrated that plants defective for RDR6 hyperaccumulate several classes of virus. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in wild-type and RDR6-deficient Nicotiana benthamiana plants. For the potexvirus Potato virus X (PVX) and the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV), the efficiency of both VIGS and RdDM were compromised in RDR6-defective plants despite accumulating high levels of viral siRNAs similar to infection of wild-type plants. The reduced efficiency of VIGS and RdDM was unrelated to the size class of siRNA produced and, at least for PVX, was not dependent on the presence of the virus-encoded silencing suppressor protein, 25K. We suggest that primary siRNAs produced from PVX and PPV in the absence of RDR6 may not be good effectors of silencing and that RDR6 is required to produce secondary siRNAs that drive a more effective antiviral response.

  4. Enhanced Gene Silencing through Human Serum Albumin-Mediated Delivery of Polyethylenimine-siRNA Polyplexes

    PubMed Central

    Nicolì, Elena; Syga, Marie Isabel; Bosetti, Michela; Shastri, V. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted therapeutics (STT) offers a compelling alternative to tradition medications for treatment of genetic diseases by providing a means to silence the expression of specific aberrant proteins, through interference at the expression level. The perceived advantage of siRNA therapy is its ability to target, through synthetic antisense oligonucleotides, any part of the genome. Although STT provides a high level of specificity, it is also hindered by poor intracellular uptake, limited blood stability, high degradability and non-specific immune stimulation. Since serum proteins has been considered as useful vehicles for targeting tumors, in this study we investigated the effect of incorporation of human serum albumin (HSA) in branched polyethylenimine (bPEI)-siRNA polyplexes in their internalization in epithelial and endothelial cells. We observed that introduction of HSA preserves the capacity of bPEI to complex with siRNA and protect it against extracellular endonucleases, while affording significantly improved internalization and silencing efficiency, compared to bPEI-siRNA polyplexes in endothelial and metastatic breast cancer epithelial cells. Furthermore, the uptake of the HSA-bPEI-siRNA ternary polyplexes occurred primarily through a caveolae-mediated endocytosis, thus providing evidence for a clear role for HSA in polyplex internalization. These results provide further impetus to explore the role of serum proteins in delivery of siRNA. PMID:25856158

  5. Plant-mediated gene silencing restricts growth of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sultana N; Åsman, Anna K M; Corcoran, Pádraic; Fogelqvist, Johan; Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-05-01

    Phytophthora infestans is an oomycete that causes severe damage to potato, and is well known for its ability to evolve rapidly in order to overcome resistant potato varieties. An RNA silencing strategy was evaluated here to clarify if small interfering RNA homologous to selected genes in P. infestans could be targeted from the plant host to reduce the magnitude of the infection. As a proof-of-concept, a hairpin RNA (hp-RNA) construct using the GFP marker gene was designed and introduced in potato. At 72 hpi, a 55-fold reduction of the signal intensity of a corresponding GFP expressing P. infestans strain on leaf samples of transgenic plants, compared with wild-type potato, was detected. This suggests that an RNA interference construct in the potato host could be processed and target a transcript of the pathogen. Three genes important in the infection process of P. infestans, PiGPB1, PiCESA2, and PiPEC, together with PiGAPDH taking part in basic cell maintenance were subsequently tested using an analogous transgenic strategy. Out of these gene candidates, the hp-PiGPB1 targeting the G protein β-subunit (PiGPB1) important for pathogenicity resulted in most restricted disease progress. Further, Illumina sequencing of inoculated transgenic potato leaves revealed sRNAs of 24/25 nt size homologous to the PiGPB1 gene in the transgenic plants indicating post-transcriptional silencing of the target gene. The work demonstrates that a host-induced gene-silencing approach is functional against P. infestans but is highly dependent on target gene for a successful outcome. This finding broadens the arsenal of control strategies to this important plant disease.

  6. Gene silencing by chemically modified siRNAs.

    PubMed

    Engels, Joachim W

    2013-03-25

    RNA interference (RNAi) has not only already risen as a gold standard for validating gene function in basic science studies, but also holds great promise as a new therapeutic paradigm. Advantages of RNAi-based therapeutics include relatively fast initial screening and the ability to target proteins not yet addressable by traditional drug design strategies. In this review we describe the development of chemically modified small inhibiting siRNAs and their application as potential therapeutics during the past decade. Focus is on proper siRNA design, choice of chemical modification and how to circumvent immunogenicity as well as off-target effects.

  7. Gene Silencing Associated with SWI/SNF Complex Loss During NSCLC Development

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shujie; Walter, Vonn; Karaca, Mehmet; Li, Ying; Bartlett, Christopher S.; Smiraglia, Dominic J.; Serber, Daniel; Sproul, Christopher D.; Plass, Christoph; Zhang, Jiren; Hayes, D. Neil; Zheng, Yanfang; Weissman, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex regulates gene expression and alters chromatin structures in an ATP-dependent manner. Recent sequencing efforts have shown mutations in BRG1 (SMARCA4), one of two mutually exclusive ATPase subunits in the complex, in a significant number of human lung tumor cell lines and primary non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) clinical specimens. To determine how BRG1 loss fuels tumor progression in NSCLC, molecular profiling was performed after restoration of BRG1 expression or treatment with an HDAC inhibitor or a DNMT inhibitor in a BRG1-deficient NSCLC cells. Importantly, validation studies from multiple cell lines revealed that BRG1 re-expression led to substantial changes in the expression of CDH1, CDH3, EHF and RRAD that commonly undergo silencing by other epigenetic mechanisms during NSCLC development. Furthermore, treatment with DNMT inhibitors did not restore expression of these transcripts indicating that this common mechanism of gene silencing did not account for their loss of expression. Collectively, BRG1 loss is an important mechanism for the epigenetic silencing of target genes during NSCLC development. PMID:24445599

  8. DNA Elements Reducing Transcriptional Gene Silencing Revealed by a Novel Screening Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Keiichiro; Ohashi, Yuko; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS)–a phenomenon observed in endogenous genes/transgenes in eukaryotes–is a huge hindrance to transgenic technology and occurs mainly when the genes involved share sequence homology in their promoter regions. TGS depends on chromosomal position, suggesting the existence of genomic elements that suppress TGS. However, no systematic approach to identify such DNA elements has yet been reported. Here, we developed a successful novel screening strategy to identify such elements (anti-silencing regions–ASRs), based on their ability to protect a flanked transgene from TGS. A silenced transgenic tobacco plant in which a subsequently introduced transgene undergoes obligatory promoter-homology dependent TGS in trans allowed the ability of DNA elements to prevent TGS to be used as the screening criterion. We also identified ASRs in a genomic library from a different plant species (Lotus japonicus: a perennial legume); the ASRs include portions of Ty1/copia retrotransposon-like and pararetrovirus-like sequences; the retrotransposon-like sequences also showed interspecies anti-TGS activity in a TGS-induction system in Arabidopsis. Anti-TGS elements could provide effective tools to reduce TGS and ensure proper regulation of transgene expression. Furthermore, the screening strategy described here will also facilitate the efficient identification of new classes of anti-TGS elements. PMID:23382937

  9. Multifunctional nanocarrier based on clay nanotubes for efficient intracellular siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Shi, Yinfeng; Huang, Chusen; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Jiahui; Shen, Hebai; Jia, Nengqin

    2014-04-01

    RNA interference-mediated gene silencing relating to disease has recently emerged as a powerful method in gene therapy. Despite the promises, effective transport of siRNA with minimal side effects remains a challenge. Halloysites are cheap and naturally available aluminosilicate clay nanotubes with high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. In this study, a novel multifunctional nanocarrier based on functionalized halloysite nanotubes (f-HNTs) has been developed via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembling approach for loading and intracellular delivery of therapeutic antisurvivin siRNA and simultaneously tracking their intracellular transport, in which PEI-modified HNTs are used as gene vector, antisurvivin siRNA as gene therapeutic agent, and mercaptoacetic acid-capped CdSe quantum dots as fluorescent labeling probes. The successful assembly of the f-HNTs-siRNA complexes was systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry, Zeta potential measurement, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Confocal microscopy, biological TEM, and flow cytometry studies revealed that the complexes enabled the efficient intracellular delivery of siRNA for cell-specific gene silencing. MTT assays exhibited that the complexes can enhance antitumor activity. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that f-HNTs-mediated siRNA delivery effectively knocked down gene expression of survivin and thereby decreased the levels of target proteins of PANC-1 cells. Therefore, this study suggested that the synthesized f-HNTs were a new effective drug delivery system for potential application in cancer gene therapy.

  10. Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L

    2013-11-01

    During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer.

  11. Chromosomal aberrations in tire plant workers and interaction with polymorphisms of biotransformation and DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Musak, Ludovit; Soucek, Pavel; Vodickova, Ludmila; Naccarati, Alessio; Halasova, Erika; Polakova, Veronika; Slyskova, Jana; Susova, Simona; Buchancova, Janka; Smerhovsky, Zdenek; Sedikova, Jana; Klimentova, Gabriela; Osina, Oto; Hemminki, Kari; Vodicka, Pavel

    2008-05-10

    We evaluated chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 177 workers exposed to xenobiotics in a tire plant and in 172 controls, in relation to their genetic background. Nine polymorphisms in genes encoding biotransformation enzymes and nine polymorphisms in genes involved in main DNA repair pathways were investigated for possible modulation of chromosomal damage. Chromosomal aberration frequencies were the highest among exposed smokers and the lowest in non-smoking unexposed individuals (2.5+/-1.8% vs. 1.7+/-1.2%, respectively). The differences between groups (ANOVA) were borderline significant (F=2.6, P=0.055). Chromosomal aberrations were higher in subjects with GSTT1-null (2.4+/-1.7%) than in those with GSTT1-plus genotype (1.8+/-1.4%; F=7.2, P=0.008). Considering individual groups, this association was significant in smoking exposed workers (F=4.4, P=0.040). Individuals with low activity EPHX1 genotype exhibited significantly higher chromosomal aberrations (2.3+/-1.6%) in comparison with those bearing medium (1.7+/-1.2%) and high activity genotype (1.5+/-1.2%; F=4.7, P=0.010). Both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberration frequencies were mainly affected by exposure and smoking status. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that frequencies of chromatid-type aberrations were modulated by NBS1 Glu185Gln (OR 4.26, 95%CI 1.38-13.14, P=0.012), and to a moderate extent, by XPD Lys751Gln (OR 0.16, 95%CI 0.02-1.25, P=0.081) polymorphisms. Chromosome-type aberrations were lowest in individuals bearing the EPHX1 genotype conferring the high activity (OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.15-0.98, P=0.045). Present results show that exposed individuals in the tire production, who smoke, exhibit higher chromosomal aberrations frequencies, and the extent of chromosomal damage may additionally be modified by relevant polymorphisms.

  12. CRISPR Interference Efficiently Induces Specific and Reversible Gene Silencing in Human iPSCs.

    PubMed

    Mandegar, Mohammad A; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Frolov, Ekaterina B; Shin, Edward; Truong, Annie; Olvera, Michael P; Chan, Amanda H; Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Holmes, Kristin; Spencer, C Ian; Judge, Luke M; Gordon, David E; Eskildsen, Tilde V; Villalta, Jacqueline E; Horlbeck, Max A; Gilbert, Luke A; Krogan, Nevan J; Sheikh, Søren P; Weissman, Jonathan S; Qi, Lei S; So, Po-Lin; Conklin, Bruce R

    2016-04-07

    Developing technologies for efficient and scalable disruption of gene expression will provide powerful tools for studying gene function, developmental pathways, and disease mechanisms. Here, we develop clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat interference (CRISPRi) to repress gene expression in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). CRISPRi, in which a doxycycline-inducible deactivated Cas9 is fused to a KRAB repression domain, can specifically and reversibly inhibit gene expression in iPSCs and iPSC-derived cardiac progenitors, cardiomyocytes, and T lymphocytes. This gene repression system is tunable and has the potential to silence single alleles. Compared with CRISPR nuclease (CRISPRn), CRISPRi gene repression is more efficient and homogenous across cell populations. The CRISPRi system in iPSCs provides a powerful platform to perform genome-scale screens in a wide range of iPSC-derived cell types, dissect developmental pathways, and model disease.

  13. CRISPR Interference Efficiently Induces Specific and Reversible Gene Silencing in Human iPSCs

    PubMed Central

    Mandegar, Mohammad A.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Frolov, Ekaterina B.; Shin, Edward; Truong, Annie; Olvera, Michael P.; Chan, Amanda H.; Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Holmes, Kristin; Spencer, C. Ian; Judge, Luke M.; Gordon, David E.; Eskildsen, Tilde V.; Villalta, Jacqueline E.; Horlbeck, Max A.; Gilbert, Luke A.; Krogan, Nevan J.; Sheikh, Søren P.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Qi, Lei S.; So, Po-Lin; Conklin, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    Developing technologies for efficient and scalable disruption of gene expression will provide powerful tools for studying gene function, developmental pathways, and disease mechanisms. Here we develop CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) to repress gene expression in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). CRISPRi, in which a doxycycline-inducible deactivated Cas9 is fused to a KRAB repression domain, can specifically and reversibly inhibit gene expression in iPSCs and iPSC-derived cardiac progenitors, cardiomyocytes, and T lymphocytes. This gene repression system is tunable and has the potential to silence single alleles. Compared with CRISPR nuclease (CRISPRn), CRISPRi gene repression is more efficient and homogenous across cell populations. The CRISPRi system in iPSCs provides a powerful platform to perform genome-scale screens in a wide range of iPSC-derived cell types, and to dissect developmental pathways and model disease. PMID:26971820

  14. Celastrol overcomes HSP72 gene silencing-mediated muscle atrophy and induces myofiber preservation.

    PubMed

    Gwag, T; Park, K; Park, J; Lee, J-H; Nikawa, T; Choi, I

    2015-04-01

    To elucidate a potential anabolic role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in myofiber preservation, we assessed the effect of HSP70 gene silencing versus its overexpression on skeletal muscle atrophy or rescue. HSP72 gene expression was silenced by pre-treatment with HSP72 siRNA in cultured rat L6 myotubes, and the pro-anabolic effect of HSPs was examined in the absence or presence of the HSP inducer celastrol (CEL). Compared to the negative control (NC), both nuclear accumulation and phosphorylation of heat shock transcription factor 1 remained high under the 6-h treatment of CEL. The HSP72 siRNA treatment significantly decreased HSP72 mRNA and protein expression and myotube diameter. CEL treatment, however, markedly increased the HSP72 expression and rendered the myotube size recovered to the NC level even in the siRNA-treated cells. Moreover, the HSP72 siRNA upregulated forkhead box O3 (FoxO3) expression in the nucleus while CEL increased p-FoxO3 exclusively in the cytoplasm, thus leaving the p-FoxO3/FoxO3 balanced to the NC level by siRNA + CEL treatment. The atrophic effect of HSP72 siRNA was consistent with the upregulation of atrogin-1 and proteasome activity but CEL treatment abrogated such effect by activation of Akt1, ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), irrespective of HSP72 silencing. These results suggest that CEL-mediated overexpression of HSP72 overcomes the atrophic effect of HSP72 gene silencing via both enhancement of FoxO3 phosphorylation and activation of Akt1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  15. Structure And Gene Silencing Activities of Monovalent And Pentavalent Cationic Lipid Vectors Complexed With Sirna

    SciTech Connect

    Bouxsein, N.F.; McAllister, C.S.; Ewert, K.K.; Samuel, C.E.; Safinya, C.R.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2007-07-03

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of 19-25 bp mediate the cleavage of complementary mRNA, leading to post-transcriptional gene silencing. We examined cationic lipid (CL)-mediated delivery of siRNA into mammalian cells and made comparisons to CL-based DNA delivery. The effect of lipid composition and headgroup charge on the biophysical and biological properties of CL-siRNA vectors was determined. X-ray diffraction revealed that CL-siRNA complexes exhibited lamellar and inverted hexagonal phases, qualitatively similar to CL-DNA complexes, but also formed other nonlamellar structures. Surprisingly, optimally formulated inverted hexagonal 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP)/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) CL-siRNA complexes exhibited high toxicity and much lower target-specific gene silencing than lamellar CL-siRNA complexes even though optimally formulated, inverted hexagonal CL-DNA complexes show high transfection efficiency in cell culture. We further found that efficient silencing required cationic lipid/nucleic acid molar charge ratios (chg) nearly an order of magnitude larger than those yielding efficiently transfecting CL-DNA complexes. This second unexpected finding has implications for cell toxicity. Multivalent lipids (MVLs) require a smaller number of cationic lipids at a given chg of the complex. Consistent with this observation, the pentavalent lipid MVL5 exhibited lower toxicity and superior silencing efficiency over a large range in both the lipid composition and chg when compared to monovalent DOTAP. Most importantly, MVL5 achieved much higher total knockdown of the target gene in CL-siRNA complex regimes where toxicity was low. This property of CL-siRNA complexes contrasts to CL-DNA complexes, where the optimized transfection efficiencies of multivalent and monovalent lipids are comparable.

  16. The effect of RAFT-derived cationic block copolymer structure on gene silencing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Tracey M; Guerrero-Sanchez, Carlos; Graham, Janease E; Le, Tam; Muir, Benjamin W; Shi, Shuning; Tizard, Mark L V; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; McLean, Keith M; Thang, San H

    2012-10-01

    In this work a series of ABA tri-block copolymers was prepared from oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA(475)) and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) to investigate the effect of polymer composition on cell viability, siRNA uptake, serum stability and gene silencing. Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization was used as the method of polymer synthesis as this technique allows the preparation of well-defined block copolymers with low polydispersity. Eight block copolymers were prepared by systematically varying the central cationic block (DMAEMA) length from 38 to 192 monomer units and the outer hydrophilic block (OEGMA(475)) from 7 to 69 units. The polymers were characterized using size exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR. Chinese Hamster Ovary-GFP and Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells were used to assay cell viability while the efficiency of block copolymers to complex with siRNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The ability of the polymer-siRNA complexes to enter into cells and to silence the targeted reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was measured by using a CHO-GFP silencing assay. The length of the central cationic block appears to be the key structural parameter that has a significant effect on cell viability and gene silencing efficiency with block lengths of 110-120 monomer units being the optimum. The ABA block copolymer architecture is also critical with the outer hydrophilic blocks contributing to serum stability and overall efficiency of the polymer as a delivery system.

  17. Rapid activation of the bivalent gene Sox21 requires displacement of multiple layers of gene-silencing machinery

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Harini; Ormsbee, Briana D.; Mallanna, Sunil K.; Rizzino, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The rapid formation of numerous tissues during development is highly dependent on the swift activation of key developmental regulators. Recent studies indicate that many key regulatory genes are repressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), yet poised for rapid activation due to the presence of both activating (H3K4 trimethylation) and repressive (H3K27 trimethylation) histone modifications (bivalent genes). However, little is known about bivalent gene regulation. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the bivalent gene Sox21, which is activated rapidly when ESCs differentiate in response to increases in Sox2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that prior to differentiation, the Sox21 gene is bound by a complex array of repressive and activating transcriptional machinery. Upon activation, all identified repressive machinery and histone modifications associated with the gene are lost, but the activating modifications and transcriptional machinery are retained. Notably, these changes do not occur when ESCs differentiate in response to retinoic acid. Moreover, ESCs lacking a functional PRC2 complex fail to activate this gene, apparently due to its association with other repressive complexes. Together, these findings suggest that bivalent genes, such as Sox21, are silenced by a complex set of redundant repressive machinery, which exit rapidly in response to appropriate differentiation signals.—Chakravarthy, H., Ormsbee, B. D., Mallanna, S. K., Rizzino, A. Rapid activation of the bivalent gene Sox21 requires displacement of multiple layers of gene-silencing machinery. PMID:20876214

  18. High capacity nanoporous silicon carrier for systemic delivery of gene silencing therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianliang; Xu, Rong; Mai, Junhua; Kim, Han-Cheon; Guo, Xiaojing; Qin, Guoting; Yang, Yong; Wolfram, Joy; Mu, Chaofeng; Xia, Xiaojun; Gu, Jianhua; Liu, Xuewu; Mao, Zong-Wan; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

    2013-11-26

    Gene silencing agents such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA offer the promise to modulate expression of almost every gene for the treatment of human diseases including cancer. However, lack of vehicles for effective systemic delivery to the disease organs has greatly limited their in vivo applications. In this study, we developed a high capacity polycation-functionalized nanoporous silicon (PCPS) platform comprised of nanoporous silicon microparticles functionalized with arginine-polyethyleneimine inside the nanopores for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. Incubation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with PCPS loaded with STAT3 siRNA (PCPS/STAT3) or GRP78 siRNA (PCPS/GRP78) resulted in 91 and 83% reduction of STAT3 and GRP78 gene expression in vitro. Treatment of cells with a microRNA-18a mimic in PCPS (PCPS/miR-18) knocked down 90% expression of the microRNA-18a target gene ATM. Systemic delivery of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA in murine model of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer enriched particles in tumor tissues and reduced STAT3 expression in cancer cells, causing significant reduction of cancer stem cells in the residual tumor tissue. At the therapeutic dosage, PCPS/STAT3 siRNA did not trigger acute immune response in FVB mice, including changes in serum cytokines, chemokines, and colony-stimulating factors. In addition, weekly dosing of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA for four weeks did not cause signs of subacute toxicity based on changes in body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, and major organ histology. Collectively, the results suggest that we have developed a safe vehicle for effective delivery of gene silencing agents.

  19. Gold Nanoparticle Approach to the Selective Delivery of Gene Silencing in Cancer—The Case for Combined Delivery?

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Rita; Fernandes, Alexandra R.; Baptista, Pedro V.

    2017-01-01

    Gene therapy arises as a great promise for cancer therapeutics due to its potential to silence genes involved in tumor development. In fact, there are some pivotal gene drivers that suffer critical alterations leading to cell transformation and ultimately to tumor growth. In this vein, gene silencing has been proposed as an active tool to selectively silence these molecular triggers of cancer, thus improving treatment. However, naked nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) sequences are reported to have a short lifetime in the body, promptly degraded by circulating enzymes, which in turn speed up elimination and decrease the therapeutic potential of these drugs. The use of nanoparticles for the effective delivery of these silencers to the specific target locations has allowed researchers to overcome this issue. Particularly, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been used as attractive vehicles for the target-specific delivery of gene-silencing moieties, alone or in combination with other drugs. We shall discuss current trends in AuNP-based delivery of gene-silencing tools, considering the promising road ahead without overlooking existing concerns for their translation to clinics. PMID:28257109

  20. The protein kinase TOUSLED is required for maintenance of transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Jun; Xia, Ran; Wang, Junguo; Shen, Jie; Cao, Rui; Hong, Xuhui; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2007-01-01

    TOUSLED-like kinases (TLKs) are highly conserved in plants and animals, but direct evidence linking TLKs and transcriptional gene silencing is lacking. We isolated two new alleles of TOUSLED (TSL). Mutations of TSL in ros1 reactivate the transcriptionally silent 35S-NPTII transgene and the transcriptionally silent endogenous loci TSI (TRANSCRIPTIONAL SILENCING INFORMATION). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis shows that histone H3Lys9 dimethylation is decreased in the reactivated transgene and endogenous TSI loci in the tsl ros1 mutant. However, there is no change in DNA methylation in the affected loci. Western blot and ChIP assay suggest that TSL might not be responsible for histone H3Ser10 phosphorylation. The tsl seedlings were more sensitive to DNA damage reagent methyl methanesulphonate and UV-B light. Our results provide direct evidence for a crucial role of the TOUSLED protein kinase in the maintenance of transcriptional gene silencing in some genomic regions in a DNA-methylation-independent manner in Arabidopsis. PMID:17110953

  1. The protein kinase TOUSLED is required for maintenance of transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Jun; Xia, Ran; Wang, Junguo; Shen, Jie; Cao, Rui; Hong, Xuhui; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2007-01-01

    TOUSLED-like kinases (TLKs) are highly conserved in plants and animals, but direct evidence linking TLKs and transcriptional gene silencing is lacking. We isolated two new alleles of TOUSLED (TSL). Mutations of TSL in ros1 reactivate the transcriptionally silent 35S-NPTII transgene and the transcriptionally silent endogenous loci TSI (TRANSCRIPTIONAL SILENCING INFORMATION). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis shows that histone H3Lys9 dimethylation is decreased in the reactivated transgene and endogenous TSI loci in the tsl ros1 mutant. However, there is no change in DNA methylation in the affected loci. Western blot and ChIP assay suggest that TSL might not be responsible for histone H3Ser10 phosphorylation. The tsl seedlings were more sensitive to DNA damage reagent methyl methanesulphonate and UV-B light. Our results provide direct evidence for a crucial role of the TOUSLED protein kinase in the maintenance of transcriptional gene silencing in some genomic regions in a DNA-methylation-independent manner in Arabidopsis.

  2. Splicing Factor Spf30 Assists Exosome-Mediated Gene Silencing in Fission Yeast▿

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Pascal; Drogat, Julie; Dheur, Sonia; Genier, Sylvie; Javerzat, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast relies on the processing of cognate noncoding RNAs by both the RNA interference and the exosome degradation pathways. Recent evidence indicates that splicing factors facilitate the cotranscriptional processing of centromeric transcripts into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In contrast, how the exosome contributes to heterochromatin assembly and whether it also relies upon splicing factors were unknown. We provide here evidence that fission yeast Spf30 is a splicing factor involved in the exosome pathway of heterochromatin silencing. Spf30 and Dis3, the main exosome RNase, colocalize at centromeric heterochromatin and euchromatic genes. At the centromeres, Dis3 helps recruiting Spf30, whose deficiency phenocopies the dis3-54 mutant: heterochromatin is impaired, as evidenced by reduced silencing and the accumulation of polyadenylated centromeric transcripts, but the production of siRNAs appears to be unaffected. Consistent with a direct role, Spf30 binds centromeric transcripts and locates at the centromeres in an RNA-dependent manner. We propose that Spf30, bound to nascent centromeric transcripts, perhaps with other splicing factors, assists their processing by the exosome. Splicing factor intercession may thus be a common feature of gene silencing pathways. PMID:20028739

  3. Cloning and Characterization of a Human Genomic Sequence that Alleviates Repeat-Induced Gene Silencing.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Miki; Ganmyo, Yuto; Miura, Osamu; Ohyama, Takashi; Shimizu, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Plasmids bearing a mammalian replication initiation region (IR) and a nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) are spontaneously amplified in transfected mammalian cells, and such amplification generates chromosomal homogeneously staining regions (HSRs) or extrachromosomal double minutes (DMs). This method provides a novel, efficient, and rapid way to establish cells that stably produce high levels of recombinant proteins. However, because IR/MAR plasmids are amplified as repeats, they are frequently targeted by repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS), which silences a variety of repeated sequences in transgenes and the genome. To address this problem, we developed a novel screening system using the IR/MAR plasmid to isolate human genome sequences that alleviate RIGS. The screen identified a 3,271 bp sequence (B-3-31) that elevated transgene expression without affecting the amplification process. Neither non-B structure (i.e., the inverted repeats or bending) nor known epigenetic modifier elements such as MARs, insulators, UCOEs, or STARs could explain the anti-silencing activity of B-3-31. Instead, the activity was distributed throughout the entire B-3-31 sequence, which was extremely A/T-rich and CpG-poor. Because B-3-31 effectively and reproducibly alleviated RIGS of repeated genes, it could be used to increase recombinant protein production.

  4. Cloning and Characterization of a Human Genomic Sequence that Alleviates Repeat-Induced Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Osamu; Ohyama, Takashi; Shimizu, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Plasmids bearing a mammalian replication initiation region (IR) and a nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) are spontaneously amplified in transfected mammalian cells, and such amplification generates chromosomal homogeneously staining regions (HSRs) or extrachromosomal double minutes (DMs). This method provides a novel, efficient, and rapid way to establish cells that stably produce high levels of recombinant proteins. However, because IR/MAR plasmids are amplified as repeats, they are frequently targeted by repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS), which silences a variety of repeated sequences in transgenes and the genome. To address this problem, we developed a novel screening system using the IR/MAR plasmid to isolate human genome sequences that alleviate RIGS. The screen identified a 3,271 bp sequence (B-3-31) that elevated transgene expression without affecting the amplification process. Neither non-B structure (i.e., the inverted repeats or bending) nor known epigenetic modifier elements such as MARs, insulators, UCOEs, or STARs could explain the anti-silencing activity of B-3-31. Instead, the activity was distributed throughout the entire B-3-31 sequence, which was extremely A/T-rich and CpG-poor. Because B-3-31 effectively and reproducibly alleviated RIGS of repeated genes, it could be used to increase recombinant protein production. PMID:27078685

  5. The C. elegans CSR-1 argonaute pathway counteracts epigenetic silencing to promote germline gene expression.

    PubMed

    Seth, Meetu; Shirayama, Masaki; Gu, Weifeng; Ishidate, Takao; Conte, Darryl; Mello, Craig C

    2013-12-23

    Organisms can develop adaptive sequence-specific immunity by reexpressing pathogen-specific small RNAs that guide gene silencing. For example, the C. elegans PIWI-Argonaute/piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway recruits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to foreign sequences to amplify a transgenerational small-RNA-induced epigenetic silencing signal (termed RNAe). Here, we provide evidence that, in addition to an adaptive memory of silenced sequences, C. elegans can also develop an opposing adaptive memory of expressed/self-mRNAs. We refer to this mechanism, which can prevent or reverse RNAe, as RNA-induced epigenetic gene activation (RNAa). We show that CSR-1, which engages RdRP-amplified small RNAs complementary to germline-expressed mRNAs, is required for RNAa. We show that a transgene with RNAa activity also exhibits accumulation of cognate CSR-1 small RNAs. Our findings suggest that C. elegans adaptively acquires and maintains a transgenerational CSR-1 memory that recognizes and protects self-mRNAs, allowing piRNAs to recognize foreign sequences innately, without the need for prior exposure

  6. Arabidopsis DNA polymerase ϵ recruits components of Polycomb repressor complex to mediate epigenetic gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    del Olmo, Iván; López, Juan A.; Vázquez, Jesús; Raynaud, Cécile; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis ESD7 locus encodes the catalytic subunit of the DNA Pol ϵ involved in the synthesis of the DNA leading strand and is essential for embryo viability. The hypomorphic allele esd7-1 is viable but displays a number of pleiotropic phenotypic alterations including an acceleration of flowering time. Furthermore, Pol ϵ is involved in the epigenetic silencing of the floral integrator genes FT and SOC1, but the molecular nature of the transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms involved remains elusive. Here we reveal that ESD7 interacts with components of the PRC2 such as CLF, EMF2 and MSI1, and that mutations in ESD7 cause a decrease in the levels of the H3K27me3 mark present in the chromatin of FT and SOC1. We also demonstrate that a domain of the C-terminal region of ESD7 mediates the binding to the different PRC2 components and this interaction is necessary for the proper recruitment of PRC2 to FT and SOC1 chromatin. We unveil the existence of interplay between the DNA replication machinery and the PcG complexes in epigenetic transcriptional silencing. These observations provide an insight into the mechanisms ensuring that the epigenetic code at pivotal loci in developmental control is faithfully transmitted to the progeny of eukaryotic cells. PMID:26980282

  7. Bottlenecks in Development of Retinal Therapeutic Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Jack M.; Yau, Edwin H.; Taggart, R. Thomas; Butler, Mark C.; Kolniak, Tiffany A.

    2011-01-01

    Development of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents for therapeutic purposes is an immense challenge in modern biology. Established technologies used to knockdown a specific target RNA and its cognate protein: antisense, ribozyme, RNAi, all conditionally depend upon an initial, critical annealing event of the PTGS ligand to a target RNA. In this review we address the nature of the bottlenecks, emphasizing the biocomplexity of target RNA structure, that currently limit PTGS therapeutic development. We briefly review existing and emerging technologies designed to release these constraints to realize the potential of PTGS agents in gene based therapies. PMID:17976683

  8. Patterning of Virus-Infected Glycine max Seed Coat Is Associated with Suppression of Endogenous Silencing of Chalcone Synthase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Senda, Mineo; Masuta, Chikara; Ohnishi, Shizen; Goto, Kazunori; Kasai, Atsushi; Sano, Teruo; Hong, Jin-Sung; MacFarlane, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    Most commercial Glycine max (soybean) varieties have yellow seeds because of loss of pigmentation in the seed coat. It has been suggested that inhibition of seed coat pigmentation in yellow G. max may be controlled by homology-dependent silencing of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. Our analysis of CHS mRNA and short-interfering RNAs provide clear evidence that the inhibition of seed coat pigmentation in yellow G. max results from posttranscriptional rather than transcriptional silencing of the CHS genes. Furthermore, we show that mottling symptoms present on the seed coat of G. max plants infected with some viruses can be caused by suppression of CHS posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by a viral silencing suppressor protein. These results demonstrate that naturally occurring PTGS plays a key role in expression of a distinctive phenotype in plants and present a simple clear example of the elucidation of the molecular mechanism for viral symptom induction. PMID:15037735

  9. Patterning of virus-infected Glycine max seed coat is associated with suppression of endogenous silencing of chalcone synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Senda, Mineo; Masuta, Chikara; Ohnishi, Shizen; Goto, Kazunori; Kasai, Atsushi; Sano, Teruo; Hong, Jin-Sung; MacFarlane, Stuart

    2004-04-01

    Most commercial Glycine max (soybean) varieties have yellow seeds because of loss of pigmentation in the seed coat. It has been suggested that inhibition of seed coat pigmentation in yellow G. max may be controlled by homology-dependent silencing of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. Our analysis of CHS mRNA and short-interfering RNAs provide clear evidence that the inhibition of seed coat pigmentation in yellow G. max results from posttranscriptional rather than transcriptional silencing of the CHS genes. Furthermore, we show that mottling symptoms present on the seed coat of G. max plants infected with some viruses can be caused by suppression of CHS posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by a viral silencing suppressor protein. These results demonstrate that naturally occurring PTGS plays a key role in expression of a distinctive phenotype in plants and present a simple clear example of the elucidation of the molecular mechanism for viral symptom induction.

  10. Polycomb silencing of the Drosophila 4E-BP gene regulates imaginal disc cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Suares, Heather; Tie, Feng; Yan, Christopher; Harte, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are best known for their role in maintaining stable, mitotically heritable silencing of the homeotic (HOX) genes during development. In addition to loss of homeotic gene silencing, some PcG mutants also have small imaginal discs. These include mutations in E(z), Su(z)12, esc and escl, which encode Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) subunits. The cause of this phenotype is not known, but the human homologs of PRC2 subunits have been shown to play a role in cell proliferation, are over-expressed in many tumors, and appear to be required for tumor proliferation. Here we show that the small imaginal disc phenotype arises, at least in part, from a cell growth defect. In homozygous E(z) mutants, imaginal disc cells are smaller than cells in normally proliferating discs. We show that the Thor gene, which encodes eIF4E-Binding Protein (4E-BP), the evolutionarily conserved inhibitor of cap-dependent translation and potent inhibitor of cell growth, is involved in the development of this phenotype. The Thor promoter region contains DNA binding motifs for transcription factors found in well-characterized Polycomb Response Elements (PREs), including PHO/PHOL, GAGA Factor, and others, suggesting that Thor may be a direct target of Polycomb silencing. We present chromatin immunoprecipitation evidence that PcG proteins are bound to the Thor 5’ region in vivo. The Thor gene is normally repressed in imaginal discs, but Thor mRNA and 4E-BP protein levels are elevated in imaginal discs of PRC2 subunit mutant larvae. Deletion of the Thor gene in E(z) mutants partially restores imaginal disc size toward wild-type and results in an increase in the fraction of larvae that pupariate. These results thus suggest that PcG proteins can directly modulate cell growth in Drosophila, in part by regulating Thor expression. PMID:23523430

  11. Silencing the livin gene enhances the cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs on colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Bo Young; Kim, Kwang Ho; Chung, Soon Sup

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Livin is associated with drug response in several cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silencing the livin gene expression on anticancer drug response in colorectal cancer. Methods siRNA was transfected at different concentrations (0, 10, and 30nM) into HCT116 cells, then cells were treated with either 5-fluorouracil (FU)/leucovorin (LV) or oxaliplatin (L-OHP)/5-FU/LV. Cellular viability and apoptosis were evaluated following silencing of livin gene expression combined with treatment with anticancer drugs. Results Livin gene expression was effectively suppressed by 30nM siRNA compared with control and 10nM siRNA. The 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that proliferation was effectively inhibited in cells treated with a combination of both siRNA and an anticancer drug, compared to cells treated with siRNA-Livin or anticancer drug alone. In particular, the combination of 30nM siRNA and L-OHP/5-FU/LV resulted in a 93.8% and 91.4% decrease, compared to untreated control or L-OHP/5-FU/LV alone, respectively. Cellular proliferation was most effectively suppressed by a combination of 30nM of siRNA and L-OHP/5-FU/LV compared to other combinations. Conclusion siRNA-mediated down-regulation of livin gene expression could significantly suppress colon cancer growth and enhance the cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs such as 5-FU and L-OHP. The results of this study suggest that silencing livin gene expression in combination with treatment with anticancer drugs might be a novel cancer therapy for colorectal cancer. PMID:27904848

  12. RNA-Mediated Silencing in Algae: Biological Roles and Tools for Analysis of Gene Function ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, Heriberto; Ma, Xinrong; Msanne, Joseph; Repas, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Algae are a large group of aquatic, typically photosynthetic, eukaryotes that include species from very diverse phylogenetic lineages, from those similar to land plants to those related to protist parasites. The recent sequencing of several algal genomes has provided insights into the great complexity of these organisms. Genomic information has also emphasized our lack of knowledge of the functions of many predicted genes, as well as the gene regulatory mechanisms in algae. Core components of the machinery for RNA-mediated silencing show widespread distribution among algal lineages, but they also seem to have been lost entirely from several species with relatively small nuclear genomes. Complex sets of endogenous small RNAs, including candidate microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, have now been identified by high-throughput sequencing in green, red, and brown algae. However, the natural roles of RNA-mediated silencing in algal biology remain poorly understood. Limited evidence suggests that small RNAs may function, in different algae, in defense mechanisms against transposon mobilization, in responses to nutrient deprivation and, possibly, in the regulation of recently evolved developmental processes. From a practical perspective, RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming a promising tool for assessing gene function by sequence-specific knockdown. Transient gene silencing, triggered with exogenously synthesized nucleic acids, and/or stable gene repression, involving genome-integrated transgenes, have been achieved in green algae, diatoms, yellow-green algae, and euglenoids. The development of RNAi technology in conjunction with system level “omics” approaches may provide the tools needed to advance our understanding of algal physiological and metabolic processes. PMID:21803865

  13. Silencing of a germin-like gene in Nicotiana attenuata improves performance of native herbivores.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yonggen; Baldwin, Ian T

    2006-03-01

    Germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) are known to function in pathogen resistance, but their involvement in defense against insect herbivores is poorly understood. In the native tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, attack from the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta or elicitation by adding larval oral secretions (OS) to wounds up-regulates transcripts of a GLP. To understand the function of this gene, which occurs as a single copy, we cloned the full-length NaGLP and silenced its expression in N. attenuata by expressing a 250-bp fragment in an antisense orientation with an Agrobacterium-based transformation system and by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Homozygous lines harboring a single insert and VIGS plants had significantly reduced constitutive (measured in roots) and elicited NaGLP transcript levels (in leaves). Silencing NaGLP improved M. sexta larval performance and Tupiocoris notatus preference, two native herbivores of N. attenuata. Silencing NaGLP also attenuated the OS-induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), diterpene glycosides, and trypsin proteinase inhibitor responses, which may explain the observed susceptibility of antisense or VIGS plants to herbivore attack and increased nicotine contents, but did not influence the OS-elicited jasmonate and salicylate bursts, or the release of the volatile organic compounds (limonene, cis-alpha-bergamotene, and germacrene-A) that function as an indirect defense. This suggests that NaGLP is involved in H(2)O(2) production and might also be related to ethylene production and/or perception, which in turn influences the defense responses of N. attenuata via H(2)O(2) and ethylene-signaling pathways.

  14. siRNA mediated gene silencing in Fusarium sp. HKF15 for overproduction of bikaverin.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Radhika; Purohit, Hemant J

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium sp. HKF15 is an isolate from effluent treatment plant which produces bikaverin. Bikaverin is a polyketide having antitumor and antibiotic potential. Acetyl coenzyme A is a common precursor for bikaverin as well as carotenoids and gibberellins. A polyketide synthase gene bik1 is responsible for bikaverin production whereas, hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (hmgR) and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (fpps) are carotenoid and gibberellin pathway genes. Aim of this study was assessing siRNA mediated gene silencing for bikaverin overproduction with down-regulation of carotenoid and gibberellin pathway. HKF15 protoplasts derived from glucose grown culture were treated with 200pmolml(-1)hmgR and fpps siRNAs separately. Along with down-regulation of target genes, there was 2.4-fold increase in bik1 gene expression. The silencing was effective till 48h with a 41% increase in bikaverin production. The study proposes a strategy for manipulation of physiology towards desired secondary metabolite overproduction.

  15. Silencing of the ACC synthase gene ACACS2 causes delayed flowering in pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.].

    PubMed

    Trusov, Yuri; Botella, José Ramón

    2006-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial developmental stage in the plant life cycle. A number of different factors, from environmental to chemical, can trigger flowering. In pineapple, and other bromeliads, it has been proposed that flowering is triggered by a small burst of ethylene production in the meristem in response to environmental cues. A 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase) gene has been cloned from pineapple (ACACS2), which is induced in the meristem under the same environmental conditions that induce flowering. Two transgenic pineapple lines have been produced containing co-suppression constructs designed to down-regulate the expression of the ACACS2 gene. Northern analysis revealed that the ACACS2 gene was silenced in a number of transgenic plants in both lines. Southern hybridization revealed clear differences in the methylation status of silenced versus non-silenced plants by the inability of a methylation-sensitive enzyme to digest within the ACACS2 DNA extracted from silenced plants, indicating that methylation is the cause of the observed co-suppression of the ACACS2 gene. Flowering characteristics of the transgenic plants were studied under field conditions in South East Queensland, Australia. Flowering dynamics studies revealed significant differences in flowering behaviour, with transgenic plants exhibiting silencing showing a marked delay in flowering when compared with non-silenced transgenic plants and control non-transformed plants. It is argued that the ACACS2 gene is one of the key contributors towards triggering 'natural flowering' in mature pineapples under commercial field conditions.

  16. Efficient Gene Silencing Mediated by Tobacco Rattle Virus in an Emerging Model Plant Physalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaohua; He, Chaoying

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis has a berry and a novelty called inflated calyx syndrome (ICS, also named the ‘Chinese lantern’). Elucidation of the underlying developmental mechanisms of fruit diversity demands an efficient gene functional inference platform. Here, we tested the application of the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated gene-silencing system in Physalis floridana. First, we characterized the putative gene of a phytoene desaturase in P. floridana (PfPDS). Infecting the leaves of the Physalis seedlings with the PfPDS-TRV vector resulted in a bleached plant, including the developing leaves, floral organs, ICS, berry, and seed. These results indicated that a local VIGS treatment can efficiently induce a systemic mutated phenotype. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that the bleaching extent correlated to the mRNA reduction of the endogenous PfPDS. Detailed comparisons of multiple infiltration and growth protocols allowed us to determine the optimal methodologies for VIGS manipulation in Physalis. We subsequently utilized this optimized VIGS methodology to downregulate the expression of two MADS-box genes, MPF2 and MPF3, and compared the resulting effects with gene-downregulation mediated by RNA interference (RNAi) methods. The VIGS-mediated gene knockdown plants were found to resemble the mutated phenotypes of floral calyx, fruiting calyx and pollen maturation of the RNAi transgenic plants for both MPF2 and MPF3. Moreover, the two MADS-box genes were appeared to have a novel role in the pedicel development in P. floridana. The major advantage of VIGS-based gene knockdown lies in practical aspects of saving time and easy manipulation as compared to the RNAi. Despite the lack of heritability and mosaic mutation phenotypes observed in some organs, the TRV-mediated gene silencing system provides an alternative efficient way to infer gene function in various developmental processes in Physalis, thus facilitating understanding of the genetic basis of the evolution and

  17. Efficient gene silencing mediated by tobacco rattle virus in an emerging model plant physalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Si; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shaohua; He, Chaoying

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis has a berry and a novelty called inflated calyx syndrome (ICS, also named the 'Chinese lantern'). Elucidation of the underlying developmental mechanisms of fruit diversity demands an efficient gene functional inference platform. Here, we tested the application of the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated gene-silencing system in Physalis floridana. First, we characterized the putative gene of a phytoene desaturase in P. floridana (PfPDS). Infecting the leaves of the Physalis seedlings with the PfPDS-TRV vector resulted in a bleached plant, including the developing leaves, floral organs, ICS, berry, and seed. These results indicated that a local VIGS treatment can efficiently induce a systemic mutated phenotype. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that the bleaching extent correlated to the mRNA reduction of the endogenous PfPDS. Detailed comparisons of multiple infiltration and growth protocols allowed us to determine the optimal methodologies for VIGS manipulation in Physalis. We subsequently utilized this optimized VIGS methodology to downregulate the expression of two MADS-box genes, MPF2 and MPF3, and compared the resulting effects with gene-downregulation mediated by RNA interference (RNAi) methods. The VIGS-mediated gene knockdown plants were found to resemble the mutated phenotypes of floral calyx, fruiting calyx and pollen maturation of the RNAi transgenic plants for both MPF2 and MPF3. Moreover, the two MADS-box genes were appeared to have a novel role in the pedicel development in P. floridana. The major advantage of VIGS-based gene knockdown lies in practical aspects of saving time and easy manipulation as compared to the RNAi. Despite the lack of heritability and mosaic mutation phenotypes observed in some organs, the TRV-mediated gene silencing system provides an alternative efficient way to infer gene function in various developmental processes in Physalis, thus facilitating understanding of the genetic basis of the evolution and development

  18. Gene Targets in Prostate Tumor Cells that Mediate Aberrant Growth and Invasiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Craig A. Hauser , Ph.D. Gabriele Foos, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Burnham Institute La Jolla, California 92037 REPORT DATE: February 2005 TYPE...NUMBERS Gene Targets in Prostate Tumor Cells that Mediate DAMD17-02-1-0019 Aberrant Growth and Invasiveness 6. AUTHOR(S) Craig A. Hauser , Ph.D. Gabriele...REPORTABLE OUTCOMES Foos G, Hauser CA (2004) The role of Ets transcription factors in mediating cellular transformation. In: Handbook of Experimental

  19. Aberrant DNA methylation impacts gene expression and prognosis in breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Győrffy, Balázs; Bottai, Giulia; Fleischer, Thomas; Munkácsy, Gyöngyi; Budczies, Jan; Paladini, Laura; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N; Santarpia, Libero

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation has a substantial impact on gene expression, affecting the prognosis of breast cancer (BC) patients dependent on molecular subtypes. In this study, we investigated the prognostic relevance of the expression of genes reported as aberrantly methylated, and the link between gene expression and DNA methylation in BC subtypes. The prognostic value of the expression of 144 aberrantly methylated genes was evaluated in ER+/HER2-, HER2+, and ER-/HER2- molecular BC subtypes, in a meta-analysis of two large transcriptomic cohorts of BC patients (n = 1,938 and n = 1,640). The correlation between gene expression and DNA methylation in distinct gene regions was also investigated in an independent dataset of 104 BCs. Survival and Pearson correlation analyses were computed for each gene separately. The expression of 48 genes was significantly associated with BC prognosis (p < 0.05), and 32 of these prognostic genes exhibited a direct expression-methylation correlation. The expression of several immune-related genes, including CD3D and HLA-A, was associated with both relapse-free survival (HR = 0.42, p = 3.5E-06; HR = 0.35, p = 1.7E-08) and overall survival (HR = 0.50, p = 5.5E-04; HR = 0.68, p = 4.5E-02) in ER-/HER2- BCs. On the overall, the distribution of both positive and negative expression-methylation correlation in distinct gene regions have different effects on gene expression and prognosis in BC subtypes. This large-scale meta-analysis allowed the identification of several genes consistently associated with prognosis, whose DNA methylation could represent a promising biomarker for prognostication and clinical stratification of patients with distinct BC subtypes.

  20. Artificial MicroRNA-Based Specific Gene Silencing of Grain Hardness Genes in Polyploid Cereals Appeared to Be Not Stable Over Transgenic Plant Generations

    PubMed Central

    Gasparis, Sebastian; Kała, Maciej; Przyborowski, Mateusz; Orczyk, Waclaw; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Gene silencing by RNA interference is a particularly important tool in the study of gene function in polyploid cereal species for which the collections of natural or induced mutants are very limited. Previously we have been testing small interfering RNA-based approach of gene silencing in wheat and triticale. In this research, artificial microRNAs (amiRs) were studied in the same species and the same target genes to compare effectiveness of both gene silencing pathways. amiR cassettes were designed to silence Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) hardness genes in wheat and their orthologues Secaloindoline a (Sina) and Secaloindoline b (Sinb) genes in triticale. Each of the two cassettes contained 21 nt microRNA (miR) precursor derived from conserved regions of Pina/Sina or Pinb/Sinb genes, respectively. Transgenic plants were obtained with high efficiency in two cultivars of wheat and one cultivar of triticale after using the Pinb-derived amiR vector for silencing of Pinb or Sinb, respectively. Lack of transgenic plants in wheat or very low transformation efficiency in triticale was observed using the Pina-derived amiR cassette, despite large numbers of embryos attempted. Silencing of Pinb in wheat and Sinb in triticale was highly efficient in the T1 generation. The transcript level of Pinb in wheat was reduced up to 92% and Sinb in triticale was reduced up to 98%. Moreover, intended silencing of Pinb/Sinb with Pinb-derived amiR cassette was highly correlated with simultaneous silencing of Pina/Sina in the same transgenic plants. High downregulation of Pinb/Pina genes in T1 plants of wheat and Sinb/Sina genes in T1 plants of triticale was associated with strong expression of Pinb-derived amiR. Silencing of the target genes correlated with increased grain hardness in both species. Total protein content in the grains of transgenic wheat was significantly lower. Although, the Pinb-derived amiR cassette was stably inherited in the T2 generation of wheat and

  1. Silencing of grapevine pectate lyase-like genes VvPLL2 and VvPLL3 confers resistance against Erysiphe necator and differentially modulates gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broad-spectrum resistance against powdery mildew (PM) has been reported by silencing susceptibility genes in the model plant Arabidopsis. Here we used artificial microRNA constructs in PM-susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay to stably silence two pectate lyase-like orthologs (VvPLL2 and VvPLL3)...

  2. Effect of base modifications on structure, thermodynamic stability, and gene silencing activity of short interfering RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sipa, Katarzyna; Sochacka, Elzbieta; Kazmierczak-Baranska, Julia; Maszewska, Maria; Janicka, Magdalena; Nowak, Genowefa; Nawrot, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    A series of nucleobase-modified siRNA duplexes containing “rare” nucleosides, 2-thiouridine (s2U), pseudouridine (Ψ), and dihydrouridine (D), were evaluated for their thermodynamic stability and gene silencing activity. The duplexes with modified units at terminal positions exhibited similar stability as the nonmodified reference. Introduction of the s2U or Ψ units into the central part of the antisense strand resulted in duplexes with higher melting temperatures (Tm). In contrary, D unit similarly like wobble base pair led to the less stable duplexes (ΔTm 3.9 and 6.6°C, respectively). Gene-silencing activity of siRNA duplexes directed toward enhanced green fluorescent protein or beta-site APP cleaving enzyme was tested in a dual fluorescence assay. The duplexes with s2U and Ψ units at their 3′-ends and with a D unit at their 5′-ends (with respect to the guide strands) were the most potent gene expression inhibitors. Duplexes with s2U and Ψ units at their 5′-ends were by 50% less active than the nonmodified counterpart. Those containing a D unit or wobble base pair in the central domain had the lowest Tm, disturbed the A-type helical structure, and had more than three times lower activity than their nonmodified congener. Activity of siRNA containing the wobble base pair could be rescued by placing the thio-nucleoside at the position 3′-adjacent to the mutation site. Thermally stable siRNA molecules containing several s2U units in the antisense strand were biologically as potent as their native counterparts. The present results provide a new chemical tool for modulation of siRNA gene-silencing activity. PMID:17585051

  3. B29 Gene Silencing in Pituitary Cells is Regulated by Its 3′ Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Cindy S.; Kuraishy, Ali I.; Fike, Francesca M.; Loya, Ruchika G.; Mikkili, Minil R.; Teitell, Michael A.; Wall, Randolph

    2007-01-01

    Summary B cell-specific B29 (Igβ, CD79b) genes in rat, mouse, and human are situated between the 5′ growth hormone (GH) locus control region (LCR) and the 3′ GH gene cluster. The entire GH genomic region is DNase1 hypersensitive in GH-expressing pituitary cells, which predicts an “open” chromatin configuration, and yet B29 is not expressed. The B29 promoter and enhancers exhibit histone deacetylation in pituitary cells, but histone deacetylase inhibition failed to activate B29 expression. The B29 promoter and a 3′ enhancer showed local dense DNA methylation in both pituitary and non-lymphoid cells consistent with gene silencing. However, DNA methyltransferase inhibition did not activate B29 expression either. B29 promoter constructs were minimally activated in transfected pituitary cells. Co-transfection of the B cell-specific octamer transcriptional co-activator Bob1 with the B29 promoter construct resulted in high level promoter activity in pituitary cells comparable to B29 promoter activity in transfected B cells. Unexpectedly, inclusion of the B29 3′ enhancer in B29 promoter constructs strongly inhibited B29 transcriptional activity even when pituitary cells were co-transfected with Bob1. Both Oct-1 and Pit-1 bind the B29 3′ enhancer in in vitro EMSA and in in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. These data indicate that the GH locus-embedded, tissue-specific B29 gene is silenced in GH-expressing pituitary cells by epigenetic mechanisms, the lack of a B cell-specific transcription factor, and likely by the B29 3′ enhancer acting as a powerful silencer in a context and tissue-specific manner. PMID:16920149

  4. Involvement of an intracellular vesicular transport process in naked-sgRNA-mediated TRUE gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masato; Kawano, Mitsuoki; Sato, Mari; Nashimoto, Masayuki

    2015-10-01

    tRNase ZL-utilizing efficacious gene silencing (TRUE gene silencing) is an RNA-mediated gene expression control technology with therapeutic potential. Recently, our group demonstrated that a heptamer, mh1 (Bcl‑2), targeting human Bcl-2 mRNA, can be taken up by cells without the use of any transfection reagents and can induce the apoptosis of leukemia cells. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of naked small guide (sg)RNA uptake by cultured cells. Therefore, in the present study the effects of various inhibitors on the induction of apoptosis by naked sgRNA treatment were investigated in order to identify the uptake pathway required for sgRNA function in cultured cells. Addition of the endocytosis inhibitors chlorpromazine, nystatin or methyl‑β‑cyclodextrin together with naked effective sgRNA was unable to diminish the apoptosis‑inducing effects of naked sgRNA or the reduction in target mRNA, suggesting that functional uptake of sgRNA by cells is clathrin‑, caveolae‑ and raft‑independent. Next, chloroquine, an inhibitor of lysosome acidification, and brefeldin A, an inhibitor that blocks protein transport from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum were administered. In the presence of these compounds, the apoptosis‑inducing effects of naked sgRNA were reduced. These results suggest that a vesicular transport process is involved in sgRNA‑mediated TRUE gene silencing. A greater understanding of how naked sgRNAs enter cells and how they reach their target RNAs may aid in the design of more specifically‑targeted and potent sgRNA drugs.

  5. Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS) in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa) were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium). Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable. PMID:20626919

  6. Key enzymes and proteins of crop insects as candidate for RNAi based gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Kola, Vijaya Sudhakara Rao; Renuka, P.; Madhav, Maganti Sheshu; Mangrauthia, Satendra K.

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of homology dependent gene silencing present in plants and animals. It operates through 21–24 nucleotides small RNAs which are processed through a set of core enzymatic machinery that involves Dicer and Argonaute proteins. In recent past, the technology has been well appreciated toward the control of plant pathogens and insects through suppression of key genes/proteins of infecting organisms. The genes encoding key enzymes/proteins with the great potential for developing an effective insect control by RNAi approach are actylcholinesterase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, amino peptidase N, allatostatin, allatotropin, tryptophan oxygenase, arginine kinase, vacuolar ATPase, chitin synthase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, trehalose phosphate synthase, vitellogenin, hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and hormone receptor genes. Through various studies, it is demonstrated that RNAi is a reliable molecular tool which offers great promises in meeting the challenges imposed by crop insects with careful selection of key enzymes/proteins. Utilization of RNAi tool to target some of these key proteins of crop insects through various approaches is described here. The major challenges of RNAi based insect control such as identifying potential targets, delivery methods of silencing trigger, off target effects, and complexity of insect biology are very well illustrated. Further, required efforts to address these challenges are also discussed. PMID:25954206

  7. Strong host resistance targeted against a viral suppressor of the plant gene silencing defence mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Li, H W; Lucy, A P; Guo, H S; Li, W X; Ji, L H; Wong, S M; Ding, S W

    1999-01-01

    The 2b protein encoded by cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (Cmv2b) acts as an important virulence determinant by suppressing post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a natural plant defence mechanism against viruses. We report here that the tomato aspermy cucumovirus 2b protein (Tav2b), when expressed from the unrelated tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) RNA genome, activates strong host resistance responses to TMV in tobacco which are typical of the gene-for-gene disease resistance mechanism. Domain swapping between Cmv2b, which does not elicit these responses, and Tav2b, revealed functional domains in Tav2b critical for triggering virus resistance and hypersensitive cell death. Furthermore, substitution of two amino acids from Tav2b by those found at the same positions in Cmv2b, Lys21-->Val and Arg28-->Ser, abolished the ability to induce hypersensitive cell death and virus resistance. However, in Nicotiana benthamiana, a species related to tobacco, Tav2b functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses PTGS. Thus, a viral suppressor of the host gene silencing defence mechanism is the target of another independent host resistance mechanism. Our results provide new insights into the complex molecular strategies employed by viruses and their hosts for defence, counter-defence and counter counter-defence. PMID:10329615

  8. In Vitro Gene Silencing of the Fish Microsporidian Heterosporis saurida by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem; Dkhil, Mohamed A.; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Heterosporis saurida, a microsporidian parasite of lizardfish, Saurida undosquamis, causes severe economic losses in marine aquaculture. Among the novel approaches being explored for treatment of parasitic infections in aquaculture is small interfering RNA molecules. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of using siRNA to knock down expression of specific genes of H. saurida in vitro. For this purpose, siRNAs specific for ATP/ADP antiporter 1 and methionine aminopeptidase II genes were designed and tested using a previously developed in vitro cultivation model. Silencing of H. saurida target genes was assessed and the efficacy of using siRNA for inhibition of gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Silencing of ATP/ADP antiporter 1 or methionine aminopeptidase II by siRNA reduced H. saurida infection levels in EK-1 cells 40% and 60%, respectively, as measured by qRT-PCR and spore counts. Combined siRNA treatment of both ATP/ADP antiporter 1 and methionine aminopeptidase II siRNAs was more effective against H. saurida infection as seen by the 16S rRNA level and spore counts. Our study concluded that siRNA could be used to advance development of novel approaches to inhibit H. saurida and provide an alternative approach to combat microsporidia. PMID:27228357

  9. Key enzymes and proteins of crop insects as candidate for RNAi based gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Kola, Vijaya Sudhakara Rao; Renuka, P; Madhav, Maganti Sheshu; Mangrauthia, Satendra K

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of homology dependent gene silencing present in plants and animals. It operates through 21-24 nucleotides small RNAs which are processed through a set of core enzymatic machinery that involves Dicer and Argonaute proteins. In recent past, the technology has been well appreciated toward the control of plant pathogens and insects through suppression of key genes/proteins of infecting organisms. The genes encoding key enzymes/proteins with the great potential for developing an effective insect control by RNAi approach are actylcholinesterase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, amino peptidase N, allatostatin, allatotropin, tryptophan oxygenase, arginine kinase, vacuolar ATPase, chitin synthase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, trehalose phosphate synthase, vitellogenin, hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and hormone receptor genes. Through various studies, it is demonstrated that RNAi is a reliable molecular tool which offers great promises in meeting the challenges imposed by crop insects with careful selection of key enzymes/proteins. Utilization of RNAi tool to target some of these key proteins of crop insects through various approaches is described here. The major challenges of RNAi based insect control such as identifying potential targets, delivery methods of silencing trigger, off target effects, and complexity of insect biology are very well illustrated. Further, required efforts to address these challenges are also discussed.

  10. Effect of the guide strand 3'-end structure on the gene-silencing potency of asymmetric siRNA.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun Woo; Park, June Hyun; Yun, Soyeong; Lee, Chang Han; Shin, Chanseok; Lee, Dong-ki

    2014-08-01

    siRNAs are short dsRNAs that mediate efficient target gene silencing in a sequence-specific manner. We previously developed a novel siRNA structure, called asiRNA (asymmetric siRNA), which alleviates the off-target effects associated with conventional siRNA structures without decreasing target gene silencing potency. In the present study, we explored the effect of the guide strand 3'-end structure on the gene silencing potency of asiRNA. Interestingly, asiRNAs with a 21 nt guide strand solely composed of RNA resulted in gene silencing that was more than 6-fold more efficient compared with the corresponding asiRNA guide strand harbouring a dTdT (deoxythymidine dinucleotide) at its 3'-end. We demonstrated that the molecular basis of potency of the asiRNA with a 21 nt guide strand composed solely of RNA was due to the enhanced formation of the RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) and increased affinity towards hAgo2 (human Argonaute2). Our observations may assist researchers in designing new asiRNAs with high on-target silencing efficiency with low off-target effects, which is critical for applications in both basic research and therapeutic development.

  11. Tissue-specific gene silencing mediated by a naturally occurring chalcone synthase gene cluster in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Jigyasa H; Clough, Steven J; Chan, Wan-Ching; Vodkin, Lila O

    2004-04-01

    Chalcone synthase, a key regulatory enzyme in the flavonoid pathway, constitutes an eight-member gene family in Glycine max (soybean). Three of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene family members are arranged as inverted repeats in a 10-kb region, corresponding to the I locus (inhibitor). Spontaneous mutations of a dominant allele (I or i(i)) to a recessive allele (i) have been shown to delete promoter sequences, paradoxically increasing total CHS transcript levels and resulting in black seed coats. However, it is not known which of the gene family members contribute toward pigmentation and how this locus affects CHS expression in other tissues. We investigated the unusual nature of the I locus using four pairs of isogenic lines differing with respect to alleles of the I locus. RNA gel blots using a generic open reading frame CHS probe detected similar CHS transcript levels in stems, roots, leaves, young pods, and cotyledons of the yellow and black isolines but not in the seed coats, which is consistent with the dominant I and i(i) alleles mediating CHS gene silencing in a tissue-specific manner. Using real-time RT-PCR, a variable pattern of expression of CHS genes in different tissues was demonstrated. However, increase in pigmentation in the black seed coats was associated with release of the silencing effect specifically on CHS7/CHS8, which occurred at all stages of seed coat development. These expression changes were linked to structural changes taking place at the I locus, shown to encompass a much wider region of at least 27 kb, comprising two identical 10.91-kb stretches of CHS gene duplications. The suppressive effect of this 27-kb I locus in a specific tissue of the G. max plant represents a unique endogenous gene silencing mechanism.

  12. Tissue-Specific Gene Silencing Mediated by a Naturally Occurring Chalcone Synthase Gene Cluster in Glycine maxW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Tuteja, Jigyasa H.; Clough, Steven J.; Chan, Wan-Ching; Vodkin, Lila O.

    2004-01-01

    Chalcone synthase, a key regulatory enzyme in the flavonoid pathway, constitutes an eight-member gene family in Glycine max (soybean). Three of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene family members are arranged as inverted repeats in a 10-kb region, corresponding to the I locus (inhibitor). Spontaneous mutations of a dominant allele (I or ii) to a recessive allele (i) have been shown to delete promoter sequences, paradoxically increasing total CHS transcript levels and resulting in black seed coats. However, it is not known which of the gene family members contribute toward pigmentation and how this locus affects CHS expression in other tissues. We investigated the unusual nature of the I locus using four pairs of isogenic lines differing with respect to alleles of the I locus. RNA gel blots using a generic open reading frame CHS probe detected similar CHS transcript levels in stems, roots, leaves, young pods, and cotyledons of the yellow and black isolines but not in the seed coats, which is consistent with the dominant I and ii alleles mediating CHS gene silencing in a tissue-specific manner. Using real-time RT-PCR, a variable pattern of expression of CHS genes in different tissues was demonstrated. However, increase in pigmentation in the black seed coats was associated with release of the silencing effect specifically on CHS7/CHS8, which occurred at all stages of seed coat development. These expression changes were linked to structural changes taking place at the I locus, shown to encompass a much wider region of at least 27 kb, comprising two identical 10.91-kb stretches of CHS gene duplications. The suppressive effect of this 27-kb I locus in a specific tissue of the G. max plant represents a unique endogenous gene silencing mechanism. PMID:15064367

  13. Mechanism of Action of 2-Aminobenzamide HDAC Inhibitors in Reversing Gene Silencing in Friedreich's Ataxia.

    PubMed

    Soragni, Elisabetta; Chou, C James; Rusche, James R; Gottesfeld, Joel M

    2015-01-01

    The genetic defect in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the hyperexpansion of a GAA•TTC triplet in the first intron of the FXN gene, encoding the essential mitochondrial protein frataxin. Histone post-translational modifications near the expanded repeats are consistent with heterochromatin formation and consequent FXN gene silencing. Using a newly developed human neuronal cell model, derived from patient-induced pluripotent stem cells, we find that 2-aminobenzamide histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase FXN mRNA levels and frataxin protein in FRDA neuronal cells. However, only compounds targeting the class I HDACs 1 and 3 are active in increasing FXN mRNA in these cells. Structural analogs of the active HDAC inhibitors that selectively target either HDAC1 or HDAC3 do not show similar increases in FXN mRNA levels. To understand the mechanism of action of these compounds, we probed the kinetic properties of the active and inactive inhibitors, and found that only compounds that target HDACs 1 and 3 exhibited a slow-on/slow-off mechanism of action for the HDAC enzymes. HDAC1- and HDAC3-selective compounds did not show this activity. Using siRNA methods in the FRDA neuronal cells, we show increases in FXN mRNA upon silencing of either HDACs 1 or 3, suggesting the possibility that inhibition of each of these class I HDACs is necessary for activation of FXN mRNA synthesis, as there appears to be redundancy in the silencing mechanism caused by the GAA•TTC repeats. Moreover, inhibitors must have a long residence time on their target enzymes for this activity. By interrogating microarray data from neuronal cells treated with inhibitors of different specificity, we selected two genes encoding histone macroH2A (H2AFY2) and Polycomb group ring finger 2 (PCGF2) that were specifically down-regulated by the inhibitors targeting HDACs1 and 3 versus the more selective inhibitors for further investigation. Both genes are involved in transcriptional repression and we speculate

  14. Genome-wide unmasking of epigenetically silenced genes in lung adenocarcinoma from smokers and never smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yingling, Christin M.; Liu, Yushi; Tellez, Carmen S.; Van Neste, Leander; Baylin, Stephen S.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers (NS) shows striking demographic, clinicopathological and molecular distinctions from the disease in smokers (S). Studies on selected genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung cancer identified that the frequency and profile of some abnormalities significantly differ by smoking status. This study compared the transcriptome of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from S (n = 3) and NS (n = 3) each treated with vehicle (control), histone deacetylation inhibitor (trichostatin A) or DNA methylation inhibitor (5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine). Among 122 genes reexpressed following 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine but not trichostatin A treatment in two or more cell lines (including 32 genes in S-only and 12 NS-only), methylation was validated for 80% (98/122 genes). After methylation analysis of 20 normal tissue samples and 14 additional non–small cell lung cancer cell lines (total 20), 39 genes frequently methylated in normal (>20%, 4/20) and 21 genes rarely methylated in non–small cell lung cancer (≤10%, 2/20) were excluded. The prevalence for methylation of the remaining 38 genes in lung adenocarcinomas from S (n = 97) and NS (n = 75) ranged from 8–89% and significantly differs between S and NS for CPEB1, CST6, EMILIN2, LAYN and MARVELD3 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, methylation of EMILIN2, ROBO3 and IGDCC4 was more prevalent in advanced (Stage II–IV, n = 61) than early (Stage I, n = 110) tumors. Knockdown of MARVELD3, one of the novel epigenetically silenced genes, by small interfering RNA significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth of lung cancer cells (P < 0.001). Collectively, this study has identified multiple, novel, epigenetically silenced genes in lung cancer and provides invaluable resources for the development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:24398667

  15. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae suppressor of choline sensitivity (SCS2) gene is a multicopy Suppressor of mec1 telomeric silencing defects.

    PubMed Central

    Craven, R J; Petes, T D

    2001-01-01

    Mec1p is a cell cycle checkpoint protein related to the ATM protein kinase family. Certain mec1 mutations or overexpression of Mec1p lead to shortened telomeres and loss of telomeric silencing. We conducted a multicopy suppressor screen for genes that suppress the loss of silencing in strains overexpressing Mec1p. We identified SCS2 (suppressor of choline sensitivity), a gene previously isolated as a suppressor of defects in inositol synthesis. Deletion of SCS2 resulted in decreased telomeric silencing, and the scs2 mutation increased the rate of cellular senescence observed for mec1-21 tel1 double mutant cells. Genetic analysis revealed that Scs2p probably acts through a different telomeric silencing pathway from that affected by Mec1p. PMID:11333225

  16. Identification of aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation in primordial germ cells between E13 and E16 rat F3 generation vinclozolin lineage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Transgenerational epigenetics (TGE) are currently considered important in disease, but the mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. TGE abnormalities expected to cause disease are likely to be initiated during development and to be mediated by aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation that is heritable between generations. However, because methylation is removed and then re-established during development, it is not easy to identify promoter methylation abnormalities by comparing normal lineages with those expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities. Methods This study applied the recently proposed principal component analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction to previously reported and publically available gene expression/promoter methylation profiles of rat primordial germ cells, between E13 and E16 of the F3 generation vinclozolin lineage that are expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities, to identify multiple genes that exhibited aberrant gene expression/promoter methylation during development. Results The biological feasibility of the identified genes were tested via enrichment analyses of various biological concepts including pathway analysis, gene ontology terms and protein-protein interactions. All validations suggested superiority of the proposed method over three conventional and popular supervised methods that employed t test, limma and significance analysis of microarrays, respectively. The identified genes were globally related to tumors, the prostate, kidney, testis and the immune system and were previously reported to be related to various diseases caused by TGE. Conclusions Among the genes reported by PCA-based unsupervised feature extraction, we propose that chemokine signaling pathways and leucine rich repeat proteins are key factors that initiate transgenerational epigenetic-mediated diseases, because multiple genes included in these two categories were identified in this study. PMID:26677731

  17. Highly efficient gene silencing using perfect complementary artificial miRNA targeting AP1 or heteromeric artificial miRNA targeting AP1 and CAL genes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wonkeun; Zhai, Jixian; Lee, Jung-Youn

    2009-01-01

    Gene silencing is a useful technique for elucidating biological function of genes by knocking down their expression. A recently developed artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) exploits an endogenous gene silencing mechanism that processes natural miRNA precursors to small silencing RNAs that target transcripts for degradation. Based on natural miRNA structures, amiRNAs are commonly designed such that they have a few mismatching nucleotides with respect to their target sites as well as within mature amiRNA duplexes. In this study, we performed an analysis in which the conventional and modified form of an amiRNA was compared side by side. We showed that the amiRNA containing 5′ mismatch with its amiRNA* and perfect complementarity to its target gene acted as a highly potent gene silencing agent against AP1, achieving a desired null mutation effect. In addition, a simultaneous silencing of two independent genes, AP1 and CAL1 wastested by employing a multimeric form of amiRNAs. Advantages and potential disadvantages of using amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to the target gene are discussed. The results presented here should be helpful in designing more specific and effective gene silencing agents. PMID:19066901

  18. The clinical value of aberrant epigenetic changes of DNA damage repair genes in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dan; Herman, James G.; Guo, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The stability and integrity of the human genome are maintained by the DNA damage repair (DDR) system. Unrepaired DNA damage is a major source of potentially mutagenic lesions that drive carcinogenesis. In addition to gene mutation, DNA methylation occurs more frequently in DDR genes in human cancer. Thus, DNA methylation may play more important roles in DNA damage repair genes to drive carcinogenesis. Aberrant methylation patterns in DNA damage repair genes may serve as predictive, diagnostic, prognostic and chemosensitive markers of human cancer. MGMT methylation is a marker for poor prognosis in human glioma, while, MGMT methylation is a sensitive marker of glioma cells to alkylating agents. Aberrant epigenetic changes in DNA damage repair genes may serve as therapeutic targets. Treatment of MLH1-methylated colon cancer cell lines with the demethylating agent 5′-aza-2′-deoxycytidine induces the expression of MLH1 and sensitizes cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil. Synthetic lethality is a more exciting approach in patients with DDR defects. PARP inhibitors are the most effective anticancer reagents in BRCA-deficient cancer cells. PMID:26967246

  19. An efficient method for gene silencing in human primary plasmacytoid dendritic cells: silencing of the TLR7/IRF-7 pathway as a proof of concept

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nikaïa; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Nisole, Sébastien; Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are specialized immune cells that produce massive levels of type I interferon in response to pathogens. Unfortunately, pDC are fragile and extremely rare, rendering their functional study a tough challenge. However, because of their central role in numerous pathologies, there is a considerable need for an efficient and reproducible protocol for gene silencing in these cells. In this report, we tested six different methods for siRNA delivery into primary human pDC including viral-based, lipid-based, electroporation, and poly-ethylenimine (PEI) technologies. We show that lipid-based reagent DOTAP was extremely efficient for siRNA delivery into pDC, and did not induce cell death or pDC activation. We successfully silenced Toll-Like Receptor 7 (TLR7), CXCR4 and IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) gene expression in pDC as assessed by RT-qPCR or cytometry. Finally, we showed that TLR7 or IRF-7 silencing in pDC specifically suppressed IFN-α production upon stimulation, providing a functional validation of our transfection protocol. PMID:27412723

  20. Multisubunit RNA Polymerases IV and V: Purveyors of Non-Coding RNA for Plant Gene Silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2011-08-01

    In all eukaryotes, nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II and III synthesize the myriad RNAs that are essential for life. Remarkably, plants have evolved two additional multisubunit RNA polymerases, RNA polymerases IV and V, which orchestrate non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing processes affecting development, transposon taming, antiviral defence and allelic crosstalk. Biochemical details concerning the templates and products of RNA polymerases IV and V are lacking. However, their subunit compositions reveal that they evolved as specialized forms of RNA polymerase II, which provides the unique opportunity to study the functional diversification of a eukaryotic RNA polymerase family.

  1. Nanogyroids Incorporating Multivalent Lipids: Enhanced Membrane Charge Density and Pore Forming Ability for Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Cecília; Ewert, Kai K.; Shirazi, Rahau S.; Bouxsein, Nathan F.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2011-01-01

    The self-assembly of a custom-synthesized pentavalent cationic lipid (MVL5) and glycerol monooleate (GMO) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) results in the formation of a double-gyroid bicontinuous inverted cubic phase with co-localized lipid/siRNA domains as shown by synchrotron X-ray scattering and fluorescence microscopy. The high charge density (due to MVL5) and positive Gaussian modulus of the GMO-containing membranes confer optimal electrostatic and elastic properties for endosomal escape, enabling efficient siRNA delivery and effective, specific gene silencing. PMID:21612245

  2. Histone modifications silence the GATA transcription factor genes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Caslini, C; Capo-chichi, C D; Roland, I H; Nicolas, E; Yeung, A T; Xu, X-X

    2006-08-31

    Altered expression of GATA factors was found and proposed as the underlying mechanism for dedifferentiation in ovarian carcinogenesis. In particular, GATA6 is lost or excluded from the nucleus in 85% of ovarian tumors and GATA4 expression is absent in majority of ovarian cancer cell lines. Here, we evaluated their DNA and histone epigenetic modifications in five ovarian epithelial and carcinoma cell lines (human 'immortalized' ovarian surface epithelium (HIO)-117, HIO-114, A2780, SKOV3 and ES2). GATA4 and GATA6 gene silencing was found to correlate with hypoacetylation of histones H3 and H4 and loss of histone H3/lysine K4 tri-methylation at their promoters in all lines. Conversely, histone H3/lysine K9 di-methylation and HP1gamma association were not observed, excluding reorganization of GATA genes into heterochromatic structures. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, but not the DNA methylation inhibitor 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, re-established the expression of GATA4 and/or GATA6 in A2780 and HIO-114 cells, correlating with increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation, histone H3 lysine K4 methylation and DNase I sensitivity at the promoters. Therefore, altered histone modification of the promoter loci is one mechanism responsible for the silencing of GATA transcription factors and the subsequent loss of a target gene, the tumor suppressor Disabled-2, in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  3. Aflatoxin-free transgenic maize using host-induced gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Thakare, Dhiraj; Zhang, Jianwei; Wing, Rod A.; Cotty, Peter J.; Schmidt, Monica A.

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins, toxic secondary metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species, are a universal agricultural economic problem and a critical health issue. Despite decades of control efforts, aflatoxin contamination is responsible for a global loss of millions of tons of crops each year. We show that host-induced gene silencing is an effective method for eliminating this toxin in transgenic maize. We transformed maize plants with a kernel-specific RNA interference (RNAi) gene cassette targeting the aflC gene, which encodes an enzyme in the Aspergillus aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. After pathogen infection, aflatoxin could not be detected in kernels from these RNAi transgenic maize plants, while toxin loads reached thousands of parts per billion in nontransgenic control kernels. A comparison of transcripts in developing aflatoxin-free transgenic kernels with those from nontransgenic kernels showed no significant differences between these two groups. These results demonstrate that small interfering RNA molecules can be used to silence aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize, providing an attractive and precise engineering strategy that could also be extended to other crops to improve food security. PMID:28345051

  4. Gene expression and epigenetic aberrations in F1-placentas fathered by obese males.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Megan; Strick, Reiner; Strissel, Pamela L; Dittrich, Ralf; McPherson, Nicole O; Lane, Michelle; Pliushch, Galyna; Potabattula, Ramya; Haaf, Thomas; El Hajj, Nady

    2017-02-10

    Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analyzed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing. Our aim was to determine if paternal obesity deregulated placental gene expression and DNA methylation when compared to normal-weight males. Gene methylation of sperm DNA was analyzed and compared to placentas to address epigenetic transmission. Of the 10 paternally expressed genes (Pegs), 11 genes important for development and transport of nutrients, and the long-terminal repeat Intracisternal A particle (IAP) elements, derived from a member of the class II endogenous retroviral gene family, we observed a significant effect of paternal diet-induced obesity on deregulated expression of Peg3, Peg9, Peg10, and the nutrient transporter gene Slc38a2, and aberrant DNA methylation of the Peg9 promoter in F1 placental tissue. Epigenetic changes in Peg9 were also found in sperm from obese fathers. We therefore propose that paternal obesity renders changes in gene expression and/or methylation throughout the placental genome, which could contribute to the reproductive problems related to fertility and to the metabolic, long-term health impact on offspring.

  5. Epigenetic silencing of a foreign gene in nuclear transformants of Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, H; Johnson, A M; Gillham, N W; Boynton, J E

    1997-01-01

    The unstable expression of introduced genes poses a serious problem for the application of transgenic technology in plants. In transformants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, expression of a eubacterial aadA gene, conferring spectinomycin resistance, is transcriptionally suppressed by a reversible epigenetic mechanism(s). Variations in the size and frequency of colonies surviving on different concentrations of spectinomycin as well as the levels of transcriptional activity of the introduced transgene(s) suggest the existence of intermediate expression states in genetically identical cells. Gene silencing does not correlate with methylation of the integrated DNA and does not involve large alterations in its chromatin structure, as revealed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and DNase I. Transgene repression is enhanced by lower temperatures, similar to position effect variegation in Drosophila. By analogy to epigenetic phenomena in several eukaryotes, our results suggest a possible role for (hetero)chromatic chromosomal domains in transcriptional inactivation. PMID:9212467

  6. A Single dicer Gene Is Required for Efficient Gene Silencing Associated with Two Classes of Small Antisense RNAs in Mucor circinelloides▿ †

    PubMed Central

    de Haro, Juan P.; Calo, Silvia; Cervantes, María; Nicolás, Francisco E.; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    RNA silencing in the zygomycete Mucor circinelloides exhibits uncommon features, such as induction by self-replicative sense transgenes and the accumulation of two size classes of antisense small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). To investigate whether this silencing phenomenon follows the rules of a canonical RNA-silencing mechanism, we used hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-producing constructs as silencing triggers and analyzed the efficiency and stability of silencing in different genetic backgrounds. We show here that the dsRNA-induced silencing mechanism is also associated with the accumulation of two sizes of antisense siRNAs and that this mechanism is not mediated by the previously known dcl-1 (dicer-like) gene, which implies the existence of an additional dicer gene. An M. circinelloides dcl-2 gene was cloned and characterized, and the corresponding null mutant was generated by gene replacement. This mutant is severely impaired in the silencing mechanism induced by self-replicative sense or inverted-repeat transgenes, providing the first genetic evidence of a canonical silencing mechanism in this class of fungus and pointing to a role for dcl-2 in the mechanism. Moreover, a functional dcl-2 gene is required for the normal accumulation of the two sizes of antisense RNAs, as deduced from the analysis of dcl-2− transformants containing hpRNA-expressing plasmids. In addition to its critical role in transgene-induced silencing, the dcl-2 gene seems to play a role in the control of vegetative development, since the dcl-2 null mutants showed a significant decrease in their production of asexual spores. PMID:19666782

  7. Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation.

  8. White as a Reporter Gene to Detect Transcriptional Silencers Specifying Position-Specific Gene Expression during Drosophila Melanogaster Eye Development

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y. H.; Tsai, C. J.; Green, M. M.; Chao, J. L.; Yu, C. T.; Jaw, T. J.; Yeh, J. Y.; Bolshakov, V. N.

    1995-01-01

    The white(+) gene was used as a reporter to detect transcriptional silencer activity in the Drosophila genome. Changes in the spatial expression pattern of white were scored in the adult eye as nonuniform patterns of pigmentation. Thirty-six independent P[lacW] transposant lines were collected. These represent 12 distinct pigmentation patterns and probably 21 loci. The spatial pigmentation pattern is due to cis-acting suppression of white(+) expression, and the suppression probably depends on cell position rather than cell type. The mechanism of suppression differs from inactivation by heterochromatin. In addition, activation of lacZ in P[lacW] occurs also in specific patterns in imaginal discs and embryos in many of the lines. The expression patterns of white(+) and lacZ may reflect the activity of regulatory elements belonging to an endogenous gene near each P[lacW] insertion site. We speculate that these putative POSE (position-specific expression) genes may have a role in pattern formation of the eye as well as other imaginal structures. Three of the loci identified are optomotor-blind, engrailed and invected. teashirt is also implicated as a candidate gene. We propose that this ``silencer trap'' may be an efficient way of identifying genes involved in imaginal pattern formation. PMID:8582614

  9. RNA Pol IV and V in Gene Silencing: Rebel Polymerases Evolving Away From Pol II’s Rules

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ming; Law, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs regulate gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and play critical roles in development, imprinting and the maintenance of genome integrity in eukaryotic organisms [1–3]. Therefore, it is important to understand how the production of such RNAs are controlled. In addition to the three canonical DNA dependent RNA polymerases (Pol) Pol I, II and III, two non-redundant plant-specific RNA polymerases, Pol IV and Pol V, have been identified and shown to generate noncoding RNAs that are required for transcriptional gene silencing via the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Thus, somewhat paradoxically, transcription is required for gene silencing. This paradox extends beyond plants, as silencing pathways in yeast, fungi, flies, worms, and mammals also require transcriptional machinery [4,5]. As plants have evolved specialized RNA polymerases to carry out gene silencing in a manner that is separate from the essential roles of Pol II, their characterization offers unique insight into how RNA polymerases facilitate gene silencing. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of Pol IV and Pol V function, including their compositions, their transcripts, and their modes of recruitment to chromatin. PMID:26344361

  10. Intron-exon organization of the active human protein S gene PS. alpha. and its pseudogene PS. beta. : Duplication and silencing during primate evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ploos van Amstel, H.; Reitsma, P.H.; van der Logt, C.P.; Bertina, R.M. )

    1990-08-28

    The human protein S locus on chromosome 3 consists of two protein S genes, PS{alpha} and PS{beta}. Here the authors report the cloning and characterization of both genes. Fifteen exons of the PS{alpha} gene were identified that together code for protein S mRNA as derived from the reported protein S cDNAs. Analysis by primer extension of liver protein S mRNA, however, reveals the presence of two mRNA forms that differ in the length of their 5{prime}-noncoding region. Both transcripts contain a 5{prime}-noncoding region longer than found in the protein S cDNAs. The two products may arise from alternative splicing of an additional intron in this region or from the usage of two start sites for transcription. The intron-exon organization of the PS{alpha} gene fully supports the hypothesis that the protein S gene is the product of an evolutional assembling process in which gene modules coding for structural/functional protein units also found in other coagulation proteins have been put upstream of the ancestral gene of a steroid hormone binding protein. The PS{beta} gene is identified as a pseudogene. It contains a large variety of detrimental aberrations, viz., the absence of exon I, a splice site mutation, three stop codons, and a frame shift mutation. Overall the two genes PS{alpha} and PS{beta} show between their exonic sequences 96.5% homology. Southern analysis of primate DNA showed that the duplication of the ancestral protein S gene has occurred after the branching of the orangutan from the African apes. A nonsense mutation that is present in the pseudogene of man also could be identified in one of the two protein S genes of both chimpanzee and gorilla. This implicates that silencing of one of the two protein S genes must have taken place before the divergence of the three African apes.

  11. Chicken alpha-globin switching depends on autonomous silencing of the embryonic pi globin gene by epigenetics mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Arano, Héctor; Guerrero, Georgina; Valdes-Quezada, Christian; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2009-10-15

    Switching in hemoglobin gene expression is an informative paradigm for studying transcriptional regulation. Here we determined the patterns of chicken alpha-globin gene expression during development and erythroid differentiation. Previously published data suggested that the promoter regions of alpha-globin genes contain the complete information for proper developmental regulation. However, our data show a preferential trans-activation of the embryonic alpha-globin gene independent of the developmental or differentiation stage. We also found that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation play key roles in silencing the expression of the embryonic pi gene in definitive erythrocytes. However, drug-mediated reactivation of the embryonic gene during definitive erythropoiesis dramatically impaired the expression of the adult genes, suggesting gene competition or interference for enhancer elements. Our results also support a model in which the lack of open chromatin marks and localized recruitment of chicken MeCP2 contribute to autonomous gene silencing of the embryonic alpha-globin gene in a developmentally specific manner. We propose that epigenetic mechanisms are necessary for in vivo chicken alpha-globin gene switching through differential gene silencing of the embryonic alpha-globin gene in order to allow proper activation of adult alpha-globin genes.

  12. High rates of virus-induced gene silencing by tobacco rattle virus in Populus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zedan; Sun, Jian; Yao, Jun; Wang, Shaojie; Ding, Mingquan; Zhang, Huilong; Qian, Zeyong; Zhao, Nan; Sa, Gang; Zhao, Rui; Shen, Xin; Polle, Andrea; Chen, Shaoliang

    2015-09-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been shown to be an effective tool for investigating gene functions in herbaceous plant species, but has rarely been tested in trees. The establishment of a fast and reliable transformation system is especially important for woody plants, many of which are recalcitrant to transformation. In this study, we established a tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS system for two Populus species, Populus euphratica and P. × canescens. Here, TRV constructs carrying a 266 bp or a 558 bp fragment of the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene were Agrobacterium-infiltrated into leaves of the two poplar species. Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of the shorter insert, TRV2-PePDS266, into the host poplars resulted in expected photobleaching in both tree species, but not the longer insert, PePDS558. The efficiency of VIGS was temperature-dependent, increasing by raising the temperature from 18 to 28 °C. The optimized TRV-VIGS system at 28 °C resulted in a high silencing frequency and efficiency up to 65-73 and 83-94%, respectively, in the two tested poplars. Moreover, syringe inoculation of Agrobacterium in 100 mM acetosyringone induced a more efficient silencing in the two poplar species, compared with other agroinfiltration methods, e.g., direct injection, misting and agrodrench. There were plant species-related differences in the response to VIGS because the photobleaching symptoms were more severe in P. × canescens than in P. euphratica. Furthermore, VIGS-treated P. euphratica exhibited a higher recovery rate (50%) after several weeks of the virus infection, compared with TRV-infected P. × canescens plants (20%). Expression stability of reference genes was screened to assess the relative abundance of PePDS mRNA in VIGS-treated P. euphratica and P. × canescens. PeACT7 was stably expressed in P. euphratica and UBQ-L was selected as the most suitable reference gene for P. × canescens using three different

  13. Virus-induced gene silencing of RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved, contains 17 subunits and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 50S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. Functional roles of the RPC5 are poorly characterized in the literature. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silenci...

  14. Comparing Gene Silencing and Physiochemical Properties in siRNA Bound Cationic Star-Polymer Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dearnley, Megan; Reynolds, Nicholas P; Cass, Peter; Wei, Xiaohu; Shi, Shuning; Mohammed, A Aalam; Le, Tam; Gunatillake, Pathiraja; Tizard, Mark L; Thang, San H; Hinton, Tracey M

    2016-11-14

    The translation of siRNA into clinical therapies has been significantly delayed by issues surrounding the delivery of naked siRNA to target cells. Here we investigate siRNA delivery by cationic acrylic polymers developed by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) mediated free radical polymerization. We investigated cell uptake and gene silencing of a series of siRNA-star polymer complexes both in the presence and absence of a protein "corona". Using a multidisciplinary approach including quantitative nanoscale mechanical-atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis we have characterized the nanoscale morphology, stiffness, and surface charge of the complexes with and without the protein corona. This is one of the first examples of a comprehensive physiochemical analysis of siRNA-polymer complexes being performed alongside in vitro biological assays, allowing us to describe a set of desirable physical features of cationic polymer complexes that promote gene silencing. Multifaceted studies such as this will improve our understanding of structure-function relationships in nanotherapeutics, facilitating the rational design of polymer-mediated siRNA delivery systems for novel treatment strategies.

  15. Harnessing RNAi-based nanomedicines for therapeutic gene silencing in B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Shiri; Toker, Itai A.; Emmanuel, Rafi; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Rosenblum, Daniel; Goldsmith, Meir; Abraham, Avigdor; Benjamini, Ohad; Bairey, Osnat; Raanani, Pia; Nagler, Arnon; Lieberman, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in systemic small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery to the liver and to solid tumors, systemic siRNA delivery to leukocytes remains challenging. The ability to silence gene expression in leukocytes has great potential for identifying drug targets and for RNAi-based therapy for leukocyte diseases. However, both normal and malignant leukocytes are among the most difficult targets for siRNA delivery as they are resistant to conventional transfection reagents and are dispersed in the body. We used mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a prototypic blood cancer for validating a novel siRNA delivery strategy. MCL is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that overexpresses cyclin D1 with relatively poor prognosis. Down-regulation of cyclin D1 using RNA interference (RNAi) is a potential therapeutic approach to this malignancy. Here, we designed lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) coated with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies that are specifically taken up by human MCL cells in the bone marrow of xenografted mice. When loaded with siRNAs against cyclin D1, CD38-targeted LNPs induced gene silencing in MCL cells and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice with no observed adverse effects. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of cyclin D1 therapy in MCL and present a novel RNAi delivery system that opens new therapeutic opportunities for treating MCL and other B-cell malignancies. PMID:26699502

  16. A Three-protein Charge Zipper Stabilizes a Complex Modulating Bacterial Gene Silencing*

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Tiago N.; García, Jesús; Bernadó, Pau; Millet, Oscar; Pons, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The Hha/YmoA nucleoid-associated proteins help selectively silence horizontally acquired genetic material, including pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance genes and their maintenance in the absence of selective pressure. Members of the Hha family contribute to gene silencing by binding to the N-terminal dimerization domain of H-NS and modifying its selectivity. Hha-like proteins and the H-NS N-terminal domain are unusually rich in charged residues, and their interaction is mostly electrostatic-driven but, nonetheless, highly selective. The NMR-based structural model of the complex between Hha/YmoA and the H-NS N-terminal dimerization domain reveals that the origin of the selectivity is the formation of a three-protein charge zipper with interdigitated complementary charged residues from Hha and the two units of the H-NS dimer. The free form of YmoA shows collective microsecond-millisecond dynamics that can by measured by NMR relaxation dispersion experiments and shows a linear dependence with the salt concentration. The number of residues sensing the collective dynamics and the population of the minor form increased in the presence of H-NS. Additionally, a single residue mutation in YmoA (D43N) abolished H-NS binding and the dynamics of the apo-form, suggesting the dynamics and binding are functionally related. PMID:26085102

  17. Suppression of RNA silencing by a geminivirus nuclear protein, AC2, correlates with transactivation of host genes.

    PubMed

    Trinks, Daniela; Rajeswaran, R; Shivaprasad, P V; Akbergenov, Rashid; Oakeley, Edward J; Veluthambi, K; Hohn, Thomas; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2005-02-01

    Bipartite geminiviruses encode a small protein, AC2, that functions as a transactivator of viral transcription and a suppressor of RNA silencing. A relationship between these two functions had not been investigated before. We characterized both of these functions for AC2 from Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV). When transiently expressed in plant protoplasts, MYMV AC2 strongly transactivated the viral promoter; AC2 was detected in the nucleus, and a split nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped. In a model Nicotiana benthamiana plant, in which silencing can be triggered biolistically, AC2 reduced local silencing and prevented its systemic spread. Mutations in the AC2 NLS or Zn finger or deletion of its activator domain abolished both these effects, suggesting that suppression of silencing by AC2 requires transactivation of host suppressor(s). In line with this, in Arabidopsis protoplasts, MYMV AC2 or its homologue from African cassava mosaic geminivirus coactivated >30 components of the plant transcriptome, as detected with Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChips. Several corresponding promoters cloned from Arabidopsis were strongly induced by both AC2 proteins. These results suggest that silencing suppression and transcription activation by AC2 are functionally connected and that some of the AC2-inducible host genes discovered here may code for components of an endogenous network that controls silencing.

  18. Aberrant promoter methylation of multiple genes in sputum from individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Lan, Qing; Shen, Min; Mumford, Judy; Keohavong, Phouthone

    2010-01-01

    Summary Aberrant methylation in the promoter region of cancer-related genes leads to gene transcriptional inactivation and plays an integral role in lung tumorigenesis. Recent studies demonstrated that promoter methylation was detected not only in lung tumors from patients with lung cancer but also in sputum of smokers without the disease, suggesting the potential for aberrant gene promoter methylation in sputum as a predictive marker for lung cancer. In the present study, we investigated promoter methylation of 4 genes frequently detected in lung tumors, including p16, MGMT, RASSF1A and DAPK genes, in sputum samples obtained from 107 individuals, including 34 never-smoking females and 73 mostly smoking males, who had no evidence of lung cancer but who were exposed to smoky coal emission in Xuan Wei County, China, where lung cancer rate is more than 6 times the Chinese national average rate. Forty nine of the individuals showed evidence of chronic bronchitis while the remaining 58 individuals showed no such a symptom. Promoter methylation of p16, MGMT, RASSF1A and DAPK was detected in 51.4% (55/107), 17.8% (19/107), 29.9% (32/107), and 15.9% (17/107) of the sputum samples from these individuals, respectively. There were no differences in promoter methylation frequencies of any of these genes according to smoking status or gender of the subjects or between individuals with chronic bronchitis and those without evidence of such a symptom. Therefore, individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions in this region harbored in their sputum frequent promoter methylation of these genes that have been previously found in lung tumors and implicated in lung cancer development. PMID:18751376

  19. Chilli leaf curl virus-based vector for phloem-specific silencing of endogenous genes and overexpression of foreign genes.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Nirbhay Kumar; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2017-03-01

    Geminiviruses are the largest and most devastating group of plant viruses which contain ssDNA as a genetic material. Geminivirus-derived virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors have emerged as an efficient and simple tool to study functional genomics in various plants. However, previously developed VIGS vectors have certain limitations, owing to their inability to be used in tissue-specific functional study. In the present study, we developed a Chilli leaf curl virus (ChiLCV)-based VIGS vector for its tissue-specific utilization by replacing the coat protein gene (open reading frame (ORF) AV1) with the gene of interest for phytoene desaturase (PDS) of Nicotiana benthamiana. Functional validation of ChiLCV-based VIGS in N. benthamiana resulted in systemic silencing of PDS exclusively in the phloem region of inoculated plants. Furthermore, expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) using the same ChiLCV vector was verified in the phloem region of the inoculated plants. Our results also suggested that, during the early phase of infection, ChiLCV was associated with the phloem region, but at later stage of pathogenesis, it can spread into the adjoining non-vascular tissues. Taken together, the newly developed ChiLCV-based vector provides an efficient and versatile tool, which can be exploited to unveil the unknown functions of several phloem-specific genes.

  20. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) for functional analysis of wheat genes involved in Zymoseptoria tritici susceptibility and resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wing-Sham; Rudd, Jason J.; Kanyuka, Kostya

    2015-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has emerged as a powerful reverse genetic technology in plants supplementary to stable transgenic RNAi and, in certain species, as a viable alternative approach for gene functional analysis. The RNA virus Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) was developed as a VIGS vector in the early 2000s and since then it has been used to study the function of wheat genes. Several variants of BSMV vectors are available, with some requiring in vitro transcription of infectious viral RNA, while others rely on in planta production of viral RNA from DNA-based vectors delivered to plant cells either by particle bombardment or Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We adapted the latest generation of binary BSMV VIGS vectors for the identification and study of wheat genes of interest involved in interactions with Zymoseptoria tritici and here present detailed and the most up-to-date protocols. PMID:26092793

  1. Disruption of plant carotenoid biosynthesis through virus-induced gene silencing affects oviposition behaviour of the butterfly Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Snoeren, Tjeerd A L; Hogewoning, Sander W; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-05-01

    Optical plant characteristics are important cues to plant-feeding insects. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that silencing the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene, encoding a key enzyme in plant carotenoid biosynthesis, affects insect oviposition site selection behaviour. Virus-induced gene silencing employing tobacco rattle virus was used to knock down endogenous PDS expression in three plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica nigra and Nicotiana benthamiana) by its heterologous gene sequence from Brassica oleracea. We investigated the consequences of the silencing of PDS on oviposition behaviour by Pieris rapae butterflies on Arabidopsis and Brassica plants; first landing of the butterflies on Arabidopsis plants (to eliminate an effect of contact cues); first landing on Arabidopsis plants enclosed in containers (to eliminate an effect of volatiles); and caterpillar growth on Arabidopsis plants. Our results show unambiguously that P. rapae has an innate ability to visually discriminate between green and variegated green-whitish plants. Caterpillar growth was significantly lower on PDS-silenced than on empty vector control plants. This study presents the first analysis of PDS function in the interaction with an herbivorous insect. We conclude that virus-induced gene silencing is a powerful tool for investigating insect-plant interactions in model and nonmodel plants.

  2. Heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing facilitates the diversification of olfactory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, David B.; Magklara, Angeliki; Goh, Tracie; Sampath, Srihari; Schaefer, Anne; Schotta, Gunnar; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An astounding property of the nervous system is its cellular diversity. This diversity, which was initially realized by morphological and electrophysiological differences, is ultimately produced by variations in gene expression programs. In most cases these variations are determined by external cues. However, a growing number of neuronal types have been identified in which inductive signals cannot explain the few but decisive transcriptional differences that cause cell diversification. Here, we show that heterochromatic silencing, which we find is governed by histone methyltransferases G9a (KMT1C) and GLP (KMT1D), is essential for stochastic and singular OR expression. Deletion of G9a and GLP dramatically reduces the complexity of the OR transcriptome, resulting in transcriptional domination by a few ORs and loss of singularity in OR expression. Thus, in addition to its previously known functions, our data suggest that heterochromatin creates an epigenetic platform that affords stochastic, mutually exclusive gene choices and promotes cellular diversity. PMID:25437545

  3. Assessing the tobacco-rattle-virus-based vectors system as an efficient gene silencing technique in Datura stramonium (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Eftekhariyan Ghamsari, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Farah; Mousavi Gargari, Seyed Latif; Hosseini Tafreshi, Seyed Ali; Salami, Seyed Alireza

    2014-12-01

    Datura stramonium is a well-known medicinal plant, which is important for its alkaloids. There are intrinsic limitations for the natural production of alkaloids in plants; metabolic engineering methods can be effectively used to conquer these limitations. In order for this the genes involved in corresponding pathways need to be studied. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing is known as a functional genomics technique to knock-down expression of endogenous genes. In this study, we silenced phytoene desaturase as a marker gene in D. stramonium in a heterologous and homologous manner by tobacco-rattle-virus-based VIGS vectors. Recombinant TRV vector containing pds gene from D. stramonium (pTRV2-Dspds) was constructed and injected into seedlings. The plants injected with pTRV2-Dspds showed photobleaching 2 weeks after infiltration. Spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that the amount of chlorophylls and carotenoids in leaves of the bleached plants decreased considerably compared to that of the control plants. Semi-Quantitative RT-PCR results also confirmed that the expression of pds gene in the silenced plants was significantly reduced in comparison with the control plants. The results showed that the viral vector was able to influence the levels of total alkaloid content in D. stramonium. Our results illustrated that TRV-based VIGS vectors are able to induce effective and reliable functional gene silencing in D. stramonium as an alternative tool for studying the genes of interest in this plant, such as the targeted genes in tropane alkaloid biosynthetic pathway. The present work is the first report of establishing VIGS as an efficient method for transient silencing of any gene of interest in D. stramonium.

  4. ARID1A gene silencing reduces the sensitivity of ovarian clear cell carcinoma to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Changshuai; Zhang, Yinglan; Zhou, Xingnan; Lang, Jinghe

    2016-01-01

    In ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), the mutation rate of the AT-rich interaction domain 1A (ARID1A) gene is 46–57%. However, the effects of ARID1A gene silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the sensitivity of OCCC to cisplatin have not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the association between ARID1A gene silencing and drug resistance in OCCC. Three pairs of ARID1A gene siRNA fragments (siRNA-1, siRNA-2 and siRNA-3) were designed and transiently transfected into ES2 OCCC cells using RNAi Max reagent. Western blotting results demonstrated that the transfection reduced ARID1A protein expression levels, with the siRNA-3 group having the lowest levels. The IC50 value, determined using a Cell Counting kit-8 assay, was significantly increased by siRNA-3 transfection compared with that in blank control and negative control groups. The cell survival rate following treatment with 50 µM cisplatin for 48 h was significantly increased in the siRNA-3 group compared with the blank control and negative control groups. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the apoptosis rate for cisplatin-treated cells was significantly lower in cells with siRNA-3 transfection than in those without, and the apoptosis rate in siRNA-3-transfected cells was lower than that in the negative control group. Western blot analysis showed that the expression level of AKT in cisplatin-treated cells was significantly decreased compared with that in the negative control group, and the AKT expression level in cisplatin-treated cells was significantly higher with siRNA-3 transfection than without. Therefore, the results demonstrated that ARID1A siRNA efficiently decreased ARID1A expression, which reduced cisplatin chemosensitivity and cell apoptosis in ES2 OCCC cells via the regulation of AKT expression. PMID:28105136

  5. Magnetic gold nanoparticle-mediated small interference RNA silencing Bag-1 gene for colon cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenbai; Liu, Zhan'ao; Zhou, Guanzhou; Tian, Ailing; Sun, Nianfeng

    2016-02-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 1 (Bag-1) is a positive regulator of Bcl-2 which is an anti-apoptotic gene. Bag-1 was very slightly expressed in normal tissues, but often highly expressed in many tumor tissues, particularly in colon cancer, which can promote metastasis, poor prognosis and anti-apoptotic function of colon cancer. We prepared and evaluated magnetic gold nanoparticle/Bag-1 siRNA recombinant plasmid complex, a gene therapy system, which can transfect cells efficiently, for both therapeutic effect and safety in vitro mainly by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, flow cytometric analyses, cell viability assays, western blot analyses and RT-PCR (real-time) assays. Magnetic gold nanoparticle/Bag-1 siRNA recombinant plasmid complex was successfully transfected into LoVo colon cancer cells and the exogenous gene was expressed in the cells. Flow cytometric results showed apoptosis rate was significantly increased. In MTT assays, magnetic gold nanoparticles revealed lower cytotoxicity than Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagents (P<0.05). Both in western blot analyses and RT-PCR assays, magnetic gold nanoparticle/Bag-1 siRNA recombinant plasmid complex transfected cells demonstrated expression of Bag-1 mRNA (P<0.05) and protein (P<0.05) was decreased. In further study, c-myc and β-catenin which are main molecules of Wnt/β‑catenin pathway were decreased when Bag-1 were silenced in nanoparticle plasmid complex transfected LoVo cells. These results suggest that magnetic gold nanoparticle mediated siRNA silencing Bag-1 is an effective gene therapy method for colon cancer.

  6. An Atelocollagen Coating for Efficient Local Gene Silencing by Using Small Interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Olivia; Nothdurft, Dimitrios; Perle, Nadja; Neumann, Bernd; Behring, Andreas; Degenkolbe, Ilka; Walker, Tobias; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Nolte, Andrea

    2017-03-17

    In the last decades, many efforts have been made to counteract adverse effects after stenting atherosclerotic coronary arteries. A breakthrough in better vascular wall regeneration was noted in the new era of drug-eluting stents. A novel personalized approach is the development of gene-eluting stents promising an alteration in gene expression involved in regeneration. We investigated a coating system consisting of the polymer atelocollagen (ATCOL) and a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) found on the surface of defective endothelial cells (ECs). We demonstrated very high cell viability, in which EA.hy926 grew on 0.008% or 0.032% ATCOL layers. Additionally, hemocompatibility assays proved the biocompatibility of this coating. The highest transfection efficiency with EA.hy926 was achieved with 5 μg siRNA immobilized in ATCOL after 2 days. The release of fluorescent-labeled siRNA was about 9 days. Long-term knockdown of ICAM-1 was analyzed by flow cytometry, revealing that the coating with 0.008% ATCOL and 5 μg siICAM-1 provoked gene silencing up to 8 days. 5'-RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR (RLM-RACE-PCR) demonstrated the specificity of our established ATCOL gene-silencing coating, meaning that our coating is well suited for further investigations in in vivo studies. Herein, we would like to demonstrate that our ATCOL is well-suited for better artery wall regeneration after stent implantation.

  7. Systematic silencing of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic genes reveals the major route to papaverine in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-10-01

    Papaverine, a major benzylisoquinoline alkaloid in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), is used as a vasodilator and antispasmodic. Conversion of the initial intermediate (S)-norcoclaurine to papaverine involves 3'-hydroxylation, four O-methylations and dehydrogenation. However, our understanding of papaverine biosynthesis remains controversial more than a century after an initial scheme was proposed. In vitro assays and in vivo labeling studies have been insufficient to establish the sequence of conversions, the potential role of the intermediate (S)-reticuline, and the enzymes involved. We used virus-induced gene silencing in opium poppy to individually suppress the expression of six genes with putative roles in papaverine biosynthesis. Suppression of the gene encoding coclaurine N-methyltransferase dramatically increased papaverine levels at the expense of N-methylated alkaloids, indicating that the main biosynthetic route to papaverine proceeds via N-desmethylated compounds rather than through (S)-reticuline. Suppression of genes encoding (S)-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4-O-methyltransferase and norreticuline 7-O-methyltransferase, which accept certain N-desmethylated alkaloids, reduced papaverine content. In contrast, suppression of genes encoding N-methylcoclaurine 3'-hydroxylase or reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase, which are specific for N-methylated alkaloids, did not affect papaverine levels. Suppression of norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase transcript levels significantly suppressed total alkaloid accumulation, implicating (S)-coclaurine as a key branch-point intermediate. The differential detection of N-desmethylated compounds in response to suppression of specific genes highlights the primary route to papaverine.

  8. Aberrantly Expressed OTX Homeobox Genes Deregulate B-Cell Differentiation in Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.

    2015-01-01

    In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) we recently reported that deregulated homeobox gene MSX1 mediates repression of the B-cell specific transcription factor ZHX2. In this study we investigated regulation of MSX1 in this B-cell malignancy. Accordingly, we analyzed expression and function of OTX homeobox genes which activate MSX1 transcription during embryonal development in the neural plate border region. Our data demonstrate that OTX1 and OTX2 are aberrantly expressed in both HL patients and cell lines. Moreover, both OTX loci are targeted by genomic gains in overexpressing cell lines. Comparative expression profiling and subsequent pathway modulations in HL cell lines indicated that aberrantly enhanced FGF2-signalling activates the expression of OTX2. Downstream analyses of OTX2 demonstrated transcriptional activation of genes encoding transcription factors MSX1, FOXC1 and ZHX1. Interestingly, examination of the physiological expression profile of ZHX1 in normal hematopoietic cells revealed elevated levels in T-cells and reduced expression in B-cells, indicating a discriminatory role in lymphopoiesis. Furthermore, two OTX-negative HL cell lines overexpressed ZHX1 in correlation with genomic amplification of its locus at chromosomal band 8q24, supporting the oncogenic potential of this gene in HL. Taken together, our data demonstrate that deregulated homeobox genes MSX1 and OTX2 respectively impact transcriptional inhibition of (B-cell specific) ZHX2 and activation of (T-cell specific) ZHX1. Thus, we show how reactivation of a specific embryonal gene regulatory network promotes disturbed B-cell differentiation in HL. PMID:26406991

  9. Aberrant DNA methylation in 5' regions of DNA methyltransferase genes in aborted bovine clones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghe; Liang, Xingwei; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Wei, Liang; Hou, Yi; Chen, Da-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-09-01

    High rate of abortion and developmental abnormalities is thought to be closely associated with inefficient epigenetic reprogramming of the transplanted nuclei during bovine cloning. It is known that one of the important mechanisms for epigenetic reprogramming is DNA methylation. DNA methylation is established and maintained by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), therefore, it is postulated that the inefficient epigenetic reprogramming of transplanted nuclei may be due to abnormal expression of DNMTs. Since DNA methylation can strongly inhibit gene expression, aberrant DNA methylation of DNMT genes may disturb gene expression. But presently, it is not clear whether the methylation abnormality of DNMT genes is related to developmental failure of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. In our study, we analyzed methylation patterns of the 5' regions of four DNMT genes including Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Dnmt1 and Dnmt2 in four aborted bovine clones. Using bisulfite sequencing method, we found that 3 out of 4 aborted bovine clones (AF1, AF2 and AF3) showed either hypermethylation or hypomethylation in the 5' regions of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, indicating that Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b genes are not properly reprogrammed. However, the individual AF4 exhibited similar methylation level and pattern to age-matched in vitro fertilized (IVF) fetuses. Besides, we found that the 5' regions of Dnmt1 and Dnmt2 were nearly completely unmethylated in all normal adults, IVF fetuses, sperm and aborted clones. Together, our results suggest that the aberrant methylation of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b 5' regions is probably associated with the high abortion of bovine clones.

  10. An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Histone Modifiers and RNA Silencing Genes in Soybean during Floral Initiation Process

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics has been recognised to play vital roles in many plant developmental processes, including floral initiation through the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The histone modifying proteins that mediate these modifications involve the SET domain-containing histone methyltransferases, JmjC domain-containing demethylase, acetylases and deacetylases. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi)-associated genes are also involved in epigenetic regulation via RNA-directed DNA methylation and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Soybean, a major crop legume, requires a short day to induce flowering. How histone modifications regulate the plant response to external cues that initiate flowering is still largely unknown. Here, we used RNA-seq to address the dynamics of transcripts that are potentially involved in the epigenetic programming and RNAi mediated gene silencing during the floral initiation of soybean. Soybean is a paleopolyploid that has been subjected to at least two rounds of whole genome duplication events. We report that the expanded genomic repertoire of histone modifiers and RNA silencing genes in soybean includes 14 histone acetyltransferases, 24 histone deacetylases, 47 histone methyltransferases, 15 protein arginine methyltransferases, 24 JmjC domain-containing demethylases and 47 RNAi-associated genes. To investigate the role of these histone modifiers and RNA silencing genes during floral initiation, we compared the transcriptional dynamics of the leaf and shoot apical meristem at different time points after a short-day treatment. Our data reveal that the extensive activation of genes that are usually involved in the epigenetic programming and RNAi gene silencing in the soybean shoot apical meristem are reprogrammed for floral development following an exposure to inductive conditions. PMID:24147010

  11. Virus-induced gene silencing unravels multiple transcription factors involved in floral growth and development in Phalaenopsis orchids.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Lai, Pei-Han; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Yeh, Hsin-Hung; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Wan-Lin; Chung, Mei-Chu; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2013-09-01

    Orchidaceae, one of the largest angiosperm families, has significant commercial value. Isolation of genes involved in orchid floral development and morphogenesis, scent production, and colouration will advance knowledge of orchid flower formation and facilitate breeding new varieties to increase the commercial value. With high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), this study identified five transcription factors involved in various aspects of flower morphogenesis in the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. These genes are PeMADS1, PeMADS7, PeHB, PebHLH, and PeZIP. Silencing PeMADS1 and PebHLH resulted in reduced flower size together with a pelaloid column containing petal-like epidermal cells and alterations of epidermal cell arrangement in lip lateral lobes, respectively. Silencing PeMADS7, PeHB, and PeZIP alone resulted in abortion of the first three fully developed flower buds of an inflorescence, which indicates the roles of the genes in late flower development. Furthermore, double silencing PeMADS1 and PeMADS6, C- and B-class MADS-box genes, respectively, produced a combinatorial phenotype with two genes cloned in separate vectors. Both PeMADS1 and PeMADS6 are required to ensure the normal development of the lip and column as well as the cuticle formation on the floral epidermal cell surface. Thus, VIGS allows for unravelling the interaction between two classes of MADS transcription factors for dictating orchid floral morphogenesis.

  12. Virus-induced gene silencing unravels multiple transcription factors involved in floral growth and development in Phalaenopsis orchids

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Lai, Pei-Han; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Yeh, Hsin-Hung; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Wan-Lin; Chung, Mei-Chu; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Orchidaceae, one of the largest angiosperm families, has significant commercial value. Isolation of genes involved in orchid floral development and morphogenesis, scent production, and colouration will advance knowledge of orchid flower formation and facilitate breeding new varieties to increase the commercial value. With high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), this study identified five transcription factors involved in various aspects of flower morphogenesis in the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. These genes are PeMADS1, PeMADS7, PeHB, PebHLH, and PeZIP. Silencing PeMADS1 and PebHLH resulted in reduced flower size together with a pelaloid column containing petal-like epidermal cells and alterations of epidermal cell arrangement in lip lateral lobes, respectively. Silencing PeMADS7, PeHB, and PeZIP alone resulted in abortion of the first three fully developed flower buds of an inflorescence, which indicates the roles of the genes in late flower development. Furthermore, double silencing PeMADS1 and PeMADS6, C- and B-class MADS-box genes, respectively, produced a combinatorial phenotype with two genes cloned in separate vectors. Both PeMADS1 and PeMADS6 are required to ensure the normal development of the lip and column as well as the cuticle formation on the floral epidermal cell surface. Thus, VIGS allows for unravelling the interaction between two classes of MADS transcription factors for dictating orchid floral morphogenesis. PMID:23956416

  13. Virus-induced gene silencing of WRKY53 and an inducible phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in wheat reduces aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Van Eck, Leon; Schultz, Thia; Leach, Jan E; Scofield, Steven R; Peairs, Frank B; Botha, Anna-Maria; Lapitan, Nora L V

    2010-12-01

    Although several wheat genes differentially expressed during the Russian wheat aphid resistance response have recently been identified, their requirement for and specific role in resistance remain unclear. Progress in wheat-aphid interaction research is hampered by inadequate collections of mutant germplasm and difficulty in transforming hexaploid wheat. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology is emerging as a viable reverse genetics approach in cereal crops. However, the potential of VIGS for determining aphid defence gene function in wheat has not been evaluated. We report on the use of recombinant barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) to target and silence a WRKY53 transcription factor and an inducible phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene, both predicted to contribute to aphid defence in a genetically resistant wheat line. After inoculating resistant wheat with the VIGS constructs, transcript abundance was reduced to levels similar to that observed in susceptible wheat. Notably, the level of PAL expression was also suppressed by the WKRY53 construct, suggesting that these genes operate in the same defence response network. Both knockdowns exhibited a susceptible phenotype upon aphid infestation, and aphids feeding on silenced plants exhibited a significant increase in fitness compared to aphids feeding on control plants. Altered plant phenotype and changes in aphid behaviour after silencing imply that WKRY53 and PAL play key roles in generating a successful resistance response. This study is the first report on the successful use of VIGS to investigate genes involved in wheat-insect interactions.

  14. Aberrant methylation of imprinted genes is associated with negative hormone receptor status in invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, Timothy M; Barault, Ludovic; Ellsworth, Rachel E; Harris, Holly R; Binder, Alexandra M; Valente, Allyson L; Shriver, Craig D; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes enables monoallelic expression according to parental origin, and its disruption is implicated in many cancers and developmental disorders. The expression of hormone receptors is significant in breast cancer as they are indicators of cancer cell growth rate and determine response to endocrine therapies. We investigated the frequency of aberrant events and variation in DNA methylation at nine imprinted sites in invasive breast cancer and examined the association with estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Breast tissue and blood from patients with invasive breast cancer (n=38) and benign breast disease (n=30) were compared to those from healthy individuals (n=36), matched to the cancer patients by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, BMI, menopausal status, and familial history of cancer. DNA methylation and allele-specific expression were analyzed by pyrosequencing. Tumor-specific methylation changes at IGF2 DMR2 were observed in 59% of cancer patients, IGF2 DMR0 in 38%, DIRAS3 DMR in 36%, GRB10 ICR in 23%, PEG3 DMR in 21%, MEST ICR in 19%, H19 ICR in 18%, KvDMR in 8%, and SNRPN/SNURF ICR in 4%. Variation of methylation was significantly greater in breast tissue from cancer patients than healthy individuals and benign breast disease. Aberrant methylation of three or more sites was significantly associated with negative estrogen-alpha (Fisher’s Exact Test, p=0.02) and progesterone-A (p=0.02) receptor status. Aberrant events and increased variation of imprinted gene DNA methylation therefore appear to be frequent in invasive breast cancer and are associated with negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status, without loss of monoallelic expression. PMID:25560175

  15. Reactivation of CDX2 in Gastric Cancer as Mark for Gene Silencing Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kameoka, Yuri; Kitazawa, Riko; Ariasu, Kanazu; Tachibana, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Yosuke; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2015-01-01

    To explore the epigenetic mechanism that reactivates CDX2 (a homeobox transcription factor that serves as a tumor-suppressor gene) in intestinal-type gastric cancer during cancer progression, we examined the methylation status of the CDX2 gene promoter and the expression pattern of methyl-CpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2). From archives of the pathology records of surgically excised advanced stomach cancer cases in the Department of Molecular Pathology, Ehime University in a past decate (n=265), 10 cases of intestinal-type tubular adenocarcinoma, well-differentiated type (wel) with minor poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma (por) components were selected. The expression pattern of CDX2, MUC2 and MeCP2 in these 10 cases was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The cancerous and non-cancerous areas were selectively obtained by microdissection, and the methylation status of the CDX2 promoter of each area was assessed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). In all 10 cases, CDX2 expression was clearly observed in the nucleus of the non-cancerous background of the intestinal metaplasic area, where the unmethylation pattern of the CDX2 gene promoter prevailed with reduced MeCP2 expression. In this metaplastic area, CDX2 expression was co-localized with its target gene, MUC2. CDX2 expression then disappeared from the deep invasive wel area. Reflecting the reduced CDX2 expression, microdissected samples from all the wel areas showed hypermethylation of the CDX2 gene promoter by MSP, with prominent MeCP2 expression. Interestingly, while hypermethylation of the CDX2 gene promoter was maintained in the por area in 8 of the 10 cases, CDX2 expression was restored in por areas where MeCP2 expression was markedly and selectively reduced. The other two cases, however, showed a constant MeCP2 expression level comparable to the surrounding deep invasive wel area with negative CDX2 expression. Therefore, gene silencing by hypermethylation may be overcome by the reduction of

  16. Screening targeted testis-specific genes for molecular assessment of aberrant sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue Xia; Shen, Xiao Fang; Liu, Fu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Teratospermia is a heterogeneous and complex disorder, which is closely associated with male fertility. Genes and gene products associated with teratospermia may serve as targeted biomarkers that help understand the underlying mechanisms of male infertility; however, systematic information on the subject remains to be elucidated. The present study performed a comparative bioinformatics analysis to identify biomarkers associated with sperm quality, particular focusing on testis-specific biomarkers. A stepwise screening approach identified 1,085 testis/epididymis-specific genes and 3,406 teratospermia-associated genes, resulting in 348 testis-specific genes associated with aberrant sperm quality. These genes were functionally associated with the reproduction process. Gene products corresponding to heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 4 like (HSPA4L) and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 were characterized at the cellular level in human testes and ejaculated spermatozoa. HSPA4L expression in sperm was revealed to be associated with sperm quality. The present study provided a novel insight into the understanding of sperm quality, and a potential method for the diagnosis and assessment of sperm quality in the event of male infertility. PMID:27356588

  17. Carrier-free Gene Silencing by Amphiphilic Nucleic Acid Conjugates in Differentiated Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Elena; Lee, Soo Hyeon; Yamada, Ken; Halloy, François; Martínez-Montero, Saúl; Jahns, Hartmut; Hall, Jonathan; Damha, Masad J; Castagner, Bastien; Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid therapy can be beneficial for the local treatment of gastrointestinal diseases that currently lack appropriate treatments. Indeed, several oligonucleotides (ONs) are currently progressing through clinical trials as potential treatments for inflammatory bowel diseases. However, due to low uptake of carrier-free ONs by mucosal cells, strategies aimed at increasing the potency of orally administered ONs would be highly desirable. In this work, we explored the silencing properties of chemically modified and highly resistant ONs derivatized with hydrophobic alkyl chain on intestinal epithelial cells. We screened a set of lipid-ON conjugates for the silencing of model Bcl-2 mRNA and selected 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-arabinonucleic acid modified ON bearing docosanoyl moiety (L-FANA) as the most potent candidate with lowest toxicity. The efficacy of L-FANA conjugate was preserved in simulated intestinal fluids and in the inverted transfection setup. Importantly, L-FANA conjugate was able to downregulate target gene expression at both mRNA and protein levels in a difficult-to-transfect polarized epithelial cell monolayer in the absence of delivery devices and membrane disturbing agents. These findings indicate that lipid-ON conjugates could be promising therapeutics for the treatment of intestinal diseases as well as a valuable tool for the discovery of new therapeutic targets. PMID:27648924

  18. Simultaneous Silencing of Two Arginine Decarboxylase Genes Alters Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Rangel, Diana; Chávez-Martínez, Ana I.; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A.; Maruri-López, Israel; Urano, Kaoru; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are small aliphatic polycations that are found ubiquitously in all organisms. In plants, PAs are involved in diverse biological processes such as growth, development, and stress responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the arginine decarboxylase enzymes (ADC1 and 2) catalyze the first step of PA biosynthesis. For a better understanding of PA biological functions, mutants in PA biosynthesis have been generated; however, the double adc1/adc2 mutant is not viable in A. thaliana. In this study, we generated non-lethal A. thaliana lines through an artificial microRNA that simultaneously silenced the two ADC genes (amiR:ADC). The generated transgenic lines (amiR:ADC-L1 and -L2) showed reduced AtADC1 and AtADC2 transcript levels. For further analyses the amiR:ADC-L2 line was selected. We found that the amiR:ADC-L2 line showed a significant decrease of their PA levels. The co-silencing revealed a stunted growth in A. thaliana seedlings, plantlets and delay in its flowering rate; these phenotypes were reverted with PA treatment. In addition, amiR:ADC-L2 plants displayed two seed phenotypes, such as yellow and brownish seeds. The yellow mutant seeds were smaller than adc1, adc2 mutants and wild type seeds; however, the brownish were the smallest seeds with arrested embryos at the torpedo stage. These data reinforce the importance of PA homeostasis in the plant development processes. PMID:27014322

  19. Reductively-responsive siRNA-conjugated hydrogel nanoparticles for gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Stuart S.; Tian, Shaomin; Blake, Steven; Wang, Jin; Galloway, Ashley L.; Murphy, Andrew; Pohlhaus, Patrick D.; Rolland, Jason P.; Napier, Mary E.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    A critical need still remains for effective delivery of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics to target tissues and cells. Self-assembled lipid- and polymer-based systems have been most extensively explored for transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) in liver and cancer therapies. Safety and compatibility of materials implemented in delivery systems must be ensured to maximize therapeutic indices. Hydrogel nanoparticles of defined dimensions and compositions, prepared via a particle molding process that is a unique off-shoot of soft lithography known as PRINT (Particle Replication in Non-wetting Templates), were explored in these studies as delivery vectors. Initially, siRNA was encapsulated in particles through electrostatic association and physical entrapment. Dose-dependent gene silencing was elicited by PEGylated hydrogels at low siRNA doses without cytotoxicity. To prevent disassociation of cargo from particles after systemic administration or during post-fabrication processing for surface functionalization, a polymerizable siRNA pro-drug conjugate with a degradable, disulfide linkage was prepared. Triggered release of siRNA from the prodrug hydrogels was observed under a reducing environment while cargo retention and integrity were maintained under physiological conditions. Gene silencing efficiency and cytocompatibility were optimized by screening the amine content of the particles. When appropriate control siRNA cargos were loaded into hydrogels, gene knockdown was only encountered for hydrogels containing releasable, target-specific siRNAs, accompanied by minimal cell death. Further investigation into shape, size, and surface decoration of siRNA-conjugated hydrogels should enable efficacious targeted in vivo RNAi therapies. PMID:22475061

  20. Epigenetic Repeat-Induced Gene Silencing in the Chromosomal and Extrachromosomal Contexts in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuda, Sho-hei; Shimizu, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    A plasmid bearing both a replication initiation region and a matrix attachment region is spontaneously amplified in transfected mammalian cells and generates plasmid repeats in the extrachromosomal double minutes (DMs) or the chromosomal homogeneously staining region (HSR). Generally, the repeat sequences are subject to repeat-induced gene silencing, the mechanism of which remains to be elucidated. Previous research showed that gene expression from the same plasmid repeat was higher from repeats located at DMs than at the HSR, which may reflect the extrachromosomal environment of the DMs. In the current study, plasmid repeats in both DMs and HSR were associated with repressive histone modifications (H3K9me3, H3K9me2), and the levels of repressive chromatin markers were higher in HSR than in DMs. Inactive chromatin is known to spread to neighboring regions in chromosome arm. Here, we found that such spreading also occurs in extrachromosomal DMs. Higher levels of active histone modifications (H3K9Ac, H3K4me3, and H3K79me2) were detected at plasmid repeats in DMs than in HSR. The level of DNA CpG methylation was generally low in both DMs and HSR; however, there were some hypermethylated copies within the population of repeated sequences, and the frequency of such copies was higher in DMs than in HSR. Together, these data suggest a “DNA methylation-core and chromatin-spread” model for repeat-induced gene silencing. The unique histone modifications at the extrachromosomal context are discussed with regard to the model. PMID:27525955

  1. Silencing of Cited2 and Akap12 genes in radiation-induced rat osteosarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Daino, Kazuhiro

    2009-12-18

    We have previously studied genomic copy number changes and global gene expression patterns in rat osteosarcomas (OS) induced by the bone-seeking alpha emitter {sup 238}Pu by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and oligonucleotide microarray analyses, respectively. Among the previously identified genes that were down-regulated in radiation-induced rat OS tumors, Cited2 (Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain, 2) and Akap12 (a kinase anchoring protein, also known as src-suppressed C-kinase substrate, SSeCKS) genes mapped to the most frequently lost regions on chromosome 1p. In the present study, relative copy number losses of Cited2 and Akap12 genes were observed in 8 of 15 (53%) and 10 of 15 (67%) tumors by quantitative PCR analysis. Loss of Cited2 and Akap12 in the tumors was confirmed at the levels of mRNA and protein expression by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses, respectively. These results indicate that Cited2 and Akap12 are silenced in radiation-induced OS, and therefore are novel candidate tumor-suppressor genes of this tumor.

  2. Regulation of neural gene transcription by optogenetic inhibition of the RE1-silencing transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Paonessa, Francesco; Criscuolo, Stefania; Sacchetti, Silvio; Amoroso, Davide; Scarongella, Helena; Pecoraro Bisogni, Federico; Carminati, Emanuele; Pruzzo, Giacomo; Maragliano, Luca; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-05

    Optogenetics provides new ways to activate gene transcription; however, no attempts have been made as yet to modulate mammalian transcription factors. We report the light-mediated regulation of the repressor element 1 (RE1)-silencing transcription factor (REST), a master regulator of neural genes. To tune REST activity, we selected two protein domains that impair REST-DNA binding or recruitment of the cofactor mSin3a. Computational modeling guided the fusion of the inhibitory domains to the light-sensitive Avena sativa light-oxygen-voltage-sensing (LOV) 2-phototrophin 1 (AsLOV2). By expressing AsLOV2 chimeras in Neuro2a cells, we achieved light-dependent modulation of REST target genes that was associated with an improved neural differentiation. In primary neurons, light-mediated REST inhibition increased Na(+)-channel 1.2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcription and boosted Na(+) currents and neuronal firing. This optogenetic approach allows the coordinated expression of a cluster of genes impinging on neuronal activity, providing a tool for studying neuronal physiology and correcting gene expression changes taking place in brain diseases.

  3. Transcription-coupled changes to chromatin underpin gene silencing by transcriptional interference.

    PubMed

    Ard, Ryan; Allshire, Robin C

    2016-12-15

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcription into a downstream promoter frequently results in transcriptional interference. However, the mechanism of this repression is not fully understood. We recently showed that drug tolerance in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is controlled by lncRNA transcription upstream of the tgp1(+) permease gene. Here we demonstrate that transcriptional interference of tgp1(+) involves several transcription-coupled chromatin changes mediated by conserved elongation factors Set2, Clr6CII, Spt6 and FACT. These factors are known to travel with RNAPII and establish repressive chromatin in order to limit aberrant transcription initiation from cryptic promoters present in gene bodies. We therefore conclude that conserved RNAPII-associated mechanisms exist to both suppress intragenic cryptic promoters during genic transcription and to repress gene promoters by transcriptional interference. Our analyses also demonstrate that key mechanistic features of transcriptional interference are shared between S. pombe and the highly divergent budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Thus, transcriptional interference is an ancient, conserved mechanism for tightly controlling gene expression. Our mechanistic insights allowed us to predict and validate a second example of transcriptional interference involving the S. pombe pho1(+) gene. Given that eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed, transcriptional interference likely represents a more general feature of gene regulation than is currently appreciated.

  4. Rapid activation of the bivalent gene Sox21 requires displacement of multiple layers of gene-silencing machinery.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Harini; Ormsbee, Briana D; Mallanna, Sunil K; Rizzino, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The rapid formation of numerous tissues during development is highly dependent on the swift activation of key developmental regulators. Recent studies indicate that many key regulatory genes are repressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), yet poised for rapid activation due to the presence of both activating (H3K4 trimethylation) and repressive (H3K27 trimethylation) histone modifications (bivalent genes). However, little is known about bivalent gene regulation. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the bivalent gene Sox21, which is activated rapidly when ESCs differentiate in response to increases in Sox2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that prior to differentiation, the Sox21 gene is bound by a complex array of repressive and activating transcriptional machinery. Upon activation, all identified repressive machinery and histone modifications associated with the gene are lost, but the activating modifications and transcriptional machinery are retained. Notably, these changes do not occur when ESCs differentiate in response to retinoic acid. Moreover, ESCs lacking a functional PRC2 complex fail to activate this gene, apparently due to its association with other repressive complexes. Together, these findings suggest that bivalent genes, such as Sox21, are silenced by a complex set of redundant repressive machinery, which exit rapidly in response to appropriate differentiation signals.

  5. The human involucrin gene is transcriptionally repressed through a tissue-specific silencer element recognized by Oct-2.

    PubMed

    Azuara-Liceaga, Elisa; Sandoval, Marisol; Corona, Matilde; Gariglio, Patricio; López-Bayghen, Esther

    2004-05-28

    Involucrin is an important marker of epithelial differentiation which expression is upregulated just after basal cells are pushed into the suprabasal layer in stratified epithelia. Several transcription factors and regulatory elements had been described as responsible for turning on the gene. However, it is evident that in basal cell layer, additional mechanisms are involved in keeping the gene silent before the differentiation process starts. In this work, we located a potential transcriptional silencer in a 52bp sequence whose integrity is necessary for silencing the proximal enhancer promoter element (PEP) in multiplying keratinocytes. Octamer-binding sites were noticed in this fragment and the specific binding of Oct-2 transcription factor was detected. Oct-2 appears to be implicated in an epithelial-specific repression activity recorded only in keratinocytes and C33-A cell line. Overexpression of Oct-2 repressed the involucrin promoter activity in epithelial cells and in the presence of the silencer element.

  6. RNAi Codex: a portal/database for short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) gene-silencing constructs.

    PubMed

    Olson, A; Sheth, N; Lee, J S; Hannon, G; Sachidanandam, R

    2006-01-01

    Use of RNA interference (RNAi) in forward genetic screens is proliferating. Currently, short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) are being used to silence genes to tease out functional information. It is becoming easier to harness RNAi to silence specific genes, owing to the development of libraries of readymade shRNA and siRNA gene-silencing constructs by using a variety of sources. RNAi Codex, which consists of a database of shRNA related information and an associated website, has been developed as a portal for publicly available shRNA resources and is accessible at http://codex.cshl.org. RNAi Codex currently holds data from the Hannon-Elledge shRNA library and allows the use of biologist-friendly gene names to access information on shRNA constructs that can silence the gene of interest. It is designed to hold user-contributed annotations and publications for each construct, as and when such data become available. We will describe features of RNAi Codex and explain the use of the tool.

  7. Aberrant expression of posterior HOX genes in well differentiated histotypes of thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Cantile, Monica; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; La Sala, Lucia; La Mantia, Elvira; Scaramuzza, Veronica; Valentino, Elena; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Losito, Simona; Pezzullo, Luciano; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Fulciniti, Franco; Franco, Renato; Botti, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    Molecular etiology of thyroid cancers has been widely studied, and several molecular alterations have been identified mainly associated with follicular and papillary histotypes. However, the molecular bases of the complex pathogenesis of thyroid carcinomas remain poorly understood. HOX genes regulate normal embryonic development, cell differentiation and other critical processes in eukaryotic cell life. Several studies have shown that HOX genes play a role in neoplastic transformation of several human tissues. In particular, the genes belonging to HOX paralogous group 13 seem to hold a relevant role in both tumor development and progression. We have identified a significant prognostic role of HOX D13 in pancreatic cancer and we have recently showed the strong and progressive over-expression of HOX C13 in melanoma metastases and deregulation of HOX B13 expression in bladder cancers. In this study we have investigated, by immunohistochemisty and quantitative Real Time PCR, the HOX paralogous group 13 genes/proteins expression in thyroid cancer evolution and progression, also evaluating its ability to discriminate between main histotypes. Our results showed an aberrant expression, both at gene and protein level, of all members belonging to paralogous group 13 (HOX A13, HOX B13, HOX C13 and HOX D13) in adenoma, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers samples. The data suggest a potential role of HOX paralogous group 13 genes in pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of thyroid cancers.

  8. p21(WAF1) gene promoter is epigenetically silenced by CTIP2 and SUV39H1.

    PubMed

    Cherrier, T; Suzanne, S; Redel, L; Calao, M; Marban, C; Samah, B; Mukerjee, R; Schwartz, C; Gras, G; Sawaya, B E; Zeichner, S L; Aunis, D; Van Lint, C; Rohr, O

    2009-09-24

    Mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, the cellular cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CDKN1A/p21(WAF1) (p21), is a major cell cycle regulator of the response to DNA damage, senescence and tumor suppression. Here, we report that COUP-TF-interacting protein 2 (CTIP2), recruited to the p21 gene promoter, silenced p21 gene transcription through interactions with histone deacetylases and methyltransferases. Importantly, treatment with the specific SUV39H1 inhibitor, chaetocin, repressed histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation at the p21 gene promoter, stimulated p21 gene expression and induced cell cycle arrest. In addition, CTIP2 and SUV39H1 were recruited to the silenced p21 gene promoter to cooperatively inhibit p21 gene transcription. Induction of p21(WAF1) gene upon human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection benefits viral expression in macrophages. Here, we report that CTIP2 further abolishes Vpr-mediated stimulation of p21, thereby indirectly contributing to HIV-1 latency. Altogether, our results suggest that CTIP2 is a constitutive p21 gene suppressor that cooperates with SUV39H1 and histone methylation to silence the p21 gene transcription.

  9. Distinctive profiles of small RNA couple inverted repeat-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing with endogenous RNA silencing pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Matvienko, Marta; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Xu, Huaqin; Martineau, Belinda; Wong, Joan; Govindarajulu, Manjula; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The experimental induction of RNA silencing in plants often involves expression of transgenes encoding inverted repeat (IR) sequences to produce abundant dsRNAs that are processed into small RNAs (sRNAs). These sRNAs are key mediators of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and determine its specificity. Despite its application in agriculture and broad utility in plant research, the mechanism of IR-PTGS is incompletely understood. We generated four sets of 60 Arabidopsis plants, each containing IR transgenes expressing different configurations of uidA and CHALCONE SYNTHASE (At-CHS) gene fragments. Levels of PTGS were found to depend on the orientation and position of the fragment in the IR construct. Deep sequencing and mapping of sRNAs to corresponding transgene-derived and endogenous transcripts identified distinctive patterns of differential sRNA accumulation that revealed similarities among sRNAs associated with IR-PTGS and endogenous sRNAs linked to uncapped mRNA decay. Detailed analyses of poly-A cleavage products from At-CHS mRNA confirmed this hypothesis. We also found unexpected associations between sRNA accumulation and the presence of predicted open reading frames in the trigger sequence. In addition, strong IR-PTGS affected the prevalence of endogenous sRNAs, which has implications for the use of PTGS for experimental or applied purposes. PMID:25344399

  10. Analysis of genomic aberrations and gene expression profiling identifies novel lesions and pathways in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K L; Lin, X; Wolniak, K; Ebert, B L; Berkofsky-Fessler, W; Buzzai, M; Sun, Y; Xi, C; Elkin, P; Levine, R; Golub, T; Gilliland, D G; Crispino, J D; Licht, J D; Zhang, W

    2011-01-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, are myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) with distinct clinical features and are associated with the JAK2V617F mutation. To identify genomic anomalies involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders, we profiled 87 MPN patients using Affymetrix 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Aberrations affecting chr9 were the most frequently observed and included 9pLOH (n=16), trisomy 9 (n=6) and amplifications of 9p13.3–23.3 (n=1), 9q33.1–34.13 (n=1) and 9q34.13 (n=6). Patients with trisomy 9 were associated with elevated JAK2V617F mutant allele burden, suggesting that gain of chr9 represents an alternative mechanism for increasing JAK2V617F dosage. Gene expression profiling of patients with and without chr9 abnormalities (+9, 9pLOH), identified genes potentially involved in disease pathogenesis including JAK2, STAT5B and MAPK14. We also observed recurrent gains of 1p36.31–36.33 (n=6), 17q21.2–q21.31 (n=5) and 17q25.1–25.3 (n=5) and deletions affecting 18p11.31–11.32 (n=8). Combined SNP and gene expression analysis identified aberrations affecting components of a non-canonical PRC2 complex (EZH1, SUZ12 and JARID2) and genes comprising a ‘HSC signature' (MLLT3, SMARCA2 and PBX1). We show that NFIB, which is amplified in 7/87 MPN patients and upregulated in PV CD34+ cells, protects cells from apoptosis induced by cytokine withdrawal. PMID:22829077

  11. Morphology engineering of Penicillium chrysogenum by RNA silencing of chitin synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Peng; Gong, Guohong; Wang, Li; Zhao, Genhai; Zheng, Zhiming

    2013-03-01

    Chitin synthases, that catalyze the formation of chitin the major component of cell walls in most filamentous fungi, play crucial roles in the growth and morphogenesis. To investigate the roles of chitin synthase in Penicillium chrysogenum, we developed an RNAi system to silence the class III chitin synthase gene chs4. After transformation, mutants had a slow growth rate and shorter but highly branched hyphae. All transformants either were unable to form conidia or could form only a few. Changes in chs4 expression could lead to a completely different morphology and eventually cause distinct penicillin yields. In particular, the yield of one transformant was 41 % higher than that of the original strain.

  12. Illuminating the gateway of gene silencing: perspective of RNA interference technology in clinical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Annu; Arora, Pooja; Chaudhury, Ashok

    2012-07-01

    A novel laboratory revolution for disease therapy, the RNA interference (RNAi) technology, has adopted a new era of molecular research as the next generation "Gene-targeted prophylaxis." In this review, we have focused on the chief technological challenges associated with the efforts to develop RNAi-based therapeutics that may guide the biomedical researchers. Many non-curable maladies, like neurodegenerative diseases and cancers have effectively been cured using this technology. Rapid advances are still in progress for the development of RNAi-based technologies that will be having a major impact on medical research. We have highlighted the recent discoveries associated with the phenomenon of RNAi, expression of silencing molecules in mammals along with the vector systems used for disease therapeutics.

  13. Therapeutic potentials of gene silencing by RNA interference: principles, challenges, and new strategies.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Chi Chiu; Choy, Kwong Wai; Du, Quan; Chen, Jiao; Wang, Qin; Li, Lu; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Tang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    During recent decades there have been remarkable advances in biology, in which one of the most important discoveries is RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a specific post-transcriptional regulatory pathway that can result in silencing gene functions. Efforts have been done to translate this new discovery into clinical applications for disease treatment. However, technical difficulties restrict the development of RNAi, including stability, off-target effects, immunostimulation and delivery problems. Researchers have attempted to surmount these barriers and improve the bioavailability and safety of RNAi-based therapeutics by optimizing the chemistry and structure of these molecules. This paper aimed to describe the principles of RNA interference, review the therapeutic potential in various diseases and discuss the new strategies for in vivo delivery of RNAi to overcome the challenges.

  14. Depletion of MOM1 in non-dividing cells of Arabidopsis plants releases transcriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad; Habu, Yoshiki; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2002-10-01

    Mitotic and meiotic inheritance of epigenetic information is coupled to the reproduction of chromatin conformation and DNA methylation patterns. This implies that the S phase of the cell cycle provides a window of opportunity for changes in epigenetic determination. Recent studies, however, have suggested that chromatin structure is also rather dynamic in quiescent cells of multicellular eukaryotes and that silent heterochromatic regions can become accessible to transcription. Such epigenetic flexibility in differentiated tissues could be of physiological importance. The mechanisms and molecular components involved are of great interest but as yet unknown. We examined MOM1 (Morpheus' Molecule 1), a regulator of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) that acts independently of DNA methylation, for its role in the maintenance of TGS in non-dividing, differentiated cells. The results provide evidence that TGS maintenance mediated by MOM1 is a dynamic process that can be modified in non-dividing cells of mature plant organs by depletion of MOM1.

  15. Effect of age on the gene expression of neural-restrictive silencing factor NRSF/REST.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nozomu; Mizuno, Takafumi; Murai, Kiyohito; Nakano, Itsuko; Yamashita, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Aging affects a wide range of gene expression changes in the nervous system. Such effects could be attributed to random changes in the environment with age around each gene, but also could be caused by selective changes in a limited set of key regulatory transcription factors and/or chromatin remodeling components. To approach the question of whether neural-restrictive silencer factor NRSF, a key determinant of the neuron-specific gene expression, is involved in these changes, we examined the levels of NRSF in the rat brain and dosal root ganglia during aging by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RT-PCR). Complementary expression profiles of transcripts of NRSF and SCG10 in the mature brain were shown by in situ hybridization. Neither the mRNA levels of NRSF nor a splicing variant NRnV were changed, at least in rats up to 26 months old. The gene expression level of SCG10, one of the NRSF targets, was also unaffected by age. The stable expression of SCG10 transcripts in aging was confirmed by in situ hybridization. The NRS-binding ability of NRSF was also unchanged significantly in the nuclear extracts of aged rat brain. These results suggest that the genetic machinery associated with the NRS-NRSF system is well maintained during aging.

  16. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) Mediated siRNA Gene Silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni Snail Host, Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Matty; Miller, Andre; Liu, Yijia; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn

    2011-01-01

    An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds) and small interfering (si) RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a ‘mock’ fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB) with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx) at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease. PMID:21765961

  17. Comprehensive protein-based artificial microRNA screens for effective gene silencing in plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Feng; Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Bush, Jenifer; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen

    2013-05-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) approaches offer a powerful strategy for targeted gene manipulation in any plant species. However, the current unpredictability of amiRNA efficacy has limited broad application of this promising technology. To address this, we developed epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA (ETPamir) screens, in which target mRNAs encoding epitope-tagged proteins were constitutively or inducibly coexpressed in protoplasts with amiRNA candidates targeting single or multiple genes. This design allowed parallel quantification of target proteins and mRNAs to define amiRNA efficacy and mechanism of action, circumventing unpredictable amiRNA expression/processing and antibody unavailability. Systematic evaluation of 63 amiRNAs in 79 ETPamir screens for 16 target genes revealed a simple, effective solution for selecting optimal amiRNAs from hundreds of computational predictions, reaching ∼100% gene silencing in plant cells and null phenotypes in transgenic plants. Optimal amiRNAs predominantly mediated highly specific translational repression at 5' coding regions with limited mRNA decay or cleavage. Our screens were easily applied to diverse plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Catharanthus roseus, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa), and effectively validated predicted natural miRNA targets. These screens could improve plant research and crop engineering by making amiRNA a more predictable and manageable genetic and functional genomic technology.

  18. Efficient gene delivery and silencing of mouse and human pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In view of the importance of beta cells in glucose homeostasis and the profound repercussions of beta cell pathology on human health, the acquisition of tools to study pancreatic islet function is essential for the design of alternative novel therapies for diabetes. One promising approach toward this goal involves the modification of gene expression profile of beta cells. Results This study describes a new method of gene and siRNA delivery into human pancreatic islets by microporation technology. We demonstrated that mild islet distention with accutase greatly enhanced the transfection efficiency without compromising in vitro function (secretion, apoptosis and viability). As an example, the recently identified gene involved in type 2 diabetes, ZnT8, can be over-expressed or silenced by RNA interference using this technology. Microporation can also be used on rodent islets. Conclusions Taken together, our results demonstrate that microporation technology can be used to modify gene expression in whole rodent and human islets without altering their in vitro function and will be key to the elucidation of the factors responsible for proper islet function. PMID:20353585

  19. CRES-T, an effective gene silencing system utilizing chimeric repressors.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Matsui, Kyoko; Ikeda, Miho; Nakata, Masaru; Oshima, Yoshimi; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    Chimeric REpressor gene Silencing Technology (CRES-T) is a useful tool for functional analysis of plant transcription factors. In this system, a chimeric repressor that is produced by fusion of a transcription factor to the plant-specific EAR-motif repression domain (SRDX) suppresses target genes of a transcription factor dominantly over the activity of endogenous and functionally redundant transcription factors. As a result, the transgenic plants that express a chimeric repressor exhibit phenotypes similar to loss-of-function of the alleles of the gene encoding the transcription factor. This system is simple and effective and can be used as a powerful tool not only for functional analysis of redundant transcription factors but also for the manipulation of plant traits by active suppression of the gene expression. Strategies for construction of the chimeric repressors and their expression in transgenic plants are described. Transient effector-reporter assays for functional analysis of transcription factors and detection of protein-protein interactions using the trans-repressive activity of SRDX repression domain are also described.

  20. Alleviating GAA Repeat Induced Transcriptional Silencing of the Friedreich's Ataxia Gene During Somatic Cell Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Polak, Urszula; Li, Yanjie; Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Napierala, Marek

    2016-12-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common autosomal recessive ataxia. This severe neurodegenerative disease is caused by an expansion of guanine-adenine-adenine (GAA) repeats located in the first intron of the frataxin (FXN) gene, which represses its transcription. Although transcriptional silencing is associated with heterochromatin-like changes in the vicinity of the expanded GAAs, the exact mechanism and pathways involved in transcriptional inhibition are largely unknown. As major remodeling of the epigenome is associated with somatic cell reprogramming, modulating chromatin modification pathways during the cellular transition from a somatic to a pluripotent state is likely to generate permanent changes to the epigenetic landscape. We hypothesize that the epigenetic modifications in the vicinity of the GAA repeats can be reversed by pharmacological modulation during somatic cell reprogramming. We reprogrammed FRDA fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the presence of various small molecules that target DNA methylation and histone acetylation and methylation. Treatment of FRDA iPSCs with two compounds, sodium butyrate (NaB) and Parnate, led to an increase in FXN expression and correction of repressive marks at the FXN locus, which persisted for several passages. However, prolonged culture of the epigenetically modified FRDA iPSCs led to progressive expansions of the GAA repeats and a corresponding decrease in FXN expression. Furthermore, we uncovered that differentiation of these iPSCs into neurons also results in resilencing of the FXN gene. Taken together, these results demonstrate that transcriptional repression caused by long GAA repeat tracts can be partially or transiently reversed by altering particular epigenetic modifications, thus revealing possibilities for detailed analyses of silencing mechanism and development of new therapeutic approaches for FRDA.

  1. Muscle cell atrophy induced by HSP gene silencing was counteracted by HSP overexpression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Inho; Lee, Joo-Hee; Nikawa, Takeshi; Gwag, Taesik; Park, Kyoungsook; Park, Junsoo

    Heat shock proteins (HSP), as molecular chaperones, are known to assist protein quality control under various stresses. Although overexpression of HSP70 was found to contribute to muscle size retention under an unloading condition, it remains largely unclarified whether muscle atrophy is induced by active suppression of HSP expression. In this study, we pre-treated Hsp70 siRNA to rat L6 cells for the HSP gene silencing, and determined myotube diameter, HSP72 expression and anabolic and catabolic signaling activities in the absence or presence of triterpene celastrol (CEL), the HSP70 inducer. Relative to a negative control (NC), muscle cell diameter was reduced 0.89-fold in the siRNA-treated group, increased 1.2-fold in the CEL-treated group and retained at the size of NC in the siRNA+CEL group. HSP72 expression was decreased 0.35-fold by siRNA whereas the level was increased 6- to 8-fold in the CEL and siRNA+CEL groups. Expression of FoxO3 and atrogin-1 was increased 1.8- to 4.8-fold by siRNA, which was abolished by CEL treatment. Finally, phosphorylation of Akt1, S6K and ERK1/2 was not affected by siRNA, but was elevated 2- to 6-fold in the CEL and siRNA+CEL groups. Taken together, HSP downregulation by Hsp gene silencing led to muscle cell atrophy principally via increases in catabolic activities and that such anti-atrophic effect was counteracted by HSP overexpression.

  2. Peperomin E reactivates silenced tumor suppressor genes in lung cancer cells by inhibition of DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Zhi; Cheng, Ying; Wang, Kui-Long; Liu, Rui; Yang, Xiao-Lin; Wen, Hong-Mei; Chai, Chuan; Liang, Jing-Yu; Wu, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Advanced lung cancer has poor prognosis owing to its low sensitivity to current chemotherapy agents. Therefore, discovery of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of peperomin E, a secolignan isolated from Peperomia dindygulensis, a frequently used Chinese folk medicine for lung cancer treatment. The results indicate that peperomin E has antiproliferative effects, promoting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, while showing lower toxicity against normal human lung epidermal cells. Peperomin E inhibited tumor growth in A549 xenograft BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects, indicating that it may be safely used to treat NSCLC. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of peperomin E have been investigated. Using an in silico target fishing method, we observed that peperomin E directly interacts with the active domain of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), potentially affecting its genome methylation activity. Subsequent experiments verified that peperomin E decreased DNMT1 activity and expression, thereby decreasing global methylation and reactivating the epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes including RASSF1A, APC, RUNX3, and p16INK4, which in turn activates their mediated pro-apoptotic and cell cycle regulatory signaling pathways in lung cancer cells. The observations herein report for the first time that peperomin E is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for NSCLC. The anticancer effects of peperomin E may be partly attributable to its ability to demethylate and reactivate methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes through direct inhibition of the activity and expression of DNMT1.

  3. RNA-mediated gene silencing signals are not graft transmissible from the rootstock to the scion in greenhouse-grown apple plants Malus sp.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Tränkner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent.

  4. GapmeR cellular internalization by macropinocytosis induces sequence-specific gene silencing in human primary T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Fazil, Mobashar Hussain Urf Turabe; Ong, Seow Theng; Chalasani, Madhavi Latha Somaraju; Low, Jian Hui; Kizhakeyil, Atish; Mamidi, Akshay; Lim, Carey Fang Hui; Wright, Graham D.; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Kelleher, Dermot; Verma, Navin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Post-transcriptional gene silencing holds great promise in discovery research for addressing intricate biological questions and as therapeutics. While various gene silencing approaches, such as siRNA and CRISPR-Cas9 techniques, are available, these cannot be effectively applied to “hard-to-transfect” primary T-lymphocytes. The locked nucleic acid-conjugated chimeric antisense oligonucleotide, called “GapmeR”, is an emerging new class of gene silencing molecule. Here, we show that GapmeR internalizes into human primary T-cells through macropinocytosis. Internalized GapmeR molecules can associate with SNX5-positive macropinosomes in T-cells, as detected by super-resolution microscopy. Utilizing the intrinsic self-internalizing capability of GapmeR, we demonstrate significant and specific depletion (>70%) of the expression of 5 different endogenous proteins with varying molecular weights (18 kDa Stathmin, 80 kDa PKCε, 180 kDa CD11a, 220 kDa Talin1 and 450 kDa CG-NAP/AKAP450) in human primary and cultured T-cells. Further functional analysis confirms CG-NAP and Stathmin as regulators of T-cell motility. Thus, in addition to screening, identifying or verifying critical roles of various proteins in T-cell functioning, this study provides novel opportunities to silence individual or multiple genes in a subset of purified human primary T-cells that would be exploited as future therapeutics. PMID:27883055

  5. Gene silencing of TACE enhances plaque stability and improves vascular remodeling in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xueqiang; Kong, Jing; Zhao, Yuxia; Wang, Xuping; Bu, Peili; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that gene silencing of tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE) may attenuate lesion inflammation and positive vascular remodeling and enhance plaque stability in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Lentivirus-mediated TACE shRNA was injected into the abdominal aortic plaques of rabbits which effectively down-regulated TACE expression and activities from week 8 to week 16. TACE gene silencing reduced remodeling index and plaque burden, and diminished the content of macrophages and lipids while increased that of smooth muscle cells and collagen in the aortic plaques. In addition, TACE gene silencing attenuated the local expression of P65, iNOS, ICAM-1, VEGF and Flt-1 and activities of MMP9 and MMP2 while increased the local expression of TGF-β1 together with reduced number of neovessels in the aorta. TACE shRNA treatment resulted in down-regulated expression of TACE in macrophages and blunted ERK-P38 phosphorylation and tube formation of co-cultured mouse vascular smooth muscle cells or human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, gene silencing of TACE enhanced plaque stability and improved vascular positive remodeling. The mechanisms may involve attenuated local inflammation, neovascularization and MMP activation, as well as enhanced collagen production probably via down-regulated ERK-NF-κB and up-regulated TGF-β1 signaling pathways. PMID:26655882

  6. Manipulation of DET1 expression in tomato results in photomorphogenic phenotypes caused by post-transcriptional gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Davuluri, Ganga Rao; van Tuinen, Ageeth; Mustilli, Anna Chiara; Manfredonia, Alessandro; Newman, Robert; Burgess, Diane; Brummell, David A.; King, Stephen R.; Palys, Joe; Uhlig, John; Pennings, Henk M. J.; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Summary The tomato HIGH PIGMENT-2 gene encodes an orthologue of the Arabidopsis nuclear protein DE-ETIOLATED 1 (DET1). From genetic analyses it has been proposed that DET1 is a negative regulator of light signal transduction, and recent results indicate that it may control light-regulated gene expression at the level of chromatin remodelling. To gain further understanding about the function of DET1 during plant development, we generated a range of overexpression constructs and introduced them into tomato. Unexpectedly, we only observed phenotypes characteristic of DET1 inactivation, i.e. hyper-responsiveness to light. Molecular analysis indicated in all cases that these phenotypes were a result of suppression of endogenous DET1 expression, due to post-transcriptional gene silencing. DET1 silencing was often lethal when it occurred at relatively early stages of plant development, whereas light hyper-responsive phenotypes were obtained when silencing occurred later on. The appearance of phenotypes correlated with the generation of siRNAs but not DNA hypermethylation, and was most efficient when using constructs with mutations in the DET1 coding sequence or with constructs containing only the 3′-terminal portion of the gene. These results indicate an important function for DET1 throughout plant development and demonstrate that silencing of DET1 in fruits results in increased carotenoids, which may have biotechnological potential. PMID:15469492

  7. Quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat grain proteins reveals differential effects of silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes in transgenic lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel wheat lines with altered flour compositions can be used to decipher the roles of specific gluten proteins in flour quality. Grain proteins from transgenic wheat lines in which genes encoding the omega-5 gliadins were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) were analyzed in detail by quantitative 2...

  8. Host-mediated gene silencing of a single effector gene from the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans imparts partial resistance to late blight disease.

    PubMed

    Sanju, Suman; Siddappa, Sundaresha; Thakur, Aditi; Shukla, Pradeep K; Srivastava, Nidhi; Pattanayak, Debasis; Sharma, Sanjeev; Singh, B P

    2015-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has proved a powerful genetic tool for silencing genes in plants. Host-induced gene silencing of pathogen genes has provided a gene knockout strategy for a wide range of biotechnological applications. The RXLR effector Avr3a gene is largely responsible for virulence of oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans. In this study, we attempted to silence the Avr3a gene of P. infestans through RNAi technology. The P. infestans inoculation resulted in lower disease progression and a reduction in pathogen load, as demonstrated by disease scoring and quantification of pathogen biomass in terms of Pi08 repetitive elements, respectively. Transgenic plants induced moderate silencing of Avr3a, and the presence and/or expression of small interfering RNAs, as determined through Northern hybridization, indicated siRNA targeted against Avr3a conferred moderate resistance to P. infestans. The single effector gene did not provide complete resistance against P. infestans. Although the Avr3a effector gene could confer moderate resistance, for complete resistance, the cumulative effect of effector genes in addition to Avr3a needs to be considered. In this study, we demonstrated that host-induced RNAi is an effective strategy for functional genomics in oomycetes.

  9. HOXA11 gene is hypermethylation and aberrant expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant DNA methylation is an acquired epigenetic alteration that serves as an alternative to genetic defects in the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and other genes in diverse human cancers. Gastric carcinoma is one of the tumors with a high frequency of aberrant methylation in promoter region. Hence we investigated the promoter methylation status and expression level of HOXA11 gene which may involve in GC development. Methods Thirty-two surgical excised gastric cancer specimens, twelve paired adjacent non-cancerous specimens and seven normal gastric mucosas were examined. The methylation status and expression level of HOXA11 gene were determined by bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively. HOXA11 expression was knocked-down with siRNA to mimic HOXA11 gene hypermethylation and ability of cell proliferation and migration was determinate. In addition, we analyzed and correlated the findings with clinicopathological features. Results The methylation level of HOXA11 gene in gastric cancer tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were higher than those in normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). The methylation level was higher in TNM III and IV patients of GC than those in TNM I and II patients (P < 0.05). The expression of HOXA11 mRNA and protein decreased in normal gastric mucosa, peri-cancer tissue and GC (P < 0.05). HOXA11 expression was inversely correlated with DNA methylation (P < 0.05). Knocked-down of HOXA11 expression with siRNA in BGC-823 cells enhanced cell proliferation compared with control, but no significant different was observed in migration ability. Conclusion Hypermethylation and decreased expression of HOXA11 gene may be involved in the carcinogenesis and development of GC and may provide useful information for the prediction of the malignant behaviors of GC. And the expression of HOXA11 is impaired by DNA methylation. However

  10. Short germ insects utilize both the ancestral and derived mode of Polycomb group-mediated epigenetic silencing of Hox genes.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Yuji; Bando, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Takahito; Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Noji, Sumihare; Popadić, Aleksandar; Mito, Taro

    2015-05-06

    In insect species that undergo long germ segmentation, such as Drosophila, all segments are specified simultaneously at the early blastoderm stage. As embryogenesis progresses, the expression boundaries of Hox genes are established by repression of gap genes, which is subsequently replaced by Polycomb group (PcG) silencing. At present, however, it is not known whether patterning occurs this way in a more ancestral (short germ) mode of embryogenesis, where segments are added gradually during posterior elongation. In this study, two members of the PcG family, Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12), were analyzed in the short germ cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Results suggest that although stepwise negative regulation by gap and PcG genes is present in anterior members of the Hox cluster, it does not account for regulation of two posterior Hox genes, abdominal-A (abd-A) and Abdominal-B (Abd-B). Instead, abd-A and Abd-B are predominantly regulated by PcG genes, which is the mode present in vertebrates. These findings suggest that an intriguing transition of the PcG-mediated silencing of Hox genes may have occurred during animal evolution. The ancestral bilaterian state may have resembled the current vertebrate mode of regulation, where PcG-mediated silencing of Hox genes occurs before their expression is initiated and is responsible for the establishment of individual expression domains. Then, during insect evolution, the repression by transcription factors may have been acquired in anterior Hox genes of short germ insects, while PcG silencing was maintained in posterior Hox genes.

  11. Short germ insects utilize both the ancestral and derived mode of Polycomb group-mediated epigenetic silencing of Hox genes

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yuji; Bando, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Takahito; Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Noji, Sumihare; Popadić, Aleksandar; Mito, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In insect species that undergo long germ segmentation, such as Drosophila, all segments are specified simultaneously at the early blastoderm stage. As embryogenesis progresses, the expression boundaries of Hox genes are established by repression of gap genes, which is subsequently replaced by Polycomb group (PcG) silencing. At present, however, it is not known whether patterning occurs this way in a more ancestral (short germ) mode of embryogenesis, where segments are added gradually during posterior elongation. In this study, two members of the PcG family, Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12), were analyzed in the short germ cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Results suggest that although stepwise negative regulation by gap and PcG genes is present in anterior members of the Hox cluster, it does not account for regulation of two posterior Hox genes, abdominal-A (abd-A) and Abdominal-B (Abd-B). Instead, abd-A and Abd-B are predominantly regulated by PcG genes, which is the mode present in vertebrates. These findings suggest that an intriguing transition of the PcG-mediated silencing of Hox genes may have occurred during animal evolution. The ancestral bilaterian state may have resembled the current vertebrate mode of regulation, where PcG-mediated silencing of Hox genes occurs before their expression is initiated and is responsible for the establishment of individual expression domains. Then, during insect evolution, the repression by transcription factors may have been acquired in anterior Hox genes of short germ insects, while PcG silencing was maintained in posterior Hox genes. PMID:25948756

  12. Gene silencing of Nox4 by CpG island methylation during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    López-Álvarez, Guadalupe S; Wojdacz, Tomasz K; García-Cuellar, Claudia M; Monroy-Ramírez, Hugo C; Rodríguez-Segura, Miguel A; Pacheco-Rivera, Ruth A; Valencia-Antúnez, Carlos A; Cervantes-Anaya, Nancy; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Vásquez-Garzón, Verónica R; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Villa-Treviño, Saúl

    2017-01-15

    The association between the downregulation of genes and DNA methylation in their CpG islands has been extensively studied as a mechanism that favors carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to analyze the methylation of a set of genes selected based on their microarray expression profiles during the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were euthanized at: 24 h, 7, 11, 16 and 30 days and 5, 9, 12 and 18 months post-treatment. We evaluated the methylation status in the CpG islands of four deregulated genes (Casp3, Cldn1, Pex11a and Nox4) using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting technology for the samples obtained from different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. We did not observe methylation in Casp3, Cldn1 or Pex11a. However, Nox4 exhibited altered methylation patterns, reaching a maximum of 10%, even during the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. We observed downregulation of mRNA and protein of Nox4 (97.5% and 40%, respectively) after the first carcinogenic stimulus relative to the untreated samples. Our results suggest that Nox4 downregulation is associated with DNA methylation of the CpG island in its promoter. We propose that methylation is a mechanism that can silence the expression of Nox4, which could contribute to the acquisition of neoplastic characteristics during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

  13. Gene silencing of Nox4 by CpG island methylation during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    López-Álvarez, Guadalupe S.; Wojdacz, Tomasz K.; García-Cuellar, Claudia M.; Monroy-Ramírez, Hugo C.; Rodríguez-Segura, Miguel A.; Pacheco-Rivera, Ruth A.; Valencia-Antúnez, Carlos A.; Cervantes-Anaya, Nancy; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Vásquez-Garzón, Verónica R.; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Villa-Treviño, Saúl

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The association between the downregulation of genes and DNA methylation in their CpG islands has been extensively studied as a mechanism that favors carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to analyze the methylation of a set of genes selected based on their microarray expression profiles during the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were euthanized at: 24 h, 7, 11, 16 and 30 days and 5, 9, 12 and 18 months post-treatment. We evaluated the methylation status in the CpG islands of four deregulated genes (Casp3, Cldn1, Pex11a and Nox4) using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting technology for the samples obtained from different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. We did not observe methylation in Casp3, Cldn1 or Pex11a. However, Nox4 exhibited altered methylation patterns, reaching a maximum of 10%, even during the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. We observed downregulation of mRNA and protein of Nox4 (97.5% and 40%, respectively) after the first carcinogenic stimulus relative to the untreated samples. Our results suggest that Nox4 downregulation is associated with DNA methylation of the CpG island in its promoter. We propose that methylation is a mechanism that can silence the expression of Nox4, which could contribute to the acquisition of neoplastic characteristics during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. PMID:27895046

  14. Applications of RNA interference-based gene silencing in animal agriculture.

    PubMed

    Long, Charles R; Tessanne, Kimberly J; Golding, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Classical genetic selection, recently aided by genomic selection tools, has been successful in achieving remarkable progress in livestock improvement. However, genetic selection has led to decreased genetic diversity and, in some cases, acquisition of undesirable traits. In order to meet the increased demands of our expanding population, new technologies and practices must be developed that contend with zoonotic and animal disease, environmental impacts of large farming operations and the increased food and fibre production needed to feed and clothe our society. Future increases in productivity may be dependent upon the acquisition of genetic traits not currently encoded by the genomes of animals used in standard agricultural practice, thus making classical genetic selection impossible. Genetic engineering of livestock is commonly used to produce pharmaceuticals or to impart enhanced production characteristics to animals, but has also demonstrated its usefulness in producing animals with disease resistance. However, significant challenges remain because it has been more difficult to produce animals in which specific genes have been removed. It is now possible to modify livestock genomes to block expression of endogenous and exogenous genes (such as those expressed following virus infection). In the present review, we discuss mechanisms of silencing gene expression via the biology of RNA interference (RNAi), the technology of activating the RNAi pathway and the application of this technology to enhance livestock production through increased production efficiency and prevention of disease. An increased demand for sustainable food production is at the forefront of scientific challenges and RNAi technology will undoubtedly play a key role.

  15. Senataxin plays an essential role with DNA damage response proteins in meiotic recombination and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Becherel, Olivier J; Yeo, Abrey J; Stellati, Alissa; Heng, Evelyn Y H; Luff, John; Suraweera, Amila M; Woods, Rick; Fleming, Jean; Carrie, Dianne; McKinney, Kristine; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chuxia; Lavin, Martin F

    2013-04-01

    Senataxin, mutated in the human genetic disorder ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2), plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity by coordination of transcription, DNA replication, and the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that senataxin is essential for spermatogenesis and that it functions at two stages in meiosis during crossing-over in homologous recombination and in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Disruption of the Setx gene caused persistence of DNA double-strand breaks, a defect in disassembly of Rad51 filaments, accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids (R-loops), and ultimately a failure of crossing-over. Senataxin localised to the XY body in a Brca1-dependent manner, and in its absence there was incomplete localisation of DNA damage response proteins to the XY chromosomes and ATR was retained on the axial elements of these chromosomes, failing to diffuse out into chromatin. Furthermore persistence of RNA polymerase II activity, altered ubH2A distribution, and abnormal XY-linked gene expression in Setx⁻/⁻ revealed an essential role for senataxin in MSCI. These data support key roles for senataxin in coordinating meiotic crossing-over with transcription and in gene silencing to protect the integrity of the genome.

  16. Induction and maintenance of DNA methylation in plant promoter sequences by apple latent spherical virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) is an efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector in functional genomics analyses of a broad range of plant species. Here, an Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation (agroinoculation) system was developed for the ALSV vector, and virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing (VITGS) is described in plants infected with the ALSV vector. The cDNAs of ALSV RNA1 and RNA2 were inserted between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the NOS-T sequences in a binary vector pCAMBIA1300 to produce pCALSR1 and pCALSR2-XSB or pCALSR2-XSB/MN. When these vector constructs were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a construct expressing a viral silencing suppressor, the infection efficiency of the vectors was 100%. A recombinant ALSV vector carrying part of the 35S promoter sequence induced transcriptional gene silencing of the green fluorescent protein gene in a line of N. benthamiana plants, resulting in the disappearance of green fluorescence of infected plants. Bisulfite sequencing showed that cytosine residues at CG and CHG sites of the 35S promoter sequence were highly methylated in the silenced generation zero plants infected with the ALSV carrying the promoter sequence as well as in progeny. The ALSV-mediated VITGS state was inherited by progeny for multiple generations. In addition, induction of VITGS of an endogenous gene (chalcone synthase-A) was demonstrated in petunia plants infected with an ALSV vector carrying the native promoter sequence. These results suggest that ALSV-based vectors can be applied to study DNA methylation in plant genomes, and provide a useful tool for plant breeding via epigenetic modification. PMID:25426109

  17. Epigenetic silencing of the MUPCDH gene as a possible prognostic biomarker for cyst growth in ADPKD

    PubMed Central

    Mi Woo, Yu; Shin, Yubin; Hwang, Jung-Ah; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Lee, Sunyoung; Young Park, Eun; Kyung Kong, Hyun; Cho Park, Hayne; Lee, Yeon-Su; Hoon Park, Jong

    2015-01-01

    Although autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease, and is characterized by the formation of multiple fluid-filled cysts, which results in renal failure, early diagnosis and treatment of ADPKD have yet to be defined. Herein, we observed that the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin-like protocadherin (MUPCDH) was hypermethylated in the renal tissue of patients with ADPKD compared to non-ADPKD controls. Inversely, MUPCDH was significantly repressed in ADPKD, especially in cyst-lining cells. Our results indicate that aberrant methylation of MUPCDH promoter CpG islands may be negatively correlated with reduced expression level of MUPCDH and that this contributes to abnormal cell proliferation in ADPKD. It suggests that methylation status of MUPCDH promoter can be used as a novel epigenetic biomarker and a therapeutic target in ADPKD. PMID:26463459

  18. An Abundant Class of Non-coding DNA Can Prevent Stochastic Gene Silencing in the C. elegans Germline.

    PubMed

    Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian; Jain, Nimit; Hansen, Loren; Davis, M Wayne; Li, Yongbin; Zhao, Di; Rebora, Karine; Millet, Jonathan R M; Liu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K; Dupuy, Denis; Jorgensen, Erik M; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-07-14

    Cells benefit from silencing foreign genetic elements but must simultaneously avoid inactivating endogenous genes. Although chromatin modifications and RNAs contribute to maintenance of silenced states, the establishment of silenced regions will inevitably reflect underlying DNA sequence and/or structure. Here, we demonstrate that a pervasive non-coding DNA feature in Caenorhabditis elegans, characterized by 10-base pair periodic An/Tn-clusters (PATCs), can license transgenes for germline expression within repressive chromatin domains. Transgenes containing natural or synthetic PATCs are resistant to position effect variegation and stochastic silencing in the germline. Among endogenous genes, intron length and PATC-character undergo dramatic changes as orthologs move from active to repressive chromatin over evolutionary time, indicating a dynamic character to the An/Tn periodicity. We propose that PATCs form the basis of a cellular immune system, identifying certain endogenous genes in heterochromatic contexts as privileged while foreign DNA can be suppressed with no requirement for a cellular memory of prior exposure.

  19. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes.

  20. Effect of the silencing of the Ehcp112 gene on the in vitro virulence of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis in humans, affecting up to 50 million people worldwide each year and causing 40,000 to 100,000 deaths annually. EhCP112 is a cysteine proteinase of E. histolytica able to disrupt cell monolayers and digest extracellular matrix proteins, it is secreted by trophozoites and it can be active in a wide range of temperature and pH. These characteristics have encouraged the use of EhCP112 in the design and production of possible vaccines against amoebiasis, obtaining promising results. Nevertheless, we have no conclusive information about the role of EhCP112 in the E. histolytica pathogenesis. Methods A set of three specific siRNA sequences were used to silence the Ehcp112 gene via the soaking system. Silencing was evaluated by Western blot using an antibody against the EhCP112 recombinant protein. Finally, we analyzed the protease activity, the phagocytosis rate and the ability to destroy MDCK cells of the EhCP112-silenced trophozoites. Results The highest silencing effect on EhCP112 was detected at 16 h of treatment; time enough to perform the in vitro virulence assays, which showed that EhCP112 silencing produces a significant reduction in cytolysis and phagocytosis of target cells, indicating the participation of this proteinase in these events. Conclusions EhCP112 is involved in the in vitro virulence of E. histolytica. PMID:23981435

  1. A novel strategy for obtaining kanamycin resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana by silencing an endogenous gene encoding a putative chloroplast transporter.

    PubMed

    Aufsatz, Werner; Nehlin, Lilian; Voronin, Viktor; Schmidt, Agnes; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2009-02-01

    The use of bacterial antibiotic resistance markers in transgenic plants raises concerns about horizontal gene transfer to soil bacteria. We report here that kanamycin resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana can be achieved by silencing an endogenous gene encoding a putative chloroplast transporter, which presumably imports kanamycin into chloroplasts to interfere with ribosomal RNA. Homologs of the transporter exist in other plant species, suggesting this strategy may be generally useful for selecting transformed plant cells.

  2. Gene silencing using the recessive rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa13 as a new paradigm in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyan; Wei, Jing; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

    2012-05-01

    Resistant germplasm resources are valuable for developing resistant varieties in agricultural production. However, recessive resistance genes are usually overlooked in hybrid breeding. Compared with dominant traits, however, they may confer resistance to different pathogenic races or pest biotypes with different mechanisms of action. The recessive rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa13, also involved in pollen development, has been cloned and its resistance mechanism has been recently characterized. This report describes the conversion of bacterial blight resistance mediated by the recessive xa13 gene into a dominant trait to facilitate its use in a breeding program. This was achieved by knockdown of the corresponding dominant allele Xa13 in transgenic rice using recently developed artificial microRNA technology. Tissue-specific promoters were used to exclude most of the expression of artificial microRNA in the anther to ensure that Xa13 functioned normally during pollen development. A battery of highly bacterial blight resistant transgenic plants with normal seed setting rates were acquired, indicating that highly specific gene silencing had been achieved. Our success with xa13 provides a paradigm that can be adapted to other recessive resistance genes.

  3. Silencing of the UCHL1 gene in giant cell tumors of bone.

    PubMed

    Fellenberg, Jörg; Lehner, Burkhard; Witte, Daniela

    2010-10-15

    Giant cell tumors are heterogeneous tumors consisting of multinucleated giant cells, fibroblast-like stromal cells and mononuclear histiocytes. The stromal cells have been identified as the neoplastic cell population, which promotes the recruitment of histiocytes and the formation of giant cells. Strong evidence exists that these cells develop from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in GCT tumorigenesis. The aim of our study was the identification of cancer-related genes differentially expressed in GCTs compared to MSCs in order to identify possible targets for aberrant promoter methylation, which may contribute to MSC transformation and GCT development. Gene expression of 440 cancer-related genes was analyzed by DNA microarrays in GCT stromal cells and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) isolated from the same patient (n = 3) to avoid interindividual variations. Differential expression was identified for 14 genes, which could be confirmed by quantitative PCR in further 21 GCT and 10 BMSC samples. The most pronounced difference in gene expression was detected for UCHL1, an important regulator of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing revealed a strong methylation of the CpG island covering the UCHL1 promoter in GCT stromal cells, whereas methylation was completely absent in BMSCs. UCHL1 expression in stromal cells could be restored by the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-dC. These data demonstrate that the UCHL1 gene is inactivated in GCTs but not in MSCs, suggesting a possible role of UCHL1 in MSC transformation and GCT development.

  4. Mammalian homologues of the Polycomb-group gene Enhancer of zeste mediate gene silencing in Drosophila heterochromatin and at S. cerevisiae telomeres.

    PubMed Central

    Laible, G; Wolf, A; Dorn, R; Reuter, G; Nislow, C; Lebersorger, A; Popkin, D; Pillus, L; Jenuwein, T

    1997-01-01

    Gene silencing is required to stably maintain distinct patterns of gene expression during eukaryotic development and has been correlated with the induction of chromatin domains that restrict gene activity. We describe the isolation of human (EZH2) and mouse (Ezh1) homologues of the Drosophila Polycomb-group (Pc-G) gene Enhancer of zeste [E(z)], a crucial regulator of homeotic gene expression implicated in the assembly of repressive protein complexes in chromatin. Mammalian homologues of E(z) are encoded by two distinct loci in mouse and man, and the two murine Ezh genes display complementary expression profiles during mouse development. The E(z) gene family reveals a striking functional conservation in mediating gene repression in eukaryotic chromatin: extra gene copies of human EZH2 or Drosophila E(z) in transgenic flies enhance position effect variegation of the heterochromatin-associated white gene, and expression of either human EZH2 or murine Ezh1 restores gene repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that are impaired in telomeric silencing. Together, these data provide a functional link between Pc-G-dependent gene repression and inactive chromatin domains, and indicate that silencing mechanism(s) may be broadly conserved in eukaryotes. PMID:9214638

  5. Cationic Lipid-Nucleic Acid Complexes for Gene Delivery And Silencing: Pathways And Mechanisms for Plasmid Dna And Sirna

    SciTech Connect

    Ewert, K.K.; Zidovska, A.; Ahmad, A.; Bouxsein, N.F.; Evans, H.M.; McAllister, C.S.; Samuel, C.E.; Safinya, C.R.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    Motivated by the promises of gene therapy, there is great interest in developing non-viral lipid-based vectors for therapeutic applications due to their low immunogenicity, low toxicity, ease of production, and the potential of transferring large pieces of DNA into cells. In fact, cationic liposome (CL) based vectors are among the prevalent synthetic carriers of nucleic acids (NAs) currently used in gene therapy clinical trials worldwide. These vectors are studied both for gene delivery with CL-DNA complexes and gene silencing with CL-siRNA (short interfering RNA) complexes. However, their transfection efficiencies and silencing efficiencies remain low compared to those of engineered viral vectors. This reflects the currently poor understanding of transfection-related mechanisms at the molecular and self-assembled levels, including a lack of knowledge about interactions between membranes and double stranded NAs and between CL-NA complexes and cellular components. In this review we describe our recent efforts to improve the mechanistic understanding of transfection by CL-NA complexes, which will help to design optimal lipid-based carriers of DNA and siRNA for therapeutic gene delivery and gene silencing.

  6. Unmasking of epigenetically silenced genes reveals DNA promoter methylation and reduced expression of PTCH in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ido; Bose, Shikha; Desmond, Julian C; Lin, Bryan T; Williamson, Elizabeth A; Karlan, Beth Y; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2007-10-01

    A pharmacological-based global screen for epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes was performed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Eighty-one genes in MCF-7 cells and 131 in MDA-MB-231 cells were identified, that had low basal expression and were significantly upregulated following treatment. Eighteen genes were studied for methylation and/or expression in breast cancer; PTCH, the receptor for the hedgehog (Hh) pathway and a known tumor suppressor gene, was selected for further analysis. Methylation of the PTCH promoter was found in MCF-7 cells and in breast cancer samples, and correlated with low PTCH expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of breast tissue arrays revealed high expression of PTCH in normal breast compared to ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinomas; furthermore, association was found between PTCH expression and favorable prognostic factors. PTCH is an inhibitor of the Hh pathway, and its silencing activates the pathway and promotes growth. Indeed, high activity of the Hh pathway was identified in MCF-7 cells and overexpression of PTCH inhibited the pathway. Moreover, treatment with cyclopamine, an inhibitor of the pathway, reduced cell growth and slowed the cell cycle in these cells. Thus, unmasking of epigenetic silencing in breast cancer enabled us to discover a large number of candidate tumor suppressor genes. Further analysis suggested a role of one of these genes, PTCH, in breast cancer tumorigenesis.

  7. A visual reporter system for virus-induced gene silencing in tomato fruit based on anthocyanin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Orzaez, Diego; Medina, Aurora; Torre, Sara; Fernández-Moreno, Josefina Patricia; Rambla, José Luis; Fernández-Del-Carmen, Asun; Butelli, Eugenio; Martin, Cathie; Granell, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for reverse genetics in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, the irregular distribution of the effects of VIGS hampers the identification and quantification of nonvisual phenotypes. To overcome this limitation, a visually traceable VIGS system was developed for fruit, comprising two elements: (1) a transgenic tomato line (Del/Ros1) expressing Antirrhinum majus Delila and Rosea1 transcription factors under the control of the fruit-specific E8 promoter, showing a purple-fruited, anthocyanin-rich phenotype; and (2) a modified tobacco rattle virus VIGS vector incorporating partial Rosea1 and Delila sequences, which was shown to restore the red-fruited phenotype upon agroinjection in Del/Ros1 plants. Dissection of silenced areas for subsequent chemometric analysis successfully identified the relevant metabolites underlying gene function for three tomato genes, phytoene desaturase, TomloxC, and SlODO1, used for proof of concept. The C-6 aldehydes derived from lipid 13-hydroperoxidation were found to be the volatile compounds most severely affected by TomloxC silencing, whereas geranial and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one were identified as the volatiles most severely reduced by phytoene desaturase silencing in ripening fruit. In a third example, silencing of SlODO1, a tomato homolog of the ODORANT1 gene encoding a myb transcription factor, which regulates benzenoid metabolism in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers, resulted in a sharp accumulation of benzaldehyde in tomato fruit. Together, these results indicate that fruit VIGS, enhanced by anthocyanin monitoring, can be a powerful tool for reverse genetics in the study of the metabolic networks operating during fruit ripening.

  8. The nuclear orphan receptors COUP-TFII and Ear-2 act as silencers of the human oxytocin gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Chu, K; Zingg, H H

    1997-10-01

    We have previously shown that COUP-TFII and Ear-2, two members of the nuclear orphan receptor family, are able to repress oestrogen-stimulated transcriptional activity of the human oxytocin (OT) gene promoter by binding to a site that overlaps with the oestrogen response element (ERE) present in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Although most nuclear receptor-mediated transcriptional repression conforms with the paradigm of passive repression and involves competitive binding to an activator site, active repression, i.e. silencing of basal promoter activity, has been observed in a limited number of cases. Here we show by co-transfection experiments using COUP-TFII and Ear-2 expression vectors and reporter constructs containing OT gene promoter fragments linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene that both COUP-TFII and Ear-2 are capable of silencing basal OT gene promoter activity by 54 and 75% respectively. 5' Deletion and footprint analyses revealed two areas of functionally important interaction sites: (1) a direct TGACC(T/C) repeat overlapping the ERE and (2) a more promoter-proximal area centred at - 90 containing three imperfect direct repeats (R1-R3) spaced by four nucleotides each. Mutagenesis of reporter constructs as well as electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that each of the three proximal repeats R1-R3 contributed to orphan receptor binding and the silencing effect. Inasmuch as the orphan receptor-binding sites are not involved in mediating basal transcriptional activity of the OT gene promoter, the observed effects are best interpreted as active repression or promoter silencing. Moreover, since COUP-TFII and Ear-2 are both co-expressed in OT-expressing uterine epithelial cells, the novel transcriptional effects described here are likely to be of functional importance in the fine-tuning of uterine OT gene expression in vivo.

  9. Variables and Strategies in Development of Therapeutic Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Jack M.; Yau, Edwin H.; Kolniak, Tiffany A.; Sheflin, Lowell G.; Taggart, R. Thomas; Abdelmaksoud, Heba E.

    2011-01-01

    Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents such as ribozymes, RNAi and antisense have substantial potential for gene therapy of human retinal degenerations. These technologies are used to knockdown a specific target RNA and its cognate protein. The disease target mRNA may be a mutant mRNA causing an autosomal dominant retinal degeneration or a normal mRNA that is overexpressed in certain diseases. All PTGS technologies depend upon the initial critical annealing event of the PTGS ligand to the target RNA. This event requires that the PTGS agent is in a conformational state able to support hybridization and that the target have a large and accessible single-stranded platform to allow rapid annealing, although such platforms are rare. We address the biocomplexity that currently limits PTGS therapeutic development with particular emphasis on biophysical variables that influence cellular performance. We address the different strategies that can be used for development of PTGS agents intended for therapeutic translation. These issues apply generally to the development of PTGS agents for retinal, ocular, or systemic diseases. This review should assist the interested reader to rapidly appreciate critical variables in PTGS development and facilitate initial design and testing of such agents against new targets of clinical interest. PMID:21785698

  10. Development of a novel gene silencer pyrrole-imidazole polyamide targeting human connective tissue growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jian-Xin; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Nagase, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide can bind to specific sequences in the minor groove of double-helical DNA and inhibit transcription of the genes. We designed and synthesized a PI polyamide to target the human connective tissue growth factor (hCTGF) promoter region adjacent to the Smads binding site. Among coupling activators that yield PI polyamides, 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-5-chloro-1H-benzotriazolium 3-oxide hexafluorophosphate (HCTU) was most effective in total yields of PI polyamides. A gel shift assay showed that a PI polyamide designed specifically for hCTGF (PI polyamide to hCTGF) bound the appropriate double-stranded oligonucleotide. A fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated PI polyamide to CTGF permeated cell membranes and accumulated in the nuclei of cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs) and remained there for 48 h. The PI polyamide to hCTGF significantly decreased phorbol 12-myristate acetate (PMA)- or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated luciferase activity of the hCTGF promoter in cultured HMCs. The PI polyamide to hCTGF significantly decreased PMA- or TGF-β1-stimulated expression of hCTGF mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. The PI polyamide to hCTGF significantly decreased PMA- or TGF-β1-stimulated levels of hCTGF protein in HMCs. These results indicate that the developed synthetic PI polyamide to hCTGF could be a novel gene silencer for fibrotic diseases.

  11. Silencing of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene enhances glioma radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Youl; Yoo, Young Hyun; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: •Silencing of the IDPm gene enhances IR-induced autophagy in glioma cells. •Autophagy inhibition augmented apoptosis of irradiated glioma cells. •Results offer a redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are elevated in organisms that have been exposed to ionizing radiation and are protagonists in the induction of cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of mitochondrial redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are primary functions of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm) via the supply of NADPH for antioxidant systems. In the present study, we report an autophagic response to ionizing radiation in A172 glioma cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the IDPm gene. Autophagy in A172 transfectant cells was associated with enhanced autophagolysosome formation and GFP–LC3 punctuation/aggregation. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine augmented apoptotic cell death of irradiated A172 cells transfected with IDPm siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy functions as a survival mechanism in A172 cells against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis and the sensitizing effect of IDPm siRNA and autophagy inhibitor on the ionizing radiation-induced apoptotic cell death of glioma cells offers a novel redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer.

  12. Stability and immunogenicity properties of the gene-silencing polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Xenia; Rodríguez, Laura; Prévot, Jeanne; Oleaga, Carlota; Ciudad, Carlos J; Noé, Véronique

    2014-01-06

    Gene silencing by either small-interference RNAs (siRNA) or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (aODN) is widely used in biomedical research. However, their use as therapeutic agents is hindered by two important limitations: their low stability and the activation of the innate immune response. Recently, we developed a new type of molecule to decrease gene expression named polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins (PPRHs) that bind to polypyrimidine targets in the DNA. Herein, stability experiments performed in mouse, human, and fetal calf serum and in PC3 cells revealed that the half-life of PPRHs is much longer than that of siRNAs in all cases. Usage of PPRHs with a nicked-circular structure increased the binding affinity to their target sequence and their half-life in FCS when bound to the target. Regarding the innate immune response, we determined that the levels of the transcription factors IRF3 and its phosphorylated form, as well as NF-κB were increased by siRNAs and not by PPRHs; that the expression levels of several proinflammatory cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-ß, IL-1ß, and IL-18 were not significantly increased by PPRHs; and that the cleavage and activation of the proteolytic enzyme caspase-1 was not triggered by PPRHs. These determinations indicated that PPRHs, unlike siRNAs, do not activate the innate inflammatory response.

  13. siRNA Versus miRNA as Therapeutics for Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jenny K W; Chow, Michael Y T; Zhang, Yu; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-01-01

    Discovered a little over two decades ago, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs with important roles in gene regulation. They have recently been investigated as novel classes of therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide range of disorders including cancers and infections. Clinical trials of siRNA- and miRNA-based drugs have already been initiated. siRNAs and miRNAs share many similarities, both are short duplex RNA molecules that exert gene silencing effects at the post-transcriptional level by targeting messenger RNA (mRNA), yet their mechanisms of action and clinical applications are distinct. The major difference between siRNAs and miRNAs is that the former are highly specific with only one mRNA target, whereas the latter have multiple targets. The therapeutic approaches of siRNAs and miRNAs are therefore very different. Hence, this review provides a comparison between therapeutic siRNAs and miRNAs in terms of their mechanisms of action, physicochemical properties, delivery, and clinical applications. Moreover, the challenges in developing both classes of RNA as therapeutics are also discussed. PMID:26372022

  14. A Screen for Epigenetically Silenced microRNA Genes in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nojima, Masanori; Kai, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Maruyama, Reo; Nobuoka, Takayuki; Nishida, Toshirou; Kanda, Tatsuo; Taguchi, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Tokino, Takashi; Hirata, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) has been implicated in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) but the mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the involvement of epigenetic alteration of miRNA genes in GISTs. Methods GIST-T1 cells were treated with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), after which miRNA expression profiles were analyzed using TaqMan miRNA arrays. DNA methylation was then analyzed using bisulfite pyrosequencing. The functions of miRNAs were examined using MTT assays, wound-healing assays, Boyden chamber assays and Matrigel invasion assays. Gene expression microarrays were analyzed to assess effect of ectopic miRNA expression in GIST-T1 cells. Results Of the 754 miRNAs analyzed, 61 were significantly upregulated in GIST-T1 cells treated with 5-aza-dC plus PBA. Among those, 21 miRNA genes were associated with an upstream CpG island (CGI), and the CGIs of miR-34a and miR-335 were frequently methylated in GIST-T1 cells and primary GIST specimens. Transfection of miR-34a or miR-335 mimic molecules into GIST-T1 cells suppressed cell proliferation, and miR-34a also inhibited migration and invasion by GIST-T1 cells. Moreover, miR-34a downregulated a number of predicted target genes, including PDGFRA. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PDGFRA in GIST-T1 cells suppressed cell proliferation, suggesting the tumor suppressive effect of miR-34a is mediated, at least in part, through targeting PDGFRA. Conclusions Our results suggest that miR-34a and miR-335 are candidate tumor suppressive miRNAs in GISTs, and that they are frequent targets of epigenetic silencing in GISTs. PMID:26214687

  15. Chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticle mediated gene silencing in disease vector mosquito larvae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Mysore, Keshava; Flannery, Ellen; Michel, Kristin; Severson, David W.; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-01-01

    SHORT ABSTRACT Here we describe a procedure for inhibiting gene function in disease vector mosquitoes through the use of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are ingested by larvae. LONG ABSTRACT Vector mosquitoes inflict more human suffering than any other organism—and kill more than one million people each year. The mosquito genome projects facilitated research in new facets of mosquito biology, including functional genetic studies in the primary African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti. RNA interference- (RNAi-) mediated gene silencing has been used to target genes of interest in both of these disease vector mosquito species. Here, we describe a procedure for preparation of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are combined with food and ingested by larvae. This technically straightforward, high-throughput, and relatively inexpensive methodology, which is compatible with long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, has been used for the successful knockdown of a number of different genes in A. gambiae and A. aegypti larvae. Following larval feedings, knockdown, which is verified through qRT-PCR or in situ hybridization, can persist at least through the late pupal stage. This methodology may be applicable to a wide variety of mosquito and other insect species, including agricultural pests, as well as other non-model organisms. In addition to its utility in the research laboratory, in the future, chitosan, an inexpensive, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, could potentially be utilized in the field. PMID:25867635

  16. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  17. Virus-induced gene silencing using a modified betasatellite: a potential candidate for functional genomics of crops.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Kumar, Jitesh; Kumari, Anita; Kumar, Abhinav; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Sudhir P

    2014-08-01

    Betasatellites are geminivirus-associated single-stranded DNA molecules that play an important role in symptom modulation. A VIGS vector was developed by modifying cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). CLCuMB DNA was modified by replacing the βC1 gene with a multiple cloning site. The silencing ability of the modified CLCuMB was investigated by cloning a fragment of a host gene (Su) or a reporter transgene (uidA) into the modified CLCuMB and co-agroinoculation with cotton leaf curl Multan virus, cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus, and ageratum enation virus, separately. The inoculated Nicotiana tabacum, N. benthamiana, Solanum lycopersicum, Arabidopsis thaliana and Gossypium hirsutum plants showed efficient silencing of the cognate genes.

  18. Temporal silencing of an androgenic gland-specific insulin-like gene affecting phenotypical gender differences and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Weil, Simy; Raviv, Shaul; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir

    2009-03-01

    Androgenic glands (AGs) of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were subjected to endocrine manipulation, causing them to hypertrophy. Transcripts from these glands were used in the construction of an AG cDNA subtractive library. Screening of the library revealed an AG-specific gene, termed the M. rosenbergii insulin-like AG (Mr-IAG) gene. The cDNA of this gene was then cloned and fully sequenced. The cysteine backbone of the predicted mature Mr-IAG peptide (B and A chains) showed high similarity to that of other crustacean AG-specific insulin-like peptides. In vivo silencing of the gene, by injecting the prawns with Mr-IAG double-stranded RNA, temporarily prevented the regeneration of male secondary sexual characteristics, accompanied by a lag in molt and a reduction in growth parameters, which are typically higher in males of the species. In terms of reproductive parameters, silencing of Mr-IAG led to the arrest of testicular spermatogenesis and of spermatophore development in the terminal ampullae of the sperm duct, accompanied by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the AGs. This study constitutes the first report of the silencing of a gene expressed specifically in the AG, which caused a transient adverse effect on male phenotypical gender differences and spermatogenesis.

  19. Use of Posttranscription Gene Silencing in Squash to Induce Resistance against the Egyptian Isolate of the Squash Leaf Curl Virus

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Omnia; Farouk, Inas; Abdallah, Abdelhadi

    2016-01-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SqLCV) is a bipartite begomovirus affecting squash plants. It is transmitted by whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B causing severe leaf curling, vein banding, and molting ending by stunting. In this study full-length genomic clone of SqLCV Egyptian isolated and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has been induced to develop virus resistance. The Noubaria SqLCV has more than 95% homology with Jordon, Israel, Lebanon, Palestine, and Cairo isolates. Two genes fragment from SqLCV introduced in sense and antisense orientations using pFGC5049 vector to be expressed as hairpin RNA. The first fragment was 348 bp from replication associated protein gene (Rep). The second fragment was 879 bp representing the full sequence of the movement protein gene (BC1). Using real-time PCR, a silencing record of 97% has been recorded to Rep/TrAP construct; as a result it has prevented the appearance of viral symptoms in most tested plants up to two months after infection, while construct containing the BC1 gene scored a reduction in the accumulation of viral genome expression as appearing in real-time PCR results 4.6-fold giving a silencing of 79%, which had a positive effect on symptoms development in most tested plants. PMID:27034922

  20. The gene silencing transcription factor REST represses miR-132 expression in hippocampal neurons destined to die

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jee-Yeon; Kaneko, Naoki; Noh, Kyung-Min; Pontarelli, Fabrizio; Zukin, R. Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The gene silencing transcription factor REST/NRSF (Repressor Element-1 (RE1) Silencing Transcription Factor/Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor) actively represses a large array of coding and noncoding neuron-specific genes important to synaptic plasticity including miR-132. miR-132 is a neuron-specific microRNA and plays a pivotal role in synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity and structural remodeling. However, a role for miR-132 in neuronal death is not, as yet, well-delineated. Here we show that ischemic insults promote REST binding and epigenetic remodeling at the miR-132 promoter and silencing of miR-132 expression in selectively-vulnerable hippocampal CA1 neurons. REST occupancy was not altered at the miR-9 or miR-124a promoters despite the presence of RE1 sites, indicating REST target specificity. Ischemia induced a substantial decrease in two marks of active gene transcription, dimethylation of lysine 4 on core histone 3 (H3K4me2) and acetylation of lysine 9 on H3 (H3K9ac) at the miR-132 promoter. RNAi-mediated depletion of REST in vivo blocked ischemia-induced loss of miR-132 in insulted hippocampal neurons, consistent with a causal relation between activation of REST and silencing of miR-132. Overexpression of miR-132 in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons or delivered directly into the CA1 of living rats by means of the lentiviral expression system prior to induction of ischemia afforded robust protection against ischemia-induced neuronal death. These findings document a previously unappreciated role for REST-dependent repression of miR-132 in the neuronal death associated with global ischemia and identify a novel therapeutic target for amelioration of the neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits associated with ischemic stroke. PMID:25108103

  1. A sexual shift induced by silencing of a single insulin-like gene in crayfish: ovarian upregulation and testicular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ohad; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Gafni, Ohad; Linial, Assaf; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

    2010-12-09

    In sequential hermaphrodites, intersexuality occurs naturally, usually as a transition state during sexual re-differentiation processes. In crustaceans, male sexual differentiation is controlled by the male-specific androgenic gland (AG). An AG-specific insulin-like gene, previously identified in the red-claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (designated Cq-IAG), was found in this study to be the prominent transcript in an AG cDNA subtractive library. In C. quadricarinatus, sexual plasticity is exhibited by intersex individuals in the form of an active male reproductive system and male secondary sex characters, along with a constantly arrested ovary. This intersexuality was exploited to follow changes caused by single gene silencing, accomplished via dsRNA injection. Cq-IAG silencing induced dramatic sex-related alterations, including male feature feminization, a reduction in sperm production, extensive testicular degeneration, expression of the vitellogenin gene, and accumulation of yolk proteins in the developing oocytes. Upon silencing of the gene, AG cells hypertrophied, possibly to compensate for low hormone levels, as reflected in the poor production of the insulin-like hormone (and revealed by immunohistochemistry). These results demonstrate both the functionality of Cq-IAG as an androgenic hormone-encoding gene and the dependence of male gonad viability on the Cq-IAG product. This study is the first to provide evidence that silencing an insulin-like gene in intersex C. quadricarinatus feminizes male-related phenotypes. These findings, moreover, contribute to the understanding of the regulation of sexual shifts, whether naturally occurring in sequential hermaphrodites or abnormally induced by endocrine disruptors found in the environment, and offer insight into an unusual gender-related link to the evolution of insulins.

  2. Methylation of tumour suppressor gene promoters in the presence and absence of transcriptional silencing in high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, Kajsa; An, Qian; Moorman, Anthony V; Parker, Helen; Molloy, Gael; Davies, Teresa; Griffiths, Mike; Ross, Fiona M; Irving, Julie; Harrison, Christine J; Young, Bryan D; Strefford, Jon C

    2009-03-01

    Promoter methylation is a common phenomenon in tumours, including haematological malignancies. In the present study, we investigated 36 cases of high hyperdiploid (>50 chromosomes) acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with methylation-specific multiplex ligase-dependent probe amplification to determine the extent of aberrant methylation in this subgroup. The analysis, which comprised the promoters of 35 known tumour suppressor genes, showed that 16 genes displayed abnormal methylation in at least one case each. The highest number of methylated gene promoters seen in a single case was thirteen, with all but one case displaying methylation for at least one gene. The most common targets were ESR1 (29/36 cases; 81%), CADM1 (IGSF4, TSLC1; 25/36 cases; 69%), FHIT (24/36 cases; 67%) and RARB (22/36 cases; 61%). Interestingly, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that although methylation of the CADM1 and RARB promoters resulted in the expected pattern of downregulation of the respective genes, no difference could be detected in FHIT expression between methylation-positive and -negative cases. Furthermore, TIMP3 was not expressed regardless of methylation status, showing that aberrant methylation does not always lead to gene expression changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that aberrant methylation of tumour suppressor gene promoters is a common phenomenon in high hyperdiploid ALL.

  3. Aberrant promoter methylation of cancer-related genes in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Shen, Ye; Peng, Xianzhen; Zhang, Simin; Wang, Ming; Xu, Guisheng; Zheng, Xianzhi; Wang, Jianming; Lu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The clinical relevance of aberrant DNA methylation is being increasingly recognized in breast cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the promoter methylation status of seven candidate genes and to explore their potential use as a biomarker for the diagnosis of breast cancer. A total of 70 Chinese patients with breast cancer were recruited, and matched with 20 patients with benign breast disease (BBD). Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the methylation status of selected genes. The protein expression of candidate genes was determined by immunohistochemistry. Hypermethylation of Breast cancer 1, early onset; DNA repair associated (BRCA1), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, phosphatase and tensin homolog, retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and cyclin D2 was observed to be more common in cancerous tissues (24.3, 31.4, 40.0, 27.1, 48.6, 55.7 and 67.1%, respectively) as compared with BBD controls (0.0, 0.0, 20.0, 25.0, 40.0, 40.0 and 45.0%, respectively). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a correlation between the methylation of the target gene and downregulation of protein expression. When BRCA1 and GSTP1 were combined as the biomarker, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve reached 0.721 (95% confidence interval, 0.616–0.827). The present findings indicated that promoter methylation of cancer-related genes was frequently observed in patients with breast cancer and was associated with various clinical features. Hypermethylation of BRCA1 and GSTP1 may be used as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. PMID:28105221

  4. Higher methylation intensity induced by EBV LMP1 via NF-κB/DNMT3b signaling contributes to silencing of PTEN gene.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Chen, Yuxiang; Gong, Pinggui; Cai, Longmei; Lyu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Qiang; Wang, Jianguo; Lu, Juan; Yao, Kaitai; Liu, Kunping; Li, Jinbang; Li, Xin

    2016-06-28

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a major tumor suppressor and usually silenced via the deletion, insertion and mutation. We previously discovered its inactivation via aberrant CpG island methylation. Here, we provide further evidence that EBV latent membrane protein 1(LMP1) can induce a higher intensity of DNA methylation at PTEN CpG islands, inactivating PTEN at the cellular and molecular level. Initially, increased methylation intensity of PTEN CpG islands was observed in EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, accompanied by decreased PTEN expression. In NPC tissue samples showing the methylation at PTEN promoter, LMP1 was highly expressed in higher methylation intensity group relative to lower intensity group, and DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) expression was positively correlated with LMP1 expression. Moreover, transfection of LMP1 gene into EBV-negative NPC cells demonstrated that LMP1 up-regulated DNMT3b expression, leading to a higher intensity of PTEN CpG island methylation. Mechanistically, computational prediction and luciferase reporter assay identified a functional NF-κB binding site on DNMT3b promoter and the mutated NF-κB binding site abolished LMP1-mediated DNMT3b activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation displayed that NF-κB p65 subunit constitutively bound to DNMT3b promoter, supporting the activation of DNMT3b by EBV LMP1 via NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, the expression level of DNMT3b was observed to be increased in the nuclei of LMP1-expressing NPC cells, and a NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC, counteracted LMP1-mediated DNMT3b overexpression. Thus, this study first reports that LMP1-mediated NF-κB can up-regulate DNMT3b transcription, thereby leading to relatively higher methylation intensity at PTEN CpG islands, and ultimately silencing major tumor suppressor PTEN.

  5. Second-Site Mutagenesis of a Hypomorphic argonaute1 Allele Identifies SUPERKILLER3 as an Endogenous Suppressor of Transgene Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Agnès; Saudemont, Baptiste; Bouteiller, Nathalie; Elvira-Matelot, Emilie; Lepère, Gersende; Parent, Jean-Sébastien; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Cao, Jun; Elmayan, Taline; Vaucheret, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Second-site mutagenesis was performed on the argonaute1-33 (ago1-33) hypomorphic mutant, which exhibits reduced sense transgene posttranscriptional gene silencing (S-PTGS). Mutations in FIERY1, a positive regulator of the cytoplasmic 5′-to-3′ EXORIBONUCLEASE4 (XRN4), and in SUPERKILLER3 (SKI3), a member of the SKI complex that threads RNAs directly to the 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease of the cytoplasmic exosome, compensated AGO1 partial deficiency and restored S-PTGS with 100% efficiency. Moreover, xrn4 and ski3 single mutations provoked the entry of nonsilenced transgenes into S-PTGS and enhanced S-PTGS on partially silenced transgenes, indicating that cytoplasmic 5′-to-3′ and 3′-to-5′ RNA degradation generally counteract S-PTGS, likely by reducing the amount of transgene aberrant RNAs that are used by the S-PTGS pathway to build up small interfering RNAs that guide transgene RNA cleavage by AGO1. Constructs generating improperly terminated transgene messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were not more sensitive to ski3 or xrn4 than regular constructs, suggesting that improperly terminated transgene mRNAs not only are degraded from both the 3′ end but also from the 5′ end, likely after decapping. The facts that impairment of either 5′-to-3′ or 3′-to-5′ RNA degradation is sufficient to provoke the entry of transgene RNA into the S-PTGS pathway, whereas simultaneous impairment of both pathways is necessary to provoke the entry of endogenous mRNA into the S-PTGS pathway, suggest poor RNA quality upon the transcription of transgenes integrated at random genomic locations. PMID:26286717

  6. A Convenient In Vivo Model Using Small Interfering RNA Silencing to Rapidly Assess Skeletal Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Can; Hai, Bao; Du, Guohong; Wang, Hong; Leng, Huijie; Xu, Yingsheng; Song, Chunli

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA) injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1–2 weeks. The left tibia received intraosseous injection of a parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r) or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf-1r) siRNA transfection complex loaded in poloxamer 407 hydrogel, and the right tibia received the same volume of control siRNA. All the tibias received an intraosseous injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1–34) (rhPTH (1–34)) or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Calcein green and alizarin red were injected 6 and 2 days before euthanasia, respectively. IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were detected via RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density (BMD), microstructure, mineral apposition rates (MARs), and strength were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-CT, histology and biomechanical tests. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were dramatically diminished in the siRNA-treated left tibias compared to the right tibias (both p<0.05). Using poloxamer 407 hydrogel as a controlled-release system prolonged the silencing effect of a single dose of siRNA; the mRNA expression levels of IGF-1R were lower at two weeks than at one week (p<0.01). The BMD, bone microstructure parameters, MAR and bone strength were significantly decreased in the left tibias compared to the right tibias (all p<0.05). This simple and convenient local intraosseous siRNA injection model achieved gene silencing with very small quantities of si

  7. Modulation of histone methylation and MLH1 gene silencing by hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Hong; Zhou Xue; Chen Haobin; Li Qin; Costa, Max

    2009-06-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a mutagen and carcinogen, and occupational exposure can lead to lung cancers and other adverse health effects. Genetic changes resulting from DNA damage have been proposed as an important mechanism that mediates chromate's carcinogenicity. Here we show that chromate exposure of human lung A549 cells increased global levels of di- and tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and lysine 4 (H3K4) but decreased the levels of tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) and di-methylated histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2). Most interestingly, H3K9 dimethylation was enriched in the human MLH1 gene promoter following chromate exposure and this was correlated with decreased MLH1 mRNA expression. Chromate exposure increased the protein as well as mRNA levels of G9a a histone methyltransferase that specifically methylates H3K9. This Cr(VI)-induced increase in G9a may account for the global elevation of H3K9 dimethylation. Furthermore, supplementation with ascorbate, the primary reductant of Cr(VI) and also an essential cofactor for the histone demethylase activity, partially reversed the H3K9 dimethylation induced by chromate. Thus our studies suggest that Cr(VI) may target histone methyltransferases and demethylases, which in turn affect both global and gene promoter specific histone methylation, leading to the silencing of specific tumor suppressor genes such as MLH1.

  8. Gene silencing of nfa1 affects the in vitro cytotoxicity of Naegleria fowleri in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suk-Yul; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Lee, Yang-Jin; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Im, Kyung-il; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2009-05-01

    The gene nfa1 was isolated from the free-living pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri. The protein Nfa1 is located in pseudopodia and specifically in food-cups. It is also involved in cytotoxicity. In this study, we used synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNA) to examine the effects of nfa1 down-regulation. We observed the expression of nfa1 mRNA and Nfa1 protein using Northern and Western blots. We also examined the effects of nfa1 down-regulation on the in vitro cytotoxicity of N. fowleri. Four synthetic siRNAs were constructed, and of those, sinfa1-1 showed the highest down-regulation of an nfa1 mRNA and Nfa1 protein by 70 and 43%, respectively. In order to achieve long-lasting silencing of the transfected genes, we constructed two vectors which were pAct/SAGAH and pAct/asnfa1AGAH cloned with the sinfa1-1 and an antisense RNA to the nfa1 gene. In N. fowleri transfected with pAct/SAGAH, FACS revealed a 60 and 57% reduction in nfa1 mRNA and Nfa1 protein levels, respectively. To determine whether the Nfa1 proteins were related with in vitro cytotoxicity, LDH assays were used and showed that the cytotoxicity of these transfectants to macrophages was reduced by 26.4 and 36.2% at 17 and 24h, respectively. Moreover, after transfection with pAct/asnfa1AGAH, amoebic cytotoxicity decreased by 8.2 and 10% at 17 and at 24h, respectively. This is the first report to show the RNA interference in N. folweri trophozoites and also demonstrate the Nfa1 function in vitro for its cytotoxicity.

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in Cysticapnos vesicaria, a zygomorphic-flowered Papaveraceae (Ranunculales, basal eudicots)

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Oriane; Bartholmes, Conny; Gleissberg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies of evolutionary diversification in the basal eudicot family Papaveraceae, such as the transition from actinomorphy to zygomorphy, are hampered by the lack of comparative functional studies. So far, gene silencing methods are only available in the actinomorphic species Eschscholzia californica and Papaver somniferum. This study addresses the amenability of Cysticapnos vesicaria, a derived fumitory with zygomorphic flowers, to virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), and describes vegetative and reproductive traits in this species. Methods VIGS-mediated downregulation of the C. vesicaria PHYTOENE DESATURASE gene (CvPDS) and of the FLORICAULA gene CvFLO was carried out using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfer of Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based vectors. Wild-type and vector-treated plants were characterized using reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR), in situ hybridization, and macroscopic and scanning electron microscopic imaging. Key Results Cysticapnos vesicaria germinates rapidly, can be grown at high density, has a short life cycle and is self-compatible. Inoculation of C. vesicaria with a CvPDS-VIGS vector resulted in strong photobleaching of green parts and reduction of endogenous CvPDS transcript levels. Gene silencing persisted during inflorescence development until fruit set. Inoculation of plants with CvFLO-VIGS affected floral phyllotaxis, symmetry and floral organ identities. Conclusions The high penetrance, severity and stability of pTRV-mediated silencing, including the induction of meristem-related phenotypes, make C. vesicaria a very promising new focus species for evolutionary–developmental (evo–devo) studies in the Papaveraceae. This now enables comparative studies of flower symmetry, inflorescence determinacy and other traits that diversified in the Papaveraceae. PMID:22307568

  10. Histone H1 Is Dispensable for Methylation-Associated Gene Silencing in Ascobolus immersus and Essential for Long Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Barra, Jose L.; Rhounim, Laïla; Rossignol, Jean-Luc; Faugeron, Godeleine

    2000-01-01

    A gene encoding a protein that shows sequence similarity with the histone H1 family only was cloned in Ascobolus immersus. The deduced peptide sequence presents the characteristic three-domain structure of metazoan linker histones, with a central globular region, an N-terminal tail, and a long positively charged C-terminal tail. By constructing an artificial duplication of this gene, named H1, it was possible to methylate and silence it by the MIP (methylation induced premeiotically) process. This resulted in the complete loss of the Ascobolus H1 histone. Mutant strains lacking H1 displayed normal methylation-associated gene silencing, underwent MIP, and showed the same methylation-associated chromatin modifications as did wild-type strains. However, they displayed an increased accessibility of micrococcal nuclease to chromatin, whether DNA was methylated or not, and exhibited a hypermethylation of the methylated genome compartment. These features are taken to imply that Ascobolus H1 histone is a ubiquitous component of chromatin which plays no role in methylation-associated gene silencing. Mutant strains lacking histone H1 reproduced normally through sexual crosses and displayed normal early vegetative growth. However, between 6 and 13 days after germination, they abruptly and consistently stopped growing, indicating that Ascobolus H1 histone is necessary for long life span. This constitutes the first observation of a physiologically important phenotype associated with the loss of H1. PMID:10594009

  11. Epitope-tagged protein-based artificial microRNA (ETPamir) screens for optimized gene silencing in plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Dandan; Sheen, Jen

    2014-01-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology offers highly specific and versatile gene silencing in diverse plant species. The principal challenge in amiRNA application is to select potent amiRNAs from hundreds of bioinformatically designed candidates to enable maximal target gene silencing at the protein level. To address this issue we developed the epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA (ETPamir) screens, in which single or multiple target genes encoding epitope-tagged proteins are constitutively or inducibly co-expressed with individual amiRNA candidates in plant protoplasts. Accumulation of tagged proteins, detected by immunoblotting with a commercial tag antibody, inversely and quantitatively reflects amiRNA efficacy in vivo. The core procedure, from protoplast isolation to identification of optimal amiRNA, can be completed in 2-3 days. The ETPamir screens circumvent the widespread shortage of plant antibodies and the complexity of plant amiRNA silencing at target mRNA or/and protein levels. This method can be extended to verify predicted endogenous target genes for plant natural miRNAs. PMID:24675734

  12. Reducible hyaluronic acid-siRNA conjugate for target specific gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Park, Kitae; Yang, Jeong-A; Lee, Min-Young; Lee, Hwiwon; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2013-07-17

    Despite wide applications of polymer-drug conjugates, there are only a few polymer-siRNA conjugates like poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated siRNA. In this work, reducible hyaluronic acid (HA)-siRNA conjugate was successfully developed for target specific systemic delivery of siRNA to the liver. The conjugation of siRNA to HA made it possible to form a compact nanocomplex of siRNA with relatively nontoxic linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI). After characterization of HA-siRNA conjugate by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and gel electrophoresis, its complex formation with LPEI was investigated with a particle analyzer. The HA-siRNA/LPEI complex had a mean particle size of ca. 250 nm and a negative or neutral surface charge at physiological condition. The reducible HA-siRNA/LPEI complex showed a higher in vitro gene silencing efficiency than noncleavable HA-siRNA/LPEI complex. Furthermore, after systemic delivery, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) specific HA-siApoB/LPEI complex was target specifically delivered to the liver, which resulted in statistically significant reduction of ApoB mRNA expression in a dose dependent manner. The HA-siRNA conjugate can be effectively applied as a model system to the treatment of liver diseases using various siRNAs and relatively nontoxic polycations.

  13. Identification of Multiple Proteins Coupling Transcriptional Gene Silencing to Genome Stability in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hale, Christopher J; Potok, Magdalena E; Lopez, Jennifer; Do, Truman; Liu, Ao; Gallego-Bartolome, Javier; Michaels, Scott D; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are regulated by epigenetic marks that act to modulate transcriptional control as well as to regulate DNA replication and repair. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutation of the ATXR5 and ATXR6 histone methyltransferases causes reduction in histone H3 lysine 27 monomethylation, transcriptional upregulation of transposons, and a genome instability defect in which there is an accumulation of excess DNA corresponding to pericentromeric heterochromatin. We designed a forward genetic screen to identify suppressors of the atxr5/6 phenotype that uncovered loss-of-function mutations in two components of the TREX-2 complex (AtTHP1, AtSAC3B), a SUMO-interacting E3 ubiquitin ligase (AtSTUbL2) and a methyl-binding domain protein (AtMBD9). Additionally, using a reverse genetic approach, we show that a mutation in a plant homolog of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 enhances the atxr5/6 phenotype. Through characterization of these mutations, our results suggest models for the production atxr5 atxr6-induced extra DNA involving conflicts between the replicative and transcriptional processes in the cell, and suggest that the atxr5 atxr6 transcriptional defects may be the cause of the genome instability defects in the mutants. These findings highlight the critical intersection of transcriptional silencing and DNA replication in the maintenance of genome stability of heterochromatin.

  14. Design of multifunctional gold nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Conde, João; Ambrosone, Alfredo; Sanz, Vanesa; Hernandez, Yulan; Marchesano, Valentina; Tian, Furong; Child, Hannah; Berry, Catherine C; Ibarra, M Ricardo; Baptista, Pedro V; Tortiglione, Claudia; de la Fuente, Jesus M

    2012-09-25

    Over the past decade, the capability of double-stranded RNAs to interfere with gene expression has driven new therapeutic approaches. Since small interfering RNA (siRNAs, 21 base pair double-stranded RNA) was shown to be able to elicit RNA interference (RNAi), efforts were directed toward the development of efficient delivery systems to preserve siRNA bioactivity throughout the delivery route, from the administration site to the target cell. Here we provide evidence of RNAi triggering, specifically silencing c-myc protooncogene, via the synthesis of a library of novel multifunctional gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The efficiency of the AuNPs is demonstrated using a hierarchical approach including three biological systems of increasing complexity: in vitro cultured human cells, in vivo invertebrate (freshwater polyp, Hydra ), and in vivo vertebrate (mouse) models. Our synthetic methodology involved fine-tuning of multiple structural and functional moieties. Selection of the most active functionalities was assisted step-by-step through functional testing that adopted this hierarchical strategy. Merging these chemical and biological approaches led to a safe, nonpathogenic, self-tracking, and universally valid nanocarrier that could be exploited for therapeutic RNAi.

  15. Aberrant Splicing of Estrogen Receptor, HER2, and CD44 Genes in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazushi; Fry, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death among women under the age of 50 years. Established biomarkers, such as hormone receptors (estrogen receptor [ER]/progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), play significant roles in the selection of patients for endocrine and trastuzumab therapies. However, the initial treatment response is often followed by tumor relapse with intrinsic resistance to the first-line therapy, so it has been expected to identify novel molecular markers to improve the survival and quality of life of patients. Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNAs is a ubiquitous and flexible mechanism for the control of gene expression in mammalian cells. It provides cells with the opportunity to create protein isoforms with different, even opposing, functions from a single genomic locus. Aberrant alternative splicing is very common in cancer where emerging tumor cells take advantage of this flexibility to produce proteins that promote cell growth and survival. While a number of splicing alterations have been reported in human cancers, we focus on aberrant splicing of ER, HER2, and CD44 genes from the viewpoint of BC development. ERα36, a splice variant from the ER1 locus, governs nongenomic membrane signaling pathways triggered by estrogen and confers 4-hydroxytamoxifen resistance in BC therapy. The alternative spliced isoform of HER2 lacking exon 20 (Δ16HER2) has been reported in human BC; this isoform is associated with transforming ability than the wild-type HER2 and recapitulates the phenotypes of endocrine therapy-resistant BC. Although both CD44 splice isoforms (CD44s, CD44v) play essential roles in BC development, CD44v is more associated with those with favorable prognosis, such as luminal A subtype, while CD44s is linked to those with poor prognosis, such as HER2 or basal cell subtypes that are often metastatic. Hence, the detection of splice variants from these loci will provide keys

  16. Efficient silencing of EGFP reporter gene with siRNA delivered by asymmetrical N4,N9-diacyl spermines.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Abdelkader A; Reelfs, Olivier; Pourzand, Charareh; Blagbrough, Ian S

    2012-07-02

    It is important to obtain structure-activity relationship (SAR) data across cationic lipids for the self-assembly and nonviral intracellular delivery of siRNA. The aims of this work are to carry out a SAR study on the efficiency of asymmetrical N(4),N(9)-diacyl spermines in siRNA delivery and EGFP reporter gene silencing, with comparisons to selected mixtures composed of symmetrical N(4),N(9)-diacyl spermines. Another important aim of these studies is to quantify the changes in cell viability, assayed with alamarBlue, as a function of lipid structure. Therefore, we have designed, synthesized, purified, and assayed novel cationic lipids that are asymmetrical lipopolyamines based on spermine. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy in an EGFP stably transfected HeLa cell line, measuring both delivery of fluorescently tagged siRNAs and silencing the EGFP signal, allowed quantitation of the differences between asymmetrical cationic lipids, mixtures of their symmetrical counterparts, and comparison with commercial nonviral delivery agents. Intracellular delivery of siRNA and gene silencing by siRNA differ with different hydrophobic domains. In these asymmetrical N(4),N(9)-diacyl spermines, lipids that enhance siRNA uptake do not necessarily enhance siRNA-induced inhibition of gene expression: C18 and longer saturated chains promote uptake, while more unsaturated C18 chains promote gene silencing. These properties are efficiently demonstrated in a new nontoxic cationic lipid siRNA vector, N(4)-linoleoyl-N(9)-oleoyl-1,12-diamino-4,9-diazadodecane (LinOS), which is also shown to be comparable with or superior to TransIT-TKO and Lipofectamine 2000.

  17. Prolonged gene silencing by siRNA/chitosan-g-deoxycholic acid polyplexes loaded within biodegradable polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yu; Lee, Soo Hyeon; Oh, Mi Hwa; Kim, Jee Seon; Park, Tae Gwan; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2012-09-10

    Recently, small interfering RNA (siRNA) has received much attention for therapeutic applications; however, low transfection efficiency and intrinsic instability limit effective gene silencing. Here we show a new approach based on the incorporation of siRNA/polyelectrolyte complexes into biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to stabilize siRNA within a hydrophobic solid matrix for prolonged gene silencing. To solubilize siRNA in organic media, chitosan oligosaccharides grafted with deoxycholic acids are synthesized and complexed with siRNA, generating a self-assembled polyelectrolyte complex of 123.9 ± 56.8 nm in diameter. The complex is mixed with PLGA solution and emulsified in water to prepare siRNA-loaded PLGA nanoparticles having a diameter of about 230 nm. The excellent structural stability of the prepared nanoparticles leads to efficient cellular uptake followed by effective gene silencing even in the presence of serum proteins. These results suggest that the encapsulation of siRNA into biodegradable polymer matrix can be an effective means of improving the structural stability of siRNA for prolonged therapeutic efficacy.

  18. Post-transcriptional gene silencing suppressor activity of two non-pathogenic alphasatellites associated with a begomovirus.

    PubMed

    Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Muhammad Shah; Nahid, Nazia; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W; Fauquet, Claude M

    2010-09-30

    Alphasatellites and betasatellites are begomovirus-associated single-stranded circular DNA molecules. Two distinct alphasatellites, Gossypium darwinii symptomless alphasatellite and Gossypium mustelinium symptomless alphasatellite, were previously isolated from Gossypium davidsonii and G.mustelinium. Here we show that the replication-associated proteins (Rep: a rolling-circle replication initiator protein) encoded by these alphasatellites interact with the Rep and C4 proteins encoded by their helper begomovirus, Cotton leaf curl Rajasthan virus (CLCuRaV), in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Both the alphasatellite-encoded Reps were found to have strong gene silencing suppressor activity, in contrast to the betasatellite-encoded betaC1 and CLCuRaV-encoded C2, C4 and V2 proteins. The presence of alphasatellites maintained suppression of gene silencing in the youngest, actively growing tissue of CLCuRaV-betasatellite-infected plants. This is the first demonstration of a rolling-circle replication initiator protein with suppressor of gene silencing activity and provides a possible explanation for the selective advantage provided by the association of alphasatellites with begomovirus-betasatellite complexes.

  19. Dimethylated H3K27 Is a Repressive Epigenetic Histone Mark in the Protist Entamoeba histolytica and Is Significantly Enriched in Genes Silenced via the RNAi Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Foda, Bardees M.; Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental biological process that plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is one of the important nuclear roles of RNAi. Our previous data show that Entamoeba histolytica has a robust RNAi pathway that links to TGS via Argonaute 2-2 (Ago2-2) associated 27-nucleotide small RNAs with 5′-polyphosphate termini. Here, we report the first repressive histone mark to be identified in E. histolytica, dimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27Me2), and demonstrate that it is enriched at genes that are silenced by RNAi-mediated TGS. An RNAi-silencing trigger can induce H3K27Me2 deposits at both episomal and chromosomal loci, mediating gene silencing. Our data support two phases of RNAi-mediated TGS: an active silencing phase where the RNAi trigger is present and both H3K27Me2 and Ago2-2 concurrently enrich at chromosomal loci; and an established silencing phase in which the RNAi trigger is removed, but gene silencing with H3K27Me2 enrichment persist independently of Ago2-2 deposition. Importantly, some genes display resistance to chromosomal silencing despite induction of functional small RNAs. In those situations, the RNAi-triggering plasmid that is maintained episomally gets partially silenced and has H3K27Me2 enrichment, but the chromosomal copy displays no repressive histone enrichment. Our data are consistent with a model in which H3K27Me2 is a repressive histone modification, which is strongly associated with transcriptional repression. This is the first example of an epigenetic histone modification that functions to mediate RNAi-mediated TGS in the deep-branching eukaryote E. histolytica. PMID:26149683

  20. Dimethylated H3K27 Is a Repressive Epigenetic Histone Mark in the Protist Entamoeba histolytica and Is Significantly Enriched in Genes Silenced via the RNAi Pathway.

    PubMed

    Foda, Bardees M; Singh, Upinder

    2015-08-21

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental biological process that plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is one of the important nuclear roles of RNAi. Our previous data show that Entamoeba histolytica has a robust RNAi pathway that links to TGS via Argonaute 2-2 (Ago2-2) associated 27-nucleotide small RNAs with 5'-polyphosphate termini. Here, we report the first repressive histone mark to be identified in E. histolytica, dimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27Me2), and demonstrate that it is enriched at genes that are silenced by RNAi-mediated TGS. An RNAi-silencing trigger can induce H3K27Me2 deposits at both episomal and chromosomal loci, mediating gene silencing. Our data support two phases of RNAi-mediated TGS: an active silencing phase where the RNAi trigger is present and both H3K27Me2 and Ago2-2 concurrently enrich at chromosomal loci; and an established silencing phase in which the RNAi trigger is removed, but gene silencing with H3K27Me2 enrichment persist independently of Ago2-2 deposition. Importantly, some genes display resistance to chromosomal silencing despite induction of functional small RNAs. In those situations, the RNAi-triggering plasmid that is maintained episomally gets partially silenced and has H3K27Me2 enrichment, but the chromosomal copy displays no repressive histone enrichment. Our data are consistent with a model in which H3K27Me2 is a repressive histone modification, which is strongly associated with transcriptional repression. This is the first example of an epigenetic histone modification that functions to mediate RNAi-mediated TGS in the deep-branching eukaryote E. histolytica.

  1. RNA Interference of Soybean Isoflavone Synthase Genes Leads to Silencing in Tissues Distal to the Transformation Site and to Enhanced Susceptibility to Phytophthora sojae1

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Senthil; Graham, Madge Y.; Yu, Oliver; Graham, Terrence L.

    2005-01-01

    Isoflavones are thought to play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are also potentially important to human nutrition and medicine. Isoflavone synthase (IFS) is a key enzyme for the formation of the isoflavones. Here, we examined the consequences of RNAi silencing of genes for this enzyme in soybean (Glycine max). Soybean cotyledon tissues were transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying an RNAi silencing construct designed to silence expression of both copies of IFS genes. Approximately 50% of emerging roots were transformed with the RNAi construct, and most transformed roots exhibited >95% silencing of isoflavone accumulation. Silencing of IFS was also demonstrated throughout the entire cotyledon (in tissues distal to the transformation site) both by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of isoflavones and by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. This distal silencing led to a nearly complete suppression of mRNA accumulation for both the IFS1 and IFS2 genes and of isoflavone accumulations induced by wounding or treatment with the cell wall glucan elicitor from Phytophthora sojae. Preformed isoflavone conjugates were not reduced in distal tissues, suggesting little turnover of these stored isoflavone pools. Distal silencing was established within just 5 d of transformation and was highly efficient for a 3- to 4-d period, after which it was no longer apparent in most experiments. Silencing of IFS was effective in at least two genotypes and led to enhanced susceptibility to P. sojae, disrupting both R gene-mediated resistance in roots and nonrace-specific resistance in cotyledon tissues. The soybean cotyledon system, already a model system for defense signal-response and cell-to-cell signaling, may provide a convenient and effective system for functional analysis of plant genes through gene silencing. PMID:15778457

  2. Silencing and trans-activation of the mouse IL-2 gene in Xenopus oocytes by proteins from resting and mitogen-induced primary T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mouzaki, A; Weil, R; Muster, L; Rungger, D

    1991-01-01

    The Xenopus oocyte system was used to test functionally, putative trans-active elements involved in the transcriptional control of the mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene in resting and mitogen-induced primary T-lymphocytes. The IL-2 gene injected into the oocyte is active over a wide range of DNA concentrations. This basal activity is silenced by the addition of protein extracts from G0-arrested spleen cells. Extracts from 8 h-stimulated spleen cells do not silence but moderately increase transcription over basal level. When IL-2 transcription is silenced first by an injection of extract from resting spleen cells, the addition of proteins from stimulated cells results in a strong increase in transcription (derepression). Use of proteins from purified splenic T-lymphocytes shows that both silencer(s) and activator(s) are contributed by these cells. Extracts from control tissues have neither a silencing nor stimulatory effect. None of the proteins tested affects the activities of co-injected control genes. Injections with IL-2 promoter mutants indicate that the main target sequence of the silencing and activating factors is a purine region (Pu-box) lying between positions -261 and -292 upstream of the IL-2 gene. Bandshift assays show differential binding of the Pu-box with proteins from resting or activated T-cells. Images PMID:2026141

  3. Interplay of Developmentally Regulated Gene Expression and Heterochromatic Silencing in Trans in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Brian T.; Wu, Michael D.; Csink, Amy K.

    2008-01-01

    The brownDominant (bwD) allele of Drosophila contains a heterochromatic block that causes the locus to interact with centric heterochromatin. This association silences bw+ in heterozygotes (trans-inactivation) and is dependent on nuclear organizational changes later in development, suggesting that trans-inactivation may not be possible until later in development. To study this, a P element containing an upstream activating sequence (UAS)–GFP reporter was inserted 5 kb from the bwD insertion site. Seven different GAL4 driver lines were used and GFP fluorescence was compared in the presence or the absence of bwD. We measured silencing in different tissues and stages of development and found variable silencing of GFP expression driven by the same driver. When UAS–GFP was not expressed until differentiation in the eye imaginal disc it was more easily trans-inactivated than when it was expressed earlier in undifferentiated cells. In contrast to some studies by other workers on silencing in cis, we did not find consistent correlation of silencing with level of expression or evidence of relaxation of silencing with terminal differentiation. We suggest that such contrasting results may be attributed to a potentially different role played by nuclear organization in cis and trans position-effect variegation. PMID:18245337

  4. Focal Chromosomal Copy Number Aberrations Identify CMTM8 and GPR177 as New Candidate Driver Genes in Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Johannes; Schaap, Gerard R.; Baas, Frank; Ylstra, Bauke; Hulsebos, Theo J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor that preferentially develops in adolescents. The tumor is characterized by an abundance of genomic aberrations, which hampers the identification of the driver genes involved in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. Our study aims to identify these genes by the investigation of focal copy number aberrations (CNAs, <3 Mb). For this purpose, we subjected 26 primary tumors of osteosarcoma patients to high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analyses and identified 139 somatic focal CNAs. Of these, 72 had at least one gene located within or overlapping the focal CNA, with a total of 94 genes. For 84 of these genes, the expression status in 31 osteosarcoma samples was determined by expression microarray analysis. This enabled us to identify the genes of which the over- or underexpression was in more than 35% of cases in accordance to their copy number status (gain or loss). These candidate genes were subsequently validated in an independent set and furthermore corroborated as driver genes by verifying their role in other tumor types. We identified CMTM8 as a new candidate tumor suppressor gene and GPR177 as a new candidate oncogene in osteosarcoma. In osteosarcoma, CMTM8 has been shown to suppress EGFR signaling. In other tumor types, CMTM8 is known to suppress the activity of the oncogenic protein c-Met and GPR177 is known as an overexpressed upstream regulator of the Wnt-pathway. Further studies are needed to determine whether these proteins also exert the latter functions in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. PMID:25551557

  5. Focal chromosomal copy number aberrations identify CMTM8 and GPR177 as new candidate driver genes in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Both, Joeri; Krijgsman, Oscar; Bras, Johannes; Schaap, Gerard R; Baas, Frank; Ylstra, Bauke; Hulsebos, Theo J M

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor that preferentially develops in adolescents. The tumor is characterized by an abundance of genomic aberrations, which hampers the identification of the driver genes involved in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. Our study aims to identify these genes by the investigation of focal copy number aberrations (CNAs, <3 Mb). For this purpose, we subjected 26 primary tumors of osteosarcoma patients to high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analyses and identified 139 somatic focal CNAs. Of these, 72 had at least one gene located within or overlapping the focal CNA, with a total of 94 genes. For 84 of these genes, the expression status in 31 osteosarcoma samples was determined by expression microarray analysis. This enabled us to identify the genes of which the over- or underexpression was in more than 35% of cases in accordance to their copy number status (gain or loss). These candidate genes were subsequently validated in an independent set and furthermore corroborated as driver genes by verifying their role in other tumor types. We identified CMTM8 as a new candidate tumor suppressor gene and GPR177 as a new candidate oncogene in osteosarcoma. In osteosarcoma, CMTM8 has been shown to suppress EGFR signaling. In other tumor types, CMTM8 is known to suppress the activity of the oncogenic protein c-Met and GPR177 is known as an overexpressed upstream regulator of the Wnt-pathway. Further studies are needed to determine whether these proteins also exert the latter functions in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis.

  6. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals aberrant MAPK and Wnt signaling pathways associated with early parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Enkemann, Steven A; Liang, Ping; Hersmus, Remko; Zanazzi, Claudia; Huang, Junjiu; Wu, Chao; Chen, Zhisheng; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2010-12-01

    Mammalian parthenogenesis could not survive but aborted during mid-gestation, presumably because of lack of paternal gene expression. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the failure of parthenogenesis at early stages of development, we performed global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of parthenogenetic blastocysts in comparison with those of blastocysts from normally fertilized embryos. Parthenogenetic blastocysts exhibited changes in the expression of 749 genes, of which 214 had lower expression and 535 showed higher expressions than fertilized embryos using a minimal 1.8-fold change as a cutoff. Genes important for placenta development were decreased in their expression in parthenote blastocysts. Some maternally expressed genes were up-regulated and paternal-related genes were down-regulated. Moreover, aberrantly increased Wnt signaling and reduced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling were associated with early parthenogenesis. The protein level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) was low in parthenogenetic blastocysts compared with that of fertilized blastocysts 120 h after fertilization. 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, a specific glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor, significantly decreased embryo hatching. The expression of several imprinted genes was altered in parthenote blastocysts. Gene expression also linked reduced expression of Xist to activation of X chromosome. Our findings suggest that failed X inactivation, aberrant imprinting, decreased ERK/MAPK signaling and possibly elevated Wnt signaling, and reduced expression of genes for placental development collectively may contribute to abnormal placenta formation and failed fetal development in parthenogenetic embryos.

  7. Analysis of the siRNA-mediated gene silencing process targeting three homologous genes controlling soybean seed oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the discovery of RNA silencing in the nineties, the implication and potential application of this new technology have been recognized. In the past decades, RNA silencing has gained significant attention because its success in genomic scale research and also in the genetic improvement of crop p...

  8. Construction of efficient and effective transformation vectors for palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene silencing in oil palm

    PubMed Central

    Bhore, Subhash Janardhan; Shah, Farida Habib

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil obtained from E. guineensis Jacq. Tenera is known to have about 44% of palmitic acid (C16:0). Palmitoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Thioesterase (PATE) is one of the key enzymes involved in plastidial fatty acid biosynthesis; and it determines the level of the C16:0 assimilation in oilseeds. This enzyme's activity in oil palm is responsible for high (> 44 % in E. guineensis Jacq. Tenera and 25 % in E. oleifera) content of C16:0 in its oil. By post-transcriptional PATE gene silencing, C16:0 content can be minimized for nutritional value improvement of the palm oil. The objective of this study was the construction of novel transformation vectors for PATE gene silencing. Six different transformation vectors targeted against PATE gene were constructed using 619 bp long PATE gene (5' region) fragment (from GenBank AF507115). In one set of three transformation vectors, PATE gene fragment was fused with CaMV 35S promoter in antisense, intron-spliced inverted repeat (ISIR), and inverted repeat (IR) orientations to generate antisense mRNA and hair-pin RNAs (hpRNA). In another set of three transformation vectors with same design, CaMV 35S was replaced with Oil palm mesocarp tissue-specific promoter (MSP). The expression cassette of antisense, ISIR, and IR of PATE gene fragments were constructed in primary cloning vector, pHANNIBAL or its derivative/s. Finally, all 6 expression cassettes were sub-cloned into pCAMBIA 1301 which contains the Hygromycinr and the GUS reporter genes for transformant selection and transformation detection respectively. The results of the RE analyses of the constructs and sequence analyses of PATE and MSP shows and confirms the orientation, size and locations of all the components from constructs. We hypothesize that 4 (pISIRPATE-PC, pIRPATE-PC, pMISIRPATE-PC and pMIRPATE-PC) out of 6 transformation vectors constructed in this study will be efficient and effective in palmitoyl-ACP thioesterase gene silencing in oil palm. Abbreviations anti

  9. Salicylic acid and gentisic acid induce RNA silencing-related genes and plant resistance to RNA pathogens.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laura; Granell, Pablo; Tárraga, Susana; López-Gresa, Pilar; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María; Rodrigo, Ismael; Lisón, Purificación

    2014-04-01

    We have observed that treatments with salicylic acid (SA) or gentisic acid (GA) induced resistance to RNA pathogens such as ToMV and CEVd in tomato and Gynura auriantiaca, respectively. Accumulation of SA and GA has been found to occur in plants infected by these pathogens, thus pointing out a possible defence role of both molecules. To study the molecular basis of the observed induced resistance to RNA pathogens the induction of silencing-related genes by SA and GA was considered. For that purpose, we searched for tomato genes which were orthologous to those described in Arabidopsis thaliana, such as AtDCL1, AtDCL2, AtDCL4, AtRDR1, AtRDR2 and AtRDR6, and we tracked their induction in tomato along virus and viroid infections. We observed that CEVd significantly induced all these genes in tomato, with the exception of ToRDR6, being the induction of ToDCL4 the most outstanding. Regarding the ToMV asymptomatic infection, with the exception of ToRDR2, we observed a significant induction of all the indicated silencing-related genes, being ToDCL2 the most induced gene. Subsequently, we analyzed their transcriptional activation by SA and at the time when ToMV was inoculated on plants. ToDCL2, ToRDR1 and ToRDR2 were significantly induced by both SA and GA, whereas ToDCL1 was only induced by SA. Such an induction resulted more effective by SA treatment, which is in agreement with the stronger SA-induced resistance observed. Our results suggest that the observed delay in the RNA pathogen accumulation could be due to the pre-induction of RNA silencing-related genes by SA or GA.

  10. A High Throughput Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Vector for Virus Induced Gene Silencing in Monocots and Dicots

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lijie; Jackson, Andrew O.; Liu, Zhiyong; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2011-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC) strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS), magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH), and plastid transketolase (TK) gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5) also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies. PMID:22031834

  11. Effects of AFP gene silencing on apoptosis and proliferation of a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; He, Tao; Cui, Hong; Wang, Yunjian; Huang, Changshan; Han, Feng

    2012-08-01

    Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncoembryonal protein that is highly expressed in the majority of hepatocellular carcinomas. Previous studies have shown that AFP may be involved in multiple cell growth regulating, differentiating, and immunosuppressive activities. We investigated the effects of AFP gene silencing by siRNA on apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line EGHC-9901, which highly expresses AFP and may serve as an ideal model for investigation of AFP functions. siRNA expressing plasmid targeting the AFP gene was first established and subsequently transfected into hepatocellular carcinoma cell line EGHC-9901; cells were then divided into three groups: siRNA-afp, transfected with AFP-siRNA; siRNA-beta-actin, transfected with siRNA-beta-actin as the positive group; and vector control, transfected with empty vector as the blank control group. After G418 positive clone selection for a couple of weeks, Western blot and RT (reverse transcription)-PCR assay demonstrated that AFP expression was almost completely inhibited by siRNA-afp, which indicates that siRNA expressing plasmid targeting the AFP gene has been successfully established. Furthermore, MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazelium) assay showed that cells transfected with siRNA-afp proliferated at a significantly lower speed than the other two groups and flat plate clone formation assay also witnessed less clones with diameters of more than 75 μm in siRNA-afp immunofluorescence indicating that the apoptosis rate of cells transfected with siRNA-afp was significantly higher than the other two groups. Furthermore, flow cytometry manifested approximately 20% more cells of siRNA-afp within G1 phase than those of the negative group, indicating that inhibition of AFP expression may cause G1 phase arrest. Finally, Western blot and RT-PCR assay demonstrated that siRNA-afp induced a higher expression of caspase-3 than the other two groups whereas there was no difference in expression of caspase-8

  12. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-04-10

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  13. Silencing Mist1 Gene Expression Is Essential for Recovery from Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Anju; Humphrey, Sean E.; Steele, Rebecca E.; Hess, David A.; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Konieczny, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are tasked with synthesizing, packaging and secreting vast quantities of pro-digestive enzymes to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis for the organism. Because the synthesis of high levels of hydrolases is potentially dangerous, the pancreas is prone to acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that targets acinar cells, leading to acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), inflammation and fibrosis—events that can transition into the earliest stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite a wealth of information concerning the broad phenotype associated with pancreatitis, little is understood regarding specific transcriptional regulatory networks that are susceptible to AP and the role these networks play in acinar cell and exocrine pancreas responses. In this study, we examined the importance of the acinar-specific maturation transcription factor MIST1 to AP damage and organ recovery. Analysis of wild-type and Mist1 conditional null mice revealed that Mist1 gene transcription and protein accumulation were dramatically reduced as acinar cells underwent ADM alterations during AP episodes. To test if loss of MIST1 function was primarily responsible for the damaged status of the organ, mice harboring a Cre-inducible Mist1 transgene (iMist1) were utilized to determine if sustained MIST1 activity could alleviate AP damage responses. Unexpectedly, constitutive iMist1 expression during AP led to a dramatic increase in organ damage followed by acinar cell death. We conclude that the transient silencing of Mist1 expression is critical for acinar cells to survive an AP episode, providing cells an opportunity to suppress their secretory function and regenerate damaged cells. The importance of MIST1 to these events suggests that modulating key pancreas transcription networks could ease clinical symptoms in patients diagnosed with pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26717480

  14. Optimization of a Virus-Induced Gene Silencing System with Soybean yellow common mosaic virus for Gene Function Studies in Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kil Hyun; Lim, Seungmo; Kang, Yang Jae; Yoon, Min Young; Nam, Moon; Jun, Tae Hwan; Seo, Min-Jung; Baek, Seong-Bum; Lee, Jeom-Ho; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Suk-Ha; Lee, Su-Heon; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun; Park, Chang-Hwan

    2016-04-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the study of soybean gene function. Successful VIGS depends on the interaction between virus spread and plant growth, which can be influenced by environmental conditions. Recently, we developed a new VIGS system derived from the Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV). Here, we investigated several environmental and developmental factors to improve the efficiency of a SYCMV-based VIGS system to optimize the functional analysis of the soybean. Following SYCMV: Glycine max-phytoene desaturase (GmPDS) infiltration, we investigated the effect of photoperiod, inoculation time, concentration of Agrobacterium inoculm, and growth temperature on VIGS efficiency. In addition, the relative expression of GmPDS between non-silenced and silenced plants was measured by qRT-PCR. We found that gene silencing efficiency was highest at a photoperiod of 16/8 h (light/dark) at a growth temperature of approximately 27°C following syringe infiltration to unrolled unifoliolate leaves in cotyledon stage with a final SYCMV:GmPDS optimal density (OD)600 of 2.0. Using this optimized protocol, we achieved high efficiency of GmPDS-silencing in various soybean germplasms including cultivated and wild soybeans. We also confirmed that VIGS occurred in the entire plant, including the root, stem, leaves, and flowers, and could transmit GmPDS to other soybean germplasms via mechanical inoculation. This optimized protocol using a SYCMV-based VIGS system in the soybean should provide a fast and effective method to elucidate gene functions and for use in large-scale screening experiments.

  15. An Alpha Motif at Tas3 C Terminus Mediates RITS cis Spreading and Promotes Heterochromatic Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haitao; Motamedi, Mohammad R.; Yip, Calvin K.; Wang, Zhanxin; Walz, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Moazed, Danesh

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY RNA interference (RNAi) plays a pivotal role in the formation of heterochromatin at the fission yeast centromeres. The RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex, composed of heterochromatic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), the siRNA-binding protein Ago1, the chromodomain protein Chp1, and the Ago1/Chp1-interacting protein Tas3, provides a physical tether between the RNAi and heterochromatin assembly pathways. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of a C-terminal Tas3 α-helical motif (TAM), which self-associates into a helical polymer and is required for cis spreading of RITS in centromeric DNA regions. Site-directed mutations of key residues within the hydrophobic monomer-monomer interface disrupt Tas3-TAM polymeric self-association in vitro and result in loss of gene silencing, spreading of RITS, and a dramatic reduction in centromeric siRNAs in vivo. These results demonstrate that, in addition to the chromodomain of Chp1 and siRNA-loaded Ago1, Tas3 self-association is required for RITS spreading and efficient heterochromatic gene silencing at centromeric repeat regions. PMID:19394293

  16. An Alpha Motif at Tas3C Terminus Mediates RITS Cis Spreading and Promotes Heterochromatic Gene Silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Motamedi, M; Yip, C; Wang, Z; Walz, T; Patel, D; Moazed, D

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) plays a pivotal role in the formation of heterochromatin at the fission yeast centromeres. The RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex, composed of heterochromatic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), the siRNA-binding protein Ago1, the chromodomain protein Chp1, and the Ago1/Chp1-interacting protein Tas3, provides a physical tether between the RNAi and heterochromatin assembly pathways. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of a C-terminal Tas3 {alpha}-helical motif (TAM), which self-associates into a helical polymer and is required for cis spreading of RITS in centromeric DNA regions. Site-directed mutations of key residues within the hydrophobic monomer-monomer interface disrupt Tas3-TAM polymeric self-association in vitro and result in loss of gene silencing, spreading of RITS, and a dramatic reduction in centromeric siRNAs in vivo. These results demonstrate that, in addition to the chromodomain of Chp1 and siRNA-loaded Ago1, Tas3 self-association is required for RITS spreading and efficient heterochromatic gene silencing at centromeric repeat regions.

  17. Silencing megalin and cubilin genes inhibits myeloma light chain endocytosis and ameliorates toxicity in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Balamuthusamy, Saravanan; Simon, Eric E; Batuman, Vecihi

    2008-07-01

    Using target-specific short interfering (si) RNAs, we silenced the tandem endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin genes in cultured human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Transfection by siRNA resulted in up to 90% suppression of both megalin and cubilin protein and mRNA expression. In HK-2 cells exposed to kappa-light chain for up to 24 h, light chain endocytosis was reduced in either megalin- or cubilin-silenced cells markedly but incompletely. Simultaneous silencing of both the cubilin and megalin genes, however, resulted in near-complete inhibition of light chain endocytosis, as determined by measuring kappa-light chain protein concentration in cell cytoplasm and by flow cytometry using FITC-labeled kappa-light chain. In these cells, light chain-induced cytokine responses (interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as well as the associated cellular and morphological alterations were also markedly suppressed. The results demonstrate that light chain endocytosis is predominantly mediated by the megalin-cubilin tandem endocytic receptor and identify endocytosis as a key step in light chain cytotoxicity. Blocking light chain endocytosis prevents its nephrotoxic effects on human kidney proximal tubule cells.

  18. Gene silencing activity of siRNA polyplexes based on biodegradable polymers.

    PubMed

    Varkouhi, Amir K; Lammers, Twan; Schiffelers, Raymond M; van Steenbergen, Mies J; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert

    2011-04-01

    Cationic polymers are used as non-viral vectors for nucleic acid delivery. In this study, two biodegradable cationic polymers were evaluated for the purpose of siRNA delivery: pHPMA-MPPM (poly((2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide 1-methyl-2-piperidine methanol)) and TMC (O-methyl-free N,N,N-trimethylated chitosan). The silencing activity and the cellular cytotoxicity of polyplexes based on these biodegradable polymers were compared with those based on non-biodegradable pDMAEMA (poly(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) and PEI (polyethylenimine) and with the regularly used lipidic transfection agent Lipofectamine. To promote endosomal escape, either the endosomolytic peptide diINF-7 was added to the formulations or photochemical internalization (PCI) was applied. Incubation of H1299 human lung cancer cells expressing firefly luciferase with polyplexes based on pHPMA-MPPM and TMC showed 30-40% silencing efficiency. This silencing activity was equal to or better than that obtained with the standard transfectants. Under all experimental conditions tested, the cytotoxicity of the biodegradable polymers was low. The application of PCI, as well as the addition of the diINF-7 peptide to the formulations increased their silencing activity up to 70-80%. This demonstrates that pHPMA-MPPM- and TMC-based polyplexes benefit substantially from endosomal escape enhancement. Importantly, the polyplexes retained their silencing activity in the presence of serum, and they showed low cytotoxicity. These biodegradable vectors are therefore attractive systems for further in vivo evaluations.

  19. GW182-Free microRNA Silencing Complex Controls Post-transcriptional Gene Expression during Caenorhabditis elegans Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jannot, Guillaume; Michaud, Pascale; Quévillon Huberdeau, Miguel; Morel-Berryman, Louis; Brackbill, James A.; McJunkin, Katherine; Nakanishi, Kotaro; Simard, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs and Argonaute form the microRNA induced silencing complex or miRISC that recruits GW182, causing mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. Despite the clear conservation and molecular significance, it is unknown if miRISC-GW182 interaction is essential for gene silencing during animal development. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to explore this question, we examined the relationship and effect on gene silencing between the GW182 orthologs, AIN-1 and AIN-2, and the microRNA-specific Argonaute, ALG-1. Homology modeling based on human Argonaute structures indicated that ALG-1 possesses conserved Tryptophan-binding Pockets required for GW182 binding. We show in vitro and in vivo that their mutations severely altered the association with AIN-1 and AIN-2. ALG-1 tryptophan-binding pockets mutant animals retained microRNA-binding and processing ability, but were deficient in reporter silencing activity. Interestingly, the ALG-1 tryptophan-binding pockets mutant phenocopied the loss of alg-1 in worms during larval stages, yet was sufficient to rescue embryonic lethality, indicating the dispensability of AINs association with the miRISC at this developmental stage. The dispensability of AINs in miRNA regulation is further demonstrated by the capacity of ALG-1 tryptophan-binding pockets mutant to regulate a target of the embryonic mir-35 microRNA family. Thus, our results demonstrate that the microRNA pathway can act independently of GW182 proteins during C. elegans embryogenesis. PMID:27935964

  20. Effective silencing of Sry gene with RNA interference in developing mouse embryos resulted in feminization of XY gonad.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ning; Yu, Ai-Bing; Zhu, Hua-Bin; Lin, Xiu-Kun

    2012-01-01

    Delivering siRNA or shRNA into the developing embryos is still a main challenge to use of RNAi in mammalian systems. Here we analyze several factors influencing RNAi-mediated silencing of Sry gene, which is a tightly controlled spatiotemporal expressed gene and only shortly expressed in developing mouse embryo gonad. A Sry gene-specific shRNAs expression vector (pSilencer4.1/Sry565) was constructed. The shRNA constructs were mixed with polyethylenimines (PEIs) to form a complex and then injected into pregnant mice though tail vein. Our results showed that Sry gene was downregulated significantly in developing embryos. Further study revealed that knocking-down of Sry expression resulted in feminization of gonad development in mouse embryos and the expression level of Sox9 and Wt1 gene was also significantly changed by downregulation of Sry. The transfection efficiency is associated with the amount of plasmid DNA injection, injection time, injection speed, and volume. Our studies suggest that transplacental RNAi could be implemented by tail vein injection of plasmid vector into pregnant mice.

  1. Signatures of selection and host-adapted gene expression of the Phytophthora infestans RNA silencing suppressor PSR2.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sophie; von Dahlen, Janina K; Uhlmann, Constanze; Schnake, Anika; Kloesges, Thorsten; Rose, Laura E

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans is a devastating pathogen in agricultural systems. Recently, an RNA silencing suppressor (PSR2, 'Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing 2') has been described in P. infestans. PSR2 has been shown to increase the virulence of Phytophthora pathogens on their hosts. This gene is one of the few effectors present in many economically important Phytophthora species. In this study, we investigated: (i) the evolutionary history of PSR2 within and between species of Phytophthora; and (ii) the interaction between sequence variation, gene expression and virulence. In P. infestans, the highest PiPSR2 expression was correlated with decreased symptom expression. The highest gene expression was observed in the biotrophic phase of the pathogen, suggesting that PSR2 is important during early infection. Protein sequence conservation was negatively correlated with host range, suggesting host range as a driver of PSR2 evolution. Within species, we detected elevated amino acid variation, as observed for other effectors; however, the frequency spectrum of the mutations was inconsistent with strong balancing selection. This evolutionary pattern may be related to the conservation of the host target(s) of PSR2 and the absence of known corresponding R genes. In summary, our study indicates that PSR2 is a conserved effector that acts as a master switch to modify plant gene regulation early during infection for the pathogen's benefit. The conservation of PSR2 and its important role in virulence make it a promising target for pathogen management.

  2. Silica nanowire conjugated with loop-shaped oligonucleotides: A new structure to silence cysteine proteinase gene in Leishmania tropica.

    PubMed

    Bafghi, Ali Fatahi; Jebali, Ali; Daliri, Karim

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of silica nanowire conjugated with loop-shaped oligonucleotides (SNWCLSOs) to silence cysteine proteinase b (Cpb) gene in Leishmania (L) tropica. On the other hand, its toxicity on amastigotes and mouse peritoneal macrophages was evaluated by 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. For control, two loop-shaped oligonucleotides (LSO) were considered. LSO1 and LSO2 were 5'-NH2-cccccaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaggggg-COOH-3' and LSO2: 5'-NH2-cccccttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttggggg-COOH-3', respectively. After 72 h incubation at 37 °C, AMSNW, LSO1, and LSO2 had no remarkable toxicity on L. tropica amastigote (2 × 10(5)/mL) and mouse peritoneal macrophages (2 × 10(5)/mL). In case of SNWCLSOs, they had high toxicity on L. tropica amastigote, but they had no effect on mouse peritoneal macrophages. At concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 μg/mL, AMSNW, LSO1 and LSO2 had no effect on the gene expression. But, at concentration of 50 and 100 μg/mL, decrease of gene expression was observed. In case of SNWCLSOs, they could dramatically decrease the gene expression. It could be concluded that since SNWCLSOs could silence Cpb gene with no remarkable toxicity, they are good choice for treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in future. As a new agent, it must be checked in vivo.

  3. Differential expression of store-operated calcium- and proliferation-related genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells following TRPC1 ion channel silencing.

    PubMed

    Selli, Cigdem; Pearce, Dominic A; Sims, Andrew H; Tosun, Metiner

    2016-09-01

    TRPC1 and store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) entry have previously been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. The aim of the study was to determine genes and processes associated with TRPC1 down-regulation and the resulting increase of SOC entry and decrease in hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. For this purpose, transcriptome analysis was performed to determine differentially expressed genes in TRPC1-silenced Huh7 cells. SOC entry- and proliferation-related genes correlated with TRPC1 down-regulation were also examined. Changes in SOC entry and cell proliferation were monitored in the TRPC1-silenced and parental cells and found to be significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in TRPC1-silenced cells. A total of 71 genes were significantly differentially expressed (40 up- and 31 down-regulated), including four mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling-associated genes. STIM1 levels were significantly up-regulated and negatively correlated with TRPC1 levels. In addition, expression of two cell cycle regulation genes, CDK11A/11B and URGCP, was observed to decrease, whereas ERBB3 and FGFR4, pro-survival genes, increased significantly in TRPC1-silenced cells. In conclusion, these results suggest reciprocal alterations in TRPC1 and STIM1 levels and a role for STIM1 in the regulation of SOC entry in TRPC1-silenced Huh7 cells. In addition to TRPC1, STIM1 may participate in Huh7 cell proliferation by regulating SOC entry. Alterations in MAPK signalling genes may be involved in diminished cell proliferation in TRPC1-silenced Huh7 cells. Similarly, changes in cell cycle regulating genes in TRPC1-silenced cells indicate possible cell cycle arrest along with compensatory up-regulation of ERBB3 growth factor receptor-amongst others-to maintain hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation.

  4. Virus-induced gene silencing is an effective tool for assaying gene function in the basal eudicot species Papaver somniferum (opium poppy).

    PubMed

    Hileman, Lena C; Drea, Sinéad; Martino, Gemma; Litt, Amy; Irish, Vivian F

    2005-10-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an attractive method for assaying gene function in species that are resistant to conventional genetic approaches. However, VIGS has been shown to be effective in only a few, closely related plant species. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), a bipartite RNA virus, has a wide host range and so in principle could serve as an efficient vector for VIGS in a diverse array of plant species. Here we show that a vector based on TRV sequences is effective at silencing the endogenous phytoene desaturase (PapsPDS) gene in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy). We show that this vector does not compromise the growth or reproduction of poppy and the plants did not display viral symptoms. The silencing of PapsPDS resulted in a significant reduction in PapsPDS mRNA and a concomitant photobleached phenotype. The ability to rapidly assay gene function in P. somniferum will be valuable in manipulation of the opiate pathway in this pharmaceutically important species. We suggest that our vacuum infiltration method used to deliver TRV-based vectors into poppy is a promising approach for expanding VIGS to diverse angiosperm species in which traditional delivery methods fail to induce VIGS. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate the utility of TRV-VIGS for probing gene function in a basal eudicot species that is phylogenetically distant from model plant species.

  5. RNAi-based therapeutic nanostrategy: IL-8 gene silencing in pancreatic cancer cells using gold nanorods delivery vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Nishtha; Yang, Chengbin; Yin, Feng; Yoon, Ho Sup; Swee Chuan, Tjin; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2015-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene silencing possesses great ability for therapeutic intervention in pancreatic cancer. Among various oncogene mutations, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene mutations are found to be overexpressed in many pancreatic cell lines. In this work, we demonstrate IL-8 gene silencing by employing an RNAi-based gene therapy approach and this is achieved by using gold nanorods (AuNRs) for efficient delivery of IL-8 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the pancreatic cell lines of MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1. Upon comparing to Panc-1 cells, we found that the dominant expression of the IL-8 gene in MiaPaCa-2 cells resulted in an aggressive behavior towards the processes of cell invasion and metastasis. We have hence investigated the suitability of using AuNRs as novel non-viral nanocarriers for the efficient uptake and delivery of IL-8 siRNA in realizing gene knockdown of both MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells. Flow cytometry and fluorescence imaging techniques have been applied to confirm transfection and release of IL-8 siRNA. The ratio of AuNRs and siRNA has been optimized and transfection efficiencies as high as 88.40 ± 2.14% have been achieved. Upon successful delivery of IL-8 siRNA into cancer cells, the effects of IL-8 gene knockdown are quantified in terms of gene expression, cell invasion, cell migration and cell apoptosis assays. Statistical comparative studies for both MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells are presented in this work. IL-8 gene silencing has been demonstrated with knockdown efficiencies of 81.02 ± 10.14% and 75.73 ± 6.41% in MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells, respectively. Our results are then compared with a commercial transfection reagent, Oligofectamine, serving as positive control. The gene knockdown results illustrate the potential role of AuNRs as non-viral gene delivery vehicles for RNAi-based targeted cancer therapy applications.

  6. Novel tumor-suppressor gene epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 is epigenetically silenced and associated with invasion and metastasis in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin-Jiang; Liu, Jian; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Chun-Dong; Dai, Dong-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of histone modification and DNA methylation in epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) silencing in gastric cancer (GC). In the present study, four GC cell lines, and 45 paired normal and GC tissue samples were used to assess EFEMP1 expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and EFEMP1 gene methylation status was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR. The involvement of histone modification in GC cell lines was examined by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. The results demonstrated that EFEMP1 mRNA level and methylation status in the EFEMP1 promoter region was associated with tumor differentiation, depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) rapidly reduced DNA methylation and histone H3-K9 trimethylation at the silenced loci and reactivated EFEMP1 expression. By contrast, the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A markedly increased histone H3-K9 acetylation. However, it had no effect on DNA methylation, histone H3-K9 trimethylation or gene expression. In conclusion, the results suggested that EFEMP1 may function as a tumor suppressor in GC. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone H3-K9 trimethylation of EFEMP1 may be responsible for its downregulation in GC, and thus have an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis.

  7. Non-CpG methylation by DNMT3B facilitates REST binding and gene silencing in developing mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Donghong; Wu, Bingruo; Wang, Ping; Wang, Yidong; Lu, Pengfei; Nechiporuk, Tamilla; Floss, Thomas; Greally, John M; Zheng, Deyou; Zhou, Bin

    2016-12-11

    The dynamic interaction of DNA methylation and transcription factor binding in regulating spatiotemporal gene expression is essential for embryogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms remain understudied. In this study, using mouse models and integration of in vitro and in vivo genetic and epigenetic analyses, we show that the binding of REST (repressor element 1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor; also known as NRSF) to its cognate RE1 sequences is temporally regulated by non-CpG methylation. This process is dependent on DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) and leads to suppression of adult cardiac genes in developing hearts. We demonstrate that DNMT3B preferentially mediates non-CpG methylation of REST-targeted genes in the developing heart. Downregulation of DNMT3B results in decreased non-CpG methylation of RE1 sequences, reduced REST occupancy, and consequently release of the transcription suppression during later cardiac development. Together, these findings reveal a critical gene silencing mechanism in developing mammalian hearts that is regulated by the dynamic interaction of DNMT3B-mediated non-CpG methylation and REST binding.

  8. [Sop proteins can cause transcriptional silencing of genes located close to the centromere sites of linear plasmid N15].

    PubMed

    Mardanov, A V; Lane, D; Ravin, N V

    2010-01-01

    Stable inheritance of bacterial chromosomes and low copy number plasmids is ensured by accurate partitioning of replicated molecules between the daughter cells at division. Partitioning of the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage N15, which exists as a linear plasmid molecule with covalently closed ends, depends on the sop locus, comprising genes sopA and sopB, as well as four centromere sites located in different regions of the N15 genome essential for replication and the control of lysogeny. We found that binding of SopB to the centromere can silence centromere-proximal promoters, presumably due to subsequent polymerizing of SopB along the DNA. Close to the IR4 centromere site we identified a promoter, P59, able to drive expression of phage late genes encoding the structural proteins of virion. We found that following binding to IR4 the N15 Sop proteins can cause repression of this promoter. The repression depends on SopB and became stronger in the presence of SopA. Sop-dependent silencing of centromere-proximal promoters control gene expression in phage N15, particularly preventing undesired expression of late genes in the N15 prophage. Thus, the phage N15 sop system not only ensures plasmid partitioning but is also involved in the genetic network controlling prophage replication and the maintenance of lysogeny.

  9. DNA Copy Number Aberrations, and Human Papillomavirus Status in Penile Carcinoma. Clinico-Pathological Correlations and Potential Driver Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lambros, Maryou; Stankiewicz, Elzbieta; Ng, Charlotte K. Y.; Weigelt, Britta; Rajab, Ramzi; Tinwell, Brendan; Corbishley, Cathy; Watkin, Nick; Berney, Dan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease, in which somatic genetic aberrations have yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that gene copy aberrations might correlate with human papillomavirus status and clinico-pathological features. We sought to determine the spectrum of gene copy number aberrations in a large series of PSCCs and to define their correlations with human papillomavirus, histopathological subtype, and tumor grade, stage and lymph node status. Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded penile squamous cell carcinomas were centrally reviewed by expert uropathologists. DNA was extracted from micro-dissected samples, subjected to PCR-based human papillomavirus assessment and genotyping (INNO-LiPA human papillomavirus Genotyping Extra Assay) and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization using a 32K Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array platform. Sixty-four samples yielded interpretable results. Recurrent gains were observed in chromosomes 1p13.3-q44 (88%), 3p12.3-q29 (86%), 5p15.33-p11 (67%) and 8p12-q24.3 (84%). Amplifications of 5p15.33-p11 and 11p14.1-p12 were found in seven (11%) and four (6%) cases, respectively. Losses were observed in chromosomes 2q33-q37.3 (86%), 3p26.3-q11.1 (83%) and 11q12.2-q25 (81%). Although many losses and gains were similar throughout the cohort, there were small significant differences observed at specific loci, between human papillomavirus positive and negative tumors, between tumor types, and tumor grade and nodal status. These results demonstrate that despite the diversity of genetic aberrations in penile squamous cell carcinomas, there are significant correlations between the clinico-pathological data and the genetic changes that may play a role in disease natural history and progression and highlight potential driver genes, which may feature in molecular pathways for existing therapeutic agents. PMID:26901676

  10. Transcriptional silencing of transposons by Piwi and maelstrom and its impact on chromatin state and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sienski, Grzegorz; Dönertas, Derya; Brennecke, Julius

    2012-11-21

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by transposons whose uncontrolled activity causes genomic instability. The piRNA pathway silences transposons in animal gonads, yet how this is achieved molecularly remains controversial. Here, we show that the HMG protein Maelstrom is essential for Piwi-mediated silencing in Drosophila. Genome-wide assays revealed highly correlated changes in RNA polymerase II recruitment, nascent RNA output, and steady-state RNA levels of transposons upon loss of Piwi or Maelstrom. Our data demonstrate piRNA-mediated trans-silencing of hundreds of transposon copies at the transcriptional level. We show that Piwi is required to establish heterochromatic H3K9me3 marks on transposons and their genomic surroundings. In contrast, loss of Maelstrom affects transposon H3K9me3 patterns only mildly yet leads to increased heterochromatin spreading, suggesting that Maelstrom acts downstream of or in parallel to H3K9me3. Our work illustrates the widespread influence of transposons and the piRNA pathway on chromatin patterns and gene expression.

  11. Aberrant DNA methylation of the PDGF gene in homocysteine‑mediated VSMC proliferation and its underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue-Bo; Zhang, Hui-Ping; Cao, Cheng-Jian; Wang, Yan-Hua; Tian, Jue; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Yang, An-Ning; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Yi-Deng; Xu, Hua

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (AS), which is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AS in VSMCs is yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of aberrant DNA methylation of the platelet‑derived growth factor (PDGF) gene in Hcy‑mediated VSMC proliferation and its underlying mechanism. Cultured human VSMCs were treated with varying concentrations of Hcy. VSMC proliferation, PDGF mRNA and protein expression and PDGF promoter demethylation showed a dose‑dependent increase with Hcy concentration, suggesting an association among them. Cell cycle analysis revealed a decreased proportion of VSMCs in G0/G1 and an increased proportion in S phase, indicating that VSMC proliferation was increased under Hcy treatment. Furthermore, S‑adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) levels were observed to increase and those of S‑adenosylmethionine (SAM) were observed to decrease. The consequent decrease in the ratio of SAM/SAH may partially explain the hypomethylation of PDGF with Hcy treatment. Folate treatment exhibited an antagonistic effect against Hcy‑induced VSMC proliferation, aberrant PDGF methylation and PDGF expression. These data suggest that Hcy may stimulate VSMC proliferation through the PDGF signaling pathway by affecting the epigenetic regulation of PDGF through the demethylation of its promoter region. These findings may provide novel insight into the molecular association between aberrant PDGF gene demethylation and the proliferation of VSMCs in Hcy‑associated AS.

  12. B-RAF mutation and accumulated gene methylation in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) and cancer in SSA/P

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, A; Okamoto, K; Fujino, Y; Nakagawa, T; Muguruma, N; Sannomiya, K; Mitsui, Y; Takaoka, T; Kitamura, S; Miyamoto, H; Okahisa, T; Fujimori, T; Imoto, I; Takayama, T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) are a putative precursor of colon cancer with microsatellite instability (MSI). However, the developmental mechanism of SSA/P remains unknown. We performed genetic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), SSA/P, and cancer in SSA/P specimens to show a close association between ACF and the SSA/P-cancer sequence. We also evaluated the prevalence and number of ACF in SSA/P patients. Methods: ACF in the right-side colon were observed in 36 patients with SSA/Ps alone, 2 with cancers in SSA/P, and 20 normal subjects and biopsied under magnifying endoscopy. B-RAF mutation and MSI were analysed by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR–SSCP, respectively, in 15 ACF, 20 SSA/P, and 2 cancer specimens. DNA methylation array analysis of seven ACF, seven SSA/P, and two cancer in SSA/P specimens was performed using the microarray-based integrated analysis of methylation by isochizomers (MIAMI) method. Results: B-RAF mutations were frequently detected in ACF, SSA/P, and cancer in SSA/P tissues. The number of methylated genes increased significantly in the order of ACFgenes in SSA/P were PQLC1, HDHD3, RASL10B, FLI1, GJA3, and SLC26A2. Some of these genes were methylated in ACF, whereas all genes were methylated in cancers. Immunohistochemistry revealed their silenced expression. Microsatellite instability and MLH1 methylation were observed only in cancer. The prevalence and number of ACF were significantly higher in SSA/P patients than in normal subjects. A significant correlation was seen between the numbers of SSA/P and ACF in SSA/P patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that ACF are precursor lesions of the SSA/P-cancer sequence in patients with SSA/P, where ACF arise by B-RAF mutation and methylation of some of the six identified genes and develop into SSA/Ps through accumulated methylation of these genes. PMID

  13. Silencing of the host factor eIF(iso)4E gene confers plum pox virus resistance in plum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhua; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Svircev, Antonet; Wang, Aiming; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Tian, Lining

    2013-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most economically-devastating viral disease in Prunus species. Unfortunately, few natural resistance genes are available for the control of PPV. Recessive resistance to some potyviruses is associated with mutations of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) or its isoform eIF(iso)4E. In this study, we used an RNA silencing approach to manipulate the expression of eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E towards the development of PPV resistance in Prunus species. The eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E genes were cloned from plum (Prunus domestica L.). The sequence identity between plum eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E coding sequences is 60.4% at the nucleotide level and 52.1% at the amino acid level. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that these two genes have a similar expression pattern in different tissues. Transgenes allowing the production of hairpin RNAs of plum eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E were introduced into plum via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene expression analysis confirmed specific reduced expression of eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E in the transgenic lines and this was associated with the accumulation of siRNAs. Transgenic plants were challenged with PPV-D strain and resistance was evaluated by measuring the concentration of viral RNA. Eighty-two percent of the eIF(iso)4E silenced transgenic plants were resistant to PPV, while eIF4E silenced transgenic plants did not show PPV resistance. Physical interaction between PPV-VPg and plum eIF(iso)4E was confirmed. In contrast, no PPV-VPg/eIF4E interaction was observed. These results indicate that eIF(iso)4E is involved in PPV infection in plum, and that silencing of eIF(iso)4E expression can lead to PPV resistance in Prunus species.

  14. Highly specific gene silencing in a monocot species by artificial microRNAs derived from chimeric miRNA precursors.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Alberto; Fahlgren, Noah; Mitchell, Skyler; Cox, Kevin L; Reilly, Kevin C; Mockler, Todd C; Carrington, James C

    2015-06-01

    Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) are used for selective gene silencing in plants. However, current methods to produce amiRNA constructs for silencing transcripts in monocot species are not suitable for simple, cost-effective and large-scale synthesis. Here, a series of expression vectors based on Oryza sativa MIR390 (OsMIR390) precursor was developed for high-throughput cloning and high expression of amiRNAs in monocots. Four different amiRNA sequences designed to target specifically endogenous genes and expressed from OsMIR390-based vectors were validated in transgenic Brachypodium distachyon plants. Surprisingly, amiRNAs accumulated to higher levels and were processed more accurately when expressed from chimeric OsMIR390-based precursors that include distal stem-loop sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana MIR390a (AtMIR390a). In all cases, transgenic plants displayed the predicted phenotypes induced by target gene repression, and accumulated high levels of amiRNAs and low levels of the corresponding target transcripts. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling combined with 5'-RLM-RACE analysis in transgenic plants confirmed that amiRNAs were highly specific.

  15. Bioenergetics and gene silencing approaches for unraveling nucleotide recognition by the human EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Mahmoud; Al-Taher, Abdullah; Nakashima, Remi; Sakaguchi, Tomoya; Kandeel, Ali; Nagaya, Yuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kitade, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Gene silencing and RNA interference are major cellular processes that control gene expression via the cleavage of target mRNA. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C2 (EIF2C2, Argonaute protein 2, Ago2) is considered to be the major player of RNAi as it is the core component of RISC complexes. While a considerable amount of research has focused on RNA interference and its associated mechanisms, the nature and mechanisms of nucleotide recognition by the PAZ domain of EIF2C2/Ago2 have not yet been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain has an inherent lack of binding to adenine nucleotides, a feature that highlights the poor binding of 3'-adenylated RNAs with the PAZ domain as well as the selective high trimming of the 3'-ends of miRNA containing adenine nucleotides. We further show that the PAZ domain selectively binds all ribonucleotides (except adenosine), whereas it poorly recognizes deoxyribonucleotides. In this context, the modification of dTMP to its ribonucleotide analogue gave a drastic improvement of binding enthalpy and, hence, binding affinity. Additionally, higher in vivo gene silencing efficacy was correlated with the stronger PAZ domain binders. These findings provide new insights into the nature of the interactions of the EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain.

  16. Cell Type-Specific and Inducible PTEN Gene Silencing by a Tetracycline Transcriptional Activator-Regulated Short Hairpin RNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Wang, Ting; Wang, Tao; Jia, Lintao

    2015-11-01

    Inducible and reversible gene silencing in desired types of cells is instrumental for deciphering gene functions using cultured cells or in vivo models. However, efficient conditional gene knockdown systems remain to be established. Here, we report the generation of an inducible expression system for short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted to PTEN, a well-documented dual-specificity phosphatase involved in tumor suppression and ontogenesis. Upon induction by doxycycline (DOX), the reverse tetracycline transcriptional activator (rtTA) switched on the concomitant expression of GFP and a miR-30 precursor, the subsequent processing of which released the embedded PTEN-targeted shRNA. The efficacy and reversibility of PTEN knockdown by this construct was validated in normal and neoplastic cells, in which PTEN deficiency resulted in accelerated cell proliferation, suppressed apoptosis, and increased invasiveness. Transgenic mice harboring the conditional shRNA-expression cassette were obtained; GFP expression and concurrent PTEN silencing were observed upon ectopic expression of rtTA and induction with Dox. Therefore, this study provides novel tools for the precise dissection of PTEN functions and the generation of PTEN loss of function models in specific subsets of cells during carcinogenesis and ontogenesis.

  17. Silencing of Target Chitinase Genes via Oral Delivery of dsRNA Caused Lethal Phenotypic Effects in Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cao, Budao; Bao, Wenhua; Wuriyanghan, Hada

    2017-02-01

    Mythimna separata walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous, migratory corn pest. Outbreak of M. separata has led to severe damage to corn production recently in China. RNAi (RNA interference) is a gene silencing technology applied both in model and non-model organisms, and it is especially useful for the latter in which the reverse genetic research tools are not available. RNAi approach was broadly investigated in many plant pathogens and was used for the generation of anti-pest transgenic plants. We are proposing to use this technology to silence M. separata endogenous genes, thereby, providing a biocontrol method for this insect. Feeding of dsRNAs for target Chitinase genes resulted in substantial decreases of their transcript levels in M. separata. Furthermore, silencing of target Chitinase genes led to phenotypic effects such as reduced body weight and increased mortality. Our study provided both reverse genetic research tool and potential control strategy for this insect species.

  18. Biallelic insertion of a transcriptional terminator via the CRISPR/Cas9 system efficiently silences expression of protein-coding and non-coding RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang; Han, Xiao; Yuan, Junting; Geng, Tuoyu; Chen, Shihao; Hu, Xuming; Cui, Isabelle H; Cui, Hengmi

    2017-04-07

    The type II bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple, convenient, and powerful tool for targeted gene editing. Here, we describe a CRISPR/Cas9-based approach for inserting a poly(A) transcriptional terminator into both alleles of a targeted gene to silence protein-coding and non-protein-coding genes, which often play key roles in gene regulation but are difficult to silence via insertion or deletion of short DNA fragments. The integration of 225 bp of bovine growth hormone poly(A) signals into either the first intron or the first exon or behind the promoter of target genes caused efficient termination of expression of PPP1R12C, NSUN2 (protein-coding genes), and MALAT1 (non-protein-coding gene). Both NeoR and PuroR were used as markers in the selection of clonal cell lines with biallelic integration of a poly(A) signal. Genotyping analysis indicated that the cell lines displayed the desired biallelic silencing after a brief selection period. These combined results indicate that this CRISPR/Cas9-based approach offers an easy, convenient, and efficient novel technique for gene silencing in cell lines, especially for those in which gene integration is difficult because of a low efficiency of homology-directed repair.

  19. Epigenetic transcriptional silencing and 5-azacytidine-mediated reactivation of a complex transgene in rice.

    PubMed

    Kumpatla, S P; Teng, W; Buchholz, W G; Hall, T C

    1997-10-01

    Despite a growing number of reports indicating non-Mendelian inheritance of transgene expression in monocots, no detailed description of the structure and stability of the transgene exists for transformants generated by direct DNA-transfer techniques, making the cause for these observations difficult to determine. In this paper we describe the complex organization of Btt cryIIIA and bar transgenes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) that displayed aberrant segregation in R1 progeny. Silencing rather than rearrangement of the bar gene was implicated because the herbicide-sensitive R1 plants had a DNA hybridization profile identical to that of the resistant R0 parent and R1 siblings. Genomic DNA analysis revealed substantial methylation of the Ubi1/bar sequences in silenced plants and, to a lesser degree, in herbicide-resistant plants, suggesting that the transgene locus was potentiated for silencing. Nuclease protection and nuclear run-on assays confirmed that silencing was due to transcriptional inactivation. Treatment of R2 progeny of silenced plants with 5-azacytidine resulted in demethylation of the Ubi1 promoter and reactivation of bar gene expression, demonstrating a functional relationship for methylation in gene silencing. These findings indicate that methylation-based silencing may be frequent in cereals transformed by direct DNA protocols that insert multiple, often rearranged sequences.

  20. Gender differences in the induction of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations in rodent germ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, Ilse-Dore; Carere, Angelo; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula

    2007-05-15

    Germ cell mutagenicity testing provides experimental data to quantify genetic risk for exposed human populations. The majority of tests are performed with exposure of males, and female data are relatively rare. The reason for this paucity lies in the differences between male and female germ cell biology. Male germ cells are produced throughout reproductive life and all developmental stages can be ascertained by appropriate breeding schemes. In contrast, the female germ cell pool is limited, meiosis begins during embryogenesis and oocytes are arrested over long periods of time until maturation processes start for small numbers of oocytes during the oestrus cycle in mature females. The literature data are reviewed to point out possible gender differences of germ cells to exogenous agents such as chemicals or ionizing radiation. From the limited information, it can be concluded that male germ cells are more sensitive than female germ cells to the induction of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations. However, exceptions are described which shed doubt on the extrapolation of experimental data from male rodents to the genetic risk of the human population. Furthermore, the female genome may be more sensitive to mutation induction during peri-conceptional stages compared to the male genome of the zygote. With few exceptions, germ cell experiments have been carried out under high acute exposure to optimize the effects and to compensate for the limited sample size in animal experiments. Human exposure to environmental agents, on the other hand, is usually chronic and involves low doses. Under these conditions, gender differences may become apparent that have not been studied so far. Additionally, data are reviewed that suggest a false impression of safety when responses are negative under high acute exposure of male rodents while a mutational response is induced by low chronic exposure. The classical (morphological) germ cell mutation tests are not performed anymore

  1. Satellite panicum mosaic virus capsid protein elicits symptoms on a nonhost plant and interferes with a suppressor of virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenping; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2004-03-01

    The capsid protein (CP) of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) has been implicated as a pathogenicity factor, inducing severe chlorosis on millet plants co-infected with SPMV and its helper virus, Panicum mosaic virus (PMV). In this study, we tested the effects of SPMV CP on Nicotiana benthamiana, a plant that does not support PMV+SPMV infections. SPMV CP expressed from a Potato virus X (PVX) gene vector elicited necrotic lesions on N. benthamiana. Pathogenicity factors often have the additional feature of acting as suppressors of gene silencing; therefore, several assays were developed to test if SPMV CP could act in such a capacity. The results showed that SPMV CP failed to act as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing when such tests were performed with transgenic N. benthamiana plants silenced for green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression by agroinfiltration or plant virus vectors. However SPMV CP expressed from the PVX gene vector did interfere with suppressor activity associated with PVX p25. This included a rebounded level of GFP silencing along the vascular tissues, including the veins on upper noninoculated leaves. Therefore, the roles of the SPMV CP now include encapsidation of the SPMV RNA, activity as a pathogenicity factor in both host and nonhost plants, and the enigmatic feature of interfering with suppression of gene silencing.

  2. Expression of cancer stem markers could be influenced by silencing of p16 gene in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Zhang, J; Shi, H

    2016-01-01

    Effect of the tumor suppression gene p16 on the biological characteristics of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells was explored. The expression of p16 protein was increased in HeLa tumor sphere cells, and no significant difference in tumor spheres from the first to the fourth passages. Compared with those of parental HeLa cells, the proportion of CD44+/CD24- and ABCG2+ cells increased significantly in tumor spheres. However after the cells were silenced by the p16-sh289 vector, expression of P16 protein and the cell number of CD44+/CD24- and ABCG2+ decreased. Moreover, HeLa cells with p16 gene silencing showed decreased abilities of sphere formation and matrigel invasion. More HeLa cells with p16 gene silence were needed for tumor formation in nude mice. Tumor size and weight in mouse model established with p16 gene silenced HeLa cells were less than those with HeLa parental cell model. The present results indicate that silencing of the p16 gene inhibits expression of cancer stem cell markers and tumorigenic ability of HeLa cells.

  3. High-Stearic and High-Oleic Cottonseed Oils Produced by Hairpin RNA-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Singh, Surinder P.; Green, Allan G.

    2002-01-01

    We have genetically modified the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil using the recently developed technique of hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the seed expression of two key fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1-encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Δ9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1-encoding oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine ω6-desaturase. Hairpin RNA-encoding gene constructs (HP) targeted against either ghSAD-1 or ghFAD2-1 were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 315). The resulting down-regulation of the ghSAD-1 gene substantially increased stearic acid from the normal levels of 2% to 3% up to as high as 40%, and silencing of the ghFAD2-1 gene resulted in greatly elevated oleic acid content, up to 77% compared with about 15% in seeds of untransformed plants. In addition, palmitic acid was significantly lowered in both high-stearic and high-oleic lines. Similar fatty acid composition phenotypes were also achieved by transformation with conventional antisense constructs targeted against the same genes, but at much lower frequencies than were achieved with the HP constructs. By intercrossing the high-stearic and high-oleic genotypes, it was possible to simultaneously down-regulate both ghSAD-1 and ghFAD2-1 to the same degree as observed in the individually silenced parental lines, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that duplex RNA-induced posttranslational gene silencing in independent genes can be stacked without any diminution in the degree of silencing. The silencing of ghSAD-1 and/or ghFAD2-1 to various degrees enables the development of cottonseed oils having novel combinations of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic contents that can be used in margarines and deep frying without hydrogenation and also potentially in high-value confectionery applications. PMID:12177486

  4. Aberrant expression of Notch1, HES1, and DTX1 genes in glioblastoma formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Narayanappa, Rajeswari; Rout, Pritilata; Aithal, Madhuri G S; Chand, Ashis Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor accounting for more than 54 % of all gliomas. Despite aggressive treatments, median survival remains less than 1 year. This might be due to the unavailability of effective molecular diagnostic markers and targeted therapy. Thus, it is essential to discover molecular mechanisms underlying disease by identifying dysregulated pathways involved in tumorigenesis. Notch signaling is one such pathway which plays an important role in determining cell fates. Since it is found to play a critical role in many cancers, we investigated the role of Notch genes in glioblastoma with an aim to identify biomarkers that can improve diagnosis. Using real-time PCR, we assessed the expression of Notch genes including receptors (Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, and Notch4), ligands (JAG1, JAG2, and DLL3), downstream targets (HES1 and HEY2), regulator Deltex1 (DTX1), inhibitor NUMB along with transcriptional co-activator MAML1, and a component of gamma-secretase complex APH1A in 15 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) patient samples. Relative quantification was done by the 2(-ΔΔCt) method; the data are presented as fold change in gene expression normalized to an internal control gene and relative to the calibrator. The data revealed aberrant expression of Notch genes in glioblastoma compared to normal brain. More than 85 % of samples showed high Notch1 (P = 0.0397) gene expression and low HES1 (P = 0.011) and DTX1 (P = 0.0001) gene expression. Our results clearly show aberrant expression of Notch genes in glioblastoma which can be used as putative biomarkers together with histopathological observation to improve diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, and patient prognosis.

  5. Effects of chemokine receptor 3 gene silencing by RNA interference on eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuehui; Zhu, Xinhua; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to use RNA interference (RNAi) to silence chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and observe the effects on eosinophils (EOS) in mice with allergic rhinitis (AR). CCR3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) lentiviral vectors were transduced into purified EOS cells cultured in vitro. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were also used to detect the efficiency of silencing, and flow cytometry was used to detect the EOS apoptosis rates. Experimental mice were grouped for nasal administration, and the lentivirus was then dispensed to AR mice. RT-PCR and western blots were performed to detect the expression levels of CCR3 mRNA and protein in EOS extracted from bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal mucosa. Furthermore, flow cytometry was performed to detect changes to CD34-positive (CD34+) cells in each group. The CCR3 siRNA lentiviral vector exhibited high efficiency in silencing CCR3 mRNA and protein expression, inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis of EOS. In addition, the expression of CCR3 mRNA and protein in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal mucosa of mice in the CCR3 siRNA treatment group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), whereas the number of CD34+ cells in the CCR3 siRNA treatment group was not significantly different compared with that in the control group (P>0.05). CCR3 RNAi could effectively silence the expression of CCR3 mRNA and protein both in vitro and in vivo, thus promoting apoptosis of EOS and inhibiting its growth, migration and invasion. PMID:28123492

  6. The Chp1–Tas3 core is a multifunctional platform critical for gene silencing by RITS

    SciTech Connect

    Schalch, Thomas; Job, Godwin; Shanker, Sreenath; Partridge, Janet F.; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2011-11-13

    RNA interference (RNAi) is critical for the assembly of heterochromatin at Schizosaccharomyces pombe centromeres. Central to this process is the RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing (RITS) complex, which physically anchors small noncoding RNAs to chromatin. RITS includes Ago1, the chromodomain protein Chp1, and Tas3, which forms a bridge between Chp1 and Ago1. Chp1 is a large protein with no recognizable domains, apart from its chromodomain. Here we describe how the structured C-terminal half of Chp1 binds the Tas3 N-terminal domain, revealing the tight association of Chp1 and Tas3. The structure also shows a PIN domain at the C-terminal tip of Chp1 that controls subtelomeric transcripts through a post-transcriptional mechanism. We suggest that the Chp1–Tas3 complex provides a solid and versatile platform to recruit both RNAi-dependent and RNAi-independent gene-silencing pathways for locus-specific regulation of heterochromatin.

  7. The epigenetic H3S10 phosphorylation mark is required for counteracting heterochromatic spreading and gene silencing in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Cai, Weili; Li, Yeran; Deng, Huai; Bao, Xiaomin; Girton, Jack; Johansen, Jørgen; Johansen, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    The JIL-1 kinase localizes specifically to euchromatin interband regions of polytene chromosomes and is the kinase responsible for histone H3S10 phosphorylation at interphase. Genetic interaction assays with strong JIL-1 hypomorphic loss-of-function alleles have demonstrated that the JIL-1 protein can counterbalance the effect of the major heterochromatin components on position-effect variegation (PEV) and gene silencing. However, it is unclear whether this was a causative effect of the epigenetic H3S10 phosphorylation mark, or whether the effect of the JIL-1 protein on PEV was in fact caused by other functions or structural features of the protein. By transgenically expressing various truncated versions of JIL-1, with or without kinase activity, and assessing their effect on PEV and heterochromatic spreading, we show that the gross perturbation of polytene chromosome morphology observed in JIL-1 null mutants is unrelated to gene silencing in PEV and is likely to occur as a result of faulty polytene chromosome alignment and/or organization, separate from epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that the epigenetic H3S10 phosphorylation mark itself is necessary for preventing the observed heterochromatic spreading independently of any structural contributions from the JIL-1 protein. PMID:22247192

  8. Cytoplasmic and nuclear quality control and turnover of single-stranded RNA modulate post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ana Beatriz; Martínez de Alba, Angel Emilio; Bardou, Florian; Crespi, Martin D; Vaucheret, Hervé; Maizel, Alexis; Mallory, Allison C

    2013-04-01

    Eukaryotic RNA quality control (RQC) uses both endonucleolytic and exonucleolytic degradation to eliminate dysfunctional RNAs. In addition, endogenous and exogenous RNAs are degraded through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), which is triggered by the production of double-stranded (ds)RNAs and proceeds through short-interfering (si)RNA-directed ARGONAUTE-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage. Compromising cytoplasmic or nuclear 5'-3' exoribonuclease function enhances sense-transgene (S)-PTGS in Arabidopsis, suggesting that these pathways compete for similar RNA substrates. Here, we show that impairing nonsense-mediated decay, deadenylation or exosome activity enhanced S-PTGS, which requires host RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6/SGS2/SDE1) and SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING 3 (SGS3) for the transformation of single-stranded RNA into dsRNA to trigger PTGS. However, these RQC mutations had no effect on inverted-repeat-PTGS, which directly produces hairpin dsRNA through transcription. Moreover, we show that these RQC factors are nuclear and cytoplasmic and are found in two RNA degradation foci in the cytoplasm: siRNA-bodies and processing-bodies. We propose a model of single-stranded RNA tug-of-war between RQC and S-PTGS that ensures the correct partitioning of RNA substrates among these RNA degradation pathways.

  9. RNAi silencing of the HaHMG-CoA reductase gene inhibits oviposition in the Helicoverpa armigera cotton bollworm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijian; Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Niu, Changying

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has considerable promise for developing novel pest control techniques, especially because of the threat of the development of resistance against current strategies. For this purpose, the key is to select pest control genes with the greatest potential for developing effective pest control treatments. The present study demonstrated that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; HMGR) gene is a potential target for insect control using RNAi. HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway in insects. A complete cDNA encoding full length HMGR (encoding an 837-aa protein) was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The HaHMGR (H. armigera HMGR) knockdown using systemic RNAi in vivo inhibited the fecundity of the females, effectively inhibited ovipostion, and significantly reduced vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA levels. Moreover, the oviposition rate of the female moths was reduced by 98% by silencing HaHMGR compared to the control groups. One-pair experiments showed that both the proportions of valid mating and fecundity were zero. Furthermore, the HaHMGR-silenced females failed to lay eggs (approximate 99% decrease in oviposition) in the semi-field cage performance. The present study demonstrated the potential implications for developing novel pest management strategies using HaHMGR RNAi in the control of H. armigera and other insect pests.

  10. pH-sensitive siRNA Nanovector for Targeted Gene Silencing and Cytotoxic Effect in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Hyejung; Veiseh, Omid; Fang, Chen; Kievit, Forrest M.; Wang, Freddy Y.; Park, James O.; Zhang, Miqin

    2010-01-01

    A small interfering RNA (siRNA) nanovector with dual targeting specificity and dual therapeutic effect is developed for targeted cancer imaging and therapy. The nanovector is comprised of an iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle core coated with three different functional molecules: polyethyleneimine (PEI), siRNA, and chlorotoxin (CTX). The primary amine group of PEI is blocked with citraconic anhydride that is removable at acidic conditions, not only to increase its biocompatibility at physiological conditions but also to elicit a pH-sensitive cytotoxic effect in the acidic tumor microenvironment. The PEI is covalently immobilized on the nanovector via a disulfide linkage that is cleavable after cellular internalization of the nanovector. CTX as a tumor-specific targeting ligand and siRNA as a therapeutic payload are conjugated on the nanovector via a flexible and hydrophilic PEG linker for targeted gene silencing in cancer cells. With a size of ~ 60 nm, the nanovector exhibits long-term stability and good magnetic property for magnetic resonance imaging. The multifunctional nanovector exhibits both significant cytotoxic and gene silencing effects at acidic pH conditions for C6 glioma cells, but not at physiological pH conditions. Our results suggest that this nanovector system could be safely used as a potential therapeutic agent for targeted treatment of glioma as well as other cancers. PMID:20722417

  11. Tissue-specific regulation of the rabbit 15-lipoxygenase gene in erythroid cells by a transcriptional silencer.

    PubMed Central

    O'Prey, J; Harrison, P R

    1995-01-01

    The 15-lipoxygenase (lox) gene is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, predominantly in erythroid cells but also in airway epithelial cells and eosinophils. We demonstrate in this report that the 5' flanking DNA of the 15-lox gene contains sequences which down-regulate its activity in a variety of non-erythroid cell lines but not in two erythroid cell lines. The element has characteristics of a transcriptional 'silencer' since it functions in both orientations. The main activity of the silencer has been mapped to the first 900 bp of 5' flanking DNA, which contains nine binding sites for a nuclear factor present in non-erythroid cells but not in erythroid cells. These binding sites have similar sequences and multiple copies of the binding sites confer tissue-specific down-regulation when attached to a minimal lox promoter fragment. The 5' flanking DNA also contains a cluster of three binding sites for the GATA family of transcription factors. Images PMID:7478994

  12. Periodic-shRNA molecules are capable of gene silencing, cytotoxicity and innate immune activation in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shopsowitz, Kevin E.; Wu, Connie; Liu, Gina; Dreaden, Erik C.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2016-01-01

    Large dsRNA molecules can cause potent cytotoxic and immunostimulatory effects through the activation of pattern recognition receptors; however, synthetic versions of these molecules are mostly limited to simple sequences like poly-I:C and poly-A:U. Here we show that large RNA molecules generated by rolling circle transcription fold into periodic-shRNA (p-shRNA) structures and cause potent cytotoxicity and gene silencing when delivered to cancer cells. We determined structural requirements for the dumbbell templates used to synthesize p-shRNA, and showed that these molecules likely adopt a co-transcriptionally folded structure. The cytotoxicity of p-shRNA was robustly observed across four different cancer cell lines using two different delivery systems. Despite having a considerably different folded structure than conventional dsRNA, the cytotoxicity of p-shRNA was either equal to or substantially greater than that of poly-I:C depending on the delivery vehicle. Furthermore, p-shRNA caused greater NF-κB activation in SKOV3 cells compared to poly-I:C, indicating that it is a powerful activator of innate immunity. The tuneable sequence and combined gene silencing, immunostimulatory and cytotoxic capacity of p-shRNA make it an attractive platform for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26704983

  13. The re-expression of the epigenetically silenced e-cadherin gene by a polyamine analogue lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) inhibitor in human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Woster, Patrick M.; Casero, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes is a common feature observed during the transformation process of many cancers, including those of hematologic origin. Histone modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, and methylation, collaborate with DNA CpG island methylation to regulate gene expression. The dynamic process of histone methylation is the latest of these epigenetic modifications to be described, and the identification and characterization of LSD1 as a demethylase of lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) has confirmed that both the enzyme and the modified histone play important roles as regulators of gene expression. LSD1 activity contributes to the suppression of gene expression by demethylating promoter-region mono- and dimethyl- H3K4 histone marks that are associated with active gene expression. As most posttranslational modifications are reversible, the enzymes involved in the modification of histones have become targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. In this study, we examined the effects of the polyamine analogue LSD1 inhibitor 2d (1,15-bis{N5-[3,3-(diphenyl)propyl]-N1-biguanido}-4,12-diazapentadecane) in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines. In each line studied, 2d evoked cytotoxicity and inhibited LSD1 activity, as evidenced by increases in the global levels of mono- and di-methylated H3K4 proteins. Global increases in other chromatin modifications were also observed following exposure to 2d, suggesting a broad response to this compound with respect to chromatin regulation. On a gene-specific level, treatment with 2d resulted in the reexpression of e-cadherin, a tumor suppressor gene frequently silenced by epigenetic modification in AML. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the ecadherin promoter further confirmed that this re-expression was concurrent with changes in both active and repressive histone marks that were consistent with LSD1 inhibition. As hematologic malignancies have demonstrated

  14. The re-expression of the epigenetically silenced e-cadherin gene by a polyamine analogue lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) inhibitor in human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Aberrant epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes is a common feature observed during the transformation process of many cancers, including those of hematologic origin. Histone modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, and methylation, collaborate with DNA CpG island methylation to regulate gene expression. The dynamic process of histone methylation is the latest of these epigenetic modifications to be described, and the identification and characterization of LSD1 as a demethylase of lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) has confirmed that both the enzyme and the modified histone play important roles as regulators of gene expression. LSD1 activity contributes to the suppression of gene expression by demethylating promoter-region mono- and dimethyl-H3K4 histone marks that are associated with active gene expression. As most post-translational modifications are reversible, the enzymes involved in the modification of histones have become targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. In this study, we examined the effects of the polyamine analogue LSD1 inhibitor 2d (1,15-bis{N (5)-[3,3-(diphenyl)propyl]-N(1)-biguanido}-4,12-diazapentadecane) in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines. In each line studied, 2d evoked cytotoxicity and inhibited LSD1 activity, as evidenced by increases in the global levels of mono- and di-methylated H3K4 proteins. Global increases in other chromatin modifications were also observed following exposure to 2d, suggesting a broad response to this compound with respect to chromatin regulation. On a gene-specific level, treatment with 2d resulted in the re-expression of e-cadherin, a tumor suppressor gene frequently silenced by epigenetic modification in AML. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the e-cadherin promoter further confirmed that this re-expression was concurrent with changes in both active and repressive histone marks that were consistent with LSD1 inhibition. As hematologic malignancies have

  15. Silencing of CYP6 and APN Genes Affects the Growth and Development of Rice Yellow Stem Borer, Scirpophaga incertulas.

    PubMed

    Kola, Vijaya Sudhakara Rao; Renuka, P; Padmakumari, Ayyagari Phani; Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Balachandran, Sena M; Ravindra Babu, V; Madhav, Maganti S

    2016-01-01

    RNAi is a powerful tool to target the insect genes involved in host-pest interactions. Key insect genes are the choice for silencing to achieve pest derived resistance where resistance genes are not available in gene pool of host plant. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of dsRNA designed from two genes Cytochrome P450 derivative (CYP6) and Aminopeptidase N (APN) of rice yellow stem borer (YSB) on growth and development of insect. The bioassays involved injection of chemically synthesized 5' FAM labeled 21-nt dsRNA into rice cut stems and allowing the larvae to feed on these stems which resulted in increased mortality and observed growth and development changes in larval length and weight compared with its untreated control at 12-15 days after treatment. These results were further supported by observing the reduction in transcripts expression of these genes in treated larvae. Fluorescence detection in treated larvae also proved that dsRNA was readily taken by larvae when fed on dsRNA treated stems. These results from the present study clearly show that YSB larvae fed on dsRNA designed from Cytochrome P450 and Aminopeptidase N has detrimental effect on larval growth and development. These genes can be deployed to develop YSB resistance in rice using RNAi approach.

  16. Evidence That the Transcriptional Regulators Sin3 and Rpd3, and a Novel Gene (Sds3) with Similar Functions, Are Involved in Transcriptional Silencing in S. Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Vannier, D.; Balderes, D.; Shore, D.

    1996-01-01

    In a screen for extragenic suppressors of a silencing defective rap1(s) hmrΔA strain, recessive mutations in 21 different genes were found that restored repression to HMR. We describe the characterization of three of these SDS (suppressors of defective silencing) genes. SDS16 and SDS6 are known transcriptional modifiers, SIN3(RPD1/UME4/SDI1/GAM2) and RPD3(SDI2), respectively, while the third is a novel gene, SDS3. SDS3 shares the meiotic functions of SIN3 and RPD3 in that it represses IME2 in haploid cells and is necessary for sporulation in diploid cells. However, sds3 mutations differ from sin3 and rpd3 mutations in that they do not derepress TRK2. These sds mutations suppress a variety of cis- and trans-defects, which impair the establishment of silencing at HMR. Any one of the sds mutations slightly increases telomere position effect while a striking synergistic increase in repression is observed in a rap1(s) background. Epistasis studies suggest that SDS3 works in a different pathway from RPD3 and SIN3 to affect silencing at HMR. Together these results show that defects in certain general transcriptional modifiers can have a pronounced influence on position-effect gene silencing in yeast. Mechanisms for this increase in postion effect are discussed. PMID:8978024

  17. Small Interfering RNAs That Trigger Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing Are Not Required for the Histone H3 Lys9 Methylation Necessary for Transgenic Tandem Repeat Stabilization in Neurospora crassa†

    PubMed Central

    Chicas, Agustin; Forrest, Emma C.; Sepich, Silvia; Cogoni, Carlo; Macino, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    In Neurospora crassa, the introduction of a transgene can lead to small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of homologous genes. siRNAs can also guide locus-specific methylation of Lys9 of histone H3 (Lys9H3) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here we tested the hypothesis that transgenically derived siRNAs may contemporaneously both activate the PTGS mechanism and induce chromatin modifications at the transgene and the homologous endogenous gene. We carried out chromatin immunoprecipitation using a previously characterized albino-1 (al-1) silenced strain but detected no alterations in the pattern of histone modifications at the endogenous al-1 locus, suggesting that siRNAs produced from the transgenic locus do not trigger modifications in trans of those histones tested. Instead, we found that the transgenic locus was hypermethylated at Lys9H3 in our silenced strain and remained hypermethylated in the quelling defective mutants (qde), further demonstrating that the PTGS machinery is dispensable for Lys9H3 methylation. However, we found that a mutant in the histone Lys9H3 methyltransferase dim-5 was unable to maintain PTGS, with transgenic copies being rapidly lost, resulting in reversion of the silenced phenotype. These results indicate that the defect in PTGS of the Δdim-5 strain is due to the inability to maintain the transgene in tandem, suggesting a role for DIM-5 in stabilizing such repeated sequences. We conclude that in Neurospora, siRNAs produced from the transgenic locus are used in the RNA-induced silencing complex-mediated PTGS pathway and do not communicate with an RNAi-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing complex to effect chromatin-based silencing. PMID:15831483

  18. Small interfering RNAs that trigger posttranscriptional gene silencing are not required for the histone H3 Lys9 methylation necessary for transgenic tandem repeat stabilization in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Chicas, Agustin; Forrest, Emma C; Sepich, Silvia; Cogoni, Carlo; Macino, Giuseppe

    2005-05-01

    In Neurospora crassa, the introduction of a transgene can lead to small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of homologous genes. siRNAs can also guide locus-specific methylation of Lys9 of histone H3 (Lys9H3) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here we tested the hypothesis that transgenically derived siRNAs may contemporaneously both activate the PTGS mechanism and induce chromatin modifications at the transgene and the homologous endogenous gene. We carried out chromatin immunoprecipitation using a previously characterized albino-1 (al-1) silenced strain but detected no alterations in the pattern of histone modifications at the endogenous al-1 locus, suggesting that siRNAs produced from the transgenic locus do not trigger modifications in trans of those histones tested. Instead, we found that the transgenic locus was hypermethylated at Lys9H3 in our silenced strain and remained hypermethylated in the quelling defective mutants (qde), further demonstrating that the PTGS machinery is dispensable for Lys9H3 methylation. However, we found that a mutant in the histone Lys9H3 methyltransferase dim-5 was unable to maintain PTGS, with transgenic copies being rapidly lost, resulting in reversion of the silenced phenotype. These results indicate that the defect in PTGS of the Deltadim-5 strain is due to the inability to maintain the transgene in tandem, suggesting a role for DIM-5 in stabilizing such repeated sequences. We conclude that in Neurospora, siRNAs produced from the transgenic locus are used in the RNA-induced silencing complex-mediated PTGS pathway and do not communicate with an RNAi-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing complex to effect chromatin-based silencing.

  19. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Using Tobacco Rattle Virus as a Tool to Study the Interaction between Nicotiana attenuata and Rhizophagus irregularis

    PubMed Central

    Groten, Karin; Pahari, Nabin T.; Xu, Shuqing; Miloradovic van Doorn, Maja; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2015-01-01

    Most land plants live in a symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that belong to the phylum Glomeromycota. Although a number of plant genes involved in the plant-AMF interactions have been identified by analyzing mutants, the ability to rapidly manipulate gene expression to study the potential functions of new candidate genes remains unrealized. We analyzed changes in gene expression of wild tobacco roots (Nicotiana attenuata) after infection with mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis) by serial analysis of gene expression (SuperSAGE) combined with next generation sequencing, and established a virus-induced gene-silencing protocol to study the function of candidate genes in the interaction. From 92,434 SuperSAGE Tag sequences, 32,808 (35%) matched with our in-house Nicotiana attenuata transcriptome database and 3,698 (4%) matched to Rhizophagus genes. In total, 11,194 Tags showed a significant change in expression (p<0.05, >2-fold change) after infection. When comparing the functions of highly up-regulated annotated Tags in this study with those of two previous large-scale gene expression studies, 18 gene functions were found to be up-regulated in all three studies mainly playing roles related to phytohormone metabolism, catabolism and defense. To validate the function of identified candidate genes, we used the technique of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to silence the expression of three putative N. attenuata genes: germin-like protein, indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3.9 and, as a proof-of-principle, calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK). The silencing of the three plant genes in roots was successful, but only CCaMK silencing had a significant effect on the interaction with R. irregularis. Interestingly, when a highly activated inoculum was used for plant inoculation, the effect of CCaMK silencing on fungal colonization was masked, probably due to trans-complementation. This study demonstrates that large

  20. Transcription factor LSF-DNMT1 complex dissociation by FQI1 leads to aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Hang Gyeong; Ponnaluri, V.K. Chaithanya; Zhang, Guoqiang; Estève, Pierre-Olivier; Schaus, Scott E.; Hansen, Ulla; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor LSF is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promotes oncogenesis. Factor quinolinone inhibitor 1 (FQI1), inhibits LSF DNA-binding activity and exerts anti-proliferative activity. Here, we show that LSF binds directly to the maintenance DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and its accessory protein UHRF1 both in vivo and in vitro. Binding of LSF to DNMT1 stimulated DNMT1 activity and FQI1 negated the methyltransferase activation. Addition of FQI1 to the cell culture disrupted LSF bound DNMT1 and UHRF1 complexes, resulting in global aberrant CpG methylation. Differentially methylated regions (DMR) containing at least 3 CpGs, were significantly altered by FQI1 compared to control cells. The DMRs were mostly concentrated in CpG islands, proximal to transcription start sites, and in introns and known genes. These DMRs represented both hypo and hypermethylation, correlating with altered gene expression. FQI1 treatment elicits a cascade of effects promoting altered cell cycle progression. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of FQI1 mediated alteration of the epigenome by DNMT1-LSF complex disruption, leading to aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression. PMID:27845898

  1. Monitoring for potential adverse effects of prenatal gene therapy: mouse models for developmental aberrations and inadvertent germ line transmission.

    PubMed

    Coutelle, Charles; Waddington, Simon N; Themis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    So far no systematic studies have been conducted to investigate developmental aberrations after prenatal gene transfer in mice. Here, we suggest procedures for such observations to be applied, tested and improved in further in utero gene therapy experiments. They are based on our own experience in husbandry for transgenic human diseases mouse models and breading, rearing, and observing mice after fetal gene transfer as well as on the systematic screens for monitoring of knock-out mutant mouse phenotypes established in international mutagenesis projects (EUMORPHIA and EUMODIC and subsequently the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium). We also describe here the analysis procedures for detection of germ line mutations based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) by sperm-DNA analysis and breeding studies.

  2. Aberrant Splicing and Transcription Termination Caused by P Element Insertion into the Intron of a Drosophila Gene

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, H.; Berg, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis screens using the P[lacZ, rosy(+)] (PZ) transposable element have provided thousands of mutant lines for analyzing genes of varied function in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. As has been observed with other P elements, many of the PZ-induced mutations result from insertion of the P element into the promoter or 5' untranslated regions of the affected gene. We document here a novel mechanism for mutagenesis by this element. We show that sequences present within the element direct aberrant splicing and termination events that produce a mRNA composed of 5' sequences from the mutated gene (in this case, pipsqueak) and 3' sequences from within the P[lacZ, rosy(+)] element. These truncated RNAs could yield proteins with dominant mutant effects. PMID:7705633

  3. Aberrant splicing and transcription termination caused by P element insertion into the intron of a Drosophila gene

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, H.; Berg, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis screens using the P[lacZ, rosy{sup +}] (PZ) transposable element have provided thousands of mutant lines for analyzing genes of varied function in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. As has been observed with other P elements, many of the PZ-induced mutations result from insertion of the P element into the promoter or 5{prime} untranslated regions of the affected gene. We document here a novel mechanism for mutagenesis by this element. We show that sequences present within the element direct aberrant splicing and termination events that produce an mRNA composed of 5{prime} sequences from the mutated gene (in this case, pipsqueak) and 3{prime} sequences from within the P[lacZ, rosy{sup +}] element. These truncated RNAs could yield proteins with dominant mutant effects. 43 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Host-induced gene silencing of an essential chitin synthase gene confers durable resistance to Fusarium head blight and seedling blight in wheat.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Song, Xiu-Shi; Li, He-Ping; Cao, Le-Hui; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Xiao-Li; Xu, Yu-Bin; Yang, Peng; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Qu, Bo; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) of wheat, caused by Fusarium pathogens, are devastating diseases worldwide. We report the expression of RNA interference (RNAi) sequences derived from an essential Fusarium graminearum (Fg) virulence gene, chitin synthase (Chs) 3b, as a method to enhance resistance of wheat plants to fungal pathogens. Deletion of Chs3b was lethal to Fg; disruption of the other Chs gene family members generated knockout mutants with diverse impacts on Fg. Comparative expression analyses revealed that among the Chs gene family members, Chs3b had the highest expression levels during Fg colonization of wheat. Three hairpin RNAi constructs corresponding to the different regions of Chs3b were found to silence Chs3b in transgenic Fg strains. Co-expression of these three RNAi constructs in two independent elite wheat cultivar transgenic lines conferred high levels of stable, consistent resistance (combined type I and II resistance) to both FHB and FSB throughout the T3 to T5 generations. Confocal microscopy revealed profoundly restricted mycelia in Fg-infected transgenic wheat plants. Presence of the three specific short interfering RNAs in transgenic wheat plants was confirmed by Northern blotting, and these RNAs efficiently down-regulated Chs3b in the colonizing Fusarium pathogens on wheat seedlings and spikes. Our results demonstrate that host-induced gene silencing of an essential fungal chitin synthase gene is an effective strategy for enhancing resistance in crop plants under field test conditions.

  5. 4PD Functionalized Dendrimers: A Flexible Tool for In Vivo Gene Silencing of Tumor-Educated Myeloid Cells.

    PubMed

    Zilio, Serena; Vella, Jennifer L; De la Fuente, Adriana C; Daftarian, Pirouz M; Weed, Donald T; Kaifer, Angel; Marigo, Ilaria; Leone, Kevin; Bronte, Vincenzo; Serafini, Paolo

    2017-04-10

    Myeloid cells play a key role in tumor progression and metastasis by providing nourishment and immune protection, as well as facilitating cancer invasion and seeding to distal sites. Although advances have been made in understanding the biology of these tumor-educated myeloid cells (TEMCs), their intrinsic plasticity challenges our further understanding of their biology. Indeed, in vitro experiments only mimic the in vivo setting, and current gene-knockout technologies do not allow the simultaneous, temporally controlled, and cell-specific silencing of multiple genes or pathways. In this article, we describe the 4PD nanoplatform, which allows the in vivo preferential transfection and in vivo tracking of TEMCs with the desired RNAs. This platform is based on the conjugation of CD124/IL-4Rα-targeting peptide with G5 PAMAM dendrimers as the loading surface and can convey therapeutic or experimental RNAs of interest. When injected i.v. in mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma or B16 melanoma, the 4PD nanoparticles predominantly accumulate at the tumor site, transfecting intratumoral myeloid cells. The use of 4PD to deliver a combination of STAT3- and C/EBPβ-specific short hairpin RNA or miR-142-3p confirmed the importance of these genes and microRNAs in TEMC biology and indicates that silencing of both genes is necessary to increase the efficacy of immune interventions. Thus, the 4PD nanoparticle can rapidly and cost effectively modulate and assess the in vivo function of microRNAs and mRNAs in TEMCs.

  6. A novel murrel Channa striatus mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase: gene silencing, SOD activity, superoxide anion production and expression.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2014-12-01

    We have reported the molecular characterization including gene silencing, superoxide activity, superoxide anion production, gene expression and molecular characterization of a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mMnSOD) from striped murrel Channa striatus (named as CsmMnSOD). The CsmMnSOD polypeptide contains 225 amino acids with a molecular weight of 25 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.3. In the N-terminal region, CsmMnSOD carries a mitochondrial targeting sequence and a superoxide dismutases (SOD) Fe domain (28-109), and in C-terminal region, it carries another SOD Fe domain (114-220). The CsmMnSOD protein sequence shared significant similarity with its homolog of MnSOD from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (96%). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CsmMnSOD fell in the clade of fish mMnSOD group. The monomeric structure of CsmMnSOD possesses 9 α-helices (52.4%), 3 β-sheets (8.8%) and 38.8% random coils. The highest gene expression was noticed in liver, and its expression was inducted with fungal (Aphanomyces invadans) and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) infections. The gene silencing results show that the fish that received dsRNA exhibited significant (P < 0.05) changes in expression when compared to their non-injected and fish physiological saline-injected controls. The SOD activity shows that the activity increases with the spread of infection and decreases once the molecule controls the pathogen. The capacity of superoxide anion production was determined by calculating the granular blood cell count during infection in murrel. It shows that the infection influenced the superoxide radical production which plays a major role in killing the pathogens. Overall, this study indicated the defense potentiality of CsmMnSOD; however, further research is necessary to explore its capability at protein level.

  7. pHg/pSILBAγ vector system for efficient gene silencing in homobasidiomycetes: optimization of ihpRNA – triggering in the mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Kemppainen, Minna J.; Pardo, Alejandro G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary pSILBAγ silencing vector was constructed for efficient RNA silencing triggering in the model mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor. This cloning vector carries the Agaricus bisporus gpdII promoter, two multiple cloning sites separated by a L. bicolor nitrate reductase intron and the Aspergillus nidulans trpC terminator. pSILBAγ allows an easy oriented two‐step PCR cloning of hairpin sequences to be expressed in basidiomycetes. With one further cloning step into pHg, a pCAMBIA1300‐based binary vector carrying a hygromycin resistance cassette, the pHg/pSILBAγ plasmid is used for Agrobacterium‐mediated transformation. The pHg/pSILBAγ system results in predominantly single integrations of RNA silencing triggering T‐DNAs in the fungal genome and the integration sites of the transgenes can be resolved by plasmid rescue. pSILBAγ construct and two other pSILBA plasmid variants (pSILBA and pSILBAα) were evaluated for their capacity to silence Laccaria nitrate reductase gene. While all pSILBA variants tested resulted in up to 65–76% of transformants with reduced growth on nitrate, pSILBAγ produced the highest number (65%) of strongly affected fungal strains. The strongly silenced phenotype was shown to correlate with T‐DNA integration in transcriptionally active genomic sites. pHg/pSILBAγ was shown to produce T‐DNAs with minimum CpG methylation in transgene promoter regions which assures the maximum silencing trigger production in Laccaria. Methylation of the target endogene was only slight in RNA silencing triggered with constructs carrying an intronic spacer hairpin sequence. The silencing capacity of the pHg/pSILBAγ was further tested with Laccaria inositol‐1,4,5‐triphosphate 5‐phosphatase gene. Besides its use in silencing triggering, the herein described plasmid system can also be used for transgene expression in Laccaria. pHg/pSILBAγ silencing system is optimized for L. bicolor but it should be highly useful also for other

  8. Potato Snakin-1 Gene Silencing Affects Cell Division, Primary Metabolism, and Cell Wall Composition1[W

    PubMed Central

    Nahirñak, Vanesa; Almasia, Natalia Inés; Fernandez, Paula Virginia; Hopp, Horacio Esteban; Estevez, José Manuel; Carrari, Fernando; Vazquez-Rovere, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Snakin-1 (SN1) is an antimicrobial cysteine-rich peptide isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) that was classified as a member of the Snakin/Gibberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis protein family. In this work, a transgenic approach was used to study the role of SN1 in planta. Even when overexpressing SN1, potato lines did not show remarkable morphological differences from the wild type; SN1 silencing resulted in reduced height, which was accompanied by an overall reduction in leaf size and severe alterations of leaf shape. Analysis of the adaxial epidermis of mature leaves revealed that silenced lines had 70% to 90% increases in mean cell size with respect to wild-type leaves. Consequently, the number of epidermal cells was significantly reduced in these lines. Confocal microscopy analysis after agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that SN1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized in plasma membrane, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that SN1 self-interacted in vivo. We further focused our study on leaf metabolism by applying a combination of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and spectrophotometric techniques. These targeted analyses allowed a detailed examination of the changes occurring in 46 intermediate compounds from primary metabolic pathways and in seven cell wall constituents. We demonstrated that SN1 silencing affects cell division, leaf primary metabolism, and cell wall composition in potato plants, suggesting that SN1 has additional roles in growth and development beyond its previously assigned role in plant defense. PMID:22080603

  9. The SNF2-family member Fun30 promotes gene silencing in heterochromatic loci.

    PubMed

    Neves-Costa, Ana; Will, W Ryan; Vetter, Anna T; Miller, J Ross; Varga-Weisz, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Chromatin regulates many key processes in the nucleus by controlling access to the underlying DNA. SNF2-like factors are ATP-driven enzymes that play key roles in the dynamics of chromatin by remodelling nucleosomes and other nucleoprotein complexes. Even simple eukaryotes such as yeast contain members of several subfamilies of SNF2-like factors. The FUN30/ETL1 subfamily of SNF2 remodellers is conserved from yeasts to humans, but is poorly characterized. We show that the deletion of FUN30 leads to sensitivity to the topoisomerase I poison camptothecin and to severe cell cycle progression defects when the Orc5 subunit is mutated. We demonstrate a role of FUN30 in promoting silencing in the heterochromatin-like mating type locus HMR, telomeres and the rDNA repeats. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that Fun30 binds at the boundary element of the silent HMR and within the silent HMR. Mapping of nucleosomes in vivo using micrococcal nuclease demonstrates that deletion of FUN30 leads to changes of the chromatin structure at the boundary element. A point mutation in the ATP-binding site abrogates the silencing function of Fun30 as well as its toxicity upon overexpression, indicating that the ATPase activity is essential for these roles of Fun30. We identify by amino acid sequence analysis a putative CUE motif as a feature of FUN30/ETL1 factors and show that this motif assists Fun30 activity. Our work suggests that Fun30 is directly involved in silencing by regulating the chromatin structure within or around silent loci.

  10. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based functional micro- and nanostructures for efficient and selective gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Chung, Bong Hyun; Park, Tae Gwan; Nam, Yoon Sung; Mok, Hyejung

    2012-07-17

    Because of RNA's ability to encode structure and functional information, researchers have fabricated diverse geometric structures from this polymer at the micro- and nanoscale. With their tunable structures, rigidity, and biocompatibility, novel two-dimensional and three-dimensional RNA structures can serve as a fundamental platform for biomedical applications, including engineered tissues, biosensors, and drug delivery vehicles. The discovery of the potential of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) has underscored the applications of RNA-based micro- and nanostructures in medicine. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA), synthetic double-stranded RNA consisting of approximately 21 base pairs, suppresses problematic target genes in a sequence-specific manner via inherent RNA interference (RNAi) processing. As a result, siRNA offers a potential strategy for treatment of many human diseases. However, due to inefficient delivery to cells and off-target effects, the clinical application of therapeutic siRNA has been very challenging. To address these issues, researchers have studied a variety of nanocarrier systems for siRNA delivery. In this Account, we describe several strategies for efficient siRNA delivery and selective gene silencing. We took advantage of facile chemical conjugation and complementary hybridization to design novel siRNA-based micro- and nanostructures. Using chemical crosslinkers and hydrophobic/hydrophilic polymers at the end of siRNA, we produced various RNA-based structures, including siRNA block copolymers, micelles, linear siRNA homopolymers, and microhydrogels. Because of their increased charge density and flexibility compared with conventional siRNA, these micro- and nanostructures can form polyelectrolyte complexes with poorly charged and biocompatible cationic carriers that are both more condensed and more homogenous than the complexes formed in other carrier systems. In addition, the fabricated siRNA-based structures are linked by cleavable disulfide

  11. ROR1/RPA2A, a Putative Replication Protein A2, Functions in Epigenetic Gene Silencing and in Regulation of Meristem Development in ArabidopsisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ran; Wang, Junguo; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Yu; Wang, Youqun; Zhai, Jixian; Liu, Jun; Hong, Xuhui; Cao, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2006-01-01

    We screened for suppressors of repressor of silencing1 (ros1) using the silenced 35S promoter-neomycin phosphotransferase II (Pro35S:NPTII) gene as a marker and identified two allelic mutants, ror1-1 and ror1-2 (for suppressor of ros1). Map-based cloning revealed that ROR1 encodes a 31-kD protein similar to DNA replication protein A2 (RPA2A). Mutations in ROR1 reactivate the silenced Pro35S:NPTII gene but not RD29A promoter-luciferase in the ros1 mutant. DNA methylation in rDNA, centromeric DNA, and RD29A promoter regions is not affected by ror1. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest that histone H3 acetylation is increased and histone H3K9 dimethylation is decreased in the 35S promoter in the ror1 ros1 mutant compared with ros1. These results indicate that release of silenced Pro35S:NPTII by ror1 mutations is independent of DNA methylation. ROR1/RPA2A is strongly expressed in shoot and root meristems. Mutations in ROR1/RPA2A affect cell division in meristems but not final cell sizes. Our work suggests important roles of ROR1/RPA2A in epigenetic gene silencing and in the regulation of plant development. PMID:16326925

  12. Development of an Efficient Virus Induced Gene Silencing Strategy in the Non-Model Wild Ginger-Zingiber zerumbet and Investigation of Associated Proteome Changes

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Chidambareswaren; Jaleel, Abdul; Deb, Lokesh; Thomas, George; Sakuntala, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Zingiber zerumbet (Zingiberaceae) is a wild, tropical medicinal herb that shows a high degree of resistance to diseases affecting cultivated ginger. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) silencing vectors containing an endogenous phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene fragment were agroinfiltrated into young leaves of Z. zerumbet under controlled growth conditions to effect virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Infiltrated leaves as well as newly emerged leaves and tillers showed visual signs of PDS silencing after 30 days. Replication and systemic movement of the viral vectors in silenced plants were confirmed by RT-PCR. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis verified significant down-regulation of PDS transcripts in the silenced tissues. Label-free proteomic analysis was conducted in leaves with established PDS transcript down regulation and buffer-infiltrated (mock) leaves. A total of 474 proteins were obtained, which were up-regulated, down-regulated or modulated de novo during VIGS. Most of these proteins were localized to the chloroplast, as revealed by UniprotKB analysis, and among the up-regulated proteins there were abiotic stress responsive, photosynthetic, metabolic and membrane proteins. Moreover, the demonstration of viral proteins together with host proteins proved successful viral infection. We report for the first time the establishment of a high-throughput gene functional analysis platform using BSMV-mediated VIGS in Z. zerumbet, as well as proteomic changes associated with VIGS. PMID:25918840

  13. An efficient viral vector for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees and its induced resistance to Plum pox virus via silencing of a host factor gene.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2017-03-01

    RNA silencing is a powerful technology for molecular characterization of gene functions in plants. A commonly used approach to the induction of RNA silencing is through genetic transformation. A potent alternative is to use a modified viral vector for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to degrade RNA molecules sharing similar nucleotide sequence. Unfortunately, genomic studies in many allogamous woody perennials such as peach are severely hindered because they have a long juvenile period and are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. Here, we report the development of a viral vector derived from Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), a widespread fruit tree virus that is endemic in all Prunus fruit production countries and regions in the world. We show that the modified PNRSV vector, harbouring the sense-orientated target gene sequence of 100-200 bp in length in genomic RNA3, could efficiently trigger the silencing of a transgene or an endogenous gene in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. We further demonstrate that the PNRSV-based vector could be manipulated to silence endogenous genes in peach such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E isoform (eIF(iso)4E), a host factor of many potyviruses including Plum pox virus (PPV). Moreover, the eIF(iso)4E-knocked down peach plants were resistant to PPV. This work opens a potential avenue for the control of virus diseases in perennial trees via viral vector-mediated silencing of host factors, and the PNRSV vector may serve as a powerful molecular tool for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees.

  14. Effects of AFP gene silencing on Survivin mRNA expression inhibition in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z L; Fang, N; Han, X N; Huang, G; Fu, X J; Xie, G S; Wang, N R; Xiong, J P

    2015-04-10

    We investigated the effects of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene silencing on Survivin expression in HepG2 cells. Small interfering RNA technology was used to downregulate AFP expression in HepG2 cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure AFP concentration in the supernatant before and after transfection. An MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation activity before and after transfection. We performed flow cytometric analysis to detect the cell apoptosis rate, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to detect Survivin mRNA levels before and after transfection. Forty-eight hours after transfection, AFP concentration in the supernatant of the experimental group significantly decreased, hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth was inhibited by 43.1%, and the apoptosis rate increased by 24.3%. Survivin mRNA expression was reduced by 78.0% in HepG2 cells. These indicators in the control group and in the blank group did not change significantly. Silencing of AFP expression in HepG2 cells can effectively inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells and promote apoptosis, which may be useful for reducing intracellular Survivin mRNA levels.

  15. Antisense 2'-Deoxy, 2'-Fluoroarabino Nucleic Acid (2'F-ANA) Oligonucleotides: In Vitro Gymnotic Silencers of Gene Expression Whose Potency Is Enhanced by Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Souleimanian, Naira; Deleavey, Glen F; Soifer, Harris; Wang, Sijian; Tiemann, Katrin; Damha, Masad J; Stein, Cy A

    2012-01-01

    Gymnosis is the process of the delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to cells, in the absence of any carriers or conjugation, that produces sequence-specific gene silencing. While gymnosis was originally demonstrated using locked nucleic acid (LNA) gapmers, 2'-deoxy-2'fluoroarabino nucleic acid (2'F-ANA) phosphorothioate gapmer oligonucleotides (oligos) when targeted to the Bcl-2 and androgen receptor (AR) mRNAs in multiple cell lines in tissue culture, are approximately as effective at silencing of Bcl-2 expression as the iso-sequential LNA congeners. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells, gymnotic silencing of the AR by a 2'F-ANA phosphorothioate gapmer oligo led to downstream silencing of cellular prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression even in the presence of the androgenic steroid R1881 (metribolone), which stabilizes cytoplasmic levels of the AR. Furthermore, gymnotic silencing occurs in the absence of serum, and silencing by both LNA and 2'F-ANA oligos is augmented in serum-free (SF) media in some cell lines when they are treated with oleic acid and a variety of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 PUFAs), but not by an aliphatic (palmitic) fatty acid. These results significantly expand our understanding of and ability to successfully manipulate the cellular delivery of single-stranded oligos in vitro.

  16. A Silenced vanA Gene Cluster on a Transferable Plasmid Caused an Outbreak of Vancomycin-Variable Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Sivertsen, Audun; Pedersen, Torunn; Larssen, Kjersti Wik; Bergh, Kåre; Rønning, Torunn Gresdal; Radtke, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of vancomycin-variable vanA+ enterococci (VVE) able to escape phenotypic detection by current guidelines and demonstrate the molecular mechanisms for in vivo switching into vancomycin resistance and horizontal spread of the vanA cluster. Forty-eight vanA+ Enterococcus faecium isolates and one Enterococcus faecalis isolate were analyzed for clonality with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and their vanA gene cluster compositions were assessed by PCR and whole-genome sequencing of six isolates. The susceptible VVE strains were cultivated in brain heart infusion broth containing vancomycin at 8 μg/ml for in vitro development of resistant VVE. The transcription profiles of susceptible VVE and their resistant revertants were assessed using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Plasmid content was analyzed with S1 nuclease PFGE and hybridizations. Conjugative transfer of vanA was assessed by filter mating. The only genetic difference between the vanA clusters of susceptible and resistant VVE was an ISL3-family element upstream of vanHAX, which silenced vanHAX gene transcription in susceptible VVE. Furthermore, the VVE had an insertion of IS1542 between orf2 and vanR that attenuated the expression of vanHAX. Growth of susceptible VVE occurred after 24 to 72 h of exposure to vancomycin due to excision of the ISL3-family element. The vanA gene cluster was located on a transferable broad-host-range plasmid also detected in outbreak isolates with different pulsotypes, including one E. faecalis isolate. Horizontally transferable silenced vanA able to escape detection and revert into resistance during vancomycin therapy represents a new challenge in the clinic. Genotypic testing of invasive vancomycin-susceptible enterococci by vanA-PCR is advised. PMID:27139479

  17. SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds induce RISC-mediated antisense strand selection and strong gene-silencing activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Takanori; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Takei, Yoshifumi; Mihara, Keichiro; Sato, Yuichiro; Seyama, Toshio

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds (Ar-siRNAs) at 5 Prime -sense strand were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs increased resistance against nuclease degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs were thermodynamically stable compared with the unmodified siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High levels of cellular uptake and cytoplasmic localization were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong gene-silencing efficacy was exhibited in the Ar-siRNAs. -- Abstract: Short interference RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. In this study, we focused on the development of siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds in order to improve the potency of RNAi and thus to overcome several problems with siRNAs, such as cellular delivery and nuclease stability. The siRNAs conjugated with phenyl, hydroxyphenyl, naphthyl, and pyrenyl derivatives showed strong resistance to nuclease degradation, and were thermodynamically stable compared with unmodified siRNA. A high level of membrane permeability in HeLa cells was also observed. Moreover, these siRNAs exhibited enhanced RNAi efficacy, which exceeded that of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified siRNAs, against exogenous Renilla luciferase in HeLa cells. In particular, abundant cytoplasmic localization and strong gene-silencing efficacy were found in the siRNAs conjugated with phenyl and hydroxyphenyl derivatives. The novel siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds are promising candidates for a new generation of modified siRNAs that can solve many of the problems associated with RNAi technology.

  18. Gene Network Polymorphism Illuminates Loss and Retention of Novel RNAi Silencing Components in the Cryptococcus Pathogenic Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Clancey, Shelly Applen; Wang, Xuying; Heitman, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    RNAi is a ubiquitous pathway that serves central functions throughout eukaryotes, including maintenance of genome stability and repression of transposon expression and movement. However, a number of organisms have lost their RNAi pathways, including the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis, the human pathogen Cryptococcus deuterogattii, and some human parasite pathogens, suggesting there may be adaptive benefits associated with both retention and loss of RNAi. By comparing the RNAi-deficient genome of the Pacific Northwest Outbreak C. deuterogattii strain R265 with the RNAi-proficient genomes of the Cryptococcus pathogenic species complex, we identified a set of conserved genes that were lost in R265 and all other C. deuterogattii isolates examined. Genetic and molecular analyses reveal several of these lost genes play roles in RNAi pathways. Four novel components were examined further. Znf3 (a zinc finger protein) and Qip1 (a homolog of N. crassa Qip) were found to be essential for RNAi, while Cpr2 (a constitutive pheromone receptor) and Fzc28 (a transcription factor) are involved in sex-induced but not mitosis-induced silencing. Our results demonstrate that the mitotic and sex-induced RNAi pathways rely on the same core components, but sex-induced silencing may be a more specific, highly induced variant that involves additional specialized or regulatory components. Our studies further illustrate how gene network polymorphisms involving known components of key cellular pathways can inform identification of novel elements and suggest that RNAi loss may have been a core event in the speciation of C. deuterogattii and possibly contributed to its pathogenic trajectory. PMID:26943821

  19. RNA-silencing in Penicillium chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum: validation studies using beta-lactam genes expression.

    PubMed

    Ullán, Ricardo V; Godio, Ramiro P; Teijeira, Fernando; Vaca, Inmaculada; García-Estrada, Carlos; Feltrer, Raúl; Kosalkova, Katarina; Martín, Juan F

    2008-10-01

    In this work we report the development and validation of a new RNA interference vector (pJL43-RNAi) containing a double-stranded RNA expression cassette for gene silencing in the filamentous fungi Penicillium chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum. Classical targeted gene disruption in these fungi is very laborious and inefficient due to the low frequency of homologous recombination. The RNAi vector has been validated by testing the attenuation of two different genes of the beta-lactam pathway; pcbC in P. chrysogenum and cefEF in A. chrysogenum. Quantification of mRNA transcript levels and antibiotic production showed knockdown of pcbC and cefEF genes in randomly isolated transformants of P. chrysogenum and A. chrysogenum, respectively. The process is efficient; 15 to 20% of the selected transformants were found to be knockdown mutants showing reduced penicillin or cephalosporin production. This new RNAi vector opens the way for exploring gene function in the genomes of P. chrysogenum and A. chrysogenum.

  20. Efficient CRISPR-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing in a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Using Multiplexed crRNA Expression.

    PubMed

    Zebec, Ziga; Zink, Isabelle Anna; Kerou, Melina; Schleper, Christa

    2016-10-13

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-mediated RNA degradation is catalyzed by a type III system in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus Earlier work demonstrated that the system can be engineered to target specifically mRNA of an endogenous host reporter gene, namely the β-galactosidase in S. solfataricus Here, we investigated the effect of single and multiple spacers targeting the mRNA of a second reporter gene, α-amylase, at the same, and at different, locations respectively, using a minimal CRISPR (miniCR) locus supplied on a viral shuttle vector. The use of increasing numbers of spacers reduced mRNA levels at progressively higher levels, with three crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) leading to ∼ 70-80% reduction, and five spacers resulting in an α-amylase gene knockdown of > 90% measured on both mRNA and protein activity levels. Our results indicate that this technology can be used to increase or modulate gene knockdown for efficient post-transcriptional gene silencing in hyperthermophilic archaea, and potentially also in other organisms.

  1. Efficient CRISPR-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing in a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Using Multiplexed crRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zebec, Ziga; Zink, Isabelle Anna; Kerou, Melina; Schleper, Christa

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-mediated RNA degradation is catalyzed by a type III system in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Earlier work demonstrated that the system can be engineered to target specifically mRNA of an endogenous host reporter gene, namely the β-galactosidase in S. solfataricus. Here, we investigated the effect of single and multiple spacers targeting the mRNA of a second reporter gene, α-amylase, at the same, and at different, locations respectively, using a minimal CRISPR (miniCR) locus supplied on a viral shuttle vector. The use of increasing numbers of spacers reduced mRNA levels at progressively higher levels, with three crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) leading to ∼ 70–80% reduction, and five spacers resulting in an α-amylase gene knockdown of > 90% measured on both mRNA and protein activity levels. Our results indicate that this technology can be used to increase or modulate gene knockdown for efficient post-transcriptional gene silencing in hyperthermophilic archaea, and potentially also in other organisms. PMID:27507792

  2. Delivery of chitosan/dsRNA nanoparticles for silencing of wing development vestigial (vg) gene in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Kumar, D; Saravana Kumar, P; Gandhi, M Rajiv; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Paulraj, M Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been used as a gene silencing strategy by the introduction of long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) for the control of pest insects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the expression of vg gene which is responsible for wing development, can be repressed by chitosan/dsRNA based nanoparticles in Aedes aegypti. The vestigial