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Sample records for aberrant left subclavian

  1. Total endovascular repair of aberrant left subclavian artery with Kommerell's diverticulum using a customized branched device.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Pierre Galvagni; Franklin, Rafael Narciso; Cunha, Josué Rafael Ferreira; Neves, Thais Torres; Nascimento, Gilberto Galego; Bortoluzzi, Cristiano Torres

    2013-04-01

    We describe a case of Kommerell's diverticulum involving the distal portion of a right-sided aortic arch and the origin of an aberrant left subclavian artery (LSA). The patient underwent a total endovascular repair with the use of a modified Valiant endograft (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn) to which a branch was attached to keep LSA patency. Postoperative computed tomography showed complete exclusion of the lesion, without endoleaks. The use of "customized off-label" devices to treat special conditions was feasible in this case, keeping patency of the LSA without risk of arm claudication or the requirement for a complementary surgical bypass. PMID:23312832

  2. Translocation of an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery With Resolution of Dysphagia Lusoria.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jess L; Burkhart, Harold M

    2016-07-01

    The presence of a left aortic arch with an aberrant right subclavian artery is a well-described anatomic variant that rarely causes symptoms. When symptoms of dysphagia lusoria do occur, however, operative intervention may be necessary. The purpose of this report is to describe our preferred surgical approach to treat dysphagia lusoria secondary to an aberrant right subclavian artery. PMID:27343538

  3. Complex aortic arch anomaly: Right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery, fenestrated proximal right and duplicated proximal left vertebral arteries—CT angiography findings and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Elizabeth; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2015-01-01

    Congenital aortic arch and vertebral artery anomalies are a relatively rare finding discovered on imaging either incidentally or for evaluation of entities like dysphagia or subclavian steal. Right aortic arch is an uncommon anatomical anomaly that occurs in less than 0.1% of the population, and in half of these cases the left subclavian artery is also aberrant.1 Unilateral vertebral artery (VA) duplication is rare with an observed prevalence of 0.72% in cadavers.2 Fenestration of the VA is more common than duplication, with a prevalence of approximately 0.23%–1.95%.3,4 We describe the case of a 25-year-old female who was found to have a right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery, duplicated left vertebral artery and a fenestrated right vertebral artery on CT angiography performed for evaluation of dysphagia. This combination of findings has not been reported before, to the best of our knowledge. We review the embryologic mechanism for the development of the normal aortic arch, right aortic arch, vertebral artery duplication and vertebral artery fenestration. The incidence of these entities, resultant symptoms and clinical implications are also reviewed. The increased associated incidence of aneurysm formation, dissection, arteriovenous malformations and thromboembolic events with fenestration is also discussed. PMID:26306929

  4. Left subclavian artery-esophageal fistula induced by a paper star: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-06-01

    A subclavian artery-esophageal fistula usually occurs on the right side of an aberrant subclavian artery. It also rarely appears in the site between a non-aberrant subclavian artery and the esophagus due to the ingestion of a foreign body. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the case of a subclavian artery-esophageal fistula is rare but often fatal. Here, we report on a 62-year-old male patient with a left subclavian arteryesophageal fistula complicated by hemorrhagic shock. He swallowed a foreign body at a birthday party. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy indicated a paper star lodged at 20 cm from the incisors, inducing a kissing esophageal ulcer around the esophageal sphincter. One month later, he suffered an unusually strong episode of hematemesis. Subsequently, a computed tomography angiography was performed and demonstrated a left subclavian artery-esophageal fistula. Finally, the fistula induced by the ingestion of a paper star was successfully treated by endovascular stent grafting. PMID:27514535

  5. Diverticula of Kommerell and Aberrant Subclavian Arteries Complicated by Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. G. Whigham, C. J.; Trinh, C.

    2005-06-15

    This is a retrospective evaluation of the incidence of aberrant subclavian arteries (ASAs) and diverticula of Kommerell, as well as the occurrence and significance of associated aneurysms. Thoracic aortograms obtained during a 12.5-year period were reviewed, seeking the presence of aberrant right and left subclavian arteries (ARSAs/ALSAs), diverticula of Kommerell, and the incidence of associated aortic aneurysms. Several cases were evaluated with computed tomography concomitantly. Results were correlated with a literature review. Twenty-two ASAs were identified. Nineteen were on the right (ARSAs) and three were on the left (ALSAs). A diverticulum of Kommerell (DOK) was also present on the right in seven and on the left in three. Five of these patients had complicating aneurysms. Four of these were associated with ARSAs and their diverticula. Two were atherosclerotic; one was a limited dissection and one of uncertain etiology was ruptured. One additional aneurysm (atherosclerotic) involved an ALSA/DOK. The patient with the ruptured aneurysm died in surgery; three were managed conservatively because of concomitant disease; and one is being followed because of the small size (2.5 cm) of the aneurysm. ARSAs are relatively uncommon and ALSAs are rare. Both ARSA and ALSA are frequently associated with a DOK. Aneurysms rarely involve ASAs (with or without a DOK), but they are associated with a high mortality rate if they are not discovered before rupture. Early diagnosis plus surgical and/or endovascular management can be lifesaving.

  6. CT of ruptured aneurysm of aberrant right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Vega, A; Ortíz, A; Longo, J M; Pagola, M A

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the first description of a ruptured aneurysm of an aberrant right subclavian artery. CT clearly demonstrated the vascular malformation as well as the existence of a bilateral hemothorax. PMID:3102065

  7. Hybrid repair of ruptured type B aortic dissection extending into an aberrant right subclavian artery in a patient with Turner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamidian-Jahromi, Alireza; Carroll, Jonathan D; Doucet, Linda D; Zhang, Wayne W

    2013-11-01

    Turner's syndrome (TS) has been documented as the most common cause of aortic dissection in young women. However, little attention from vascular surgery has been paid to these patients. We report the first case of ruptured type B aortic dissection with aberrant right subclavian artery treated successfully with hybrid endovascular and open procedures in a patient with TS. Left carotid to subclavian artery bypass, thoracic endovascular aortic repair, and coil embolization of the aberrant right subclavian and left subclavian arteries were performed in an emergency setting. Literature on epidemiology, causes, and management options of acute aortic dissection in TS patients are reviewed and discussed. PMID:24011806

  8. Coarctation of the aorta associated with agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Ding, Shiao; Xu, Gaojun; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 10-year-old boy with coarctation of the aorta complicated by innominate artery stenosis and agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery. The patient was treated with an interposition graft between the ascending and descending aorta. The right subclavian was revascularized with another graft from the interposition graft to the distal right subclavian. This is a rare case of the combination of coarctation of the aorta and other vascular malformations. PMID:27162694

  9. Coarctation of the aorta associated with agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ding, Shiao; Xu, Gaojun; Liu, Hao; Ding, Fangbao

    2016-05-01

    We describe the case of a 10-year-old boy with coarctation of the aorta complicated by innominate artery stenosis and agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery. The patient was treated with an interposition graft between the ascending and descending aorta. The right subclavian was revascularized with another graft from the interposition graft to the distal right subclavian. This is a rare case of the combination of coarctation of the aorta and other vascular malformations. PMID:27162694

  10. Mycotic aneurysm of the left subclavian artery: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Visrutaratna, P; Charoenkwan, P; Saeteng, S

    2006-01-01

    Mycotic aneurysms caused by aspergillosis are rare. We report a nine-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who had invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and subsequently developed a left subclavian artery aneurysm. Prior to the aneurysm, computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed a nodule with an air crescent in the left upper lobe, adhering to the mediastinum and the left subclavian artery. The left subclavian artery was ill-defined and had a small lumen, and it was embedded in the wall of the nodule. 37 days after the chest CT, the patient underwent a left thoracotomy because of massive haemoptysis, at which time a false aneurysm in the left subclavian artery was found. Plication of the aneurysm was performed. On a follow-up CT with multiplanar reconstruction six days after surgery, there were the plicated aneurysm and a small amount of pleural effusion in the upper portion of the left hemithorax, adjacent to the plication. In invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, it is important to be aware of the possibility of mycotic aneurysms, particularly in patients with pulmonary lesions adjacent to mediastinal vessels with ill-defined borders and small lumens, since the aneurysms may increase in size and rupture. CT, particularly multidetector CT, helps in visualisation of mycotic aneurysms. PMID:16397728

  11. Delayed treatment of a traumatic left subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Franz, Randall W

    2008-01-01

    A 22-year-old man sustained 4 gunshot wounds to the upper torso resulting in left pneumothorax, an expanding right neck hematoma, left humerus fracture, a traumatic arteriovenous fistula from the right subclavian artery to the right brachiocephalic vein, and pseudoaneurysm formation from partial transection of the right subclavian artery. The patient underwent emergent repair of the confluence of the right internal jugular, subclavian and brachiocephalic veins, and laparotomy secondary to compartment syndrome. Seven weeks later, with the pseudoaneurysm enlarged to 6 cm, it was repaired with combined access via the right common femoral artery and right brachial artery. The pseudoaneurysm was covered with a 7 mm x 8 cm fluency-covered stent graft and postdilated with a 7 mm x 4 cm balloon. Postoperatively, the patient had palpable pulses, occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm, and excellent blood flow into the arm. PMID:18583305

  12. Left Subclavian Artery Occlusion: Femoro-Axillary Artery Retrograde Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The treatment tactics for subclavian artery occlusion include the more commonly used endovascular therapy rather than surgical intervention. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman with dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure who experienced left finger necrosis in the left upper extremity. To salvage the limb, we performed femoro-axillary (fem-ax) artery bypass using an autologous saphenous vein graft. However, 10 months later, she experienced coldness in the left forearm. Angiography revealed chronic total occlusion of the venous bypass. Despite emergent thrombectomy, redo fem-ax artery bypass operation was performed using a prosthetic graft. Upper limb salvage can be achieved by fem-ax artery retrograde bypass. PMID:27386454

  13. Aneurysm of an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery Successfully Excluded by a Thoracic Aortic Stent Graft with Supra-aortic Bypass of Three Arch Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Munneke, Graham J. Loosemore, Thomas M.; Belli, Anna-Maria; Thompson, Matt M.; Morgan, Robert A.

    2005-06-15

    An aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) arising from a left-sided aortic arch is the fourth most common aortic arch anomaly. Aneurysmal dilatation of the ARSA requires treatment because of the associated risk of rupture. We present a case where supra-aortic bypass of the arch vessels was performed to facilitate exclusion of the aneurysm by a thoracic aortic stent graft.

  14. Aberrant right subclavian artery-esophageal fistula: massive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage secondary to prolonged intubation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Elsa; Anastácio, Margarida; Marques, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant right subclavian artery-esophageal fistula is a rare but potentially fatal complication. It may be associated with procedures, such as tracheostomy and tracheal or esophageal intubation, and yields massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding difficult to identify and to control. A high index of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis and better prognosis. We report a rare case of a patient who survived after emergent surgical procedure for massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to aberrant right subclavian artery-esophageal fistula after prolonged intubation. PMID:27108831

  15. Surgical correction of an aberrant right subclavian artery in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hun-Young; Jeong, Soon-wuk

    2011-01-01

    A diagnosis of an aberrant right subclavian artery was made in a 3-month-old Boston terrier. Surgical correction was performed after confirming adequate collateral circulation. Reports of surgical correction and evaluation of the perioperative thoracic limb blood pressure are rare in dogs. PMID:22467968

  16. Percutaneous Angioplasty and Stenting of left Subclavian Artery Lesions for the Treatment of Patients with Concomitant Vertebral and Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo, Ferrara Francesco, Meli; Francesco, Raimondi; Corrado, Amato; Chiara, Mina; Valentina, Cospite; Giuseppina, Novo; Salvatore, Novo

    2006-06-15

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of subclavian stenosis percutaneous transfemoral angioplasty (PTA)-treatment in patients with intermittent or complete subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), and coronary-subclavian steal syndrome (C-SSS) after left internal mammary artery-interventricular anterior artery (LIMA-IVA) by pass graft. Methods. We studied 42 patients with coronary subclavian steal syndrome subdivided in two groups; the first group consisted of 15 patients who presented an intermittent vertebral-subclavian steal, while the second group consisted of 27 patients with a complete vertebral-subclavian steal. All patients were treated with angioplasty and stent application and were followed up for a period of 5 years by echocolordoppler examination to evaluate any subclavian restenosis. Results. Subclavian restenosis was significantly increased in patients with a complete subclavian steal syndrome. The restenosis rate was 6.67% in the first group and 40.75% in the second group, These patients had 9.1 fold-increase risk (CI confidence interval 0.95-86.48) in restenosis. Conclusion. Patients with a complete subclavian and coronary steal syndrome present a higher risk of subclavian restenosis.

  17. The use of the Amplatzer plug to treat dysphagia lusoria caused by an aberrant right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Morris, Marvin E; Benjamin, Makamson; Gardner, Glenn P; Nichols, W Kirt; Faizer, Rumi

    2010-04-01

    Emerging technology with endovascular techniques has expanded our armamentarium to treat the aberrant right subclavian artery. We describe a hybrid technique using an Amplatzer plug in combination with a carotid subclavian bypass to treat a patient with dysphagia lusoria. PMID:20004549

  18. Endovascular Repair of a Right-Sided Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Associated with a Right Aortic Arch and a Left Subclavian Artery Arising from a Kommerell's Diverticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Klonaris, Chris Avgerinos, Efthimios D.; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Matthaiou, Alexandros; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Psarros, Vasileios; Bastounis, Elias

    2009-07-15

    This case report describes the endovascular repair of a right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with a right aortic arch and an aberrant left subclavian artery. A 76-year-old male with multiple comorbidities was incidentally found to have a right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysm with a maximum diameter of 6.2 cm. Additionally, there was a right aortic arch with a retroesophageal segment and separate arch branches arising in the following order: left common carotid artery, right common carotid artery, right subclavian artery, and left subclavian artery that was aberrant, arising from a Kommerrell's diverticulum. The aneurysm was successfully excluded by deployment of a Zenith TX1 36 x 32 x 20-mm stent-graft using wire traction technique via the left femoral and right brachial arteries in order to deal with two severe aortic angulations. At 18-month follow-up the patient was doing well, with aneurysm sac shrinkage to 5.9 cm and no signs of endoleak or migration. Endovascular repair of right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysms with a right arch and aberrant left subclavian artery is feasible, safe, and effective. In such rare configurations, which demand considerably increased technical dexterity and center experience, endovascular repair emerges as an attractive therapeutic option.

  19. [A Case of Esophageal Carcinoma with an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery].

    PubMed

    Tokunou, Kazuhisa; Yamamoto, Tatsuhito; Kamei, Ryoji; Kitamura, Yoshinori; Ando, Seiichirou

    2015-11-01

    We report a rare case of esophageal carcinoma with an aberrant right subclavian artery. A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a sense of discomfort during swallowing. A detailed gastrointestinal examination revealed advanced carcinoma of the middle thoracic esophagus. Preoperative CT also revealed an aberrant right subclavian artery (AR SA). After the second course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (FP therapy), we conducted a transthoracic esophagectomy with a 3-field lymphadenectomy. The right recurrent nerve was not identified at the right subclavian artery during mediastinal dissection, but the non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (NRILN) was identified as going directly from the vagal nerve to the larynx during the neck lymphadenectomy. The thoracic duct ran between the esophagus and the azygos vein, terminating at the right venous angle. We were able to perform a #106recL lymphadenectomy as usual. She continues to do well without signs of recurrence 1 year later. Though ARSA is a relatively rare congenital anomaly, it must be identified preoperatively, and anatomical anomalies such as NRILN must be taken into consideration, in order that the operation can be performed safely. PMID:26805213

  20. Combination of Rare Right Arterial Variation with Anomalous Origins of the Vertebral Artery, Aberrant Subclavian Artery and Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, H.; San Millán Ruíz, D.; Abdo, G.; Asakura, F.; Yilmaz, H.; Lovblad, K.O.; Rüfenacht, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A 32-year-old woman hospitalized for subarachnoid hemorrhage showed rare arterial variation on the right side with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. Angiography showed the right vertebral artery to originate from the right common carotid artery, the right subclavian artery to arise separately from the descending aorta, and persistent trigeminal artery on the right side. The possible embryonic mechanism of this previously unreported variant combination is discussed. PMID:22005696

  1. A Rare Case of Esophageal Dysphagia in Children: Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Claudia; Carucci, Nicolina Stefania; Romano, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is an impairment of swallowing that may involve any structures from the mouth to the stomach. Esophageal dysphagia presents with the sensation of food sticking, pain with swallowing, substernal pressure, or chronic heartburn. There are many causes of esophageal dysphagia, such as motility disorders and mechanical and inflammatory diseases. Infrequently dysphagia arises from extrinsic compression of the esophagus from any vascular anomaly of the aortic arch. The most common embryologic abnormality of the aortic arch is aberrant right subclavian artery, clinically known as arteria lusoria. This abnormality is usually silent. Here, we report a case of six-year-old child presenting to us with a history of progressive dysphagia without respiratory symptoms. A barium esophagogram showed an increase of the physiological esophageal narrowing at the level of aortic arch, while at esophagogastroduodenoscopy there was an extrinsic pulsatile compression of the posterior portion of the esophagus suggesting an extrinsic compression by an aberrant vessel. Angio-CT (computed tomography) scan confirmed the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery. PMID:26904341

  2. Treatment of aneurysmal aberrant right subclavian artery with triple-barrel stent graft.

    PubMed

    Schwein, Adeline; Georg, Yannick; Ohana, Mickaël; Delay, Charline; Lejay, Anne; Thaveau, Fabien; Chakfe, Nabil

    2015-04-01

    Aneurysmal evolution of an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) is an operative indication. Endovascular treatment is a minimally invasive procedure, which offers good short-term and midterm results. We describe a case of a 9-cm diameter ARSA aneurysm in a symptomatic man, treated with the triple-barrel technique using a thoracic aortic stent graft combined with surgical and endovascular revascularization of the supra-aortic trunks. Postoperatively, the patient developed a type III endoleak which was covered. The triple-barrel technique has been a proposed treatment approach for complex aortic arch pathologies and remains a less invasive option when compared with open surgery. PMID:25596407

  3. Management of the left subclavian artery during endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nadim; Sadat, Umar; Hayes, Paul D; Thompson, Matthew M; Boyle, Jonathan R

    2008-04-01

    Endovascular repair is rapidly becoming the treatment of choice for thoracic aortic disease, which oftentimes involves or lies in close proximity to the left subclavian artery (LSA). In order to extend the proximal landing zone for the stent-graft and obtain an adequate seal, the LSA ostium is often covered, with or without concomitant subclavian artery revascularization. In this article, we review the LSA anatomy and consequences of LSA coverage as a backdrop for a discussion of the ramifications of LSA coverage during endovascular thoracic aortic repair (TEVAR). Early series reported high rates of LSA revascularization as an adjunct to endovascular repair for aortic pathology adjacent to the LSA ostium. Initial reports of low morbidity associated with simple LSA ostium coverage are not supported by contemporary literature, which suggests revascularization reduces the risks of cerebrovascular accident and spinal cord ischemia. Coverage of the LSA without revascularization may be justified only in emergency situations or when thorough investigations of cerebral and vertebrobasilar circulation have concluded that the risk to brain and spinal cord is low. Subclavian revascularization should be considered in the presence of a dominant left vertebral artery, bilateral carotid artery disease, an occluded/stenosed right vertebral artery, presence of a left internal mammary artery graft, or when a long length of thoracic aorta is covered. PMID:18426279

  4. Symptomatic obstruction of the brachiocephalic and left subclavian arteries obscured by aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Peter W; Assi, Roland; Grecu, Loreta; Dardik, Alan

    2014-04-01

    Stenosis or occlusion of the brachiocephalic artery represents an uncommon cause of cerebrovascular insufficiency. We report a patient with combined brachiocephalic and left subclavian obstruction with clinical manifestations of lightheadedness, syncope, and left-sided weakness who remained misdiagnosed essentially because of symmetrical pressures in the upper extremities. Aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis failed to provide symptomatic relief. Eventual stenting of the brachiocephalic trunk resolved the patient's symptoms. Our report highlights the diagnostic challenges in this case of bilateral supraaortic vessel disease and shows that equal upper extremity pressures do not rule out brachiocephalic artery obstruction. PMID:24368183

  5. Takayasu Arteritis with Bilateral Renal Artery Stenosis and Left Subclavian Artery Stenosis in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nalini, Sharma; Santa, Singh Ahanthem

    2015-09-01

    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a rare, systemic, chronic inflammatory, progressive, idiopathic disease of aorta and its main branches. It causes narrowing, occlusion and aneurysm of arteries. It affects mainly young females in about 80-90% of cases (young female arteritis). TA has adverse effect on pregnancy in the form of abortion, superimposed preeclampsia, IUGR (Intrauterine growth restriction), IUFD (intrauterine fetal death), abruption and CCF (congestive cardiac failure). Careful assessment, treatment of TA complication, regular antenatal followup and multidisciplinary approach involving obstetrician, cardiologist, rheumatologist and anaesthetist improve maternal and fetal outcome. We described here a case of pregnancy with TA with bilateral renal artery stenosis and left subclavian artery stenosis. PMID:26500964

  6. Takayasu Arteritis with Bilateral Renal Artery Stenosis and Left Subclavian Artery Stenosis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Santa, Singh Ahanthem

    2015-01-01

    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a rare, systemic, chronic inflammatory, progressive, idiopathic disease of aorta and its main branches. It causes narrowing, occlusion and aneurysm of arteries. It affects mainly young females in about 80-90% of cases (young female arteritis). TA has adverse effect on pregnancy in the form of abortion, superimposed preeclampsia, IUGR (Intrauterine growth restriction), IUFD (intrauterine fetal death), abruption and CCF (congestive cardiac failure). Careful assessment, treatment of TA complication, regular antenatal followup and multidisciplinary approach involving obstetrician, cardiologist, rheumatologist and anaesthetist improve maternal and fetal outcome. We described here a case of pregnancy with TA with bilateral renal artery stenosis and left subclavian artery stenosis. PMID:26500964

  7. Combination of rare right arterial variation with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. A case report.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, H; San Millán Ruíz, D; Abdo, G; Asakura, F; Yilmaz, H; Lovblad, K O; Rüfenacht, D A

    2011-09-01

    A 32-year-old woman hospitalized for subarachnoid hemorrhage showed rare arterial variation on the right side with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. Angiography showed the right vertebral artery to originate from the right common carotid artery, the right subclavian artery to arise separately from the descending aorta, and persistent trigeminal artery on the right side. The possible embryonic mechanism of this previously unreported variant combination is discussed. PMID:22005696

  8. Left Ventricular Assist Device End-to-End Connection to the Left Subclavian Artery: An Alternative Technique.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, Giacomo; Lika, Alban; Bejko, Jonida; Gallo, Michele; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Gerosa, Gino; Bottio, Tomaso

    2015-10-01

    We describe a modified implantation technique for the HeartWare ventricular assist device. We access the apex through a left minithoracotomy. The outflow graft is tunneled through a small incision in the fourth intercostal space and then subcutaneously to the subclavian region. After division of the left axillary artery, an end-to-end anastomosis is performed to the proximal part, and the distal vessel is connected end-to-side through a fenestration in the outflow graft. We believe that this technique, particularly suitable for redo scenarios or severely calcified aorta, achieves a more direct blood flow into the aorta and reduces cerebrovascular events while avoiding excessive flow to the arm. PMID:26434488

  9. Mycotic aneurysm of the left subclavian artery presented with hemoptysis in an immunosuppressed man: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Saliou, C; Badia, P; Duteille, F; D'Attellis, N; Ricco, J B; Barbier, J

    1995-04-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old man with a mycotic aneurysm of the left subclavian artery. This patient had immunosuppression caused by chemotherapy administered for treatment of leukemia. This aneurysm was revealed by two episodes of hemoptysis caused by a lung parenchyma fistulization. The patient was treated successfully by simple ligation and exclusion via a thoracotomy with partial lung resection. Histologic examination confirmed the presence of aspergilloma filaments in the false aneurysm. We suspect that aspergilloma could have been the cause of the mycotic aneurysm in this particular case. The literature on subclavian artery mycotic aneurysms is reviewed. PMID:7707574

  10. [Surgical treatment of a patient with coronary artery disease combined with stenosis of the left subclavian artery].

    PubMed

    Sevastyanov, A V; Chernyavsky, A M; Chernyavsky, M A; Edemsky, A G; Nesmachnyi, A S; Tarkova, A R

    2016-01-01

    Presented in the article is a clinical case report regarding successfully used hybrid technology in combined lesions of the coronary arteries and the first segment of the left subclavian artery. The patient was subjected to simultaneous hybrid operation, i. e., transaortic angioplasty with stenting of the left subclavian artery by means of the Assurant stent accompanied by coronary artery bypass grafting. The early postoperative period turned out uneventful. The patient was discharged with no complications and in a satisfactory condition. At the 12-month follow-up visit, the patient presented no complaints, felling satisfactory as he stated, and there was no evidence of restenosis as revealed by the findings of ultrasonographic examination. This clinical case report demonstrates that in this type of combined lesion the use of hybrid technologies makes it possible to obtain a favourable surgical outcome both in the immediate and remote postoperative periods. PMID:27336343

  11. Rare Anomalous Origin of Superior Left Pulmonary Artery from Left Subclavian Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Tian-shi Wang, Chao Song, Li Lv, Yong-xing Zou, Ying-hua

    2013-10-15

    We report for the first time an extremely rare anomalous origin of the superior left pulmonary artery in a 60 year-old man. Although it was occult in clinical indications, such a malformation still ought to be considered, especially during endovascular procedures.

  12. The aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria): the morphological and clinical aspects of one of the most important variations--a systematic study of 141 reports.

    PubMed

    Polguj, Michał; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Kasprzak, Jarosław D; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Topol, Mirosław; Majos, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was 49.9 ± 19.4 years for all patients but 54.0 ± 19.6 years and 44.9 ± 18.1 years for female and male subjects, respectively (P = 0.0061). The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%), dyspnea (18.7%), retrosternal pain (17.0%), cough (7.6%), and weight loss (5.9%). The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%), Kommerell's diverticulum (14.9%), aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%), and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%). In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss. PMID:25105156

  13. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria): The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports

    PubMed Central

    Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Kasprzak, Jarosław D.; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Topol, Mirosław; Majos, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was 49.9 ± 19.4 years for all patients but 54.0 ± 19.6 years and 44.9 ± 18.1 years for female and male subjects, respectively (P = 0.0061). The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%), dyspnea (18.7%), retrosternal pain (17.0%), cough (7.6%), and weight loss (5.9%). The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%), Kommerell's diverticulum (14.9%), aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%), and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%). In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss. PMID:25105156

  14. A custom-made scalloped stentgraft to preserve left subclavian artery flow in descending thoracic aortic disease with a short neck.

    PubMed

    Van Der Weijde, Emma; Bakker, Olaf J; Heijmen, Robin H

    2016-05-01

    In thoracic stentgrafting, a short proximal landing zone may necessitate intentional occlusion of the left subclavian artery, which may lead to brain, spinal cord, and left arm malperfusion. A scalloped stentgraft is designed for adequate proximal sealing and preserving the left subclavian artery flow. We performed a systematic review, describe the required pre-operative planning and details of the perioperative technique used and report our own experience. In literature, only 29 patients were reported so far using a proximal scalloped stentgraft. Results show a high technical success rate and low complication rate. These results are comparable to the results from our own institution. From these first small series the scalloped thoracic endovascular aortic repair appears to be a safe and relatively simple solution for thoracic aortic disease involving the left subclavian artery. PMID:27018248

  15. A bypass case due to an acute inferior myocardial infarction caused by vascular occlusion of the left subclavian artery and left anterior descending artery.

    PubMed

    Altas, Yakup; Ulugg, Ali Veysel

    2016-01-01

    ST segment elevation is the most common electrocardiographic finding in acute myocardial infarction. ST elevation in chest leads generally represents left anterior descending artery occlusion, while elevation in DII and III, and aVF represents right coronary and circumflex artery occlusion. A female patient aged 66 years was admitted to our emergency service with ST elevation in leads DIII and aVF. A diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction was made. The patient's history included coronary artery bypass graft involving the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending coronary artery and aorta to the right coronary artery. The patient was taken to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a lesion in the left anterior descending artery was identified. Additionally, the left subclavian artery was totally occluded. Following intervention to the lesion, the patient was discharged on day 4 of admission. PMID:27555777

  16. A bypass case due to an acute inferior myocardial infarction caused by vascular occlusion of the left subclavian artery and left anterior descending artery

    PubMed Central

    Altas, Yakup; Ulugg, Ali Veysel

    2016-01-01

    ST segment elevation is the most common electrocardiographic finding in acute myocardial infarction. ST elevation in chest leads generally represents left anterior descending artery occlusion, while elevation in DII and III, and aVF represents right coronary and circumflex artery occlusion. A female patient aged 66 years was admitted to our emergency service with ST elevation in leads DIII and aVF. A diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction was made. The patient’s history included coronary artery bypass graft involving the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending coronary artery and aorta to the right coronary artery. The patient was taken to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a lesion in the left anterior descending artery was identified. Additionally, the left subclavian artery was totally occluded. Following intervention to the lesion, the patient was discharged on day 4 of admission. PMID:27555777

  17. Giant Subclavian Artery Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Counts, Sarah; Zeeshan, Ahmad; Elefteriades, John

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 37-year-old construction executive presenting with chest pain, shortness of breath, and dizziness on exertion secondary to a giant left subclavian artery aneurysm and aortic valvular disease. PMID:27231430

  18. Hybrid Repair of Proximal Subclavian Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Kazuki; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Iba, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Conventional open repair for proximal subclavian artery aneurysms (SCAAs) requires cardiopulmonary bypass. However, patients with proximal SCAA can be treated with hybrid repair. Methods: Between 2007 and 2012, we performed hybrid repair to treat six consecutive patients with proximal SCAA (three left SCAAs, one right aberrant SCAA, two right SCAAs). Their median age was 73.5 [70–87] years, and the size of their aneurysm was 33.5 [30–45] mm. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) only was used for one patient with left SCAA, TEVAR and supra-aortic bypass for two with left SCAA and one with right aberrant SCAA, and endovascular repair with reconstruction of the vertebral artery using the saphenous vein graft (SVG) for two with right SCAA. Results: The follow-up duration was 3.7 [0.2–6.8] years. There was no 30-day mortality and only one early complication consisting of a minor stroke after TEVAR for shaggy aorta. Two late deaths occurred, one caused by cerebral infarction due to occlusion of SVG to the dominant vertebral artery 2 months after the operation and the other by aortic dissection 5 years postoperatively. Conclusions: Hybrid repair can be a less-invasive alternative for proximal SCAA. Revascularization of neck vessels and TEVAR should be performed very carefully to prevent neurologic complications. PMID:26131027

  19. Strategic approach to concurrent aberrant left gastric vein and aberrant left hepatic artery in laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kuwada, Kazuya; Kuroda, Shinji; Kikuchi, Satoru; Hori, Naoto; Kubota, Tetsushi; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    An aberrant left gastric vein (ALGV) directly entering the lateral segment of the liver is a rare variation in the portal vein system, whereas an aberrant left hepatic artery (ALHA) arising from the left gastric artery is observed relatively frequently. Here we report a case in which both ALGV and ALHA were encountered before laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with curative lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. We accurately diagnosed these vessel anomalies preoperatively on abdominal contrast-enhanced CT. During surgery, we divided the ALGV at the point of entry to the liver and preserved the ALHA by dividing the branches toward the stomach, in consideration of curability and safety. The postoperative course was uneventful overall, although temporary mild liver dysfunction was observed. This case highlights the importance of preoperative evaluation and preparation in a rare case of concurrent ALGV and ALHA. PMID:26708584

  20. Treatment with Aortic Stent Graft Placement for Stanford B-Type Aortic Dissection in a Patient with an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kawatani, Yohei; Hayashi, Yujiro; Ito, Yujiro; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Suda, Yuji; Hori, Takaki

    2015-01-01

    A 71-year-old man visited our hospital with the chief complaint of back pain and was diagnosed with acute aortic dissection (Debakey type III, Stanford type B). He was found to have a variant branching pattern in which the right subclavian artery was the fourth branch of the aorta. We performed conservative management for uncomplicated Stanford type B aortic dissection, and the patient was discharged. An ulcer-like projection (ULP) was discovered during outpatient follow-up. Complicated type B aortic dissection was suspected, and we performed thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The aim of operative treatment was ULP closure; thus we placed two stent grafts in the descending aorta from the distal portion of the right subclavian artery. The patient was released without complications on postoperative day 5. Deliberate sizing and examination of placement location were necessary when placing the stent graft, but operative techniques allowed the procedure to be safely completed. PMID:26558132

  1. Treatment of subclavian artery stenosis: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Reem; Hornsby, Jane; Wright, Lucie J.; Elsaid, Tarek; Timmons, Grace; Mudawi, Ahmed; Bhattacharya, Vish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In this case series, different modalities of treatment for patients with ischaemic symptoms of subclavian stenosis are described, including the different operative strategies that can be adopted in more challenging cases. This is the first case series describing these four management options. Presentation Case 1: A seventy-one year-old female presented with acute on chronic ischaemia of her left arm following a fall and developed dry gangrene of her left thumb. This was initially managed with a heparin infusion followed by stenting of the subclavian artery which relieved her symptoms. Case 2: A fifty-nine year-old male presented with chronic ischemia of the left arm secondary to an occlusion of the left subclavian artery. This was managed by transposition of the left subclavian artery onto the left common carotid artery. Case 3: A sixty-four year-old female presented with left subclavian steal syndrome secondary to subclavian artery stenosis. She underwent carotid subclavian artery bypass. Case 4: A fifty-six year-old female presented with acute left upper limb ischaemia secondary to acutely thrombosed subclavian artery on a CT-angiography. She underwent a carotid to axillary bypass. Discussion and conclusion This case series demonstrates the treatment options available to vascular surgeons when managing symptomatic subclavian artery disease. Symptomatic subclavian artery occlusive disease should be treated with endovascular stenting and angioplasty as first line management. If it is not successful then open surgery should be considered. Bypassing the carotid to the subclavian or to the axillary artery are both good treatment modalities. PMID:26722712

  2. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-10-15

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months.

  3. Percutaneous transluminal laser guide wire recanalization of chronic subclavian artery occlusion in symptomatic coronary-subclavian steal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eggebrecht, H; Naber, C K; Oldenburg, O; Herrmann, J; Haude, M; Erbel, R; Baumgart, D

    2000-12-01

    Treatment of subclavian artery stenosis by percutaneous balloon angioplasty and adjunctive stent placement was shown to be safe and efficacious, but it may be limited in tight stenoses and long occlusions. We describe the case of a patient who experienced progressive angina pectoris associated with signs of cerebrovertebral insufficiency 9 yr after bypass surgery, including left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafting to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Angiography showed reversed flow through the LIMA graft into the subclavian artery and a 4-cm occlusion beginning at the origin of the left subclavian artery, representing a rare coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. After a conventional approach failed, recanalization was performed successfully using laser guide wire angioplasty with adjunctive stent placement in a combined radial and femoral approach. PMID:11108691

  4. Possible complications of subclavian crush syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; Ticheler, C.H.J.M.; Stassen, C.M.; Derks, A.; Droste, H.T.

    2005-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman with symptomatic Mobitz type II atrioventricular block underwent implantation of a dual-chamber pacemaker 11 years ago. The leads were inserted through a percutaneous puncture of the right subclavian vein, using standard techniques. Both leads were passive fixation leads. Due to battery failure and end of life criteria, the pulse generator (PG) had been routinely replaced six years previously. Predischarge pacemaker control revealed normal pacing, sensing thresholds and impedance for both leads. Because of a syncopal attack subsequent to lead fractures, most likely secondary to right subclavian crush syndrome (SCS) of both leads, she underwent a double lead re-implantation one year after PG replacement by access via left subclavian vein puncture. After a symptom-free period of few years she was re-analysed because of palpitations, dizziness, angina pectoris and tiredness. Pulmonary embolisation and myocardial perfusion defects were detected utilising scintigraphic techniques. Chest X-ray revealed the crushed atrial lead dislocated from the right subclavian region and lodged into the right ventricle towards the inferior septum. Because she was symptomatic, a retrieval technique was applied and the crushed atrial lead was pulled back from the right ventricle and securely fixed to its former position. On maintenance medical treatment, she remains well. ImagesFigure 1BFigure 2AFigure 2BFigure 2CFigure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696461

  5. Right-sided aorta with complete isolation of the left innominate artery.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Arthur; Core, Jacob; Becerra, Jose L; Kaushal, Ritesh D

    2016-03-01

    A right-sided aorta with an isolated left subclavian and left common carotid artery is a rare arch defect. We are presenting the case of a 56-year-old woman who had initially presented with headache and 3 episodes of right-sided facial and extremity numbness. A presumptive diagnosis of transient ischemic attack prompted imaging studies where a computer tomography angiogram showed aberrant vessels. PMID:26973723

  6. Right-sided aorta with complete isolation of the left innominate artery

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Arthur; Core, Jacob; Becerra, Jose L.; Kaushal, Ritesh D.

    2015-01-01

    A right-sided aorta with an isolated left subclavian and left common carotid artery is a rare arch defect. We are presenting the case of a 56-year-old woman who had initially presented with headache and 3 episodes of right-sided facial and extremity numbness. A presumptive diagnosis of transient ischemic attack prompted imaging studies where a computer tomography angiogram showed aberrant vessels. PMID:26973723

  7. Pseudo subclavian steal syndrome: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Konda, Sneha; Dayawansa, Samantha; Singel, Soren; Huang, Jason H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) is a condition that results from restricted blood flow to the posterior portions of the brain, which are primarily served by the vertebral and basilar arteries. It is the most common cause of vertigo in the elderly and is usually accompanied by impaired vision and sensation. Congenital abnormalities, atherosclerosis, stroke and/or trauma may all lead to decreased vertebrobasilar circulation. A syndrome called Subclavian Steal Syndrome (SSS), which manifests with similar neurological symptoms but with a different pathophysiology, may also cause VBI. Case presentation A middle-aged female presented with gradual onset fainting and vertigo attacks. Cardiac, auditory and autonomic etiologies were investigated and excluded. Clinical findings and presentation were highly suggestive of subclavian steal. However, subsequent CT angiography showed normal subclavian arteries. Instead, findings included a persistent right trigeminal artery (PTA), stenosis of the right proximal internal carotid artery, atresis of the left vertebral artery and distal segment of right vertebral artery, congenitally compromised changes in vertebral circulation (bilateral absence of the posterior communicating arteries (PCOMs)) and an absent anterograde vertebrobasilar circulation. Symptoms resolved after carotid endarterectomy. Discussion Due to the absence of a normally developed posterior circulation, the PTA was the main source of blood supply for the patient. Development of recent artheromatous changes in the right internal carotid artery, however, resulted in decreased blood through PTA, further compromising posterior circulation. This resulted in vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and manifested in symptomology similar to SSS. Conclusions This clinical encounter illustrates the relative contribution of anatomical and vasoocclusive factors in closely mimicking symptoms of subclavian steal syndrome. PMID:26479783

  8. Isolation of Left Common Carotid Artery with Its Origin Proximal to Patent Ductus Arteriosus Presenting in Adult Age

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anagha R.; Joshi, Saurabh; Kale, Kiran; Jain, Rahul; Bava, Jernail Singh

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies of aortic arch are a common occurrence. Such anomalies of right sided aortic arch with its various branching patterns are of clinical importance. Rarer anomalies include isolation (deficient connection) of either left subclavian artery or left common carotid artery; that is, they do not have their origin from aorta or its major branches. We present a case of an 18-year-old male who presented with gradual onset pulsatile swelling with bruit in neck on left side and was evaluated by CT brain and neck angiography. CT angiography revealed right sided aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and isolated left common carotid artery. Very few cases of such an anomaly have been documented in the literature but none in an adult. PMID:27213071

  9. Complete occlusion of the proximal subclavian artery post-CABG: Presentation and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Mouhannad M; Ravindran, Aravindhan; Marcuzzi, Daniel W; Chisholm, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic disease of the proximal left subclavian artery is an uncommon cause of angina in the post-coronary artery bypass graft patient, and is termed coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. Typical manifestations include cardiac symptoms of angina and noncardiac symptoms of lightheadedness, left arm numbness or weakness, and a difference in blood pressure of more than 20 mmHg between both arms. A case of complete proximal occlusion of the subclavian artery is reported. The clinical picture, investigations and treatment are described. Historical treatments of occlusive disease include surgical bypass graft and, more recently, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The patient underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting by a retrograde approach, with an excellent short-term response, but ultimately required a carotid subclavian bypass due to restenosis. PMID:18612504

  10. Should an Aberrant Left Hepatic Artery Arising from the Left Gastric Artery Be Preserved during Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Su Mi; Seo, Jeong Eun; Ha, Man Ho; An, Ji Yeong; Choi, Min Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Jeong, Woo Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose During laparoscopic gastrectomy, an aberrant left hepatic artery (ALHA) arising from the left gastric artery (LGA) is occasionally encountered. The aim of this study was to define when an ALHA should be preserved during laparoscopic gastrectomy. Materials and Methods From August 2009 to December 2014, 1,340 patients with early gastric cancer underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. One hundred fifty patients presented with an ALHA; of the ALHA was ligated in 116 patients and preserved in 34 patients. Patient characteristics, postoperative outcomes and perioperative liver function tests were reviewed retrospectively. Correlations between the diameter of the LGA measured on preoperative abdominal computed tomography and postoperative liver enzyme levels were analyzed. Results Pearson's correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the diameter of the LGA and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels on postoperative day 1 in the ALHA-ligated group (P=0.039, P=0.026, respectively). Linear regression analysis estimated the diameter of the LGA to be 5.1 mm and 4.9 mm when AST and ALT levels were twice the normal limit on postoperative day 1. Conclusions We suggest preserving the ALHA arising from a large LGA, having diameter greater than 5 mm, during laparoscopic gastrectomy to prevent immediate postoperative hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27433391

  11. Subclavian Arteritis and Pseudoaneurysm Formation Secondary to Stent Infection

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, Adel M.; Higashida, Randall T.; Reilly, Linda M.; Smith, Wade S.; Kang, Sang-Mo; Gress, Daryl R.; Meyers, Philip M.; Phatouros, Constantine C.; Halbach, Van V.; Dowd, Christopher F.

    2000-01-15

    Technically uncomplicated percutaneous angioplasty and stent placement of a left subclavian artery stenosis was performed in a 56-year-old man for treatment of subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Six days later the patient was readmitted with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and stigmata of septic emboli isolated to the ipsilateral hand. Nine days later he had computed tomography (CT) evidence of a contrast-enhancing phlegmon surrounding the stent. Despite clinical improvement and resolution of bacteremia on intravenous antibiotic therapy, the phlegmon progressed, and at day 21 a pseudoaneurysm was angiographically confirmed. The patient underwent surgical removal of the stented arterial segment and successful autogenous arterial reconstruction. The possible contributory factors leading to stent infection were prolonged right femoral artery access and an infected left arm venous access. Although the role of prophylactic antibiotics remains to be defined, it may be important in cases where the vascular access sheath remains in place for a prolonged period of time.

  12. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Left Ventricle and Plasma of Rats with Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nagai-Okatani, Chiaki; Minamino, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Targeted proteomics focusing on post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, is a useful strategy for discovering novel biomarkers. To apply this strategy effectively to cardiac hypertrophy and resultant heart failure, we aimed to characterize glycosylation profiles in the left ventricle and plasma of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, a model of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy, were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet starting at 6 weeks. As a result, they exhibited cardiac hypertrophy at 12 weeks and partially impaired cardiac function at 16 weeks compared with control rats fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl) diet. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of genes encoding glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoproteome profiling using lectin microarrays indicated upregulation of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially disialyl-T, and downregulation of core fucosylation on N-glycans, detected by specific interactions with Amaranthus caudatus and Aspergillus oryzae lectins, respectively. Upregulation of plasma α-l-fucosidase activity was identified as a biomarker candidate for cardiac hypertrophy, which is expected to support the existing marker, atrial natriuretic peptide and its related peptides. Proteomic analysis identified cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, a master regulator of cardiac muscle function, as an O-glycosylated protein with altered glycosylation in the rats with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that alternations in O-glycosylation affect its oligomerization and function. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of significant changes in glycosylation pattern, specifically mucin-type O-glycosylation and core defucosylation, in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting that they are potential biomarkers for these diseases. PMID:27281159

  13. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Left Ventricle and Plasma of Rats with Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Nagai-Okatani, Chiaki; Minamino, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Targeted proteomics focusing on post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, is a useful strategy for discovering novel biomarkers. To apply this strategy effectively to cardiac hypertrophy and resultant heart failure, we aimed to characterize glycosylation profiles in the left ventricle and plasma of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, a model of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy, were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet starting at 6 weeks. As a result, they exhibited cardiac hypertrophy at 12 weeks and partially impaired cardiac function at 16 weeks compared with control rats fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl) diet. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of genes encoding glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoproteome profiling using lectin microarrays indicated upregulation of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially disialyl-T, and downregulation of core fucosylation on N-glycans, detected by specific interactions with Amaranthus caudatus and Aspergillus oryzae lectins, respectively. Upregulation of plasma α-l-fucosidase activity was identified as a biomarker candidate for cardiac hypertrophy, which is expected to support the existing marker, atrial natriuretic peptide and its related peptides. Proteomic analysis identified cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, a master regulator of cardiac muscle function, as an O-glycosylated protein with altered glycosylation in the rats with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that alternations in O-glycosylation affect its oligomerization and function. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of significant changes in glycosylation pattern, specifically mucin-type O-glycosylation and core defucosylation, in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting that they are potential biomarkers for these diseases. PMID:27281159

  14. [Resection of a Subclavian Artery Aneurysm without Dividing the Clavicle;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shuhei; Sogawa, Masakazu; Wakabayashi, Takashi; Nakamura, Norihito

    2016-09-01

    A 57-year-old woman with Marfan syndrome had undergone the surgical treatment for pectus excavatum at 15 years of age. She had since been screened regularly by computed tomography(CT) to detect any vascular diseases. CT demonstrated a left subclavian arterial aneurysm at 55 years of age. It enlarged to a diameter of 32 mm, and surgical treatment was performed. The subclavian artery and the aneurysm were identified by echography in order to locate the exact sites of supraclavicular and subclavicular skin incisions. The subclavian artery aneurysm was resected without dividing the clavicle, and replaced by a vascular graft. Echography is useful for precisely locating a subclavian artery aneurysm, which enables feasible resection without dividing the clavicle. PMID:27586322

  15. Use of a cutting balloon and a paclitaxel-coated balloon to treat recurrent subclavian in-stent restenosis causing coronary subclavian steal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Varcoe, Richard; Smith, William

    2011-01-01

    A 56-year-old male with a past history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery underwent stent implantation for a severe proximal left subclavian artery stenosis. Recurrent in-stent restenosis (ISR) resulted in the coronary subclavian steal syndrome (CSSS), with angina due to compromised blood flow in the left internal mammary artery/radial composite bypass graft. This was treated with cutting balloon predilatation followed by paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) dilatation, with an excellent angiographic result. At 10 months of follow-up, blood pressure in both arms was equal, and the patient remained symptom free. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of subclavian ISR causing CSSS with a PCB. PMID:21798824

  16. [Development of the subclavian artery in the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) studied by the injection method].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Kasai, T

    1990-10-01

    In the turtle, the left aorta and the pulmonary trunk originate from the right ventricle, while the right aorta takes its origin from the left ventricle as a functional systematic arch. The subclavian artery arises from the brachiocephalic artery on each side, and passes ventral to the vagus nerve and the jugular vein. These features are basically the same as in birds, and the subclavian artery of the adult turtle corresponds to a secondary artery from the viewpoint of comparative anatomy. Many investigators, including one of the present authors (Suzuki, 1987), have studied the development of the aortic arch and the subclavian artery in the chick embryo, but not in the turtle. The present authors examined it in Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) embryos, from 14 days of incubation to completion of the aortic arch (27 days incubation). All blood vessels were injected with Berlin blue solution using a fine glass needle inserted into the aortic trunk through the ventricle of the heart. The following results were obtained. 1. In the turtle embryo the primary subclavian artery develops first, but is replaced by the secondary subclavian artery as in the chick. 2. The primary subclavian artery arises from the 12th dorsal intersegmental artery and passes dorsal to the posterior cardinal vein. In the 16-day embryo, it gives rise to capillary nets both cranially and caudally at the base of the forelimb bud along the inner surface of the thoracic wall. 3. At 19 days of incubation, a small blood vessel arises from the aortic sac at the origin of the third aortic arch and passes laterally, ventral to the anterior cardinal vein. The vessel then extends caudally, and finally, at 21 days of incubation, connects to the cranial part of the capillary net of the primary subclavian artery at about the middle of the lateral thoracic wall. After the completion of the connection, the vessel from the aortic sac is called by the name "the secondary subclavian artery." 4. The secondary

  17. Subclavian Artery Occlusion and Pseudoaneurysm Caused by Lung Apex Mucormycosis: Successful Treatment with Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Economopoulos, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Dimitris; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Kontopoulou, Christina; Brountzos, Elias N.

    2007-02-15

    Subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion in young patients are usually post-traumatic. We report the case of a 33-year-old diabetic woman with subclavian artery occlusion and pseudoaneurysm formation caused by pulmonary mucormycosis infection. The patient presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, Horner's syndrome, and absent left arm pulses. A cystic lesion of the left lung apex was found by imaging, was surgically resected, and was histologically diagnosed as mucormycosis infection. Magnetic resonance angiography depicted a left subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion adjacent to the mucormycosis lesion. To protect against thromboembolic complications and rupture, the pseudoaneurysm was embolized with coils. The patient is clinically well 1 year after the intervention with no perfusion of the pseudoaneurysm.

  18. Subclavian artery occlusion and pseudoaneurysm caused by lung apex mucormycosis: successful treatment with transcatheter embolization.

    PubMed

    Economopoulos, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Dimitris; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Kontopoulou, Christina; Brountzos, Elias N

    2007-01-01

    Subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion in young patients are usually post-traumatic. We report the case of a 33-year-old diabetic woman with subclavian artery occlusion and pseudoaneurysm formation caused by pulmonary mucormycosis infection. The patient presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, Horner's syndrome, and absent left arm pulses. A cystic lesion of the left lung apex was found by imaging, was surgically resected, and was histologically diagnosed as mucormycosis infection. Magnetic resonance angiography depicted a left subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion adjacent to the mucormycosis lesion. To protect against thromboembolic complications and rupture, the pseudoaneurysm was embolized with coils. The patient is clinically well 1 year after the intervention with no perfusion of the pseudoaneurysm. PMID:16832593

  19. Computational modeling of blood flow steal phenomena caused by subclavian stenoses.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P J; Müller, L O; Watanabe, S M; Feijóo, R A

    2016-06-14

    The study of steal mechanisms caused by vessel obstructions is of the utmost importance to gain understanding about their pathophysiology, as well as to improve diagnosis and management procedures. The goal of this work is to perform a computational study to gain insight into the hemodynamic forces that drive blood flow steal mechanisms caused by subclavian artery stenosis. Such condition triggers a flow disorder known as subclavian steal. When this occurs in patients with internal thoracic artery anastomosed to the coronary vessels, the phenomenon includes a coronary-subclavian steal. True steal can exist in cases of increased arm blood flow, potentially resulting in neurological complications and, in the case of coronary-subclavian steal, graft function failure. In this context, the anatomically detailed arterial network (ADAN) model is employed to simulate subclavian steal and coronary-subclavian steal phenomena. Model results are verified by comparison with published data. It is concluded that this kind of model allows us to effectively address complex hemomdynamic phenomena occurring in clinical practice. More specifically, in the studied conditions it is observed that a regional brain steal occurs, primarily affecting the posterior circulation, not fully compensated by the anterior circulation. In the case of patients with coronary revascularization, it is concluded that there is a large variability in graft hemodynamic environments, which physically explain both the success of the procedure in cases of severe occlusive disease, and the reason for graft dysfunction in mildly stenosed left anterior descending coronary artery, due to alternating graft flow waveform signatures. PMID:27062592

  20. Gadolinium-Enhanced Angiography for Diagnosis and Interventional Treatment of Subclavian Artery Stenosis Prior to Fistula Creation

    SciTech Connect

    Termote, Bruno; Maleux, Geert Heye, Sam; Fourneau, Inge; Claes, Kathleen

    2008-07-15

    We report the use of gadolinium-based contrast agent for both diagnostic and interventional subclavian angiography in two azotemic patients, presenting with an asymptomatic, high-grade stenosis of the left subclavian artery, ipsilateral to the site of choice for native fistula creation. Angiographic imaging performed with diluted gadolinium-based contrast material was clear enough to perform successful subclavian artery stenting, resulting in normalization of the arterial blood pressure in the afferent artery of the dialysis fistula. Clinically, no decrease in residual renal function and no other complication were noted immediately or a longer period after the interventional treatment.

  1. Refractory Hypotension as an Initial Presentation of Bilateral Subclavian Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, John V.; Carrozza, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral subclavian stenosis is a rare clinical condition. An interbrachial pressure difference of 15 mm Hg can raise suspicion for unilateral subclavian artery stenosis, but the diagnosis of bilateral subclavian artery stenosis can be challenging. We present a case of a 75-year-old woman who presented with refractory hypotension after surgery. Initial vitals revealed blood pressure in the 60s/50s mm Hg in both arms. Cardiopulmonary examination was remarkable for diminished pulses in all 4 extremities and audible carotid bruits. She continued to be hypotensive despite aggressive fluid resuscitation. Troponin T peaked at 0.24 ng/mL (reference < 0.04), and an echocardiogram revealed a reduction in ejection fraction (37% from 50%). Left and right heart catheterization demonstrated normal filling pressures and cardiac output. During the procedure, however, it was noted that the patient's central blood pressure was 70–80 mm Hg higher than cuff pressures obtained in either arm. Selective angiography revealed 90% left subclavian ostial stenosis as well as 70% stenosis of the right subclavian artery. PMID:27547473

  2. Refractory Hypotension as an Initial Presentation of Bilateral Subclavian Artery Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Afari, Maxwell Eyram; Wylie, John V; Carrozza, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral subclavian stenosis is a rare clinical condition. An interbrachial pressure difference of 15 mm Hg can raise suspicion for unilateral subclavian artery stenosis, but the diagnosis of bilateral subclavian artery stenosis can be challenging. We present a case of a 75-year-old woman who presented with refractory hypotension after surgery. Initial vitals revealed blood pressure in the 60s/50s mm Hg in both arms. Cardiopulmonary examination was remarkable for diminished pulses in all 4 extremities and audible carotid bruits. She continued to be hypotensive despite aggressive fluid resuscitation. Troponin T peaked at 0.24 ng/mL (reference < 0.04), and an echocardiogram revealed a reduction in ejection fraction (37% from 50%). Left and right heart catheterization demonstrated normal filling pressures and cardiac output. During the procedure, however, it was noted that the patient's central blood pressure was 70-80 mm Hg higher than cuff pressures obtained in either arm. Selective angiography revealed 90% left subclavian ostial stenosis as well as 70% stenosis of the right subclavian artery. PMID:27547473

  3. Recurrent angina caused by coronary subclavian steal syndrome confirmed by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Paulo Cury; da Costa, Leandro Menezes Alves; Scudeler, Thiago Luis; Nakamura, Debora; Giorgi, Maria Clementina P; Hueb, Whady

    2015-01-01

    Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a rare cause of recurrent angina after coronary artery bypass grafting. Identification of the myocardial ischemic region is crucial because it guides revascularization interventions to improve symptoms and myocardial ischemia. Positron emission computed tomography (PET) with rubidium might be a helpful tool because it identifies ischemia, localizes more precisely the ischemic region, and evaluates coronary flow reserve. Here, we report a case of recurrence of angina after coronary artery bypass grafting caused by an obstruction in the left subclavian artery and consequently by coronary steal syndrome confirmed by PET. PMID:25952243

  4. Subclavian steal and rest pain in a case of brachiocephalic artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kapa, Suraj; Adams, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    A patient with multiple vessel disease presented with symptoms of significant bilateral upper extremity pain and weakness that was more significant on the right side. On carotid duplex scanning, brachiocephalic artery occlusion with retrograde flow was noted through the right common carotid and right vertebral arteries at rest. Furthermore, 50% to 90% occlusion of the left internal carotid was noted. Filling of the right subclavian artery was noted to be through the right vertebral and right common carotid arteries. Unlike isolated subclavian steal syndrome, brachiocephalic artery occlusion induces significant hemodynamic alterations in extracranial arterial flow, which normally produces no symptoms at rest, but may produce symptoms with exercise. The occurrence of subclavian steal phenomenon in the presence of brachiocephalic occlusion is extremely rare. The present case is the first to report a patient presenting with bilateral upper extremity rest pain in the presence of brachiocephalic artery occlusive disease. PMID:22477423

  5. Bilateral Subclavian Vein Occlusion in a SAPHO Syndrome Patient Who Needed an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Masato; Yamamoto, Yuko; Yamada, Shintaro; Maemura, Sonoko; Nakata, Ryo; Motozawa, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takizawa, Masataka; Uozumi, Hiroki; Ikenouchi, Hiroshi

    2016-05-25

    A 79-year-old Asian man was hospitalized because of progressive exertional dyspnea with decreasing left ventricular ejection fraction and frequent non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Pre-procedure venography for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation showed occlusion of the bilateral subclavian veins. In consideration of subcutaneous humps in the sterno-clavicular area and palmoplantar pustulosis, we diagnosed him as having synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome and speculated that it induced peri-osteal chronic inflammation in the sterno-clavicular area, resulting in occlusion of the adjacent bilateral subclavian veins. An automatic external defibrillator (AED) was installed in the patient's house and total subcutaneous ICD was considered. Venous thrombosis in SAPHO syndrome is not frequent but has been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral subclavian vein occlusion in a SAPHO syndrome patient who needs ICD implantation. PMID:27181039

  6. Outcomes of Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair and Subclavian Revascularization Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zamor, Kimberly C; Eskandari, Mark K; Rodriguez, Heron E; Ho, Karen J; Morasch, Mark D; Hoel, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Background Practice guidelines regarding management of the left subclavian artery (LSA) during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) are based on low quality evidence and there is limited literature that addresses optimal revascularization techniques. The purpose of this study is to compare outcomes of LSA coverage during TEVAR and revascularization techniques. Study Design We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study from 2001–2013. Patients were categorized by LSA revascularization and by revascularization technique, carotid-subclavian bypass (CSB) or subclavian-carotid transposition (SCT). Thirty-day and mid-term stroke, spinal cord ischemia, vocal cord paralysis, upper extremity ischemia, primary patency of revascularization, and mortality were compared. Results Eighty patients underwent TEVAR with LSA coverage, 25% (n=20) were unrevascularized and the remaining patients underwent CSB (n=22, 27.5%) or SCT (n=38, 47.5%). Mean follow-up time was 24.9 months. Comparisons between unrevascularized and revascularized patients were significant for a higher rate of 30-day stroke (25% vs. 2%, p=0.003) and upper extremity ischemia (15% vs. 0%, p=0.014). However, there was no difference in 30-day or mid-term rates of spinal cord ischemia, vocal cord paralysis, or mortality. There were no statistically significant differences in 30-day or midterm outcomes for CSB vs. SCT. Primary patency of revascularizations was 100%. Survival analysis comparing unrevascularized vs. revascularized LSA, was statistically significant for freedom from stroke and upper extremity ischemia, p=0.02 and p=0.003, respectively. After adjustment for advanced age, urgency and coronary artery disease, LSA revascularization was associated with lower rates of peri-operative adverse events (OR 0.23, p=0.034). Conclusions During TEVAR, LSA coverage without revascularization is associated with an increased risk of stroke and upper extremity ischemia. When LSA coverage is required during

  7. Traumatic rupture of the right subclavian artery

    PubMed Central

    Girdwood, Robert W.; Holden, Michael P.; Ionescu, Marian I.

    1972-01-01

    The case report of a patient who sustained a traumatic rupture of the right subclavian artery in a motor vehicle accident is presented. The preoperative diagnosis, surgical approach, postoperative management, and indications for angiography in traumatic lesions of the thoracic aorta and great vessels are discussed. The relevant literature is reviewed. Images PMID:5034604

  8. A forgotten vascular disease with important clinical implications. Subclavian steal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alcocer, Fernando; David, Mariam; Goodman, Rachel; Jain, Sachin Kumar Amruthlal; David, Shukri

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Subclavian Steal Syndrome (SSS) is a fascinating vascular phenomenon in which a steno-occlusive lesion of the proximal subclavian artery causes retrograde flow in the vertebral artery away from the brain stem subsequently causing vertebrobasilar insufficiency. SSS can present with a myriad of neurological and vascular signs and symptoms, but most commonly this phenomenon presents as an incidental finding in an asymptomatic patient. Case Report: Our patient is a 73-year-old female sent to the cardiology clinic for surgical clearance in preparation for an elective cholecystectomy. Shortness of breath was her only complaint. Review of systems was remarkable for left arm pain and blurry vision with repetitive movement. Physical examination noticeable for absence of left radial pulse. Percutaneous angiography demonstrated a totally occulted left subclavian artery with collateral circulation form the vertebrobasilar apparatus. Conclusions: Atypical presentation of this unique entity represents a challenge for physicians who require a high index of suspicion to make the diagnosis. We present an atypical case with radiographical evidence of the steal syndrome, followed by an extensive literature review of the most current diagnostic methods as well as latest recommendations for treatment options and secondary prevention. PMID:23569564

  9. Left carotid steal. A new observation.

    PubMed

    Shumacker, H B; Isch, J H

    1975-04-01

    A patient had an occlusion of the left subclavian artery just proximal to the takeoff of a previously placed subclavian-carotid graft. This caused reversal of flow in the graft and a symptomatic steal of blood via to the intracranial arteries. An axilloaxillary graft restored forward flow. In a second patient, a steal occurred from the right carotid and vertebral systems into the distal carotid system of the left side that has been isolated by a proximal carotide artery occlusion from arteriosclerosis. A saphenous vein, used as a bypass from the subclavian to the carotid artery, restored normal flow. Thus, the carotide system may be the low-pressure area responsible for the steal, although this is rarer than the subclavian. PMID:1147756

  10. [Persistent left superior vena cava. Implications in central venous catheterisation].

    PubMed

    Lacuey Lecumberri, G; Ureña, M; Martínez Basterra, J; Basterra, N

    2009-01-01

    The placement of central catheters through the subclavian and jugular venous path can be complicated by the cannulation of an artery or an aberrant venous path. The most frequent anomaly of the embryological development of the caval vein is the persistence of the left superior vena cava (LSVC). The implantation of catheters in the LSVC can be suspected by its anomalous route in thorax radiography. Gasometry and the pressure curve of the vessel make it possible to rule out an arterial catheterisation. Diagnostic confirmation is obtained through angiography, echocardiography, computerised tomography or cardiac resonance. The doctor who regularly implants central venous catheters must be familiar with the anatomy of the venous system and its variants and anomalies, since their presence might influence the handling of the patient. PMID:19430517

  11. Doppler Ultrasonography in Suspected Subclavian Artery Obstruction and in Patient Monitoring after Subclavian Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kablak-Ziembicka, Anna Przewlocki, Tadeusz; Pieniazek, Piotr; Musialek, Piotr; Kozanecki, Artur; Stopa, Ireneusz; Zalewski, Jaroslaw; Tracz, Wieslawa

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. Subclavian or innominate artery (SIA) stenosis affects up to 5% of patients referred to coronary bypass grafting; it is symptomatic in less than half of these. This study aimed to assess the Doppler ultrasonography (DU) findings in SIA obstruction and patients' follow-up after percutaneous angioplasty (PTA). Methods. The study enrolled 118 patients (68 men, 50 women), aged 61.3 {+-} 8.7 years, with suspected SIA obstruction, in whom peak systolic velocity (PSV) in the SIA and subclavian steal grade were assessed on DU and verified by quantitative angiography (QA). Serial follow-up DU was performed in patients treated with PTA. Results. Grade I-III of subclavian steal from the vertebral artery (VA) was found in 89.8% of patients. In the remaining 10.2% only a PSV increase in the SIA was observed. QA confirmed the presence of SIA obstruction in all patients (stenosis grade: 80.9 {+-} 17.3%). In patients with one-sided SIA obstruction, the ultrasonographic steal grade correlated with the QA stenosis grade (p < 0.001, r = 0.648). Lack of subclavian steal was noted in the case of distal subclavian stenosis, VA obstruction, VA originating from the aortic arch, and bilateral SIA obstruction. Successful PTA was performed in 77 of 83 patients referred to that procedure. PSV was reduced from 4.4 {+-} 1.2 (2.2-6.5) m/sec to 1.34 {+-} 0.51 (0.5-2.5) m/sec and flow in the VA was normalized. During the mean follow-up time of 24.7 {+-} 15.6 months, there was a gradual increase in the in-stent PSV as well as gradual VA flow alterations, resulting in symptom recurrence. More than a twofold PSV increase, compared with the post-PTA values, was an indicator of restenosis in 11 of 12 patients. Conclusions. Careful DU evaluation enables the recognition of SIA obstruction in all patients. Ninety percent of them have subclavian steal correlating with the stenosis grade. Restenosis can be reliably detected with DU based on in-stent PSV and VA flow alterations.

  12. Rock climbing-related subclavian vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Christoph; Monasterio, Erik; Schöffl, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Paget-Schroetter syndrome, also known as upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT), is a rare condition, characterised by a (sub-) total occlusion of the axillary-subclavian venous system due to thrombosis. UEDVT is the most common vascular condition among athletes so far; although the general incidence is low, this problem will become more frequent as a result of increased participation in climbing sports. The purpose of this report is to illustrate two cases in rock climbers where UEDVT developed during rock climbing or bouldering. Fortunately, both patients were diagnosed relatively early after the symptoms began, despite the ambiguity of UEDVT symptoms. This relatively unfamiliar condition may become more highly recognised as a potentially serious differential diagnosis of unspecific pain of the shoulder. Rock climbers are disposed to develop UEDVT due to frequent stress on the upper extremities during training or competition. PMID:26430234

  13. Subclavian artery aneurysm in a patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shota; Imoto, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Keiji; Uranaka, Yasuko; Kurosawa, Kenji; Masuda, Munetaka

    2016-02-01

    We describe our experience of surgical treatment in a 28-year-old woman with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A right subclavian artery aneurysm was detected. The right vertebral artery arose from the aneurysm. Digital subtraction angiography showed interruption of the left vertebral artery. The aneurysm was excised and the right vertebral artery was anastomosed end-to-side to the right common carotid artery under deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. The patient remained very well 4 years after surgery, with no late vascular complication. PMID:25293415

  14. Subclavian Steal Syndrome with or without Arterial Stenosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kargiotis, Odysseas; Siahos, Simos; Safouris, Apostolos; Feleskouras, Agisilaos; Magoufis, Georgios; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2016-09-01

    The subclavian-vertebral artery steal syndrome (SSS) is the hemodynamic phenomenon of blood flow reversal in the vertebral artery due to significant stenosis or occlusion of the proximal subclavian artery or the innominate artery. Occasionally, SSS is diagnosed in patients not harboring arterial stenosis. With the exception of arterial congenital malformations, the limited case reports of SSS with intact subclavian artery are attributed to dialysis arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). Interestingly, these cases are more frequently symptomatic than those with the classical atherosclerotic SSS forms. On the other hand, the disclosure of SSS due to subclavian/innominate artery atherosclerotic stenosis, even in the absence of accompanying symptoms, should prompt a thorough cardiovascular work-up for the early detection of coexisting coronary, carotid, or peripheral artery disease. Herein, we review the incidence, clinical presentation, sonographic findings, and therapeutic interventions related to SSS with and without subclavian/innominate artery stenosis. We also review the currently available data in the literature regarding the association of SSS and dialysis AVF. In addition, we present a patient with bilateral symptomatic SSS as the result of an arteriovenous graft (AVG) that was introduced after the preexisting AVF in the contralateral arm became nonfunctional. SSS due to subclavian or innominate artery stenosis/occlusion is rarely symptomatic warranting interventional treatment. In contrast, when it is attributed to AVF, surgical correction is frequently necessary. PMID:27301069

  15. Endovascular Stenting under Cardiac and Cerebral Protection for Subclavian Steal after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Due to Right Subclavian Artery Origin Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Okazaki, Takahito; Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2015-03-01

    Coronary-subclavian steal (CSS) can occur after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the internal thoracic artery (ITA). Subclavian artery (SA) stenosis proximal to the ITA graft causes CSS. We describe a technique for cardiac and cerebral protection during endovascular stenting for CSS due to right SA origin stenosis after CABG. A 64-year-old man with a history of CABG using the right ITA presented with exertional right arm claudication. Angiogram showed a CSS and retrograde blood flow in the right vertebral artery (VA) due to severe stenosis of the right SA origin. Endovascular treatment of the right SA stenosis was planned. For cardiac and cerebral protection, distal balloon protection by inflating a 5.2-F occlusion balloon catheter in the SA proximal to the origin of the right VA and ITA through the right brachial artery approach and distal filter protection of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) through the left femoral artery (FA) approach were performed. Endovascular stenting for SA stenosis from the right FA approach was performed under cardiac and cerebral protection by filter-protection of the ICA and balloon-protection of the VA and ITA. Successful treatment of SA severe stenosis was achieved with no complications. PMID:25874182

  16. Endovascular Stenting under Cardiac and Cerebral Protection for Subclavian Steal after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Due to Right Subclavian Artery Origin Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kiura, Yoshihiro; Okazaki, Takahito; Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Coronary-subclavian steal (CSS) can occur after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the internal thoracic artery (ITA). Subclavian artery (SA) stenosis proximal to the ITA graft causes CSS. We describe a technique for cardiac and cerebral protection during endovascular stenting for CSS due to right SA origin stenosis after CABG. A 64-year-old man with a history of CABG using the right ITA presented with exertional right arm claudication. Angiogram showed a CSS and retrograde blood flow in the right vertebral artery (VA) due to severe stenosis of the right SA origin. Endovascular treatment of the right SA stenosis was planned. For cardiac and cerebral protection, distal balloon protection by inflating a 5.2-F occlusion balloon catheter in the SA proximal to the origin of the right VA and ITA through the right brachial artery approach and distal filter protection of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) through the left femoral artery (FA) approach were performed. Endovascular stenting for SA stenosis from the right FA approach was performed under cardiac and cerebral protection by filter-protection of the ICA and balloon-protection of the VA and ITA. Successful treatment of SA severe stenosis was achieved with no complications. PMID:25874182

  17. Primary Stenting of Subclavian and Innominate Artery Occlusive Disease: A Single Center's Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Brountzos, E. N. Petersen, B.; Binkert, C.; Panagiotou, I.; Kaufman, J. A.

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: To review immediate and midterm results of primary stenting for innominate and subclavian artery occlusive lesions. Methods: Retrospective data were collected from 48 consecutive symptomatic patients (27 men and 21 women, median age 64 years) having 49 subclavian and innominate artery lesions treated with stenting. Of the patients 52% had concomitant ischemic heart disease, and 30% had carotid and/or vertebral artery disease. Indication for treatment was vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) in 16.6% of the patients; upper limb ischemia (ULI) in 31.3%; VBI and ULI in 12.5%; transient ischemic attack in 16.7%; angina in 12.5% before or after left internal mammary artery-to-coronary artery bypass grafting; and leg claudication in 10.4% before or after axillofemoral bypass grafting. Balloon-expandable stents were used in 44 lesions and self-expandable stents in 5 lesions. In total, 53 stents were placed in 48 patients. Results: Technical success was 96%, and clinical success 94%. We encountered four complications (two puncture site hematomas, one distal hand embolization and one transient cerebral ischemia). Two patients died within 30 days from other causes, and seven patients were lost to follow-up. Mean follow-up time was 16.7 months (range 0.3 to 68.2). Five patients had recurrent lesions treated by surgical (n = 2) or endovascular (n = 3) means. Cumulative primary patency rate was 91.7% and 77% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Cumulative secondary patency rate was 96.5% and 91.7% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Conclusion: Stenting of subclavian and innominate artery lesions resulted in immediate resolution of patients' symptoms with durable midterm effect and few complications in a larger patient group with serious comorbid conditions.

  18. Large Animal Model of Pumpless Arteriovenous Extracorporeal CO₂ Removal Using Room Air via Subclavian Vessels.

    PubMed

    Witer, Lucas J; Howard, Ryan A; Trahanas, John M; Bryner, Benjamin S; Alghanem, Fares; Hoffman, Hayley R; Cornell, Marie S; Bartlett, Robert H; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    End-stage lung disease (ESLD) causes progressive hypercapnia and dyspnea and impacts quality of life. Many extracorporeal support (ECS) configurations for CO2 removal resolve symptoms but limit ambulation. An ovine model of pumpless ECS using subclavian vessels was developed to allow for ambulatory support. Vascular grafts were anastomosed to the left subclavian vessels in four healthy sheep. A low-resistance membrane oxygenator was attached in an arteriovenous (AV) configuration. Device function was evaluated in each animal while awake and spontaneously breathing and while mechanically ventilated with hypercapnia induced. Sweep gas (FiO2 = 0.21) to the device was increased from 0 to 15 L/min, and arterial and postdevice blood gases, as well as postdevice air, were sampled. Hemodynamics remained stable with average AV shunt flows of 1.34 ± 0.14 L/min. In awake animals, CO2 removal was 3.4 ± 1.0 ml/kg/min at maximum sweep gas flow. Respiratory rate decreased from 60 ± 25 at baseline to 30 ± 11 breaths per minute. In animals with induced hypercapnia, PaCO2 increased to 73.9 ± 15.1. At maximum sweep gas flow, CO2 removal was 3.4 ± 0.4 ml/kg/min and PaCO2 decreased to 49.1 ± 6.7 mm Hg. Subclavian AV access is effective in lowering PaCO2 and respiratory rate and is potentially an effective ambulatory destination therapy for ESLD patients. PMID:26461241

  19. Successful Exclusion of Subclavian Aneurysms with Covered Nitinol Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Kueffer, Georg; Stoeckelhuber, Beate; Steckmeier, Bernd

    1998-05-15

    Two cases of percutaneous endoluminal exclusion of a subclavian aneurysm with a Dacron-coated nitinol stent are presented. One subclavian aneurysm followed trauma; the other was due to thoracic outlet stenosis which was caused by a cervical rib. In both patients the aneurysm was excluded successfully. The follow-up periods were 22 and 14 months, respectively. Stenoses at the stent graft occurred in both patients; one was treated by balloon angioplasty. In selected patients, endoluminal grafting could be an alternative to surgery; however, stent graft designs need to be improved and long-term follow-up is awaited.

  20. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  1. Misleading findings of subclavian artery and vein transection.

    PubMed

    Kotsis, T; Moulakakis, K; Pavlidis, P; Boudouris, I; Pomoni, M; Georgakis, P

    2007-08-01

    Trauma involving the subclavian and axillary arteries is relatively infrequent. However, it can result in devastating functional disability of the upper limb due to significant and permanent associated neurologic deficits. Uncertainty exists in relation to certain aspects of therapeutical management of patients with trauma of the upper limb. Although decision pathway and algorithms have been proposed by several authors, the indications for surgery remain uncertain and not established. Two main points seem to be the most important determinants of the therapeutical strategy; first the viability of the limb and second the accurate determination of the vascular and nerve damage. We present a patient with a traumatic disruption of the subclavian artery and vein and concomitant brachial plexus injury following a road traffic accident. We highlight the role of accurate diagnosis to avoid life and limb-threatening complications from missed diagnosis. Also we review the recent literature emphasizing the therapeutical strategy and the role of conventional surgical repair and endovascular treatment. PMID:18019282

  2. SUBCLAVIAN VEIN THROMBOSIS FOLLOWING FRACTURE OF THE CLAVICLE: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Cocco, Luiz Fernando; Ejnisman, Benno; Fernandes, Hélio Jorge Alvachian; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy

    2015-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis in the upper limbs is uncommon in the orthopedic literature. We report on a case of subclavian vein thrombosis that occurred during conservative treatment of a fracture in the middle third of the clavicle. This is difficult to diagnose and requires a high degree of suspicion. Treating it may prevent fatal thromboembolism. In some rare cases, it has been described in association with fractures of the clavicle. PMID:27027014

  3. Subclavian Vein Stent Fracture and Venous Motion.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Taubman, Kevin; Claiborne, Paul; Blebea, John

    2015-10-01

    Primary subclavian vein stents are not recommended for venous thoracic outlet syndrome before surgical decompression by first rib resection due to a high risk of fracture because they are compressed between the clavicle and first rib. After rib removal, however, stent insertion has been advocated for venous restenosis, and it is felt that stent fracture is unlikely to occur. We present a case suggesting that repetitive differential vein movement during respiration may be one of the causative factors for stent fractures occurring in this anatomic region. PMID:26122410

  4. Management of subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Gary J.; Ameli, F. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Objective To study, by literature review, the management of subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis (SAVT) and to make recommendations. Data sources The MEDLINE database and cross-referenced articles. Study selection Key words subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis, venous thrombosis, Paget–Schroetter syndrome, anticoagulation, and thrombolysis were used to extract articles related to SAVT. Data extraction Independent extraction of articles by 2 observers. Data synthesis Although numerous studies are available in the literature, they vary widely in their patient selection, treatment methods, follow-up and conclusions. As such, the management of patients with SAVT remains controversial. Conclusions Anticoagulation remains the initial treatment of choice for acute SAVT although there is definitely a role for thrombolysis and surgery in selected cases. Surgical intervention should be reserved for patients in whom there is a specific indication. Since chronic symptoms depend largely on the etiology of the disease, treatment should be tailored to address the causative factors. A multicentre, prospective study is necessary to evaluate the optimum management strategies for patients with SAVT. PMID:9492744

  5. Initial and Long-Term Results of Endovascular Therapy for Chronic Total Occlusion of the Subclavian Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Babic, Srdjan; Sagic, Dragan; Radak, Djordje; Antonic, Zelimir; Otasevic, Petar; Kovacevic, Vladimir; Tanaskovic, Slobodan; Ruzicic, Dusan; Aleksic, Nikola; Vucurevic, Goran

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: To study the initial and long-term results of angioplasty and primary stenting for the treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the subclavian artery (SA). Materials and Methods: From January 1999 to February 2010, 56 patients (25 men with a mean age of 58 {+-} 8 years) underwent endovascular treatment for CTO of the SA. Duplex scans and arteriograms confirmed occlusion in all cases. Indications for recanalization were subclavian steal syndrome in 33 patients (58.1%), arm claudication in 13 patients (23.2%), and coronary ischemia in 7 patients (12.5%) who had a history of previous coronary artery bypass grafting that included left internal thoracic artery graft. Three patients (5.4%) were treated before the scheduled coronary artery bypass surgery, which included left internal thoracic artery graft. After successful recanalization, all arteries were stented, and all of the patients were followed-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and annually thereafter. Results: Successful recanalization of the SA was achieved in 46 patients (82.1%), and the complication rate was 7.1%. During follow-up (mean 40 {+-} 26 months; range 2 to 125), the primary patency rates after 1 and 3 years were 97.9% and 82.7%, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 76% of the arteries showed no evidence of restenosis. Univariate analysis failed to identify any variable predictive of long-term patency of successfully recanalized SA. Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting of the complete total occlusion of the SA is a safe and effective procedure associated with low risks and good long-term results.

  6. Closure Using a Surgical Closure Device of Inadvertent Subclavian Artery Punctures During Central Venous Catheter Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Berlet, Matthew H.; Steffen, Diana; Shaughness, George; Hanner, James

    2001-03-15

    Severe complications can and do occur when central venous catheters are inadvertently placed into subclavian arteries. Two cases are discussed that describe how these inadvertent arterial punctures can be closed using the Perclose device (Abbott Laboratories, Redwood City, CA, USA)

  7. Iatrogenic subclavian arteriovenous fistula: rare complication of plate osteosynthesis of clavicle fracture.

    PubMed

    Ding, Muliang; Hu, Jianzhong; Ni, Jiangdong; Lv, Hongbin; Song, Deye; Shu, Chang

    2012-02-01

    Iatrogenic subclavian arteriovenous fistula is rare and has not been reported as a complication of plate osteosynthesis of clavicle fracture. This article describes the first case of iatrogenic subclavian arteriovenous fistula caused by plate osteosynthesis. A 36-year-old man sustained a right middle clavicle fracture in an injury and underwent open reduction and internal fixation with clavicular compression plate 3 days later in a local hospital. On the second postoperative day, a pulsatile mass and thrill were detected at the right supraclavicular region. The patient was discharged 3 days postoperatively with no extra inspection. Three months later, he was admitted to our institution because the mass was getting bigger and weakness was felt in his right upper limb. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed a subclavian arteriovenous fistula. Vascular surgeons treated the patient successfully using endovascular techniques. The subclavian arteriovenous fistula was eliminated with a fully expanded stent graft, and the plate was removed simultaneously. The result was satisfactory, and the postoperative course was uneventful. This case demonstrated that subclavian arteriovenous fistula could be an iatrogenic complication of screw-and-plate osteosynthesis of clavicle fracture. The operative manipulation in the process of fracture reduction and hole drilling should be meticulous, and the screw length must be accurate. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of this uncommon complication with plate osteosynthesis of clavicle fracture. We recommend using an endovascular surgical technique for treatment of this complication. PMID:22310422

  8. Balloon-Assisted Tracking: A Solution to Severe Subclavian Tortuosity Encountered During Transradial Primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Gilchrist, Ian C; Patel, Tejas

    2016-06-01

    Radial artery access is preferred over femoral access for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction because of the reduction in access site complications and mortality associated with the radial artery access. Successful transradial primary PCI requires knowledge of techniques to handle unexpected severe subclavian artery tortuosity. Balloon-assisted tracking (BAT) is one technique developed to negotiate the tortuosity and loops in the upper extremity. However, the use of BAT in dealing with a severe subclavian loop during a transradial primary PCI procedure has never been reported. We described a case of transradial primary PCI with severe subclavian artery loop that was negotiated successfully by the BAT technique. PMID:27231432

  9. The Influence of Arm Positioning on Ultrasonic Visualization of the Subclavian Vein: An Anatomical Ultrasound Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Meriem; Roger, Claire; Bastide, Sophie; Jeannes, Pascal; Solecki, Kamila; de Jong, Audrey; Buzançais, Gautier; Elotmani, Loubna; Ripart, Jacques; Lefrant, Jean Yves; Bobbia, Xavier; Muller, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that placing the arm in 90° abduction, through 90° flexion and 90° external rotation, could improve ultrasound visualization of the subclavian vein. In 49 healthy volunteers, a single operator performed a view of the subclavian vein in neutral position and abduction position. A second blinded operator measured the cross-sectional area of the subclavian vein. Abduction position increased the cross-sectional area of the subclavian vein from 124 ± 46 (mean ± SD) to 162 ± 58 mm (P = 0.001). An increase of the cross-sectional area of ≥50% was observed in 41% volunteers (95% confidence interval, 27%-56%, n = 20); this technique offers an alternative approach (maybe safer) for ultrasound-guided catheterization of the subclavian vein. PMID:27149016

  10. Posttraumatic arteriovenous fistula and subclavian vein thrombosis: treatment by percutaneous arterial embolization and vein angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Gobin, Y P; Soulez, G; Riadh, A; Houdart, E; Herbreteau, D; Merland, J J

    1993-09-01

    A 71-year-old woman had edema and venous dilatation of her upper right limb that caused painful functional disability following a shoulder injury. Arteriograms demonstrated an arteriovenous fistula between the subclavian artery and vein associated with thrombosis of the vein at the same level. The arteriovenous fistula was found to have multiple arteriovenous communications. Because of associated distal venous thrombosis, venous drainage was retrograde through the brachial vein. The inflow arteries of the fistula were embolized and then the subclavian vein thrombosis was recanalized, dilated, and an endoluminal stent inserted. Clinical signs completely resolved. PMID:8268095

  11. Biometric measurements involving the terminal portion of the thoracic duct on left cervical level IV: an anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Louzada, Andressa Cristina Sposato; Lim, Soo Jin; Pallazzo, Jaqueline Fabiano; Silva, Viviane Passarelli Ramin; de Oliveira, Ruan Vitor Silva; Yoshio, Alvaro Masahiro; de Araújo-Neto, Vergilius José Furtado; Leite, Ana Kober Nogueira; Silveira, André; Simões, Cesar; Brandão, Lenine Garcia; Matos, Leandro Luongo de; Cernea, Claudio Roberto

    2016-06-01

    To determine the point of entrance of the thoracic duct in the venous system, as well as to evaluate some biometric measurements concerning its terminal portion, we conducted an anatomic study on 25 non-preserved cadavers. The termination of the thoracic duct occurred on the confluence between the left internal jugular vein and the left subclavian vein in 60 % of the individuals. The average results for the biometric measurements were: distance between the end of left internal jugular vein and omohyoid muscle 31.2 ± 2.7 mm; distance between the end of thoracic duct and the left internal jugular vein 0.0 ± 0.0 mm; distance between the end of thoracic duct and the left subclavian vein 3.6 ± 1.0 mm; distance between the end of thoracic duct and the left brachiocephalic vein 10.7 ± 3.1 mm. Moreover, it was identified that the left internal jugular vein length in level IV, measured between its entrance in the left subclavian vein and the omohyoid muscle, was able to predict the termination of the thoracic duct on the junction between the left internal jugular vein and the left subclavian vein (OR = 2.99) with high accuracy (79.3 %). In addition, the left internal jugular vein length at level IV was able to predict the localization of thoracic duct termination. Thus, this finding has practical value in minimizing the risk for a potential chyle leak during or after a left-sided neck dissection. PMID:26272628

  12. Hemodialysis through persistent left superior vena cava

    PubMed Central

    Kute, V. B.; Vanikar, A. V.; Gumber, M. R.; Shah, P. R.; Goplani, K. R.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of end stage renal disease patient who displayed a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) after placement of hemodialysis (HD) catheter through left internal jugular vein, as revealed by routine post-procedure X-ray chest. The diagnosis of PLSVC was confirmed by arterial blood gas, two-dimensional echocardiography, computed tomography thorax and angiographic examination. This anomaly is rather rare; few studies on safety of PLSVC for HD have been reported. The catheter was uneventfully used for HD for 2 months with careful continuous monitoring and removed after arteriovenous fistula was successfully cannulated. Physicians who place HD catheters in the left jugular/subclavian vein should be aware of the existence of PLSVC. PMID:21633545

  13. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  14. Cerebral Infarction Caused by a Tortuous Subclavian Artery: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Eun Hye; Yu, Hyun-Jeung; Choi, Soung Sil; Rhim, Jong Kook; Kwon, Kye Won; Roh, Sook Young

    2014-01-01

    Tortuous arteries are common clinical observation. Although mild tortuosity is asymptomatic, severe tortuosity can lead to ischemic attack in several organs. With advances in imaging technology, an increasing number of tortuous vessels have been detected. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of acute cerebral infarction due to tortuous subclavian artery and to review the literature. PMID:24644532

  15. Aortic coarctation associated with an absent segment of the proximal right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Jasper, A; Keshava, S N

    2014-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital anomaly of the thoracic aorta with many known associations. We describe the case of a young man referred for management of subarachnoid hemorrhage, in whom subsequent work-up revealed the previously undescribed combination of severe postductal aortic coarctation and an absent segment of the proximal right subclavian artery. PMID:25370550

  16. Noncovered Stent Placement in a Blunt Traumatic Injury of the Right Subclavian Artery

    SciTech Connect

    D'Othee, Bertrand Janne; Rousseau, Herve; Otal, Philippe; Joffre, Francis

    1999-09-15

    We report a case of scapulothoracic dissociation with right subclavian artery traumatic injury that was managed by endovascular treatment. Particular features are the use of a flexible self-expandable noncovered stent and simultaneous protection of the right common carotid artery from distal embolization by inflating a balloon catheter.

  17. Prophylactic Subclavian Artery Intraaortic Balloon Counter-Pulsation is Safe in High-Risk Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mark J; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Hur, Michael J; Johnson, Elizabeth M; Siffring, Travis; Shah, Atman P; Raman, Jaishankar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the safety of prophylactic subclavian artery intraaortic balloon pumps (SCA-IABP) in high-risk cardiac surgery patients as a bridge to recovery (BTR). From November 2011 to January 2013, 11 consecutive patients at three institutions underwent prophylactic insertion of a SCA-IABP as a BTR. All patients (n = 11) had preoperative ejection fractions of 30% or less. Patients concurrently underwent one or a combination of the following procedures: coronary artery bypass grafting, mitral valve surgery, aortic valve replacement, left ventricular aneurysm resection, and ventricular/atrial septal defect closure. The primary outcome measure was a composite endpoint of device-related complications (including limb ischemia, stroke, device failure, bleeding requiring reoperation, brachial plexus injury, device-related infection, and vascular complications) and in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcome measures included interval to patient ambulation and postoperative length of stay. There were no device-related complications or in-hospital mortalities in this cohort of 11 consecutive patients. Mean time to ambulation, balloon pump support, and postoperative length of stay were 3.70 ± 2.50 days, 8.50 ± 7.00 days, and 15.9 ± 8.25 days, respectively. Prophylactic SCA-IABPs appear to be safe in high-risk cardiac surgery patients as a BTR. PMID:26313557

  18. The Aberration Corrected SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, David C.

    2005-09-09

    The performance of the conventional low-energy CD-SEM is limited by the aberrations inherent in the probe forming lens. Multi-pole correctors are now available which can reduce or eliminate these aberrations. An SEM equipped with such a corrector offers higher spatial resolution and more probe current from a given electron source, and other aspects of the optical performance are also improved, but the much higher numerical aperture associated with an aberration corrected lens results in a reduction in imaging depth of field.

  19. A Large Posttraumatic Subclavian Artery Aneurysm Complicated by Artery Occlusion and Arteriobronchial Fistula Successfully Treated Using a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Czeczotka, Jaroslaw; Elgalal, Marcin; Sapieha, Michal; Rowinski, Olgierd

    2011-02-15

    The treatment of posttraumatic aneurysms of peripheral arteries using covered stents is increasingly commonplace. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with a pseudoaneurysm of the subclavian artery complicated by an arteriobronchial fistula with hemorrhaging into the bronchial tree and distal subclavian artery occlusion. Despite the lack of artery patency, endovascular stent graft implantation was successful. Pseudoaneurysm exclusion and involution was achieved, together with a patent implant and maintained collateral circulation patency.

  20. Hybrid intervention for type A aortic arch interruption and a giant subclavian artery aneurysm in an adult.

    PubMed

    Oz, Kursad; Erek, Ersin; Yildirim, Aydin

    2016-06-01

    Interrupted aortic arch is a very rare but well-described congenital anomaly. Concomitant presentation of interrupted aortic arch and giant subclavian artery aneurysm is an unusual event in adulthood. To the best of our knowledge, hybrid intervention for type A aortic arch interruption with a giant aneurysm of the subclavian artery is an alternative approach for the management of these concomitant pathologies in adults. PMID:27071339

  1. Iatrogenic Subtotal Stenosis of the Right Subclavian Artery Treated With Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Smeenk, Robert M.; Kock, Mark C. J. M.; Elgersma, Otto E. H.; Schnater, Marco J.

    2011-02-15

    This report describes a rare vascular complication of surgical placement of a marking clip and a possible approach to problem solving. A 55-year-old patient presented with loss of sensation in the fingers and loss of peripheral pulsations in the right arm 4 days after right upper lobectomy for a pT2N1 moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung. Duplex examination and computed tomography were performed the same day and showed a subtotal stenosis of the right subclavian artery, which was caused by the surgical placement of a metal clip to mark the surgical boundary. Selective angiography was subsequently performed. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) successfully dilated the stenosis and pushed the clip off. Flow in the right subclavian artery (RSA) was completely restored as were neurology and peripheral pulses. In conclusion, arterial stenosis by a surgical (marking) clip may be feasibly treated with PTA.

  2. Subclavian Artery Pseudoaneurysm Formation 3 Months after a Game of Rugby Union

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T.; Roy, S.; Rocker, M.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the subclavian artery remain a rare complication after fracture of the clavicle. We report a case of delayed diagnosis of a subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm after a closed fracture of the clavicle in a 15-year-old patient, 3 months after the original injury while playing rugby union. Despite several attendances to the Emergency Department with vague symptoms, the final diagnosis was confirmed by duplex ultrasound and Computed Tomography of the thorax. Surgical repair was indicated due to acute limb ischaemia from distal embolisation from a large pseudoaneurysm, with the patient making a full recovery. This case highlights the need for clinical vigilance when assessing patients, particularly on repeated occasions when their recovery appears to be impaired. A thorough history and clinical examination can raise suspicion of even rare occurrences and aid prompt management. PMID:26351589

  3. Inadvertent subclavian artery cannulation with a central venous catheter; successful retrieval using a minimally invasive technique.

    PubMed

    Redmond, C E; O'Donohoe, R; Breslin, D; Brophy, D P

    2014-10-01

    A 48-year-old lady was referred to our department as an emergency following an unsuccessful attempt at central venous catheter insertion, resulting in cannulation of the subclavian artery. She underwent angiography with removal of the catheter and closure of the arteriotomy using an Angio-Seal device. While the optimal management of this scenario has yet to be defined, the use of this minimally invasive technique warrants consideration. PMID:25507120

  4. Inadvertent subclavian artery cannulation with a central venous catheter; successful retrieval using a minimally invasive technique.

    PubMed

    Redmond, C E; O'Donohoe, R; Breslin, D; Brophy, D P

    2014-10-01

    A 48-year-old lady was referred to our department as an emergency following an unsuccessful attempt at central venous catheter insertion, resulting in cannulation of the subclavian artery. She underwent angiography with removal of the catheter and closure of the arteriotomy using an Angio-Seal device. While the optimal management of this scenario has yet to be defined, the use of this minimally invasive technique warrants consideration. PMID:25417392

  5. Left-Sided Persistent Superior Vena Cava with Superior Hemiazygos Arch

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Huban R.; Das, Aswin; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Left-side Superior Vena Cava (PLSVC) is the congenital central venous anomaly draining into the right atrium in 82-90% of cases via coronary sinus produce no haemodynamically significant consequences. In few cases it may drain into the left atrium directly or through the pulmonary veins resulting in right to left shunt. During routine undergraduate dissection, we found a PLSVC formed by the union of left subclavian and left internal jugular veins behind the left sternoclavicular joint was terminated into the right atrium through a larger coronary sinus ostium. Before its termination, PLSVC received a left hemiazygos vein formed by the continuation of the superior and inferior hemiazygos veins. A larger but thin communicating vein was noted between the right superior vena cava and PLSVC. Prior knowledge about such variations is essential in all the intervention procedures on right atrium through the left subclavian approach and also like in our case, the larger coronary sinus ostium if found during transthoracic echocardiography should be considered as an indication for the diagnosis of PLSVC.

  6. Percutaneous repair of iatrogenic subclavian artery injury by suture-mediated closure device

    PubMed Central

    Chivate, Rahul S; Kulkarni, Suyash S; Shetty, Nitin S; Polnaya, Ashwin M; Gala, Kunal B; Patel, Paresh G

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheterization through internal jugular vein is done routinely in intensive care units. It is generally safe, more so when the procedure is performed under ultrasound guidance. However, there could be inadvertent puncture of other vessels in the neck when the procedure is not performed under real-time sonographic guidance. Closure of this vessel opening can pose a challenge if it is an artery, in a location difficult to compress, and is further complicated by deranged coagulation profile. Here, we discuss the removal of an inadvertently placed catheter from subclavian artery with closure of arteriotomy percutaneously using arterial suture-mediated closure device. PMID:27413277

  7. Early and Long-Term Results of Subclavian Angioplasty in Aortoarteritis (Takayasu Disease): Comparison with Atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Sanjay; Verma, Puneet K.; Gambhir, Daljeet S.; Kaul, Upkar A.; Saha, Renuka; Arora, Ramesh

    1998-05-15

    Purpose: To compare the early andlong-term outcomes of subclavian artery angioplasty in patients with aortoarteritis and atherosclerosis. Methods: Sixty-one subclavian artery angioplasties were performed in 55 consecutive patients with aortoarteritis (n= 32) and atherosclerosis (n= 23) between 1986 and 1995. An arch aortogram followed by a selective subclavian artery angiogram was done to profile the site and extent of the lesion, its relation to the vertebral artery, and the distal circulation. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed via the femoral route for 56 stenotic lesions and 5 total occlusions. Results: PTA was successful in 52 (92.8%) stenotic lesions and 3 (60%) total occlusions. Three patients (5.4%) had complications, that could be effectively managed nonsurgically. Compared with atherosclerosis, patients with aortoarteritis were younger (27.4 {+-} 9.3 years vs 54.5 {+-} 10.5 years; p < 0.001), more often female (75% vs 17.4%; p < 0.001), gangrene was uncommon (0% vs 17.4%; p < 0.05), and diffuse involvement was seen more often (43.8% vs 4.4%; p < 0.001). The luminal diameter stenoses were similar before PTA (88.6 {+-} 9.7% vs 89.0 {+-} 9.1%; p= NS). Higher balloon inflation pressure was required to dilate the lesions of aortoarteritis (9.9 {+-} 4.6 ATM vs 5.5 {+-} 1.0 ATM; p < 0.001). This group had more residual stenosis (15.5 {+-} 12.4% vs 8.3 {+-} 9.4%; p < 0.05) after PTA. There were no neurological sequelae, even in PTA of prevertebral lesions. On 3-120 months (mean 43.3 {+-} 28.9 months) follow-up of 40 patients, restenosis was more often observed in patients with aortoarteritis, particularly in those with diffuse arterial narrowing. These lesions could be effectively redilated. Clinical symptoms showed marked improvement after successful angioplasty. Conclusion: Subclavian PTA is safe and can be performed as effectively in aortoarteritis as in atherosclerosis, with good long-term results. Long-term follow-up shows that it

  8. Suction Thrombectomy of Thrombotic Occlusion of the Subclavian Artery in a Case of Takayasu's Arteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Purkayastha, Sukalyan; Jayadevan, E.R.; Kapilamoorthy, T.R.; Gupta, A.K. E-mail: gupta@sctimst.ac.in

    2006-04-15

    Takayasu's arteritis, also known as pulseless disease, is a chronic inflammatory arteritis affecting large vessels, predominantly the aorta and its main branches. Vessel inflammation leads to wall thickening, fibrosis, stenosis, and thrombus formation. Percutaneous removal of arterial thrombus with the use of several devices has been reported, with mixed results. We present a case of Takayasu's arteritis with thrombotic occlusion of the subclavian artery in which pulsed urokinase injection and suction thrombectomy were used to revascularize a threatened limb and to establish the sole arterial supply to the brain.

  9. Percutaneous repair of iatrogenic subclavian artery injury by suture-mediated closure device.

    PubMed

    Chivate, Rahul S; Kulkarni, Suyash S; Shetty, Nitin S; Polnaya, Ashwin M; Gala, Kunal B; Patel, Paresh G

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheterization through internal jugular vein is done routinely in intensive care units. It is generally safe, more so when the procedure is performed under ultrasound guidance. However, there could be inadvertent puncture of other vessels in the neck when the procedure is not performed under real-time sonographic guidance. Closure of this vessel opening can pose a challenge if it is an artery, in a location difficult to compress, and is further complicated by deranged coagulation profile. Here, we discuss the removal of an inadvertently placed catheter from subclavian artery with closure of arteriotomy percutaneously using arterial suture-mediated closure device. PMID:27413277

  10. Endovascular Repair Using Suture-Mediated Closure Devices and Balloon Tamponade following Inadvertent Subclavian Artery Catheterization with Large-Caliber Hemodialysis Catheter.

    PubMed

    Park, Taek Kyu; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Seung-Hyuk

    2016-07-01

    Accidental subclavian artery cannulation is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of central venous catheterization. Removal of a catheter inadvertently placed in the subclavian artery can lead to substantial bleeding, as achieving hemostasis in this area through manual compression presents considerable difficulty. Additionally, surgical treatment might be unsuitable for high-risk patients due to comorbidities. Here, we report a case of an inadvertently-inserted 11.5-French hemodialysis catheter in the subclavian artery during internal jugular venous catheterization. We performed percutaneous closure of the subclavian artery using three 6-French Perclose Proglide® devices with a balloon tamponade in the proximal part of the subclavian artery. Closure was completed without embolic neurological complications. PMID:27482271

  11. Endovascular Repair Using Suture-Mediated Closure Devices and Balloon Tamponade following Inadvertent Subclavian Artery Catheterization with Large-Caliber Hemodialysis Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Park, Taek Kyu; Yang, Jeong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Accidental subclavian artery cannulation is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of central venous catheterization. Removal of a catheter inadvertently placed in the subclavian artery can lead to substantial bleeding, as achieving hemostasis in this area through manual compression presents considerable difficulty. Additionally, surgical treatment might be unsuitable for high-risk patients due to comorbidities. Here, we report a case of an inadvertently-inserted 11.5-French hemodialysis catheter in the subclavian artery during internal jugular venous catheterization. We performed percutaneous closure of the subclavian artery using three 6-French Perclose Proglide® devices with a balloon tamponade in the proximal part of the subclavian artery. Closure was completed without embolic neurological complications. PMID:27482271

  12. Persistent left superior vena cava: Two case reports and a review from nephrologists' perspective.

    PubMed

    Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Sakaci, Tamer; Kara, Ekrem; Ahbap, Elbis; Basturk, Taner; Koc, Yener; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Kayarlar, Arzu Ozdemir; Ucar, Zuhal Atan; Caglayan, Feyza Bayraktar; Hasbal, Nuri Baris; Nazif, Perin; Isleem, Mahmoud; Sahutoglu, Elif; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2016-07-01

    Thoracic venous anomalies without congenital heart anomalies are present in minority of the population, but they are frequent enough to be encountered while placing hemodialysis catheters through the jugular or subclavian veins. Persistent left superior vena cava is the most commonly seen anomaly and it is rarely noticed before the observation of an unusual course of hemodialysis catheter or guidewire on chest X-ray. We present two patients with previously unspotted persistent left superior vena cava and uncomplicated hemodialysis catheter insertions through the internal jugular veins with good catheter functions. Review of the relevant literature from a nephrologists' perspective with technical aspects is provided. PMID:26843030

  13. Aberration correction of unstable resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Construction of aspheric reflectors for unstable resonator lasers to provide an arbitrary laser mode inside the resonator to correct aberrations of an output beam by the construction of the shape of an end reflector opposite the output reflector of the resonator cavity, such as aberrations resulting from refraction of a beam exiting the solid of the resonator having an index of refraction greater than 1 or to produce an aberration in the output beam that will precisely compensate for the aberration of an optical train into which the resonator beam is coupled.

  14. Vascular ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... with aberrant subclavian and left ligamentum ateriosus; Congenital heart defect - vascular ring; Birth defect heart - vascular ring ... accounts for less than 1% of all congenital heart problems. The condition occurs as often in males ...

  15. A low energy paediatric clavicle fracture associated with acute brachial plexus injury and subclavian artery compression.

    PubMed

    Gill, I; Quayle, J; Fox, M

    2013-03-01

    Paediatric clavicle fractures are common injuries presenting to orthopaedic surgeons. The majority of these represent midshaft low energy fractures, which in the vast majority of cases are treated non-operatively and recover rapidly. The main indications to consider operative intervention include high energy of injury, >2 cm shortening, open fractures and associated vascular or neurological injuries. Brachial plexus (BP) injuries are uncommon with variable outcomes. They often result from high energy motorcycle related accidents with potentially fatal associated injuries such as vascular disruption. Their management is complex, requiring expertise, and they are therefore usually managed in supraregional centres. We present a unique case of a low energy midshaft clavicle fracture in a paediatric patient in whom there was an acute BP injury and subclavian artery compression that has not been described previously. PMID:23484977

  16. [Kommerell's Diverticulum (KD)].

    PubMed

    Torres-Martel, José Miguel; Izaguirre-Guajardo, Gerardo; Ramírez-Portillo, César Iván

    2016-01-01

    Right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery from a Kommerell's diverticulum is a very rare variant of the incomplete vascular ring. Associated symptoms are caused due to tracheal or esophagus compression. Magnetic resonance is the gold standard for diagnosis. Surgical treatment is recommended for symptomatic patients or asymptomatic patients with a large diverticulum. We report three consecutive cases of patients with Kommerell's diverticulum, aberrant left subclavian artery, and right-sided aortic arch. PMID:27335200

  17. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  18. Correction of Distributed Optical Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Olivier, S; Carrano, C; Phillion, D

    2006-02-12

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of multiple distributed deformable mirrors (DMs) to improve the performance of optical systems with distributed aberrations. This concept is expected to provide dramatic improvement in the optical performance of systems in applications where the aberrations are distributed along the optical path or within the instrument itself. Our approach used multiple actuated DMs distributed to match the aberration distribution. The project developed the algorithms necessary to determine the required corrections and simulate the performance of these multiple DM systems.

  19. Coating-induced wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiley, Daniel J.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1992-12-01

    The coatings which are used on telescope mirrors and other optical interfaces can have a profound effect on the image quality formed by an optical system. This paper evaluates the defocus and astigmatism which are caused by the s- and p-phase shifts of coatings. These coating-induced wavefront aberrations are usually insignificant, but can, under certain circumstances, overshadow the geometric wavefront aberrations of the system. The wavefront aberrations induced by reflection-enhanced coatings on an f/1.5 Cassegrain telescope are numerically evaluated as an example.

  20. Severe tracheobronchial compression in a patient with Turner's syndrome undergoing repair of a complex aorto-subclavian aneurysm: anesthesia perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Christopher C C; Stewart, Jeremie; Dennie, Carole; Malas, Tarek; Boodhwani, Munir

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of severe tracheobronchial compression from a complex aorto-subclavian aneurysm in a patient with Turner's syndrome undergoing open surgical repair. Significant airway compression is a challenging situation and requires careful preoperative preparation, maintenance of spontaneous breathing when possible, and consideration of having an alternative source of oxygenation and circulation established prior to induction of general anesthesia. Cardiopulmonary monitoring is essential for safe general anesthesia and diagnosis of unexpected intraoperative events. PMID:25281630

  1. Historical aspects of aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Rose, Harald H

    2009-06-01

    A brief history of the development of direct aberration correction in electron microscopy is outlined starting from the famous Scherzer theorem established in 1936. Aberration correction is the long story of many seemingly fruitless efforts to improve the resolution of electron microscopes by compensating for the unavoidable resolution-limiting aberrations of round electron lenses over a period of 50 years. The successful breakthrough, in 1997, can be considered as a quantum step in electron microscopy because it provides genuine atomic resolution approaching the size of the radius of the hydrogen atom. The additional realization of monochromators, aberration-free imaging energy filters and spectrometers has been leading to a new generation of analytical electron microscopes providing elemental and electronic information about the object on an atomic scale. PMID:19254915

  2. Sexual aberration or instinctual vicissitude? Revisiting freud's "the sexual aberrations".

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sidney H

    2014-04-01

    The author reconsiders Freud's "The Sexual Aberrations," the first of his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), in light of contemporary psychoanalytic theory. Are the concepts of sexual aberration and norm still viable? The author argues that they are necessary but insufficient elements in current theory. He then presents a competing model in which sexuality can be reduced to a more elemental level of disturbance and wish, where it is an expression of a nonsexual wish--for example, to possess or control the object to eliminate separateness. The author presents clinical material to demonstrate this alternative model. PMID:24777366

  3. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2012-08-01

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. PMID:22206603

  4. How To Measure Gravitational Aberration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizek, M.; Solcova, A.

    2007-08-01

    In 1905, Henri Poincaré predicted the existence of gravitational waves and assumed that their speed c[g] would be that of the speed of light c. If the gravitational aberration would also have the same magnitude as the aberration of light, we would observe several paradoxical phenomena. For instance, the orbit of two bodies of equal mass would be unstable, since two attractive forces arise that are not in line and hence form a couple. This tends to increase the angular momentum, period, and total energy of the system. This can be modelled by a system of ordinary differential equations with delay. A big advantage of computer simulation is that we can easily perform many test for various possible values of the speed of gravity [1]. In [2], Carlip showed that gravitational aberration in general relativity is almost cancelled out by velocity-dependent interactions. This means that rays of sunlight are not parallel to the attractive gravitational force of the Sun, i.e., we do not see the Sun in the direction of its attractive force, but slightly shifted about an angle less than 20``. We show how the actual value of the gravitational aberration can be obtained by measurement of a single angle at a suitable time instant T corresponding to the perihelion of an elliptic orbit. We also derive an a priori error estimate that expresses how acurately T has to be determined to attain the gravitational aberration to a prescribed tolerance. [1] M. Křížek: Numerical experience with the finite speed of gravitational interaction, Math. Comput. Simulation 50 (1999), 237-245. [2] S. Carlip: Aberration and the speed of gravity, Phys. Lett. A 267 (2000), 81-87.

  5. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  6. Comparative survival after transapical, direct aortic, and subclavian transcatheter aortic valve implantation (data from the UK TAVI registry).

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Georg M; Baxter, Paul D; Malkin, Christopher J; Scott, D Julian A; Moat, Neil E; Hildick-Smith, David; Cunningham, David; MacCarthy, Philip A; Trivedi, Uday; de Belder, Mark A; Ludman, Peter F; Blackman, Daniel J

    2015-11-15

    Many patients have iliofemoral vessel anatomy unsuitable for conventional transfemoral (TF) transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Safe and practical alternatives to the TF approach are, therefore, needed. This study compared outcomes of alternative nonfemoral routes, transapical (TA), direct aortic (DA), and subclavian (SC), with standard femoral access. In this retrospective study, data from 3,962 patients in the UK TAVI registry were analyzed. All patients who received TAVI through a femoral, subclavian, TA, or DA approach were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome measure was survival up to 2 years. Median Logistic EuroSCORE was similar for SC, DA, and TA but significantly lower in the TF cohort (22.1% vs 20.3% vs 21.2% vs 17.0%, respectively, p <0.0001). Estimated 1-year survival rate was similar for TF (84.6 ± 0.7%) and SC (80.5 ± 3%, p = 0.27) but significantly worse for TA (74.7 ± 1.6%, p <0.001) and DA (75.2 ± 3.3%, p <0.001). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze survival up to 2 years. Survival in the SC group was not significantly different from the TF group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88 to 1.70, p = 0.24). In contrast, survival in the TA (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.11; p <0.001) and DA (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.14; p <0.01) cohorts was significantly reduced compared with TF. In conclusion, TA and DA TAVI were associated with similar survival, both significantly worse than with the TF route. In contrast, subclavian access was not significantly different from TF and may represent the safest nonfemoral access route for TAVI. PMID:26409640

  7. Mediastinal B-Cell Lymphoma Presenting with Jugular-Subclavian Deep Vein Thrombosis as the First Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Ceniza, Sidney; Sharon, David

    2015-01-01

    Jugular venous thrombosis infrequently could be secondary to malignancy and has seldom been reported secondary to mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas. The postulated mechanisms are mechanical compression that leads to stagnation of blood in the venous system of the neck and/or an increase in the circulating thrombogenic elements that could cause venous thromboembolism as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We report the case of a middle aged male presenting with right sided neck pain and arm swelling secondary to ipsilateral jugular-subclavian deep vein thrombosis. Investigations revealed it to be secondary to a mediastinal mass shown on CT scan of the chest. PMID:25821628

  8. Subclavian Vein Versus Arm Vein for Totally Implantable Central Venous Port for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Retrospective Comparative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Akahane, Akio Sone, Miyuki; Ehara, Shigeru; Kato, Kenichi; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare central venous ports (CVP) from two different routes of venous access-the subclavian vein and arm vein-in terms of safety for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods: Patients with HNC who underwent image-guided implantations of CVPs were retrospectively evaluated. All CVPs were implanted under local anesthesia. Primary outcome measurements were rates and types of adverse events (AEs). Secondary outcomes included technical success and rate and reason of CVP removal. Results: A total of 162 patients (subclavian port group, 47; arm port group, 115) were included in this study. Technical success was achieved in all patients. The median follow-up period was 94 (range, 1-891) days. Two patients in the subclavian port group experienced periprocedural complications. Postprocedural AEs were observed in 8.5 and 22.6% of the subclavian port and arm port group patients, respectively (P = 0.044). Phlebitis and system occlusions were observed only in the arm port group. The rate of infection was not significantly different between the two groups. The CVP was removed in 34 and 39.1% of the subclavian port and arm port patients, respectively. Conclusions: Both subclavian and arm CVPs are feasible in patients with HNC. AEs were more frequent in the arm port group; thus, the arm port is not recommended as the first choice for patients with HNC. However, further experience is needed to improve the placement technique and the maintenance of CVPs and a prospective analysis is warranted.

  9. New Technique for the Preservation of the Left Common Carotid Artery in Zone 2a Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkat, Robert Kulesza, Jerzy; Zarzecka, Anna; Jemielity, Marek; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Majewski, Waclaw

    2011-02-15

    To describe a technique for the preservation of the left common carotid artery (CCA) in zone 2 endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. This technique involves the placement of a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment to enable precise visualization and protection of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Of the 107 patients with thoracic endovascular aortic repair in our study, 32 (30%) had the left subclavian artery intentionally covered (landing zone 2). Eight (25%) of those 32 had landing zone 2a-the segment distally the origin of the left CCA, halfway between the origin of the left CCA and the left subclavian artery. In all patients, a guide wire was positioned into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment. It is a retrospective study in design. In seven patients, stent grafts were positioned precisely. In the remaining patient, the positioning was imprecise; the origin of the left CCA was partially covered by the graft. A stent was implanted into the left CCA to restore the flow into the vessel. All procedures were performed successfully. The technique of placing a guide wire into the left CCA via the right brachial artery before stent graft deployment is a safe and effective method that enables the precise visualization of the left CCA during the whole procedure. Moreover, in case of inadvertent complete or partial coverage of the origin of the left CCA, it supplies safe and quick access to the artery for stent implantation.

  10. Distortion of ultrashort pulses caused by aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Z. L.; Kovács, A. P.; Bor, Zs.

    The effect of the primary wave aberrations (spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma) on ultrashort pulses is studied by the Nijboer-Zernike theory. The results of the geometrical and the wave optical treatments are compared.

  11. Using geometric algebra to study optical aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, J.; Ziock, H.

    1997-05-01

    This paper uses Geometric Algebra (GA) to study vector aberrations in optical systems with square and round pupils. GA is a new way to produce the classical optical aberration spot diagrams on the Gaussian image plane and surfaces near the Gaussian image plane. Spot diagrams of the third, fifth and seventh order aberrations for square and round pupils are developed to illustrate the theory.

  12. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    HLHS; Congenital heart - hypoplastic left heart; Cyanotic heart disease - hypoplastic left heart ... Hypoplastic left heart is a rare type of congenital heart disease. It is more common in males than in females. As ...

  13. Anomalous origin of the left innominate (brachiocephalic) artery in the right aortic arch: How can it be anomalous when the left innominate artery is absent?

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Francesca; Bonnet, Damien; Geva, Tal; Sanders, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    An unusual case of a rare vascular ring, which has been called right aortic arch with aberrant left innominate artery, is presented. The appearance of this case led to the realization that there is really no innominate artery present in this anomaly but only the left dorsal aorta. We present a clarification of the nature and likely development of the vessels present. PMID:27212855

  14. Pseudoaneurysm of an aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear caused by myringotomy.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kenichi; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Ito, Fumie; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-12-01

    An aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare abnormality associated with life-threatening otorrhagia if inadvertently injured during middle-ear surgery including myringotomy. We present a case where a 3-year-old girl experienced massive otorrhagia following myringotomy, and computed tomographic scan showed the aberrant ICA. Bleeding was controlled by ear canal packing, but rebleeding occurred. Investigations by carotid angiography demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm of the aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We attempted surgical repair using a high-flow bypass technique; however, the bypass graft was occluded by embolic complications, and eventually, ligation of the ICA was performed, which led to the paralysis of the patient's left limbs. In this report, management of iatrogenic aberrant ICA injuries and pseudoaneurysms in the middle ear are discussed based on the case that we experienced. PMID:27085819

  15. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  16. A comparative study of landmark-based topographic method versus the formula method for estimating depth of insertion of right subclavian central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Anandaswamy, Tejesh C; Marulasiddappa, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Subclavian central venous catheterisation (CVC) is employed in critically ill patients requiring long-term central venous access. There is no gold standard for estimating their depth of insertion. In this study, we compared the landmark topographic method with the formula technique for estimating depth of insertion of right subclavian CVCs. Methods: Two hundred and sixty patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit requiring subclavian CVC were randomly assigned to either topographic method or formula method (130 in each group). Catheter tip position in relation to the carina was measured on a post-procedure chest X-ray. The primary endpoint was the need for catheter repositioning. Mann–Whitney test and Chi-square test was performed for statistical analysis using SPSS for windows version 18.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results: Nearly, half the catheters positioned by both the methods were situated >1 cm below the carina and required repositioning. Conclusion: Both the techniques were not effective in estimating the approximate depth of insertion of right subclavian CVCs. PMID:27512166

  17. Chromosome aberrations induced by zebularine in triticale.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuhui; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yanzhi; Ma, Jieyun; Wu, Nan; Ni, Shuang; Luo, Tengxiao; Zhuang, Lifang; Chu, Chenggen; Cho, Seong-Woo; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Qi, Zengjun

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome engineering is an important approach for generating wheat germplasm. Efficient development of chromosome aberrations will facilitate the introgression and application of alien genes in wheat. In this study, zebularine, a DNA methylation transferase inhibitor, was successfully used to induce chromosome aberrations in the octoploid triticale cultivar Jinghui#1. Dry seeds were soaked in zebularine solutions (250, 500, and 750 μmol/L) for 24 h, and the 500 μmol/L treatment was tested in three additional treatment times, i.e., 12, 36, and 48 h. All treatments induced aberrations involving wheat and rye chromosomes. Of the 920 cells observed in 67 M1 plants, 340 (37.0%) carried 817 aberrations with an average of 0.89 aberrations per cell (range: 0-12). The aberrations included probable deletions, telosomes and acentric fragments (49.0%), large segmental translocations (28.9%), small segmental translocations (17.1%), intercalary translocations (2.6%), long chromosomes that could carry more than one centromere (2.0%), and ring chromosomes (0.5%). Of 510 M2 plants analyzed, 110 (21.6%) were found to carry stable aberrations. Such aberrations included 79 with varied rye chromosome numbers, 7 with wheat and rye chromosome translocations, 15 with possible rye telosomes/deletions, and 9 with complex aberrations involving variation in rye chromosome number and wheat-rye translocations. These indicated that aberrations induced by zebularine can be steadily transmitted, suggesting that zebularine is a new efficient agent for chromosome manipulation. PMID:27334255

  18. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating

  19. Aberrant methylation during cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Virmani, A K; Muller, C; Rathi, A; Zoechbauer-Mueller, S; Mathis, M; Gazdar, A F

    2001-03-01

    We studied the pattern of aberrant methylation during the multistage pathogenesis of cervical cancers. We analyzed a total of 73 patient samples and 10 cervical cancer cell lines. In addition, tissue samples [peripheral blood lymphocytes (n = 10) and buccal epithelial cells (n = 12)] were obtained from 22 healthy volunteers. On the basis of the results of preliminary analysis, the cervical samples were grouped into three categories: (a) nondysplasia/low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; n = 37); (b) high-grade CIN (n = 17); and (c) invasive cancer (n = 19). The methylation status of six genes was determined (p16, RARbeta, FHIT, GSTP1, MGMT, and hMLH1). Our main findings are as follows: (a) methylation was completely absent in control tissues; (b) the frequencies of methylation for all of the genes except hMLH1 were >20% in cervical cancers; (c) aberrant methylation commenced early during multistage pathogenesis and methylation of at least one gene was noted in 30% of the nondysplasia/low-grade CIN group; (d) an increasing trend for methylation was seen with increasing pathological change; (e) methylation of RARbeta and GSTP1 were early events, p16 and MGMT methylation were intermediate events, and FHIT methylation was a late, tumor-associated event; and (f) methylation occurred independently of other risk factors including papillomavirus infection, smoking history, or hormone use. Although our findings need to be extended to a larger series, they suggest that the pattern of aberrant methylation in women with or without dysplasia may help identify subgroups at increased risk for histological progression or cancer development. PMID:11297252

  20. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  1. Correcting aberration in aspheric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, K.; Khan, A. N.; Rauf, A.; Gul, A.

    2014-06-01

    New technique eases aspheric lens fabrication and overcome traditional limitation. An aspheric lens has been designed by using optical designing software to replace the achromat (Doublet) lens of eyepiece assembly of telescope. The devised physical parameters of aspheric lens have been incorporated into the CNC Aspheric machine to fabricate the lens. The antireflection coating for visible region has been carried out on lens by employing PVD technique. In this report diminished aberration effects due to non-spherical surface profile and comparison of optical parameters of achromat (doublet) and aspheric lens is presented.

  2. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  3. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  4. Aberrations of ellipsoidal reflectors for unit magnification.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, K D

    1974-12-01

    Ellipsoidal reflectors are useful for the 1:1 imaging of small objects without spherical and chromatic aberration. The magnitude of the off-axis aberrations of such reflectors is computed by application of Fermat's principle to the Hamiltonian point characteristic. The limiting form of the mirror aperture for which these aberrations do not exceed a set tolerance is an ellipse whose semiaxes depend on object size and angle of incidence. PMID:20134811

  5. Influence of aberrations in microholographic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    The influence of various types of aberrations (spherical, coma, and astigmatic) of recording and readout beams on the readout signal in a microholographic recording was investigated through a numerical simulation. The simulation conditions were that the wavelength of the laser was 405 nm and the numerical aperture of the objective lenses was 0.85. The tolerance of the root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront aberrations was defined as the aberration when the normalized signal level decreased to 0.8. Among the three types of aberrations, the influence of the spherical aberration was the most significant. When both the recording and readout beams were aberrated and the signs of the aberrations were in the worst case, the tolerance of the RMS wavefront aberrations was less than half of the Maréchal's criterion. Moreover, when the RMS wavefront aberrations of the recording and readout beams were within the above tolerance, the bit intervals of 0.13 and 0.65 μm in the inplane and vertical directions, respectively, which correspond to the recording density of 91 bit/μm3 (recording capacity of 16 TB for a 120-mm-diameter optical disk having a 300-μm-thick recording layer), were shown to be feasible for confocal detection with an allowable signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. [Left Lower Lobectomy for an Elderly Patient with Anomalous Systemic Arterial Supply to the Basal Segment of the Left Lung;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Saki; Moriya, Makio; Kamesui, Tadashi; Shimizu, Junzo; Nagayoshi, Toshiro; Nonomura, Akitaka

    2016-07-01

    A 76-year-old man was referred to our department for an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray. Computed tomography showed an aberrant artery arising from the descending thoracic aorta to the basal segment of the left lung. The aberrant artery was dilated and tortuous, and its wall had remarkable calcifications. Bronchial branching to the basal segment of the left lung were normal. The diagnosis of anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal basal segment was established, and division of the aberrant artery and left lower lobectomy were performed successfully. His postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged on the 14th postoperative day. We describe herein a rare case of the elderly patient surgically treated for this disease along with a brief review of the literatures. PMID:27365073

  7. Some Useful Correspondences In Aberration Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, David

    1986-10-01

    There are many correspondences between the behavior of monochromatic aberrations and chromatic aberrations. Usually the behavior of the chromatic aberrations is of a lower order than the corresponding monochromatic behavior. The cause of the 5th-order mono-chromatic astigmatism, for example, is similar in type to the cause of the chromatic variation of 3rd-order astigmatism. The stop-shift behavior of 3rd-order monochromatic coma is similar to that of first-order lateral color, and so on. These correspondences are interesting for two reasons. One is that they have not been commented on much before, despite the value of one's being aware of these relationships. Methods used to control a monochromatic aberration may also apply to the corresponding chromatic aberration, and vice-versa, for example. The other benefit to studying this topic is that the chromatic aberrations, which are of a lower order than their monochro-matic correspondences, are much easier to understand and visualize. A simple diagram can illustrate the stop-shift behavior of lateral color much more easily than trying to do the same thing with 3rd-order coma. Finally, the very important distinction between intrinsic and induced aberrations can be best illustrated with chromatic aberrations, because of their lower order.

  8. Rooting Out Aberrant Behavior in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokalis, Jerry, Jr.; Paquin, Dave

    1989-01-01

    Discusses aberrant, or disruptive, behavior in an industrial/business, classroom-based, instructor-led training setting. Three examples of aberrant behavior are described, typical case studies are provided for each, and preventive (long-term) and corrective (on-the-spot) strategies for dealing with the problems are discussed. (LRW)

  9. Harmonic oscillator states in aberration optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    The states of the three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator classify optical aberrations of axis-symmetric systems due to the isomorphism between the two mathematical structures. Cartesian quanta and angular momentum classifications have their corresponding aberration classifications. The operation of concatenation of optical elements introduces a new operation between harmonic oscillator states.

  10. Aberrant Radial Artery Causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kokkalis, Zinon T.; Tolis, Konstantinos E.; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D.; Panagopoulos, Georgios N.; Igoumenou, Vasilios G.; Mavrogenis, Andreas F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical vascular variations are rare causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. An aberrant medial artery is the most common vascular variation, while an aberrant radial artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome is even more rare, with an incidence ranging less than 3%. This article reports a patient with compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery. An 80- year- old man presented with a 5-year history of right hand carpal tunnel syndrome; Tinel sign, Phalen test and neurophysiological studies were positive. Open carpal tunnel release showed an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery with its accompanying veins running from radially to medially, almost parallel to the median nerve, ending at the superficial palmar arterial arch. The median nerve was decompressed without ligating the aberrant artery. At the last follow-up, 2 years after diagnosis and treatment the patient is asymptomatic. PMID:27517078

  11. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  12. Aberrant Radial Artery Causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kokkalis, Zinon T; Tolis, Konstantinos E; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Panagopoulos, Georgios N; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Mavrogenis, Andreas F

    2016-06-01

    Anatomical vascular variations are rare causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. An aberrant medial artery is the most common vascular variation, while an aberrant radial artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome is even more rare, with an incidence ranging less than 3%. This article reports a patient with compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery. An 80- year- old man presented with a 5-year history of right hand carpal tunnel syndrome; Tinel sign, Phalen test and neurophysiological studies were positive. Open carpal tunnel release showed an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery with its accompanying veins running from radially to medially, almost parallel to the median nerve, ending at the superficial palmar arterial arch. The median nerve was decompressed without ligating the aberrant artery. At the last follow-up, 2 years after diagnosis and treatment the patient is asymptomatic. PMID:27517078

  13. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations.

    PubMed

    Sachs, R K; Levy, D; Hahnfeldt, P; Hlatky, L

    2004-01-01

    We review chromosome aberration modeling and its applications, especially to biodosimetry and to characterizing chromosome geometry. Standard results on aberration formation pathways, randomness, dose-response, proximity effects, transmissibility, kinetics, and relations to other radiobiological endpoints are summarized. We also outline recent work on graph-theoretical descriptions of aberrations, Monte-Carlo computer simulations of aberration spectra, software for quantifying aberration complexity, and systematic links of apparently incomplete with complete or truly incomplete aberrations. PMID:15162028

  14. Image-based EUVL aberration metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Germain Louis

    A significant factor in the degradation of nanolithographic image fidelity is optical wavefront aberration. As resolution of nanolithography systems increases, effects of wavefront aberrations on aerial image become more influential. The tolerance of such aberrations is governed by the requirements of features that are being imaged, often requiring lenses that can be corrected with a high degree of accuracy and precision. Resolution of lithographic systems is driven by scaling wavelength down and numerical aperture (NA) up. However, aberrations are also affected from the changes in wavelength and NA. Reduction in wavelength or increase in NA result in greater impact of aberrations, where the latter shows a quadratic dependence. Current demands in semiconductor manufacturing are constantly pushing lithographic systems to operate at the diffraction limit; hence, prompting a need to reduce all degrading effects on image properties to achieve maximum performance. Therefore, the need for highly accurate in-situ aberration measurement and correction is paramount. In this work, an approach has been developed in which several targets including phase wheel, phase disk, phase edges, and binary structures are used to generate optical images to detect and monitor aberrations in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic systems. The benefit of using printed patterns as opposed to other techniques is that the lithography system is tested under standard operating conditions. Mathematical models in conjunction with iterative lithographic simulations are used to determine pupil phase wavefront errors and describe them as combinations of Zernike polynomials.

  15. An aberration corrected photoemission electron microscope at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; MacDowell, A.A.; Duarte, R.; Doran, A.; Forest, E.; Kelez, N.; Marcus, M.; Munson, D.; Padmore, H.; Petermann, K.; Raoux, S.; Robin, D.; Scholl, A.; Schlueter, R.; Schmid, P.; Stohr, J.; Wan, W.; Wei, D.H.; Wu, Y.

    2003-11-01

    Design of a new aberration corrected Photoemission electron microscope PEEM3 at the Advanced Light Source is outlined. PEEM3 will be installed on an elliptically polarized undulator beamline and will be used for the study of complex materials at high spatial and spectral resolution. The critical components of PEEM3 are the electron mirror aberration corrector and aberration-free magnetic beam separator. The models to calculate the optical properties of the electron mirror are discussed. The goal of the PEEM3 project is to achieve the highest possible transmission of the system at resolutions comparable to our present PEEM2 system (50 nm) and to enable significantly higher resolution, albeit at the sacrifice of intensity. We have left open the possibility to add an energy filter at a later date, if it becomes necessary driven by scientific need to improve the resolution further.

  16. Aberration correction past and present.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, P W

    2009-09-28

    Electron lenses are extremely poor: if glass lenses were as bad, we should see as well with the naked eye as with a microscope! The demonstration by Otto Scherzer in 1936 that skillful lens design could never eliminate the spherical and chromatic aberrations of rotationally symmetric electron lenses was therefore most unwelcome and the other great electron optician of those years, Walter Glaser, never ceased striving to find a loophole in Scherzer's proof. In the wartime and early post-war years, the first proposals for correcting C(s) were made and in 1947, in a second milestone paper, Scherzer listed these and other ways of correcting lenses; soon after, Dennis Gabor invented holography for the same purpose. These approaches will be briefly summarized and the work that led to the successful implementation of quadupole-octopole and sextupole correctors in the 1990 s will be analysed. In conclusion, the elegant role of image algebra in describing image formation and processing and, above all, in developing new methods will be mentioned. PMID:19687058

  17. Effect of aberrations in vortex spatial filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, P.

    2012-11-01

    Edge enhancement is a very important operation in image processing and a spiral phase plate can be used as a radial Hilbert mask for isotropic edge enhancement. In this paper we analyze the effect of various Seidel aberrations on the performance of radial Hilbert mask or the vortex phase mask. The aberrated vortex phase mask is implemented optically with the help of a high resolution, spatial light modulator (SLM). It has also been shown that out of various aberrations astigmatism can introduce anisotropy in the Hilbert mask which causes selective edge enhancement.

  18. Acute Left Arm Ischemia Associated with Floating Thrombus in the Proximal Descending Aorta: Combined Endovascular and Surgical Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, F.; Gazzetti, M.; Boatta, E.; Ruggiero, M.; Lucatelli, P.; Speziale, F.

    2011-02-15

    Free floating thrombus in the proximal descending aorta is an uncommon and dangerous condition that can be associated with acute peripheral embolization. The few cases described were solved with surgical and/or medical therapy. We report the case of a patient with acute left arm ischemia secondary to the presence of floating thrombus in the proximal descending aorta extending into the left subclavian artery, solved with combined endovascular and surgical therapy. Treatment was successfully performed with thrombembolectomy combined with temporary deployment, into the descending aorta, of a Wallstent in a 'basket-fashion' to avoid distal embolization secondary to thrombus fragmentation. At 1 year follow-up the patient remained symptom-free.

  19. Image Ellipticity from Atmospheric Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W H; Olivier, S S; Asztalos, S J; Rosenberg, L J; Baker, K L

    2007-03-06

    We investigate the ellipticity of the point-spread function (PSF) produced by imaging an unresolved source with a telescope, subject to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. It is important to quantify these effects in order to understand the errors in shape measurements of astronomical objects, such as those used to study weak gravitational lensing of field galaxies. The PSF modeling involves either a Fourier transform of the phase information in the pupil plane or a ray-tracing approach, which has the advantage of requiring fewer computations than the Fourier transform. Using a standard method, involving the Gaussian weighted second moments of intensity, we then calculate the ellipticity of the PSF patterns. We find significant ellipticity for the instantaneous patterns (up to more than 10%). Longer exposures, which we approximate by combining multiple (N) images from uncorrelated atmospheric realizations, yield progressively lower ellipticity (as 1/{radical}N). We also verify that the measured ellipticity does not depend on the sampling interval in the pupil plane using the Fourier method. However, we find that the results using the ray-tracing technique do depend on the pupil sampling interval, representing a gradual breakdown of the geometric approximation at high spatial frequencies. Therefore, ray tracing is generally not an accurate method of modeling PSF ellipticity induced by atmospheric turbulence unless some additional procedure is implemented to correctly account for the effects of high spatial frequency aberrations. The Fourier method, however, can be used directly to accurately model PSF ellipticity, which can give insights into errors in the statistics of field galaxy shapes used in studies of weak gravitational lensing.

  20. Endovascular Treatment of an Aneurysmal Aberrant Systemic Artery Supplying a Pulmonary Sequestrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Katrine Lawaetz; Duus, Louise Aarup; Elle, Bo

    2015-10-15

    An aberrant systemic artery originating from the abdominal aorta supplying a pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital malformation. This causes a left-to-left shunt. Symptoms include recurrent pneumonias, hemoptysis, and, in the long term, heart failure. Aneurysm of the aberrant vessel is rarely seen. Traditionally, treatment of pulmonary sequestrations includes ligation of the feeding vessel and lobectomy. A new promising treatment is an endovascular approach. Only a few cases describe endovascular treatment of pulmonary sequestration. This is the first published case of a giant aneurysmal branch from the abdominal aorta to the normal basal segments of the lung, successfully occluded with an Amplatzer Vascular Plug II (AVP II, St.Jude Medical, MN, USA) alone.

  1. Endovascular Treatment of an Aneurysmal Aberrant Systemic Artery Supplying a Pulmonary Sequestrum.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Katrine Lawaetz; Duus, Louise Aarup; Elle, Bo

    2015-10-01

    An aberrant systemic artery originating from the abdominal aorta supplying a pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital malformation. This causes a left-to-left shunt. Symptoms include recurrent pneumonias, hemoptysis, and, in the long term, heart failure. Aneurysm of the aberrant vessel is rarely seen. Traditionally, treatment of pulmonary sequestrations includes ligation of the feeding vessel and lobectomy. A new promising treatment is an endovascular approach. Only a few cases describe endovascular treatment of pulmonary sequestration. This is the first published case of a giant aneurysmal branch from the abdominal aorta to the normal basal segments of the lung, successfully occluded with an Amplatzer Vascular Plug II (AVP II, St.Jude Medical, MN, USA) alone. PMID:25737458

  2. Transverse chromatic aberration after corneal refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anera, R. G.; Jiménez, J. R.; Jiménez del Barco, L.; Hita, E.

    2005-05-01

    An expression has been deduced theoretically from a schematic-eye model, for the transverse or lateral chromatic aberration (TCA) after refractive surgery. The aim was to investigate analytically how chromatic aberration varies after the emmetropization process. These changes in the TCA have been characterized from changes in corneal asphericity. The results indicate that TCA after refractive surgery diminishes as the degree of myopia increases, a trend contrary to that occurring with monochromatic aberrations, such as spherical or coma. These results can explain the fact that the real deterioration of the visual function under photopic conditions detected in those operated on for myopia is less than expected when only monochromatic aberrations are taken into account.

  3. Spherical aberration in electrically thin flat lenses.

    PubMed

    Ruphuy, Miguel; Ramahi, Omar M

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the spherical aberration of a new generation of lenses made of flat electrically thin inhomogeneous media. For such lenses, spherical aberration is analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, and comparison is made to the classical gradient index rod. Both flat thin and thick lenses are made of gradient index materials, but the physical mechanisms and design equations are different. Using full-wave three-dimensional numerical simulation, we evaluate the spherical aberrations using the Maréchal criterion and show that the thin lens gives significantly better performance than the thick lens (rod). Additionally, based on ray tracing formulation, third-order analysis for longitudinal aberration and optical path difference are presented, showing strong overall performance of thin lenses in comparison to classical rod lenses. PMID:27505651

  4. Aberrations of a horizontal-vertical depolarizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Stephen C.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hillman, Lloyd W.

    1992-01-01

    Ray-trace equations for uniaxial birefringent materials are used here to derive third-order estimates for aberrations that are produced in imaging through uniaxial plates and horizontal-vertical (HV) depolarizers. An HV depolarizer is a spatial pseudodepolarizer; it converts a uniform input polarization state into a continuum of spatially varying polarization states in an output beam. An HV depolarizer consists of two birefringent wedges whose crystal axes are crossed at 90 deg. The interface between the wedges is included, which leads to a spatially varying retardance that provides the spatial pseudodepolarization. In HV depolarizers, spherical aberration, astigmatism, and image doubling are the principal aberrations for on-axis objects. Only spherical aberration occurs in isotropic plates, while the presence of birefringent wedges introduces astigmatism and image doubling. It is shown that image separation is proportional to the magnitude of the retardance variation.

  5. Chromosome aberrations in decondensed sperm DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Factors that could influence the chromosomal aberration frequency observed at first cleavage following in vivo exposure of germ cells to chemical mutagens are discussed. The techniques of chromosome aberration analysis following sperm DNA condensation by in vitro fertilization or fusion seem to be viable research areas for providing information of human germ cell exposures. However, the potential sensitivity of the assay needs to be better understood, and factors that can influence this sensitivity require a great deal of further study using animal models.

  6. Sensing Phase Aberrations behind Lyot Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Direct detection of young extrasolar planets orbiting nearby stars can be accomplished from the ground with extreme adaptive optics and coronagraphy in the near-infrared, as long as this combination can provide an image with a dynamic range of 107 after the data are processed. Slowly varying speckles due to residual phase aberrations that are not measured by the primary wave-front sensor are the primary obstacle to achieving such a dynamic range. In particular, non-common optical path aberrations occurring between the wave-front sensor and the coronagraphic occulting spot degrade performance the most. We analyze the passage of both low and high spatial frequency phase ripples, as well as low-order Zernike aberrations, through an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph in order to demonstrate the way coronagraphic filtering affects various aberrations. We derive the coronagraphically induced cutoff frequency of the filtering and estimate coronagraphic contrast losses due to low-order Zernike aberrations: tilt, astigmatism, defocus, coma, and spherical aberration. Such slowly varying path errors can be measured behind a coronagraph and corrected by a slowly updated optical path delay precompensation or offset asserted on the wave front by the adaptive optics (AO) system. We suggest ways of measuring and correcting all but the lowest spatial frequency aberrations using Lyot plane wave-front data, in spite of the complex interaction between the coronagraph and those mid-spatial frequency aberrations that cause image plane speckles near the coronagraphic focal plane mask occulter's edge. This investigation provides guidance for next-generation coronagraphic instruments currently under construction.

  7. Prediction of Visual Acuity from Wavefront Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for generating a visual acuity metric, based on wavefront aberrations (WFAs), associated with a test subject and representing classes of imperfections, such as defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberrations, of the subject's visual system. The metric allows choices of different image template, can predict acuity for different target probabilities, can incorporate different and possibly subject-specific neural transfer functions, can predict acuity for different subject templates, and incorporates a model of the optotype identification task.

  8. Frequency of Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Types of Cells After Proton and Fe Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Wu, Honglu; Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Bowler, Deborah

    2016-07-01

    DNA damages induced by space radiation, consisting of protons and high-LET charged particles, can be complex in nature, which are often left unrepaired and cause chromosomal aberrations. Increased level of genomic instability is attributed to tumorigenesis and increased cancer risks. To investigate genomic instability induced by charged particles, human lymphocytes ex vivo, human fibroblasts, and human mammary epithelial cells, as well as mouse bone marrow stem cells isolated from CBA/CaH and C57BL/6 strains were exposed to high energy protons and Fe ions. Metaphase chromosome spreads at different cell divisions after radiation exposure were collected and, chromosome aberrations were analyzed with fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome-specific probes for human cells. With proton irradiation, levels of chromosome aberrations decreased by about 50% in both lymphocytes and epithelial cells after multiple cell divisions, compared to initial chromosome aberrations at 48 hours post irradiation in both cell types. With Fe ion irradiation, however, the frequency of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes after multiple cell divisions was significantly lower than that in epithelial cells at comparable cell divisions, while their initial chromosome aberrations were at similar levels. Similar to the human cells, after Fe ion irradiation, the frequency of late chromosome aberrations was similar to that of the early damages for radio-sensitive CBA cells, but different for radio-resistant C57 cells. Our results suggest that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values are dependent not only on radiation sources, but also on cell types and cell divisions.

  9. Frequency of Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Types of Cells After Proton and Fe Ion Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Bowler, Deborah; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    DNA damages induced by space radiation, consisting of protons and high-LET charged particles, can be complex in nature, which are often left unrepaired and cause chromosomal aberrations. Increased level of genomic instability is attributed to tumorigenesis and increased cancer risks. To investigate genomic instability induced by charged particles, human lymphocytes ex vivo, human fibroblasts, and human mammary epithelial cells, as well as mouse bone marrow stem cells isolated from CBA/CaH and C57BL/6 strains were exposed to high energy protons and Fe ions. Metaphase chromosome spreads at different cell divisions after radiation exposure were collected and, chromosome aberrations were analyzed with fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome-specific probes for human cells. With proton irradiation, levels of chromosome aberrations decreased by about 50% in both lymphocytes and epithelial cells after multiple cell divisions, compared to initial chromosome aberrations at 48 hours post irradiation in both cell types. With Fe ion irradiation, however, the frequency of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes after multiple cell divisions was significantly lower than that in epithelial cells at comparable cell divisions, while their initial chromosome aberrations were at similar levels. Similar to the human cells, after Fe ion irradiation, the frequency of late chromosome aberrations was similar to that of the early damages for radio-sensitive CBA cells, but different for radio-resistant C57 cells. Our results suggest that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values are dependent not only on radiation sources, but also on cell types and cell divisions.

  10. Effect of correction of aberration dynamics on chaos in human ocular accommodation.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Karen M; Cufflin, Matthew P; Mallen, Edward A H

    2013-11-15

    We used adaptive optics to determine the effect of monochromatic aberration dynamics on the level of chaos in the accommodation control system. Four participants viewed a stationary target while the dynamics of their aberrations were either left uncorrected, defocus was corrected, or all aberrations except defocus were corrected. Chaos theory analysis was used to discern changes in the accommodative microfluctuations. We found a statistically significant reduction in the chaotic nature of the accommodation microfluctuations during correction of defocus, but not when all aberrations except defocus were corrected. The Lyapunov exponent decreased from 0.71 ± 0.07 D/s (baseline) to 0.55 ± 0.03 D/s (correction of defocus fluctuations). As the reduction of chaos in physiological signals is indicative of stress to the system, the results indicate that for the participants included in this study, fluctuations in defocus have a more profound effect than those of the other aberrations. There were no changes in the power spectrum between experimental conditions. Hence chaos theory analysis is a more subtle marker of changes in the accommodation control system and will be of value in the study of myopia onset and progression. PMID:24322122

  11. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  12. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left anterior descending coronary artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moretti, C; De Felice, F; Mazza, A; Borello, G

    1999-08-01

    We report on a 59-year-old man with effort angina of recent onset and a very uncommon right coronary artery originating from the middle portion of the left anterior descending; a tight stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery was also detected which involved the origin of the aberrant vessel. PMID:10488454

  13. Left-Handed Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Alice M.

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of left-handedness are discussed: etiology and associated learning and developmental disorders; right-brain dominance and how to detect it; adaptations to the physical learning environment; behavior patterns; and teaching techniques. (JW)

  14. Left heart catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  15. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... not grow properly, including the: Aorta -- the blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ... between the arteries and pulmonary arteries (the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs). Babies are ...

  16. Double inlet left ventricle

    MedlinePlus

    ... born with this condition have only one working pumping chamber (ventricle) in their heart. ... condition generally have a large left ventricle (the pumping chamber of the heart that supplies the body ...

  17. Subclavian central venous catheter-related thrombosis in trauma patients: incidence, risk factors and influence of polyurethane type

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) related to a central venous catheter varies considerably in ICUs depending on the population included. The aim of this study was to determine subclavian central venous catheter (SCVC)-related DVT risk factors in severely traumatized patients with regard to two kinds of polyurethane catheters. Methods Critically ill trauma patients needing a SCVC for their usual care were prospectively included in an observational study. Depending on the month of inclusion, patients received one of the two available products in the emergency unit: either an aromatic polyurethane SCVC or an aliphatic polyurethane SCVC. Patients were screened weekly by ultrasound for SCVC-related DVT. Potential risk factors were collected, including history-related, trauma-related and SCVC-related characteristics. Results A total of 186 patients were included with a median Injury Severity Sore of 30 and a high rate of severe brain injuries (21% of high intracranial pressure). Incidence of SCVC-related DVT was 37% (95% confidence interval: 26 to 40) in patients or 20/1,000 catheter-days. SCVC-related DVT occurred within 8 days in 65% of cases. There was no significant difference in DVT rates between the aromatic polyurethane and aliphatic polyurethane SCVC groups (38% vs. 36%). SCVC-related DVT independent risk factors were age >30 years, intracranial hypertension, massive transfusion (>10 packed red blood cell units), SCVC tip position in the internal jugular or in the innominate vein, and ipsilateral jugular catheter. Conclusion SCVC-related DVT concerned one-third of these severely traumatized patients and was mostly clinically silent. Incidence did not depend on the type of polyurethane but was related to age >30 years, intracranial hypertension or misplacement of the SCVC. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of routine screening in these patients in whom thromboprophylaxis may be hazardous. PMID:23718723

  18. Multiple aberrant hormone receptors in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Ghorayeb, Nada; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms regulating cortisol production when ACTH of pituitary origin is suppressed in primary adrenal causes of Cushing's syndrome (CS) include diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. These can lead either to constitutive activation of the cAMP system and steroidogenesis or to its regulation exerted by the aberrant adrenal expression of several hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) and their ligands. Screening for aberrant expression of GPCR in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) and unilateral adrenal tumors of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrates the frequent co-expression of several receptors. Aberrant hormone receptors can also exert their activity by regulating the paracrine secretion of ACTH or other ligands for those receptors in BMAH or unilateral tumors. The aberrant expression of hormone receptors is not limited to adrenal CS but can be implicated in other endocrine tumors including primary aldosteronism and Cushing's disease. Targeted therapies to block the aberrant receptors or their ligands could become useful in the future. PMID:25971648

  19. Aberration in proper motions for Galactic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-C.; Xie, Y.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Accelerations of both the solar system barycenter (SSB) and stars in the MilkyWay cause a systematic observational effect on the stellar proper motions, which was first studied by J. Kovalevsky (2003). This paper intends to extend that work and aims to estimate the magnitude and significance of the aberration in proper motions of stars, especially in the region near the Galactic center (GC). We adopt two models for the Galactic rotation curve to evaluate the aberrational effect on the Galactic plane. We show that the effect of aberration in proper motions depends on the galactocentric distance of stars; it is dominated by the acceleration of stars in the central region of the Galaxy. Then we investigate the applicability of the theoretical expressions: if the orbital period of stars is only a fraction of the light time from the star to the SSB, the expression with approximation proposed by Kovalevsky is not appropriate. With a more suitable formulation, we found that the aberration has no effect on the determination of the stellar orbits on the celestial sphere. In the future this aberrational effect under consideration should be considered with high-accurate astrometry, particularly in constructing the Gaia celestial reference system realized by Galactic stars.

  20. Prospects for aberration corrected electron precession.

    PubMed

    Own, C S; Sinkler, W; Marks, L D

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in aberration control in the TEM have yielded a tremendous enhancement of direct imaging capabilities for studying atomic structures. However, aberration correction also has substantial benefits for achieving ultra-resolution in the TEM through reciprocal space techniques. Several tools are available that allow very accurate detection of the electron distribution in surfaces allowing precise atomic-scale characterization through statistical inversion techniques from diffraction data. The precession technique now appears to extend this capability to the bulk. This article covers some of the progress in this area and details requirements for a next-generation analytical diffraction instrument. An analysis of the contributions offered by aberration correction for precision electron precession is included. PMID:17207934

  1. An aberrant precision account of autism

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Rebecca P.; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems with social-communication, restricted interests and repetitive behavior. A recent and thought-provoking article presented a normative explanation for the perceptual symptoms of autism in terms of a failure of Bayesian inference (Pellicano and Burr, 2012). In response, we suggested that when Bayesian inference is grounded in its neural instantiation—namely, predictive coding—many features of autistic perception can be attributed to aberrant precision (or beliefs about precision) within the context of hierarchical message passing in the brain (Friston et al., 2013). Here, we unpack the aberrant precision account of autism. Specifically, we consider how empirical findings—that speak directly or indirectly to neurobiological mechanisms—are consistent with the aberrant encoding of precision in autism; in particular, an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior beliefs. PMID:24860482

  2. Properties of second-order geometrical aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatin, A. P.

    1994-08-01

    This paper analyzes the properties of second-order aberrations that arise in centered optical systems that contain an aspherical surface whose sagittal equation contains a term proportional to the cube of the distance from a surface point to the optical axis. It is shown that the second-order spherical aberration decreases from the center of the field to its edge. No astigmatism appears in wide, oblique beams in the central part of the field. Coma increases linearly from zero at the center of the field to a value equal to the spherical aberration, and then remains constant over the field. A proof is given of the possibility of correcting the image curvature by using an aspherical surface of the type described above.

  3. Optical mechanism for aberration of starlight.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Robert A

    2012-07-01

    We present a physical-optics-based theory for aberration of starlight and show that the influence of the moving sensor on the incident stellar wavefront combined with a finite velocity of light within the sensor can fully account for the aberration phenomena. Our treatment differs from all previous derivations because we include wavefront-imaging physics within the sensor model. Our predictions match existing Earth-based aberration measurements but differ from predictions of the special relativistic-based theory for larger velocities. We derive design parameters for an experiment using an Earth-based sensor containing a refractive optical medium that would experimentally differentiate between these two theories and yield an independent experimental test of time dilation. PMID:22751386

  4. Aberrant immunophenotypes of mantle cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Wohlschlaeger, Ch; Lange, K; Merz, H; Feller, A C

    2003-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphomas (MCL) are characterized by cytomorphological criteria, a distinct immunophenotype and a characteristic chromosomal aberration (t(11;14)). In morphological variants of MCL the immunohistochemical constellation with CD5-positivity and CD23-negativity is a helpful and decisive diagnostic aid to differentiate MCL from other B-cell-lymphomas, e.g. lymphocytic lymphomas (B-CLL). In this study the morphological, immunophenotypical, and genetical features of 50 MCL were analysed. Five cases revealed an aberrant immunophenotype with lacking expression of CD5 (n = 3) and positive reactivity to CD23 (n = 2) while cyclin D1 expression could be demonstrated in all 5 cases. These constellations show that there is, besides morphological subgroups, a small group of MCL with aberrant immunophenotypes, which has to be taken into account in the differential diagnosis to lymphocytic lymphoma and other lymphomas. PMID:12688344

  5. Profiles of aberrant white matter microstructure in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Scott S.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies attempting to quantify white matter (WM) microstructure in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) have produced inconsistent findings, most likely due to the various control groups employed, differing analysis methods, and failure to examine for potential motion artifact. In addition, analyses have heretofore lacked sufficient specificity to provide regional information. In this study, we used Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ) to identify specific regions of aberrant WM microstructure along WM tracts in patients with FXS that differed from controls who were matched on age, IQ and degree of autistic symptoms. Participants were 20 patients with FXS, aged 10 to 23 years, and 20 matched controls. Using Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ), we created Tract Profiles of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity along 18 major WM fascicles. We found that fractional anisotropy was significantly increased in the left and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), right uncinate fasciculus, and left cingulum hippocampus in individuals with FXS compared to controls. Conversely, mean diffusivity was significantly decreased in the right ILF in patients with FXS compared to controls. Age was significantly negatively associated with MD values across both groups in 11 tracts. Taken together, these findings indicate that FXS results in abnormal WM microstructure in specific regions of the ILF and uncinate fasciculus, most likely caused by inefficient synaptic pruning as a result of decreased or absent Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26937381

  6. Left ventricular restoration devices.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Guilherme H; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Bezerra, Hiram G; Costa, Marco A

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling results in continuous cardiac chamber enlargement and contractile dysfunction, perpetuating the syndrome of heart failure. With current exhaustion of the neurohormonal medical paradigm, surgical and device-based therapies have been increasingly investigated as a way to restore LV chamber architecture and function. Left ventricular restoration has been attempted with surgical procedures, such as partial left ventriculectomy, surgical ventricular restoration with or without revascularization, and devices, such as the Acorn CorCap, the Paracor HeartNet, and the Myocor Myosplint. Whereas all these techniques require surgical access, with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, a newer ventricular partitioning device (VPD) called Parachute, can be delivered percutaneously through the aortic valve. Designed to achieve LV restoration from within the ventricle, this VPD partitions the LV by isolating aneurysmal from normal myocardium thereby diminishing the functioning cavity. This review aims to critically appraise the above methods, with particular attention to device-based therapies. PMID:24574107

  7. Aberration averaging using point spread function for scanning projection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, Hiroshi; Noda, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2000-07-01

    Scanning projection system plays a leading part in current DUV optical lithography. It is frequently pointed out that the mechanically induced distortion and field curvature degrade image quality after scanning. On the other hand, the aberration of the projection lens is averaged along the scanning direction. This averaging effect reduces the residual aberration significantly. The aberration averaging based on the point spread function and phase retrieval technique in order to estimate the effective wavefront aberration after scanning is described in this paper. Our averaging method is tested using specified wavefront aberration, and its accuracy is discussed based on the measured wavefront aberration of recent Nikon projection lens.

  8. Aberrations of diffracted wave fields. II. Diffraction gratings.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, V N

    2000-12-01

    The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld theory is applied to diffraction of a spherical wave by a grating. The grating equation is obtained from the aberration-free diffraction pattern, and its aberrations are shown to be the same as the conventional aberrations obtained by using Fermat's principle. These aberrations are shown to be not associated with the diffraction process. Moreover, it is shown that the irradiance distribution of a certain diffraction order is the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of the grating aperture as a whole aberrated by the aberration of that order. PMID:11140481

  9. Gastric signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma presenting with left arm deep-vein thrombosis and bilateral chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Kayacan, Oya; Karnak, Demet; Ayşe Can, Berna; Dizbay Sak, Serpil; Beder, Sumru

    2008-10-01

    A 28-year-old housewife, a life-long nonsmoker, presented with 3 weeks of pleuritic chest pain along with swollen right leg, left arm, and left breast. Six months previously she had left subclavian vein thrombosis. On admission, bilateral supraclavicular lymphedema on right leg and left arm and breast was observed and bilateral pleural fluid, chylous exudates, was detected. Abdomen computed tomography revealed abundant ascites and right ovarian enlargement. Whole body bone scintigraphy showed bone metastases on left humerus, right femur, and pelvis. Bronchial biopsy, obtained from edematous, hyperemic-irregular mucosa, revealed a carcinoma composed of signet-ring cells with intracytoplasmic mucin. Breast biopsy also showed signet-ring cells within the lymphatics. Pleural fluid cytology showed similar malignant cells. The patient was diagnosed as gastric signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma with endobronchial, mammary, ovarian, pleural, pericardial, peritoneal, and osteal metastases. The authors recommend that deep-vein thrombosis in unusual sites deserves further evaluation for an occult malignancy. PMID:18263634

  10. Determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Janice; Roorda, Austin; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the methods used to calculate objective refractions from wavefront aberrations, to determine their applicability for accommodation research. A wavefront analyzer was used to measure the ocular aberrations of 13 emmetropes and 17 myopes at distance, and 4 near target vergences: 2, 3, 4, and 5 D. The accommodative response was calculated using the following techniques: least squares fitting (Zernike defocus), paraxial curvature matching (Seidel defocus), and 5 optical quality metrics (PFWc, PFSc, PFCc, NS, and VSMTF). We also evaluated a task-specific method of determining optimum focus that used a through-focus procedure to select the image that best optimized both contrast amplitude and gradient (CAG). Neither Zernike nor Seidel defocus appears to be the best method for determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations. When the eye has negative spherical aberration, Zernike defocus tends to underestimate, whereas Seidel defocus tends to overestimate the accommodative response. A better approach is to first determine the best image plane using a suitable optical quality metric and then calculate the accommodative error relative to this plane. Of the metrics evaluated, both NS and VSMTF were reasonable choices, with the CAG algorithm being a less preferred alternate. PMID:20616123

  11. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es

    2013-04-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles a{sub lm}'s via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation.

  12. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  13. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu

    2012-08-01

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over Galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, resulting in Galactic Hemisphere Annual Modulations (GHAM) with amplitudes larger than the usual non-directional annual modulation.

  14. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio

    2013-04-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles alm's via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation.

  15. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  16. Designing refractive beam shapers via aberration theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Shealy, David

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we use aberration theory to design a refractive laser beam shaper in the configuration of two-aspheric lenses, whose analytical equations are known, but rather complicated. Specifically, we use results from third order aberration theory to obtain the parameters of the refracting laser beam shaper from the transverse aberration, which are then used as a starting point for further optimization by using optical design software. This approach was developed during the beginning of the twentieth century, works well for systems with a low numerical aperture, and allows one to define the following parameters of an optical system: radii of curvature, indices of refraction, thicknesses or air gaps, and conic constants of second order aspheric surfaces. We shall consider surfaces of the second-order spherical and conic sections and shall consider the example of designing of a two-lens beam shaper of the Keplerian 1-to-1 telescopic design providing a theoretical flat phase front and a flat-top irradiance profile of the output beam, where the ray mapping function from the input aperture to the output aperture is known from the literature. Explicit expression for third order longitudinal aberration and the Seidel coefficients are expressed in terms beam waist and input beam geometrical parameter, indices, lens radii and conic constants.

  17. Corneal Aberrations Before and After Photorefractive Keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Nicola; De Bernardo, Maddalena; Lanza, Michele; Borrelli, Maria; Fusco, Fabrizia; Flagiello, Antimo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether - and which - higher-order corneal aberrations, up to the sixth order, are induced by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Methods 197 eyes of 197 patients have been examined with a corneal aberrometer for a 3.5 and a 6.0 mm pupil simulation, both before and 1, 3, 6 months after myopic PRK treatment ranging from −15.25 D to -0.5 D (mean −5.31±2.95 D). The statistical evaluation was performed using a paired Student's T-test. Results After PRK there is a clear-cut increase in almost all the higher-order corneal aberrations for both a 3.5 and a 6.0 mm pupil simulation. These aberrations tend to normalize after 3 and 6 months mainly for a 3.5 mm simulation, whereas such normalization is not present for a 6.0 mm simulation. Conclusions PRK induces significant aberrations both for 3.5 and 6 mm pupils, 1 month after PRK, but a trend towards normalization is evident at the 6 month follow-up for the smaller pupil size.

  18. Guidance and examination by ultrasound versus landmark and radiographic method for placement of subclavian central venous catheters: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Central venous catheters play an important role in patient care. Real-time ultrasound-guided subclavian central venous (SCV) cannulation may reduce the incidence of complications and the time between skin penetration and the aspiration of venous blood into the syringe. Ultrasonic diagnosis of catheter misplacement and pneumothorax related to central venous catheterization is rapid and accurate. It is unclear, however, whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination can reduce procedure times and complication rates when compared with landmark guidance and radiographic examination for SCV catheterization. Methods/Design The Subclavian Central Venous Catheters Guidance and Examination by UltraSound (SUBGEUS) study is an investigator-initiated single center, randomized, controlled two-arm trial. Three hundred patients undergoing SCV catheter placement will be randomized to ultrasound real-time guidance and examination or landmark guidance and radiographic examination. The primary outcome is the time between the beginning of the procedure and control of the catheter. Secondary outcomes include the times required for the six components of the total procedure, the occurrence of complications (pneumothorax, hemothorax, or misplacement), failure of the technique and occurrence of central venous catheter infections. Discussion The SUBGEUS trial is the first randomized controlled study to investigate whether ultrasound real-time guidance and examination for SCV catheter placement reduces all procedure times and the rate of complications. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01888094 PMID:24885789

  19. No School Left Unscathed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tom

    2004-01-01

    The author maintains that the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 brands good schools with "failing" labels, places the heaviest burdens on states that were already striving to meet challenging education goals, imposes inflexible rules, and fails to make good on promises to pay for programs that would help struggling schools meet the demands…

  20. No Cow Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remsen, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    As a principal facing the task of figuring out all the complexities of the No Child Left Behind legislation, Kenneth Remsen, has concluded there is a strong belief that testing students is the answer to bringing about improvements in student performance. Because testing seems to be a cornerstone to improving performance, he doesn't understand why…

  1. Accountability Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testani, Rocco E.; Mayes, Joshua A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the reversal of the dismissal of an "unfunded-mandates" challenge to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) brought by the National Education Association (NEA), several of its affiliates, and a number of school districts by the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. The decision in "School District of the City of…

  2. [The number of aberrations in aberrant cells as a parameter of chromosomal instability. 1. Characterization of dose dependency].

    PubMed

    Kutsokon', N K; Bezrukov, V F; Lazarenko, L M; Rashydov, N M; Hrodzyns'kyĭ, D M

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of chromosome instability (CI) is of great importance in view of pollution of the environment by genotoxic factors. Frequency of aberrant cells, spectrum of chromosome aberrations, damages of aberrant cell and distribution of aberrations in the cells are the most conventional parameters of CI. We have carried out the comparative analysis of the frequency of aberrant cells and the dynamics of aberrant cell damages induced by different mutagenic factors (alpha-irradiation from 241Am, gamma-irradiation from 60Co and tioTEPA) in Allium-test. This comparative analysis denotes that the studied parameters have different dynamics characterizing different mechanisms of CI in Allium cepa L. PMID:14569619

  3. Primary aberrations in focused radially polarized vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, David P.; Brown, T. G.

    2004-02-01

    We study the effect of primary aberrations on the 3-D polarization of the electric field in a focused lowest order radially polarized beam. A full vector diffraction treatment of the focused beams is used. Attention is given to the effects of primary spherical, astigmatic, and comatic aberrations on the local polarization, Strehl ratio, and aberration induced degradation of the longitudinal field at focus

  4. Transient left paraduodenal hernia.

    PubMed

    Ovali, Gulgun Yilmaz; Orguc, Sebnem; Unlu, Murat; Pabuscu, Yuksel

    2005-09-01

    A 52-year-old woman with acute deterioration of recurrent abdominal pain was admitted to the hospital. Spiral computed tomography (CT) of abdomen was performed. A left paraduodenal hernia was identified on CT. There was no clinical sign or imaging finding suggesting intestinal obstruction or mesenteric ischemia. She refused surgical intervention since her pain was intermittant and decreasing. On the fifth day of hospitalization the patient's pain resolved completely and the follow-up CT demonstrated regression of the herniation. PMID:15994059

  5. A challenging case due to uncommon aberrancies.

    PubMed

    Waleed, Mohammad; Raza, Ali; Minhaj, Tariq; Houghton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was referred to a rapid access chest pain clinic by his general practitioner. He presented with a 6-month history of twice weekly central chest pain lasting 2-3 min with walking and exertion, relieved with rest or co-codamol tablets. After initial investigations and a positive myoview scan, he was listed for an elective coronary angiogram. Unfortunately, the procedure was abandoned due to unclear course of the guide wire and a possible aberrant aortic course. Further non-invasive tests were arranged to clarify the anatomy of the vessels. After getting a clear idea of the aberrancies, coronary angiogram was replanned, and the patient underwent successful angiography with angioplasty to one of the coronary arteries, without any complications. PMID:26404545

  6. The correction of electron lens aberrations.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, P W

    2015-09-01

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. PMID:26025209

  7. Close view looking to left side of statue showing left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view looking to left side of statue showing left hand, shield, and laurel wreath - U.S. Capitol, Statue of Freedom, Intersection of North, South, & East Capitol Streets & Capitol Mall, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Aberrant phenotypes in Kikuchi’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xue-Jing; Zhou, Xiao-Ge; Xie, Jian-Lan; Zheng, Xiao-Dan; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Initial reports emphasized the immunophenotypic similarities between benign and malignant T cell populations, while some previous studies indicating that aberrant T-cell antigen loss is a good marker for detecting malignant T-cell proliferation. Recently, we found a very interesting and thought-provoking phenomenon: In benign disease-28 of 38 (73.7%) cases of Kikuchi’s disease also showed aberrant phenotypes with loss of pan-T cell antigens, which makes the differential diagnosis between Kikuchi’s disease and T cell lymphoma more challenging. In our study, 38 cases of Kikuchi’s disease and 30 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) were studied by EliVision immunohistochemical staining. As well as TCR gene rearrangement using PCR was negative in 10 tested cases of the Kikuchi’s disease. Among these cases, the most common antigen deficiency was CD5 (22 cases), then CD7 (11 cases), CD2 (8 cases) and CD3 (2 cases). Compared with proliferative and xanthomatous types of Kikuchi’s disease, antigens tended to be lost in necrotizing type. Based on follow-up data, a correlation was not found between the occurrence of aberrant phenotypes and prognosis. In RLH, obvious pan-T cell antigen loss was also not found. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate distinct patterns of antigen loss in Kikuchi’s disease, suggesting that T cell antigen loss is not reliable as an auxiliary diagnostic standard for T cell lymphoma. PMID:25337197

  9. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm perceived as a left lung mass

    PubMed Central

    Yaliniz, Hafize; Gocen, Ugur; Atalay, Atakan; Salih, Orhan Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of a surgically treated left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, and surgical repair are described.

  10. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  11. Chromatic variation of aberration: the role of induced aberrations and raytrace direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A.; Nobis, T.; Shafer, D.; Gross, H.

    2015-09-01

    The design and optimization process of an optical system contains several first order steps. The definition of the appropriate lens type and the fixation of the raytrace direction are some of them. The latter can be understood as a hidden assumption rather than an aware design step. This is usually followed by the determination of the paraxial lens layout calculated for the primary wavelength. It is obvious, that for this primary wavelength the paraxial calculations are independent of raytrace direction. Today, most of the lens designs are specified not to work only for one wavelength, but in a certain wavelength range. Considering such rays of other wavelengths, one can observe that depending on the direction there will already occur differences in the first order chromatic aberrations and additionally in the chromatic variation of the third-order aberrations. The reason for this effect are induced aberrations emerging from one surface to the following surfaces by perturbed ray heights and ray angles. It can be shown, that the total amount of surface-resolved first order chromatic aberrations and the chromatic variation of the five primary aberrations can be split into an intrinsic part and an induced part. The intrinsic part is independent of the raytrace direction whereas the induced part is not.

  12. 3D resolved mapping of optical aberrations in thick tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun; Mahou, Pierre; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Débarre, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple method for mapping optical aberrations with 3D resolution within thick samples. The method relies on the local measurement of the variation in image quality with externally applied aberrations. We discuss the accuracy of the method as a function of the signal strength and of the aberration amplitude and we derive the achievable resolution for the resulting measurements. We then report on measured 3D aberration maps in human skin biopsies and mouse brain slices. From these data, we analyse the consequences of tissue structure and refractive index distribution on aberrations and imaging depth in normal and cleared tissue samples. The aberration maps allow the estimation of the typical aplanetism region size over which aberrations can be uniformly corrected. This method and data pave the way towards efficient correction strategies for tissue imaging applications. PMID:22876353

  13. Left Atrial Appendage Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Saeid; Hashemi, Arash; Saedi, Sedigheh; Jalili, Farshad; Maleki, Majid; Jalalian, Rozita; Rezaei, Yousef

    2016-09-01

    Left atrial appendage aneurysms (LAAA) are extremely rare. This condition is usually diagnosed incidentally or after the occurrence of thrombotic events or cardiac tachyarrhythmias in the second to fourth decades of life. It can predispose to hazardous adverse events, including atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, and systemic thromboembolism. We report a case of LAAA in a 68-year-old woman presenting with atypical chest pain, exertional dyspnea, and episodes of sudden-onset palpitation. Aneurysmectomy with the patient under cardiac arrest with cardiopulmonary bypass was performed. In addition, we explore the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of this entity through a meticulous literature review. PMID:27549544

  14. Percutaneous left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Ige, Mobolaji; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Attizzani, Guilherme; Costa, Marco; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2015-04-01

    The ventricular partitioning device known as Parachute is the first and only percutaneously implantable device aimed at restoration of normal left ventricular geometry in humans. Since its conception, this technology has undergone extensive animal and human testing, with proved feasibility and safety, and is currently being studied in a pivotal randomized clinical trial. This article discusses ventricular remodeling and therapies attempted in the past, details the components of the ventricular partitioning device, describes the implanting technique, and reviews the most current experience of this device in humans. PMID:25834974

  15. Imaging and Clinical Findings in Patients with Aberrant Course of the Cervical Internal Carotid Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Alberto; De Vergas, Joaquín; Crespo, José

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Aberrrant course of the cervical internal carotid arteries (ICAs) may result in submucosal masses in the posterior pharyngeal wall, may cause confusion at physical examination, may be symptomatic, and can be at risk of surgical injury. The aim of this report is to present the clinical and imaging characteristics associated with aberrant course of the cervical portion of the ICAs. Methods: Imaging studies of 5.500 patients were prospectively selected from CT studies of the head and neck performed in a five years period, in which the course of the one or both ICAs at the level of the hypopharynx and oropharynx was assessed as aberrant by means of a proposed classification. We then reviewed the medical records to establish which symptoms were present and if these symptoms could be caused by these variations in the course of the ICAs. In selected cases, further studies including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR angiography (MRA), or selective catheter angiography were obtained. Results: In our restricted classification, we found 14 (0.2%) patients who met the cervical ICA aberrancy criteria. In all patients contrast enhanced CT or CT angiography was performed, 4 also have had MRI and MRA, and in two additional catheter angiograms were performed. Mean age was 62 years. Eight patients were male and seven were female. Four patients (28%) were considered to have clinical symptoms related to aberrant course of the ICAs. In most of the symptomatic patients both ICAs had aberrant courses. Overall, the course of the right ICA was aberrant in 43%, the left ICA in 14%, and both in 43%. In 50% of the cases the aberrancy of the artery was focal (localized to the oropharynx or laryngopharynx) and in the other 50% it involved the entire cervical course of the ICA. Conclusions: In most of our patients variations in the course of the cervical portion of the ICA involved the right side and were asymptomatic, except with regard to potential surgical risks

  16. Detecting independent and recurrent copy number aberrations using interval graphs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsin-Ta; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Raphael, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs) are frequent in cancer genomes, but many of these are random, passenger events. A common strategy to distinguish functional aberrations from passengers is to identify those aberrations that are recurrent across multiple samples. However, the extensive variability in the length and position of SCNAs makes the problem of identifying recurrent aberrations notoriously difficult. Results: We introduce a combinatorial approach to the problem of identifying independent and recurrent SCNAs, focusing on the key challenging of separating the overlaps in aberrations across individuals into independent events. We derive independent and recurrent SCNAs as maximal cliques in an interval graph constructed from overlaps between aberrations. We efficiently enumerate all such cliques, and derive a dynamic programming algorithm to find an optimal selection of non-overlapping cliques, resulting in a very fast algorithm, which we call RAIG (Recurrent Aberrations from Interval Graphs). We show that RAIG outperforms other methods on simulated data and also performs well on data from three cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). In contrast to existing approaches that employ various heuristics to select independent aberrations, RAIG optimizes a well-defined objective function. We show that this allows RAIG to identify rare aberrations that are likely functional, but are obscured by overlaps with larger passenger aberrations. Availability: http://compbio.cs.brown.edu/software. Contact: braphael@brown.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24931984

  17. Peripheral Aberrations and Image Quality for Contact Lens Correction

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Thibos, Larry N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Contact lenses reduced the degree of hyperopic field curvature present in myopic eyes and rigid contact lenses reduced sphero-cylindrical image blur on the peripheral retina, but their effect on higher order aberrations and overall optical quality of the eye in the peripheral visual field is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to evaluate peripheral wavefront aberrations and image quality across the visual field before and after contact lens correction. Methods A commercial Hartmann-Shack aberrometer was used to measure ocular wavefront errors in 5° steps out to 30° of eccentricity along the horizontal meridian in uncorrected eyes and when the same eyes are corrected with soft or rigid contact lenses. Wavefront aberrations and image quality were determined for the full elliptical pupil encountered in off-axis measurements. Results Ocular higher-order aberrations increase away from fovea in the uncorrected eye. Third-order aberrations are larger and increase faster with eccentricity compared to the other higher-order aberrations. Contact lenses increase all higher-order aberrations except 3rd-order Zernike terms. Nevertheless, a net increase in image quality across the horizontal visual field for objects located at the foveal far point is achieved with rigid lenses, whereas soft contact lenses reduce image quality. Conclusions Second order aberrations limit image quality more than higher-order aberrations in the periphery. Although second-order aberrations are reduced by contact lenses, the resulting gain in image quality is partially offset by increased amounts of higher-order aberrations. To fully realize the benefits of correcting higher-order aberrations in the peripheral field requires improved correction of second-order aberrations as well. PMID:21873925

  18. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  19. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for a left-sided gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Mazen E; Radzio, Agnes; Krikhely, Merab; Leitman, I Michael

    2013-09-21

    Cholecystectomy is a common procedure. Abnormalities in the anatomy of the biliary system are common but an abnormal location of the gallbladder is much rarer. Despite frequent pre-operative imaging, the aberrant location of the gallbladder is commonly discovered at surgery. This article presents a case of a patient with the gallbladder located to the left of the falciform ligament in the absence of situs inversus totalis that presented with right upper quadrant pain. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and it was noted that the cystic duct originated from the right side. The presence of a left sided gall bladder is often associated with various biliary, portal venous and other anomalies that might lead to intra-operative injuries. The spectrum of unusual positions and anatomical gallbladder abnormalities is reviewed in order to facilitate elective and emergent cholecystectomy as well as other hepatobiliary procedures. With proper identification of the anatomy, minimally invasive approaches are still considered safe. PMID:24124340

  20. Hexapod kinematics for secondary mirror aberration control .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.

    This work deals with active correction of the aberrations in a telescope by moving the secondary mirror. A special attention is dedicated to the case of a secondary mirror whose motions are controlled by a 6-6 Stewart Platform (generally called by astronomers simply "hexapod", even if this term is more general). The kinematics of the device is studied. The non trivial forward kinematics problem is solved by an iterative algorithm fitting the necessities of an active optics system and fast enough to be used in a closed loop feedback control.

  1. Aberrations in Fresnel Lenses and Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don

    1999-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Shooting Star program revealed a number of technical problems that must be solved before solar thermal propulsion can become a reality. The fundamental problem of interest here is the collection of solar energy. This is the first step in the propulsion process and indeed the most important. Everything else depends on the efficiency and focusing ability of the collection lens or mirror. An initial model of Fresnel lens behavior using a wave optics approach has been completed and the results were encouraging enough to warrant an experimental investigation. This experimental investigation confirmed some of the effects predicted and produced invaluable photographic evidence of coherence based diffraction and aberration.

  2. Aberrant splicing and drug resistance in AML.

    PubMed

    de Necochea-Campion, Rosalia; Shouse, Geoffrey P; Zhou, Qi; Mirshahidi, Saied; Chen, Chien-Shing

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has unveiled a new window into the heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In particular, recurrent mutations in spliceosome machinery and genome-wide aberrant splicing events have been recognized as a prominent component of this disease. This review will focus on how these factors influence drug resistance through altered splicing of tumor suppressor and oncogenes and dysregulation of the apoptotic signaling network. A better understanding of these factors in disease progression is necessary to design appropriate therapeutic strategies recognizing specific alternatively spliced or mutated oncogenic targets. PMID:27613060

  3. Lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay in radiation biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawala, Paban K.; Adhikari, J. S.; Chaudhury, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations, whether medical, occupational or accidental, leads to deleterious biological consequences like mortality or carcinogenesis. It is considered that no dose of ionizing radiation exposure is safe. However, once the accurate absorbed dose is estimated, one can be given appropriate medical care and the severe consequences can be minimized. Though several accurate physical dose estimation modalities exist, it is essential to estimate the absorbed dose in biological system taking into account the individual variation in radiation response, so as to plan suitable medical care. Over the last several decades, lots of efforts have been taken to design a rapid and easy biological dosimeter requiring minimum invasive procedures. The metaphase chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes, though is labor intensive and requires skilled individuals, still remains the gold standard for radiation biodosimetry. The current review aims at discussing the human lymphocyte metaphase chromosomal aberration assay and recent developments involving the application of molecular cytogenetic approaches and other technological advancements to make the assay more authentic and simple to use even in the events of mass radiation casualties. PMID:21829315

  4. Memory aberrations, transliminality, and delusional ideation.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary; Parker, Andrew

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated the relationships between cognitive-perceptual personality dimensions (transliminality and delusional ideation) and self-report measures of memory error (Oblivion Scale and the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire). 100 full- and part-time psychology undergraduate students completed the measures (18 men and 82 women; M = 19.3 yr., SD = 4.4). A positive correlation was found between transliminality and reported memory aberrations (Oblivion Scale scores) and also between transliminality and Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire scores. Correlations were positive between Peters, et al. Delusions Inventory and the self-report memory measures. Transliminality and Peters, et al. Delusions Inventory scores predicted the number of memory aberrations or slips reported on the Oblivion Scale and Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. To explore whether transliminality explained additional variance to that accounted for by the Peters, et al. Delusions Inventory, forward regression was applied and showed aspects of transliminality not accounted for by Peters, et al. Delusions Inventory did not explain additional variance within the self-report memory measures. PMID:18459357

  5. Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1998-06-01

    New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.

  6. Effects of optical aberration on chromotomographic reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervo, Ryan; Hawks, Michael; Perram, Glen; Fickus, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    Chromotomography is a form of hyperspectral imaging that utilizes a spinning diffractive element to resolve a rapidly evolving scene. The system captures both spatial dimensions and the spectral dimension at the same time. Advanced algorithms take the recorded dispersed images and use them to construct the data cube in which each reconstructed image is the recorded scene at a specific wavelength. A simulation tool has been developed which uses Zemax to accurately trace rays through real or proposed optical systems. The simulation is used here to explore the limitations of tomographic reconstruction in both idealized and aberrated imaging systems. Results of the study show the accuracy of reconstructed images depends upon the content of the original target scene, the number of projections measured, and the angle through which the prism is rotated. For cases studied here, 20 projections are sufficient to achieve image quality 99.5±1% of the max value. Reconstructed image quality degrades with aberrations, but no worse than equivalent conventional imagers.

  7. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  8. Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

    2011-03-01

    Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

  9. Aberrations caused by mechanical misalignments in electrostatic quadrupole lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, L. A.; Read, F. H.

    Image aberrations resulting from small misalignments in quadrupole lenses multiplets have been analysed. Analytical formulas for the coefficients of the beam displacement, astigmatism and coma associated with misalignments in a general quadrupole lens system have been derived. Numerical computations of systems of three and four quadrupole lenses have also been carried out. The aberration figures obtained for systems with and without a mechanical defect are compared. The aberration coefficients that have been obtained can be used for estimating tolerance limits for lens misalignments.

  10. Comparison of Aberrations After Standard and Customized Refractive Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; He, X.; Wang, Y.

    2013-09-01

    To detect possible differences in residual wavefront aberrations between standard and customized laser refractive surgery based onmathematical modeling, the residual optical aberrations after conventional and customized laser refractive surgery were compared accordingto the ablation profile with transition zone. The results indicated that ablation profile has a significant impact on the residual aberrations.The amount of residual aberrations for conventional correction is higher than that for customized correction. Additionally, the residualaberrations for high myopia eyes are markedly larger than those for moderate myopia eyes. For a 5 mm pupil, the main residual aberrationterm is coma and yet it is spherical aberration for a 7 mm pupil. When the pupil diameter is the same as optical zone or greater, themagnitudes of residual aberrations is obviously larger than that for a smaller pupil. In addition, the magnitudes of the residual fifth orsixth order aberrations are relatively large, especially secondary coma in a 6 mm pupil and secondary spherical aberration in a 7 mm pupil.Therefore, the customized ablation profile may be superior to the conventional correction even though the transition zone and treatmentdecentration are taken into account. However, the customized ablation profile will still induce significant amount of residual aberrations.

  11. Left paramedian abomasopexy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inhyung; Yamagishi, Norio; Oboshi, Kenji; Yamada, Haruo

    2002-03-01

    Aims of surgery of left displacement of the abomasum (LDA) are to return the abomasum to its original position and create a permanent attachment in the position to prevent recurrence. Left paramedian abomasopexy was performed on six Holstein cows with LDA because normal position of the fundus of the abomasum is located in the left of the midline and the displacement initially only involves the fundus of the abomasum. All cows were recovered without recurrence of LDA. It is considered that the left paramedian abomasopexy could be a major alternative as a surgical treatment of LDA. PMID:14614273

  12. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  13. 1. Postandbeam garage (far left), oneroom log cabin (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Post-and-beam garage (far left), one-room log cabin (left of center), house (right of center), garden shed and outhouse (far right). View to west-southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  14. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  15. Patterns of Chromosomal Aberrations in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Grade, Marian; Difilippantonio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a defining feature of solid tumors. Such cytogenetic alterations are mainly classified into structural chromosomal aberrations and copy number alterations, giving rise to aneuploid karyotypes. The increasing detection of these genetic changes allowed the description of specific tumor entities and the associated patterns of gene expression. In fact, tumor-specific landscapes of gross genomic copy number changes, including aneuploidies of entire chromosome arms and chromosomes result in a global deregulation of the transcriptome of cancer cells. Furthermore, the molecular characterization of cytogenetic abnormalities has provided insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and has, in a few instances, led to the clinical implementation of effective diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as treatment strategies that target a specific genetic abnormality. PMID:26376875

  16. Patterns of Chromosomal Aberrations in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Grade, Marian; Difilippantonio, Michael J; Camps, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a defining feature of solid tumors. Such cytogenetic alterations are mainly classified into structural chromosomal aberrations and copy number alterations, giving rise to aneuploid karyotypes. The increasing detection of these genetic changes allowed the description of specific tumor entities and the associated patterns of gene expression. In fact, tumor-specific landscapes of gross genomic copy number changes, including aneuploidies of entire chromosome arms and chromosomes result in a global deregulation of the transcriptome of cancer cells. Furthermore, the molecular characterization of cytogenetic abnormalities has provided insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and has, in a few instances, led to the clinical implementation of effective diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as treatment strategies that target a specific genetic abnormality. PMID:26376875

  17. Overlapped Fourier coding for optical aberration removal

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We present an imaging procedure that simultaneously optimizes a camera’s resolution and retrieves a sample’s phase over a sequence of snapshots. The technique, termed overlapped Fourier coding (OFC), first digitally pans a small aperture across a camera’s pupil plane with a spatial light modulator. At each aperture location, a unique image is acquired. The OFC algorithm then fuses these low-resolution images into a full-resolution estimate of the complex optical field incident upon the detector. Simultaneously, the algorithm utilizes redundancies within the acquired dataset to computationally estimate and remove unknown optical aberrations and system misalignments via simulated annealing. The result is an imaging system that can computationally overcome its optical imperfections to offer enhanced resolution, at the expense of taking multiple snapshots over time. PMID:25321982

  18. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes from car painters.

    PubMed

    Silva, J M; Santos-Mello, R

    1996-05-01

    In the present paper we report the results of biological monitoring of a group of 25 car painters working in different automobile shops in Brasília. There was a significantly higher frequency of aneuplodies and chromosome deletions in the peripheral lymphocytes of car painters than in control subjects. We also detected a significant correlation between the time worked as a car painter and the frequency of aneuploidy. Smoking habits do not represent a significant factor in terms of production of the various types of chromosome aberrations among car painters. These results permitted us to conclude that the individuals studied represent a risk group and should be medically followed up with judicious periodic examinations. PMID:8637507

  19. Congenital Aberrant Tearing: A Re-Look

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marilyn T.; Strömland, Kerstin; Ventura, Liana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Congenital aberrant tearing is characterized by tearing when eating (“crocodile tears”), lack of emotional tearing, or both. Most reported cases are associated with Duane syndrome. In our previous studies we observed aberrant tearing in individuals with thalidomide embryopathy and Möbius sequence. This report summarizes the literature on the subject and adds 3 new studies that give information on this unusual condition. Methods Twenty-eight individuals with Möbius sequence were interviewed about tearing symptoms at a support group meeting in Italy. In Sweden 30 adults primarily from the original thalidomide series were reexamined. In this latter study, a Schirmer test was done at baseline and repeated 5 minutes after eating. Twenty families in Brazil who have children with Möbius sequence were questioned about tearing symptoms and exposure to misoprostol during pregnancy. Results In the 28 Italian individuals, either “crocodile tears” or lack of emotional tearing was noted in 7 cases. In the thalidomide study, 10 of 30 patients had tearing when eating and 7 had no emotional tearing. Low Schirmer scores or increased tearing after eating was noted in a few asymptomatic individuals. Among the 20 Brazilian children with Möbius sequence, 10 had some tearing abnormality. Conclusion Congenital anomalous lacrimation is rare but usually associated with Duane syndrome or abduction deficits, as in Möbius sequence and, less frequently, facial nerve palsy. Studies implicate an early insult in development at 4 to 6 weeks. At that time the facial nerve, sixth nerve, and lacrimal nucleus are in close proximity in the embryo. PMID:19277226

  20. A prospective randomised trial comparing insertion success rate and incidence of catheterisation-related complications for subclavian venous catheterisation using a thin-walled introducer needle or a catheter-over-needle technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, E; Kim, B G; Lim, Y J; Jeon, Y T; Hwang, J W; Kim, H C; Choi, Y H; Park, H P

    2016-09-01

    In clinical practice, both a thin-walled introducer needle and catheter-over-needle technique can be used to allow insertion of a guidewire during central venous catheterisation using the Seldinger technique. We compared the incidence of catheterisation-related complications (arterial puncture, haemothorax, pneumothorax, haematoma and catheter tip malposition) and insertion success rate for these two techniques in patients requiring right-sided subclavian central venous catheterisation. A total of 414 patients requiring infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterisation were randomly allocated to either a thin-walled introducer needle (needle group, n = 208) or catheter-over-needle technique (catheter group, n = 206). The catheterisation-related complication rate was lower in the needle group compared with the catheter group (5.8% vs. 15.5%; p = 0.001). Overall insertion success rates were similar (97.1% and 92.7% in the needle and catheter groups respectively; p = 0.046), although the first-pass success rate was higher in the needle group (62.0% vs. 35.4%; p < 0.001). We recommend the use of a thin-walled introducer needle technique for right-sided infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterisation. PMID:27396474

  1. Using nodal aberration theory to understand the aberrations of multiple unobscured three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Kevin P.; Fuerschbach, Kyle; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2009-08-01

    The alignment of three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes has been studied since their invention in the 60s. Recently, Thompson et al.1 reported that other than the conventional uniform coma over the field caused by misalignment, TMA telescopes display only one other misalignment induced aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear astigmatism. Currently, an instrument with three TMAs is under development as the primary spectrometer on the James Webb Space Telescope. This paper will report on the application of Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) to understanding the optical design of an optical system with multiple TMAs as a first step towards investigating and potentially independently analyzing the sensitivities to alignment of this key instrument.

  2. Optical aberrations and alignment of the eye with age.

    PubMed

    Berrio, Esther; Tabernero, Juan; Artal, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We explored the relative changes in ocular, corneal, and internal aberrations associated with normal aging with special emphasis in the role of ocular alignment and lens shape factor in the balance of aberrations. Ocular and corneal aberrations together with the angle kappa were measured for a 5-mm pupil diameter in 46 eyes with low refractive errors and ages ranging between 20 and 77 years. The root mean square (RMS) of the higher order ocular and corneal aberrations increased with age at a rate of 0.0032 μm/year and 0.0015 μm/year, respectively. While in young eyes the partial compensation of aberrations by the internal surfaces was clear, no significant difference was found between corneal and ocular RMS in the older group. The ocular spherical aberration (0.0011 μm/year) and horizontal coma (0.0017 μm/year) increased moderately with age. This is not due to changes in the optical alignment, since angle kappa did not vary significantly with age. Age-related variations in the radii of curvature of the crystalline lens modify slightly its shape factor, reducing the compensation of lateral coma. This suggests that geometrical changes in the crystalline lens with age contribute to modify its aberration structure, reducing the compensation mechanism and explaining most of the measured increment of ocular aberrations with age. PMID:21196516

  3. Sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, A.V.; Kopf, D.A.

    In an electron beam device in which an electron beam is developed and then focused by a lens to a particular spot, there is provided a means for eliminating spherical aberration. A sextupole electromagnetic lens is positioned between two focusing lenses. The interaction of the sextupole with the beam compensates for spherical aberration. (GHT)

  4. Modified Matching Ronchi Test to Visualize Lens Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Kh; Ziafi, H. Hooshmand

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work…

  5. Optical aberrations measurement with a low cost optometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Walter D.; Muñoz-Escrivá, L.; Pons, A.; Martínez-Corral, M.

    2002-08-01

    A simple experimental method for measuring optical aberrations of a single lens is proposed. The technique is based on the use of an optometric instrument employed for the assessment of the refractive state of the eye: the retinoscope. Experimental results for spherical aberration and astigmatism are obtained.

  6. Using Brief Assessments to Evaluate Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; King, Lisa; Lally, Grainne; Dhomhnaill, Orla Nic

    2000-01-01

    Functional assessments were conducted for two Irish individuals with severe disabilities and aberrant behavior. A modified attention condition was introduced, which involved both parents interacting with a third person. Aberrant behavior occurred only in the modified attention condition. Successful treatment consisted of delivery of attention on a…

  7. Adaptive aberration correction using a triode hyperbolic electron mirror.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2011-01-01

    A converging electron mirror can be used to compensate spherical and chromatic aberrations in an electron microscope. This paper presents an analytical solution to a novel triode (three electrode) hyperbolic mirror as an improvement to the well-known diode (two electrode) hyperbolic mirror for aberration correction. A weakness of the diode mirror is a lack of flexibility in changing the chromatic and spherical aberration coefficients independently without changes in the mirror geometry. In order to remove this limitation, a third electrode can be added. We calculate the optical properties of the resulting triode mirror analytically on the basis of a simple model field distribution. We present the optical properties-the object/image distance, z(0), and the coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration, C(s) and C(c), of both mirror types from an analysis of electron trajectories in the mirror field. From this analysis, we demonstrate that while the properties of both designs are similar, the additional parameters in the triode mirror improve the range of aberration that can be corrected. The triode mirror is also able to provide a dynamic adjustment range of chromatic aberration for fixed spherical aberration and focal length, or any permutation of these three parameters. While the dynamic range depends on the values of aberration correction needed, a nominal 10% tuning range is possible for most configurations accompanied by less than 1% change in the other two properties. PMID:21930022

  8. Aberration analysis calculations for synchrotron radiation beamline design

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Howells, M.; Padmore, H.A.

    1997-09-01

    The application of ray deviation calculations based on aberration coefficients for a single optical surface for the design of beamline optical systems is reviewed. A systematic development is presented which allows insight into which aberration may be causing the rays to deviate from perfect focus. A new development allowing analytical calculation of line shape is presented.

  9. Aberrant regeneration in idiopathic oculomotor nerve palsy: case report.

    PubMed

    Laguna, J F; Smith, M S

    1980-06-01

    Aberrant regeneration of the oculomotor nerve usually follows injury to the nerve by posterior communicating arty aneurysms or trauma. A case of idiopathic third nerve palsy with pupillary involvement occurred in an otherwise healthy 38-year-old man. Follow-up examination 32 months later showed evidence of oculomotor function with aberrant regeneration. PMID:7381547

  10. The Left-Handed Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  11. Erratum: cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration Erratum: cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio

    2013-07-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles alm's via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In ref. [1] we checked the validity of this assumption in parameter estimation for a Planck-like angular resolution, both for a full-sky ideal experiment and also when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations with a sky fraction similar to the Planck satellite. The result to this analysis was that aberration and Doppler have a sizable impact on a CMB based parameter estimation. In this erratum we correct an error made in ref. [1] when comparing pseudo angular power spectra computed in the CMB rest frame with the ones measured by a moving observer. Properly comparing the two spectra we find now that although the corrections to the Cl due to aberration and Doppler are larger than the cosmic variance at l > 1000 and potentially important, the resulting bias on the parameters is negligible for Planck.

  12. Aberrations of the cathode objective lens up to fifth order.

    PubMed

    Tromp, R M; Wan, W; Schramm, S M

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we discuss a topic that was close to Prof. Gertrude Rempfer s interests for many years. On this occasion of her 100th birthday, we remember and honor Gertrude for her many outstanding contributions, and for the inspiring example that she set. We derive theoretical expressions for the aberration coefficients of the uniform electrostatic field up to 5th order and compare these with raytracing calculations for the cathode lens used in Low Energy Electron Microscopy and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy experiments. These higher order aberration coefficients are of interest for aberration corrected experiments in which chromatic (C(c)) and spherical (C₃) aberrations of the microscope are set to zero. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the results of raytracing. Calculations of image resolution using the Contrast Transfer Function method show that sub-nanometer resolution is achievable in an aberration corrected LEEM system. PMID:22188906

  13. Surgical and healing changes to ocular aberrations following refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jochen; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To measure ocular aberrations before and at several time periods after LASIK surgery to determine the change to the aberration structure of the eye. Methods: A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure 88 LASIK patients pre-operatively and at 1 week and 12 months following surgery. Reconstructed wavefront errors are compared to look at induced differences. Manifest refraction was measured at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months following surgery. Sphere, cylinder, spherical aberration, and pupil diameter are analyzed. Results: A dramatic elevation in spherical aberration is seen following surgery. This elevation appears almost immediately and remains for the duration of the study. A temporary increase in pupil size is seen following surgery. Conclusions: LASIK surgery dramatically reduces defocus and astigmatism in the eye, but simultaneously increases spherical aberration levels. This increase occurs at the time of surgery and is not an effect of the healing response.

  14. Chaos in ocular aberration dynamics of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Karen M.; Mallen, Edward A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Since the characterization of the eye’s monochromatic aberration fluctuations in 2001, the power spectrum has remained the most widely used method for analyzing their dynamics. However, the power spectrum does not capture the complexities of the fluctuations. We measured the monochromatic aberration dynamics of six subjects using a Shack-Hartmann sensor sampling at 21 Hz. We characterized the dynamics using techniques from chaos theory. We found that the attractor embedding dimension for all aberrations, for all subjects, was equal to three. The embedding lag averaged across aberrations and subjects was 0.31 ± 0.07 s. The Lyapunov exponent of the rms wavefront error was positive for each subject, with an average value of 0.44 ± 0.15 µm/s. This indicates that the aberration dynamics are chaotic. Implications for future modeling are discussed. PMID:22567581

  15. Correction of spherochromatic aberration by system of thin layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miks, A.; Novak, J.

    2005-08-01

    It is well-known from the theory of optical imaging that optical systems generally show a presence of a chromatic aberration, which originates from a variation of the refraction index of glass on the wavelength of light. The chromatic aberration must be well corrected in order to obtain a good quality of optical image. In practice, it is used a proper combination of optical elements manufactured from different types of optical glass with a different dispersion in order to suppress the chromatic aberration. Our work shows a way how to correct spherochromatic aberration using a system of thin aspherical layers. The equations are derived for determination of parameters of thin layers with respect to a required spherochromatic aberration.

  16. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models

  17. [Left-handedness and health].

    PubMed

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. PMID:20607990

  18. Optimization of the Outflow Graft Position and Angle in a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Prisco, Anthony; Beckman, Jennifer; Mokadam, Nahush; Mahr, Claudius; Aliseda, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The placement of the outflow graft in the aorta plays a key role in the hemodynamics of Left Ventricle Assist Devices (LVAD), a medical device with a growing importance in the treatment of end-stage heart failure. We use a patient-specific computational model of the VAD and the ascending aorta to investigate the impact of VAD outflow graft configuration on the residence time and wall shear stresses along the ascending aorta and the ostia of the upper branches. The flow induced by the combination of VAD output through the graft anastomosed to the aorta and the limited cardiac output through intermittent opening of the aortic valve is studied to determine the nature of thrombogenic flow patterns. Outflow grafts are virtually anastomosed along the ascending aorta or subclavian artery of the patient-specific model at different positions and angles that are surgically-informed. Detailed markers of thrombosis, such as cell residence time, wall shear stress, and shear stress gradients are analyzed and compared for the different configurations. The angle of incidence of the outflow graft critically influences the volume of recirculating flow between aortic valve and anastomosis, and the aortic pressure acting against aortic valve opening.

  19. Effect of optical aberrations on image quality and visual performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, Sowmya

    In addition to the effects of diffraction, retinal image quality in the human eye is degraded by optical aberrations. Although the paraxial geometric optics description of defocus consists of a simple blurred circle whose size determines the extent of blur, in reality the interactions between monochromatic and chromatic aberrations create a complex pattern of retinal image degradation. My thesis work hypothesizes that although both monochromatic and chromatic optical aberrations in general reduce image quality from best achievable, the underlying causes of retinal image quality degradation are characteristic of the nature of the aberration, its interactions with other aberrations as well as the composition of the stimulus. To establish a controlled methodology, a computational model of the retinal image with various levels of aberrations was used to create filters equivalent to those produced by real optical aberrations. Visual performance was measured psychophysically by using these special filters that separately modulated amplitude and phase in the retinal image. In order to include chromatic aberration into the optical interactions, a computational polychromatic model of the eye was created and validated. The model starts with monochromatic wavefront maps and derives a composite white light point-spread function whose quality was assessed using metrics of image quality. Finally, in order to assess the effectiveness of simultaneous multifocal intra-ocular lenses in correcting the eye's optical aberrations, a polychromatic computational model of a pseudophakic eye was constructed. This model incorporated the special chromatic properties unique to an eye corrected with hybrid refractive-diffractive optical elements. Results showed that normal optical aberrations reduced visual performance not only by reducing image contrast but also by altering the phase structure of the image. Longitudinal chromatic aberration had a greater effect on image quality in isolation

  20. Optimization of image-based aberration metrology for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Zac; Fenger, Germain; Burbine, Andrew; Schepis, Anthony R.; Smith, Bruce W.

    2014-04-01

    EUV lithography is likely more sensitive to drift from thermal and degradation effects than optical counterparts. We have developed an automated approach to photoresist image-based aberration metrology. The approach uses binary or phase mask targets and iterative simulation based solutions to retrieve an aberrated pupil function. It is well known that a partially coherent source both allows for the diffraction information of smaller features to be collected by the condenser system, and introduces pupil averaging. In general, smaller features are more sensitive to aberrations than larger features, so there is a trade-off between target sensitivity and printability. Therefore, metrology targets using this technique must be optimized for maximum sensitivity with each illumination system. This study examines aberration metrology target optimization and suggests an optimization scheme for use with any source. Interrogation of both low and high order aberrations is considered. High order aberration terms are interrogated using two separate fitting algorithms. While the optimized targets do show the lowest RMS error under the test conditions, a desirable RMS error is not achieved by either high order interrogation scheme. The implementation of a previously developed algorithm for image-based aberration metrology is used to support this work.

  1. Gene aberrations for precision medicine against lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saito, Motonobu; Shiraishi, Kouya; Kunitoh, Hideo; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Yokota, Jun; Kohno, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), the most frequent histological type of lung cancer, is often triggered by an aberration in a driver oncogene in tumor cells. Examples of such aberrations are EGFR mutation and ALK fusion. Lung adenocarcinoma harboring such mutations can be treated with anticancer drugs that target the aberrant gene products. Additional oncogene aberrations, including RET, ROS1, and NRG1 fusions, skipping of exon 14 of MET, and mutations in BRAF, HER2, NF1, and MEK1, were recently added to the list of such "druggable" driver oncogene aberrations, and their responses to targeted therapies are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. However, approximately 30% and 50% of LADCs in patients in Japan and Europe/USA, respectively, lack the driver oncogene aberrations listed above. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies, such as those that exploit the vulnerabilities of cancer cells with non-oncogene aberrations, are urgently required. This review summarizes the current status of research on precision medicine against LADC and enumerates the research priorities for the near future. PMID:27027665

  2. Aberrant expression of hormone receptors in adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Stavroula; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of adrenal Cushing's syndrome has emerged. The ectopic or aberrant expression of G-protein-coupled hormone receptors in the adrenal cortex was found to play a central role in the regulation of cortisol secretion in ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) and in some unilateral adrenal adenomas. Various aberrant receptors, functionally coupled to steroidogenesis, have been reported: GIP, vasopressin, beta-adrenergic, LH/hCG, and serotonin receptors have been best characterized, but angiotensin, leptin, glucagon, IL-1 and TSH receptors have also been described. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the aberrant expression of these receptors are currently unknown. One or many of these aberrant receptors are present in most cases of AIMAH and in some cases of adrenal adenomas with overt or sub-clinical secretion of cortisol. Clinical protocols to screen for such aberrant receptors have been developed and should be performed in all patients with AIMAH. The identification of such aberrant regulation of steroidogenesis in AIMAH provides the novel opportunity to treat some of these patients with pharmacological agents that either suppress the endogenous ligand or block the aberrant receptor, thus avoiding bilateral adrenalectomy. PMID:16010457

  3. The Mechanisms of Aberrant Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Samuel; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chris; Knowles, Tuomas

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a kinetic theory for understanding the aberrant loss of solubility of proteins. The failure to maintain protein solubility results often in the assembly of organized linear structures, commonly known as amyloid fibrils, the formation of which is associated with over 50 clinical disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A true microscopic understanding of the mechanisms that drive these aggregation processes has proved difficult to achieve. To address this challenge, we apply the methodologies of chemical kinetics to the biomolecular self-assembly pathways related to protein aggregation. We discuss the relevant master equation and analytical approaches to studying it. In particular, we derive the underlying rate laws in closed-form using a self-consistent solution scheme; the solutions that we obtain reveal scaling behaviors that are very generally present in systems of growing linear aggregates, and, moreover, provide a general route through which to relate experimental measurements to mechanistic information. We conclude by outlining a study of the aggregation of the Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide. The study identifies the dominant microscopic mechanism of aggregation and reveals previously unidentified therapeutic strategies.

  4. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Human Trabecular Meshwork

    PubMed Central

    Sienkiewicz, Adam E.; Rosenberg, Brandon N.; Edwards, Genea; Carreon, Teresia A.; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the difference in protein glycosylation and glycosylation enzyme levels between glaucomatous and control trabecular meshwork (TM). Experimental design Glaucomatous and normal donor (n=12 each) TM tissues, Lectin-fluorescence, fluorophore assisted carbohydrate analyses, and quantitative mass spectrometry were used to determine the glycosylation levels. Primary TM cells and glycosylation inhibitors were used to determine their effect on cell shape and motility. Results In contrast to elevated levels of glycoproteins determined by lectin-fluorescence, simultaneous hyper and hypo-glycosylation in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork was revealed by fluorophore assisted carbohydrate analyses. Analyses of enzymes showed elevation of Beta-glycosidase 1 and decrease in Galactosyltransferase family 6 domain containing protein 1 in the glaucomatous trabecular meshwork. Quantitative mass spectrometry identified select protein level changes between glaucomatous and normal trabecular meshwork. Primary trabecular meshwork cells were treated with inhibitors to elicit hypo-glycosylation, which affected cell shape, motility, and fluorescent tracer transport across a layer of trabecular meshwork cells. Conclusions and clinical relevance Global protein glycosylation is aberrant in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork compared to controls. The results presented here suggest that the alteration in global TM protein glycosylation encompassing cellular and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to glaucoma pathology likely mediated through changes in properties of TM cells. PMID:24458570

  5. Left lobe amoebic liver abscess

    PubMed Central

    Rasaretnam, Rudra; Wijetilaka, Shelton E.

    1976-01-01

    For reasons which are not quite clear amoebic liver abscesses in the left lobe are relatively uncommon. On account of the lesser bulk of the left lobe, and the potentially greater space under the left hemidiaphragm, expansive lesions within it remain less obtrusive than corresponding lesions in the right. Sixteen such cases are analysed and five distinct modes of clinical presentation have been found. Eight of the patients presented late with perforation into either the peritoneal or pleural cavities. In seven of eight remaining cases, an abdominal mass suggestive of a left lobe lesion was present. Anaemia, leucocytosis and a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate were usually present, and in the five cases seen in the last year a positive reaction was obtained to the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Confirmatory radiological features were present only in advanced cases. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:959101

  6. Subwavelength-grating-induced wavefront aberrations: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A.

    2007-01-01

    The on-axis wavefront aberrations of a one-dimensional sub-wavelength grating anti-reflection coating on a f/1.7 lens surface is dominated by defocus, astigmatism, and piston. The astigmatism is 0.02 waves and the magnitude of the piston approaches 1 wave peak-to-valley. The difference in aberrations between orthogonally polarized wavefronts, or the retardance aberration, shows 0.01 waves of astigmatism like variation and more than 0.01 waves of retardance induced defocus like variation.

  7. Differential algebraic method for aberration analysis of typical electrostatic lenses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiong

    2006-02-01

    In this paper up to fifth-order geometric and third-order chromatic aberration coefficients of typical electrostatic lenses are calculated by means of the charged particle optics code, COSY INFINITY, based on the differential algebraic (DA) method. A two-tube immersion lens and a symmetric einzel lens have been chosen as two examples, whose axial potential distributions are numerically calculated by a FORTRAN program using the finite difference method. The DA results are in good agreement with those evaluated by the aberration integrals in electron optics. The DA method presented here can easily be extended to aberration analysis of other numerically computed electron lenses, including magnetic lenses. PMID:16125845

  8. Electrostatic mirror objective with eliminated spherical and axial chromatic aberrations.

    PubMed

    Bimurzaev, Seitkerim B; Serikbaeva, Gulnur S; Yakushev, Evgeniy M

    2003-01-01

    Computational formulae for the coefficients of the third-order spherical aberration and the second-order axial chromatic aberration are presented for an axially symmetric electrostatic electron mirror. A technique for eliminating the high-order derivatives of the potential axial distribution in mirror systems from the integrands is described. Conditions for elimination of spherical and axial chromatic aberrations, either separately or simultaneously, are found for a three-electrode axially symmetric mirror composed of coaxial cylinders of the same diameter. A principal scheme of the transmission electron microscope, where an electrostatic electron mirror serves as its objective, is presented. PMID:14599097

  9. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  10. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using implantable ventricular assist devices in the treatment of end-stage heart failure. Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. In the period of 1994 to 1997, 38,702 individuals in Ontario had a first hospital admission for heart failure. Despite reported improvement in survival, the five-year mortality rate for heart failure is about 50%. For patients with end-stage heart failure that does not respond to medical therapy, surgical treatment or traditional circulatory assist devices, heart transplantation (in appropriate patients) is the only treatment that provides significant patient benefit. Heart Transplant in Ontario With a shortage in the supply of donor hearts, patients are waiting longer for a heart transplant and may die before a donor heart is available. From 1999 to 2003, 55 to 74 people received a heart transplant in Ontario each year. Another 12 to 21 people died while waiting for a suitable donor heart. Of these, 1 to 5 deaths occurred in people under 18 years old. The rate-limiting factor in heart transplant is the supply of donor hearts. Without an increase in available donor hearts, attempts at prolonging the life of some patients on the transplant wait list could have a harmful effect on other patients that are being pushed down the waiting list (knock on effect). LVAD Technology Ventricular assist devices [VADs] have been developed to provide circulatory assistance to patients with end-stage heart failure. These are small pumps that usually assist the damaged left ventricle [LVADs] and may be situated within the body (intracorporeal] or outside the body [extracorporeal). Some of these devices were designed for use in the right ventricle [RVAD] or both

  11. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Florian T A; Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd U

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting, monofocal intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS Twenty-one patients (34 eyes) aged 50 to 83y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity (CS) under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations (HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight (C-Quant). RESULTS Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27 (primary coma components) and -0.04±0.16 (spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed (P≥0.28). CONCLUSION The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataract surgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration (HOA) and normal straylight. PMID:26309872

  12. VLBI measurement of the secular aberration drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Lambert, S. B.; Gontier, A.-M.

    2011-05-01

    Aims: While analyzing decades of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data, we detected the secular aberration drift of the extragalatic radio source proper motions caused by the rotation of the Solar System barycenter around the Galactic center. Our results agree with the predicted estimate to be 4-6 micro arcseconds per year (μas/yr) towards α = 266° and δ = -29°. In addition, we tried to detect the quadrupole systematics of the velocity field. Methods: The analysis method consisted of three steps. First, we analyzed geodetic and astrometric VLBI data to produce radio source coordinate time series. Second, we fitted proper motions of 555 sources with long observational histories over the period 1990-2010 to their respective coordinate time series. Finally, we fitted vector spherical harmonic components of degrees 1 and 2 to the proper motion field. Results: Within the error bars, the magnitude and the direction of the dipole component agree with predictions. The dipole vector has an amplitude of 6.4 ± 1.5 μas/yr and is directed towards equatorial coordinates α = 263° and δ = -20°. The quadrupole component has not been detected. The primordial gravitational wave density, integrated over a range of frequencies less than 10-9 Hz, has a limit of 0.0042h-2 where h is the normalized Hubble constant is H0/(100 km s-1). We dedicate this work to the memory of Anne-Marie Gontier, our colleague and personal friend, and a widely recognized specialist of VLBI. She passed away shortly after this paper was submitted.Proper motion data is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/529/A91

  13. Focusing Diffraction Grating Element with Aberration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.; Greiner, Christoph M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are optical components with regular patterns of grooves, which angularly disperse incoming light by wavelength in a single plane, called dispersion plane. Traditional gratings on flat substrates do not perform wavefront transformation in the plane perpendicular to the dispersion plane. The device proposed here exhibits regular diffraction grating behavior, dispersing light. In addition, it performs wavelength transformation (focusing or defocusing) of diffracted light in a direction perpendicular to the dispersion plane (called sagittal plane). The device is composed of a diffraction grating with the grooves in the form of equidistant arcs. It may be formed by defining a single arc or an arc approximation, then translating it along a certain direction by a distance equal to a multiple of a fixed distance ("grating period") to obtain other groove positions. Such groove layout is nearly impossible to obtain using traditional ruling methods, such as mechanical ruling or holographic scribing, but is trivial for lithographically scribed gratings. Lithographic scribing is the newly developed method first commercially introduced by LightSmyth Technologies, which produces gratings with the highest performance and arbitrary groove shape/spacing for advanced aberration control. Unlike other types of focusing gratings, the grating is formed on a flat substrate. In a plane perpendicular to the substrate and parallel to the translation direction, the period of the grating and, therefore, the projection of its k-vector onto the plane is the same for any location on the grating surface. In that plane, no waveform transformation by the grating k-vector occurs, except of simple redirection.

  14. Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B

    2005-08-01

    Adaptive optics systems typically include an optical relay that simultaneously images the science field to be corrected and also a set of pupil planes conjugate to the deformable mirror of the system. Often, in the optical spaces where DM's are placed, the pupils are aberrated, leading to a displacement and/or distortion of the pupil that varies according to field position--producing a type of anisoplanatism, i.e., a degradation of the AO correction with field angle. The pupil aberration phenomenon is described and expressed in terms of Seidel aberrations. An expression for anisoplanatism as a function of pupil distortion is derived, an example of an off-axis parabola is given, and a convenient method for controlling pupil-aberration-generated anisoplanatism is proposed.

  15. Optimizing chromatic aberration calibration using a novel genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yi-Chin; Liu, Tung-Kuan; MacDonald, John; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Wu, Bo-Wen; Tsai, Hsien-Lin; Chang, En-Hao

    2006-10-01

    Advances in digitalized image optics has increased the importance of chromatic aberration. The axial and lateral chromatic aberrations of an optical lens depends on the choice of optical glass. Based on statistics from glass companies worldwide, more than 300 optical glasses have been developed for commercial purposes. However, the complexity of optical systems makes it extremely difficult to obtain the right solution to eliminate small chromatic aberration. Even the damped least-squares technique, which is a ray-tracing-based method, is limited owing to its inability to identify an enhanced optical system configuration. Alternatively, this study instead attempts to eliminate even negligible axial and lateral colour aberration by using algorithms involving the theories of geometric optics in triplet lens, binary and real encoding, multiple dynamic crossover and random gene mutation techniques.

  16. Lens aberration measurement and analysis using a novel pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Byung-Ho; Cho, Byeong-Ho; Park, Jong O.; Kim, Dong-Seok; Baek, SungJin; Jeong, JongHo; Nam, ByungSub; Hwang, Young J.; Song, Young Jin

    2001-09-01

    Lens aberration of the exposure tool causes pattern deformation and position shift. As design rule shrinks, the ratio of printed feature size to applied wavelength for optical lithography is driven inexorably toward resolution limit. In this study, we devised an efficient method to evaluate lens aberration using multi-ring pattern on an attenuated phase-shift mask. Adoption of multi-ring pattern can cut down measurement time and improve measurement repeatability. These patterns are uniformly distributed through entire field in 7 by 7 manner. Lens aberration was evaluated by multi-ring pattern array under conventional or off-axis illumination with KrF stepper of NA 0.65. Multi-ring critical dimension (CD) data was discussed together with the issue of lens aberration such as coma, astigmatism, field curvature, etc. We can apply this new measurement technique to select better lens system efficiently. multi-ring, field size, pattern deformation

  17. Automated computational aberration correction method for broadband interferometric imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Pande, Paritosh; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; South, Fredrick A; Boppart, Stephen A

    2016-07-15

    Numerical correction of optical aberrations provides an inexpensive and simpler alternative to the traditionally used hardware-based adaptive optics techniques. In this Letter, we present an automated computational aberration correction method for broadband interferometric imaging techniques. In the proposed method, the process of aberration correction is modeled as a filtering operation on the aberrant image using a phase filter in the Fourier domain. The phase filter is expressed as a linear combination of Zernike polynomials with unknown coefficients, which are estimated through an iterative optimization scheme based on maximizing an image sharpness metric. The method is validated on both simulated data and experimental data obtained from a tissue phantom, an ex vivo tissue sample, and an in vivo photoreceptor layer of the human retina. PMID:27420526

  18. Aberration analysis of a wedge-plate display system.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Kai; Chung, Sen-Nien; Chern, Jyh-Long

    2007-08-01

    The aberration characteristics of a wedge-plate display optical system are analyzed. The study shows that a kink-like feature is inherent in the ray-intercept curve due to either the onset of the dark zone in imaging or the coincidence of the ray direction with the vertex. Third-order aberration coefficients are deduced, and the total amount of aberration is investigated to illustrate the basic limitations of image quality in this type of display. The issue of design optimization is also investigated based on the aberration characteristics. A numerical example of a 50 in. display with a 1:10 thickness and a diagonal screen length ratio is also provided. PMID:17621338

  19. Objective shearing digital holography for removing aberration from optical system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weiqing; Tian, Kehan; Zhang, Chuhang

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new digital holography based on the lateral shearing interference concept to remove the total aberrations from the reference wave, illumination wave, and the optical elements. It uses three mutually shifted image holograms of the object that are divided from each other to obtain phase differences. The phase aberration can be removed and the original sample phase can be reconstructed by the phase differences. Then, the influence of the stage moving imprecision on the reconstruction quality is analyzed. Optical experiments verified that the proposed method can totally remove the phase aberrations. As a result, the proposed method could be used for ultra-precise optical measurement through eliminating optical phase aberration to increase the measurement accuracy. PMID:26368865

  20. Development of a calibration standard for spherical aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compertore, David C.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.; Herbrand, Matthew E.; Marcus, Michael A.

    2013-09-01

    There are no calibration standards currently available for metrology equipment used to measure spherical aberration. We have selected a set of plano-convex lenses that can be used as spherical aberration calibration standards. The key parameters of the lenses were measured using a nodal optical bench and a low coherence interferometer. Spherical aberrations of the lenses were measured using a commercially available aberrometer the CrystalWave™, based on a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The lenses were then modeled in optical modeling software, where the spherical curvatures of the lenses were adjusted to match the key parameters. The measured spherical aberrations were then compared to the values provided by the modeling software.

  1. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches. PMID:7328069

  2. Electron Optics for Biologists: Physical Origins of Spherical Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geissler, Peter; Zadunaisky, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Reports on the physical origins of spherical aberrations in axially symmetric electrostatic lenses to convey the essentials of electon optics to those who must think critically about the resolution of the electron microscope. (GS)

  3. Isoplanatic patch size for aberration correction in ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilkington, Wayne C.

    Methods and experimental results are described for determination of the region size in an aberrating medium over which a single set of aberration estimates can achieve satisfactory b-scan resolution ( i.e., the isoplanatic patch) using time-shift compensation for aberration correction of ultrasonic transmit and receive beams. Based on twenty percent allowable increases in the -12 dB width of the receive or transmit beam focus using cross-correction compared to self-correction, the isoplanatic patch sizes were found to between 3 and 5 millimeters laterally for a linearly-scanned transducer, and at least 12 millimeters axially for a target distance of 55 millimeters and aberration comparable to human abdominal wall. These sizes depend on the aberration severity, reference site axial position, and allowable resolution degradation with cross-correction. The lateral isoplanatic patch size of a linearly scanned image can be more than doubled to match that of a beam-steered acquisition using aberration estimate position matching relative to the tissue surface. Further expansion of the lateral isoplanatic patch size by an additional 50 to 100 percent for both scanning methods is also shown through propagation path matched cross-correction mapping of aberration estimates. The specific mapping required to achieve the best propagation path match depends on the axial distribution of the aberrating structures, the focal depth being imaged, and the cross-correction distance. The effectiveness of alternate methods to derive propagation path matching maps with and without a priori knowledge of aberrator spatial distribution are contrasted; and a means to dynamically adjust correction maps to maximize isoplanatic patch sizes is proposed and verified. Lateral cross-correction mapping and the map changes required for each cross-correction distance can all be implemented with simple shifting of aberration estimates within the transducer aperture. Therefore, use of optimally mapped

  4. Sharpness changes of gaussian beams induced by spherically aberrated lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piquero, G.; Mejías, P. M.; Martínez-Herrero, R.

    1994-04-01

    Sharpness changes of the spatial profile of a gaussian beam induced by spherically aberrated lenses are investigated in terms of the so-called kurtosis parameter. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that, after a single aberrated lens, it is possible to get flatter and sharper beam intensity distributions than the input gaussian beam depending on the plane where the field is observed. Agreement between analytical and experimental results is discussed.

  5. Pattern of Chromosomal Aberrations in Patients from North East Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghazaey, Saeedeh; Mirzaei, Farzaneh; Ahadian, Mitra; Keifi, Fatemeh; Semiramis, Tootian; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of multiple anomaly syndromes. Recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been identified by conventional cytogenetic methods used widely as one of the most important clinical diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the incidences of chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in a six year period from 2005 to 2011 in Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory on patients referred to from Mashhad and other cities in Khorasan province. Karyotyping was performed on 3728 patients suspected of having chromosomal abnormalities. Results: The frequencies of the different types of chromosomal abnormalities were determined, and the relative frequencies were calculated in each group. Among these patients, 83.3% had normal karyotypes with no aberrations. The overall incidences of chromosomal abnormalities were 16.7% including sex and autosomal chromosomal anomalies. Of those, 75.1 % showed autosomal chromosomal aberrations. Down syndrome (DS) was the most prevalent autosomal aberration in the patients (77.1%). Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 was seen in 5% of patients. This inversion was prevalent in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Sex chromosomal aberrations were observed in 24.9% of abnormal patients of which 61% had Turner’s syndrome and 33.5% had Klinefelter’s syndrome. Conclusion: According to the current study, the pattern of chromosomal aberrations in North East of Iran demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic evaluation in patients who show clinical abnormalities. These findings provide a reason for preparing a local cytogenetic data bank to enhance genetic counseling of families who require this service. PMID:24027668

  6. Aberration in proper motions for stars in our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-C.; Xie, Y.; Zhu, Z.

    2013-08-01

    Accelerations of both the Solar system barycentre (SSB) and stars in the Milky Way cause a systematic observational effect on the stellar proper motions, which was first studied in the early 1990s and developed by Kovalevsky (aberration in proper motions). This paper intends to extend that work and aims to estimate the magnitude and significance of the aberration in proper motions of stars, especially in the region near the Galactic Centre. We adopt two models for the Galactic rotation curve to evaluate the aberrational effect on the Galactic plane. Based on the theoretical developments, we show that the effect of aberration in proper motions depends on the Galactocentric distance of stars; it is dominated by the acceleration of stars in the central region of the Galaxy. Within 200 pc from the Galactic Centre, the systematic proper motion can reach an amplitude larger than 1000 μas yr- 1 by applying a flat rotation curve. With a more realistic rotation curve which is linearly rising in the core region of the Galaxy, the aberrational proper motions are limited up to about 150 μas yr- 1. Then we investigate the applicability of the theoretical expressions concerning the aberrational proper motions, especially for those stars with short period orbits. If the orbital period of stars is only a fraction of the light time from the star to the SSB, the expression proposed by Kovalevsky is not appropriate. With a more suitable formulation, we found that the aberration has no effect on the determination of the stellar orbits on the celestial sphere. The aberrational effect under consideration is small but not negligible with high-accurate astrometry in the future, particularly in constructing the Gaia celestial reference system realized by Galactic stars.

  7. Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E.; Sun, Wenzhi; Tan, Zhongchao; Kerlin, Aaron; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas S.; Ji, Na

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multiplexed aberration measurement method that modulates the intensity or phase of light rays at multiple pupil segments in parallel to determine their phase gradients. Applicable to fluorescent-protein-labeled structures of arbitrary complexity, it allows us to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in various samples in vivo. For the strongly scattering mouse brain, a single aberration correction improves structural and functional imaging of fine neuronal processes over a large imaging volume. PMID:25128976

  8. Why Am I Left-Handed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... does since most hitters are right-handed. In basketball and other sports, a left-handed player can ... change in strategy. For instance, a left-handed basketball player will dribble with his or her left ...

  9. Aberrant spontaneous brain activity in chronic tinnitus patients revealed by resting-state functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiao-Wei; Xia, Wenqing; Feng, Xu; Gao, Bo; Ju, Sheng-Hong; Wang, Jian; Salvi, Richard; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The neural mechanisms that give rise to the phantom sound of tinnitus are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate whether aberrant spontaneous brain activity exists in chronic tinnitus patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. Materials and methods A total of 31 patients with chronic tinnitus patients and 32 healthy age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were prospectively examined. Both groups had normal hearing thresholds. We calculated the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) of fMRI signals to measure spontaneous neuronal activity and detect the relationship between fMRI information and clinical data of tinnitus. Results Compared with healthy controls, we observed significant increased ALFF within several selected regions including the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and right angular gyrus; decreased ALFF was detected in the left cuneus, right middle occipital gyrus and bilateral thalamus. Moreover, tinnitus distress correlated positively with increased ALFF in right MTG and right SFG; tinnitus duration correlated positively with higher ALFF values in right SFG. Conclusions The present study confirms that chronic tinnitus patients have aberrant ALFF in many brain regions, which is associated with specific clinical tinnitus characteristics. ALFF disturbance in specific brain regions might be used to identify the neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic tinnitus patients. PMID:25379434

  10. Induction of chromosome aberrations in human cells by charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations induced by high-energy charged particles in normal human lymphocytes and human fibroblasts have been investigated. The charged particles included 250 MeV/nucleon protons, 290 MeV/nucleon carbon ions and 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. The energies of the charged particles were higher than in most of the studies reported in the literature. Lymphocytes were stimulated to grow immediately after irradiation, while fibroblasts were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h for repair. Chromosomes were collected at the first mitosis after irradiation and chromosome aberrations were scored using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with a whole-chromosome 4 probe. Chromosome aberrations were classified as reciprocal exchanges, incomplete exchanges, deletions and complex exchanges. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for each type of aberration was calculated by dividing a dose of 4 Gy by the dose of the charged particles producing the same effect as 4 Gy of gamma rays. Results of this study showed that complex aberrations have the highest RBE for radiation of high linear energy transfer (LET) for human lymphocytes, but for fibroblasts, the greatest effect was for incomplete exchanges. For both lymphocytes and fibroblasts, iron ions induced a similar fraction of aberrant cells.

  11. Aberrant Glycosylation as Biomarker for Cancer: Focus on CD43

    PubMed Central

    de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Fiume, Giuseppe; Borrelli, Antonella; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Scala, Iris; Buonaguro, Franco Maria; Quinto, Ileana; Scala, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins playing a major role in cell signalling, immune recognition, and cell-cell interaction because of their glycan branches conferring structure variability and binding specificity to lectin ligands. Aberrant expression of glycan structures as well as occurrence of truncated structures, precursors, or novel structures of glycan may affect ligand-receptor interactions and thus interfere with regulation of cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Indeed, aberrant glycosylation represents a hallmark of cancer, reflecting cancer-specific changes in glycan biosynthesis pathways such as the altered expression of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Most studies have been carried out to identify changes in serum glycan structures. In most cancers, fucosylation and sialylation are significantly modified. Thus, aberrations in glycan structures can be used as targets to improve existing serum cancer biomarkers. The ability to distinguish differences in the glycosylation of proteins between cancer and control patients emphasizes glycobiology as a promising field for potential biomarker identification. In this review, we discuss the aberrant protein glycosylation associated with human cancer and the identification of protein glycoforms as cancer biomarkers. In particular, we will focus on the aberrant CD43 glycosylation as cancer biomarker and the potential to exploit the UN1 monoclonal antibody (UN1 mAb) to identify aberrant CD43 glycoforms. PMID:24689054

  12. Lens customization method to minimize aberration in integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Matheus; Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-10-01

    Conventionally the elemental lenses of the lens-array used in integral imaging have spherical surface profiles, thus they suffer from intrinsic lens aberrations such as spherical aberration and astigmatism. Aberrations affect the ability of the lens to focus light in a single point, or to collimate light from a point source. In integral imaging, this results in a loss of image quality of the reconstructed image due to distortions. The viewing characteristics of the integral imaging system, such as viewing angle and image resolution, are also affected by aberrations. We propose the use of a custom made aspherical lens-array which was specifically designed to minimize distortions due to aberrations and hence improve the reconstructed image quality. Ray optics calculations are used in order to analyze the aberrations and find the initial lens surface profile. Lens optimization is performed with the aid of numerical simulation software. The designed lens-array is compared to a conventional spherical lens-array of same properties. The design, optimization, and fabrication processes are described and the experiments are presented and compared with the computer simulations.

  13. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles. PMID:25984643

  14. Effect of lens aberration on oblique-illumination stepper system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Pei-yang; Qian, Qi-De; Langston, Joseph C.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, detailed simulation and some experimental studies on stepper lens aberration effect in the case of oblique illumination source are presented. The results are compared to that of conventional illumination source. Due to the unique feature of oblique illumination source imaging, i.e., imaging by using only zero and first diffraction order light, both stepper resolution limit and depth of focus (DOF) are extended. As a result, the effect of lens aberration in resist printing are also different from that of conventional illumination source. Unlike the conventional illumination source, the net effect of stepper lens aberration in resist printing depends not only on both the amount and type of the lens aberration, but also on the mask feature pattern. In the case of lens distortion, unlike the other types of lens aberration, the oblique illumination source does not show any improvement as compared to that of conventional illumination source. It does not show pattern dependent distortion either. In the experiment, an effect of a stepper lens aberration in resist printing for both conventional illumination and quadrapole illumination sources (mostly astigmatism) were measured. The results were in agreement with our simulation results.

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Radiological Placement of Central Venous Port via the Subclavian Vein: A Retrospective Analysis of 500 Cases at a Single Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Noriaki Arai, Yasuaki Takeuchi, Yoshito Takahashi, Masahide Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the technical success rate and adverse events (AEs) associated with ultrasound (US)-guided radiological placement (RP) of a central venous port (CVP) via the subclavian vein (SCV). Between April 2006 and May 2007, a total of 500 US-guided RPs of a CVP via the SCV were scheduled in 486 cancer patients (mean age {+-} SD, 54.1 {+-} 18.1 years) at our institute. Referring to the interventional radiology report database and patients' records, technical success rate and AEs relevant to CVP placement were evaluated retrospectively. The technical success rate was 98.6% (493/500). AEs occurred in 26 cases (5.2%) during follow-up (range, 1-1080 days; mean {+-} SD, 304.0 {+-} 292.1 days). AEs within 24 h postprocedure occurred in five patients: pneumothorax (n = 2), arterial puncture (n = 1), hematoma formation at the pocket site (n = 2), and catheter tip migration into the internal mammary vein (n = 1). There were seven early AEs: hematoma formation at the pocket site (n = 2), fibrin sheath formation around the indwelling catheter (n = 2), and catheter-related infections (n = 3). There were 13 delayed AEs: catheter-related infections (n = 7), catheter detachments (n = 3), catheter occlusion (n = 1), symptomatic thrombus in the SCV (n = 1), and catheter migration (n = 1). No major AEs, such as procedure-related death, air embolism, or events requiring surgical intervention, were observed. In conclusion, US-guided RP of a CVP via the SCV is highly appropriate, based on its high technical success rate and the limited number of AEs.

  16. Idiopathic left ventricular apical hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ali; Waleed, Mohammad; Balerdi, Matthew; Bragadeesh, Thanjavur; Clark, Andrew L

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old man was found to have an abnormal ECG taken during a routine health and blood pressure check. His only symptom was non-specific central chest discomfort, unrelated to exertion. His ECG showed sinus rhythm, a normal axis and poor R wave progression across the chest leads and lateral T wave flattening. An echocardiogram showed a dilated left ventricle with a thin and hypokinetic septum bulging to the right. The apex was 'not well seen' but also appeared thin and hypokinetic. The right heart and valves were normal. The patient was further investigated for left ventricular hypoplasia. PMID:24585345

  17. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Urvi Kaye, Elena; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focused ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus.

  18. Persistence of Early Emerging Aberrant Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). "Aberrant Behavior…

  19. Optical aberrations of intraocular lenses measured in vivo and in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Sergio; Marcos, Susana; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio

    2003-10-01

    Corneal and ocular aberrations were measured in a group of eyes before and after cataract surgery with spherical intraocular lens (IOL) implantation by use of well-tested techniques developed in our laboratory. By subtraction of corneal from total aberration maps, we also estimated the optical quality of the intraocular lens in vivo. We found that aberrations in pseudophakic eyes are not significantly different from aberrations in eyes before cataract surgery or from previously reported aberrations in healthy eyes of the same age. However, aberrations in pseudophakic eyes are significantly higher than in young eyes. We found a slight increase of corneal aberrations after surgery. The aberrations of the IOL and the lack of balance of the corneal spherical aberrations by the spherical aberrations of the intraocular lens also degraded the optical quality in pseudophakic eyes. We also measured the aberrations of the IOL in vitro, using an eye cell model, and simulated the aberrations of the IOL on the basis of the IOL's physical parameters. We found a good agreement among in vivo, in vitro, and simulated measures of spherical aberration: Unlike the spherical aberration of the young crystalline lens, which tends to be negative, the spherical aberration of the IOL is positive and increases with lens power. Computer simulations and in vitro measurements show that tilts and decentrations might be contributors to the increased third-order aberrations in vivo in comparison with in vitro measurements.

  20. Tuning fifth-order aberrations in a Quadrupole-Octupole Corrector

    SciTech Connect

    Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of conventional electron microscopes is usually limited by spherical aberration. Microscopes equipped with aberration-correctors are then primarily limited by higher-order, chromatic, and misalignment aberrations. In particular the Nion third-order aberration correctors installed on machines with a low energy spread and possessing sophisticated alignment software were limited by the uncorrected fifth-order aberrations. Here we show how the Nion fifth-order aberration corrector can be used to adjust and reduce some of the fourth and fifth-order aberrations in a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope.

  1. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists. PMID:25227016

  2. What Research Tells Us About Left Handedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Rita

    Left handed people have had bad publicity throughout history, and the resulting myths and disadvantages of left handedness have often not been properly dealt with in the classroom. Our language itself maintains a bias against the left, and many other cultures have defined the left as disreputable. Today's life style also provides many physical…

  3. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ``paints`` to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with {sup 144}Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to {sup 60}Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  4. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-10-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with [sup 144]Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to [sup 60]Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  5. Studies of a magnetically focused electrostatic mirror. II. Aberration corrections

    PubMed

    Tsai

    2000-02-01

    A magnetically focused electrostatic mirror is shown to be able to correct the spherical and chromatic aberrations of a probe forming system simultaneously. The probe forming system comprises a uniform magnetic lens and a uniform electrostatic mirror. Previous theoretical investigations showed that the spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients of these two components are the same values but with opposite sign, whose combination will therefore be free from aberrations. The experimental arrangement used a solenoid to produce a uniform magnetic field, and a series of plate electrodes to produce a uniform electrostatic field. These fields are shown to satisfy the experimental requirements. By deliberately changing the extraction voltage to defocus the electron beam, the author is able to observe correction of chromatic aberration by one order of magnitude. By deliberately changing the lens field and the mirror field, the author is able to observe the reduction of the asymmetry caused by the spherical aberration, which the author believes also indicates correction by one order of magnitude. PMID:10652006

  6. Time sequence of events leading to chromosomal aberration formation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C. ); Bender, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out which have measured the influence of the repair polymerases on the yield of different types of chromosomal aberrations. The studies were mainly concerned with the effect of inhibiting the polymerases on the yield of aberrations. The polymerases fill in single strand regions, and the fact that their inhibition affects the yield of aberrations suggests that single strand lesions are influential in aberration formation. The results indicate that: (1) There are two actions of polymerases in clastogenesis. One is in their involvement in a G2 repair system, in which the pair of chromatids is concerned, and which does not yield aberrations unless the inhibition is still operating when the cells enter mitosis. The second also operates in G1 and S, and is such that when repair is inhibited, further damage accrues. (2) The second action is affected by inhibiting polymerase but operates even when the repair enzymes are active. (3) The production of chromosomal exchanges involves a series of reactions, some of which are reversible. (4) The time span over which the reactions occur is much longer than has been envisaged previously (e.g., most of a cell cycle). 29 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Time sequence of events leading to chromosomal aberration formation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C. ); Bender, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on the influence of the repair polymerases on the yield of different types of chromosomal aberrations. The studies were mainly concerned with the effect of inhibiting the polymerases on the yield of aberrations. The polymerases fill in single-strand regions, and the fact that their inhibition affects the yield of aberrations suggests that single-strand lesions are influential in aberration formation. The results indicate that there are two actions of polymerases in clastogenesis. One is in their involvement in a G[sub 2] repair system, in which either of the two chromatids is concerned, and which does not yield aberrations unless the inhibition is still operating when the cells enter mitosis. The second is such that when repair is inhibited, further damage accrues. The second action is affected by inhibiting polymerase repair, but also operates even when the repair enzymes are active. The production of chromosomal exchanges involves a series of reactions, some of which are reversible. The time span over which the reactions occur is much longer than has been envisaged previously.

  8. Time sequence of events leading to chromosomal aberration formation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C.; Bender, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Investigations have been carried out on the influence of the repair polymerases on the yield of different types of chromosomal aberrations. The studies were mainly concerned with the effect of inhibiting the polymerases on the yield of aberrations. The polymerases fill in single-strand regions, and the fact that their inhibition affects the yield of aberrations suggests that single-strand lesions are influential in aberration formation. The results indicate that there are two actions of polymerases in clastogenesis. One is in their involvement in a G{sub 2} repair system, in which either of the two chromatids is concerned, and which does not yield aberrations unless the inhibition is still operating when the cells enter mitosis. The second is such that when repair is inhibited, further damage accrues. The second action is affected by inhibiting polymerase repair, but also operates even when the repair enzymes are active. The production of chromosomal exchanges involves a series of reactions, some of which are reversible. The time span over which the reactions occur is much longer than has been envisaged previously.

  9. Towards Aberration Correction of Transcranial Ultrasound Using Acoustic Droplet Vaporization

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Kevin J.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the first experiments demonstrating the transcranial acoustic formation of stable gas bubbles that can be used for transcranial ultrasound aberration correction. It is demonstrated that the gas bubbles can be formed transcranially by phase-transitioning single, superheated, micron-size, liquid dodecafluoropentane droplets with ultrasound, a process known as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). ADV was performed at 550 kHz, where the skull is less attenuating and aberrating, allowing for higher-amplitudes to be reached at the focus. Additionally, it is demonstrated that time-reversal focusing at 1 MHz can be used to correct for transcranial aberrations with a single gas bubble acting as a point beacon. Aberration correction was performed using a synthetic aperture approach and verified by the realignment of the scattered waveforms. Under the conditions described below, time-reversal aberration correction using gas bubbles resulted in a gain of 1.9 ± 0.3 in an introduced focusing factor. This is a small fraction of the gain anticipated from complete transmit-receive of a fully-populated two-dimensional array with sub-wavelength elements. PMID:17935872

  10. Risk estimation based on chromosomal aberrations induced by radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Bonassi, S.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a causal association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes and the risk of cancer has been substantiated recently by epidemiological studies. Cytogenetic analyses of crew members of the Mir Space Station have shown that a significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations can be detected after flight, and that such an increase is likely to be attributed to the radiation exposure. The risk of cancer can be estimated directly from the yields of chromosomal aberrations, taking into account some aspects of individual susceptibility and other factors unrelated to radiation. However, the use of an appropriate technique for the collection and analysis of chromosomes and the choice of the structural aberrations to be measured are crucial in providing sound results. Based on the fraction of aberrant lymphocytes detected before and after flight, the relative risk after a long-term Mir mission is estimated to be about 1.2-1.3. The new technique of mFISH can provide useful insights into the quantification of risk on an individual basis.

  11. The Spot of Arago and its role in aberration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbschloe, D. R.

    1983-12-01

    The Spot of Arago is the bright diffraction spot in the center of the shadow behind a circular obstacle. Because this pattern is the result of diffraction at the edge of the obstacle, the spot contains information about the incident beam. If the incident beam contains aberrations, the shape and intensity of the diffraction pattern should change. For points on and near the optical axis, analytical solutions to the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral are possible for a circular obscuration and an annular aperture illuminated by a plane wave of uniform or gaussian intensity distribution and containing defocus and/or spherical aberration. Computer studies of these cases show excellent agreement with experiment. The amount of defocus and spherical aberration can be deduced by intensity measurements and shift in positions of on axis intensity extrema behind an annular aperture. An empirical study of astigmatism revealed a predictable change in the diffraction pattern allowing for the verification of the aberration to within .05 wavelengths. The Spot of Arago is inherent in many optical systems due to the geometry of components. The technique of aberration determination by changes in the diffraction pattern should be useful in such systems.

  12. Anisotropic Complementary Acoustic Metamaterial for Canceling out Aberrating Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen; Xu, Jun; Fang, Nicholas X.; Jing, Yun

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate a type of anisotropic, acoustic complementary metamaterial (CMM) and its application in restoring acoustic fields distorted by aberrating layers. The proposed quasi two-dimensional (2D), nonresonant CMM consists of unit cells formed by membranes and side branches with open ends. Simultaneously, anisotropic and negative density is achieved by assigning membranes facing each direction (x and y directions) different thicknesses, while the compressibility is tuned by the side branches. Numerical examples demonstrate that the CMM, when placed adjacent to a strongly aberrating layer, could acoustically cancel out that aberrating layer. This leads to dramatically reduced acoustic field distortion and enhanced sound transmission, therefore virtually removing the layer in a noninvasive manner. In the example where a focused beam is studied, using the CMM, the acoustic intensity at the focus is increased from 28% to 88% of the intensity in the control case (in the absence of the aberrating layer and the CMM). The proposed acoustic CMM has a wide realm of potential applications, such as cloaking, all-angle antireflection layers, ultrasound imaging, detection, and treatment through aberrating layers.

  13. Persistent left superior vena cava: A possible contraindication to chemotherapy and total parenteral nutrition in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    IOVINO, FRANCESCO; AURIEMMA, PASQUALE PIO; VISCOVO, LUCA DEL; SCAGLIARINI, SARA; DI NAPOLI, MARILENA; DE VITA, FERDINANDO

    2012-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is the most common thoracic venous anomaly. Awareness of this condition may be useful when placement of left-side transvenous subclavian or internal jugular catheters is required. This anomaly may be detected only by chest radiograph following placement of the catheter. The primary endpoints of this study were to analyze the prevalence of PLSVC, measurement of its diameters and the outcome of cancer patients with this anomaly undergoing placement of a long term catheter for nutrition and chemotherapy at the Department of Surgery, of the Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy. A total of 600 consecutive adult patients with hematological or solid tumors admitted to our surgery department for implantation of a central venous catheter (CVC) were considered. The CVC was routinely implanted in the left internal jugular vein under ultrasound guidance. Four cases of PLSVC (0.6% of patients) were observed and confirmed using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In all cases, the CVC was not removed. Three patients underwent chemotherapy and one patient was subjected to total parenteral nutrition. In the three patients undergoing chemotherapy, dynamic ECG and echocardiography were performed at the end of the treatment. No disturbances of the cardiac rhythm or thrombosis were detected, and heart ejection fraction (EF) was not affected. In conclusion, although PLSVC may be a risky condition, no complications occurred in our study. Thus, PLSVC should not be regarded as a strict contraindication to infusion of chemotherapy or hyperosmolar nutritional solutions. However, further research is needed to confirm our data. PMID:23205097

  14. Subwavelength-grating-induced wavefront aberrations: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A.

    2007-07-01

    The on-axis wavefront aberrations of a one-dimensional subwavelength-grating antireflection coating on an f/1.7 lens surface are shown to be small with noticeable contributions of defocus, astigmatism, and piston. The astigmatism is 0.02 wave, and the magnitude of the piston approaches one wave peak-to-valley. The difference in aberrations between orthogonally polarized wavefronts, or the retardance aberration, shows 0.01 wave of astigmatismlike variation and more than 0.01 wave of retardance-induced defocuslike variation. A small coupling between polarization states occurs in the form of the familiar Maltese cross, yielding a maximum of 3% coupling in the four diagonal edges of the pupil.

  15. Aberrant Protein S-Nitrosylation in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomohiro; Tu, Shichun; Akhtar, Mohd Waseem; Sunico, Carmen R.; Okamoto, Shu-ichi; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-mediated posttranslational modification that regulates protein function via covalent reaction of nitric oxide (NO)-related species with a cysteine thiol group on the target protein. Under physiological conditions, S-nitrosylation can be an important modulator of signal transduction pathways, akin to phosphorylation. However, with aging or environmental toxins that generate excessive NO, aberrant S-nitrosylation reactions can occur and affect protein misfolding, mitochondrial fragmentation, synaptic function, apoptosis or autophagy. Here, we discuss how aberrantly S-nitrosylated proteins (SNO-proteins) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Insight into the pathophysiological role of aberrant S-nitrosylation pathways will enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms leading to neurodegenerative diseases and point to potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:23719160

  16. Screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Borofsky, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper attempts to promote a fuller understanding of how psychological assessment procedures can be used to reduce the threat from aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry. It begins with a discussion of the scientifically based methods that are used by psychologists in constructing, scoring, and interpreting these procedures. This discussion includes an emphasis on the concepts of validity and reliability and their central importance when one is choosing specific psychological screening tools. Criteria for selecting and using psychological assessment procedures when screening for aberrant behavior are also provided. Some commonly used assessment procedures that satisfy these criteria are discussed. A number a psychological assessment procedures specifically recommended for use in screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry are described.

  17. Dabigatran for left ventricular thrombus.

    PubMed

    Kolekar, Satishkumar; Munjewar, Chandrashekhar; Sharma, Satyavan

    2015-01-01

    Male patient in dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had multiple hospitalizations during the past 2 years either due to congestive heart failure, stroke, scar epilepsy, or atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Medication included evidence based therapy for heart failure, cordarone and warfarin. Anticoagulation had to be discontinued due to marked fluctuations in INR. Transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE) revealed a mobile mass in the left ventricle. He was treated with Dabigatran 110mg twice a day for 4 months without any bleeding or embolic episode and complete resolution of thrombus. Dabigatran is a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and currently approved for the prevention of thromboembolic episodes in non-valvar atrial fibrillation. This case demonstrates possible thrombolytic properties of dabigatran in resolution of left ventricular thrombus. PMID:26432747

  18. A study on optical aberrations in parabolic neutron guides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Yuntao; Zu, Yong; He, Linfeng; Wei, Guohai; Sun, Kai; Han, Songbai; Chen, Dongfeng

    2015-06-01

    It is widely believed that a neutron beam can be focused to a small spot using a parabolic guide, which will significantly improve the flux. However, researchers have also noted challenges for the neutron inhomogeneous phase space distribution in parabolic focusing guide systems. In this paper, the sources of most prominent optical aberrations, such as an inhomogeneous phase space distribution and irregular divergence distribution, are discussed, and an optimization solution is also proposed. We indicate that optimizing the parabolic guide geometrical configuration removes almost all of the aberrations and yields a considerable intensity gain factor.

  19. Investigation of spherical aberration effects on coherent lidar performance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis F Q; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we demonstrate experimentally the performance of a monostatic coherent lidar system under the influence of phase aberrations, especially the typically predominant spherical aberration (SA). The performance is evaluated by probing the spatial weighting function of the lidar system with different telescope configurations using a hard target. It is experimentally and numerically proven that the SA has a significant impact on lidar antenna efficiency and optimal beam truncation ratio. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both effective probing range and spatial resolution of the system are substantially influenced by SA and beam truncation. PMID:24216792

  20. Corneal wavefront aberration measurements to detect keratoconus patients.

    PubMed

    Gobbe, Marine; Guillon, Michel

    2005-06-01

    Distortions of the cornea associated with keratoconus are the manifestations of increased level, compared to normal, of higher order aberrations. It is highly relevant to use corneal aberrations to describe the optical quality of the cornea. The aim of the current study was to develop a keratoconus detection scheme based on Zernike coefficients. The results showed that the best detector to differentiate between suspected keratoconus and normal corneas was vertical coma (Z(3)(-1)) (specificity 71.9%; sensitivity 89.3%). The results demonstrated an improved use of videokeratoscope as a diagnostic tool for keratoconus detection that can be used for all types of videokeratoscopes. PMID:16318836

  1. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    SciTech Connect

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I

    2001-12-31

    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  2. Increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in railroad car painters.

    PubMed

    Piña-Calva, A; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Fuentes, M V; Neria, P; Pérez-Lucio, C; Vélez-Zamora, N M

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to paints and solvents contributes to chromosomal alterations in occupationally exposed individuals. A total of 25 male railroad and underground railroad car painters were studied. This group had a mean age of 32.7 y and a mean exposure time of 5.2 y. The results were compared with those obtained for 25 healthy (unexposed) males. The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations clearly revealed an increase in the number of all types of aberrations considered in the population of painters. This suggests that exposure to a combination of chemicals may increase genotoxicity in industrial workers. PMID:1772257

  3. Primary aberrations for grazing incidence. [in X-ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, C. E.; Korsch, D.

    1977-01-01

    Beginning with exact relations between object and image coordinates for a single reflective surface, a systematic analysis of general grazing incidence systems is presented. A complete set of primary aberrations for single-element and two-element systems is developed. The importance of a judicious choice for a coordinate system in showing field curvature to be clearly the predominant aberration for a two-element system is discussed. The validity of the theory is verified through comparisons with the exact ray-trace results for the case of a telescope.

  4. Aberration-Free Imaging for Light and Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Fluegel, B.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2008-01-01

    The equations for refraction of either the extraordinary wave of light or the wavefunction of an electron at a planar boundary between two misoriented uniaxially anisotropic materials are shown via raytracing to yield a transverse displacement of the object point. The displacement is independent of ray incidence angle and is thus free from spherical aberration, yielding a perfect virtual image which can have applications in birefringent optics. The general conditions for this aberration-free imaging are found to be identical to those required for amphoteric total refraction.

  5. Relationship between wave aberrations and histological features in ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Eva; Bueno, Juan M.; Schwarz, Christina; Artal, Pablo

    2010-09-01

    Wave aberrations of isolated ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses were measured by using a point-diffraction interferometer. This method allowed us to gain greater insight into the detailed aberration structure of eye lenses showing systematic presence of some dominant aberrations. In order of significance, astigmatism together with spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil are the main aberrations present in all lenses. We found a high correlation between the axis of both astigmatism and trefoil with the Y-shaped suture planes of the lens, revealing a subtle relationship between the induced aberrations and the histological features.

  6. Nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerves and anatomical findings during thyroid surgery: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kumiko; Toriumi, Yasuo; Kamio, Makiko; Nogi, Hiroko; Shioya, Hisashi; Takeyama, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    A nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (NRILN) is found more frequently on the right side than on the left, and it is closely associated with an aberrant right subclavian artery. The presence of the aberrant right subclavian artery on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan suggests NRILN; however, different types of branching locations and pathways exist. Here, we report three NRILN cases with different pathways where the vagus nerve arises more medial than usual and a review of the literature. Case 1: A 30-year-old Japanese female presented with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Preoperative CT scan revealed an aberrant right subclavian artery, and an operation was performed under suspicion of NRILN. During the operation, the vagus nerve was found to arise more medially than usual and two NRILNs originated from it at the level of the cricoid cartilage and at a more caudal position; the two NRILNs were preserved. Case 2: A 33-year-old Japanese female with a thyroid nodule of increased size underwent surgery. Preoperative CT scan revealed an aberrant right subclavian artery, which suggested NRILN. During the operation, the vagus nerve was identified to run more medially than usual and NRILN was found to originate at the level of the cricoid cartilage; NRILN was preserved. Case 3: A 78-year-old Japanese female underwent an operation with a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Preoperative CT scan showed an aberrant right subclavian artery. During the operation, NRILN was found to originate from the vagus nerve at the level of the lower pole of the thyroid gland, and the vagus nerve ran medial to the common carotid artery at the caudal level. PMID:27188389

  7. Active Optical Control of Quasi-Static Aberrations for ATST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L. C.; Upton, R.; Rimmele, T. R.; Hubbard, R.; Barden, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) requires active control of quasi-static telescope aberrations in order to achieve the image quality set by its science requirements. Four active mirrors will be used to compensate for optical misalignments induced by changing gravitational forces and thermal gradients. These misalignments manifest themselves primarily as low-order wavefront aberrations that will be measured by a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. When operating in closed-loop with the wavefront sensor, the active optics control algorithm uses a linear least-squares reconstructor incorporating force constraints to limit force applied to the primary mirror while also incorporating a neutral-point constraint on the secondary mirror to limit pointing errors. The resulting system compensates for astigmatism and defocus with rigid-body motion of the secondary mirror and higher-order aberrations with primary mirror bending modes. We demonstrate this reconstruction method and present simulation results that apply the active optics correction to aberrations generated by finite-element modeling of thermal and gravitational effects over a typical day of ATST operation. Quasi-static wavefront errors are corrected to within limits set by wavefront sensor noise in all cases with very little force applied to the primary mirror surface and minimal pointing correction needed.

  8. Benzene-induced chromosome aberrations: a follow-up study.

    PubMed Central

    Forni, A

    1996-01-01

    To study the evolution of cytogenetic damage from past exposure to high concentrations of benzene and its health significance, chromosome aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes were reinvestigated after approximately 20 years in four subjects with past severe hemopathy and in seven controls studied in the late 1960s. Increased chromosome-type aberrations were still present up to 30 years after benzene toxicity, but blood counts were normal. The vital status at the end of 1993 was ascertained for 32 subjects with a history of benzene toxicity and for 31 controls studied for CA from 1965 to 1970, who differed significantly for CA rates. Of the 32 benzene-exposed subjects, 1 was lost to follow-up, 20 were still alive, and 11 had died at ages 36 to 83, between 1 and 20 years after the last CA study. Five deaths were from neoplasia (acute erythroleukemia, brain tumor, cancer of lung, paranasal cavity, esophagus). The decreased subjects had significantly higher rates of chromosome-type aberrations than those alive, and those who died of neoplasia had the highest rates of these aberrations in the last study before death or diagnosis of cancer. Out of the 31 controls, 12 had died from 4 to 23 years after the CA study. Three deaths were from neoplasia (two lung cancer, one brain tumor). Even if this is a small sample, the results suggest a higher risk of cancer for the benzene-exposed cohort, who had persistently high CA rates in lymphocytes. PMID:9118911

  9. The Aberrant Salience Inventory: A New Measure of Psychosis Proneness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant salience is the unusual or incorrect assignment of salience, significance, or importance to otherwise innocuous stimuli and has been hypothesized to be important for psychosis and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Despite the importance of this concept in psychosis research, no questionnaire measures are available to assess…

  10. [Radioulnar synostosis as characteristic feature of chromosome aberrations (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Küsswetter, W; Heisel, A

    1981-02-01

    Among 13 patients with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis the chromosomal analysis revealed a 47, XXY-constellation in an 8 years old boy and a 47, XXX-syndrome in a 12-year-old girl. The investigations show, that the congenital radio-ulnar synostosis may be combined with the chromosome aberration more often than it was commonly thought. PMID:7281903

  11. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of pharmaceutical factory workers

    SciTech Connect

    Pushpavathi, K.; Prasad, M.H.; Reddy, P.P.

    1986-10-01

    Chromosomes were analyzed in peripheral lymphocytes of 31 male workers who were exposed to sulfonamide drugs in a pharmaceutical factory. The number of cells with structural chromosomal aberrations was significantly increased as compared to 15 unexposed individuals (controls). The chromosomal damage observed was mainly gaps and breaks.

  12. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Røed, K H; Jacobsen, M

    1995-03-01

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas. PMID:7700280

  13. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis watch

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sabti, K.; Kurelec, B.

    1985-11-01

    In this paper the authors present an investigation into the occurrence of chromosomal aberration (CA) induction in mussels. The feasibility of using this as an indicator of genotoxins under actual field conditions has been evaluated. Benzo(a)pyrene was used in these experiments.

  14. Correction of axial optical aberrations in hyperspectral imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špiclin, Žiga; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    In hyper-spectral imaging systems with a wide spectral range, axial optical aberrations may lead to a significant blurring of image intensities in certain parts of the spectral range. Axial optical aberrations arise from the indexof- refraction variations that is dependent on the wavelength of incident light. To correct axial optical aberrations the point-spread function (PSF) of the image acquisition system needs to be identified. We proposed a multiframe joint blur identification and image restoration method that maximizes the likelihood of local image energy distributions between spectral images. Gaussian mixture model based density estimate provides a link between corresponding spatial information shared among spectral images so as to find and restore the image edges via a PSF update. Model of the PSF was assumed to be a linear combination of Gaussian functions, therefore the blur identification process had to find only the corresponding scalar weights of each Gaussian function. Using the identified PSF, image restoration was performed by the iterative Richardson-Lucy algorithm. Experiments were conducted on four different biological samples using a hyper-spectral imaging system based on acousto-optic tunable filter in the visible spectral range (0.55 - 1.0 μm). By running the proposed method, the quality of raw spectral images was substantially improved. Image quality improvements were quantified by a measure of contrast and demonstrate the potential of the proposed method for the correction of axial optical aberrations.

  15. Recombinant Temporal Aberration Detection Algorithms for Enhanced Biosurveillance

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean Patrick; Burkom, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Objective Broadly, this research aims to improve the outbreak detection performance and, therefore, the cost effectiveness of automated syndromic surveillance systems by building novel, recombinant temporal aberration detection algorithms from components of previously developed detectors. Methods This study decomposes existing temporal aberration detection algorithms into two sequential stages and investigates the individual impact of each stage on outbreak detection performance. The data forecasting stage (Stage 1) generates predictions of time series values a certain number of time steps in the future based on historical data. The anomaly measure stage (Stage 2) compares features of this prediction to corresponding features of the actual time series to compute a statistical anomaly measure. A Monte Carlo simulation procedure is then used to examine the recombinant algorithms’ ability to detect synthetic aberrations injected into authentic syndromic time series. Results New methods obtained with procedural components of published, sometimes widely used, algorithms were compared to the known methods using authentic datasets with plausible stochastic injected signals. Performance improvements were found for some of the recombinant methods, and these improvements were consistent over a range of data types, outbreak types, and outbreak sizes. For gradual outbreaks, the WEWD MovAvg7+WEWD Z-Score recombinant algorithm performed best; for sudden outbreaks, the HW+WEWD Z-Score performed best. Conclusion This decomposition was found not only to yield valuable insight into the effects of the aberration detection algorithms but also to produce novel combinations of data forecasters and anomaly measures with enhanced detection performance. PMID:17947614

  16. Corneal primary aberrations compensation by oblique light incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David; Kasprzak, Henryk T.

    2009-07-01

    The eye is not a centered system. The line of sight connects the fovea with the center of the pupil and is usually tilted in the temporal direction. Thus, off-axis optical aberrations, mainly coma and oblique astigmatism, are introduced at the fovea. Tabernero et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(10), 3274-3283 (2007)] showed that a horizontal tilt of the crystalline lens generates a horizontal coma aberration that is compensated by the oblique light incidence on the eye. Here we suggest that corneal astigmatism may also play a role in compensation of oblique aberrations, and we propose a simple model to analyze such a possibility. A theoretical Kooijman eye model with a slight (~0.6 D) with-the-rule astigmatism is analyzed. Light rays at different incidence angles to the optical axis are considered, and the corresponding point spread functions (PSFs) at the retina are calculated. A quality criterion is used to determine the incidence angle that provides the narrowest and highest PSF energy peak. We show that the best image is obtained for a tilted incidence angle compatible with mean values of the angle kappa. This suggests that angle kappa, lens tilt, and corneal astigmatism may combine to provide a passive compensation mechanism to minimize aberrations on the fovea.

  17. Mapping magnetism with atomic resolution using aberrated electron probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, Juan; Rusz, Ján; McGuire, Michael A.; Symons, Christopher T.; Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Lupini, Andrew R.

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, we report a direct experimental real-space mapping of magnetic circular dichroism with atomic resolution in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Using an aberrated electron probe with customized phase distribution, we reveal with electron energy-loss (EEL) spectroscopy the checkerboard antiferromagnetic ordering of Mn moments in LaMnAsO by observing a dichroic signal in the Mn L-edge. The aberrated probes allow the collection of EEL spectra using the transmitted beam, which results in a magnetic circular dichroic signal with intrinsically larger signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained via nanodiffraction techniques (where most of the transmitted electrons are discarded). The novel experimental setup presented here, which can easily be implemented in aberration-corrected STEM, opens new paths for probing dichroic signals in materials with unprecedented spatial resolution. This research was supported by DOE SUFD MSED, by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US DOE, and by the Swedish Research Council and Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (NSC center)

  18. Nanowire growth kinetics in aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yi-Chia; Panciera, Federico; Reuter, Mark C; Stach, Eric A; Ross, Frances M

    2016-04-14

    We visualize atomic level dynamics during Si nanowire growth using aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy, and compare with lower pressure results from ultra-high vacuum microscopy. We discuss the importance of higher pressure observations for understanding growth mechanisms and describe protocols to minimize effects of the higher pressure background gas. PMID:27041654

  19. Aberrant Pattern of Scanning in Prosopagnosia Reflects Impaired Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Blossom Christa Maree; Caine, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Visual scanpath recording was used to investigate the information processing strategies used by a prosopagnosic patient, SC, when viewing faces. Compared to controls, SC showed an aberrant pattern of scanning, directing attention away from the internal configuration of facial features (eyes, nose) towards peripheral regions (hair, forehead) of the…

  20. Genomic Aberrations Drive Clonal Evolution of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Akash Kumar; Sreekumar, Arun

    2016-05-01

    Molecular features of castration-resistant neuroendocrine prostate cancer (CRPC-NE) are not well characterized. A recent study that investigated genomic aberrations of CRPC-NE tumors suggests their clonal evolution from CRPC adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the existence of a distinct DNA methylation profile in CRPC-NE implicates a critical role for epigenetic modification in the development of CRPC-NE. PMID:27037211

  1. Chromosome aberrations in plants as a monitoring system.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, W F

    1978-01-01

    The potential of higher plants as a first-tier assay system for detecting chemical mutagens is evaluated. The use of plant tissue (primarily root tips and pollen mother cells) for studying the induction of chromosomal aberrations is one of the oldest, simplest, most reliable, and inexpensive methods available. Specific types of abnormalities have been induced by different classes of pesticides. Chromosome clumping, contraction, stickiness, paling, fragmentation, dissolution, chromosome and chromatid bridges, C-mitosis, and endoploidy have been reported in the literature. Examples of cytogenetic studies with pesticides demonstrating the usefulness of higher plants as a monitoring system are reviewed. Pesticides which cause chromosome aberrations in plant cells also produce chromosome aberrations in cultured animal cells. Frequently, the aberrations are identical. For example, studies have shown that compounds which have a C-mitotic effect on plant cells have the same effect on animal cells. It is recommended that plant systems be accepted as a first-tier assay system for the detection of possible genetic damage by environmental chemicals. PMID:367773

  2. Aberration Corrected Photoemission Electron Microscopy with Photonics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Joseph P. S.

    Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) uses photoelectrons excited from material surfaces by incident photons to probe the interaction of light with surfaces with nanometer-scale resolution. The point resolution of PEEM images is strongly limited by spherical and chromatic aberration. Image aberrations primarily originate from the acceleration of photoelectrons and imaging with the objective lens and vary strongly in magnitude with specimen emission characteristics. Spherical and chromatic aberration can be corrected with an electrostatic mirror, and here I develop a triode mirror with hyperbolic geometry that has two adjacent, field-adjustable regions. I present analytic and numerical models of the mirror and show that the optical properties agree to within a few percent. When this mirror is coupled with an electron lens, it can provide a large dynamic range of correction and the coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration can be varied independently. I report on efforts to realize a triode mirror corrector, including design, characterization, and alignment in our microscope at Portland State University (PSU). PEEM may be used to investigate optically active nanostructures, and we show that photoelectron emission yields can be identified with diffraction, surface plasmons, and dielectric waveguiding. Furthermore, we find that photoelectron micrographs of nanostructured metal and dielectric structures correlate with electromagnetic field calculations. We conclude that photoemission is highly spatially sensitive to the electromagnetic field intensity, allowing the direct visualization of the interaction of light with material surfaces at nanometer scales and over a wide range of incident light frequencies.

  3. Facts about Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... left and right sides of the heart: the patent ductus arteriosus and the patent foramen ovale . Normally, these openings will close a ... functioning left side of the heart through the patent ductus arteriosus and the patent foramen ovale. The ...

  4. Non-Gaussianity and CMB aberration and Doppler

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Notari, Alessio E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it E-mail: arenzi@pd.infn.it

    2013-09-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces a deflection in the arrival direction of the observed photons (also known as CMB aberration) and a Doppler shift in the measured photon frequencies. As a consequence, aberration and Doppler effects induce non trivial correlations between the harmonic coefficients of the observed CMB temperature maps. In this paper we investigate whether these correlations generate a bias on non-Gaussianity estimators f{sub NL}. We perform this analysis simulating a large number of temperature maps with Planck-like resolution (lmax = 2000) as different realizations of the same cosmological fiducial model (WMAP7yr). We then add to these maps aberration and Doppler effects employing a modified version of the HEALPix code. We finally evaluate a generalization of the Komatsu, Spergel and Wandelt non-Gaussianity estimator for all the simulated maps, both when peculiar velocity effects have been considered and when these phenomena have been neglected. Using the value v/c = 1.23 × 10{sup −3} for our peculiar velocity, we found that the aberration/Doppler induced non-Gaussian signal is at most of about half of the cosmic variance σ for f{sub NL} both in a full-sky and in a cut-sky experimental configuration, for local, equilateral and orthogonal estimators. We conclude therefore that when estimating f{sub NL} it is safe to ignore aberration and Doppler effects if the primordial map is already Gaussian. More work is necessary however to assess whether a map which contains non-Gaussianity can be significantly distorted by a peculiar velocity.

  5. Canine urothelial carcinoma: genomically aberrant and comparatively relevant

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, S. G.; Raghunath, S.; Williams, C.; Motsinger-Reif, A. A.; Cullen, J. M.; Liu, T.; Albertson, D.; Ruvolo, M.; Lucas, A. Bergstrom; Jin, J.; Knapp, D. W.; Schiffman, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC), also referred to as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), is the most common bladder malignancy in both human and canine populations. In human UC, numerous studies have demonstrated the prevalence of chromosomal imbalances. Although the histopathology of the disease is similar in both species, studies evaluating the genomic profile of canine UC are lacking, limiting the discovery of key comparative molecular markers associated with driving UC pathogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated 31 primary canine UC biopsies by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH). Results highlighted the presence of three highly recurrent numerical aberrations: gain of dog chromosome (CFA) 13 and 36 and loss of CFA 19. Regional gains of CFA 13 and 36 were present in 97% and 84% of cases, respectively, and losses on CFA 19 were present in 77% of cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and custom Agilent SureFISH probes, was performed to detect and quantify these regions in paraffin-embedded biopsy sections and urine-derived urothelial cells. The data indicate that these three aberrations are potentially diagnostic of UC. Comparison of our canine oaCGH data with that of 285 human cases identified a series of shared copy number aberrations. Using an informatics approach to interrogate the frequency of copy number aberrations across both species, we identified those that had the highest joint probability of association with UC. The most significant joint region contained the gene PABPC1, which should be considered further for its role in UC progression. In addition, cross-species filtering of genome-wide copy number data highlighted several genes as high-profile candidates for further analysis, including CDKN2A, S100A8/9, and LRP1B. We propose that these common aberrations are indicative of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of pathogenesis and harbor genes key to

  6. Partial coherence and aberration effects on speckle characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongyel

    It is known that a phase-perturbed object field from a fractal-like rough surface illuminated by a partially coherent beam generates speckle on the image plane. In this works, aberration effects on Gaussian speckle on the image plane in both perfectly and partially coherent systems are theoretically and experimentally investigated. Theory shows that the second order statistics of Gaussian laser speckle are independent of odd-functional aberrations, but they do affect Gaussian speckle contrast in a partially coherent system. Furthermore, it is theoretically derived that field statistics of Gaussian laser speckle generally become non-circular Gaussian due to aberrations, and an aberration effect is asymptotically ignorable for very weak or strong roughness. A brute force simulation method is introduced for non-Gaussian speckle in a partially coherent imaging system, where speckle irradiance is calculated from a quasi-monochromatic extended incoherent source. The source is modeled as a collection of independent point sources distributed on a regular grid. The partially coherent speckle pattern is calculated from the incoherent sum of coherent speckle patterns in the image plane generated from each point source. Speckle contrasts from a brute force model show good agreement with theoretical and experimental results. It is determined that non-Gaussian speckle contrast is strongly dependent on Hurst exponent of fractal rough surfaces using brute force simulations. The concept of a contributing object area at a fixed image point effectively explains the speckle contrast dependency. Measuring spherical aberrations using Gaussian laser speckle is discussed as one of applications and future works of the present study.

  7. Long-term persistence of chromosome aberrations in uranium miners.

    PubMed

    Mészáros, Gabriella; Bognár, Gabriella; Köteles, G J

    2004-07-01

    Chromosome aberration analyses were performed on blood samples from 165 active underground uranium miners between 1981 and 1985. After decommissioning the mine in 1997 chromosome aberration analyses were also included in the medical laboratory investigations of health conditions of 141 subjects between 1998 and 2002 within the framework of a follow-up-study. The numerical data are presented as functions of the exposure categories expressed in working level month up to 600. In the active groups the dicentric level was 7 to 12 times higher than in the unexposed population, the acentrics also higher with more than an order of magnitude, the frequency of total aberrations--including dicentrics, acentrics, rings, deletions, minits and numerical aberrations, i.e. both chromatid and chromosome type of aberrations were also well above the control level. In the group of former uranium miners although there were slight decreases in the dicentrics after 8 to 25 yr, the values were not significantly different from the values of active miners. The frequency of deletions was also maintained in the post-mining period. The frequency of acentrics, however, decreased significantly, but even the lowest values remained 2-3 times higher than the values in the unexposed population.The possibility is suggested that for the long-term persistence of cytogenetic alterations the permanent production and presence of clastogenic factors might be responsible. The comparison of the two datasets suggest a long-term persistence of cytogenetic alterations above the population average values in a large fraction of persons investigated. PMID:15308832

  8. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlmann-Diaz, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 10[sup 5] copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G[sub 0], the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes.

  9. Severe aberrant glenohumeral motor patterns in a young female rower: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Timothy W; Seebauer, Jessica; Walker, Bruce; McGurk, Neal; Cooley, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Background This case features an 18-year-old female with glenohumeral dysrhythmia and subluxation-relocation patterns. This unusual case highlights the need for careful examination and consideration to the anatomical structures involved. Conventional approaches to shoulder examination include range of motion, orthopaedic tests and manual resistance tests. We also assessed the patient's cognitive ability to coordinate muscle function. With this type of assessment we found that co-contraction of local muscle groups seemed to initially improve the patients abnormal shoulder motion. With this information a rehabilitation method was instituted with a goal to maintain the improvement. Case presentation An 18-year-old female with no history of trauma, presented with painless kinesiopathology of the left shoulder (in abduction) consisting of dysrhythmia of the glenohumeral joint and early lateral rotation of the scapula. Examination also showed associated muscle atrophy of the lower trapezius and surrounding general muscle weakness. We used an untested functional assessment method in addition to more conventional methods. Exercise rehabilitation interventions were subsequently prescribed and graduated in accordance with what is known as the General Physical Rehabilitation Pyramid. Conclusion This paper presents an unusual case of aberrant shoulder movement. It highlights the need for careful examination and thought regarding the anatomical structures and normal motor patterns associated with the manoeuvre being tested. It also emphasised the use of co-contraction during examination in an attempt to immediately improve a regional dysrythmia if there is suspicion of a regional aberrant motor pattern. Further research may be warranted to test this approach. PMID:17997860

  10. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Paavonen, Juulia E; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Sarenius, Susan; Källman, Tiia; Järvelä, Irma; von Wendt, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS), are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals. PMID:15826308

  11. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  12. Left renal vein compression syndrome ("nutcracker phenomenon").

    PubMed

    Stassen, C M; Weil, E H; Janevski, B K

    1989-06-01

    Four cases are presented with clinical diagnosis of scrotal varicocele on the left side, and one case with ureter varices and left-sided haematuria as a result of compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), also known as "nutcracker phenomenon". The clinical signs and the radiological diagnostic methods of the condition are discussed. PMID:2544950

  13. The Left-Handed: "Their Sinister" History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costas, Elaine Fowler

    The history of left-handedness can provide teachers and parents a better understanding of left-handed children and give those children more pride in their difference. No child should be made to feel that he or she is abnormal because of using the left hand, although some specific instruction for these students is necessary in handwriting. Many…

  14. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2016-08-01

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field's components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field's derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope. PMID:27155359

  15. Optimal principal component analysis-based numerical phase aberration compensation method for digital holography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiasong; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Yuzhen; Zuo, Chao

    2016-03-15

    In this Letter, an accurate and highly efficient numerical phase aberration compensation method is proposed for digital holographic microscopy. Considering that most parts of the phase aberration resides in the low spatial frequency domain, a Fourier-domain mask is introduced to extract the aberrated frequency components, while rejecting components that are unrelated to the phase aberration estimation. Principal component analysis (PCA) is then performed only on the reduced-sized spectrum, and the aberration terms can be extracted from the first principal component obtained. Finally, by oversampling the reduced-sized aberration terms, the precise phase aberration map is obtained and thus can be compensated by multiplying with its conjugation. Because the phase aberration is estimated from the limited but more relevant raw data, the compensation precision is improved and meanwhile the computation time can be significantly reduced. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed technique could achieve both high compensating accuracy and robustness compared with other developed compensation methods. PMID:26977692

  16. Influence of misalignment and aberrations on antenna received power in free-space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Liying; Yang, Yuqiang; Ma, Jing; Zheng, Guoxian

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of wavefront aberrations on antenna received power in free-space laser communications, an aberration attenuation factor is proposed, based on which the power penalty at the receiver due to misalignment and primary aberrations is investigated. It is shown that antenna received power decreases gradually with increasing misalignment and aberrations. A comparison shows that tilt (misalignment) has greater influence than other primary aberrations. When the rms aberration value is 0.1λ, the received power penalties caused by tilt, astigmatism, coma, curvature, and spherical aberrations are about 40%, 36%, 35%, 24%, and 23%, respectively. In addition, the obscuration ratio of the transmitter antenna has a noticeable but relatively minor influence on the aberration attenuation factor.

  17. Successful case of pancreaticoduodenectomy with resection of the hepatic arteries preserving a single aberrant hepatic artery for a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ichida, Akihiko; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kaneko, Junichi; Aoki, Taku; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-03-01

    A 65-year-old male with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting with a duodenal ulcer was referred to our department. The tumor involved the common hepatic artery, gastroduodenal artery, left hepatic artery and the right posterior hepatic artery, but not the right anterior hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. The hepatic arteries, except the aberrant right anterior hepatic artery, were embolized using coils 18 days before the surgery. The patient underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with resection of the tumor-encased hepatic arteries, while preserving the aberrant artery. The patient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 13 with no ischemic complications. A histopathological examination revealed a grade 2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor according to the classification of the World Health Organization, and the surgical margin was negative. The patient developed hepatic metastases 16 months after surgery; hence, hepatic resection was performed. The present surgical strategy is applicable in patients with relatively low-grade pancreatic malignancies involving major hepatic arteries. PMID:24477525

  18. The BHVI-EyeMapper: Peripheral Refraction and Aberration Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Bakaraju, Ravi C.; Holden, Brien A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this article was to present the optical design of a new instrument (BHVI-EyeMapper, EM), which is dedicated to rapid peripheral wavefront measurements across the visual field for distance and near, and to compare the peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles obtained in myopic eyes with and without accommodation. Methods Central and peripheral refractive errors (M, J180, and J45) and higher-order aberrations (C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0]) were measured in 26 myopic participants (mean [±SD] age, 20.9 [±2.0] years; mean [±SD] spherical equivalent, −3.00 [±0.90] diopters [D]) corrected for distance. Measurements were performed along the horizontal visual field with (−2.00 to −5.00 D) and without (+1.00 D fogging) accommodation. Changes as a function of accommodation were compared using tilt and curvature coefficients of peripheral refraction and aberration profiles. Results As accommodation increased, the relative peripheral refraction profiles of M and J180 became significantly (p < 0.05) more negative and the profile of M became significantly (p < 0.05) more asymmetric. No significant differences were found for the J45 profiles (p > 0.05). The peripheral aberration profiles of C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0] became significantly (p < 0.05) less asymmetric as accommodation increased, but no differences were found in the curvature. Conclusions The current study showed that significant changes in peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles occurred during accommodation in myopic eyes. With its extended measurement capabilities, that is, permitting rapid peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration measurements up to visual field angles of ±50 degrees for distance and near (up to −5.00 D), the EM is a new advanced instrument that may provide additional insights in the ongoing quest to understand and monitor myopia development. PMID:25105690

  19. Recurrent Left Atrial Botyroid Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Abay, Günseli; Kocaaslan, Cemal; Günay, Rafet; Doğan, Meryem; Demirtaş, Mahmut Murat

    2016-01-01

    Primary heart tumors are extremely rare and their frequency ranges from approximately 0.01-0.3% in autopsy series. Nearly one quarter of all primary cardiac tumors are malignant tumors such as sarcoma. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the second most common malignant primary tumor of the heart following angiosarcoma.Primary cardiac tumors present with one or more of the symptoms of the classic triad: cardiac symptoms and signs resulting from intracardiac obstruction; signs of systemic embolization; and systemic or constitutional symptoms. The prognosis after surgery is usually excellent in case of benign tumors, but is unfortunately still limited in localized malignant diseases [Butany 2005].In this case report we present a 45-year-old female patient operated three times in 9 years because of left atrial tumor. PMID:27355140

  20. Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, J W; Lemole, G M

    1994-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle most often occurs after transmural myocardial infarction but may also follow cardiac operations, trauma, inflammation, or infection. In contrast to patients with true ventricular aneurysm, those with false aneurysm most commonly die of hemorrhage. Review of the reported surgical experience and of our 14 cases confirms that standard chest radiographs with an abnormal cardiac silhouette and rapidly expanding size may alert the physician to this sometimes overlooked diagnosis. Noninvasive tests such as color-flow Doppler echocardiography, 2-dimensional echocardiography, cineangiographic computed tomography, and transesophageal echocardiography allow relatively easy recognition of these apparently rare lesions with increasing frequency. Cardiac catheterization, however, is usually still necessary for a clear picture of the location and anatomy of the aneurysm and the state of the coronary arteries. Finally, a new classification is proposed, consisting of true aneurysm, false aneurysm, pseudo-false aneurysm, and mixed aneurysm. Images PMID:7888805

  1. Asymptomatic post-rheumatic giant left atrium.

    PubMed

    Özkartal, Tardu; Tanner, Felix C; Niemann, Markus

    2016-06-26

    A 78-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred to our clinic for a second opinion regarding indication for mitral valve surgery. An echocardiogram showed a moderate mitral stenosis with a concomitant severe regurgitation. The most striking feature, however, was a giant left atrium with a parasternal anteroposterior diameter of 79 mm and a left atrial volume index of 364 mL/m². There are various echocardiographic definitions of a giant left atrium, which are mainly based on measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium using M-mode in the parasternal long axis view. Since the commonly accepted method for echocardiographic evaluation of left atrial size is left atrial volume index, we propose a cut-off value of 140 mL/m(2) for the definition of a "giant left atrium". PMID:27354895

  2. Asymptomatic post-rheumatic giant left atrium

    PubMed Central

    Özkartal, Tardu; Tanner, Felix C; Niemann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    A 78-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred to our clinic for a second opinion regarding indication for mitral valve surgery. An echocardiogram showed a moderate mitral stenosis with a concomitant severe regurgitation. The most striking feature, however, was a giant left atrium with a parasternal anteroposterior diameter of 79 mm and a left atrial volume index of 364 mL/m². There are various echocardiographic definitions of a giant left atrium, which are mainly based on measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium using M-mode in the parasternal long axis view. Since the commonly accepted method for echocardiographic evaluation of left atrial size is left atrial volume index, we propose a cut-off value of 140 mL/m2 for the definition of a “giant left atrium”. PMID:27354895

  3. Electromagnetic Induction Aberration: The Possible Mechanism of Tic Douloureux

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A theory based on the principles of electromagnetic induction aberration is presented as the possible mechanism of classic trigeminal neuralgia, tic douloureux. The anatomy of the dorsal root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve at the pons in the proximity of the superior cerebellar artery presents a scenario conducive to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. When the action potentials traversing the axons in this zone of the compromised myelin come into juxtaposition with the vascular structure, the criteria for electromagnetic induction are satisfied. The laws of physics governing the phenomenon indicate that a new current, an aberration, would be produced. This could be responsible for the clinical symptoms of tic douloureux. Other clinical situations with similar features could share this mechanism. This proposed theory, a merger of anatomy, neurophysiology, and the physics of electromagnetic induction, extends the established concept of vascular compression as the etiology of tic douloureux. PMID:26180679

  4. Functional annotation of rare gene aberration drivers of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Yiu Huen; Dogruluk, Turgut; Tedeschi, Philip M.; Wardwell-Ozgo, Joanna; Lu, Hengyu; Espitia, Maribel; Nair, Nikitha; Minelli, Rosalba; Chong, Zechen; Chen, Fengju; Chang, Qing Edward; Dennison, Jennifer B.; Dogruluk, Armel; Li, Min; Ying, Haoqiang; Bertino, Joseph R.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Ittmann, Michael; Kerrigan, John; Chen, Ken; Creighton, Chad J.; Eterovic, Karina; Mills, Gordon B.; Scott, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    As we enter the era of precision medicine, characterization of cancer genomes will directly influence therapeutic decisions in the clinic. Here we describe a platform enabling functionalization of rare gene mutations through their high-throughput construction, molecular barcoding and delivery to cancer models for in vivo tumour driver screens. We apply these technologies to identify oncogenic drivers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This approach reveals oncogenic activity for rare gene aberrations in genes including NAD Kinase (NADK), which regulates NADP(H) homeostasis and cellular redox state. We further validate mutant NADK, whose expression provides gain-of-function enzymatic activity leading to a reduction in cellular reactive oxygen species and tumorigenesis, and show that depletion of wild-type NADK in PDAC cell lines attenuates cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that annotating rare aberrations can reveal important cancer signalling pathways representing additional therapeutic targets. PMID:26806015

  5. Holographic optical system for aberration corrections in laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, R. C.; Case, S. K.; Schock, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical system containing multifaceted holographic optical elements (HOEs) has been developed to correct for aberrations introduced by nonflat windows in laser Doppler velocimetry. The multifacet aberration correction approach makes it possible to record on one plate many sets of adjacent HOEs that address different measurement volume locations. By using 5-mm-diameter facets, it is practical to place 10-20 sets of holograms on one 10 x 12.5-cm plate, so that the procedure of moving the entire optical system to examine different locations may not be necessary. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin and therefore are nonabsorptive and suitable for use with high-power argon laser beams. Low f-number optics coupled with a 90-percent efficient distortion-correcting hologram in the collection side of the system yield high optical efficiency.

  6. Spherical Aberration Corrections for the Electrostatic Gridded Lens

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin,A.

    2008-05-01

    Two methods of spherical aberration corrections of an electrostatic gridded lens have been studied with ray tracing simulations. Both methods are based on modifying electrostatic field on the periphery of the lens. In a simplest case such modification is done by extending the part of the grid support on its radial periphery in axial direction. In alternative method the electric field on the radial periphery of the lens is modified by applying an optimum voltage on an electrically isolated correcting electrode. It was demonstrated, that for a given focal length the voltage on this lens can be optimized for minimum aberration The performance of lenses is presented as a lens contribution to the beam RMS normalized emittance.

  7. Functional annotation of rare gene aberration drivers of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Yiu Huen; Dogruluk, Turgut; Tedeschi, Philip M; Wardwell-Ozgo, Joanna; Lu, Hengyu; Espitia, Maribel; Nair, Nikitha; Minelli, Rosalba; Chong, Zechen; Chen, Fengju; Chang, Qing Edward; Dennison, Jennifer B; Dogruluk, Armel; Li, Min; Ying, Haoqiang; Bertino, Joseph R; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Ittmann, Michael; Kerrigan, John; Chen, Ken; Creighton, Chad J; Eterovic, Karina; Mills, Gordon B; Scott, Kenneth L

    2016-01-01

    As we enter the era of precision medicine, characterization of cancer genomes will directly influence therapeutic decisions in the clinic. Here we describe a platform enabling functionalization of rare gene mutations through their high-throughput construction, molecular barcoding and delivery to cancer models for in vivo tumour driver screens. We apply these technologies to identify oncogenic drivers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This approach reveals oncogenic activity for rare gene aberrations in genes including NAD Kinase (NADK), which regulates NADP(H) homeostasis and cellular redox state. We further validate mutant NADK, whose expression provides gain-of-function enzymatic activity leading to a reduction in cellular reactive oxygen species and tumorigenesis, and show that depletion of wild-type NADK in PDAC cell lines attenuates cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that annotating rare aberrations can reveal important cancer signalling pathways representing additional therapeutic targets. PMID:26806015

  8. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to epilepsy and associated cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Ok; Lybrand, Zane R; Ito, Naoki; Brulet, Rebecca; Tafacory, Farrah; Zhang, Ling; Good, Levi; Ure, Kerstin; Kernie, Steven G; Birnbaum, Shari G; Scharfman, Helen E; Eisch, Amelia J; Hsieh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Acute seizures after a severe brain insult can often lead to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis follows the insult but the role of adult-generated neurons in the development of chronic seizures or associated cognitive deficits remains to be determined. Here we show that the ablation of adult neurogenesis before pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in mice leads to a reduction in chronic seizure frequency. We also show that ablation of neurogenesis normalizes epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits. Remarkably, the effect of ablating adult neurogenesis before acute seizures is long lasting as it suppresses chronic seizure frequency for nearly 1 year. These findings establish a key role of neurogenesis in chronic seizure development and associated memory impairment and suggest that targeting aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis may reduce recurrent seizures and restore cognitive function following a pro-epileptic brain insult. PMID:25808087

  9. Application of pupil spherical aberration in tuning zoom lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen-Hung; Chang, Horng; Lin, Hoang Yan

    2012-06-01

    Fine tuning the performance of a zoom lens, at the final design stage, is still a challenging problem for lens designers. This is mainly due to the difficulties in setting up a reliable criterion as the discriminator. In this paper, following some previous studies on pupil spherical aberration (PSA, denoted as SVI) (Wynne 1952 Proc. Phys. Soc. 65 429-37, Kidger 1996 Proc. SPIE 2774 722-7) where the conditions for invariance of Seidel aberration during conjugate changes were given, a simple method was derived to analyze the steady zone of a zoom lens variator. A previously designed zoom system (Laikin 2006 Lens Design 3rd edn (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press) pp 393-5) was selected as an example and it was shown how its image quality can be balanced and improved computationally. The potential application of our method was also addressed in the conclusion.

  10. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1998-01-01

    A method for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe.

  11. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method is disclosed for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe. 11 figs.

  12. Evaluation of an automated karyotyping system for chromosome aberration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prichard, Howard M.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome aberration analysis is a promising complement to conventional radiation dosimetry, particularly in the complex radiation fields encountered in the space environment. The capabilities of a recently developed automated karyotyping system were evaluated both to determine current capabilities and limitations and to suggest areas where future development should be emphasized. Cells exposed to radiometric chemicals and to photon and particulate radiation were evaluated by manual inspection and by automated karyotyping. It was demonstrated that the evaluated programs were appropriate for image digitization, storage, and transmission. However, automated and semi-automated scoring techniques must be advanced significantly if in-flight chromosome aberration analysis is to be practical. A degree of artificial intelligence may be necessary to realize this goal.

  13. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to epilepsy and associated cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Ok; Lybrand, Zane R.; Ito, Naoki; Brulet, Rebecca; Tafacory, Farrah; Zhang, Ling; Good, Levi; Ure, Kerstin; Kernie, Steven G.; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Scharfman, Helen E.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Hsieh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Acute seizures after a severe brain insult can often lead to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis follows the insult but the role of adult-generated neurons in the development of chronic seizures or associated cognitive deficits remains to be determined. Here we show that the ablation of adult neurogenesis before pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in mice leads to a reduction in chronic seizure frequency. We also show that ablation of neurogenesis normalizes epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits. Remarkably, the effect of ablating adult neurogenesis before acute seizures is long lasting as it suppresses chronic seizure frequency for nearly 1 year. These findings establish a key role of neurogenesis in chronic seizure development and associated memory impairment and suggest that targeting aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis may reduce recurrent seizures and restore cognitive function following a pro-epileptic brain insult. PMID:25808087

  14. Telomere dysfunction drives aberrant hematopoietic differentiation and Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Colla, Simona; Ong, Derrick Sek Tong; Ogoti, Yamini; Marchesini, Matteo; Mistry, Nipun A.; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Ang, Sonny A.; Storti, Paola; Viale, Andrea; Giuliani, Nicola; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Gomez, Irene Ganan; Bristow, Christopher A.; Estecio, Marcos; Weksberg, David C.; Ho, Yan Wing; Hu, Baoli; Genovese, Giannicola; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Multani, Asha S.; Jiang, Shan; Hua, Sujun; Ryan, Michael C.; Carugo, Alessandro; Nezi, Luigi; Wei, Yue; Yang, Hui; D’Anca, Marianna; Zhang, Li; Gaddis, Sarah; Gong, Ting; Horner, James W.; Heffernan, Timothy P.; Jones, Philip; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Liang, Han; Kantarjian, Hagop; Wang, Y. Alan; Chin, Lynda; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) risk correlates with advancing age, therapy-induced DNA damage, and/or shorter telomeres but whether telomere erosion directly induces MDS is unknown. Here, we provide the genetic evidence that telomere dysfunction-induced DNA damage drives classical MDS phenotypes and alters common myeloid progenitor (CMP) differentiation by repressing the expression of mRNA splicing/processing genes, including srsf2. RNA-Seq analyses of telomere dysfunctional CMP identified aberrantly spliced transcripts linked to pathways relevant to MDS pathogenesis such as genome stability, DNA repair, chromatin remodeling and histone modification, which are also enriched in mouse CMP haploinsufficient for srsf2 and in CD34+ CMML patient cells harboring srsf2 mutation. Together, our studies establish an intimate link across telomere biology, aberrant RNA splicing and myeloid progenitor differentiation. PMID:25965571

  15. EUV phase-shifting masks and aberration monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yunfei; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2002-07-01

    Rigorous electromagnetic simulation with TEMPEST is used to examine the use of phase-shifting masks in EUV lithography. The effects of oblique incident illumination and mask patterning by ion-mixing of multilayers are analyzed. Oblique incident illumination causes streamers at absorber edges and causes position shifting in aerial images. The diffraction waves between ion-mixed and pristine multilayers are observed. The phase-shifting caused by stepped substrates is simulated and images show that it succeeds in creation of phase-shifting effects. The diffraction process at the phase boundary is also analyzed. As an example of EUV phase-shifting masks, a coma pattern and probe based aberration monitor is simulated and aerial images are formed under different levels of coma aberration. The probe signal rises quickly as coma increases as designed.

  16. Solutions with precise prediction for thermal aberration error in low-k1 immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Kazuya; Mimotogi, Akiko; Kono, Takuya; Aoyama, Hajime; Ogata, Taro; Kita, Naonori; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2013-04-01

    Thermal aberration becomes a serious problem in the production of semiconductors for which low-k1 immersion lithography with a strong off-axis illumination, such as dipole setting, is used. The illumination setting localizes energy of the light in the projection lens, bringing about localized temperature rise. The temperature change varies lens refractive index and thus generates aberrations. The phenomenon is called thermal aberration. For realizing manufacturability of fine patterns with high productivity, thermal aberration control is important. Since heating areas in the projection lens are determined by source shape and distribution of diffracted light by a mask, the diffracted pupilgram convolving illumination source shape with diffraction distribution can be calculated using mask layout data for the thermal aberration prediction. Thermal aberration is calculated as a function of accumulated irradiation power. We have evaluated the thermal aberration computational prediction and control technology "Thermal Aberration Optimizer" (ThAO) on a Nikon immersion system. The thermal aberration prediction consists of two steps. The first step is prediction of the diffraction map on the projection pupil. The second step is computing thermal aberration from the diffraction map using a lens thermal model and an aberration correction function. We performed a verification test for ThAO using a mask of 1x-nm memory and strong off-axis illumination. We clarified the current performance of thermal aberration prediction, and also confirmed that the impacts of thermal aberration of NSR-S621D on CD and overlay for our 1x-nm memory pattern are very small. Accurate thermal aberration prediction with ThAO will enable thermal aberration risk-free lithography for semiconductor chip production.

  17. Electron Vortex Production and Control Using Aberration Induced Diffraction Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, T. C.; Weyland, M.; Paganin, D. M.; Simula, T. P.; Eastwood, S. A.; Morgan, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    An aberration corrected electron microscope is used to create electron diffraction catastrophes, containing arrays of intensity zeros threading vortex cores. Vortices are ascribed to these arrays using catastrophe theory, scalar diffraction integrals, and experimentally retrieved phase maps. From measured wave function phases, obtained using focal-series phase retrieval, the orbital angular momentum density is mapped for highly astigmatic electron probes. We observe vortex rings and topological reconnections of nodal lines by tracking the vortex cores using the retrieved phases.

  18. Aberration analysis and efficiency improvement of a bidirectional optical subassembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Huang, Zhangdi; Yu, Ziyan; Qian, Xiaoshi; Xu, Fei; Chen, Beckham; Lu, Yanqing

    2009-10-01

    An approach to improve the coupling efficiency of bidirectional optical subassembly (BOSA) modules is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. We analyzed the wavefront aberration coefficients of a typical BOSA. It was found that the 45-deg wavelength filter induces coma and astigmatism, and then it further deteriorates the laser diode to fiber coupling. We measured the BOSA efficiencies based on a series of different filters. For a typical 0.5-mm filter, 25% coupling efficiency improvement was achieved by optimizing the filter parameters.

  19. Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes.

    PubMed

    Thibos, Larry N; Applegate, Raymond A; Schwiegerling, James T; Webb, Robert

    2002-01-01

    In response to a perceived need in the vision community, an OSA taskforce was formed at the 1999 topical meeting on vision science and its applications (VSIA-99) and charged with developing consensus recommendations on definitions, conventions, and standards for reporting of optical aberrations of human eyes. Progress reports were presented at the 1999 OSA annual meeting and at VSIA-2000 by the chairs of three taskforce subcommittees on (1) reference axes, (2) describing functions, and (3) model eyes. PMID:12361175

  20. Stewart platform kinematics and secondary mirror aberration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.; Marty, L.

    2006-06-01

    This work deals with active correction of the aberrations in a telescope by moving the secondary mirror. A special attention is here dedicated to the case of a secondary mirror whose motions are controlled by a 6-6 Stewart Platform (generally called by astronomers simply "hexapod", even if this term is more general). The kinematics of the device is studied; an iterative algorithm to solve the non trivial forward kinematics problem is described.

  1. An adaptive optic for correcting low-order wavefront aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C A; Wilhelmsen, J

    1999-09-02

    Adaptive Optics used for correcting low-order wavefront aberrations were tested and compared using interferometry, beam propagation, and a far-field test. Results confirm that the design and manufacturing specifications were met. Experimental data also confirms theoretical performance expectations, indicating the usefulness of these optics (especially in a laser-beam processing system), and identifying the resulting differences between the two fabrication methods used to make the optics.

  2. Antimutagenic effects of garlic extract on chromosomal aberrations.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Taneja, Pankaj

    2002-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used since ancient times, as a spice and also for its medicinal properties. In present set of investigations antimutagenic effect of garlic extract (GE) has been evaluated using 'in vivo chromosomal aberration assay' in Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide (CP), a well-known mutagen, was given at a single dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. Pretreatment with 1, 2.5 and 5% of freshly prepared GE was given through oral intubation for 5 days prior to CP administration. Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24 and 48 h and their bone marrow tissue was analyzed for chromosomal damage. The animals of the positive control group (CP alone) shows a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations both at 24 and 48 h sampling time. GE, alone did not significantly induced aberrations at either sampling time, confirming its non-mutagenicity. However in the GE pre-treated and CP post-treated groups, a dose dependent decrease in cytogenetic damage was recorded. A significant suppression in the chromosomal aberrations was recorded following pretreatment with 2.5 and 5% GE administration. The anticytotoxic effects of GE were also evident, as observed by significant increase in mitotic index, when compared to positive control group. Reduction in CP induced clastogenicity by GE was evident at 24 h and to a much greater extent at 48 h of cell cycle. Thus results of the present investigations revealed that GE has chemopreventive potential against CP induced chromosomal mutations in Swiss albino mice. PMID:11790451

  3. Alignment induced aberration fields of next generation telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Tobias; Thompson, Kevin; Rolland, Jannick

    2008-08-01

    There is a long list of new ground-based optical telescopes being considered around the world. While many are conventional Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien designs, some are from a family of three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes that are configured with an offset field (but still obscured) that trace back to designs developed in the 1970s for military applications. The nodal theory of aberrations, developed in the late 1970s, provides valuable insights into the response of TMA telescopes to alignment errors. Here it is shown for the first time that the alignment limiting aberration in any TMA telescope is a 3rd order astigmatism term with a new field dependence, termed field-asymmetric, field-linear 3rd order astigmatism. It is also shown that a TMA telescope under assembly that is only measured to have excellent/perfect performance onaxis is not aligned in any significant way. This is because the new astigmatic term is always zero on-axis, even though it is large over the field of view. Knowledge of this intrinsic misalignment aberration field for any TMA telescope aids greatly in ensuring it can be aligned successfully. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is used an example of a relevant TMA system.

  4. Instantaneous Helical Axis Methodology to Identify Aberrant Neck Motion

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Arin M.; Yelisetti, Vishal; Schulz, Craig A.; Bronfort, Gert; Downing, Joseph; Keefe, Daniel F.; Nuckley, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neck pain afflicts 30-50% of the U.S. population annually; however we currently have poor diagnostic differentiation techniques to inform individualized treatment. Planar neck kinematics has been shown to be correlated with neck pain, but neck motion is much more complex than pure planar activities. Our objective was to define a methodology for determining aberrant neck kinematics and assess it. Methods We examined a complex neck kinematic activity of neck circumduction, computed the pathway of motion using the instantaneous helical axis approach in 81 patients with non-specific neck pain and in 20 non-matched symptom free subjects. Neck circumduction, or rolling of the head, represents a complex neck kinematic activity, investigating the innate coupled motion of the cervical spine at the end ranges of motion in all directions. Instance of discontinuities in the helical axis patterns, or folds, were identified and labeled as occurrences of aberrant motion. Findings The instances of aberrant motion, or folds, which are nearly non-existent in the healthy sample group, are present in both the pre and post treatment neck pain patients. Following a treatment intervention of the symptomatic patients, pain and neck disability index decreased significantly (p<0.001) concomitant with a decrease in the number of folds (p=0.021). Interpretation The present study highlights a new technique using an instantaneous helical axis approach to detect subtle abnormalities in the pathway of motion of the head about the trunk, during a neck circumduction exercise. PMID:23911108

  5. Chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia cells exposed to heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, T.; Cucinotta, F.; George, K.; Wu, H.; Shigematsu, N.; Furusawa, Y.; Uno, T.; Isobe, K.; Ito, H.

    Understanding of biological effects of heavy ions is important to assess healt h risk in space. One of the most important issues may be to take into account individual susceptibility. Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) cells are known to exhibit abnormal responses to radiations but the mechanism of hyper radiosensitivity of A-T still remains unknown. We report chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts and AT fibroblasts exposed to low- and high-LET radiations. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique combined with chromosome- painting technique was applied to score chromosome aberrations in G2/M-phase cells. Following gamma irradiation, GM02052 cells were approximately 5 times more sensitive to g-rays than AG1522 cells. GM02052 cells had a much higher frequency of deletions and misrejoining than AG1522 cells. When the frequency of complex type aberrations was compared, GM02052 cells showed more than 10 times higher frequency than AG1522 cells. The results will be compared with those obtained from high-LET irradiations.

  6. Phase aberration correction by correlation in digital holographic adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a phase aberration correction method based on the correlation between the complex full-field and guide-star holograms in the context of digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO). Removal of a global quadratic phase term before the correlation operation plays an important role in the correction. Correlation operation can remove the phase aberration at the entrance pupil plane and automatically refocus the corrected optical field. Except for the assumption that most aberrations lie at or close to the entrance pupil, the presented method does not impose any other constraints on the optical systems. Thus, it greatly enhances the flexibility of the optical design for DHAO systems in vision science and microscopy. Theoretical studies show that the previously proposed Fourier transform DHAO (FTDHAO) is just a special case of this general correction method, where the global quadratic phase term and a defocus term disappear. Hence, this correction method realizes the generalization of FTDHAO into arbitrary DHAO systems. The effectiveness and robustness of this method are demonstrated by simulations and experiments. PMID:23669707

  7. Aberrant Vimentin Methylation Is Characteristic of Upper Gastrointestinal Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Moinova, Helen; Leidner, Rom S.; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Lutterbaugh, James; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Chen, Yanwen; Chak, Amitabh; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Willis, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Background We have previously established aberrant DNA methylation of Vimentin exon-1 (VIM methylation) as a common epigenetic event in colon cancer and as a biomarker for detecting colon neoplasia. We now examine VIM methylation in neoplasia of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Methods Using a quantitative real-time Methylation-Specific PCR assay we tested for VIM methylation in archival specimens of esophageal and gastric neoplasia. Results We find that acquisition of aberrant VIM methylation is highly common in these neoplasms, but largely absent in controls. The highest frequency of VIM methylation was detected in lesions of the distal esophagus, including 91% of Barrett’s esophagus (BE, n=11), 100% of high grade dysplasia (HGD, n=5), and 81% of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC, n=26), but absent in controls (n=9). VIM methylation similarly was detected in 87% of signet ring (n=15) and 53% of intestinal type gastric cancers (n=17). Moreover, in tests of cytology brushings VIM methylation proved detectable in 100% of BE cases (n=7), 100% of HGD cases (n=4), and 83% of EAC cases (n=18), but was absent in all controls (n=5). Conclusions These findings establish aberrant VIM methylation as a highly common epigenetic alteration in neoplasia of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and demonstrate that Barrett’s esophagus, even without dysplasia, already contains epigenetic alterations characteristic of adenocarcinoma. Impact These findings suggest VIM methylation as a biomarker of upper gastrointestinal neoplasia with potential for development as molecular cytology in esophageal screening. PMID:22315367

  8. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Biankin, Andrew V.; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Johns, Amber L.; Miller, David K.; Wilson, Peter J.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K.; Cowley, Mark J.; Gardiner, Brooke B.; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Gill, Anthony J.; Pinho, Andreia V.; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J. Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R. Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L.; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D.; Colvin, Emily K.; Nagrial, Adnan M.; Humphrey, Emily S.; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T.; Chantrill, Lorraine A.; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Kench, James G.; Lovell, Jessica A.; Daly, Roger J.; Merrett, Neil D.; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q.; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M.; Fisher, William E.; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Hodges, Sally E.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R.; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J.; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E.; Yung, Christina K.; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Morgan, Richard A.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A.; Mann, Karen M.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Adams, David J.; Largaespada, David A.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Rust, Alistair G.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Tuveson, David A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Wheeler, David A.; Pearson, John V.; McPherson, John D.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:23103869

  9. Estrogen treatment induces MLL aberrations in human lymphoblastoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Sabine; Du, Nga T.; Le, Hongan B.; Singh, Sheetal; Loredo, Grace A.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicates increased risk of infant acute leukemia involving MLL gene aberrations with use of oral contraceptives. To determine whether estrogens might be implicated, we examined the effect of estradiol (E2) or 4-OH-E2 in an in vitro model of translocation susceptibility. Genomic DNA from the TK6 human lymphoblastoid cell line was screened by ligation mediated PCR and inverse PCR at a rearrangement hot spot within the MLL breakpoint cluster region to detect DNA aberrations. An increase in DNA double strand breaks was observed within this region after exposure to either E2 or 4-OH-E2. An increase in the frequency of MLL translocations was only found after exposure to E2. Induction of cleavage due to increased activation of apoptotic nucleases was excluded by pre-treatment with the pancaspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk. We conclude that concentrations of E2 and 4-OH-E2 that may occur during pregnancy, or during use of oral contraceptives, can cause aberrations of the MLL gene and could thus be a factor in the early events of leukemogenesis occurring in utero. PMID:19264358

  10. Polarization Aberrations in Astronomical Telescopes: The Point Spread Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckinridge, James B.; Lam, Wai Sze T.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of the image of the point spread function (PSF) is necessary to optimize astronomical coronagraph masks and to understand potential sources of errors in astrometric measurements. The PSF for astronomical telescopes and instruments depends not only on geometric aberrations and scalar wave diffraction but also on those wavefront errors introduced by the physical optics and the polarization properties of reflecting and transmitting surfaces within the optical system. These vector wave aberrations, called polarization aberrations, result from two sources: (1) the mirror coatings necessary to make the highly reflecting mirror surfaces, and (2) the optical prescription with its inevitable non-normal incidence of rays on reflecting surfaces. The purpose of this article is to characterize the importance of polarization aberrations, to describe the analytical tools to calculate the PSF image, and to provide the background to understand how astronomical image data may be affected. To show the order of magnitude of the effects of polarization aberrations on astronomical images, a generic astronomical telescope configuration is analyzed here by modeling a fast Cassegrain telescope followed by a single 90° deviation fold mirror. All mirrors in this example use bare aluminum reflective coatings and the illumination wavelength is 800 nm. Our findings for this example telescope are: (1) The image plane irradiance distribution is the linear superposition of four PSF images: one for each of the two orthogonal polarizations and one for each of two cross-coupled polarization terms. (2) The PSF image is brighter by 9% for one polarization component compared to its orthogonal state. (3) The PSF images for two orthogonal linearly polarization components are shifted with respect to each other, causing the PSF image for unpolarized point sources to become slightly elongated (elliptical) with a centroid separation of about 0.6 mas. This is important for both astrometry

  11. Measurements of Pupillary Diameter and Wavefront Aberrations in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Mehmet Metin; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To show whether pregnancy affects the measurements of pupillary diameter and wavefront (WF) aberrations. Methods. This was a case-control study including 34 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and age-matched 34 nonpregnant women. Only women who had no ocular abnormalities and no refractive error were included. We measured photopic and mesopic pupil diameter and WF aberrations at the third trimester and at the second postpartum month. Measurements of the right eyes were used in this study. The differences between groups were analysed by paired t-test and t-test. Results. Pregnant women's mean photopic pupil size in the third trimester was significantly higher than in postpartum period and in control group (3.74 ± 0.77, 3.45 ± 0.53, and 3.49 ± 0.15 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). Mesopic pupil size in the third trimester was also higher than in postpartum period and in control group (6.77 ± 0.52, 6.42 ± 0.55, and 6.38 ± 0.21 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). RMS-3 and RMS-5 values were higher in pregnancy but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pregnancy increased photopic and mesopic pupil size significantly but did not increase wavefront aberrations notably. Increased pupil size may be due to increased sympathetic activity during pregnancy. And this activity can be noninvasively determined by measuring pupil size. PMID:26998383

  12. Measurement of wavefront aberrations and lens deformation in the accommodated eye with optical coherence tomography-equipped wavefront system.

    PubMed

    He, Ji C; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-04-21

    To quantitatively approach the relationship between optical changes in an accommodated eye and the geometrical deformation of its crystalline lens, a long scan-depth anterior segment OCT equipped wavefront sensor was developed and integrated with a Badal system. With this system, accommodation was stimulated up to 6.0D in the left eye and also measured in the same eye for three subjects. High correlations between the accommodative responses of refractive power and the radius of the anterior lens surface were found for the three subjects (r>0.98). The change in spherical aberration was also highly correlated with the change in lens thickness (r>0.98). The measurement was very well repeated at a 2nd measurement session on the same day for the three subjects and after two weeks for one subject. The novelty of incorporating the Badal system into the OCT equipped wavefront sensor eliminated axial misalignment of the measurement system with the test eye due to accommodative vergence, as in the contralateral paradigm. The design also allowed the wavefront sensor to capture conjugated sharp Hartmann-Shack images in accommodated eyes to accurately analyze wavefront aberrations. In addition, this design extended the accommodation range up to 10.0D. By using this system, for the first time, we demonstrated linear relationships of the changes between the refractive power and the lens curvature and also between the spherical aberration and the lens thickness during accommodation in vivo. This new system provides an accurate and useful technique to quantitatively study accommodation. PMID:24787861

  13. Aberrant parietal cortex developmental trajectories in girls with Turner syndrome and related visual-spatial cognitive development: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Green, Tamar; Chromik, Lindsay C; Mazaika, Paul K; Fierro, Kyle; Raman, Mira M; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Hong, David S; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-09-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) arises from partial or complete absence of the X-chromosome in females. Girls with TS show deficits in visual-spatial skills as well as reduced brain volume and surface area in the parietal cortex which supports these cognitive functions. Thus, measuring the developmental trajectory of the parietal cortex and the associated visual-spatial cognition in TS may provide novel insights into critical brain-behavior associations. In this longitudinal study, we acquired structural MRI data and assessed visual-spatial skills in 16 (age: 8.23 ± 2.5) girls with TS and 13 age-matched controls over two time-points. Gray and white matter volume, surface area and cortical thickness were calculated from surfaced based segmentation of bilateral parietal cortices, and the NEPSY Arrows subtest was used to assess visual-spatial ability. Volumetric and cognitive scalars were modeled to obtain estimates of age-related change. The results show aberrant growth of white matter volume (P = 0.011, corrected) and surface area (P = 0.036, corrected) of the left superior parietal regions during childhood in girls with TS. Other parietal sub-regions were significantly smaller in girls with TS at both time-points but did not show different growth trajectories relative to controls. Furthermore, we found that visual-spatial skills showed a widening deficit for girls with TS relative to controls (P = 0.003). Young girls with TS demonstrate an aberrant trajectory of parietal cortical and cognitive development during childhood. Elucidating aberrant neurodevelopmental trajectories in this population is critical for determining specific stages of brain maturation that are particularly dependent on TS-related genetic and hormonal factors. PMID:25044604

  14. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Li, Mingli; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wanjun; Li, Yinfei; Jiang, Lijun; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chaohua; Hu, Xun; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males), compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males). Maps of degree centrality (DC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were constructed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We found that: (1) Selective DC reduction was observed in the right putamen (Put_R) in male patients and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in female patients; (2) Functional connectivity analysis (using Put_R and MFG as seeds) found that male and female patients have disturbed functional integration in two separate networks, i.e., the sensorimotor network and the default mode network; (3) Significant ALFF alterations were also observed in these two networks in both genders; (4) Sex specific brain functional alterations were associated with various symptoms in patients. These results suggested that sex-specific patterns of functional aberration existed in schizophrenia, and these patterns were associated with the clinical features both in male and female patients. PMID:26193256

  15. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wei; Li, Mingli; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wanjun; Li, Yinfei; Jiang, Lijun; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chaohua; Hu, Xun; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males), compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males). Maps of degree centrality (DC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were constructed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We found that: (1) Selective DC reduction was observed in the right putamen (Put_R) in male patients and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in female patients; (2) Functional connectivity analysis (using Put_R and MFG as seeds) found that male and female patients have disturbed functional integration in two separate networks, i.e., the sensorimotor network and the default mode network; (3) Significant ALFF alterations were also observed in these two networks in both genders; (4) Sex specific brain functional alterations were associated with various symptoms in patients. These results suggested that sex-specific patterns of functional aberration existed in schizophrenia, and these patterns were associated with the clinical features both in male and female patients. PMID:26193256

  16. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy

    PubMed Central

    Flodin, P.; Martinsen, S.; Mannerkorpi, K.; Löfgren, M.; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I.; Kosek, E.; Fransson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity. PMID:26413476

  17. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm after reimplantation procedure.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Yoshimasa; Yoshitake, Michio; Matsumura, Yoko; Kinami, Hiroo; Takagi, Tomomitsu

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare, but potentially lethal, complication because of the high risk of rupture and high mortality of repair. We report a 64-year-old man with Marfan syndrome who underwent the reimplantation valve-sparing aortic root replacement complicated by a postoperative left ventricular pseudoaneurysm that required urgent repair. Careful handling of the aortic root is required to avoid a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, particularly in patients with connective tissue disorder. PMID:24917204

  18. Photonic crystal with left-handed components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markoš, Peter

    2016-02-01

    We show that the periodic array of left-handed cylinders possesses a rich spectrum of guided modes when the negative permeability of cylinders equals exactly to minus value of permeability of embedding media. These resonances strongly influence propagation of electromagnetic waves through photonic structures made from left-handed materials. A series of Fano resonances excited by incident wave destroys the band frequency spectrum of square array of left-handed cylinders and increases considerably the absorption of transmitted waves.

  19. Aberrant Resting-State Functional Connectivity in the Salience Network of Adolescent Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Endestad, Tor; Melinder, Annika Maria D.; Øie, Merete Glenne; Sevenius, Andre; Bruun Wyller, Vegard

    2016-01-01

    Neural network investigations are currently absent in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). In this study, we examine whether the core intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are altered in adolescent CFS patients. Eighteen adolescent patients with CFS and 18 aged matched healthy adolescent control subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). Data was analyzed using dual-regression independent components analysis, which is a data-driven approach for the identification of independent brain networks. Intrinsic connectivity was evaluated in the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and central executive network (CEN). Associations between network characteristics and symptoms of CFS were also explored. Adolescent CFS patients displayed a significant decrease in SN functional connectivity to the right posterior insula compared to healthy comparison participants, which was related to fatigue symptoms. Additionally, there was an association between pain intensity and SN functional connectivity to the left middle insula and caudate that differed between adolescent patients and healthy comparison participants. Our findings of insula dysfunction and its association with fatigue severity and pain intensity in adolescent CFS demonstrate an aberration of the salience network which might play a role in CFS pathophysiology. PMID:27414048

  20. Aberrant structural and functional connectivity in the salience network and central executive network circuit in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Chen, Xingui; He, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Lu; Wang, Kai; Qiu, Bensheng

    2016-08-01

    Consistent structural and functional abnormities have been detected in the salience network (SN) and the central-executive network (CEN) in schizophrenia. SN, known for its critical role in switching CEN and default-mode network (DMN) during cognitively demanding tasks, is proved to show aberrant regulation on the interaction between DMN and CEN in schizophrenia. However, it has not been elucidated whether there is a direct alteration of structural and functional connectivity between SN and CEN. 22 schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls were recruited for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in present study. The results show that schizophrenia patients had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in right inferior long fasciculus (ILF), left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and callosal body than healthy controls. Significantly reduced functional connectivity was also found between right fronto-insular cortex (rFIC) and right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC). FA in right ILF was positively correlated with the functional connectivity of rFIC-rPPC. Therefore, we proposed a disruption of structural and functional connectivity and a positive anatomo-functional relationship in SN-CEN circuit, which might account for a core feature of schizophrenia. PMID:27233217

  1. Aberrant Resting-State Functional Connectivity in the Salience Network of Adolescent Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wortinger, Laura Anne; Endestad, Tor; Melinder, Annika Maria D; Øie, Merete Glenne; Sevenius, Andre; Bruun Wyller, Vegard

    2016-01-01

    Neural network investigations are currently absent in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). In this study, we examine whether the core intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are altered in adolescent CFS patients. Eighteen adolescent patients with CFS and 18 aged matched healthy adolescent control subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). Data was analyzed using dual-regression independent components analysis, which is a data-driven approach for the identification of independent brain networks. Intrinsic connectivity was evaluated in the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and central executive network (CEN). Associations between network characteristics and symptoms of CFS were also explored. Adolescent CFS patients displayed a significant decrease in SN functional connectivity to the right posterior insula compared to healthy comparison participants, which was related to fatigue symptoms. Additionally, there was an association between pain intensity and SN functional connectivity to the left middle insula and caudate that differed between adolescent patients and healthy comparison participants. Our findings of insula dysfunction and its association with fatigue severity and pain intensity in adolescent CFS demonstrate an aberration of the salience network which might play a role in CFS pathophysiology. PMID:27414048

  2. Aberrant Resting-State Functional Connectivity Density in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Related Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Hua-Wang; Tian, Li; Han, Lu-Jun; Li, Jing; Qiu, Ying-Wei; Jiang, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Xue-Lin; Zhang, Rong; Xie, Chuan-Miao

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that cirrhosis may affect functional connectivity among various brain regions in patients prior to onset of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, most investigators have focused mainly on alterations in functional connectivity strengths, and the changes in functional connectivity density (FCD) are largely unknown. Here, we investigated alterations in resting-state FCD in patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBV-RC) without overt HE. Totally, 31 patients with HBV-RC without overt HE and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI examinations. FCD mapping was employed to compute local and global FCD maps. Then, short-range and long-range FCD values were calculated and voxel-based comparisons were performed between the two groups. The HBV-RC group showed significant decreases in FCD, including decreased short-range FCDs in the bilateral middle cingulum gyrus/precuneus, the bilateral cuneus, and the left lingual gyrus/inferior occipital gyrus and decreased long-range FCD in the bilateral cuneus/precuneus. In addition, the decreased long-range FCD in the bilateral cuneus/precuneus in the HBV-RC group was related to performance on the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) test. These findings suggest aberrant functional connectivity density in cirrhotic patients prior to overt HE onset, which may provide better insight into understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the cirrhotic-related cognitive impairment. PMID:27403426

  3. Anarchy, socialism and a Darwinian left.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Ellen

    2006-03-01

    In A Darwinian left Peter Singer aims to reconcile Darwinian theory with left wing politics, using evolutionary game theory and in particular a model proposed by Robert Axelrod, which shows that cooperation can be an evolutionarily successful strategy. In this paper I will show that whilst Axelrod's model can give support to a kind of left wing politics, it is not the kind that Singer himself envisages. In fact, it is shown that there are insurmountable problems for the idea of increasing Axelrodian cooperation within a welfare state. My surprising conclusion will be that a Darwinian left worthy of the name would be anarchistic. PMID:16473272

  4. Alteration of interictal brain activity in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in the left dominant hemisphere: a resting-state MEG study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Zhao, Tiezhu; Wu, Yong; Liu, Hongyi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Resting MEG activities were compared between patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and normal controls. Using SAMg2, the activities of MEG data were reconstructed and normalized. Significantly elevated SAMg2 signals were found in LTLE patients in the left temporal lobe and medial structures. Marked decreases of SAMg2 signals were found in the wide extratemporal lobe regions, such as the bilateral visual cortex. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between the seizure frequency and brain activities of the abnormal regions after the multiple linear regression analysis. These results suggested that the aberrant brain activities not only were related to the epileptogenic zones, but also existed in other extratemporal regions in patients with LTLE. The activities of the aberrant regions could be further damaged with the increase of the seizure frequency. Our findings indicated that LTLE could be a multifocal disease, including complex epileptic networks and brain dysfunction networks. PMID:25136558

  5. Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

    2008-04-01

    The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative electron

  6. Acute Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Pupil Size and Ocular Aberrations: A Pre- and Postsmoking Study

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Uzeyir; Gundogan, Fatih C.; Dinc, Umut Aslı; Yolcu, Umit; Ilhan, Abdullah; Altun, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the acute effects of cigarette smoking on photopic and mesopic pupil sizes and wavefront aberrations. Methods. Cigarette smoker volunteers were recruited in the study. Photopic and mesopic pupil sizes and total ocular aberrations were measured before smoking and immediately after smoking. All volunteers were asked to smoke a single cigarette containing 1.0 mg nicotine. Pupil sizes and total ocular aberrations were assessed by optical path difference scanning system (OPD-Scan II ARK-10000, NIDEK). Only the right eyes were considered for statistical analysis. The changes of pupil size and total ocular aberrations after smoking were tested for significance by Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results. Mean photopic pupil size decreased from 3.52 ± 0.73 mm to 3.29 ± 0.58 mm (P = 0.001) after smoking. Mean mesopic pupil size was also decreased from 6.42 ± 0.75 mm to 6.14 ± 0.75 mm after smoking (P = 0.001). There was a decrease in all the measured components of aberrations (total wavefront aberration, higher-order aberration, total coma, total trefoil, total tetrafoil, total spherical aberration and total higher-order aberration) after smoking; however the differences were insignificant for all (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Our results indicate that pupil constricts after smoking. On the other hand, smoking does not alter ocular aberrations. PMID:25699189

  7. Nonrandom chromosomal aberrations and cytogenetic heterogeneity in gallbladder carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gorunova, L; Parada, L A; Limon, J; Jin, Y; Hallén, M; Hägerstrand, I; Iliszko, M; Wajda, Z; Johansson, B

    1999-12-01

    Chromosome banding analysis of 11 short-term cultured gallbladder carcinomas revealed acquired clonal aberrations in seven tumors (five primary and two metastases). Three of these had one clone, whereas the remaining four were cytogenetically heterogeneous, displaying two to seven aberrant clones. Of a total of 21 abnormal clones, 18 had highly complex karyotypes and three exhibited simple numerical deviations. Double minutes and homogeneously staining regions were observed in one and two carcinomas, respectively. To characterize the karyotypic profile of gallbladder cancer more precisely, we have combined the present findings with our three previously reported cases, thereby providing the largest cytogenetic database on this tumor type to date. A total of 287 chromosomal breakpoints were identified, 251 of which were found in the present study. Chromosome 7 was rearranged most frequently, followed by chromosomes 1, 3, 11, 6, 5, and 8. The bands preferentially involved were 1p32, 1p36, 1q32, 3p21, 6p21, 7p13, 7q11, 7q32, 19p13, 19q13, and 22q13. Nine recurrent abnormalities could, for the first time, be identified in gallbladder carcinoma: del(3)(p13), i(5)(p10), del(6)(q13), del(9)(p13), del(16)(q22), del(17)(p11), i(17)(q10), del(19)(p13), and i(21)(q10). The most common partial or whole-arm gains involved 3q, 5p, 7p, 7q, 8q, 11q, 13q, and 17q, and the most frequent partial or whole-arm losses affected 3p, 4q, 5q, 9p, 10p, 10q, 11p, 14p, 14q, 15p, 17p, 19p, 21p, 21q, and Xp. These chromosomal aberrations and imbalances provide some starting points for molecular analyses of genomic regions that may harbor genes of pathogenetic importance in gallbladder carcinogenesis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 26:312-321, 1999. PMID:10534766

  8. Research on stitching interferometry aspheric surface with correcting systemic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yujing; Han, Guihua

    2010-10-01

    Sub-aperture stitching interferometry was originally used for measurement of large-diameter plane and spherical, it is a technological means that uses small-caliber interferometer to test each parts of optical component, and then all the subaperture data are combined or stitched together to create a map of the full surface. Correcting adjust errors of three directions is currently stitching algorithm for realizing the stitching testing aspheric surface. But without spatial analysis for bias errors of positioning mechanism, we can't know exactly the actual appearance of bias errors, consequently will not be able to implement a accuracy stitching.. Because the accuracy of individual stitching can't meet the accuracy requirements, the test result of stitching interferometry aspheric surface will not meet requirements of accuracy due to the errors accumulation. Correcting systemic aberration method is presented to solve the problem mentioned above. It is based on the analysis of the actual impact appearance of location components' bias error in interferometry. The actual appearance is exactly the same after comparing with the Seidle aberration. a correction bias errors model of stitching measure is found based on the analysis, and it proposed an accuracy stitching measurement for quadric surface measurement. It gets the stitching coefficients with least square fitting method, and acquires the estimate values of bias errors in sub-aperture stitching components, and corrects the high-order systemic aberration, therefore improve the fitting accuracy in sub-apertures overlap zone. The experiment result shows, the stitching accuracy of this stitching method is higher than traditional stitching method.

  9. Are Some of Your Students "Left" Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kathryn

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the role that handedness may play in skill development in typewriting and shorthand courses. Teaching procedures that appear to discriminate against the left-handed student will be examined. Also, the positioning of supplies--left or right side--and the use of right-handed equipment are examined. (CT)

  10. Teaching Left Handers the Write Stuff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasylyk, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests several strategies for producing fluent, legible penmanship for both left and right handed students. Observes that reading readiness skills can be reinforced through handwriting instruction. Describes several physical considerations for successful writing, and notes the modifications needed for left handed writers. (MM)

  11. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  12. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Anupam; Ayyagari, Sudha; Mohapatra, Tushar; Rehman, Syed Abdul; Shah, Milap; Rao, Sudhakar; Rangashamanna, Vital; Rajasekhar, V; Chittimilla, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia. PMID:24814127

  13. Coronary haemodynamics in left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Wallbridge, D. R.; Cobbe, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that patients with left ventricular hypertrophy develop electrocardiographic changes and left ventricular dysfunction during acute hypotension, and suggest that the lower end of autoregulation may be shifted upwards. AIM: To measure coronary blood flow (velocity) and flow reserve during acute hypotension in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. PATIENTS: Eight patients with atypical chest pain and seven with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy; all with angiographically normal epicardial vessels. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. METHODS: The physiological range of blood pressure was determined by previous ambulatory monitoring. Left ventricular mass was determined by echocardiography. At cardiac catheterisation, left coronary blood flow velocity was measured using a Judkins style Doppler tipped catheter. During acute hypotension with sodium nitroprusside, coronary blood flow velocity was recorded at rest and during maximal hyperaemia induced by intracoronary injection of adenosine. Quantitative coronary angiography was performed manually. RESULTS: For both groups coronary blood flow velocity remained relatively constant over a range of physiological diastolic blood pressures and showed a steep relation with diastolic blood pressure during maximal hyperaemia with intracoronary adenosine. Absolute coronary blood flow (calculated from quantitative angiographic data), standardised for left ventricular mass, showed reduced flow in the hypertensive group at rest and during maximal vasodilatation. CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with an inadequate blood supply to the hypertrophied heart, but no upward shift of the lower end of the autoregulatory range was observed. PMID:8705764

  14. A rare case of left superior vena cava draining into left atrium demonstrated by MDCT.

    PubMed

    Ardilouze, Paul; Bricot, Vincent; Maurel, Christophe; Christiaens, Luc

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava draining directly into the left atrium with no associated anomaly of the coronary sinus or the atrial septum, discovered by multidetector computed tomography. PMID:17692952

  15. [The aberrant parasitism of horse botflies (Diptera: Gasterophilidae)].

    PubMed

    Rastegaev, Iu M

    1990-01-01

    Alongside with a high intensity of infection of horses with botfly larvae there was observed mass aberrant parasitism of horse botflies in farms of Astrakhan, Guryev and Uralsk Provinces, and in the Kalmyk ASSR in 1980-1981 and 1987. As a result of extremely high aggregation of horse botfly larvae in their usual localization places, Gasterophilus pecorum larvae remained, due to interspecific competition, in nonspecific places (oral cavity, pharynx), adapted to new habitats and normally developed. Their number varied from 260 to 750 specimens. Localization of G. pecorum larvae in the mentioned departments of the alimentary canal results in serious morbidity of horses. PMID:2142273

  16. The impact of speckle on the measurement of eye aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexey S.; Iroshnikov, Nikita G.; Larichev, Andrey V.; Nikolaev, Ilia P.

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of modeling the speckle structure of an optical field, which arises due to scattering of laser radiation at the retina of the human eye. The presence of such a speckle structure in the scattered radiation leaving the eye affects the accuracy of wavefront measurements aimed at determining the overall aberrations of the eye. We compared two methods for suppressing such speckle structures based on spatial and spectral averaging of a variety of speckle field realizations. The results of both theoretical calculations and numerical simulations appeared to be in a good agreement with experimental data obtained with the eye model and in vivo.

  17. Correcting for Beam Aberrations in a Beam-Waveguide Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Manuel; Slobin, Stephen; Veruttipong, Watt

    2003-01-01

    A method for correcting the aim of a beam-waveguide microwave antenna compensates for the beam aberration that occurs during radio tracking of a target that has a component of velocity transverse to the line of sight from the tracking station. The method was devised primarily for use in tracking of distant target spacecraft by large terrestrial beam-waveguide antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The method should also be adaptable to tracking, by other beam-waveguide antennas, of targets that move with large transverse velocities at large distances from the antennas.

  18. Modeling aberrations in the Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houairi, K.; Casertano, S.; Lallo, M.; Makidon, R. B.

    2006-10-01

    We present an analysis of the optical model for HST and ACS that shows the possible impact of misalignments of various optical elements on apparent image aberrations. The analysis was aimed at identifying possible causes for apparent variations in coma and astigmatism seen on orbital time scales in HST images. Results indicate that any combinations of mirrors and motions that reproduce the observed coma and astigmatism changes, also predict either large shifts in the image, which is not observed, or require unrealistically large movements of the elements.

  19. Aberration-free holographic reverse-shearing interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyalikov, A M

    2005-02-28

    The peculiarities of holographic reverse-shearing interferometry, which make it possible to obtain two simultaneous real-time interferograms of the phase object free from aberrations of the optical system are studied. The behaviour of fringes in the interferograms is identical to their behaviour in the conventional two-beam interferometry with a standard reference wave. The peculiarities of fringe alignment in the interferograms are considered. The real-time interferograms of a glass test plate with various fringe alignments are obtained, confirming the practical prospects of this technique. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Genomic Aberrations in Lung Adenocarcinoma in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Beau-Faller, Michèle; Camilleri-Broët, Sophie; Girard, Philippe; Hofman, Paul; Mazières, Julien; Toujani, Saloua; Lacroix, Ludovic; Laffaire, Julien; Dessen, Philippe; Fouret, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung cancer in never smokers would rank as the seventh most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Methods and Findings We performed high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of lung adenocarcinoma in sixty never smokers and identified fourteen new minimal common regions (MCR) of gain or loss, of which five contained a single gene (MOCS2, NSUN3, KHDRBS2, SNTG1 and ST18). One larger MCR of gain contained NSD1. One focal amplification and nine gains contained FUS. NSD1 and FUS are oncogenes hitherto not known to be associated with lung cancer. FISH showed that the amplicon containing FUS was joined to the next telomeric amplicon at 16p11.2. FUS was over-expressed in 10 tumors with gain of 16p11.2 compared to 30 tumors without that gain. Other cancer genes present in aberrations included ARNT, BCL9, CDK4, CDKN2B, EGFR, ERBB2, MDM2, MDM4, MET, MYC and KRAS. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering with adjustment for false-discovery rate revealed clusters differing by the level and pattern of aberrations and displaying particular tumor characteristics. One cluster was strongly associated with gain of MYC. Another cluster was characterized by extensive losses containing tumor suppressor genes of which RB1 and WRN. Tumors in that cluster frequently harbored a central scar-like fibrosis. A third cluster was associated with gains on 7p and 7q, containing ETV1 and BRAF, and displayed the highest rate of EGFR mutations. SNP array analysis validated copy-number aberrations and revealed that RB1 and WRN were altered by recurrent copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Conclusions The present study has uncovered new aberrations containing cancer genes. The oncogene FUS is a candidate gene in the 16p region that is frequently gained in never smokers. Multiple genetic pathways defined by gains of MYC, deletions of RB1 and WRN or gains on 7p and 7q are involved in lung adenocarcinoma in never smokers. PMID:21151896

  1. Controlled Induction of Spherical Aberration with Custom Soft Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Katrina E.; Marsack, Jason D.; Elswick, James D.; Brunstetter, Tyson J.; Applegate, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigated the non-invasive induction of spherical aberration (SA) levels consistent with complication-free wavefront-guided (WFG) refractive surgery using custom WFG soft contact lenses and quantified the resulting impact on visual performance. Methods Twelve healthy individuals of typical military age (mean of 26.08, SD ± 1.92 years) meeting the inclusion criteria of emmetropia (< ±0.50DS and < ±0.50DC) as measured by subjective refraction served as subjects. Five plano lenses were manufactured to induce a range of SA typical of those encountered after refractive surgery. The measured SA values over a 6mm artificial pupil in these five lenses were −0.224μm, 0.074μm, 0.214μm, 0.495μm and 0.621μm, respectively. For each subject, the level of total ocular aberration through 10 Zernike radial orders over a 6mm pupil was measured with a custom Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor while wearing each lens. Visual performance was evaluated using high contrast visual acuity (HCVA) measured through a 6mm artificial pupil. Results Custom WFG soft contact lenses can be manufactured to include the range of SA that occurs with complication-free refractive surgery (−0.20μm to +0.60μm) and produces a change in SA within a similar range when worn on the eye. High contrast visual performance with these lenses varied depending on the amount of SA in each lens. Visual performance worsened with greater amounts of positive or negative SA and a quadratic fit to the data peaked at +0.209μm. Conclusions Defined levels of SA can be manufactured and induced (non-invasively) with WFG soft contact lenses and their effect on logMAR high contrast visual performance can be measured. Results show that subjects’ best logMAR HCVA occurs with the presence of positive residual SA. When designing the actual test lens, the targeted change in aberration for each subject will likely be better achieved by first measuring the aberrations of a template lens on the eye

  2. Active Correction of Aberrations of Low-Quality Telescope Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yijian

    2007-01-01

    A system of active optics that includes a wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror has been demonstrated to be an effective means of partly correcting wavefront aberrations introduced by fixed optics (lenses and mirrors) in telescopes. It is envisioned that after further development, active optics would be used to reduce wavefront aberrations of about one wave or less in telescopes having aperture diameters of the order of meters or tens of meters. Although this remaining amount of aberration would be considered excessive in scientific applications in which diffraction-limited performance is required, it would be acceptable for free-space optical- communication applications at wavelengths of the order of 1 m. To prevent misunderstanding, it is important to state the following: The technological discipline of active optics, in which the primary or secondary mirror of a telescope is directly and dynamically tilted, distorted, and/or otherwise varied to reduce wavefront aberrations, has existed for decades. The term active optics does not necessarily mean the same thing as does adaptive optics, even though active optics and adaptive optics are related. The term "adaptive optics" is often used to refer to wavefront correction at speeds characterized by frequencies ranging up to between hundreds of hertz and several kilohertz high enough to enable mitigation of adverse effects of fluctuations in atmospheric refraction upon propagation of light beams. The term active optics usually appears in reference to wavefront correction at significantly lower speeds, characterized by times ranging from about 1 second to as long as minutes. Hence, the novelty of the present development lies, not in the basic concept of active or adaptive optics, but in the envisioned application of active optics in conjunction with a deformable mirror to achieve acceptably small wavefront errors in free-space optical communication systems that include multi-meter-diameter telescope mirrors that are

  3. Aberration corrected aspheric grating for far ultraviolet spectrographs - Conventional approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, David; Trout, Catherine; Davila, Pam; Wilson, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Two approaches to reducing optical aberrations of concave grating spectrographs have been used, holographically controlling the groove curvature and spacing and reshaping the optical substrate while ruling the grooves conventionally. The latter approach, slightly deforming an ellipsoidal grating blank, can lead to diffraction-limited performance at a single FUV wavelength. When such a grating is used in a slitted Rowland circle spectrograph, the result is an extremely efficient spectrograph with spectral resolving power of about 30,000 and low astigmatism. Optical fabrication technology has advanced to the point where these exotic surface gratings are becoming practical.

  4. Aberration-free short focal length x-ray lenses.

    PubMed

    Alianelli, Lucia; del Rio, Manuel Sánchez; Fox, Oliver J L; Korwin-Mikke, Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    We treat the problem of defining the ideal x-ray refractive lens design for point focusing of low emittance x-ray beams at third- and fourth-generation synchrotron sources. The task is accomplished by using Fermat's principle to define a lens shape that is completely free from geometrical aberrations. Current microfabrication resolution limits are identified, and a design that tolerates the inherent fabrication imperfections is proposed. The refractive lens design delivers nanometer-sized focused x-ray beams and is compatible with current microfabrication techniques. PMID:26625057

  5. Propagation of aberrated wavefronts using a ray transfer matrix.

    PubMed

    Raasch, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    A ray transfer matrix is used to calculate the propagation of aberrated wavefronts across a homogeneous refractive index. The wavefront is represented by local surface normals, i.e., by a ray bundle, and the propagation is accomplished by transferring those rays across the space. Wavefront shape is generated from the slopes and positions of the collection of rays. Calculation methods are developed for the paraxial case, for higher-order expansions, and for the exact tangent case. A numerical example is used to compare results between an analytical method and the methods developed here. PMID:24979628

  6. New Views of Materials through Aberration-corrected STEM

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Stephen J; Varela del Arco, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The successful correction of third-order and, more recently, fifth-order aberrations has enormously enhanced the capabilities of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), by not only achieving record resolution, but also allowing near 100% efficiency for electron energy loss spectroscopy, and higher currents for two-dimensional spectrum imaging. These advances have meant that the intrinsic advantages of the STEM, incoherent imaging and simultaneous collection of multiple complementary images can now give new insights into many areas of materials physics. Here, we review a number of examples, mostly from the field of complex oxides, and look towards new directions for the future.

  7. Basilar vascular system supplied by only right proatlantal intersegmentary artery type 1 with aneurysm and left internal carotid occlusion: a case report and review from the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferrone, Alessandro; Brogna, Barbara; Giliberti, Raffaele; Vassallo, Pasquale; De Magistris, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Persistence of proatlantal artery (PA) is a rare condition. More than 40 cases were described in the literature. Aneurysm may involve the PA itself in approximately 2% of cases, most arising from the internal carotid artery (ICA) side of PA. This case was particular because the PA showed a saccular aneurysm on the posterior wall, probably due to atherosclerosis disease and other alterations: plaque ulcerative of ICA, occlusion of left ICA, and aberrant right VA. PMID:27594943

  8. Left Atrial Decompression by Percutaneous Left Atrial Venting Cannula Insertion during Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Eun; Jung, Jo Won; Shin, Yu Rim; Park, Han Ki; Park, Young Hwan; Shin, Hong Ju

    2016-01-01

    Patients with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) frequently suffer from pulmonary edema due to left ventricular dysfunction that accompanies left heart dilatation, which is caused by left atrial hypertension. The problem can be resolved by left atrium (LA) decompression. We performed a successful percutaneous LA decompression with an atrial septostomy and placement of an LA venting cannula in a 38-month-old child treated with venoarterial ECMO for acute myocarditis. PMID:27298800

  9. Increased microstructural white matter correlations in left, but not right, temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pustina, Dorian; Doucet, Gaelle; Sperling, Michael; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural white matter tract correlations have been shown to reflect known patterns of phylogenetic development and functional specialization in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to establish inter-tract correlations in a group of controls, and examine potential deviations from normality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated inter-tract correlations in 28 healthy controls, 21 left TLE (LTLE) and 23 right TLE (RTLE). Nine tracts were investigated, comprising the parahippocampal fasciculi, the uncinate fasciculi, the arcuate fasciculi, the frontoparietal tracts, and the fornix. An abnormal increase in tract correlations was observed in LTLE, while RTLE showed inter-tract correlations similar to controls. In the control group, tract correlations increased with increasing fractional anisotropy (FA), while in the TLE groups tract correlations increased with decreasing FA. Cluster analyses revealed agglomeration of bilateral pairs of homologous tracts in healthy subjects, with such pairs separated in our LTLE and RTLE groups. Discriminant analyses aimed at distinguishing LTLE from RTLE, revealing that tract correlations produce higher rates of accurate group classification than FA values. Our results confirm and extend previous work by showing that left compared to right TLE patients display, not only more extensive losses in microstructural orientation, but also more aberrant inter-tract correlations. Aberrant correlations may be related to pathologic processes (i.e., seizure spread) or to adaptive processes aimed at preserving key cognitive functions. Our data suggests tract correlations may have predictive value in distinguishing left from right TLE, potentially moving diffusion imaging to a place of greater prominence in clinical practice. PMID:25137314

  10. TMS over the Left Angular Gyrus Impairs the Ability to Discriminate Left from Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Ellison, Amanda; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of the ability to discriminate left from right are hardly explored. Clinical studies from patients with impairments of left-right discrimination (LRD) and neuroimaging data suggest that the left angular gyrus is particularly involved in LRD. Moreover, it is argued that the often reported sex…

  11. Reversion of Aberrant Plants Transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes Is Associated with the Transcriptional Inactivation of the TL-DNA Genes 1

    PubMed Central

    Sinkar, Vilas P.; White, Frank F.; Furner, Ian J.; Abrahamsen, Mitchell; Pythoud, Francois; Gordon, Milton P.

    1988-01-01

    Transgenic plants harboring the left transfer DNA (TL-DNA) of the root inducing plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes show many developmental abnormalities. We observed frequent appearance of normal looking lateral (revertant) shoots from such aberrant plants. Unlike aberrant shoots of the plant, revertant shoots exhibited a very high growth rate and set viable seeds. Sexual and vegetative reproduction studies showed inheritance of the revertant phenotype. Southern hybridization experiments demonstrated that the T-DNA pattern was identical in aberrant and revertant shoots, indicating that the revertant phenotype was not due to deletion or rearrangement of the T-DNA genes. Specific T-DNA transcripts were not expressed in revertant shoots. Thus, the revertant phenotype appears to result from the transcriptional inactivation of T-DNA genes. We propose that similar events in the past may have mediated horizontal acquisition of TL-DNA genes by ancestors of the genus Nicotiana, which are still found as silent endogenous T-DNA in present day untransformed Nicotiana species. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16665950

  12. Safety of Radioembolization with {sup 90}Yttrium Resin Microspheres Depending on Coiling or No-Coiling of Aberrant/High-Risk Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Paprottka, P. M. E-mail: philipp.paprottka@med.uni-muenchen.de; Paprottka, K. J. Walter, A.; Haug, A. R.; Trumm, C. G.; Lehner, S. Fendler, W. P.; Jakobs, T. F.; Reiser, M. F.; Zech, C. J.

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety of radioembolization (RE) with {sup 90}Yttrium ({sup 90}Y) resin microspheres depending on coiling or no-coiling of aberrant/high-risk vessels.Materials and MethodsEarly and late toxicity after 566 RE procedures were analyzed retrospectively in accordance with the National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v3.0). For optimal safety, aberrant vessels were either coil embolized (n = 240/566, coiling group) or a more peripheral position of the catheter tip was chosen to treat right or left liver lobes (n = 326/566, no-coiling group).ResultsClinically relevant late toxicities (≥Grade 3) were observed in 1 % of our overall cohort. The no-coiling group had significantly less “any” (P = 0.0001) or “clinically relevant” (P = 0.0003) early toxicity. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in delayed toxicity in the coiling versus the no-coiling group. No RE-induced liver disease was noted after all 566 procedures.ConclusionRE with {sup 90}Y resin microspheres is a safe and effective treatment option. Performing RE without coil embolization of aberrant vessels prior to treatment could be an alternative for experienced centers.

  13. Aberrant sialylation causes dilated cardiomyopathy and stress-induced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Ednie, Andrew R; Qi, Jianyong; Bennett, Eric S

    2016-09-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the third most common cause of heart failure, is often associated with arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death if not controlled. The majority of DCM is of unknown etiology. Protein sialylation is altered in human DCM, with responsible mechanisms not yet described. Here we sought to investigate the impact of clinically relevant changes in sialylation on cardiac function using a novel model for altered glycoprotein sialylation that leads to DCM and to chronic stress-induced heart failure (HF), deletion of the sialyltransferase, ST3Gal4. We previously reported that 12- to 20-week-old ST3Gal4 (-/-) mice showed aberrant cardiac voltage-gated ion channel sialylation and gating that contribute to a pro-arrhythmogenic phenotype. Here, echocardiography supported by histology revealed modest dilated and thinner-walled left ventricles without increased fibrosis in ST3Gal4 (-/-) mice starting at 1 year of age. Cardiac calcineurin expression in younger (16-20 weeks old) ST3Gal4 (-/-) hearts was significantly reduced compared to WT. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was used as a chronic stressor on the younger mice to determine whether the ability to compensate against a pathologic insult is compromised in the ST3Gal4 (-/-) heart, as suggested by previous reports describing the functional implications of reduced cardiac calcineurin levels. TAC'd ST3Gal4 (-/-) mice presented with significantly reduced systolic function and ventricular dilation that deteriorated into congestive HF within 6 weeks post-surgery, while constricted WT hearts remained well-adapted throughout (ejection fraction, ST3Gal4 (-/-) = 34 ± 5.2 %; WT = 53.8 ± 7.4 %; p < 0.05). Thus, a novel, sialo-dependent model for DCM/HF is described in which clinically relevant reduced sialylation results in increased arrhythmogenicity and reduced cardiac calcineurin levels that precede cardiomyopathy and TAC-induced HF, suggesting a causal link among aberrant sialylation

  14. Tunable liquid crystal cylindrical micro-optical array for aberration compensation.

    PubMed

    Algorri, J F; Urruchi, V; Bennis, N; Sánchez-Pena, J M; Otón, J M

    2015-06-01

    A tunable aberration compensation device for rectangular micro-optical systems is proposed and demonstrated. This device, which is based in nematic liquid crystal and a micro-electrode structure, forms gradients in the index of refraction as a function of voltage. We have developed a fringe skeletonizing application in order to extract the 3D wavefront from an interference pattern. This software tool obtains the optical aberrations using Chebyshev polynomials. By using phase shifted electrical signals the aberrations can be controlled independently. A complete independent control over the spherical and coma aberration has been demonstrated. Also, an independent control over the astigmatism aberration has been demonstrated in a broad range. This device has promising applications where aberration compensation is required. The independent compensation achieved for some coefficients, such as astigmatism for example, is more than 2.4 waves. PMID:26072760

  15. The impact of aberrations on object reconstruction with interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adie, Steven G.; Graf, Benedikt W.; Ahmad, Adeel; Darbarsyah, Budiman; Boppart, Stephen A.; Carney, P. Scott

    2011-03-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) reconstructs the scattering potential of a sample with spatially invariant resolution, based on the incident beam profile, the beam scan pattern, the physical model of light sample interaction, and subsequent light collection by the system. In practice, aberrations may influence the beam profile, particularly at higher NA, when ISAM is expected to provide maximum benefit over optical coherence microscopy. Thus it is of interest to determine the effects of aberrations on ISAM reconstructions. In this paper we present the forward model incorporating the effects of aberrations, which forms the basis for aberration correction in ISAM. Simulations and experimental results show that when operating far from focus, modest amounts of spherical aberration can introduce artifacts to the point-spread function, even at relatively low NA ~ 0.1-0.2. Further work will investigate computational methods to correct the effects of aberrations, i.e. to perform virtual adaptive optics.

  16. Performance of Dispersed Fringe Sensor in the Presence of Segmented Mirror Aberrations - Modeling and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Fang; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Wavefront aberrations will lower the DFS fringe visibility and DFS signal SNR. The specific effect of wavefront aberration on DFS depends on the aberration type. Due to the "pixel spatial filter" effect the extracted DFS signal can tolerate moderate amount of wavefront aberrations..By averaging piston detection results from multiple traces extracted from fringe images DFS can further increase its robustness against wavefront aberration. Line-of-sight jitter can cause significant loss of fringe visibility will affect more on the aberrated system..Modeling results have shown that gravity sag on the JWST segment mirror during I&T will lower the DHS fringe visibility by factor of 2-3X and lower the DHS signal intensity by factor of approx.5X. Under gravity sag the RMS DHS detection error approx. 100 nm.

  17. Aberrant Activity in Degenerated Retinas Revealed by Electrical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zeck, Günther

    2016-01-01

    In this review, I present and discuss the current understanding of aberrant electrical activity found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) of rod-degenerated (rd) mouse retinas. The reported electrophysiological properties revealed by electrical imaging using high-density microelectrode arrays can be subdivided between spiking activity originating from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and local field potentials (LFPs) reflecting strong trans-membrane currents within the GCL. RGCs in rd retinas show increased and rhythmic spiking compared to age-matched wild-type retinas. Fundamental spiking frequencies range from 5 to 15 Hz in various mouse models. The rhythmic RGC spiking is driven by a presynaptic network comprising AII amacrine and bipolar cells. In the healthy retina this rhythm-generating circuit is inhibited by photoreceptor input. A unique physiological feature of rd retinas is rhythmic LFP manifested as spatially-restricted low-frequency (5–15 Hz) voltage changes. Their spatiotemporal characterization revealed propagation and correlation with RGC spiking. LFPs rely on gap-junctional coupling and are shaped by glycinergic and by GABAergic transmission. The aberrant RGC spiking and LFPs provide a simple readout of the functionality of the remaining retinal circuitry which can be used in the development of improved vision restoration strategies. PMID:26903810

  18. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016-0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD. PMID:27257047

  19. Calculations of spherical aberration-corrected imaging behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lan Yun; Chen, Fu Rong; Kirkland, Angus I; Kai, Ji Jung

    2003-01-01

    Different optimal operating conditions for a C3-corrected transmission electron microscope were compared for both conventional field emission sources and for the next generation of monochromated instruments. In particular, the contrast transfer functions and corresponding wave aberration functions for two previously proposed optimal conditions in which C3 is adjusted to compensate, respectively, C5 or Cc are critically compared. The results indicate that in the presence of a small positive C5 the former provides flat transfer to the information limit whereas the latter shows oscillatory transfer at high spatial frequencies, which is more pronounced for the monochromated instrument. The effects of this behaviour were further investigated through multislice simulations of Si [110] and diamond [110] under the C5-limited condition. These confirm that for the former structure with an interatomic separation of 0.14 nm this aberration has little influence, but that for the latter with a sub-0.1 nm interatomic separation its presence leads to a restricted defocus range over which the structure is faithfully resolved. PMID:14599096

  20. Harmonic source wavefront aberration correction for ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dianis, Scott W.; von Ramm, Olaf T.

    2011-01-01

    A method is proposed which uses a lower-frequency transmit to create a known harmonic acoustical source in tissue suitable for wavefront correction without a priori assumptions of the target or requiring a transponder. The measurement and imaging steps of this method were implemented on the Duke phased array system with a two-dimensional (2-D) array. The method was tested with multiple electronic aberrators [0.39π to 1.16π radians root-mean-square (rms) at 4.17 MHz] and with a physical aberrator 0.17π radians rms at 4.17 MHz) in a variety of imaging situations. Corrections were quantified in terms of peak beam amplitude compared to the unaberrated case, with restoration between 0.6 and 36.6 dB of peak amplitude with a single correction. Standard phantom images before and after correction were obtained and showed both visible improvement and 14 dB contrast improvement after correction. This method, when combined with previous phase correction methods, may be an important step that leads to improved clinical images. PMID:21303031

  1. Effect of induced transverse chromatic aberration on peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Winter, Simon; Fathi, Mohammad Taghi; Venkataraman, Abinaya Priya; Rosén, Robert; Seidemann, Anne; Esser, Gregor; Lundström, Linda; Unsbo, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is one of the largest optical errors affecting the peripheral image quality in the human eye. However, the effect of chromatic aberrations on our peripheral vision is largely unknown. This study investigates the effect of prism-induced horizontal TCA on vision, in the central as well as in the 20° nasal visual field, for four subjects. Additionally, the magnitude of induced TCA (in minutes of arc) was measured subjectively in the fovea with a Vernier alignment method. During all measurements, the monochromatic optical errors of the eye were compensated for by adaptive optics. The average reduction in foveal grating resolution was about 0.032 ± 0.005  logMAR/arcmin of TCA (mean ± std). For peripheral grating detection, the reduction was 0.057 ± 0.012  logMAR/arcmin. This means that the prismatic effect of highly dispersive spectacles may reduce the ability to detect objects in the peripheral visual field. PMID:26479929

  2. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016–0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD. PMID:27257047

  3. Mechanistic modeling of aberrant energy metabolism in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Sangar, Vineet; Eddy, James A.; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Price, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction in energy metabolism—including in pathways localized to the mitochondria—has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide array of disorders, ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases to type II diabetes. The inherent complexities of energy and mitochondrial metabolism present a significant obstacle in the effort to understand the role that these molecular processes play in the development of disease. To help unravel these complexities, systems biology methods have been applied to develop an array of computational metabolic models, ranging from mitochondria-specific processes to genome-scale cellular networks. These constraint-based (CB) models can efficiently simulate aspects of normal and aberrant metabolism in various genetic and environmental conditions. Development of these models leverages—and also provides a powerful means to integrate and interpret—information from a wide range of sources including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and enzyme kinetics. Here, we review a variety of mechanistic modeling studies that explore metabolic functions, deficiency disorders, and aberrant biochemical pathways in mitochondria and related regions in the cell. PMID:23112774

  4. Enhanced Deletion Formation by Aberrant DNA Replication in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Saveson, C. J.; Lovett, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    Repeated genes and sequences are prone to genetic rearrangements including deletions. We have investigated deletion formation in Escherichia coli strains mutant for various replication functions. Deletion was selected between 787 base pair tandem repeats carried either on a ColE1-derived plasmid or on the E. coli chromosome. Only mutations in functions associated with DNA Polymerase III elevated deletion rates in our assays. Especially large increases were observed in strains mutant in dnaQ, the ε editing subunit of Pol III, and dnaB, the replication fork helicase. Mutations in several other functions also altered deletion formation: the α polymerase (dnaE), the γ clamp loader complex (holC, dnaX), and the β clamp (dnaN) subunits of Pol III and the primosomal proteins, dnaC and priA. Aberrant replication stimulated deletions through several pathways. Whereas the elevation in dnaB strains was mostly recA- and lexA-dependent, that in dnaQ strains was mostly recA- and lexA-independent. Deletion product analysis suggested that slipped mispairing, producing monomeric replicon products, may be preferentially increased in a dnaQ mutant and sister-strand exchange, producing dimeric replicon products, may be elevated in dnaE mutants. We conclude that aberrant Polymerase III replication can stimulate deletion events through several mechanisms of deletion and via both recA-dependent and independent pathways. PMID:9177997

  5. Seeing Inside Materials by Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    The recent successful correction of lens aberrations in the electron microscope has improved resolution by more than a factor of two in just a few years, bringing many benefits for the study of materials. These benefits extend significantly beyond enhanced resolution alone. Aberration correction gives higher resolution by allowing the objective lens to have a wider aperture, which also results in a reduced depth of field. This effect can be used to only focus specific sections inside materials for the first time. In this contribution we describe recent results exploiting this capability. Additionally, we show how combining the microscopy data with first-principles theory gives new insights into materials properties. We cover two applications, both involving heavy atoms in a lighter host. The first shows how single Hf atoms can be mapped in three dimensions inside the 1 nm-wide SiO2 region of a high dielectric constant device structure, and how a link to macroscopic device properties results through theoretical calculations. The second example is from the field of nanoscience, where individual Au atoms are imaged inside Si nanowires grown by a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. The majority of Au atoms are probably injected by the highly energetic electron beam. However, their observed sites and atomic configurations represent at least meta-stable configurations and match well to results from density functional calculations.

  6. Mirror-based broadband scanner with minimized aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiun-Yann; Tzeng, Yu-Yi; Huang, Chen-Han; Chui, Hsiang-Chen; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2009-02-01

    To obtain specific biochemical information in optical scanning microscopy, labeling technique is routinely required. Instead of the complex and invasive sample preparation procedures, incorporating spectral acquisition, which commonly requires a broadband light source, provides another mechanism to enhance molecular contrast. But most current optical scanning system is lens-based and thus the spectral bandwidth is limited to several hundred nanometers due to anti-reflection coating and chromatic aberration. The spectral range of interest in biological research covers ultraviolet to infrared. For example, the absorption peak of water falls around 3 μm, while most proteins exhibit absorption in the UV-visible regime. For imaging purpose, the transmission window of skin and cerebral tissues fall around 1300 and 1800 nm, respectively. Therefore, to extend the spectral bandwidth of an optical scanning system from visible to mid-infrared, we propose a system composed of metallic coated mirrors. A common issue in such a mirror-based system is aberrations induced by oblique incidence. We propose to compensate astigmatism by exchanging the sagittal and tangential planes of the converging spherical mirrors in the scanning system. With the aid of an optical design software, we build a diffraction-limited broadband scanning system with wavefront flatness better than λ/4 at focal plane. Combined with a mirror-based objective this microscopic system will exhibit full spectral capability and will be useful in microscopic imaging and therapeutic applications.

  7. Widespread alternative and aberrant splicing revealed by lariat sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Stepankiw, Nicholas; Raghavan, Madhura; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.; Grimson, Andrew; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important and ancient feature of eukaryotic gene structure, the existence of which has likely facilitated eukaryotic proteome expansions. Here, we have used intron lariat sequencing to generate a comprehensive profile of splicing events in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, amongst the simplest organisms that possess mammalian-like splice site degeneracy. We reveal an unprecedented level of alternative splicing, including alternative splice site selection for over half of all annotated introns, hundreds of novel exon-skipping events, and thousands of novel introns. Moreover, the frequency of these events is far higher than previous estimates, with alternative splice sites on average activated at ∼3% the rate of canonical sites. Although a subset of alternative sites are conserved in related species, implying functional potential, the majority are not detectably conserved. Interestingly, the rate of aberrant splicing is inversely related to expression level, with lowly expressed genes more prone to erroneous splicing. Although we validate many events with RNAseq, the proportion of alternative splicing discovered with lariat sequencing is far greater, a difference we attribute to preferential decay of aberrantly spliced transcripts. Together, these data suggest the spliceosome possesses far lower fidelity than previously appreciated, highlighting the potential contributions of alternative splicing in generating novel gene structures. PMID:26261211

  8. The Distribution of Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Cells Predicted by a Generalized Time-Dependent Model of Radiation-Induced Formation of Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    New experimental data show how chromosomal aberrations for low- and high-LET radiation are dependent on DSB repair deficiencies in wild-type, AT and NBS cells. We simulated the development of chromosomal aberrations in these cells lines in a stochastic track-structure-dependent model, in which different cells have different kinetics of DSB repair. We updated a previously formulated model of chromosomal aberrations, which was based on a stochastic Monte Carlo approach, to consider the time-dependence of DSB rejoining. The previous version of the model had an assumption that all DSBs would rejoin, and therefore we called it a time-independent model. The chromosomal-aberrations model takes into account the DNA and track structure for low- and high-LET radiations, and provides an explanation and prediction of the statistics of rare and more complex aberrations. We compared the program-simulated kinetics of DSB rejoining to the experimentally-derived bimodal exponential curves of the DSB kinetics. We scored the formation of translocations, dicentrics, acentric and centric rings, deletions, and inversions. The fraction of DSBs participating in aberrations was studied in relation to the rejoining time. Comparisons of simulated dose dependence for simple aberrations to the experimental dose-dependence for HF19, AT and NBS cells will be made.

  9. Left Lobe Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Lipiodol-TAE via the Left Internal Mammary Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kanetsuki, Ichiro; Hori, Akira; Ohshiro, Kiyoshi; Nishi, Hirokazu; Yasutani, Tadashi; Sueyoshi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    1997-09-15

    A multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was treated with seven transarterial interventions via the hepatic artery over a 2-year, 5-month period before the eighth angiography showed a recurrent HCC in the anterior portion of the left hepatic lobe. The left internal mammary artery (IMA) was feeding the tumor. This was successfully treated with Lipiodol-transcatheter arterial embolization using a coaxial system via a branch of the left IMA. No complications resulted from the procedure. The left IMA should be considered as a possible feeding artery to an HCC occurring in the anterior portion of the left hepatic lobe.

  10. Optimization of holographic data storage system based on Seidel aberrations reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Chung; Lin, Shiuan-Huei; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we investigate the influence of Seidel aberrations on the point spread function and the probability density function of holographic data storage systems, and thus the storage capacity and bit error rate of storage system can be obtained. The aberrations tolerances of storage systems with different numerical aperture are obtained. Optimization on BER and SC of holographic data storage systems by reducing Seidel aberrations will be demonstrated numerically.

  11. Polarization aberrations in the solar activity measurements experiments (SAMEX) solar vector magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1989-01-01

    An optical design and polarization analysis of the Air Force/NASA Solar Activity Measurements Experiments solar vector magnetograph optical system is performed. Polarization aberration theory demonstrates that conventional telescope coating designs introduce unacceptably high levels of polarization aberrations into the optical system. Several ultralow polarization mirror and lens coatings designs for this instrument are discussed. Balancing of polarization aberrations at different surfaces is demonstrated.

  12. Higher-order pupil aberrations in wide-angle and panoramic optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Hamid R.; Maxwell, Jonathan

    1996-08-01

    In optical systems with modest fields of view, pupil spherical aberration and pupil coma are the principal pupil aberrations of significance, but at extreme fields of view, astigmatic effects and field curvature and distortion effects of the pupil imagery play a part in understanding the subtleties of oblique object-image imagery. Biogon and fisheye wide angle lens systems have been investigated for their pupil aberration properties, along with the investigation of similar effects in a panoramic optical system.

  13. Optimal incision sites to reduce corneal aberration variations after small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ling; Zhao, Jiang-Yue; Zhang, Jin-Song; Meng, Jie; Wang, Ming-Wu; Yang, Ya-Jing; Yu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the effect of steep meridian small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery on anterior, posterior and total corneal wavefront aberration. METHODS Steep meridian small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery was performed in age-related cataract patients which were divided into three groups according to the incision site: 12 o'clock, 9 o'clock and between 9 and 12 o'clock (BENT) incision groups. The preoperative and 3-month postoperative root mean square (RMS) values of anterior, posterior and total corneal wavefront aberration including coma, spherical aberration, and total higher-order aberrations (HOAs), were measured by Pentacam scheimpflug imaging. The mean preoperative and postoperative corneal wavefront aberrations were documented. RESULTS Total corneal aberration and total lower-order aberrations decreased significantly in three groups after operation. RMS value of total HOAs decreased significantly postoperatively in the 12 o'clock incision group (P<0.001). Corneal spherical aberration was statistically significantly lower after steep meridian small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery in BENT incision group (P<0.05) and Pearson correlation analysis indicated that spherical aberration changes had no significant relationship with total astigmatism changes in all three corneal incision location. CONCLUSION Corneal incision of phacoemulsification cataract surgery can affect corneal wavefront aberration. The 12 o'clock corneal incision eliminated more HOAs and the spherical aberrations decreased in BENT incision group obviously when we selected steep meridian small incision. Cataract lens replacement using wavefront-corrected intraocular lens combined with optimized corneal incision site would improve ocular aberration results. PMID:27162725

  14. What Lies Ahead (left-eye)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the left-eye version of the 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic showing the view south of the martian crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The image was taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  15. Warrants for left-turn lanes

    SciTech Connect

    Agent, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Most states use accident, traffic-volume, or delay data as guidelines for installing left-turn lanes. Computer simulation of these data compares statistics of intersections with left-turn lanes to those without. The study found that special lanes always lead to improvement in traffic flow, but noted that all intersections cannot accommodate a special lane. The recommendations specify the accident rate, critical-volume determination, and the rate of traffice conflicts which warrant a separate left-turn lane. 10 references, 6 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  16. Measurement technique for in situ characterizing aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fan; Wang Xiangzhao; Ma Mingying

    2006-08-20

    As the feature size decreases, degradation of image quality caused by wavefront aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools has become a serious problem in the low-k1 process. We propose a novel measurement technique for in situ characterizing aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools.Considering the impact of the partial coherence illumination, we introduce a novel algorithm that accurately describes the pattern displacement and focus shift induced by aberrations. Employing the algorithm, the measurement condition is extended from three-beam interference to two-, three-, and hybrid-beam interferences. The experiments are performed to measure the aberrations of projection optics in an ArF scanner.

  17. Efficient estimation and large-scale evaluation of lateral chromatic aberration for digital image forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloe, Thomas; Borowka, Karsten; Winkler, Antje

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of lateral chromatic aberration forms another ingredient for a well equipped toolbox of an image forensic investigator. Previous work proposed its application to forgery detection1 and image source identification.2 This paper takes a closer look on the current state-of-the-art method to analyse lateral chromatic aberration and presents a new approach to estimate lateral chromatic aberration in a runtime-efficient way. Employing a set of 11 different camera models including 43 devices, the characteristic of lateral chromatic aberration is investigated in a large-scale. The reported results point to general difficulties that have to be considered in real world investigations.

  18. Influences of reference plane and direction of measurement on eye aberration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, David A.; Charman, W. Neil

    2005-12-01

    We explored effects of measurement conditions on wave aberration estimates for uncorrected, axially myopic model eyes. Wave aberrations were initially referenced to either the anterior corneal pole or the natural entrance pupil of symmetrical eye models, with rays traced into the eye from infinity (into the eye) to simulate normal vision, into the eye from infinity and then back out of the eye from the retinal intercepts (into/out of the eye), or out of the eye from the retinal fovea (out of the eye). The into-the-eye and out-of-the-eye ray traces gave increases in spherical aberration as myopia increased, but the into/out-of-the-eye ray trace showed little variation in spherical aberration. Reference plane choice also affected spherical aberration. Corresponding residual aberrations were calculated after the models had been optically corrected, either by placing the object or image plane at the paraxial far point or by modifying corneas to simulate laser ablation corrections. Correcting aberrations by ablation was more complete if the original aberrations were referenced to the cornea rather than to the entrance pupil. For eyes corrected by spectacle lenses, failure to allow for effects of pupil magnification on apparent entrance pupil diameter produced larger changes in measured aberrations. The general findings regarding choice of reference plane and direction of measurement were found to be equally applicable to eyes that lacked rotational symmetry.

  19. Aberration correction for direct laser written waveguides in a transverse geometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Salter, P S; Payne, F; Booth, M J

    2016-05-16

    The depth dependent spherical aberration is investigated for ultrafast laser written waveguides fabricated in a transverse writing geometry using the slit beam shaping technique in the low pulse repetition rate regime. The axial elongation of the focus caused by the aberration leads to a distortion of the refractive index change, and waveguides designed as single mode become multimode. We theoretically estimate a depth range over which the aberration effects can be compensated simply by adjusting the incident laser power. If deeper fabrication is required, it is demonstrated experimentally that the aberration can be successfully removed using adaptive optics to fabricate single mode optical waveguides over a depth range > 1 mm. PMID:27409879

  20. Higher order aberration comparison between two aspherical intraocular lenses: MC6125AS and Akreos advanced optics

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Korouji, Sara; Farjadnia, Mahgol; Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Bagher; Khosravi, Bahram; Tabatabaie, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare higher order aberrations in two aspherical intraocular lenses (IOLs): Akreos advanced optics (AO) and Dr. Schmidt Microcrystalline 6125 aspheric anterior surface (MC6125AS) with each other. METHODS Forty eyes of 39 patients underwent phacoemulsification and Akreos AO and MC6125AS were implanted in their eyes in a random manner. Three months post-operatively, higher order aberrations including spherical aberration, coma aberration, and total aberrations were measured and compared. RESULTS The total aberration was 0.24±0.17 in eyes with Dr. Schmidt and 0.20±0.01 in eyes with Akreos AO (P=0.361). The mean of coma aberration was 0.17±0.21 and 0.09±0.86 in Dr. Schmidt and Akreos lenses, respectively (P=0.825). Total spherical aberration was almost the same in both groups (Mean: 0.05, P=0.933). Best corrected visual acuity in Akreos AO (0.10±0.68) and Dr. Schmidt (0.09±0.67) did not differ significantly (P=0.700). CONCLUSION There is no statistically significant difference in the higher order aberrations between these two aspherical lenses. PMID:26086009

  1. X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in Down lymphocytes: an explanation of their increased sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Unstimulated lymphocytes from individuals with Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) are more sensitive to the induction of dicentric and ring aberrations by X rays than normal lymphocytes. Several explanations involving the more rapid rejoining of X-ray--induced lesions in Down cells have been offered. It is shown here that the repair of the DNA damage converted into chromosome aberrations is more rapid in Down cells than normal cells. This more rapid repair results in a higher probability of producing chromosomes aberrations, and hence higher aberration frequencies in Down than normal cells.

  2. X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in Down lymphocytes: an explanation of their increased sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Unstimulated lymphocytes from individuals with Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) are more sensitive to the induction of dicentric and ring aberrations by X rays than normal lymphocytes. Several explanations involving the more rapid rejoining of X-ray-induced lesions in Down cells have been offered. It is shown here that the repair of the DNA damage converted into chromosome aberrations is more rapid in Down cells than normal cells. This more rapid repair results in a higher probability of producing chromosome aberrations, and hence higher aberration frequencies in Down than normal cells.

  3. The Gaussian formula and spherical aberrations of static and relativistic curved mirrors from Fermat's principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanto, Sylvia H.; Tjiang, Paulus C.

    2011-10-01

    The Gaussian formula and spherical aberrations of static and relativistic curved mirrors are analyzed using the optical path length (OPL) and Fermat's principle. The geometrical figures generated by the rotation of conic sections about their symmetry axes are considered for the shapes of the mirrors. By comparing the results in static and relativistic cases, it is shown that the focal lengths and the spherical aberration relations of the relativistic mirrors obey the Lorentz contraction. Further analysis of the spherical aberrations for both static and relativistic cases have resulted in information about the limits for the paraxial approximation, as well as for the minimum speed of the systems to reduce the spherical aberrations.

  4. Evaluation of Optical Quality Parameters and Ocular Aberrations in Multifocal Intraocular Lens Implanted Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hun; Lee, Kwanghyun; Ahn, Ji Min; Kim, Eung Kweon; Sgrignoli, Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the correlations between optical quality parameters obtained from the double-pass system and ocular aberrations obtained from the ray-tracing aberrometer in multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implanted eyes. Materials and Methods Twenty eyes from 20 patients were enrolled in this study. Modulation transfer function cutoff frequency, The Strehl ratio, objective scatter index, and objective pseudo-accommodation obtained from the double-pass system were compared with root mean square (RMS) total aberration, RMS higher-order aberration, and spherical aberration obtained from the ray-tracing aberrometer. Additionally, parameters of the double-pass system and ray-tracing aberrometer were compared with manifested refraction values and subjective visual acuity, respectively. Results There was no statistically significant correlation between optical quality parameters obtained from the double-pass system and ocular aberrations, except between the Strehl ratio and RMS total aberration (r=-0.566, p=0.018). No significant correlations were found between the parameters of both devices, and manifested refraction values or subjective visual acuity. Conclusion Optical quality parameters, especially the Strehl ratio, in multifocal IOL implanted eyes were affected by RMS total aberration. Further studies based on accurate measurements of ocular aberrations and additional optical quality parameters are needed to delineate relationships between optical quality parameters and ocular aberrations in multifocal IOL implanted eyes. PMID:25048505

  5. An aberrant carotid artery in the temporal bone with fatal complication.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yurika; Makino, Nao; Kobayashi, Hitome; Kitamura, Ken

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of an 84-year-old female presenting with an aberrant ICA with cerebral air embolization caused by Eustachian tube air inflation (ETAI). High pressure of air inflation developed because of an aberrant ICA blocking the tympanic orifice of the Eustachian tube, with release of the high-pressure air into the aberrant ICA. It must be kept in mind that complications may occur not only during transtympanic treatment, but also in any treatment, such as ETAI, in aberrant ICA cases. PMID:26602434

  6. Stent fracture in the left brachiocephalic vein.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Masaya; Shiba, Masanori; Tsuji, Takahiro; Iijima, Raisuke; Nakajima, Rintaro; Yoshitama, Takashi; Hara, Hidehiko; Hara, Hisao; Tsunoda, Taro; Nakamura, Masato

    2007-01-01

    A 68-year-old male hemodialysis patient presented with severe congestion in his left arm. Left arm venography showed a completely occluded left brachiocephalic vein. We chose a self-expandable stent for treating this vein. However, restenosis occurred once at 8 months and again after six additional months. The cause of the restenosis was considered to be a stent fracture. On the first restenosis, we performed redilation with a balloon; on the second restenosis, we chose stent-in-stent with a balloon-expandable stent. At least 9 months after the stent-in-stent procedure, there has been no edema in his left arm. Therefore, stent-in-stent is one of the useful strategies for stent fracture in central venous obstruction. PMID:17574169

  7. Rbfox2 function in RNA metabolism is impaired in hypoplastic left heart syndrome patient hearts.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sunil K; Deshmukh, Vaibhav; Nutter, Curtis A; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Jin, Wenhao; Wadhwa, Lalita; Abata, Joshua; Ricci, Marco; Lincoln, Joy; Martin, James F; Yeo, Gene W; Kuyumcu-Martinez, Muge N

    2016-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a fatal congenital heart disease in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, impairing the systemic circulation. Underdeveloped left ventricle exerts biomechanical stress on the right ventricle that can progress into heart failure. Genome-wide transcriptome changes have been identified at early stages in the right ventricle (RV) of infants with HLHS, although the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the RNA binding protein Rbfox2, which is mutated in HLHS patients, is a contributor to transcriptome changes in HLHS patient RVs. Our results indicate that majority of transcripts differentially expressed in HLHS patient hearts have validated Rbfox2 binding sites. We show that Rbfox2 regulates mRNA levels of targets with 3'UTR binding sites contributing to aberrant gene expression in HLHS patients. Strikingly, the Rbfox2 nonsense mutation identified in HLHS patients truncates the protein, impairs its subcellular distribution and adversely affects its function in RNA metabolism. Overall, our findings uncover a novel role for Rbfox2 in controlling transcriptome in HLHS. PMID:27485310

  8. Rbfox2 function in RNA metabolism is impaired in hypoplastic left heart syndrome patient hearts

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sunil K.; Deshmukh, Vaibhav; Nutter, Curtis A.; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Jin, Wenhao; Wadhwa, Lalita; Abata, Joshua; Ricci, Marco; Lincoln, Joy; Martin, James F.; Yeo, Gene W.; Kuyumcu-Martinez, Muge N.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a fatal congenital heart disease in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, impairing the systemic circulation. Underdeveloped left ventricle exerts biomechanical stress on the right ventricle that can progress into heart failure. Genome-wide transcriptome changes have been identified at early stages in the right ventricle (RV) of infants with HLHS, although the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the RNA binding protein Rbfox2, which is mutated in HLHS patients, is a contributor to transcriptome changes in HLHS patient RVs. Our results indicate that majority of transcripts differentially expressed in HLHS patient hearts have validated Rbfox2 binding sites. We show that Rbfox2 regulates mRNA levels of targets with 3’UTR binding sites contributing to aberrant gene expression in HLHS patients. Strikingly, the Rbfox2 nonsense mutation identified in HLHS patients truncates the protein, impairs its subcellular distribution and adversely affects its function in RNA metabolism. Overall, our findings uncover a novel role for Rbfox2 in controlling transcriptome in HLHS. PMID:27485310

  9. Quantitative description of fluid flows produced by left-right cilia in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fox, Craig; Manning, M Lisa; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Motile cilia generate directional flows that move mucus through airways, cerebrospinal fluid through brain ventricles, and oocytes through fallopian tubes. In addition, specialized monocilia beat in a rotational pattern to create asymmetric flows that are involved in establishing the left-right (LR) body axis during embryogenesis. These monocilia, which we refer to as "left-right cilia," produce a leftward flow of extraembryonic fluid in a transient "organ of asymmetry" that directs asymmetric signaling and development of LR asymmetries in the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. The asymmetric flows are thought to establish a chemical gradient and/or activate mechanosensitive cilia to initiate calcium ion signals and a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) pathway on the left side of the embryo, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. The zebrafish organ of asymmetry, called Kupffer's vesicle, provides a useful model system for investigating LR cilia and cilia-powered fluid flows. Here, we describe methods to visualize flows in Kupffer's vesicle using fluorescent microspheres and introduce a new and freely available MATLAB particle tracking code to quantitatively describe these flows. Analysis of normal and aberrant flows indicates this approach is useful for characterizing flow properties that impact LR asymmetry and may be more broadly applicable for quantifying other cilia flows. PMID:25837391

  10. Spherical aberration standards and measurement system stability over time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compertore, David; Ignatovich, Filipp; Marcus, Michael

    2015-10-01

    A Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor system has been used to measure a set of plano-convex lenses at two different times, separated by almost 2 years. The plano-convex lenses were selected to cover a range of powers and apertures relevant to intraocular lenses, and were measured at two different orientations. The results demonstrate the high temporal stability of the measurement system, as well as of the glass standard. In addition, both times the effective focal lengths of the standards were measured using a NIST traceable nodal slide bench, and the center thicknesses were measured using low-coherence interferometer. The spherical aberration and the effective focal length results are analyzed for statistically significant changes. The results are also compared to the Zemax models of the standards.

  11. Aberrant expression of a chemokinetic glycoprotein in psoriatic skin.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, S; Schmalsteig, F C; Brysk, M M; Hendrick, S J; Solomon, A R

    1987-05-01

    Clinically involved and uninvolved skin samples of 6 psoriatic patients, 4 samples each of normal skin specimens, basal cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma were studied by an indirect immunofluorescence technique. The monospecific antibody used in this study was directed against a 30 kD glycoprotein, normally expressed by the terminally differentiated corneocytes. Functional characterization of this glycoprotein was evaluated by neutrophil cell movement assays. The involved and uninvolved skin of psoriatic patients expressed the 30 kD glycoprotein not only in the stratum corneum but in all the viable epidermal layers as well. Functional studies revealed this glycoprotein to be a potent chemokinetic molecule. These results suggest that the 30 kD glycoprotein is an intrinsic chemokinetic molecule of the terminally differentiated corneocytes, and its precocious and aberrant expression in psoriatic epidermis is potentially responsible for some of the pathophysiologic aspects of psoriasis. PMID:3302266

  12. Sphere-cone-polynomial special window with good aberration characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xin; Qu, He-Meng; Wang, Ling-Jie; Wang, Yu

    2013-07-01

    Optical windows with external surfaces shaped to satisfy operational environment needs are known as special windows. A novel special window, a sphere-cone-polynomial (SCP) window, is proposed. The formulas of this window shape are given. An SCP MgF2 window with a fineness ratio of 1.33 is designed as an example. The field-of-regard (FOR) angle is ±75°. From the window system simulation results obtained with the calculated fluid dynamics (CFD) and optical design software, we find that compared to the conventional window forms, the SCP shape can not only introduce relatively less drag in the airflow, but also have the minimal effect on imaging. So the SCP window optical system can achieve a high image quality across a super wide FOR without adding extra aberration correctors. The tolerance analysis results show that the optical performance can be maintained with a reasonable fabricating tolerance to manufacturing errors.

  13. Cytogenetic effects of radiotherapy. Breakpoint distribution in induced chromosome aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Barrios, L.; Miro, R.; Caballin, M.R.; Fuster, C.; Guedea, F.; Subias, A.; Egozcue, J. )

    1989-08-01

    A total of 660 breakpoints were identified in the chromosome aberrations detected in lymphocytes from cancer patients after radiotherapy. The results show that chromosomes 1, 3, and 7 were significantly more affected than other chromosomes by ionizing radiation in vivo. Chromosome arms 1p, 1q, 7q, and 11p were also significantly more affected. Some bands also showed a special sensitivity to radiation, and band 1q32 was the most affected. This band is proposed as a hot point for the clastogenic effect of ionizing radiation. A significant clustering of breakpoints in G bands was also found, especially at the telomeres, as previously described by other authors. Clustering of breakpoints was also observed in bands where fragile sites, protooncogenes, breakpoints involved in chromosomal cancer rearrangements, and breakpoints involved in chromosomal evolution of the Hominoidea are located.

  14. Dissecting the role of aberrant DNA methylation in human leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Amabile, Giovanni; Di Ruscio, Annalisa; Müller, Fabian; Welner, Robert S; Yang, Henry; Ebralidze, Alexander K; Zhang, Hong; Levantini, Elena; Qi, Lihua; Martinelli, Giovanni; Brummelkamp, Thijn; Le Beau, Michelle M; Figueroa, Maria E; Bock, Christoph; Tenen, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the genetic translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) encoding for the BCR-ABL fusion oncogene. However, many molecular mechanisms of the disease progression still remain poorly understood. A growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic abnormalities are involved in tyrosine kinase resistance in CML, leading to leukemic clone escape and disease propagation. Here we show that, by applying cellular reprogramming to primary CML cells, aberrant DNA methylation contributes to the disease evolution. Importantly, using a BCR-ABL inducible murine model, we demonstrate that a single oncogenic lesion triggers DNA methylation changes which in turn act as a precipitating event in leukemia progression. PMID:25997600

  15. Gene expression analysis of aberrant signaling pathways in meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    TORRES-MARTÍN, MIGUEL; MARTINEZ-GLEZ, VICTOR; PEÑA-GRANERO, CAROLINA; ISLA, ALBERTO; LASSALETTA, LUIS; DE CAMPOS, JOSE M.; PINTO, GIOVANNY R.; BURBANO, ROMMEL R.; MELÉNDEZ, BÁRBARA; CASTRESANA, JAVIER S.; REY, JUAN A.

    2013-01-01

    Examining aberrant pathway alterations is one method for understanding the abnormal signals that are involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In the present study, expression arrays were performed on tumor-related genes in meningiomas. The GE Array Q Series HS-006 was used to determine the expression levels of 96 genes that corresponded to six primary biological regulatory pathways in a series of 42 meningiomas, including 32 grade I, four recurrent grade I and six grade II tumors, in addition to three normal tissue controls. Results showed that 25 genes that were primarily associated with apoptosis and angiogenesis functions were downregulated and 13 genes frequently involving DNA damage repair functions were upregulated. In addition to the inactivation of the neurofibromin gene, NF2, which is considered to be an early step in tumorigenesis, variations of other biological regulatory pathways may play a significant role in the development of meningioma. PMID:23946817

  16. Gene expression analysis of aberrant signaling pathways in meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Torres-Martín, Miguel; Martinez-Glez, Victor; Peña-Granero, Carolina; Isla, Alberto; Lassaletta, Luis; DE Campos, Jose M; Pinto, Giovanny R; Burbano, Rommel R; Meléndez, Bárbara; Castresana, Javier S; Rey, Juan A

    2013-07-01

    Examining aberrant pathway alterations is one method for understanding the abnormal signals that are involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In the present study, expression arrays were performed on tumor-related genes in meningiomas. The GE Array Q Series HS-006 was used to determine the expression levels of 96 genes that corresponded to six primary biological regulatory pathways in a series of 42 meningiomas, including 32 grade I, four recurrent grade I and six grade II tumors, in addition to three normal tissue controls. Results showed that 25 genes that were primarily associated with apoptosis and angiogenesis functions were downregulated and 13 genes frequently involving DNA damage repair functions were upregulated. In addition to the inactivation of the neurofibromin gene, NF2, which is considered to be an early step in tumorigenesis, variations of other biological regulatory pathways may play a significant role in the development of meningioma. PMID:23946817

  17. Propagation of aberrations through phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph.

    PubMed

    Pueyo, Laurent; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Shaklan, Stuart

    2011-02-01

    The specification of polishing requirements for the optics in coronagraphs dedicated to exoplanet detection requires careful and accurate optical modeling. Numerical representations of propagated aberrations through the system as well as simulations of the broadband wavefront compensation system using multiple DMs are critical when one devises an error budget for such a class of instruments. In this communication, we introduce an analytical tool that serves this purpose for phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphs. We first start by deriving the analytical form of the propagation of a harmonic ripple through a PIAA unit. Using this result, we derive the chromaticity of the field at any plane in the optical train of a telescope equipped with such a coronagraph. Finally, we study the chromatic response of a two-sequential-DM wavefront actuator correcting such a corrugated field and thus quantify the requirements on the manufacturing of PIAA mirrors. PMID:21293522

  18. Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human infant eye

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T. Rowan; Teel, Danielle F. W.; Jacobs, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Although the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the adult eye has been studied, there are no data collected from the human infant eye. A chromatic retinoscope was used to measure cyclopleged infant and adult refractions with four pseudomonochromatic sources (centered at 472, 538, 589, and 652 nm) and with polychromatic light. The LCA of the infant eyes between 472 and 652 nm was a factor of 1.7 greater than the LCA found in the adult group: infant mean=1.62 D, SD±0.14 D; adult mean=0.96 D, SD±0.17 D. The elevated level of LCA in infant eyes is consistent with the greater optical power of the immature eye and indicates similar chromatic dispersion in infant and adult eyes. The implications for visual performance, defocus detection, and measurement of refraction are discussed. PMID:18758552

  19. Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.; Fochs, Scott N.

    1999-09-28

    An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

  20. Measuring Low-Order Aberrations in a Segmented Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang; Green, Joseph; Dumont, Philip; Basinger, Scott; Lowman, Andrew; Burns, Laura; Petrone, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The in-focus PSF optimizer (IPO) is an algorithm for use in monitoring and controlling the alignment of the segments of a segmented-mirror astronomical telescope. IPO is so named because it computes wave-front aberrations of the telescope from digitized pointspread functions (PSFs) measured in infocus images. Inasmuch as distant astronomical objects that behave optically as point sources can typically be seen in almost any astronomical image, the main benefit afforded by IPO may be to enable maintenance of mirror-segment alignments without detracting from valuable scientific-observation time. IPO evolved from prescription-retrieval type algorithms. Prescription retrieval uses in-focus and out-of-focus PSFs to infer the state of an imaging optical system. The state, in this context, refers to the positions, orientations, and low-order figure errors of the optical elements in the system. Both prescription- retrieval and IPO use an iterative, nonlinear, least-squares optimizer to compute the optimal state parameters such that a digital computer-generated model image matches the digitized image acquired from the real system. The difference between IPO and prescription- retrieval algorithms is that IPO is specifically designed to utilize infocus images only. Although the restriction to in-focus images limits IPO to calculating only the lowest-order wave front aberrations, it also causes the resulting computation to take much less time because fewer degrees of freedom are included in the optimization process. In the prescription retrieval software developed at JPL, the model images are generated using the ray-trace/physical optics program, MACOS. IPO, on the other hand, uses a linear sensitivity matrix to compute the exit-pupil wave front from the system parameters; the wave front is then converted into a complex pupil field, which is then propagated to the image plane via a fast Fourier transform. This approach is computationally faster and requires less computer memory

  1. Longitudinal trajectories of aberrant behavior in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Hall, Scott S; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-11-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C; Aman et al., 1995) has been increasingly adopted as a primary tool for measuring behavioral change in clinical trials for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). To our knowledge, however, no study has documented the longitudinal trajectory of aberrant behaviors in individuals with FXS using the ABC-C. As part of a larger longitudinal study, we examined scores obtained on the ABC-C subscales for 124 children and adolescents (64 males, 60 females) with FXS who had two or more assessments (average interval between assessments was approximately 4 years). Concomitant changes in age-equivalent scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were also examined. As expected for an X-linked genetic disorder, males with FXS obtained significantly higher scores on all subscales of the ABC-C and significantly lower age-equivalent scores on the VABS than females with FXS. In both males and females with FXS, scores on the Irritability/Agitation and Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscales of the ABC-C decreased significantly with age, with little to no change occurring over time on the Lethargy/Social Withdrawal, Stereotypic Behavior, and Inappropriate Speech subscales. The decrease in scores on the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance domain was significantly greater for males than for females. In both males and females, age-equivalent scores on the VABS increased significantly over this developmental period. These results establish a basis upon which to evaluate long-term outcomes from intervention-based research. However, longitudinal direct observational studies are needed to establish whether the severity of problem behavior actually decreases over time in this population. PMID:25129200

  2. Aberrant laryngeal location of Onchocerca lupi in a dog.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Cruz, Luís; Coelho, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Mansinho, Mário; Annoscia, Giada; Lia, Riccardo P; Giannelli, Alessio; Otranto, Domenico; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira

    2016-06-01

    Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is an emerging vector-borne helminth that causes nodular lesions associated with acute or chronic ocular disease in dogs and cats. Since its first description in dogs in 1991, this zoonotic filarioid has been increasingly reported in Europe and the United States. An 8-year-old outdoor mixed-breed female dog from the Algarve (southern Portugal) was presented with a history of severe dyspnoea. Cervical and thoracic radiographs revealed a slight reduction in the diameter of the cervical trachea and a moderate increase in radiopacity of the laryngeal soft tissue. An exploratory laryngoscopy was performed, revealing filiform worms associated with stenosis of the thyroid cartilage and a purulent necrotic tissue in the larynx lumen. A single sessile nodule, protruding from the dorsal wall of the laryngeal lumen caused a severe reduction of the glottis and tracheal diameter. Fragments of the worms were morphologically and molecularly identified as O. lupi. Histological examination of the nodule showed a granulomatous reaction with sections of coiled gravid female nematodes. Following laryngoscopy, a tracheostomy tube was inserted to relieve dyspnoea and ivermectin (300 μg/kg, once a week, for 8 weeks) combined with prednisolone was prescribed. The dog showed a complete recovery. Although O. lupi has been isolated in human patients from the spinal cord, this is the first report of an aberrant migration of O. lupi in a dog. The veterinary medical community should pay attention to aberrant location of O. lupi and consider onchocercosis as a differential diagnosis for airway obstruction in dogs. PMID:26732654

  3. Genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes in chordoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-07-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ∼8 Mb segment at 3p21.1-p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (∼23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (∼40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072194

  4. Aberrant Immune Responses in a Mouse with Behavioral Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Donghong; Miller, Veronica M.; Lawrence, David A.

    2011-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice have recently been reported to have behaviors that resemble those of autistic individuals, in that this strain has impairments in social interactions and a restricted repetitive and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Since immune responses, including autoimmune responses, are known to affect behavior, and individuals with autism have aberrant immune activities, we evaluated the immune system of BTBR mice, and compared their immunity and degree of neuroinflammation with that of C57BL/6 (B6) mice, a highly social control strain, and with F1 offspring. Mice were assessed at postnatal day (pnd) 21 and after behavioral analysis at pnd70. BTBR mice had significantly higher amounts of serum IgG and IgE, of IgG anti-brain antibodies (Abs), and of IgG and IgE deposited in the brain, elevated expression of cytokines, especially IL-33 IL-18, and IL-1β in the brain, and an increased proportion of MHC class II-expressing microglia compared to B6 mice. The F1 mice had intermediate levels of Abs and cytokines as well as social activity. The high Ab levels of BTBR mice are in agreement with their increased numbers of CD40hi/I-Ahi B cells and IgG-secreting B cells. Upon immunization with KLH, the BTBR mice produced 2–3 times more anti-KLH Abs than B6 mice. In contrast to humoral immunity, BTBR mice are significantly more susceptible to listeriosis than B6 or BALB/c mice. The Th2-like immune profile of the BTBR mice and their constitutive neuroinflammation suggests that an autoimmune profile is implicated in their aberrant behaviors, as has been suggested for some humans with autism. PMID:21799730

  5. Clinicopathological significance of aberrant Notch receptors in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Rui; Shi, Xiang-De; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Man-Sheng; Xu, Lei-Bo; Yu, Xian-Huan; Zeng, Hong; Wang, Jie; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Notch signaling has been reported to be activated to promote biliary epithelial cell differentiation and tubulogenesis during bile duct development. In this study, clinicopathological significance of aberrant expression of Notch receptors in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) was investigated. Thus, forty-one ICC specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry using anti-Notch1-4 antibodies, respectively. Expression of Notch receptors was scored by percentage of positive tumor cells and intensity of immunostaining. Clinicopathological parameters and survival data were compared with the expression of Notch receptors, respectively. Expression of Notch receptors was identified in cancer cells, as well as in non-neoplastic cells. Compared with adjacent non-tumor liver tissues, Notch1 and 4 were up regulated, and Notch2 and 3 were relatively weaker. Positive immunostaining of Notch1 in ICC cells was detected in 34 cases (82.9%), Notch2 in 23 (56.1%), Notch3 in 16 (39.0%) and Notch4 in 14 (34.1%). Notch1 was overexpressed in cases with tumor size > 5 cm (P = 0.036). Expression of Notch2 was correlated inversely with histological grade (P = 0.016). Overexpression of Notch4 was more common in cases with serum CA125 > 35 U/ml than cases with CA125 ≤ 35 U/ml (P = 0.048). Expression of Notch3 was not correlated with any other clinicopathological parameters. Moreover, Notch4 was related to poor survival (P < 0.001). To conclude, this study reveals that aberrant expression of Notch receptors 1 and 4 might play important roles during ICC progression. PMID:25031748

  6. A Model of Distributed Phase Aberration for Deblurring Phase Estimated from Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Tillett, Jason C.; Astheimer, Jeffrey P.; Waag, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Correction of aberration in ultrasound imaging uses the response of a point reflector or its equivalent to characterize the aberration. Because a point reflector is usually unavailable, its equivalent is obtained using statistical methods, such as processing reflections from multiple focal regions in a random medium. However, the validity of methods that use reflections from multiple points is limited to isoplanatic patches for which the aberration is essentially the same. In this study, aberration is modeled by an offset phase screen to relax the isoplanatic restriction. Methods are developed to determine the depth and phase of the screen and to use the model for compensation of aberration as the beam is steered. Use of the model to enhance the performance of the noted statistical estimation procedure is also described. Experimental results obtained with tissue-mimicking phantoms that implement different models and produce different amounts of aberration are presented to show the efficacy of these methods. The improvement in b-scan resolution realized with the model is illustrated. The results show that the isoplanatic patch assumption for estimation of aberration can be relaxed and that propagation-path characteristics and aberration estimation are closely related. PMID:20040448

  7. Bayesian Procedures for Identifying Aberrant Response-Time Patterns in Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Guo, Fanmin

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify aberrant response-time patterns on educational and psychological tests, it is important to be able to separate the speed at which the test taker operates from the time the items require. A lognormal model for response times with this feature was used to derive a Bayesian procedure for detecting aberrant response times.…

  8. Simple Demonstration of the Impact of Spherical Aberration on Optical Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Isabel; Saavedra, Genaro; Pons, Amparo; Martinez-Corral, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We present an experiment, well adapted for students of introductory optics courses, for the visualization of the impact of spherical aberration in the point spread function of imaging systems. The demonstrations are based on the analogy between the point-spread function of spherically aberrated systems, and the defocused patterns of 1D slit-like…

  9. A case of valvular pulmonic stenosis and an aberrant coronary artery in a Brittany spaniel

    PubMed Central

    Estey, Chelsie

    2011-01-01

    Valvular pulmonic stenosis and aberrancy of the right coronary artery with subsequent subvalvular stenosis was found on echocardiographic evaluation of a 9-month-old Brittany spaniel. Previous echocardiography at 4 mo of age revealed the pulmonic stenosis; however, the aberrant coronary artery only became apparent during the second evaluation. PMID:22043079

  10. Aberrance Detection Powers of the BW and Person-Fit Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tsai-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the aberrance detection powers of the BW person-fit indices with other group-based indices (SCI, MCI, NCI, and Wc&Bs) and item response theory based (IRT-based) indices (OUTFITz, INFITz, ECI2z, ECI4z, and lz). Four kinds of comparative conditions, including content category (CC), types of aberrance (AT), severity of aberrance…

  11. Patterns of Aberrant Eating among Pre-Adolescent Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarren-Sweeney, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports epidemiological and phenomenological investigations of aberrant eating among 347 pre-adolescent children in court-ordered foster and kinship care, in New South Wales, Australia. A quarter of children displayed clinically significant aberrant eating problems, with no evidence of gender or age effects. Two distinct patterns were…

  12. Simultaneous visualization of spatial and chromatic aberrations by two-dimensional Fourier transform spectral interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, W.; Planchon, T. A.; Durfee, C. G.; Squier, J. A.; Gabolde, P.; Trebino, R.; Müller, M.

    2006-10-01

    We demonstrate the use of a simple tool to simultaneously visualize and characterize chromatic and spherical aberrations that are present in multiphoton microscopy. Using two-dimensional Fourier transform spectral interferometry, we measured these aberrations, deducing in a single shot spatiotemporal effects in high-numerical-aperture objectives.

  13. Criteria for admissible values of smooth aberrations for nondiffractive laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Malashko, Ya I; Khabibulin, V M

    2014-04-28

    We have derived analytical expressions, verified by the methods of numerical simulation, to evaluate the angular divergence of nondiffractive laser beams containing smooth aberrations, i.e., spherical defocusing, astigmatism and toroid. Using these expressions we have formulated the criteria for admissible values of smooth aberrations. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Traumatic Fistula Between the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery and a Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshito Tsushima; Haapanen, Arto; Dean, Peter B.; Mikkola, Jorma; Saraste, Markku

    1996-04-15

    A 44-year-old man presented with a fistula of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm 6 months after a stab injury in the left anterior chest. The color Doppler echocardiography suggested, and angiography confirmed, the diagnosis and the lesion was treated successfully. Traumatic coronary artery fistulas are rare complications, and color Doppler echocardiography proved useful for the diagnosis.

  15. Sources of the monochromatic aberrations induced in human eyes after laser refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Jason

    Laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedures correct the eye's defocus and astigmatism but also introduce higher order monochromatic aberrations. Little is known about the origins of these induced aberrations. The advent of wavefront sensor technology has made it possible to measure accurately and quickly the aberrations of normal and postoperative LASIK eyes. The goal of this thesis was to exploit this technology to better understand some of the potential mechanisms by which aberrations could be introduced during LASIK. A first step towards investigating these sources was to characterize the aberration changes in post-LASIK eyes. Higher order rms wavefront error increased after conventional and customized LASIK surgery. On average, spherical aberration approximately doubled, and significant changes in vertical and horizontal coma were observed. We examined two sources of postoperative aberrations: the creation of a microkeratome flap and the subsequent laser ablation. Higher order rms increased slightly and there was a wide variation in the response of individual Zernike modes after cutting a flap. The majority of induced spherical aberration was due to the laser ablation and not the flap-cut. Aberrations are also induced by static and dynamic decentrations of the patient's pupil. We found that ablations were typically decentered in the superotemporal direction due to shifts in pupil center location between aberration measurement (dilated) and surgical (undilated) conditions in customized LASIK eyes. There was a weak correlation between the horizontal coma theoretically induced by this offset and that measured postoperatively. Finally, dynamic eye movements during the procedure induce higher order aberrations. We found that the most problematic decentrations during LASIK are relatively slow drifts in eye position. An eye-tracking system with a 2-Hz closed-loop bandwidth could compensate for most eye movements during LASIK. One solution for reducing the

  16. [A case of chronic pancreatitis occurring in gastric aberrant pancreas poorly distinguishable from gastric aberrant pancreas ductal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sayaka; Miyaoka, Youichi; Fujiwara, Aya; Tsukano, Kousuke; Kotani, Satoshi; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Ito, Satoko; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Kohge, Nariaki; Onuma, Hideyuki

    2015-11-01

    A man in his 40s was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain. A gastric submucosal tumor (SMT) was diagnosed nine years previously, but the patient was lost to follow-up. Upon our evaluation, the SMT had enlarged, as demonstrated by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and abdominal computed tomography. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic and isoechoic mosaic mass, which primarily occupied the third and fourth layers of the gastric wall. Aspiration cytodiagnosis was performed, the results of which led to a suspicion of adenocarcinoma arising from gastric ectopic pancreas. Next, we conducted segmental gastrectomy. Pathological examination showed adiponecrosis, a pancreatic stone, chronic inflammatory cell infiltration, and fibrosis. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis occurring in a gastric aberrant pancreas. PMID:26537325

  17. The orphan G protein coupled receptor 161 is required for left-right patterning

    PubMed Central

    Leung, TinChung; Humbert, Jasper E.; Stauffer, Anna M.; Giger, Kathryn E.; Chen, Hui; Tsai, Huai-Jen; Wang, Chuan; Mirshahi, Tooraj; Robishaw, Janet D.

    2015-01-01

    Gpr161 (also known as RE2) is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is expressed during embryonic development in zebrafish. Determining its biological function has proven difficult due to lack of knowledge regarding its natural or synthetic ligands. Here, we show that targeted knockdown of gpr161 disrupts asymmetric gene expression in the lateral plate mesoderm, resulting in aberrant looping of the heart tube. This is associated with elevated Ca2+ levels in cells lining the Kupffer's vesicle and normalization of Ca2+ levels, by over-expression of ncx1 or pmca RNA, is able to partially rescue the cardiac looping defect in gpr161 knockdown embryos. Taken together, these data support a model in which gpr161 plays an essential role in left-right (L-R) patterning by modulating Ca2+ levels in the cells surrounding the Kupffer's vesicle. PMID:18755178

  18. The intensity distribution of hollow Gaussian beams focused by a lens with spherical aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkelly, Abdu A.; Al-Nadary, H.; Alhijry, Ibraheem A.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an expression that describes the hollow Gaussian beams (HGBs) passing through a spherically aberrated lens by using the Collins formula. The radial intensity distribution in both spherical aberration SA free lens, lens that exhibits relatively large in both positive spherical aberration PSA, and negative spherical aberration NSA is calculated. Numerical calculations are made and the results show that the PSA and NSA have a strong influence on the intensity distribution especially at the focus. The study showed remarkable results for which there is no hollow Gaussian beam at a large NSA along the optical axis at the focus. In addition, we found that the DSS, and wr of focused hollow Gaussian beams in the focal region depend not only on the beam radius, and beam order; but also on the spherical aberration.

  19. Correlation between Post-LASIK Starburst Symptom and Ocular Wavefront Aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Ji; Mu, Guo-Guang; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Wang-Yan

    2006-06-01

    Monochromatic aberrations in post laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) eyes are measured. The data are categorized into reference group and starburst group according to the visual symptoms. Statistic analysis has been made to find the correlation between the ocular wavefront aberrations and the starburst symptom. The rms aberrations of the 3rd and 4th orders for the starburst group are significantly larger than those for the reference group. The starburst symptom shows a strong correlation with vertical coma, total coma, spherical aberrations. For 3-mm pupil size and 5.8-mm pupil size, the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the starburst group are lower than those of the reference group, but their visual acuities are close. MTF and PSF analyses are made for two groups, and the results are consistent with the statistical analysis, which means the difference between the two groups is mainly due to the third- and fourth-order Zernike aberrations.

  20. Influence of wave-front aberrations on bit error rate in inter-satellite laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuqiang; Han, Qiqi; Tan, Liying; Ma, Jing; Yu, Siyuan; Yan, Zhibin; Yu, Jianjie; Zhao, Sheng

    2011-06-01

    We derive the bit error rate (BER) of inter-satellite laser communication (lasercom) links with on-off-keying systems in the presence of both wave-front aberrations and pointing error, but without considering the noise of the detector. Wave-front aberrations induced by receiver terminal have no influence on the BER, while wave-front aberrations induced by transmitter terminal will increase the BER. The BER depends on the area S which is truncated out by the threshold intensity of the detector (such as APD) on the intensity function in the receiver plane, and changes with root mean square (RMS) of wave-front aberrations. Numerical results show that the BER rises with the increasing of RMS value. The influences of Astigmatism, Coma, Curvature and Spherical aberration on the BER are compared. This work can benefit the design of lasercom system.