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Sample records for aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis

  1. Enhanced oxidative stress and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells during methamphetamine induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.-W.; Ping, Y.-H.; Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

    2007-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an abused drug that may cause psychiatric and neurotoxic damage, including degeneration of monoaminergic terminals and apoptosis of non-monoaminergic cells in Brain. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these METH-induced neurotoxic effects remain to be clarified. In this study, we performed a time course assessment to investigate the effects of METH on intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations in a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. We characterized that METH induces a temporal sequence of several cellular events including, firstly, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential within 1 h of the METH treatment, secondly, an extensive declinemore » in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 8 h of the treatment, thirdly, an increase in mitochondrial mass after the drug treatment for 24 h, and finally, a decrease in mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial proteins per mitochondrion as well as the occurrence of apoptosis after 48 h of the treatment. Importantly, vitamin E attenuated the METH-induced increases in intracellular ROS level and mitochondrial mass, and prevented METH-induced cell death. Our observations suggest that enhanced oxidative stress and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis may play critical roles in METH-induced neurotoxic effects.« less

  2. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS

  3. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Csiszar, Anna; Labinskyy, Nazar; Pinto, John T; Ballabh, Praveen; Zhang, Hanrui; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Pearson, Kevin; de Cabo, Rafael; Pacher, Pal; Zhang, Cuihua; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2009-07-01

    Pathways that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis are potential therapeutic targets for the amelioration of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Resveratrol was shown to impact mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and the liver, but its role in mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells remains poorly defined. The present study determined whether resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured human coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs). In CAECs resveratrol increased mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA content, upregulated protein expression of electron transport chain constituents, and induced mitochondrial biogenesis factors (proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator-1alpha, nuclear respiratory factor-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A). Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was induced, and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) was upregulated in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Knockdown of SIRT1 (small interfering RNA) or inhibition of NO synthesis prevented resveratrol-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. In aortas of type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice impaired mitochondrial biogenesis was normalized by chronic resveratrol treatment, showing the in vivo relevance of our findings. Resveratrol increases mitochondrial content in endothelial cells via activating SIRT1. We propose that SIRT1, via a pathway that involves the upregulation of eNOS, induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Resveratrol induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the aortas of type 2 diabetic mice, suggesting the potential for new treatment approaches targeting endothelial mitochondria in metabolic diseases.

  4. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Csiszar, Anna; Labinskyy, Nazar; Pinto, John T.; Ballabh, Praveen; Zhang, Hanrui; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Pearson, Kevin; de Cabo, Rafael; Pacher, Pal; Zhang, Cuihua; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2009-01-01

    Pathways that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis are potential therapeutic targets for the amelioration of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Resveratrol was shown to impact mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and the liver, but its role in mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells remains poorly defined. The present study determined whether resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured human coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs). In CAECs resveratrol increased mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA content, upregulated protein expression of electron transport chain constituents, and induced mitochondrial biogenesis factors (proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A). Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was induced, and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) was upregulated in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Knockdown of SIRT1 (small interfering RNA) or inhibition of NO synthesis prevented resveratrol-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. In aortas of type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice impaired mitochondrial biogenesis was normalized by chronic resveratrol treatment, showing the in vivo relevance of our findings. Resveratrol increases mitochondrial content in endothelial cells via activating SIRT1. We propose that SIRT1, via a pathway that involves the upregulation of eNOS, induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Resveratrol induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the aortas of type 2 diabetic mice, suggesting the potential for new treatment approaches targeting endothelial mitochondria in metabolic diseases. PMID:19429820

  5. Nicotinamide Riboside and Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-15

    Mitochondrial Diseases; Mitochondrial Myopathies; Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia; Progressive Ophthalmoplegia; Progressive; Ophthalmoplegia, External; Mitochondria DNA Deletion; MELAS; Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-Like Episodes; Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes (MELAS Syndrome)

  6. A high throughput respirometric assay for mitochondrial biogenesis and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, Craig C.; Beeson, Gyda C.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are a common target of toxicity for drugs and other chemicals, and results in decreased aerobic metabolism and cell death. In contrast, mitochondrial biogenesis restores cell vitality and there is a need for new agents to induce biogenesis. Current cell-based models of mitochondrial biogenesis or toxicity are inadequate because cultured cell lines are highly glycolytic with minimal aerobic metabolism and altered mitochondrial physiology. In addition, there are no high-throughput, real-time assays that assess mitochondrial function. We adapted primary cultures of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) that exhibit in vivo levels of aerobic metabolism, are not glycolytic, and retain higher levels of differentiated functions and used the Seahorse Biosciences analyzer to measure mitochondrial function in real time in multi-well plates. Using uncoupled respiration as a marker of electron transport chain (ETC) integrity, the nephrotoxicants cisplatin, HgCl2 and gentamicin exhibited mitochondrial toxicity prior to decreases in basal respiration and cell death. Conversely, using FCCP-uncoupled respiration as a marker of maximal ETC activity, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), SRT1720, resveratrol, daidzein, and metformin produced mitochondrial biogenesis in RPTC. The merger of the RPTC model and multi-well respirometry results in a single high throughput assay to measure mitochondrial biogenesis and toxicity, and nephrotoxic potential. PMID:20465991

  7. Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and its intersection with inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Anne D; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2015-04-20

    Mitochondria play a vital role in cellular homeostasis and are susceptible to damage from inflammatory mediators released by the host defense. Cellular recovery depends, in part, on mitochondrial quality control programs, including mitochondrial biogenesis. Early-phase inflammatory mediator proteins interact with PRRs to activate NF-κB-, MAPK-, and PKB/Akt-dependent pathways, resulting in increased expression or activity of coactivators and transcription factors (e.g., PGC-1α, NRF-1, NRF-2, and Nfe2l2) that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Inflammatory upregulation of NOS2-induced NO causes mitochondrial dysfunction, but NO is also a signaling molecule upregulating mitochondrial biogenesis via PGC-1α, participating in Nfe2l2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and modulating inflammation. NO and reactive oxygen species generated by the host inflammatory response induce the redox-sensitive HO-1/CO system, causing simultaneous induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant gene expression. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy are coupled through redox pathways; for instance, parkin, which regulates mitophagy in chronic inflammation, may also modulate mitochondrial biogenesis and is upregulated through NF-κB. Further research on parkin in acute inflammation is ongoing. This highlights certain common features of the host response to acute and chronic inflammation, but caution is warranted in extrapolating findings across inflammatory conditions. Inflammatory mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress initiate further inflammatory responses through DAMP/PRR interactions and by inflammasome activation, stimulating mitophagy. A deeper understanding of mitochondrial quality control programs' impact on intracellular inflammatory signaling will improve our approach to the restoration of mitochondrial homeostasis in the resolution of acute inflammation.

  8. Extracellular growth factors and mitogens cooperate to drive mitochondrial biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Echave, Pedro; Machado-da-Silva, Gisela; Arkell, Rebecca S.; Duchen, Michael R.; Jacobson, Jake; Mitter, Richard; Lloyd, Alison C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cells generate new organelles when stimulated by extracellular factors to grow and divide; however, little is known about how growth and mitogenic signalling pathways regulate organelle biogenesis. Using mitochondria as a model organelle, we have investigated this problem in primary Schwann cells, for which distinct factors act solely as mitogens (neuregulin) or as promoters of cell growth (insulin-like growth factor 1; IGF1). We find that neuregulin and IGF1 act synergistically to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA replication, resulting in increased mitochondrial density in these cells. Moreover, constitutive oncogenic Ras signalling results in a further increase in mitochondrial density. This synergistic effect is seen at the global transcriptional level, requires both the ERK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling pathways and is mediated by the transcription factor ERRα. Interestingly, the effect is independent of Akt-TOR signalling, a major regulator of cell growth in these cells. This separation of the pathways that drive mitochondrial biogenesis and cell growth provides a mechanism for the modulation of mitochondrial density according to the metabolic requirements of the cell. PMID:19920079

  9. Steps Toward Understanding Mitochondrial Fe/S Cluster Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Melber, Andrew; Winge, Dennis R

    2018-01-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters (Fe/S clusters) are essential cofactors required throughout the clades of biology for performing a myriad of unique functions including nitrogen fixation, ribosome assembly, DNA repair, mitochondrial respiration, and metabolite catabolism. Although Fe/S clusters can be synthesized in vitro and transferred to a client protein without enzymatic assistance, biology has evolved intricate mechanisms to assemble and transfer Fe/S clusters within the cellular environment. In eukaryotes, the foundation of all cellular clusters starts within the mitochondria. The focus of this review is to detail the mitochondrial Fe/S biogenesis (ISC) pathway along with the Fe/S cluster transfer steps necessary to mature Fe/S proteins. New advances in our understanding of the mitochondrial Fe/S biogenesis machinery will be highlighted. Additionally, we will address various experimental approaches that have been successful in the identification and characterization of components of the ISC pathway. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Apple procyanidins promote mitochondrial biogenesis and proteoglycan biosynthesis in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Isao; Koike, Masato; Nakashima, Shohei; Mizutani, Yu; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Sawada, Yoko; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Atsushi; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Sashihara, Koichi; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2018-05-08

    Apples are well known to have various benefits for the human body. Procyanidins are a class of polyphenols found in apples that have demonstrated effects on the circulatory system and skeletal organs. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a locomotive syndrome that is histologically characterized by cartilage degeneration associated with the impairment of proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes. However, no useful therapy for cartilage degeneration has been developed to date. In the present study, we detected beneficial effects of apple polyphenols or their procyanidins on cartilage homeostasis. An in vitro assay revealed that apple polyphenols increased the activities of mitochondrial dehydrogenases associated with an increased copy number of mitochondrial DNA as well as the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), suggesting the promotion of PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis. Apple  procyanidins also enhanced proteoglycan biosynthesis with aggrecan upregulation in primary chondrocytes. Of note, oral treatment with apple procyanidins prevented articular cartilage degradation in OA model mice induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in chondrocytes. Our findings suggest that apple procyanidins are promising food components that inhibit OA progression by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Induces Early Renal Mitochondrial DNA Repair and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Raquel R.; Fu, Ping; Suliman, Hagir B.; Crowley, Stephen D.; MacGarvey, Nancy Chou; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) contributes to the high morbidity and mortality of multi-system organ failure in sepsis. However, recovery of renal function after sepsis-induced AKI suggests active repair of energy-producing pathways. Here, we tested the hypothesis in mice that Staphyloccocus aureus sepsis damages mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the kidney and activates mtDNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis. Sepsis was induced in wild-type C57Bl/6J and Cox-8 Gfp-tagged mitochondrial-reporter mice via intraperitoneal fibrin clots embedded with S. aureus. Kidneys from surviving mice were harvested at time zero (control), 24, or 48 hours after infection and evaluated for renal inflammation, oxidative stress markers, mtDNA content, and mitochondrial biogenesis markers, and OGG1 and UDG mitochondrial DNA repair enzymes. We examined the kidneys of the mitochondrial reporter mice for changes in staining density and distribution. S. aureus sepsis induced sharp amplification of renal Tnf, Il-10, and Ngal mRNAs with decreased renal mtDNA content and increased tubular and glomerular cell death and accumulation of protein carbonyls and 8-OHdG. Subsequently, mtDNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis was evidenced by elevated OGG1 levels and significant increases in NRF-1, NRF-2, and mtTFA expression. Overall, renal mitochondrial mass, tracked by citrate synthase mRNA and protein, increased in parallel with changes in mitochondrial GFP-fluorescence especially in proximal tubules in the renal cortex and medulla. Sub-lethal S. aureus sepsis thus induces widespread renal mitochondrial damage that triggers the induction of the renal mtDNA repair protein, OGG1, and mitochondrial biogenesis as a conspicuous resolution mechanism after systemic bacterial infection. PMID:24988481

  12. Impaired Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Myogenesis in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ripolone, Michela; Ronchi, Dario; Violano, Raffaella; Vallejo, Dionis; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Barca, Emanuele; Lucchini, Valeria; Colombo, Irene; Villa, Luisa; Berardinelli, Angela; Balottin, Umberto; Morandi, Lucia; Mora, Marina; Bordoni, Andreina; Fortunato, Francesco; Corti, Stefania; Parisi, Daniela; Toscano, Antonio; Sciacco, Monica; DiMauro, Salvatore; Comi, Giacomo P.; Moggio, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    , implying depression of the entire mitochondrial biogenesis. Results of Western blot analysis confirmed the reduced levels of the respiratory chain subunits that included mitochondrially encoded COX1 (47.5%; P = .004), COX2 (32.4%; P < .001), COX4 (26.6%; P < .001), and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (65.8%; P = .03) as well as the structural outer membrane mitochondrial porin (33.1%; P < .001). Conversely, the levels of expression of 3 myogenic regulatory factors—muscle-specificmyogenic factor 5, myoblast determination 1, and myogenin—were higher in muscles from patients with SMA compared with muscles from age-matched controls (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our results strongly support the conclusion that an altered regulation of myogenesis and a downregulated mitochondrial biogenesis contribute to pathologic change in the muscle of patients with SMA. Therapeutic strategies should aim at counteracting these changes. PMID:25844556

  13. Mitochondrial biogenesis in the pulmonary vasculature during inhalation lung injury and fibrosis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell survival and injury repair is facilitated by mitochondrial biogenesis; however, the role of this process in lung repair is unknown. We evaluated mitochondrial biogenesis in the mouse lung in two injuries that cause acute inflammation and in two that cause chronic inflammatio...

  14. MicroRNA-761 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse skeletal muscle in response to exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yanli; Zhao, Chaoxian; Sun, Xuewen

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to play critical roles in skeletal muscle in response to exercise. Previous study has shown that miR-761 was involved in a novel model regulating the mitochondrial network. However, its role in mitochondrial biogenesis remains poorly understood. Therefore, the current study was aimed to examine the effect of miR-761 on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that aberrantly expressed miR-761 is involved in exercise activity and miR-761 is decreased by exercise training compared with the sedentary control mice. miR-761 suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes by targeting the 3′-UTR ofmore » peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator-1 (PGC-1α). Overexpression of miR-761 was capable of inhibiting the protein expression levels of PGC-1α. Moreover, miR-761 overexpression suppressed the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (P-MK2), a downstream kinase of p38 MAPK. The phosphorylation of activating transcription factors 2 (ATF2) that plays a functional role in linking the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway to enhanced transcription of the PGC-1α was also inhibited by the overexpression of miR-761. These findings revealed a novel regulation mechanism for miR-761 in skeletal myocytes, and contributed to a better understanding of the modulation of skeletal muscle in response to exercise. - Highlights: • Endurance exercise decreases miR-761 expression in skeletal muscle. • MiR-761 suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis in C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes. • MiR-761 directly targeted PGC-1α expression. • MiR-761 suppresses p38 MAPK signaling pathways in C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes. • A novel mechanism for miR-761 in skeletal myocytes is demonstrated.« less

  15. Mechanisms Behind Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Supplementation on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis: Possible Synergistic Effects with Exercise.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Paul; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2018-05-01

    There is clear evidence that endurance exercise training elicits intramuscular adaptations that can lead to elevations in mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative capacity, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated by the activation of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha. This master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis activates nuclear respiratory factors (NRF-1, NRF-2) and mitochondrial transcription factor A, which enables the expansion of mitochondrial size and transcription of mitochondrial DNA. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been identified as a novel supplement that is involved in various physiological processes such as redox modulation, cellular energy metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis and is a potent antioxidant. Since both exercise and supplemental PQQ have mechanisms associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, it is plausible that a differential additive ergogenic benefit with PQQ can ensue. However, there is a major paucity of research exploring the role of PQQ in conjunction with exercise. In this respect, the purpose of the critical literature review will be to present a comprehensive overview of PQQ and the proposed mechanisms underlying mitochondrial biogenesis. Because exercise can instigate the molecular responses indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis, it is plausible that PQQ and exercise may instigate a synergistic response. Key teaching points • Endurance exercise training enables skeletal muscle adaptations that can induce increases in mitochondrial biogenesis, improve oxidative capacity, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial function. • Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been identified as a novel supplement that is involved in physiological processes including redox modulation, cellular energy metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and antioxidant potential. • There is emerging evidence to support that PQQ

  16. Repositioning of antibiotic levofloxacin as a mitochondrial biogenesis inhibitor to target breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Min; Li, Ruishu, E-mail: liruishu2016@yahoo.com; Zhang, Juan

    Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis has become a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer due to their unique metabolic dependencies. In this study, we show that levofloxacin, a FDA-approved antibiotic, is an attractive candidate for breast cancer treatment. This is achieved by the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in a panel of breast cancer cell lines while sparing normal breast cells. It also acts synergistically with conventional chemo drug in two independent in vivo breast xenograft mouse models. Importantly, levofloxacin inhibits mitochondrial biogenesis as shown by the decreased level of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential and ATP. In addition, the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptoticmore » effects of levofloxacin are reversed by acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR, a mitochondrial fuel), confirming that levofloxacin's action in breast cancer cells is through inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. A consequence of mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition by levofloxacin in breast cancer cells is the deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. We further demonstrate that breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal breast cells, and this explains their different sensitivity to levofloxacin. Our work suggest that levofloxacin is a useful addition to breast cancer treatment. Our work also establish the essential role of mitochondrial biogenesis on the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Levofloxacin targets a panel of breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. • Levofloxacin acts synergistically with 5-Fluorouracil in breast cancer. • Levofloxacin targets breast cancer cells via inhibiting mitochondrial biogenesis. • Breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal cells. • Mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition lead to deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.« less

  17. Structural Modification of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Shows Significant Enhancement in Mitochondrial Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Taewoong; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Park, Kwang-Su; Jung, Woong; Choo, Hyunah; Chong, Youhoon

    2018-04-18

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is known as a mitochondria-targeted molecule that can prevent mitochondrial deterioration and induce mitochondrial biogenesis by modulating key regulators of mitochondrial metabolism. In this study, we tackled whether derivatization of EGCG could result in enhancement of its effects on mitochondrial biogenesis. EGCG, EGCG peracetate (AcEGCG), and its 4″- O-alkyl substituted congeners prepared by previously reported procedures were biologically evaluated. Interestingly, EGCG and AcEGCG were only marginally effective in inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, while AcEGCG congeners with an alkyl group at the 4″- O position showed significantly increased biological activity compared to their parent compound. Among these series, 3f with a methyl-branched carbonate chain at the 4″- O position of the AcEGCG scaffold showed the most enhancement in inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. Hepa1-6 cells treated with 3f exhibited increases in both mitochondrial mass (1.5 times) and relative mtDNA content to nDNA (1.5 times). As a mitochondrial biogenesis enhancer, 3f also increased expression levels of regulators for mitochondrial function, including PGC-1α (4.0 fold), p-AMPK (2.5 fold), SIRT1 (4.2 fold), ERRα (1.8 fold), NRF-1 (1.6 fold), NRF-2 (1.7 fold), and mtTFA (1.6 folds). Investigation of oxidative phosphorylation by mitochondria in the presence of 3f revealed that 3f increased the NAD + /NADH ratio, the amount of cytochrome c, ATP synthesis, and oxygen consumption in Hepa1-6 cells by 2.2, 1.4, 1.5, and 2.1 fold, respectively. Taken together, these results warrant an extensive structure-activity relationship study for EGCG derivatives to develop novel mitochondrial biogenesis enhancers.

  18. The effect of ethidium bromide and chloramphenicol on mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Li-Pin; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Wolvetang, Ernst, E-mail: e.wolvetang@uq.edu.au

    2012-05-15

    The expression of mitochondrial components is controlled by an intricate interplay between nuclear transcription factors and retrograde signaling from mitochondria. The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mtDNA-encoded proteins in mitochondrial biogenesis is, however, poorly understood and thus far has mainly been studied in transformed cell lines. We treated primary human fibroblasts with ethidium bromide (EtBr) or chloramphenicol for six weeks to inhibit mtDNA replication or mitochondrial protein synthesis, respectively, and investigated how the cells recovered from these insults two weeks after removal of the drugs. Although cellular growth and mitochondrial gene expression were severely impaired after both inhibitor treatmentsmore » we observed marked differences in mitochondrial structure, membrane potential, glycolysis, gene expression, and redox status between fibroblasts treated with EtBr and chloramphenicol. Following removal of the drugs we further detected clear differences in expression of both mtDNA-encoded genes and nuclear transcription factors that control mitochondrial biogenesis, suggesting that the cells possess different compensatory mechanisms to recover from drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Our data reveal new aspects of the interplay between mitochondrial retrograde signaling and the expression of nuclear regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, a process with direct relevance to mitochondrial diseases and chloramphenicol toxicity in humans. -- Highlights: ► Cells respond to certain environmental toxins by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis. ► We investigated the effect of Chloramphenicol and EtBr in primary human fibroblasts. ► Inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis or DNA replication elicit different effects. ► We provide novel insights into the cellular responses toxins and antibiotics.« less

  19. 17β-estradiol improves hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis and function through PGC1B.

    PubMed

    Galmés-Pascual, Bel M; Nadal-Casellas, Antonia; Bauza-Thorbrügge, Marco; Sbert-Roig, Miquel; García-Palmer, Francisco J; Proenza, Ana M; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Sexual dimorphism in mitochondrial biogenesis and function has been described in many rat tissues, with females showing larger and more functional mitochondria. The family of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC1) plays a central role in the regulatory network governing mitochondrial biogenesis and function, but little is known about the different contribution of hepatic PGC1A and PGC1B in these processes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of 17β-estradiol (E2) in mitochondrial biogenesis and function in liver and assess the contribution of both hepatic PGC1A and PGC1B as mediators of these effects. In ovariectomized (OVX) rats (half of which were treated with E2) estrogen deficiency led to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function, increased oxidative stress, and defective lipid metabolism, but was counteracted by E2 treatment. In HepG2 hepatocytes, the role of E2 in enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and function was confirmed. These effects were unaffected by the knockdown of PGC1A, but were impaired when PGC1B expression was knocked down by specific siRNA. Our results reveal a widespread protective role of E2 in hepatocytes, which is explained by enhanced mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity, lower hepatic lipid accumulation, and a reduction of oxidative stress. We also suggest a novel hepatic protective role of PGC1B as a modulator of E2 effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and function supporting activation of PGC1B as a therapeutic target for hepatic mitochondrial disorders. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Reactive oxygen species mediates homocysteine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in human endothelial cells: Modulation by antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-de-Arce, Karen; Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago; Foncea, Rocio

    2005-12-16

    It has been proposed that homocysteine (Hcy)-induces endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A previous report has shown that Hcy promotes mitochondrial damage. Considering that oxidative stress can affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that Hcy-induced ROS in endothelial cells may lead to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. We found that Hcy-induced ROS (1.85-fold), leading to a NF-{kappa}B activation and increase the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. Furthermore, expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, nuclear respiratory factor-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, was significantly elevated in Hcy-treated cells. These changes were accompanied by increase in mitochondrial mass and higher mRNAmore » and protein expression of the subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase. These effects were significantly prevented by pretreatment with the antioxidants, catechin and trolox. Taken together, our results suggest that ROS is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by Hcy, and that modulation of oxidative stress by antioxidants may protect against the adverse vascular effects of Hcy.« less

  1. The Effects of NAD+ on Apoptotic Neuronal Death and Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function after Glutamate Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowan; Li, Hailong; Ding, Shinghua

    2014-01-01

    NAD+ is an essential co-enzyme for cellular energy metabolism and is also involved as a substrate for many cellular enzymatic reactions. It has been shown that NAD+ has a beneficial effect on neuronal survival and brain injury in in vitro and in vivo ischemic models. However, the effect of NAD+ on mitochondrial biogenesis and function in ischemia has not been well investigated. In the present study, we used an in vitro glutamate excitotoxicity model of primary cultured cortical neurons to study the effect of NAD+ on apoptotic neuronal death and mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Our results show that supplementation of NAD+ could effectively reduce apoptotic neuronal death, and apoptotic inducing factor translocation after neurons were challenged with excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Using different approaches including confocal imaging, mitochondrial DNA measurement and Western blot analysis of PGC-1 and NRF-1, we also found that NAD+ could significantly attenuate glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and the impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis. Furthermore, NAD+ treatment effectively inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and NADH redistribution after excitotoxic glutamate stimulation. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NAD+ is capable of inhibiting apoptotic neuronal death after glutamate excitotoxicity via preserving mitochondrial biogenesis and integrity. Our findings provide insights into potential neuroprotective strategies in ischemic stroke. PMID:25387075

  2. Biogenesis of a Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Protein in Trypanosoma brucei: TARGETING SIGNAL AND DEPENDENCE ON A UNIQUE BIOGENESIS FACTOR.

    PubMed

    Bruggisser, Julia; Käser, Sandro; Mani, Jan; Schneider, André

    2017-02-24

    The mitochondrial outer membrane (OM) contains single and multiple membrane-spanning proteins that need to contain signals that ensure correct targeting and insertion into the OM. The biogenesis of such proteins has so far essentially only been studied in yeast and related organisms. Here we show that POMP10, an OM protein of the early diverging protozoan Trypanosoma brucei , is signal-anchored. Transgenic cells expressing variants of POMP10 fused to GFP demonstrate that the N-terminal membrane-spanning domain flanked by a few positively charged or neutral residues is both necessary and sufficient for mitochondrial targeting. Carbonate extraction experiments indicate that although the presence of neutral instead of positively charged residues did not interfere with POMP10 localization, it weakened its interaction with the OM. Expression of GFP-tagged POMP10 in inducible RNAi cell lines shows that its mitochondrial localization depends on pATOM36 but does not require Sam50 or ATOM40, the trypanosomal analogue of the Tom40 import pore. pATOM36 is a kinetoplastid-specific OM protein that has previously been implicated in the assembly of OM proteins and in mitochondrial DNA inheritance. In summary, our results show that although the features of the targeting signal in signal-anchored proteins are widely conserved, the protein machinery that mediates their biogenesis is not. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Dysregulation of miRNAs in bladder cancer: altered expression with aberrant biogenesis procedure

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fan; Xu, Tianyuan; Shen, Yifan; Zhong, Shan; Chen, Shanwen; Ding, Qiang; Shen, Zhoujun

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant expression profiles of miRNAs are widely observed in the clinical tissue specimens and urine samples as well as the blood samples of bladder cancer patients. These profiles are closely related to the pathological features of bladder cancer, such as the tumour stage/grade, metastasis, recurrence and chemo-sensitivity. MiRNA biogenesis forms the basis of miRNA expression and function, and its dysregulation has been shown to be essential for variations in miRNA expression profiles as well as tumourigenesis and cancer progression. In this review, we summarize the up-to-date and widely reported miRNAs in bladder cancer that display significantly altered expression. We then compare the miRNA expression profiles among three different sample types (tissue, urine and blood) from patients with bladder cancer. Moreover, for the first time, we outline the dysregulated miRNA biogenesis network in bladder cancer from different levels and analyse its possible relationship with aberrant miRNA expression and the pathological characteristics of the disease. PMID:28187437

  4. Control of mitochondrial biogenesis and function by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Bragoszewski, Piotr; Turek, Michal; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in eukaryotic cells. The complex proteome of mitochondria comprises proteins that are encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins requires their transport in an unfolded state with a high risk of misfolding. The mislocalization of mitochondrial proteins is deleterious to the cell. The electron transport chain in mitochondria is a source of reactive oxygen species that damage proteins. Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to many pathological conditions and, together with the loss of cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis), are hallmarks of ageing and ageing-related degeneration diseases. The pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, has been associated with mitochondrial and proteostasis failure. Thus, mitochondrial proteins require sophisticated surveillance mechanisms. Although mitochondria form a proteasome-exclusive compartment, multiple lines of evidence indicate a crucial role for the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the quality control of mitochondrial proteins. The proteasome affects mitochondrial proteins at stages of their biogenesis and maturity. The effects of the UPS go beyond the removal of damaged proteins and include the adjustment of mitochondrial proteome composition, the regulation of organelle dynamics and the protection of cellular homeostasis against mitochondrial failure. In turn, mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial dysfunction adjust the activity of the UPS, with implications at the cellular level. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Control of mitochondrial biogenesis and function by the ubiquitin–proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    Bragoszewski, Piotr; Turek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in eukaryotic cells. The complex proteome of mitochondria comprises proteins that are encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins requires their transport in an unfolded state with a high risk of misfolding. The mislocalization of mitochondrial proteins is deleterious to the cell. The electron transport chain in mitochondria is a source of reactive oxygen species that damage proteins. Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to many pathological conditions and, together with the loss of cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis), are hallmarks of ageing and ageing-related degeneration diseases. The pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, has been associated with mitochondrial and proteostasis failure. Thus, mitochondrial proteins require sophisticated surveillance mechanisms. Although mitochondria form a proteasome-exclusive compartment, multiple lines of evidence indicate a crucial role for the cytosolic ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) in the quality control of mitochondrial proteins. The proteasome affects mitochondrial proteins at stages of their biogenesis and maturity. The effects of the UPS go beyond the removal of damaged proteins and include the adjustment of mitochondrial proteome composition, the regulation of organelle dynamics and the protection of cellular homeostasis against mitochondrial failure. In turn, mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial dysfunction adjust the activity of the UPS, with implications at the cellular level. PMID:28446709

  6. Mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis from molecular understanding to clinical disease

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhel, Majid; Nashabat, Marwan; Ali, Qais Abu; Hundallah, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Iron–sulfur clusters (ISCs) are known to play a major role in various protein functions. Located in the mitochondria, cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus, they contribute to various core cellular functions. Until recently, only a few human diseases related to mitochondrial ISC biogenesis defects have been described. Such diseases include Friedreich ataxia, combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 19, infantile complex II/III deficiency defect, hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis and mitochondrial muscle myopathy, lipoic acid biosynthesis defects, multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndromes and non ketotic hyperglycinemia due to glutaredoxin 5 gene defect. Disorders of mitochondrial import, export and translation, including sideroblastic anemia with ataxia, EVEN-PLUS syndrome and mitochondrial complex I deficiency due to nucleotide-binding protein-like protein gene defect, have also been implicated in ISC biogenesis defects. With advances in next generation sequencing technologies, more disorders related to ISC biogenesis defects are expected to be elucidated. In this article, we aim to shed the light on mitochondrial ISC biogenesis, related proteins and their function, pathophysiology, clinical phenotypes of related disorders, diagnostic approach, and future implications. PMID:28064324

  7. Medium Chain Triglycerides enhances exercise endurance through the increased mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yi; Xu, Jiping; Li, Zhaoshen

    2018-01-01

    Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) is a dietary supplement and usually used along with medications for treating food absorption disorders including diarrhea, steatorrhea and liver disease. It has been shown that MCT plays a role in lowering weight, and decreasing metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity and inflammation. However, it is still unknown whether MCT enhances exercise endurance. Here, we demonstrated that MCT containing diet improves high temperature induced exercise performance impairment. We found that MCT up-regulates the expression and protein levels of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. Further investigation demonstrated that the increased mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism is mediated through the activation of Akt and AMPK signaling pathways and inhibition of TGF-β signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings indicate a beneficial effect of dietary MCT in exercise performance through the increase of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. PMID:29420554

  8. Medium Chain Triglycerides enhances exercise endurance through the increased mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Zhenzhen; Han, Yi; Xu, Jiping; Huang, Wen; Li, Zhaoshen

    2018-01-01

    Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) is a dietary supplement and usually used along with medications for treating food absorption disorders including diarrhea, steatorrhea and liver disease. It has been shown that MCT plays a role in lowering weight, and decreasing metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity and inflammation. However, it is still unknown whether MCT enhances exercise endurance. Here, we demonstrated that MCT containing diet improves high temperature induced exercise performance impairment. We found that MCT up-regulates the expression and protein levels of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. Further investigation demonstrated that the increased mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism is mediated through the activation of Akt and AMPK signaling pathways and inhibition of TGF-β signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings indicate a beneficial effect of dietary MCT in exercise performance through the increase of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism.

  9. Stomatin-Like Protein 2 Binds Cardiolipin and Regulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function▿

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Darah A.; Lemke, Caitlin D.; Elias, Isaac M.; Chau, Luan A.; Kirchhof, Mark G.; Li, Bo; Ball, Eric H.; Dunn, Stanley D.; Hatch, Grant M.; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) is a widely expressed mitochondrial inner membrane protein of unknown function. Here we show that human SLP-2 interacts with prohibitin-1 and -2 and binds to the mitochondrial membrane phospholipid cardiolipin. Upregulation of SLP-2 expression increases cardiolipin content and the formation of metabolically active mitochondrial membranes and induces mitochondrial biogenesis. In human T lymphocytes, these events correlate with increased complex I and II activities, increased intracellular ATP stores, and increased resistance to apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway, ultimately enhancing cellular responses. We propose that the function of SLP-2 is to recruit prohibitins to cardiolipin to form cardiolipin-enriched microdomains in which electron transport complexes are optimally assembled. Likely through the prohibitin functional interactome, SLP-2 then regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function. PMID:21746876

  10. N-acetylcysteine inhibits the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in livers from rats fed ethanol chronically

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Chronic ethanol (EtOH) administration to experimental animals induces hepatic oxidative stress and up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis. The mechanisms by which chronic EtOH up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis have not been fully explored. In this work, we hypothesized that oxidative ...

  11. Bioenergetics of lung tumors: alteration of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory capacity.

    PubMed

    Bellance, N; Benard, G; Furt, F; Begueret, H; Smolková, K; Passerieux, E; Delage, J P; Baste, J M; Moreau, P; Rossignol, R

    2009-12-01

    Little is known on the metabolic profile of lung tumors and the reminiscence of embryonic features. Herein, we determined the bioenergetic profiles of human fibroblasts taken from lung epidermoid carcinoma (HLF-a) and fetal lung (MRC5). We also analysed human lung tumors and their surrounding healthy tissue from four patients with adenocarcinoma. On these different models, we measured functional parameters (cell growth rates in oxidative and glycolytic media, respiration, ATP synthesis and PDH activity) as well as compositional features (expression level of various energy proteins and upstream transcription factors). The results demonstrate that both the lung fetal and cancer cell lines produced their ATP predominantly by glycolysis, while oxidative phosphorylation was only capable of poor ATP delivery. This was explained by a decreased mitochondrial biogenesis caused by a lowered expression of PGC1alpha (as shown by RT-PCR and Western blot) and mtTFA. Consequently, the relative expression of glycolytic versus OXPHOS markers was high in these cells. Moreover, the re-activation of mitochondrial biogenesis with resveratrol induced cell death specifically in cancer cells. A consistent reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis and the subsequent alteration of respiratory capacity was also observed in lung tumors, associated with a lower expression level of bcl2. Our data give a better characterization of lung cancer cells' metabolic alterations which are essential for growth and survival. They designate mitochondrial biogenesis as a possible target for anti-cancer therapy.

  12. Efficient mitochondrial biogenesis drives incomplete penetrance in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Iommarini, Luisa; Giordano, Luca; Maresca, Alessandra; Pisano, Annalinda; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Caporali, Leonardo; Liguori, Rocco; Deceglie, Stefania; Roberti, Marina; Fanelli, Francesca; Fracasso, Flavio; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; D’Adamo, Pio; Hudson, Gavin; Pyle, Angela; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Zeviani, Massimo; Salomao, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Ventura, Dora Fix; Moraes, Milton; Moraes Filho, Milton; Barboni, Piero; Sadun, Federico; De Negri, Annamaria; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Tancredi, Andrea; Mancini, Massimiliano; d’Amati, Giulia; Loguercio Polosa, Paola; Cantatore, Palmiro

    2014-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited blinding disease caused as a result of homoplasmic point mutations in complex I subunit genes of mitochondrial DNA. It is characterized by incomplete penetrance, as only some mutation carriers become affected. Thus, the mitochondrial DNA mutation is necessary but not sufficient to cause optic neuropathy. Environmental triggers and genetic modifying factors have been considered to explain its variable penetrance. We measured the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass indicators in blood cells from affected and carrier individuals, screening three large pedigrees and 39 independently collected smaller families with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, as well as muscle biopsies and cells isolated by laser capturing from post-mortem specimens of retina and optic nerves, the latter being the disease targets. We show that unaffected mutation carriers have a significantly higher mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass compared with their affected relatives and control individuals. Comparative studies of fibroblasts from affected, carriers and controls, under different paradigms of metabolic demand, show that carriers display the highest capacity for activating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore we postulate that the increased mitochondrial biogenesis in carriers may overcome some of the pathogenic effect of mitochondrial DNA mutations. Screening of a few selected genetic variants in candidate genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis failed to reveal any significant association. Our study provides a valuable mechanism to explain variability of penetrance in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy and clues for high throughput genetic screening to identify the nuclear modifying gene(s), opening an avenue to develop predictive genetic tests on disease risk and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24369379

  13. Valproic acid triggers increased mitochondrial biogenesis in POLG-deficient fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sitarz, Kamil S.; Elliott, Hannah R.; Karaman, Betül S.; Relton, Caroline; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Horvath, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used antiepileptic drug and also prescribed to treat migraine, chronic headache and bipolar disorder. Although it is usually well tolerated, a severe hepatotoxic reaction has been repeatedly reported after VPA administration. A profound toxic reaction on administration of VPA has been observed in several patients carrying POLG mutations, and heterozygous genetic variation in POLG has been strongly associated with VPA-induced liver toxicity. Here we studied the effect of VPA in fibroblasts of five patients carrying pathogenic mutations in the POLG gene. VPA administration caused a significant increase in the expression of POLG and several regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis. It was further supported by elevated mtDNA copy numbers. The effect of VPA on mitochondrial biogenesis was observed in both control and patient cell lines, but the capacity of mutant POLG to increase the expression of mitochondrial genes and to increase mtDNA copy numbers was less effective. No evidence of substantive differences in DNA methylation across the genome was observed between POLG mutated patients and controls. Given the marked perturbation of gene expression observed in the cell lines studied, we conclude that altered DNA methylation is unlikely to make a major contribution to POLG-mediated VPA toxicity. Our data provide experimental evidence that VPA triggers increased mitochondrial biogenesis by altering the expression of several mitochondrial genes; however, the capacity of POLG-deficient liver cells to address the increased metabolic rate caused by VPA administration is significantly impaired. PMID:24725338

  14. GPER mediates the effects of 17β-estradiol in cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Sbert-Roig, Miquel; Bauzá-Thorbrügge, Marco; Galmés-Pascual, Bel M; Capllonch-Amer, Gabriela; García-Palmer, Francisco J; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M; Gianotti, Magdalena

    2016-01-15

    Considering the sexual dimorphism described in cardiac mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, we aimed to investigate the role of 17β-estradiol (E2) in these sex differences and the contribution of E2 receptors to these effects. As a model of chronic deprivation of ovarian hormones, we used ovariectomized (OVX) rats, half of which were treated with E2. Ovariectomy decreased markers of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis and function and also increased oxidative stress, whereas E2 counteracted these effects. In H9c2 cardiomyocytes we observed that G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) agonist mimicked the effects of E2 in enhancing mitochondrial function and biogenesis, whereas GPER inhibitor neutralized them. These data suggest that E2 enhances mitochondrial function and decreases oxidative stress in cardiac muscle, thus it could be responsible for the sexual dimorphism observed in mitochondrial biogenesis and function in this tissue. These effects seem to be mediated through GPER stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondrial biogenesis and energy production in differentiating murine stem cells: a functional metabolic study.

    PubMed

    Han, Sungwon; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C; Beites, Crestina L; Appanna, Vasu D

    2014-02-01

    The significance of metabolic networks in guiding the fate of the stem cell differentiation is only beginning to emerge. Oxidative metabolism has been suggested to play a major role during this process. Therefore, it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of metabolic alterations occurring in stem cells to manipulate the ultimate outcome of these pluripotent cells. Here, using P19 murine embryonal carcinoma cells as a model system, the role of mitochondrial biogenesis and the modulation of metabolic networks during dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation are revealed. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) technology aided in profiling key enzymes, such as hexokinase (HK) [EC 2.7.1.1], glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) [EC 5.3.1.9], pyruvate kinase (PK) [EC 2.7.1.40], Complex I [EC 1.6.5.3], and Complex IV [EC 1.9.3.1], that are involved in the energy budget of the differentiated cells. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production was shown to be increased in DMSO-treated cells upon exposure to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle substrates, such as succinate and malate. The increased mitochondrial activity and biogenesis were further confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Collectively, the results indicate that oxidative energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were sharply upregulated in DMSO-differentiated P19 cells. This functional metabolic and proteomic study provides further evidence that modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism is a pivotal component of the cellular differentiation process and may dictate the final destiny of stem cells.

  16. Alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with loss of p53

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Marcia A.; Liu, Jinyun; Pelicano, Helene; Hammoudi, Naima; Croce, Carlo M.; Keating, Michael J.; Huang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Deletion of chromosome 17p with a loss of p53 is an unfavorable cytogenetic change in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with poor clinical outcome. Since p53 affects mitochondrial function and integrity, we examined possible mitochondrial changes in CLL mice with TCL1-Tg/p53−/− and TCL1-Tg/p53+/+ genotypes and in primary leukemia cells from CLL patients with or without 17p-deletion. Although the expression of mitochondrial COX1, ND2, and ND6 decreased in p53−/−CLL cells, there was an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis as evidenced by higher mitochondrial mass and mtDNA copy number associated with an elevated expression of TFAM and PGC-1α. Surprisingly, the overall mitochondrial respiratory activity and maximum reserved capacity increased in p53−/− CLL cells. Our study suggests that leukemia cells lacking p53 seem able to maintain respiratory function by compensatory increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:27650502

  17. Augmentation of aerobic respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by hypoxia preconditioning with cobalt chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Saurabh; Shukla, Dhananjay; Bansal, Anju, E-mail: anjubansaldipas@gmail.com

    High altitude/hypoxia training is known to improve physical performance in athletes. Hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its downstream genes that facilitate hypoxia adaptation in muscle to increase physical performance. Cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}), a hypoxia mimetic, stabilizes HIF-1, which otherwise is degraded in normoxic conditions. We studied the effects of hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation on physical performance, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis using rodent model. The results showed significant increase in physical performance in cobalt supplemented rats without (two times) or with training (3.3 times) as compared to control animals. CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats augmentedmore » the biological activities of enzymes of TCA cycle, glycolysis and cytochrome c oxidase (COX); and increased the expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) in muscle showing increased glucose metabolism by aerobic respiration. There was also an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle observed by increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers which was further confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, nitric oxide production increased in skeletal muscle in cobalt supplemented rats, which seems to be the major reason for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) induction and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, we state that hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats increases mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose uptake and metabolism by aerobic respiration in skeletal muscle, which leads to increased physical performance. The significance of this study lies in understanding the molecular mechanism of hypoxia adaptation and improvement of work performance in normal as well as extreme conditions like hypoxia via hypoxia preconditioning. -- Highlights: ► We supplemented rats with CoCl{sub 2} for 15 days along with training.

  18. Redox and Reactive Oxygen Species Regulation of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bourens, Myriam; Fontanesi, Flavia; Soto, Iliana C.; Liu, Jingjing

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the last enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is the major oxygen consumer enzyme in the cell. COX biogenesis involves several redox-regulated steps. The process is highly regulated to prevent the formation of pro-oxidant intermediates. Recent Advances: Regulation of COX assembly involves several reactive oxygen species and redox-regulated steps. These include: (i) Intricate redox-controlled machineries coordinate the expression of COX isoenzymes depending on the environmental oxygen concentration. (ii) COX is a heme A-copper metalloenzyme. COX copper metallation involves the copper chaperone Cox17 and several other recently described cysteine-rich proteins, which are oxidatively folded in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Copper transfer to COX subunits 1 and 2 requires concomitant transfer of redox power. (iii) To avoid the accumulation of reactive assembly intermediates, COX is regulated at the translational level to minimize synthesis of the heme A-containing Cox1 subunit when assembly is impaired. Critical Issues: An increasing number of regulatory pathways converge to facilitate efficient COX assembly, thus preventing oxidative stress. Future Directions: Here we will review on the redox-regulated COX biogenesis steps and will discuss their physiological relevance. Forthcoming insights into the precise regulation of mitochondrial COX biogenesis in normal and stress conditions will likely open future perspectives for understanding mitochondrial redox regulation and prevention of oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1940–1952. PMID:22937827

  19. Mitochondrial DNA copy numbers in pyramidal neurons are decreased and mitochondrial biogenesis transcriptome signaling is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease hippocampi.

    PubMed

    Rice, Ann C; Keeney, Paula M; Algarzae, Norah K; Ladd, Amy C; Thomas, Ravindar R; Bennett, James P

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of adult-onset dementia and is characterized in its pre-diagnostic stage by reduced cerebral cortical glucose metabolism and in later stages by reduced cortical oxygen uptake, implying reduced mitochondrial respiration. Using quantitative PCR we determined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene copy numbers from multiple groups of 15 or 20 pyramidal neurons, GFAP(+) astrocytes and dentate granule neurons isolated using laser capture microdissection, and the relative expression of mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis) genes in hippocampi from 10 AD and 9 control (CTL) cases. AD pyramidal but not dentate granule neurons had significantly reduced mtDNA copy numbers compared to CTL neurons. Pyramidal neuron mtDNA copy numbers in CTL, but not AD, positively correlated with cDNA levels of multiple mitobiogenesis genes. In CTL, but not in AD, hippocampal cDNA levels of PGC1α were positively correlated with multiple downstream mitobiogenesis factors. Mitochondrial DNA copy numbers in pyramidal neurons did not correlate with hippocampal Aβ1-42 levels. After 48 h exposure of H9 human neural stem cells to the neurotoxic fragment Aβ25-35, mtDNA copy numbers were not significantly altered. In summary, AD postmortem hippocampal pyramidal neurons have reduced mtDNA copy numbers. Mitochondrial biogenesis pathway signaling relationships are disrupted in AD, but are mostly preserved in CTL. Our findings implicate complex alterations of mitochondria-host cell relationships in AD.

  20. Escalating Methamphetamine Regimen Induces Compensatory Mechanisms, Mitochondrial Biogenesis, and GDNF Expression, in Substantia Nigra.

    PubMed

    Valian, Neda; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Dargahi, Leila

    2017-06-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) produces long-lasting deficits in dopaminergic neurons in the long-term use via several neurotoxic mechanisms. The effects of MA on mitochondrial biogenesis is less studied currently. So, we evaluated the effects of repeated escalating MA regimen on transcriptional factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression in substantia nigra (SN) and striatum of rat. In male Wistar rats, increasing doses of MA (1-14 mg/kg) were administrated twice a day for 14 days. At the 1st, 14th, 28th, and 60th days after MA discontinuation, we measured the PGC1α, TFAM and NRF1 mRNA levels, indicator of mitochondrial biogenesis, and GDNF expression in SN and striatum. Furthermore, we evaluated the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba1 mRNA levels, and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and α-synuclein (α-syn) using immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We detected increments in PGC1α and TFAM mRNA levels in SN, but not striatum, and elevations in GDNF levels in SN immediately after MA discontinuation. We also observed increases in GFAP and Iba1 mRNA levels in SN on day 1 and increases in Iba1 mRNA on days 1 and 14 in striatum. Data analysis revealed that the number of TH + cells in the SN did not reduce in any time points, though TH mRNA levels was increased on day 1 after MA discontinuation in SN. These data show that repeated escalating MA induces several compensatory mechanisms, such as mitochondrial biogenesis and elevation in GDNF in SN. These mechanisms can reverse MA-induced neuroinflammation and prevent TH-immunoreactivity reduction in nigrostriatal pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1369-1378, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Triiodothyronine induces lipid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in rat Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Burrone, L; Falvo, S; Senese, R; Lanni, A; Chieffi Baccari, G

    2013-10-01

    The rat Harderian gland (HG) is an orbital gland producing a copious lipid secretion. Recent studies indicate that its secretory activity is regulated by thyroid hormones. In this study, we found that both isoforms of the thyroid hormone receptor (Trα (Thra) and Trβ (Thrb)) are expressed in rat HGs. Although Thra is expressed at a higher level, only Thrb is regulated by triiodothyronine (T3). Because T3 induces an increase in lipid metabolism in rat HGs, we investigated the effects of an animal's thyroid state on the expression levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (Cpt1a) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1B (Cpt1b) and acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox1) (rate-limiting enzymes in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation respectively), as well as on the mitochondrial compartment, thereby correlating mitochondrial activity and biogenesis with morphological analysis. We found that hypothyroidism decreased the expression of Cpt1b and Acox1 mRNA, whereas the administration of T3 to hypothyroid rats increased transcript levels. Respiratory parameters and catalase protein levels provided further evidence that T3 modulates mitochondrial and peroxisomal activities. Furthermore, in hypothyroid rat HGs, the mitochondrial number and their total area decreased with respect to the controls, whereas the average area of the individual mitochondrion did not change. However, the average area of the individual mitochondrion was reduced by ∼50% in hypothyroid T3-treated HGs, and the mitochondrial number and the total area of the mitochondrial compartment increased. The mitochondrial morphometric data correlated well with the molecular results. Indeed, hypothyroid status did not modify the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes such as Ppargc1a, Nrf1 and Tfam, whereas T3 treatment increased the expression level of these genes.

  2. Cannabidiol Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy by Modulating Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Enkui; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Cao, Zongxian; Erdélyi, Katalin; Holovac, Eileen; Liaudet, Lucas; Lee, Wen-Shin; Haskó, György; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pál

    2015-01-06

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used, potent chemotherapeutic agent; however, its clinical application is limited because of its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOX's cardiotoxicity involves increased oxidative/nitrative stress, impaired mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes/endothelial cells and cell death. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychotropic constituent of marijuana, which is well tolerated in humans, with antioxidant, antiinflammatory and recently discovered antitumor properties. We aimed to explore the effects of CBD in a well-established mouse model of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. DOX-induced cardiomyopathy was characterized by increased myocardial injury (elevated serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels), myocardial oxidative and nitrative stress (decreased total glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase 1 activity, increased lipid peroxidation, 3-nitrotyrosine formation and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA), myocardial cell death (apoptotic and poly[ADP]-ribose polymerase 1 [PARP]-dependent) and cardiac dysfunction (decline in ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening). DOX also impaired myocardial mitochondrial biogenesis (decreased mitochondrial copy number, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, estrogen-related receptor alpha), reduced mitochondrial function (attenuated complex I and II activities) and decreased myocardial expression of uncoupling protein 2 and 3 and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA. Treatment with CBD markedly improved DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction, oxidative/nitrative stress and cell death. CBD also enhanced the DOX-induced impaired cardiac mitochondrial function and biogenesis. These data suggest that CBD may represent a novel cardioprotective strategy against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and the above-described effects on mitochondrial function and biogenesis may

  3. Cannabidiol Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy by Modulating Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Enkui; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Cao, Zongxian; Erdélyi, Katalin; Holovac, Eileen; Liaudet, Lucas; Lee, Wen-Shin; Haskó, György; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pál

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used, potent chemotherapeutic agent; however, its clinical application is limited because of its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOX’s cardiotoxicity involves increased oxidative/nitrative stress, impaired mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes/endothelial cells and cell death. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychotropic constituent of marijuana, which is well tolerated in humans, with antioxidant, antiinflammatory and recently discovered antitumor properties. We aimed to explore the effects of CBD in a well-established mouse model of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. DOX-induced cardiomyopathy was characterized by increased myocardial injury (elevated serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels), myocardial oxidative and nitrative stress (decreased total glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase 1 activity, increased lipid peroxidation, 3-nitrotyrosine formation and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA), myocardial cell death (apoptotic and poly[ADP]-ribose polymerase 1 [PARP]-dependent) and cardiac dysfunction (decline in ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening). DOX also impaired myocardial mitochondrial biogenesis (decreased mitochondrial copy number, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, estrogen-related receptor alpha), reduced mitochondrial function (attenuated complex I and II activities) and decreased myocardial expression of uncoupling protein 2 and 3 and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA. Treatment with CBD markedly improved DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction, oxidative/nitrative stress and cell death. CBD also enhanced the DOX-induced impaired cardiac mitochondrial function and biogenesis. These data suggest that CBD may represent a novel cardioprotective strategy against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and the above-described effects on mitochondrial function and biogenesis may

  4. Shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis decreases the release of microparticles from endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Seok; Kim, Boa; Lee, Hojun; Thakkar, Sunny; Babbitt, Dianne M; Eguchi, Satoru; Brown, Michael D; Park, Joon-Young

    2015-08-01

    The concept of enhancing structural integrity of mitochondria has emerged as a novel therapeutic option for cardiovascular disease. Flow-induced increase in laminar shear stress is a potent physiological stimulant associated with exercise, which exerts atheroprotective effects in the vasculature. However, the effect of laminar shear stress on mitochondrial remodeling within the vascular endothelium and its related functional consequences remain largely unknown. Using in vitro and in vivo complementary studies, here, we report that aerobic exercise alleviates the release of endothelial microparticles in prehypertensive individuals and that these salutary effects are, in part, mediated by shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Circulating levels of total (CD31(+)/CD42a(-)) and activated (CD62E(+)) microparticles released by endothelial cells were significantly decreased (∼40% for both) after a 6-mo supervised aerobic exercise training program in individuals with prehypertension. In cultured human endothelial cells, laminar shear stress reduced the release of endothelial microparticles, which was accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis through a sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-dependent mechanism. Resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, treatment showed similar effects. SIRT1 knockdown using small-interfering RNA completely abolished the protective effect of shear stress. Disruption of mitochondrial integrity by either antimycin A or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α small-interfering RNA significantly increased the number of total, and activated, released endothelial microparticles, and shear stress restored these back to basal levels. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role of endothelial mitochondrial integrity in preserving endothelial homeostasis. Moreover, prolonged laminar shear stress, which is systemically elevated during aerobic exercise in the vessel wall, mitigates endothelial dysfunction by promoting

  5. 14,15-EET promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and protects cortical neurons against oxygen/glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lai; Chen, Man; Yuan, Lin

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • 14,15-EET inhibits OGD-induced apoptosis in cortical neurons. • Mitochondrial biogenesis of cortical neurons is promoted by 14,15-EET. • 14,15-EET preserves mitochondrial function of cortical neurons under OGD. • CREB mediates effect of 14,15-EET on mitochondrial biogenesis and function. - Abstract: 14,15-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET), a metabolite of arachidonic acid, is enriched in the brain cortex and exerts protective effect against neuronal apoptosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Although apoptosis has been well recognized to be closely associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and function, it is still unclear whether the neuroprotective effect of 14,15-EET is mediated by promotion of mitochondrial biogenesis and functionmore » in cortical neurons under the condition of oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD). In this study, we found that 14,15-EET improved cell viability and inhibited apoptosis of cortical neurons. 14,15-EET significantly increased the mitochondrial mass and the ratio of mitochondrial DNA to nuclear DNA. Key makers of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma-coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), were elevated at both mRNA and protein levels in the cortical neurons treated with 14,15-EET. Moreover, 14,15-EET markedly attenuated the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced ROS, while increased ATP synthesis. Knockdown of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) by siRNA blunted the up-regulation of PGC-1α and NRF-1 stimulated by 14,15-EET, and consequently abolished the neuroprotective effect of 14,15-EET. Our results indicate that 14,15-EET protects neurons from OGD-induced apoptosis by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and function through CREB mediated activation of PGC-1α and NRF-1.« less

  6. Mitophagy is required for mitochondrial biogenesis and myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Sin, Jon; Andres, Allen M; Taylor, David J R; Weston, Thomas; Hiraumi, Yoshimi; Stotland, Aleksandr; Kim, Brandon J; Huang, Chengqun; Doran, Kelly S; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2016-01-01

    Myogenesis is a crucial process governing skeletal muscle development and homeostasis. Differentiation of primitive myoblasts into mature myotubes requires a metabolic switch to support the increased energetic demand of contractile muscle. Skeletal myoblasts specifically shift from a highly glycolytic state to relying predominantly on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) upon differentiation. We have found that this phenomenon requires dramatic remodeling of the mitochondrial network involving both mitochondrial clearance and biogenesis. During early myogenic differentiation, autophagy is robustly upregulated and this coincides with DNM1L/DRP1 (dynamin 1-like)-mediated fragmentation and subsequent removal of mitochondria via SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1)-mediated mitophagy. Mitochondria are then repopulated via PPARGC1A/PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha)-mediated biogenesis. Mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1 [autosomal dominant]) is then briskly upregulated, resulting in the reformation of mitochondrial networks. The final product is a myotube replete with new mitochondria. Respirometry reveals that the constituents of these newly established mitochondrial networks are better primed for OXPHOS and are more tightly coupled than those in myoblasts. Additionally, we have found that suppressing autophagy with various inhibitors during differentiation interferes with myogenic differentiation. Together these data highlight the integral role of autophagy and mitophagy in myogenic differentiation.

  7. Perm1 enhances mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative capacity, and fatigue resistance in adult skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoshitake; Hazen, Bethany C.; Gandra, Paulo G.; Ward, Samuel R.; Schenk, Simon; Russell, Aaron P.; Kralli, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity are important determinants of muscle function and whole-body health. Mitochondrial content and function are enhanced by endurance exercise and impaired in states or diseases where muscle function is compromised, such as myopathies, muscular dystrophies, neuromuscular diseases, and age-related muscle atrophy. Hence, elucidating the mechanisms that control muscle mitochondrial content and oxidative function can provide new insights into states and diseases that affect muscle health. In past studies, we identified Perm1 (PPARGC1- and ESRR-induced regulator, muscle 1) as a gene induced by endurance exercise in skeletal muscle, and regulating mitochondrial oxidative function in cultured myotubes. The capacity of Perm1 to regulate muscle mitochondrial content and function in vivo is not yet known. In this study, we use adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to increase Perm1 expression in skeletal muscles of 4-wk-old mice. Compared to control vector, AAV1-Perm1 leads to significant increases in mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity (by 40–80%). Moreover, AAV1-Perm1–transduced muscles show increased capillary density and resistance to fatigue (by 33 and 31%, respectively), without prominent changes in fiber-type composition. These findings suggest that Perm1 selectively regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function, and implicate Perm1 in muscle adaptations that also occur in response to endurance exercise.—Cho, Y., Hazen, B. C., Gandra, P. G., Ward, S. R., Schenk, S., Russell, A. P., Kralli, A. Perm1 enhances mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative capacity, and fatigue resistance in adult skeletal muscle. PMID:26481306

  8. Defects in Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthesis Result in Failure of Multiple Aspects of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kursu, V. A. Samuli; Pietikäinen, Laura P.; Fontanesi, Flavia; Aaltonen, Mari J.; Suomi, Fumi; Nair, Remya Raghavan; Schonauer, Melissa S.; Dieckmann, Carol L.; Barrientos, Antoni; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) shares acetyl-CoA with the Krebs cycle as a common substrate and is required for the production of octanoic acid (C8) precursors of lipoic acid (LA) in mitochondria. MtFAS is a conserved pathway essential for respiration. In a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae designed to further elucidate the physiological role of mtFAS, we isolated mutants with defects in mitochondrial post-translational gene expression processes, indicating a novel link to mitochondrial gene expression and respiratory chain biogenesis. In our ensuing analysis, we show that mtFAS, but not lipoylation per se, is required for respiratory competence. We demonstrate that mtFAS is required for mRNA splicing, mitochondrial translation and respiratory complex assembly, and provide evidence that not LA per se, but fatty acids longer than C8 play a role in these processes. We also show that mtFAS- and LA-deficient strains suffer from a mild heme deficiency that may contribute to the respiratory complex assembly defect. Based on our data and previously published information, we propose a model implicating mtFAS as a sensor for mitochondrial acetyl-CoA availability and a coordinator of nuclear and mitochondrial gene expression by adapting the mitochondrial compartment to changes in the metabolic status of the cell. PMID:24102902

  9. Defects in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis result in failure of multiple aspects of mitochondrial biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kursu, V A Samuli; Pietikäinen, Laura P; Fontanesi, Flavia; Aaltonen, Mari J; Suomi, Fumi; Raghavan Nair, Remya; Schonauer, Melissa S; Dieckmann, Carol L; Barrientos, Antoni; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Kastaniotis, Alexander J

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) shares acetyl-CoA with the Krebs cycle as a common substrate and is required for the production of octanoic acid (C8) precursors of lipoic acid (LA) in mitochondria. MtFAS is a conserved pathway essential for respiration. In a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae designed to further elucidate the physiological role of mtFAS, we isolated mutants with defects in mitochondrial post-translational gene expression processes, indicating a novel link to mitochondrial gene expression and respiratory chain biogenesis. In our ensuing analysis, we show that mtFAS, but not lipoylation per se, is required for respiratory competence. We demonstrate that mtFAS is required for mRNA splicing, mitochondrial translation and respiratory complex assembly, and provide evidence that not LA per se, but fatty acids longer than C8 play a role in these processes. We also show that mtFAS- and LA-deficient strains suffer from a mild haem deficiency that may contribute to the respiratory complex assembly defect. Based on our data and previously published information, we propose a model implicating mtFAS as a sensor for mitochondrial acetyl-CoA availability and a co-ordinator of nuclear and mitochondrial gene expression by adapting the mitochondrial compartment to changes in the metabolic status of the cell. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Developmental regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mouse mammary gland during a prolonged lactation cycle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the lactating mammary cell is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to use proteomics to relate temporal changes in mammary cell mitochondrial function during lactation to changes in the proteins that make up this organelle. The hypo...

  11. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J L; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kgb.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits-NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013.

  12. Rapid Communication: Dietary selenium improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in young equine athletes.

    PubMed

    White, S H; Wohlgemuth, S; Li, C; Warren, L K

    2017-09-01

    Exercise is known to promote mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle as well as enhance mitochondrial function and efficiency in human and rodent models. These adaptations help to decrease exercise-associated production of reactive oxygen species, which can negatively affect health and performance if antioxidant mechanisms are overwhelmed. Little is known about the adaptations of mitochondria in response to exercise training in the growing horse or if supplementation with a dietary antioxidant can improve mitochondrial function. To evaluate the separate and combined effects of selenium (Se) supplementation, training, and an acute strenuous exercise bout on mitochondrial adaptations in young horses, 30 American Quarter Horse yearlings were randomly assigned to an exercise training group or a no-training group and, within each group, received either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM for 14 wk. The study was split into 2 phases (wk 0 to 8 and wk 9 to 14), with half of the trained horses switched to the opposite dietary treatment in Phase 2. At the end of each phase, all horses underwent a 120-min submaximal exercise test (SET; SET 1 and SET 2). Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were collected before and after each phase of the study and in response to each SET and analyzed for markers of mitochondrial number and function. At rest, horses receiving 0.3 mg Se/kg DM had higher citrate synthase activity ( = 0.021) than horses receiving 0.1 mg Se/kg DM, indicating higher mitochondrial content. In contrast, cytochrome oxidase (CCO) activity was not affected by dietary Se overall, but horses that were dropped from 0.3 mg Se/kg DM to 0.1 mg Se/kg DM during Phase 2 showed a decrease ( = 0.034) in integrated CCO activity from wk 9 to 14, suggesting impaired mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial enzyme activities were unaffected by an acute, strenuous exercise bout (SET 1 and SET 2). Our relatively low-intensity exercise training protocol did not appear to induce functional

  13. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10 mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) andmore » Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits–NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: • Aluminium decreases the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and nuclear

  14. Mitochondrial-Based Therapeutics for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury: Mitochondrial Biogenesis as a Potential Pharmacological Target

    PubMed Central

    Scholpa, Natalie E.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by an initial trauma followed by a progressive cascade of damage referred to as secondary injury. A hallmark of secondary injury is vascular disruption leading to vasoconstriction and decreased oxygen delivery, which directly reduces the ability of mitochondria to maintain homeostasis and leads to loss of ATP-dependent cellular functions, calcium overload, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress, further exacerbating injury. Restoration of mitochondria dysfunction during the acute phases of secondary injury after SCI represents a potentially effective therapeutic strategy. This review discusses the past and present pharmacological options for the treatment of SCI as well as current research on mitochondria-targeted approaches. Increased antioxidant activity, inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition, alternate energy sources, and manipulation of mitochondrial morphology are among the strategies under investigation. Unfortunately, many of these tactics address single aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, ultimately proving largely ineffective. Therefore, this review also examines the unexplored therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis, which has the potential to more comprehensively improve mitochondrial function after SCI. PMID:28935700

  15. Mitochondrial-Based Therapeutics for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury: Mitochondrial Biogenesis as a Potential Pharmacological Target.

    PubMed

    Scholpa, Natalie E; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2017-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by an initial trauma followed by a progressive cascade of damage referred to as secondary injury. A hallmark of secondary injury is vascular disruption leading to vasoconstriction and decreased oxygen delivery, which directly reduces the ability of mitochondria to maintain homeostasis and leads to loss of ATP-dependent cellular functions, calcium overload, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress, further exacerbating injury. Restoration of mitochondria dysfunction during the acute phases of secondary injury after SCI represents a potentially effective therapeutic strategy. This review discusses the past and present pharmacological options for the treatment of SCI as well as current research on mitochondria-targeted approaches. Increased antioxidant activity, inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition, alternate energy sources, and manipulation of mitochondrial morphology are among the strategies under investigation. Unfortunately, many of these tactics address single aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, ultimately proving largely ineffective. Therefore, this review also examines the unexplored therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis, which has the potential to more comprehensively improve mitochondrial function after SCI. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  16. Disrupted Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Dynamics, Mitophagy, and Biogenesis during Cancer Cachexia: A Role for Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    VanderVeen, Brandon N.; Fix, Dennis K.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of cancer cachexia in both patients and preclinical models. Cachexia is prevalent in roughly 80% of cancer patients and accounts for up to 20% of all cancer-related deaths. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β have been widely examined for their regulation of cancer cachexia. An established characteristic of cachectic skeletal muscle is a disrupted capacity for oxidative metabolism, which is thought to contribute to cancer patient fatigue, diminished metabolic function, and muscle mass loss. This review's primary objective is to highlight emerging evidence linking cancer-induced inflammation to the dysfunctional regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, and biogenesis in cachectic muscle. The potential for either muscle inactivity or exercise to alter mitochondrial dysfunction during cancer cachexia will also be discussed. PMID:28785374

  17. Oxaloacetate activates brain mitochondrial biogenesis, enhances the insulin pathway, reduces inflammation and stimulates neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Harris, Janna L; Carl, Steven M; E, Lezi; Lu, Jianghua; Eva Selfridge, J; Roy, Nairita; Hutfles, Lewis; Koppel, Scott; Morris, Jill; Burns, Jeffrey M; Michaelis, Mary L; Michaelis, Elias K; Brooks, William M; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-12-15

    Brain bioenergetic function declines in some neurodegenerative diseases, this may influence other pathologies and administering bioenergetic intermediates could have therapeutic value. To test how one intermediate, oxaloacetate (OAA) affects brain bioenergetics, insulin signaling, inflammation and neurogenesis, we administered intraperitoneal OAA, 1-2 g/kg once per day for 1-2 weeks, to C57Bl/6 mice. OAA altered levels, distributions or post-translational modifications of mRNA and proteins (proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α, PGC1 related co-activator, nuclear respiratory factor 1, transcription factor A of the mitochondria, cytochrome oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1, cAMP-response element binding, p38 MAPK and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) in ways that should promote mitochondrial biogenesis. OAA increased Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin and P70S6K phosphorylation. OAA lowered nuclear factor κB nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratios and CCL11 mRNA. Hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA, doublecortin mRNA, doublecortin protein, doublecortin-positive neuron counts and neurite length increased in OAA-treated mice. (1)H-MRS showed OAA increased brain lactate, GABA and glutathione thereby demonstrating metabolic changes are detectable in vivo. In mice, OAA promotes brain mitochondrial biogenesis, activates the insulin signaling pathway, reduces neuroinflammation and activates hippocampal neurogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effect of dietary resveratrol supplementation on meat quality, muscle antioxidative capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis of broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chen, Xingyong; Wang, Li; Geng, Zhaoyu

    2018-02-01

    The naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol has been acknowledged with many beneficial biological effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary resveratrol supplementation on meat quality, muscle antioxidative capacity and mitochondrial biogenesis of broilers. One hundred and eighty 21-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to two groups and fed on a 0 mg kg -1 or 400 mg kg -1 resveratrol-supplemented diet for 21 days. Then, chickens were slaughtered and pectoralis major muscle (PM) samples were collected for analysis. The results showed that resveratrol not only tended to increase (P < 0.10) PM pH 24h but also significantly decreased (P < 0.05) PM L* 45min , pH decline, drip loss and lactate content. Meanwhile, PM total antioxidative capacity and catalase activity were significantly increased (P < 0.05) by resveratrol, while malondialdehyde content was decreased (P < 0.10). Moreover, resveratrol significantly increased (P < 0.05) PM peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and nuclear respiratory factor 1 mRNA levels, along with increased (P < 0.05) citrate synthase activity. Resveratrol can be used as a feed additive to improve meat quality of broilers, which may be associated with improved muscle antioxidative status and mitochondrial biogenesis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. ISCA1 is essential for mitochondrial Fe4S4 biogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Beilschmidt, Lena Kristina; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine; Fournier, Marjorie; Sanakis, Ioannis; Hograindleur, Marc-André; Clémancey, Martin; Blondin, Geneviève; Schmucker, Stéphane; Eisenmann, Aurélie; Weiss, Amélie; Koebel, Pascale; Messaddeq, Nadia; Puccio, Hélène; Martelli, Alain

    2017-05-11

    Mammalian A-type proteins, ISCA1 and ISCA2, are evolutionarily conserved proteins involved in iron-sulfur cluster (Fe-S) biogenesis. Recently, it was shown that ISCA1 and ISCA2 form a heterocomplex that is implicated in the maturation of mitochondrial Fe 4 S 4 proteins. Here we report that mouse ISCA1 and ISCA2 are Fe 2 S 2 -containing proteins that combine all features of Fe-S carrier proteins. We use biochemical, spectroscopic and in vivo approaches to demonstrate that despite forming a complex, ISCA1 and ISCA2 establish discrete interactions with components of the late Fe-S machinery. Surprisingly, knockdown experiments in mouse skeletal muscle and in primary cultures of neurons suggest that ISCA1, but not ISCA2, is required for mitochondrial Fe 4 S 4 proteins biogenesis. Collectively, our data suggest that cellular processes with different requirements for ISCA1, ISCA2 and ISCA1-ISCA2 complex seem to exist.

  20. ISCA1 is essential for mitochondrial Fe4S4 biogenesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Beilschmidt, Lena Kristina; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine; Fournier, Marjorie; Sanakis, Ioannis; Hograindleur, Marc-André; Clémancey, Martin; Blondin, Geneviève; Schmucker, Stéphane; Eisenmann, Aurélie; Weiss, Amélie; Koebel, Pascale; Messaddeq, Nadia; Puccio, Hélène; Martelli, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian A-type proteins, ISCA1 and ISCA2, are evolutionarily conserved proteins involved in iron–sulfur cluster (Fe–S) biogenesis. Recently, it was shown that ISCA1 and ISCA2 form a heterocomplex that is implicated in the maturation of mitochondrial Fe4S4 proteins. Here we report that mouse ISCA1 and ISCA2 are Fe2S2-containing proteins that combine all features of Fe–S carrier proteins. We use biochemical, spectroscopic and in vivo approaches to demonstrate that despite forming a complex, ISCA1 and ISCA2 establish discrete interactions with components of the late Fe–S machinery. Surprisingly, knockdown experiments in mouse skeletal muscle and in primary cultures of neurons suggest that ISCA1, but not ISCA2, is required for mitochondrial Fe4S4 proteins biogenesis. Collectively, our data suggest that cellular processes with different requirements for ISCA1, ISCA2 and ISCA1–ISCA2 complex seem to exist. PMID:28492233

  1. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Enhances Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Neural Stem Cell Pool, and Early Neurogenesis in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rita; Ribeiro, Filipa F; Xapelli, Sara; Genebra, Tânia; Ribeiro, Maria F; Sebastião, Ana M; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Solá, Susana

    2018-05-01

    Although neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) produce very few neurons during ageing or after injury. We have recently discovered that the endogenous bile acid tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a strong inhibitor of mitochondrial apoptosis and a neuroprotective in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders, also enhances NSC proliferation, self-renewal, and neuronal conversion by improving mitochondrial integrity and function of NSCs. In the present study, we explore the effect of TUDCA on regulation of NSC fate in neurogenic niches, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), using rat postnatal neurospheres and adult rats exposed to the bile acid. TUDCA significantly induced NSC proliferation, self-renewal, and neural differentiation in the SVZ, without affecting DG-derived NSCs. More importantly, expression levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins and mitochondrial antioxidant responses were significantly increased by TUDCA in SVZ-derived NSCs. Finally, intracerebroventricular administration of TUDCA in adult rats markedly enhanced both NSC proliferation and early differentiation in SVZ regions, corroborating in vitro data. Collectively, our results highlight a potential novel role for TUDCA in neurologic disorders associated with SVZ niche deterioration and impaired neurogenesis.

  2. Leptin Modulates Mitochondrial Function, Dynamics and Biogenesis in MCF-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Blanquer-Rosselló, M Mar; Santandreu, Francisca M; Oliver, Jordi; Roca, Pilar; Valle, Adamo

    2015-09-01

    The adipokine leptin, known for its key role in the control of energy metabolism, has been shown to be involved in both normal and tumoral mammary growth. One of the hallmarks of cancer is an alteration of tumor metabolism since cancerous cells must rewire metabolism to satisfy the demands of growth and proliferation. Considering the sensibility of breast cancer cells to leptin, the objective of this study was to explore the effects of this adipokine on their metabolism. To this aim, we treated the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with 50 ng/mL leptin and analyzed several features related to cellular and mitochondrial metabolism. As a result, leptin increased cell proliferation, shifted ATP production from glycolysis to mitochondria and decreased the levels of the glycolytic end-product lactate. We observed an improvement in ADP-dependent oxygen consumption and an amelioration of oxidative stress without changes in total mitochondrial mass or specific oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes. Furthermore, RT-PCR and western blot showed an up-regulation for genes and proteins related to biogenesis and mitochondrial dynamics. This expression signature, together with an increased mitophagy observed by confocal microscopy suggests that leptin may improve mitochondrial quality and function. Taken together, our results propose that leptin may improve bioenergetic efficiency by avoiding the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and conferring benefits for growth and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 14,15-EET promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and protects cortical neurons against oxygen/glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Chen, Man; Yuan, Lin; Xiang, Yuting; Zheng, Ruimao; Zhu, Shigong

    2014-07-18

    14,15-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET), a metabolite of arachidonic acid, is enriched in the brain cortex and exerts protective effect against neuronal apoptosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Although apoptosis has been well recognized to be closely associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and function, it is still unclear whether the neuroprotective effect of 14,15-EET is mediated by promotion of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in cortical neurons under the condition of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). In this study, we found that 14,15-EET improved cell viability and inhibited apoptosis of cortical neurons. 14,15-EET significantly increased the mitochondrial mass and the ratio of mitochondrial DNA to nuclear DNA. Key makers of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma-coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), were elevated at both mRNA and protein levels in the cortical neurons treated with 14,15-EET. Moreover, 14,15-EET markedly attenuated the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced ROS, while increased ATP synthesis. Knockdown of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) by siRNA blunted the up-regulation of PGC-1α and NRF-1 stimulated by 14,15-EET, and consequently abolished the neuroprotective effect of 14,15-EET. Our results indicate that 14,15-EET protects neurons from OGD-induced apoptosis by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and function through CREB mediated activation of PGC-1α and NRF-1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endothelial AMPK Activation Induces Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Stress Adaptation via eNOS-Dependent mTORC1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunying; Reif, Michaella M; Craige, Siobhan; Kant, Shashi; Keaney, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic stress sensors like AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are known to confer stress adaptation and promote longevity in lower organisms. This study demonstrates that activating the metabolic stress sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in endothelial cells helps maintain normal cellular function by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and stress adaptation. To better define the mechanisms whereby AMPK promotes endothelial stress resistance, we used 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) to chronically activate AMPK and observed stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in wild type mouse endothelium, but not in endothelium from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout (eNOS-null) mice. Interestingly, AICAR-enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis was blocked by pretreatment with the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor, rapamycin. Further, AICAR stimulated mTORC1 as determined by phosphorylation of its known downstream effectors in wild type, but not eNOS-null, endothelial cells. Together these data indicate that eNOS is needed to couple AMPK activation to mTORC1 and thus promote mitochondrial biogenesis and stress adaptation in the endothelium. These data suggest a novel mechanism for mTORC1 activation that is significant for investigations in vascular dysfunction. PMID:26989010

  5. Gamma rays induce a p53-independent mitochondrial biogenesis that is counter-regulated by HIF1α

    PubMed Central

    Bartoletti-Stella, A; Mariani, E; Kurelac, I; Maresca, A; Caratozzolo, M F; Iommarini, L; Carelli, V; Eusebi, L H; Guido, A; Cenacchi, G; Fuccio, L; Rugolo, M; Tullo, A; Porcelli, A M; Gasparre, G

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is an orchestrated process that presides to the regulation of the organelles homeostasis within a cell. We show that γ-rays, at doses commonly used in the radiation therapy for cancer treatment, induce an increase in mitochondrial mass and function, in response to a genotoxic stress that pushes cells into senescence, in the presence of a functional p53. Although the main effector of the response to γ-rays is the p53-p21 axis, we demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis is only indirectly regulated by p53, whose activation triggers a murine double minute 2 (MDM2)-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) degradation, leading to the release of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1β inhibition by HIF1α, thus promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. Mimicking hypoxia by HIF1α stabilization, in fact, blunts the mitochondrial response to γ-rays as well as the induction of p21-mediated cell senescence, indicating prevalence of the hypoxic over the genotoxic response. Finally, we also show in vivo that post-radiotherapy mitochondrial DNA copy number increase well correlates with lack of HIF1α increase in the tissue, concluding this may be a useful molecular tool to infer the trigger of a hypoxic response during radiotherapy, which may lead to failure of activation of cell senescence. PMID:23764844

  6. Insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling is essential for mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Amy; Coleman, Michael; Riis, Sarah; Favre, Cedric; O'Flanagan, Ciara H; Zhdanov, Alexander V; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Hursting, Stephen D; O'Connor, Rosemary

    2017-10-13

    Mitochondrial activity and metabolic reprogramming influence the phenotype of cancer cells and resistance to targeted therapy. We previously established that an insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-inducible mitochondrial UTP carrier (PNC1/SLC25A33) promotes cell growth. This prompted us to investigate whether IGF signaling is essential for mitochondrial maintenance in cancer cells and whether this contributes to therapy resistance. Here we show that IGF-1 stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in a range of cell lines. In MCF-7 and ZR75.1 breast cancer cells, IGF-1 induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1β (PGC-1β) and PGC-1α-related coactivator (PRC). Suppression of PGC-1β and PRC with siRNA reverses the effects of IGF-1 and disrupts mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential. IGF-1 also induced expression of the redox regulator nuclear factor-erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NFE2L2 alias NRF-2). Of note, MCF-7 cells with acquired resistance to an IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) tyrosine kinase inhibitor exhibited reduced expression of PGC-1β, PRC, and mitochondrial biogenesis. Interestingly, these cells exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, indicated by reactive oxygen species expression, reduced expression of the mitophagy mediators BNIP3 and BNIP3L, and impaired mitophagy. In agreement with this, IGF-1 robustly induced BNIP3 accumulation in mitochondria. Other active receptor tyrosine kinases could not compensate for reduced IGF-1R activity in mitochondrial protection, and MCF-7 cells with suppressed IGF-1R activity became highly dependent on glycolysis for survival. We conclude that IGF-1 signaling is essential for sustaining cancer cell viability by stimulating both mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover through BNIP3 induction. This core mitochondrial protective signal is likely to strongly influence responses to therapy and the phenotypic evolution of cancer. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The Forkhead Transcription Factor Hcm1 Promotes Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Stress Resistance in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Colman, Maria José; Reverter-Branchat, Gemma; Sorolla, M. Alba; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim; Cabiscol, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the forkhead transcription factor Hcm1 is involved in chromosome segregation, spindle pole dynamics, and budding. We found that Hcm1 interacts with the histone deacetylase Sir2 and shifts from cytoplasm to the nucleus in the G1/S phase or in response to oxidative stress stimuli. The nuclear localization of Hcm1 depends on the activity of Sir2 as revealed by activators and inhibitors of the sirtuins and the Δsir2 mutant. Hcm1-overexpressing cells display more mitochondria that can be attributed to increased amounts of Abf2, a protein involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. These cells also show higher rates of oxygen consumption and improved resistance to oxidative stress that would be explained by increased catalase and Sod2 activities and molecular chaperones such as Hsp26, Hsp30, and members of Hsp70 family. Microarray analyses also reveal increased expression of genes involved in mitochondrial energy pathways and those allowing the transition from the exponential to the stationary phase. Taken together, these results describe a new and relevant role of Hcm1 for mitochondrial functions, suggesting that this transcription factor would participate in the adaptation of cells from fermentative to respiratory metabolism. PMID:20847055

  8. Promoting PGC-1α-driven mitochondrial biogenesis is detrimental in pressure-overloaded mouse hearts

    PubMed Central

    Karamanlidis, Georgios; Garcia-Menendez, Lorena; Kolwicz, Stephen C.; Lee, Chi Fung

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in animal models of heart failure is associated with downregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α pathway. To test whether PGC-1α is an appropriate therapeutic target for increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and improving function in heart failure, we used a transgenic (TG) mouse model of moderate overexpression of PGC-1α (∼3-fold) in the heart. TG mice had small increases in citrate synthase activity and mitochondria size in the heart without alterations in myocardial energetics or cardiac function at baseline. In vivo dobutamine stress increased fractional shortening in wild-type mice, but this increase was attenuated in TG mice, whereas ex vivo isolated perfused TG hearts demonstrated normal functional and energetic response to high workload challenge. When subjected to pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), TG mice displayed a significantly greater acute mortality for both male and female mice; however, long-term survival up to 8 wk was similar between the two groups. TG mice also showed a greater decrease in fractional shortening and a greater increase in left ventricular chamber dimension in response to TAC. Mitochondrial gene expression and citrate synthase activity were mildly increased in TG mice compared with wild-type mice, and this difference was also maintained after TAC. Our data suggest that a moderate level of PGC-1α overexpression in the heart compromises acute survival and does not improve cardiac function during chronic pressure overload in mice. PMID:25172896

  9. A novel mitochondrial orf147 causes cytoplasmic male sterility in pigeonpea by modulating aberrant anther dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Gupta, Ranadheer; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Reddy, Bommineni Pradeep; Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas; Sameerkumar, C V; Saxena, Rachit Kumar; Sharma, Kiran K

    2018-05-01

    A novel open reading frame (ORF) identified and cloned from the A4 cytoplasm of Cajanus cajanifolius induced partial to complete male sterility when introduced into Arabidopsis and tobacco. Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) is the only legume known to have commercial hybrid seed technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). We identified a novel ORF (orf147) from the A4 cytoplasm of C. cajanifolius that was created via rearrangements in the CMS line and co-transcribes with the known and unknown sequences. The bi/poly-cistronic transcripts cause gain-of-function variants in the mitochondrial genome of CMS pigeonpea lines having distinct processing mechanisms and transcription start sites. In presence of orf147, significant repression of Escherichia coli growth indicated its toxicity to the host cells and induced partial to complete male sterility in transgenic progenies of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum where phenotype co-segregated with the transgene. The male sterile plants showed aberrant floral development and reduced lignin content in the anthers. Gene expression studies in male sterile pigeonpea, Arabidopsis and tobacco plants confirmed down-regulation of several anther biogenesis genes and key genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, indicative of regulation of retrograde signaling. Besides providing evidence for the involvement of orf147 in pigeonpea CMS, this study provides valuable insights into its function. Cytotoxicity and aberrant programmed cell death induced by orf147 could be important for mechanism underlying male sterility that offers opportunities for possible translation for these findings for exploiting hybrid vigor in other recalcitrant crops as well.

  10. Chromogranin A deficiency in transgenic mice leads to aberrant chromaffin granule biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoon; Zhang, Chun-fa; Sun, Ziqing; Wu, Heling; Loh, Y Peng

    2005-07-27

    The biogenesis of dense-core secretory granules (DCGs), organelles responsible for the storage and secretion of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in chromaffin cells, is poorly understood. Chromogranin A (CgA), which binds catecholamines for storage in the lumen of chromaffin granules, has been shown to be involved in DCG biogenesis in neuroendocrine PC12 cells. Here, we report that downregulation of CgA expression in vivo by expressing antisense RNA against CgA in transgenic mice led to a significant reduction in DCG formation in adrenal chromaffin cells. The number of DCGs formed in CgA antisense transgenic mice was directly correlated with the amount of CgA present in adrenal medulla. In addition, DCGs showed an increase in size, with enlargement in the volume around the dense core, a phenomenon that occurs to maintain constant "free" catecholamine concentration in the lumen of these granules. The extent of DCG swelling was inversely correlated with the number of DCGs formed, as well as the amount of CgA present in the adrenal glands of CgA antisense transgenic mice. These data indicate an essential role of CgA in regulating chromaffin DCG biogenesis and catecholamine storage in vivo.

  11. Troxerutin attenuates diet-induced oxidative stress, impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory chain complexes in mice heart.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Geetha; Chandrasekaran, Sathiya Priya; Carani Venkatraman, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial abnormality is thought to play a key role in cardiac disease originating from the metabolic syndrome (MS). We evaluated the effect of troxerutin (TX), a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural bioflavanoid rutin, on the respiratory chain complex activity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in heart of high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) -induced mouse model of MS. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD for 60 days. Mice from each dietary regimen were divided into two groups on the 16th day and were treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg body weight [bw], per oral) for the next 45 days. At the end of experimental period, respiratory chain complex activity, uncoupling proteins (UCP)-2 and -3, mtDNA content, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, oxidative stress markers and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were analyzed. Reduced mtDNA abundance with alterations in the expression of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and fission and fusion processes were observed in HFFD-fed mice. Disorganized and smaller mitochondria, reduction in complexes I, III and IV activities (by about 55%) and protein levels of UCP-2 (52%) and UCP-3 (46%) were noted in these mice. TX administration suppressed oxidative stress, improved the oxidative capacity and biogenesis and restored fission/fusion imbalance in the cardiac mitochondria of HFFD-fed mice. TX protects the myocardium by modulating the putative molecules of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and by its anti-oxidant function in a mouse model of MS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation to old rats partially reverts the age-related mitochondrial decay of soleus muscle by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Vito; Fracasso, Flavio; Cassano, Pierluigi; Lezza, Angela Maria Serena; Cantatore, Palmiro; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola

    2010-01-01

    The age-related decay of mitochondrial function is a major contributor to the aging process. We tested the effects of 2-month-daily acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis in the soleus muscle of aged rats. This muscle is heavily dependent on oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA content, citrate synthase activity, transcript levels of some nuclear- and mitochondrial-coded genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV [COX-IV], 16S rRNA, COX-I) and of some factors involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [PPARgamma] coactivator-1alpha [PGC-1alpha], mitochondrial transcription factor A mitochondrial [TFAM], mitochondrial transcription factor 2B [TFB2]), as well as the protein content of PGC-1alpha were determined. The results suggest that the ALCAR treatment in old rats activates PGC-1alpha-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis, thus partially reverting the age-related mitochondrial decay.

  13. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1.

    PubMed

    Corum, Daniel G; Tsichlis, Philip N; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Akt3 is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and in Akt3-null mice; Akt3 affects subcellular localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which Akt3 controls the subcellular distribution of PGC-1α and to explore the effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover during angiogenesis. Here we use standard biochemical analyses and Akt3-knockdown strategies to show that Akt3 controls the stabilization of chromosome maintenance region-1 (CRM-1), the major nuclear export receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and association analyses show that PGC-1α nuclear export is CRM-1 dependent. Akt3 knockdown and CRM-1 overexpression cause 3-fold reductions in PGC-1α target gene expression, compared to control levels. Akt3 inhibition causes autophagy, as measured by autophagosome formation, in a CRM-1-dependent, Akt1/mTOR-independent pathway. In vivo, Akt3-null and heterozygous mice show dose-dependent decreases in angiogenesis compared to wild-type littermates (~5- and 2.5-fold decreases, respectively), as assessed by Matrigel plug assays. This correlates with an ~1.5-fold decrease in mitochondrial Cox IV expression. Our studies suggest that Akt3 is a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in the vasculature via regulation of CRM-1-dependent nuclear export.

  14. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1

    PubMed Central

    Corum, Daniel G.; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Akt3 is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and in Akt3-null mice; Akt3 affects subcellular localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which Akt3 controls the subcellular distribution of PGC-1α and to explore the effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover during angiogenesis. Here we use standard biochemical analyses and Akt3-knockdown strategies to show that Akt3 controls the stabilization of chromosome maintenance region-1 (CRM-1), the major nuclear export receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and association analyses show that PGC-1α nuclear export is CRM-1 dependent. Akt3 knockdown and CRM-1 overexpression cause 3-fold reductions in PGC-1α target gene expression, compared to control levels. Akt3 inhibition causes autophagy, as measured by autophagosome formation, in a CRM-1-dependent, Akt1/mTOR-independent pathway. In vivo, Akt3-null and heterozygous mice show dose-dependent decreases in angiogenesis compared to wild-type littermates (∼5- and 2.5-fold decreases, respectively), as assessed by Matrigel plug assays. This correlates with an ∼1.5-fold decrease in mitochondrial Cox IV expression. Our studies suggest that Akt3 is a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in the vasculature via regulation of CRM-1-dependent nuclear export.—Corum, D. G., Tsichlis, P. N., Muise-Helmericks, R. C. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1. PMID:24081905

  15. Sex differences in mitochondrial biogenesis determine neuronal death and survival in response to oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to neuronal death and a wide array of neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we have shown sex differences in mitochondria-mediated cell death pathways following hypoxia-ischemia. However, the role of mitochondrial biogenesis in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury between male vs. female has not been studied yet. Results Primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), isolated from P7 male and female mice (CD-1) segregated based on visual inspection of sex, were exposed to 2 h of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by 6–24 h of reoxygenation (Reox). Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cellular ATP levels were reduced significantly in XX CGNs as compared to XY CGNs. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content was increased (>2-fold) at 2 h OGD in XY CGNs and remained increased up to 24 h of Reox compared to XX neurons and normoxia controls. The expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), the nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, were up-regulated (2-fold, ***p < 0.001) in XY CGNs but slightly reduced or remained unchanged in XX neurons. Similarly, the TFAM and PGC-1α protein levels and the mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and COXIV were increased in XY neurons only. Supportively, a balanced stimulation of fusion (Mfn 1and Mfn 2) and fission (Fis 1 and Drp 1) genes and enhanced formation of donut-shaped mitochondria were observed in XY CGNs vs. XX neurons (**p < 0.01). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that OGD/Reox alters mitochondrial biogenesis and morphological changes in a sex-specific way, influencing neuronal injury/survival differently in both sexes. PMID:24410996

  16. Quercetin protects against aluminium induced oxidative stress and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis via activation of the PGC-1α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Verma, Deepika; Priyanka, Kumari; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2015-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of PGC-1α and its downstream targets, i.e. NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats, which were pre-treated with quercetin 6h before aluminium (10mg/kg b.wt./day, intragastrically) for 12 weeks. We found a decrease in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and citrate synthase activity in the hippocampus (HC) and corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain treated with quercetin. Besides this an increase in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits - ND1, ND2, ND3, Cyt b, COX1, COX3 and ATPase6 along with increased expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A and COX5B of electron transport chain (ETC). In quercetin treated group an increase in the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both the regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was up regulated in quercetin treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant decrease in the mitochondrial cross-section area, mitochondrial perimeter length and increase in mitochondrial number in case of quercetin treated rats as compared to aluminium treated ones. Therefore it seems quercetin increases mitochondrial biogenesis and makes it an almost ideal flavanoid to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in many neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of type 5-phosphodiesterase inhibition on energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in human adipose tissue ex vivo.

    PubMed

    De Toni, L; Strapazzon, G; Gianesello, L; Caretta, N; Pilon, C; Bruttocao, A; Foresta, C

    2011-11-01

    An excess of adipose tissue (AT) in obese individuals is linked to increased cardiovascular risk and mitochondria have been shown to be defective in the muscle and AT of patients with metabolic disorders such as obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a role in mitochondrial biogenesis through cyclic-GMP (cGMP). AT harbors the whole molecular signaling pathway of NO, together with type 5-phosphodiesterase (PDE- 5), the main cGMP catabolising enzyme. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the modulation of NO pathway, through PDE-5 inhibition, on energy metabolism and mitochondria biogenesis in human omental AT. Cultured human omental AT was stimulated with PDE-5 inhibitor, vardenafil, at different concentration for 24 and 72 h. Analysis of the expression of both key-regulator genes of adipocyte metabolism and mitochondria-biogenesis markers was performed. We found an increased gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), adiponectin, and proliferator- activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α) after a 24-h stimulation with vardenafil at the lowest concentration employed compared to controls (p<0.05). After 72 h of stimulation, a significant increase of mitochondrial DNA was found compared to control samples (p<0.05). Our data suggest that PDE-5 inhibition could have an impact on mitochondrial content of human AT suggesting a positive effect on energy metabolism and adding new elements in the comprehension of AT pathophysiology.

  18. Testosterone Plus Low-Intensity Physical Training in Late Life Improves Functional Performance, Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis, and Mitochondrial Quality Control in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen; Wong, Siu; Li, Michelle; Liang, Wentao; Liesa, Marc; Serra, Carlo; Jasuja, Ravi; Bartke, Andrzej; Kirkland, James L.; Shirihai, Orian; Bhasin, Shalender

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass in older men but has not been shown to consistently improve physical function and activity. It has been hypothesized that physical exercise is required to induce the adaptations necessary for translation of testosterone-induced muscle mass gain into functional improvements. However, the effects of testosterone plus low intensity physical exercise training (T/PT) on functional performance and bioenergetics are unknown. In this pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that combined administration of T/PT would improve functional performance and bioenergetics in male mice late in life more than low-intensity physical training alone. 28-month old male mice were randomized to receive T/PT or vehicle plus physical training (V/PT) for 2 months. Compare to V/PT control, administration of T/PT was associated with improvements in muscle mass, grip strength, spontaneous physical movements, and respiratory activity. These changes were correlated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and expression of markers for mitochondrial biogenesis. Mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of key elements for mitochondrial quality control, including markers for mitochondrial fission-and-fusion and mitophagy. Concurrently, mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of markers for reduced tissue oxidative damage and improved muscle quality. Conclusion: Testosterone administered with low-intensity physical training improves grip strength, spontaneous movements, and respiratory activity. These functional improvements were associated with increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and improved mitochondrial quality control. PMID:23240002

  19. β-Catenin Knockdown Affects Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Lipid Metabolism in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Daniele; Stanca, Eleonora; Guerra, Flora; Priore, Paola; Gaballo, Antonio; Franck, Julien; Simeone, Pasquale; Trerotola, Marco; De Domenico, Stefania; Fournier, Isabelle; Bucci, Cecilia; Salzet, Michel; Giudetti, Anna M; Maffia, Michele

    2017-01-01

    β-catenin plays an important role as regulatory hub in several cellular processes including cell adhesion, metabolism, and epithelial mesenchymal transition. This is mainly achieved by its dual role as structural component of cadherin-based adherens junctions, and as a key nuclear effector of the Wnt pathway. For this dual role, different classes of proteins are differentially regulated via β-catenin dependent mechanisms. Here, we applied a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach to identify proteins modulated after β-catenin knockdown in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. We used a label free analysis to compare trypsin-digested proteins from CTR (shCTR) and β-catenin knockout cells (shβcat). This led to the identification of 98 differentially expressed proteins, 53 of them were up-regulated and 45 down-regulated. Loss of β-catenin induced morphological changes and a significant modulation of the expression levels of proteins associated with primary metabolic processes. In detail, proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and tricarboxylic acid cycle were found to be down-regulated, whereas proteins associated to lipid metabolism were found up-regulated in shβcat compared to shCTR. A loss of mitochondrial mass and membrane potential was also assessed by fluorescent probes in shβcat cells with respect to the controls. These data are consistent with the reduced expression of transcriptional factors regulating mitochondrial biogenesis detected in shβcat cells. β-catenin driven metabolic reprogramming resulted also in a significant modulation of lipogenic enzyme expression and activity. Compared to controls, β-catenin knockout cells showed increased incorporation of [1- 14 C]acetate and decreased utilization of [U- 14 C]glucose for fatty acid synthesis. Our data highlight a role of β-catenin in the regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis in breast cancer cells.

  20. Morinda citrifolia leaf enhanced performance by improving angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory & stress responses.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4). The ergogenic extract helped delay fatigue by enhancing energy production, regulation and efficiency, which suggests benefits for physical activities and disease recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impaired mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biogenesis activates the DNA damage response through different signaling mediators.

    PubMed

    Pijuan, Jordi; María, Carlos; Herrero, Enrique; Bellí, Gemma

    2015-12-15

    Fe-S cluster biogenesis machinery is required for multiple DNA metabolism processes. In this work, we show that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, defects at different stages of the mitochondrial Fe-S cluster assembly machinery (ISC) result in increased spontaneous mutation rate and hyper-recombination, accompanied by an increment in Rad52-associated DNA repair foci and a higher phosphorylated state of γH2A histone, altogether supporting the presence of constitutive DNA lesions. Furthermore, ISC assembly machinery deficiency elicits a DNA damage response that upregulates ribonucleotide reductase activity by promoting the reduction of Sml1 levels and the cytosolic redistribution of Rnr2 and Rnr4 enzyme subunits. Depending on the impaired stage of the ISC machinery, different signaling pathway mediators contribute to such a response, converging on Dun1. Thus, cells lacking the glutaredoxin Grx5, which are compromised at the core ISC system, show Mec1- and Rad53-independent Dun1 activation, whereas both Mec1 and Chk1 are required when the non-core ISC member Iba57 is absent. Grx5-null cells exhibit a strong dependence on the error-free post-replication repair and the homologous recombination pathways, demonstrating that a DNA damage response needs to be activated upon ISC impairment to preserve cell viability. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Alternative function for the mitochondrial SAM complex in biogenesis of alpha-helical TOM proteins.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Diana; Guiard, Bernard; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2007-12-03

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains two preprotein translocases: the general translocase of outer membrane (TOM) and the beta-barrel-specific sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). TOM functions as the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded proteins. The channel-forming Tom40 is a beta-barrel protein, whereas all Tom receptors and small Tom proteins are membrane anchored by a transmembrane alpha-helical segment in their N- or C-terminal portion. Synthesis of Tom precursors takes place in the cytosol, and their import occurs via preexisting TOM complexes. The precursor of Tom40 is then transferred to SAM for membrane insertion and assembly. Unexpectedly, we find that the biogenesis of alpha-helical Tom proteins with a membrane anchor in the C-terminal portion is SAM dependent. Each SAM protein is necessary for efficient membrane integration of the receptor Tom22, whereas assembly of the small Tom proteins depends on Sam37. Thus, the substrate specificity of SAM is not restricted to beta-barrel proteins but also includes the majority of alpha-helical Tom proteins.

  3. Alterations in Skeletal Muscle Indicators of Mitochondrial Structure and Biogenesis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Heart Failure: Effects of Epicatechin Rich Cocoa

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Pam R.; Ramirez‐Sanchez, Israel; Ciaraldi, Theodore P.; Perkins, Guy; Murphy, Anne N.; Naviaux, Robert; Hogan, Michael; Maisel, Alan S.; Henry, Robert R.; Ceballos, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract (‐)‐Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol in cacao stimulates mitochondrial volume and cristae density and protein markers of skeletal muscle (SkM) mitochondrial biogenesis in mice. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and heart failure (HF) are diseases associated with defects in SkM mitochondrial structure/function. A study was implemented to assess perturbations and to determine the effects of Epi‐rich cocoa in SkM mitochondrial structure and mediators of biogenesis. Five patients with DM2 and stage II/III HF consumed dark chocolate and a beverage containing approximately 100 mg of Epi per day for 3 months. We assessed changes in protein and/or activity levels of oxidative phosphorylation proteins, porin, mitofilin, nNOS, nitric oxide, cGMP, SIRT1, PGC1α, Tfam, and mitochondria volume and cristae abundance by electron microscopy from SkM. Apparent major losses in normal mitochondria structure were observed before treatment. Epi‐rich cocoa increased protein and/or activity of mediators of biogenesis and cristae abundance while not changing mitochondrial volume density. Epi‐rich cocoa treatment improves SkM mitochondrial structure and in an orchestrated manner, increases molecular markers of mitochondrial biogenesis resulting in enhanced cristae density. Future controlled studies are warranted using Epi‐rich cocoa (or pure Epi) to translate improved mitochondrial structure into enhanced cardiac and/or SkM muscle function. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume 5: 43–47 PMID:22376256

  4. Sam37 is crucial for formation of the mitochondrial TOM-SAM supercomplex, thereby promoting β-barrel biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Ellenrieder, Lars; Qiu, Jian; Bohnert, Maria; Zufall, Nicole; van der Laan, Martin; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Wiedemann, Nils; Becker, Thomas

    2015-09-28

    Biogenesis of mitochondrial β-barrel proteins requires two preprotein translocases, the general translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). TOM and SAM form a supercomplex that promotes transfer of β-barrel precursors. The SAM core complex contains the channel protein Sam50, which cooperates with Sam35 in precursor recognition, and the peripheral membrane protein Sam37. The molecular function of Sam37 has been unknown. We report that Sam37 is crucial for formation of the TOM-SAM supercomplex. Sam37 interacts with the receptor domain of Tom22 on the cytosolic side of the mitochondrial outer membrane and links TOM and SAM complexes. Sam37 thus promotes efficient transfer of β-barrel precursors to the SAM complex. We conclude that Sam37 functions as a coupling factor of the translocase supercomplex of the mitochondrial outer membrane. © 2015 Wenz et al.

  5. Elucidation of the therapeutic role of mitochondrial biogenesis transducers NRF-1 in the regulation of renal fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Graduate Institute of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan; Liu, Shu-Fen

    Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a newly established risk factor for the development of renal fibrosis. Cell survival and injury repair is facilitated by mitochondrial biogenesis. Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) is a transcriptional regulation factor that plays a central role in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. However, the transcription factor of this process in renal fibrosis is unknown. Thus, we hereby discussed the correlations of NRF-1 and renal interstitial fibrosis. Materials and methods: In vitro fibrosis model was established by treatment with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in NRK-49F (Normal Rat kidney fibroblast). We investigated the ROS production, mitochondrial biogenesis andmore » fibrogenic marker (e.q. fibronectin) during the progression of renal fibrosis by kit and Western blotting assay. Here, we used that two distinct mechanisms regulate NRF-1 activation and degradation of NRF-1. NRF-1 was transfect by pcDNA-NRF-1 overexpression gene to evaluate the NRF-1 activity of the therapeutic effect in renal fibrosis. In addition, NRF-1 was silenced by shRNA-NRF-1 to evaluate the significance of NRF-1. ELISA was used to evaluate the secreted fibronectin. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assay the in situ expression of proteins (e.g. fibronectin, NRF-1). Results: Under renal fibrosis conditions, TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) increased ROS. Simultaneously, TGF-β1-induced extracellular fibronectin by ELISA assay. In addition, TGF-β1 decreased expression of mitochondrial biogenesis. This is the first time to demonstrate that expression of NRF-1 is significantly decreased in renal fibrosis. However, NRK49F was a transfection with pcDNA-NRF-1 (2 μg/ml) expression vector dramatically reverse TGF-β1-induced cellular fibrosis concomitantly with the suppression of fibronectin (both intracellular and extracellular fibronectin). More importantly, transfection with shRNA-NRF-1 (2 μg/ml) significantly increased the expression of

  6. Elucidation of the therapeutic role of mitochondrial biogenesis transducers NRF-1 in the regulation of renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Liu, Shu-Fen; Hung, Tsung-Jen; Hung, Chien-Ya; Liu, Guo-Zheng; Chuang, Lea-Yea; Chen, Mei-Fen; Wang, Jue-Long; Shi, Ming-Der; Hsu, Chen Hung; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Yang, Yu-Lin

    2016-11-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a newly established risk factor for the development of renal fibrosis. Cell survival and injury repair is facilitated by mitochondrial biogenesis. Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) is a transcriptional regulation factor that plays a central role in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. However, the transcription factor of this process in renal fibrosis is unknown. Thus, we hereby discussed the correlations of NRF-1 and renal interstitial fibrosis. In vitro fibrosis model was established by treatment with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in NRK-49F (Normal Rat kidney fibroblast). We investigated the ROS production, mitochondrial biogenesis and fibrogenic marker (e.q. fibronectin) during the progression of renal fibrosis by kit and Western blotting assay. Here, we used that two distinct mechanisms regulate NRF-1 activation and degradation of NRF-1. NRF-1 was transfect by pcDNA-NRF-1 overexpression gene to evaluate the NRF-1 activity of the therapeutic effect in renal fibrosis. In addition, NRF-1 was silenced by shRNA-NRF-1 to evaluate the significance of NRF-1. ELISA was used to evaluate the secreted fibronectin. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assay the in situ expression of proteins (e.g. fibronectin, NRF-1). Under renal fibrosis conditions, TGF-β1 (5ng/ml) increased ROS. Simultaneously, TGF-β1-induced extracellular fibronectin by ELISA assay. In addition, TGF-β1 decreased expression of mitochondrial biogenesis. This is the first time to demonstrate that expression of NRF-1 is significantly decreased in renal fibrosis. However, NRK49F was a transfection with pcDNA-NRF-1 (2μg/ml) expression vector dramatically reverse TGF-β1-induced cellular fibrosis concomitantly with the suppression of fibronectin (both intracellular and extracellular fibronectin). More importantly, transfection with shRNA-NRF-1 (2μg/ml) significantly increased the expression of fibronectin of both intercellular and extracellular origins

  7. Magnesium and calcium-enriched deep-sea water promotes mitochondrial biogenesis by AMPK-activated signals pathway in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ha, Byung Geun; Moon, Deok-Soo; Kim, Hyeon Ju; Shon, Yun Hee

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies showed that deficiencies of essential minerals including Mg, Ca, and K, and trace minerals including Se, Zn, and V, have implications for the development, prevention, and treatment of several chronic diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies revealed that balanced deep-sea water (BDSW), which is composed of desalinated water enriched with Mg and Ca, has potential as a treatment for diabetes and obesity. In this study, to determine whether BDSW regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, we investigated its effects on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, expression of key transcription factors and mitochondria-specific genes, phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. BDSW increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that BDSW enhances expression of PGC1-α, NRF1, and TFAM genes. Upregulation of these genes was supported by increased mitochondria staining, CytC oxidase activity, and AMPK phosphorylation. The stimulatory effect of BDSW on mitochondrial biogenesis and function suggests a novel mechanism for BDSW-induced anti-diabetic and anti-obesity action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Osthole attenuates spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury through mitochondrial biogenesis-independent inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue-fei; Li, Liang; Feng, Feng; Yuan, Hua; Gao, Da-kuan; Fu, Luo-an; Fei, Zhou

    2013-12-01

    Osthole, the main bioactive compounds isolated from the traditional Chinese medical herb broad Cnidium monnieri (L.) cusson, has been shown to exert spectrum of pharmacologic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of osthole against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Osthole was administrated at the concentration of 0.1, 1, 10, 50, or 200 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) 1 h before spinal cord ischemia. The effects on spinal cord injury were measured by spinal cord water content, infarct volume, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and neurologic assessment. Mitochondria were purified from injured spinal cord tissue to determine mitochondrial function. We found that treatment with osthole (10 and 50 mg/kg) significantly decreased spinal cord water content and infarct volume, preserved normal motor neurons, and improved neurologic functions. These protective effects can be also observed even if the treatment was delayed to 4 h after reperfusion. Osthole treatment preserved mitochondrial membrane potential level, reduced reactive oxygen species production, increased adenosine triphosphate generation, and inhibited cytochrome c release in mitochondrial samples. Moreover, osthole increased mitochondria respiratory chain complex activities in spinal cord tissue, with no effect on mitochondrial DNA content and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors. All these findings demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of osthole in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury model and suggest that oshtole-induced neuroprotection was mediated by mitochondrial biogenesis-independent inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Idiopathic chronic fatigue in older adults is linked to impaired mitochondrial content and biogenesis signaling in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Nicholas R; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Levin, David G; Gundermann, David M; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Manini, Todd M; Adhihetty, Peter J

    2016-08-16

    Fatigue is a symptom of many diseases, but it can also manifest as a unique medical condition, such as idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF). While the prevalence of ICF increases with age, mitochondrial content and function decline with age, which may contribute to ICF. The purpose of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysregulation and oxidative stress is linked to ICF in older adults. Sedentary, old adults (n = 48, age 72.4 ± 5.3 years) were categorized into ICF and non-fatigued (NF) groups based on the FACIT-Fatigue questionnaire. ICF individuals had a FACIT score one standard deviation below the mean for non-anemic adults > 65 years and were excluded according to CDC diagnostic criteria for ICF. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were analyzed, showing reductions in mitochondrial content and suppression of mitochondrial regulatory proteins Sirt3, PGC-1α, NRF-1, and cytochrome c in ICF compared to NF. Additionally, mitochondrial morphology proteins, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation were unchanged in ICF individuals. Our data suggests older adults with ICF have reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and biogenesis signaling that cannot be accounted for by increased oxidative damage.

  10. Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè M; Cordero, Mario D; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Afrin, Sadia; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; González-Paramás, Ana M; Astolfi, Paola; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, Josè L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2017-11-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been recently proposed as activators of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and this fact might explain the relationship between the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods and the slowdown of the progression of aging. In the present work, the effects of strawberry consumption were evaluated on biomarkers of oxidative damage and on aging-associated reductions in mitochondrial function and biogenesis for 8weeks in old rats. Strawberry supplementation increased antioxidant enzyme activities, mitochondrial biomass and functionality, and decreased intracellular ROS levels and biomarkers of protein, lipid and DNA damage (P<0.05). Furthermore, a significant (P<0.05) increase in the expression of the AMPK cascade genes, involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defences, was also detected after strawberry intake. These in vivo results were then verified in vitro on HepG2 cells, confirming the involvement of AMPK in the beneficial effects exerted by strawberry against aging progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The mammalian phosphate carrier SLC25A3 is a mitochondrial copper transporter required for cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Aren; Vest, Katherine E; Maynard, Margaret K; Gammon, Micah G; Russell, Antoinette C; Mathews, Alexander T; Cole, Shelbie E; Zhu, Xinyu; Phillips, Casey B; Kwong, Jennifer Q; Dodani, Sheel C; Leary, Scot C; Cobine, Paul A

    2018-02-09

    Copper is required for the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal electron-accepting complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The likely source of copper used for COX biogenesis is a labile pool found in the mitochondrial matrix. In mammals, the proteins that transport copper across the inner mitochondrial membrane remain unknown. We previously reported that the mitochondrial carrier family protein Pic2 in budding yeast is a copper importer. The closest Pic2 ortholog in mammalian cells is the mitochondrial phosphate carrier SLC25A3. Here, to investigate whether SLC25A3 also transports copper, we manipulated its expression in several murine and human cell lines. SLC25A3 knockdown or deletion consistently resulted in an isolated COX deficiency in these cells, and copper addition to the culture medium suppressed these biochemical defects. Consistent with a conserved role for SLC25A3 in copper transport, its heterologous expression in yeast complemented copper-specific defects observed upon deletion of PIC2 Additionally, assays in Lactococcus lactis and in reconstituted liposomes directly demonstrated that SLC25A3 functions as a copper transporter. Taken together, these data indicate that SLC25A3 can transport copper both in vitro and in vivo . © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The mammalian phosphate carrier SLC25A3 is a mitochondrial copper transporter required for cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, Aren; Vest, Katherine E.; Maynard, Margaret K.; Gammon, Micah G.; Russell, Antoinette C.; Mathews, Alexander T.; Cole, Shelbie E.; Zhu, Xinyu; Phillips, Casey B.; Kwong, Jennifer Q.; Dodani, Sheel C.; Leary, Scot C.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Copper is required for the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal electron-accepting complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The likely source of copper used for COX biogenesis is a labile pool found in the mitochondrial matrix. In mammals, the proteins that transport copper across the inner mitochondrial membrane remain unknown. We previously reported that the mitochondrial carrier family protein Pic2 in budding yeast is a copper importer. The closest Pic2 ortholog in mammalian cells is the mitochondrial phosphate carrier SLC25A3. Here, to investigate whether SLC25A3 also transports copper, we manipulated its expression in several murine and human cell lines. SLC25A3 knockdown or deletion consistently resulted in an isolated COX deficiency in these cells, and copper addition to the culture medium suppressed these biochemical defects. Consistent with a conserved role for SLC25A3 in copper transport, its heterologous expression in yeast complemented copper-specific defects observed upon deletion of PIC2. Additionally, assays in Lactococcus lactis and in reconstituted liposomes directly demonstrated that SLC25A3 functions as a copper transporter. Taken together, these data indicate that SLC25A3 can transport copper both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:29237729

  13. Aberrant Mitochondrial Homeostasis in the Skeletal Muscle of Sedentary Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Adeel; Hamadeh, Mazen J.; Kaczor, Jan J.; Raha, Sandeep; deBeer, Justin; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been extensively characterized in the aetiology of sarcopenia (aging-associated loss of muscle mass) and muscle wasting as a result of muscle disuse. What remains less clear is whether the decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity is purely a function of the aging process or if the sedentary lifestyle of older adult subjects has confounded previous reports. The objective of the present study was to investigate if a recreationally active lifestyle in older adults can conserve skeletal muscle strength and functionality, chronic systemic inflammation, mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity, and cellular antioxidant capacity. To that end, muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of young and age-matched recreationally active older and sedentary older men and women (N = 10/group; ♀  =  ♂). We show that a physically active lifestyle is associated with the partial compensatory preservation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and cellular oxidative and antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle of older adults. Conversely a sedentary lifestyle, associated with osteoarthritis-mediated physical inactivity, is associated with reduced mitochondrial function, dysregulation of cellular redox status and chronic systemic inflammation that renders the skeletal muscle intracellular environment prone to reactive oxygen species-mediated toxicity. We propose that an active lifestyle is an important determinant of quality of life and molecular progression of aging in skeletal muscle of the elderly, and is a viable therapy for attenuating and/or reversing skeletal muscle strength declines and mitochondrial abnormalities associated with aging. PMID:20520725

  14. Exercise Prevents Cardiac Injury and Improves Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Advanced Diabetic Cardiomyopathy with PGC-1α and Akt Activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Bei, Yihua; Lu, Yan; Sun, Wei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Yalong; Cao, Yujie; Chen, Ping; Xiao, Junjie; Kong, Xiangqing

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) represents the major cause of morbidity and mortality among diabetics. Exercise has been reported to be effective to protect the heart from cardiac injury during the development of DCM. However, the potential cardioprotective effect of exercise in advanced DCM remains unclear. Seven-week old male C57BL/6 wild-type or db/db mice were either subjected to a running exercise program for 15 weeks or kept sedentary. Cardiac function, myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis, and mitochondrial biogenesis were examined for evaluation of cardiac injury. A reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening in db/db mice was significantly reversed by exercise training. DCM induced remarkable cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 at the protein level. Meanwhile, DCM caused slightly myocardial fibrosis with elevated mRNA levels of collagen I and collagen III. Also, DCM resulted in a reduction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and transcription, together with reduced mtDNA content and impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure. All of these changes could be abolished by exercise training. Furthermore, DCM-associated inhibition of PGC-1α and Akt signaling was significantly activated by exercise, indicating that exercise-induced activation of PGC-1α and Akt signaling might be responsible for mediating cardioprotective effect of exercise in DCM. Exercise preserves cardiac function, prevents myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis, and improves mitochondrial biogenesis in the late stage of DCM. Exercise-induced activation of PGC-1α and Akt signaling might be promising therapeutic targets for advanced DCM. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Long-term high-fat-diet feeding induces skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in rats in a sex-dependent and muscle-type specific manner

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a crucial role in the etiology of insulin resistance, in which skeletal muscle is the main tissue contributor. Sex differences in skeletal muscle insulin and antioxidant responses to high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding have been described. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether there is a sex dimorphism in the effects of HFD feeding on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and on the adiponectin signaling pathway, as well as the influence of the muscle type (oxidative or glycolytic). Methods Gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of male and female Wistar rats of 2 months of age fed with a high-fat-diet (HFD) or a low fat diet for 26 weeks were used. Mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative damage markers, oxidative capacity and antioxidant defences were analyzed. Serum insulin sensitivity parameters and the levels of proteins involved in adiponectin signaling pathway were also determined. Results HFD feeding induced mitochondrial biogenesis in both sexes, but to a higher degree in male rats. Although HFD female rats showed greater antioxidant protection and maintained a better insulin sensitivity profile than their male counterparts, both sexes showed an impaired response to adiponectin, which was more evident in gastrocnemius muscle. Conclusions We conclude that HFD rats may induce skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis as an attempt to compensate the deleterious consequences of adiponectin and insulin resistance on oxidative metabolism, and that the effects of HFD feeding are sex-dependent and muscle-type specific. PMID:22353542

  16. Role of microRNA-130b in placental PGC-1α/TFAM mitochondrial biogenesis pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shaoning; Teague, April M.; Tryggestad, Jeanie B.

    Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with abnormal placenta mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress, which affect fetal development and offspring long-term health. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PGC-1α in placenta in the context of diabetes remain unclear. The present study examined the role of microRNA 130b (miR-130b-3p) in regulating PGC-1α expression and oxidative stress in a placental trophoblastic cell line (BeWo). Prolonged exposure of BeWo cells to high glucose mimicking hyperglycemia resulted in decreased protein abundance of PGC-1α and its downstream factor, mitochondrialmore » transcription factor A (TFAM). High glucose treatment increased the expression of miR-130b-3p in BeWo cells, as well as exosomal secretion of miR-130b-3p. Transfection of BeWo cells with miR-130b-3p mimic reduced the abundance of PGC-1α, whereas inhibition of miR-130b-3p increased PGC-1α expression in response to high glucose, suggesting a role for miR-130b-3p in mediating high glucose-induced down regulation of PGC-1α expression. In addition, miR-130b-3p anti-sense inhibitor increased TFAM expression and reduced 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, these findings reveal that miR-130b-3p down-regulates PGC-1α expression in placental trophoblasts, and inhibition of miR-130b-3p appears to improve mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and protect placental trophoblast cells from oxidative stress. - Highlights: • High glucose reduces PGC-1α and TFAM proteins in trophoblast BeWo cells. • miR-130b-3p mediates high glucose-induced decrease in PGC-1α abundance. • Inhibition of miR-130b-3p improves mitochondrial biogenesis signaling. • Inhibition of miR-130b-3p protects trophoblasts against oxidative stress.« less

  17. Principles of Exercise Prescription, and How They Influence Exercise-Induced Changes of Transcription Factors and Other Regulators of Mitochondrial Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Granata, Cesare; Jamnick, Nicholas A; Bishop, David J

    2018-04-19

    Physical inactivity represents the fourth leading risk factor for mortality, and it has been linked with a series of chronic disorders, the treatment of which absorbs ~ 85% of healthcare costs in developed countries. Conversely, physical activity promotes many health benefits; endurance exercise in particular represents a powerful stimulus to induce mitochondrial biogenesis, and it is routinely used to prevent and treat chronic metabolic disorders linked with sub-optimal mitochondrial characteristics. Given the importance of maintaining a healthy mitochondrial pool, it is vital to better characterize how manipulating the endurance exercise dose affects cellular mechanisms of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Herein, we propose a definition of mitochondrial biogenesis and the techniques available to assess it, and we emphasize the importance of standardizing biopsy timing and the determination of relative exercise intensity when comparing different studies. We report an intensity-dependent regulation of exercise-induced increases in nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein content, nuclear phosphorylation of p53 (serine 15), and PGC-1α messenger RNA (mRNA), as well as training-induced increases in PGC-1α and p53 protein content. Despite evidence that PGC-1α protein content plateaus within a few exercise sessions, we demonstrate that greater training volumes induce further increases in PGC-1α (and p53) protein content, and that short-term reductions in training volume decrease the content of both proteins, suggesting training volume is still a factor affecting training-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Finally, training-induced changes in mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) protein content are regulated in a training volume-dependent manner and have been linked with training-induced changes in mitochondrial content.

  18. Mitochondrial gene therapy improves respiration, biogenesis, and transcription in G11778A Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and T8993G Leigh's syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Shilpa; Bergquist, Kristen; Young, Kisha; Gnaiger, Erich; Rao, Raj R; Bennett, James P

    2012-06-01

    Many incurable mitochondrial disorders result from mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and impaired respiration. Leigh's syndrome (LS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of infants, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) causes blindness in young adults. Treatment of LHON and LS cells harboring G11778A and T8993G mutant mtDNA, respectively, by >90%, with healthy donor mtDNA complexed with recombinant human mitochondrial transcription factor A (rhTFAM), improved mitochondrial respiration by ∼1.2-fold in LHON cells and restored >50% ATP synthase function in LS cells. Mitochondrial replication, transcription, and translation of key respiratory genes and proteins were increased in the short term. Increased NRF1, TFAMB1, and TFAMA expression alluded to the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis as a mechanism for improving mitochondrial respiration. These results represent the development of a therapeutic approach for LHON and LS patients in the near future.

  19. CTRP9 induces mitochondrial biogenesis and protects high glucose-induced endothelial oxidative damage via AdipoR1 -SIRT1- PGC-1α activation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Li, Bin; Chen, Xu; Su, Jie; Wang, Hongbing; Yu, Shiqiang; Zheng, Qijun

    2016-09-02

    Vascular lesions caused by endothelial dysfunction are the most common and serious complication of diabetes. The vasoactive potency of CTRP9 has been reported in our previous study via nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the effect of CTRP9 on vascular endothelial cells remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the protection role of CTRP9 in the primary aortic vascular endothelial cells and HAECs under high-glucose condition. We found that the aortic vascular endothelial cells isolated from mice fed with a high fat diet generated more ROS production than normal cells, along with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis, which was also found in HAECs treated with high glucose. However, the treatment of CTPR9 significantly reduced ROS production and increased the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, the expression of PGC-1α, NRF1, TFAM, ATP5A1 and SIRT1, and the activity of cytochrome c oxidase, indicating an induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. Furthermore, silencing the expression of SIRT1 in HAECs impeded the effect of CTRP9 on mitochondrial biogenesis, while silencing the expression of AdipoR1 in HAECs reversed the expression of SIRT1 and PGC-1α. Based on these findings, this study showed that CTRP9 might induce mitochondrial biogenesis and protect high glucose-induced endothelial oxidative damage via AdipoR1-SIRT1-PGC-1α signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Silymarin protects against renal injury through normalization of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in high fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Bin Feng; Meng, Ran; Bin Huang; Bi, Yan; Shen, Shanmei; Zhu, Dalong

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney diseases and the conventional treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors is not enough to prevent renal injury and prolong the progression of disease. Recently, silymarin has shown protective effects on renal tissue injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential capacity of silymarin to prevent renal injury during obesity induced by high fat diet (HFD) in mice. In vivo, male C57BL/6 mice received HFD (60% of total calories) for 12 weeks, randomized and treated orally with vehicle saline or silymarin (30mg/kg body weight/d) for 4 weeks. In vitro, human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK2) were exposed to 300μM palmitic acid (PA) for 36h followed by silymarin administration at different concentrations. The administration of silymarin significantly ameliorated HFD induced glucose metabolic disorders, oxidative stress and pathological alterations in the kidney. Silymarin significantly mitigated renal lipid accumulation, fatty acid β-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in HFD mice and PA treated HK2 cells. Furthermore, silymarin partly restored mitochondrial membrane potential of HK2 cells after PA exposure. In conclusion, silymarin can improve oxidative stress and preserve mitochondrial dysfunction in the kidney, potentially via preventing accumulation of renal lipids and fatty acid β-oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Biogenesis of mitochondrial carrier proteins: molecular mechanisms of import into mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondrial metabolite carriers are hydrophobic proteins which catalyze the flux of several charged or hydrophilic substrates across the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins, like most mitochondrial proteins, are nuclear encoded and after their synthesis in the cytosol are transported into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Most metabolite carriers, differently from other nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins, are synthesized without a cleavable presequence and contain several, poorly characterized, internal targeting signals. However, an interesting aspect is the presence of a positively charged N-terminal presequence in a limited number of mitochondrial metabolite carriers. Over the last few years the molecular mechanisms of import of metabolite carrier proteins into mitochondria have been thoroughly investigated. This review summarizes the present knowledge and discusses recent advances on the import and sorting of mitochondrial metabolite carriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rosiglitazone-Induced Mitochondrial Biogenesis in White Adipose Tissue Is Independent of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1α

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Rosario; Enguix, Natàlia; Lasheras, Jaime; Feliu, Juan E.; Kralli, Anastasia; Villena, Josep A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Thiazolidinediones, a family of insulin-sensitizing drugs commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, are thought to exert their effects in part by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis in white adipose tissue through the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1α). Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the role of PGC-1α in the control of rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, we have generated a mouse model that lacks expression of PGC-1α specifically in adipose tissues (PGC-1α-FAT-KO mice). We found that expression of genes encoding for mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid cycle or fatty acid oxidation, was similar in white adipose tissue of wild type and PGC-1α-FAT-KO mice. Furthermore, the absence of PGC-1α did not prevent the positive effect of rosiglitazone on mitochondrial gene expression or biogenesis, but it precluded the induction by rosiglitazone of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific genes in white adipose tissue. Consistent with the in vivo findings, basal and rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was unaffected by the knockdown of PGC-1α but it was impaired when PGC-1β expression was knockdown by the use of specific siRNA. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that in white adipose tissue PGC-1α is dispensable for basal and rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial biogenesis but required for the rosiglitazone-induced expression of UCP1 and other brown adipocyte-specific markers. Our study suggests that PGC-1α is important for the appearance of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue. Our findings also provide evidence that PGC-1β and not PGC-1α regulates basal and rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial gene expression in white adipocytes. PMID:22087241

  3. Carbon monoxide stimulates astrocytic mitochondrial biogenesis via L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel-mediated PGC-1α/ERRα activation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoon Kyung; Park, Joon Ha; Baek, Yi-Yong

    Carbon monoxide (CO), derived by the enzymatic reaction of heme oxygenase (HO), is a cellular regulator of energy metabolism and cytoprotection; however, its underlying mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. Astrocytes pre-exposed to the CO-releasing compound CORM-2 increased mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial electron transport components (cytochrome c, Cyt c; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2, COX2), and ATP synthesis. The increased mitochondrial function was correlated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase α and upregulation of HO-1, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα). These events elicited by CORM-2 were suppressed by Ca{sup 2+} chelators, a HO inhibitor, and anmore » L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker, but not other Ca{sup 2+} channel inhibitors. Among the HO byproducts, combined CORM-2 and bilirubin treatment effectively increased PGC-1α, Cyt c and COX2 expression, mitochondrial biogenesis, and ATP synthesis, and these increases were blocked by Ca{sup 2+} chelators. Moreover, cerebral ischemia significantly increased HO-1, PGC-1α, and ERRα levels, subsequently increasing Cyt c and COX2 expression, in wild-type mice, compared with HO-1{sup +/−} mice. These results suggest that HO-1-derived CO enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in astrocytes by activating L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel-mediated PGC-1α/ERRα axis, leading to maintenance of astrocyte function and neuroprotection/recovery against damage of brain function. - Highlights: • CORM-pretreated astrocytes induces mitochondrial biogenesis by activating L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel-mediated PGC-1α stabilization. • Cerebral ischemia increased electron transport chain proteins (e.g. Cyt c and COX2), in WT mice, compared with HO-1{sup +/−} mice. • CO/HO-1 pathway increases astrocytic mitochondrial functions via a PGC-1α/ERRα axis.« less

  4. The effects of exercise and cold exposure on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Nana; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise or/and cold exposure regulate mitochondria biogenesis-related gene expression in soleus and inguinal adipose tissue of mice. [Methods] Forty ICR 5-week old male mice were divided into four groups: thermoneutrality-untrained (23 ± 1 °C in room temperature, n=10), cold-water immersion (24 ± 1 °C, n=10), exercise in neutral temperature (34 ± 1 °C, n=10), and exercise in cold temperature (24 ± 1 °C, n=10). The mice performed swimming exercise (30 min to 60 min, 5 times) for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, we confirmed mitochondrial biogenesis-related gene expression changes for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factors 1 (NRF1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in soleus muscle and inguinal adipose tissue, and the related protein expression in soleus muscle. [Results] In soleus muscle, PGC-1α expression significantly increased in response to cold exposure (p = 0.006) and exercise (p = 0.05). There was also significant interaction between exercise and cold exposure (p = 0.005). Only exercise had a significant effect on NRF1 relative expression (p=0.001). Neither cold exposure nor the interaction showed significant effects (p = 0.1222 and p = 0.875, respectively). Relative Tfam expression did not show any significant effect from exercise. In inguinal adipose tissue, relative PGC-1α expression did not significantly change in any group. NRF1 expression showed a significant change from exercise (p = 0.01) and cold exposure (p = 0.011). There was also a significant interaction between exercise and cold exposure (p = 0.000). Tfam mRNA expression showed a significant effect from exercise (p=0.000) and an interaction between exercise and cold exposure (p=0.001). Only temperature significantly affected PGC-1α protein levels (p=0.045). Neither exercise nor the interaction were significant (p = 0.397 and p = 0.292, respectively

  5. Inhibition of akt phosphorylation diminishes mitochondrial biogenesis regulators, tricarboxylic acid cycle activity and exacerbates recognition memory deficit in rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shaerzadeh, Fatemeh; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Khodagholi, Fariba

    2014-11-01

    3-Methyladenine (3-MA), as a PI3K inhibitor, is widely used for inhibition of autophagy. Inhibition of PI3K class I leads to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation, a central molecule involved in diverse arrays of intracellular cascades in nervous system. Accordingly, in the present study, we aimed to determine the alterations of specific mitochondrial biogenesis markers and mitochondrial function in 3-MA-injected rats following amyloid beta (Aβ) insult. Our data revealed that inhibition of Akt phosphorylation downregulates master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Our data also showed that decrease in PGC-1α level presumably is due to decrease in the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding and AMP-activated kinase, two upstream activators of PGC-1α. As a consequence, the level of some mitochondrial biogenesis factors including nuclear respiratory factor-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and Cytochrome c decreased significantly. Also, activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) enzymes such as Aconitase, a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase reduced in the presence of 3-MA with or without Aβ insult. Decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis factors and TCA enzyme activity in the rats receiving 3-MA and Aβ were more compared to the rats that received either alone; indicating the additive destructive effects of these two agents. In agreement with our molecular results, data obtained from behavioral test (using novel objective recognition test) indicated that inhibition of Akt phosphorylation with or without Aβ injection impaired novel recognition (non-spatial) memory. Our results suggest that 3-MA amplified deleterious effects of Aβ by targeting central molecule Akt.

  6. Why translation counts for mitochondria - retrograde signalling links mitochondrial protein synthesis to mitochondrial biogenesis and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Brendan J; Richter, Uwe

    2013-10-01

    Organelle biosynthesis is a key requirement for cell growth and division. The regulation of mitochondrial biosynthesis exhibits additional layers of complexity compared with that of other organelles because they contain their own genome and dedicated ribosomes. Maintaining these components requires gene expression to be coordinated between the nucleo-cytoplasmic compartment and mitochondria in order to monitor organelle homeostasis and to integrate the responses to the physiological and developmental demands of the cell. Surprisingly, the parameters that are used to monitor or count mitochondrial abundance are not known, nor are the signalling pathways. Inhibiting the translation on mito-ribosomes genetically or with antibiotics can impair cell proliferation and has been attributed to defects in aerobic energy metabolism, even though proliferating cells rely primarily on glycolysis to fuel their metabolic demands. However, a recent study indicates that mitochondrial translational stress and the rescue mechanisms that relieve this stress cause the defect in cell proliferation and occur before any impairment of oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, the process of mitochondrial translation in itself appears to be an important checkpoint for the monitoring of mitochondrial homeostasis and might have a role in establishing mitochondrial abundance within a cell. This hypothesis article will explore the evidence supporting a role for mito-ribosomes and translation in a mitochondria-counting mechanism.

  7. Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 (PTEN) Signaling Regulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Respiration via Estrogen-related Receptor α (ERRα)*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; He, Lina; Zeng, Ni; Sahu, Divya; Cadenas, Enrique; Shearn, Colin; Li, Wei; Stiles, Bangyan L.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are associated with cancer development, yet how oncogenic signals affect mitochondrial functions has not been fully understood. In this study, we investigate the relationship between mitochondrial alterations and PI3K/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling activation using hepatocytes and liver tissues as our experimental models. We show here that liver-specific deletion of Pten, which leads to activation of PI3K/AKT, is associated with elevated oxidative stress, increased mitochondrial mass, and augmented respiration accompanied by enhanced glycolysis. Consistent with these observations, estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor known for its role in mitochondrial biogenesis, is up-regulated in the absence of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Our pharmacological and genetic studies show that PI3K/AKT activity regulates the expression of ERRα and mitochondrial biogenesis/respiration. Furthermore, cAMP-response element-binding protein, as a downstream target of AKT, plays a role in the regulation of ERRα, independent of PKA signaling. ERRα regulates reactive oxygen species production, and ERRα knockdown attenuates proliferation and colony-forming potential in Pten-null hepatocytes. Finally, analysis of clinical datasets from liver tissues showed a negative correlation between expressions of ERRα and PTEN in patients with liver cancer. Therefore, this study has established a previously unrecognized link between a growth signal and mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:23836899

  8. Arabidopsis DAYU/ABERRANT PEROXISOME MORPHOLOGY9 Is a Key Regulator of Peroxisome Biogenesis and Plays Critical Roles during Pollen Maturation and Germination in Planta[W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Ran; Li, Hong-Ju; Yuan, Li; Liu, Man; Shi, Dong-Qiao; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Pollen undergo a maturation process to sustain pollen viability and prepare them for germination. Molecular mechanisms controlling these processes remain largely unknown. Here, we report an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, dayu (dau), which impairs pollen maturation and in vivo germination. Molecular analysis indicated that DAU encodes the peroxisomal membrane protein ABERRANT PEROXISOME MORPHOLOGY9 (APEM9). DAU is transiently expressed from bicellular pollen to mature pollen during male gametogenesis. DAU interacts with peroxisomal membrane proteins PEROXIN13 (PEX13) and PEX16 in planta. Consistently, both peroxisome biogenesis and peroxisome protein import are impaired in dau pollen. In addition, the jasmonic acid (JA) level is significantly decreased in dau pollen, and the dau mutant phenotype is partially rescued by exogenous application of JA, indicating that the male sterility is mainly due to JA deficiency. In addition, the phenotypic survey of peroxin mutants indicates that the PEXs most likely play different roles in pollen germination. Taken together, these data indicate that DAU/APEM9 plays critical roles in peroxisome biogenesis and function, which is essential for JA production and pollen maturation and germination. PMID:24510720

  9. Oncostatin M (OSM) protects against cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic mice by regulating apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Shuang; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Xiaotian; Wei, Liping; Qin, Xing; Gao, Erhe

    2015-06-01

    Oncostatin M (OSM) exhibits many unique biological activities by activating Oβ receptor. However, its role in myocardial I/R injury in diabetic mice remains unknown. The involvement of OSM was assessed in diabetic mice which underwent myocardial I/R injury by OSM treatment or genetic deficiency of OSM receptor Oβ. Its mechanism on cardiomyocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin sensitivity were further studied. OSM alleviated cardiac I/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis through inhibition of inositol pyrophosphate 7 (IP7) production, thus activating PI3K/Akt/BAD pathway, decreasing Bax expression while up-regulating Bcl-2 expression and decreasing the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in db/db mice. OSM enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function in db/db mice subjected to cardiac I/R injury. On the contrary, OSM receptor Oβ knockout exacerbated cardiac I/R injury, increased IP7 production, enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose homoeostasis and insulin sensitivity in cardiac I/R injured diabetic mice. Inhibition of IP7 production by TNP (IP6K inhibitor) exerted similar effects of OSM. The mechanism of OSM on cardiac I/R injury in diabetic mice is partly associated with IP7/Akt and adenine mononucleotide protein kinase/PGC-1α pathway. OSM protects against cardiac I/R Injury by regulating apoptosis, insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial biogenesis in diabetic mice through inhibition of IP7 production. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Diverse Cauliflower Cultivars under Mild and Severe Drought. Impaired Coordination of Selected Transcript and Proteomic Responses, and Regulation of Various Multifunctional Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rurek, Michał; Czołpińska, Magdalena; Staszak, Aleksandra Maria; Nowak, Witold; Krzesiński, Włodzimierz; Spiżewski, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Mitochondrial responses under drought within Brassica genus are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to investigate mitochondrial biogenesis of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) cultivars with varying drought tolerance. Diverse quantitative changes (decreases in abundance mostly) in the mitochondrial proteome were assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Respiratory (e.g., complex II, IV (CII, CIV) and ATP synthase subunits), transporter (including diverse porin isoforms) and matrix multifunctional proteins (e.g., components of RNA editing machinery) were diversely affected in their abundance under two drought levels. Western immunoassays showed additional cultivar-specific responses of selected mitochondrial proteins. Dehydrin-related tryptic peptides (found in several 2D spots) immunopositive with dehydrin-specific antisera highlighted the relevance of mitochondrial dehydrin-like proteins for the drought response. The abundance of selected mRNAs participating in drought response was also determined. We conclude that mitochondrial biogenesis was strongly, but diversely affected in various cauliflower cultivars, and associated with drought tolerance at the proteomic and functional levels. However, discussed alternative oxidase (AOX) regulation at the RNA and protein level were largely uncoordinated due to the altered availability of transcripts for translation, mRNA/ribosome interactions, and/or miRNA impact on transcript abundance and translation. PMID:29642585

  11. Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Abates Hyperglycaemia-Induced Neuronal Injury in Experimental Models of Diabetic Neuropathy: Effects on Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Autophagy and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-04-01

    Impaired adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) signalling under hyperglycaemic conditions is known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic sensory neurons. Facilitation of AMPK signalling is previously reported to ameliorate inflammation and induce autophagic response in various complications related to diabetes. The present study assesses the role of AMPK activation on mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy and neuroinflammation in experimental diabetic neuropathy (DN) using an AMPK activator (A769662). A769662 (15 and 30 mg/kg, i.p) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (250-270 g) for 2 weeks after 6 weeks of streptozotocin (STZ) injection (55 mg/kg, i.p.). Behavioural parameters (mechanical/thermal hyperalgesia) and functional characteristics (motor/sensory nerve conduction velocities (MNCV and SNCV) and sciatic nerve blood flow (NBF)) were assessed. For in vitro studies, Neuro2a (N2A) cells were incubated with 25 mM glucose to simulate high glucose condition and then studied for mitochondrial dysfunction and protein expression changes. STZ administration resulted in significant hyperglycaemia (>250 mg/dl) in rats. A769662 treatment significantly improved mechanical/thermal hyperalgesia threshold and enhanced MNCV, SNCV and NBF in diabetic animals. A769662 exposure normalised the mitochondrial superoxide production, membrane depolarisation and markedly increased neurite outgrowth of N2A cells. Further, AMPK activation also abolished the NF-κB-mediated neuroinflammation. A769662 treatment increased Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK results in stimulated PGC-1α-directed mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy induction. Our study supports that compromised AMPK signalling in hyperglycaemic conditions causes defective mitochondrial biogenesis ultimately leading to neuronal dysfunction and associated deficits in DN and activation of AMPK can be developed as an attractive therapeutic strategy for the management of DN.

  12. Multi-omics Reveal Specific Targets of the RNA-Binding Protein Puf3p and Its Orchestration of Mitochondrial Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Christopher P; Stefely, Jonathan A; Jochem, Adam; Hutchins, Paul D; Wilson, Gary M; Kwiecien, Nicholas W; Coon, Joshua J; Wickens, Marvin; Pagliarini, David J

    2018-01-24

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a redox-active lipid required for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). How CoQ biosynthesis is coordinated with the biogenesis of OxPhos protein complexes is unclear. Here, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA-binding protein (RBP) Puf3p regulates CoQ biosynthesis. To establish the mechanism for this regulation, we employed a multi-omic strategy to identify mRNAs that not only bind Puf3p but also are regulated by Puf3p in vivo. The CoQ biosynthesis enzyme Coq5p is a critical Puf3p target: Puf3p regulates the abundance of Coq5p and prevents its detrimental hyperaccumulation, thereby enabling efficient CoQ production. More broadly, Puf3p represses a specific set of proteins involved in mitochondrial protein import, translation, and OxPhos complex assembly (pathways essential to prime mitochondrial biogenesis). Our data reveal a mechanism for post-transcriptionally coordinating CoQ production with OxPhos biogenesis, and they demonstrate the power of multi-omics for defining genuine targets of RBPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Green Tea Polyphenols Stimulate Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Improve Renal Function after Chronic Cyclosporin A Treatment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Hasibur; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Haque, Khujista; Lemasters, John J.; Schnellmann, Rick G.; Zhong, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that an extract from Camellia sinenesis (green tea), which contains several polyphenols, attenuates nephrotoxicity caused by cyclosporine A (CsA). Since polyphenols are stimulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB), this study investigated whether stimulation of MB plays a role in green tea polyphenol protection against CsA renal toxicity. Rats were fed a powdered diet containing green tea polyphenolic extract (0.1%) starting 3 days prior to CsA treatment (25 mg/kg, i.g. daily for 3 weeks). CsA alone decreased renal nuclear DNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) protein ATP synthase-β (AS-β) by 42%, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded OXPHOS protein NADH dehydrogenase-3 (ND3) by 87% and their associated mRNAs. Mitochondrial DNA copy number was also decreased by 78% by CsA. Immunohistochemical analysis showed decreased cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX-IV), an OXPHOS protein, in tubular cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, the master regulator of MB, and mitochondrial transcription factor-A (Tfam), the transcription factor that regulates mtDNA replication and transcription, were 42% and 90% lower, respectively, in the kidneys of CsA-treated than in untreated rats. These results indicate suppression of MB by chronic CsA treatment. Green tea polyphenols alone and following CsA increased AS-β, ND3, COX-IV, mtDNA copy number, PGC-1α mRNA and protein, decreased acetylated PGC-1α, and increased Tfam mRNA and protein. In association with suppressed MB, CsA increased serum creatinine, caused loss of brush border and dilatation of proximal tubules, tubular atrophy, vacuolization, apoptosis, calcification, and increased neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression, leukocyte infiltration, and renal fibrosis. Green tea polyphenols markedly attenuated CsA-induced renal injury and improved renal function. Together, these results demonstrate that green tea polyphenols attenuate Cs

  14. Impaired Mitochondrial Biogenesis Precedes Heart Failure in Right Ventricular Hypertrophy in Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karamanlidis, Georgios; Bautista-Hernandez, Victor; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; Nido, Pedro del; Tian, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Background The outcome of the surgical repair in congenital heart disease (CHD) correlates with the degree of myocardial damage. In this study we determined whether mitochondrial DNA depletion is a sensitive marker of right ventricular (RV) damage and whether impaired mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication contributes to the transition from compensated hypertrophy to failure. Methods and Results RV samples obtained from 31 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were compared to 5 RV samples from non-failing hearts (control). Patients were divided into compensated hypertrophy and failure groups based on preoperative echocardiography, catheterization and/or MRI data. Mitochondrial enzyme activities (citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase) were maintained during hypertrophy and decreased by ~40% (p<0.05 vs. control) at the stage of failure. In contrast, mtDNA content was progressively decreased in the hypertrophied RV through failure (by 28±8% and 67±11% respectively, p<0.05 for both), whereas mtDNA encoded gene expression was sustained by increased transcriptional activity during compensated hypertrophy but not in failure. MtDNA depletion was attributed to reduced mtDNA replication in both hypertrophied and failing RV and it was independent of PGC-1 down-regulation but was accompanied by reduced expression of proteins constituting the mtDNA replication fork. Decreased mtDNA content in compensated hypertrophy was also associated with pathological changes of mitochondria ultrastructure. Conclusions Impaired mtDNA replication causes early and progressive depletion of mtDNA in the RV of the CHD patients during the transition from hypertrophy to failure. Decreased mtDNA content is likely a sensitive marker of mitochondrial injury in this patient population. PMID:21840936

  15. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial TOM complex: Mim1 promotes insertion and assembly of signal-anchored receptors.

    PubMed

    Becker, Thomas; Pfannschmidt, Sylvia; Guiard, Bernard; Stojanovski, Diana; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Kutik, Stephan; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris; Wiedemann, Nils

    2008-01-04

    The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) is the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded mitochondrial precursor proteins. All Tom proteins are also encoded by nuclear genes and synthesized as precursors in the cytosol. The channel-forming beta-barrel protein Tom40 is targeted to mitochondria via Tom receptors and inserted into the outer membrane by the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM complex). A further outer membrane protein, Mim1, plays a less defined role in assembly of Tom40 into the TOM complex. The three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 are anchored in the outer membrane by a single transmembrane alpha-helix, located at the N terminus in the case of Tom20 and Tom70 (signal-anchored) or in the C-terminal portion in the case of Tom22 (tail-anchored). Insertion of the precursor of Tom22 into the outer membrane requires pre-existing Tom receptors while the import pathway of the precursors of Tom20 and Tom70 is only poorly understood. We report that Mim1 is required for efficient membrane insertion and assembly of Tom20 and Tom70, but not Tom22. We show that Mim1 associates with SAM(core) components to a large SAM complex, explaining its role in late steps of the assembly pathway of Tom40. We conclude that Mim1 is not only required for biogenesis of the beta-barrel protein Tom40 but also for membrane insertion and assembly of signal-anchored Tom receptors. Thus, Mim1 plays an important role in the efficient assembly of the mitochondrial TOM complex.

  16. Age associated low mitochondrial biogenesis may be explained by lack of response of PGC-1α to exercise training.

    PubMed

    Derbré, Frederic; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir Essau; Tresguerres, Jesus A F; Fuentes, Teresa; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Monsalve, Maria; Viña, Jose

    2012-06-01

    Low mitochondriogenesis is critical to explain loss of muscle function in aging and in the development of frailty. The aim of this work was to explain the mechanism by which mitochondriogenesis is decreased in aging and to determine to which extent it may be prevented by exercise training. We used aged rats and compared them with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α deleted mice (PGC-1α KO). PGC-1α KO mice showed a significant decrease in the mitochondriogenic pathway in muscle. In aged rats, we found a loss of exercise-induced expression of PGC-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), and of cytochrome C. Thus muscle mitochondriogenesis, which is activated by exercise training in young animals, is not in aged or PGC-1α KO ones. Other stimuli to increase PGC-1α synthesis apart from exercise training, namely cold induction or thyroid hormone treatment, were effective in young rats but not in aged ones. To sum up, the low mitochondrial biogenesis associated with aging may be due to the lack of response of PGC-1α to different stimuli. Aged rats behave as PGC-1α KO mice. Results reported here highlight the role of PGC-1α in the loss of mitochondriogenesis associated with aging and point to this important transcriptional coactivator as a target for pharmacological interventions to prevent age-associated sarcopenia.

  17. Short-Chain Fatty Acid Acetate Stimulates Adipogenesis and Mitochondrial Biogenesis via GPR43 in Brown Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiamiao; Kyrou, Ioannis; Tan, Bee K; Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Ramanjaneya, Manjunath; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Patel, Vanlata; James, Sean; Kawan, Mohamed; Chen, Jing; Randeva, Harpal S

    2016-05-01

    Short-chain fatty acids play crucial roles in a range of physiological functions. However, the effects of short-chain fatty acids on brown adipose tissue have not been fully investigated. We examined the role of acetate, a short-chain fatty acid formed by fermentation in the gut, in the regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism. Our results show that acetate up-regulates adipocyte protein 2, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and uncoupling protein-1 expression and affects the morphological changes of brown adipocytes during adipogenesis. Moreover, an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis was observed after acetate treatment. Acetate also elicited the activation of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein, and these responses were sensitive to G(i/o)-type G protein inactivator, Gβγ-subunit inhibitor, phospholipase C inhibitor, and MAPK kinase inhibitor, indicating a role for the G(i/o)βγ/phospholipase C/protein kinase C/MAPK kinase signaling pathway in these responses. These effects of acetate were mimicked by treatment with 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)-N-2-thiazolylbenzeneacetamide, a synthetic G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) agonist and were impaired in GPR43 knockdown cells. Taken together, our results indicate that acetate may have important physiological roles in brown adipocytes through the activation of GPR43.

  18. Stage of perinatal development regulates skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and myogenic regulatory factor genes with little impact of growth restriction or cross-fostering.

    PubMed

    Laker, R C; Wadley, G D; McConell, G K; Wlodek, M E

    2012-02-01

    Foetal growth restriction impairs skeletal muscle development and adult muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. We hypothesized that key genes involved in muscle development and mitochondrial biogenesis would be altered following uteroplacental insufficiency in rat pups, and improving postnatal nutrition by cross-fostering would ameliorate these deficits. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation (Restricted) or sham (Control) surgery was performed on day 18 of gestation. Males and females were investigated at day 20 of gestation (E20), 1 (PN1), 7 (PN7) and 35 (PN35) days postnatally. A separate cohort of Control and Restricted pups were cross-fostered onto a different Control or Restricted mother and examined at PN7. In both sexes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), cytochrome c oxidase subunits 3 and 4 (COX III and IV) and myogenic regulatory factor 4 expression increased from late gestation to postnatal life, whereas mitochondrial transcription factor A, myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD), myogenin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) decreased. Foetal growth restriction increased MyoD mRNA in females at PN7, whereas in males IGF-I mRNA was higher at E20 and PN1. Cross-fostering Restricted pups onto a Control mother significantly increased COX III mRNA in males and COX IV mRNA in both sexes above controls with little effect on other genes. Developmental age appears to be a major factor regulating skeletal muscle mitochondrial and developmental genes, with growth restriction and cross-fostering having only subtle effects. It therefore appears that reductions in adult mitochondrial biogenesis markers likely develop after weaning.

  19. Loss of the mitochondrial protein-only ribonuclease P complex causes aberrant tRNA processing and lethality in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sen, Aditya; Karasik, Agnes; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Mirkovic, Elena; Koutmos, Markos; Cox, Rachel T

    2016-07-27

    Proteins encoded by mitochondrial DNA are translated using mitochondrially encoded tRNAs and rRNAs. As with nuclear encoded tRNAs, mitochondrial tRNAs must be processed to become fully functional. The mitochondrial form of ribonuclease P (mt:RNase P) is responsible for 5'-end maturation and is comprised of three proteins; mitochondrial RNase P protein (MRPP) 1 and 2 together with proteinaceous RNase P (PRORP). However, its mechanism and impact on development is not yet known. Using homology searches, we have identified the three proteins composing Drosophila mt:RNase P: Mulder (PRORP), Scully (MRPP2) and Roswell (MRPP1). Here, we show that each protein is essential and localizes with mitochondria. Furthermore, reducing levels of each causes mitochondrial deficits, which appear to be due at least in part to defective mitochondrial tRNA processing. Overexpressing two members of the complex, Mulder and Roswell, is also lethal, and in the case of Mulder, causes abnormal mitochondrial morphology. These data are the first evidence that defective mt:RNase P causes mitochondrial dysfunction, lethality and aberrant mitochondrial tRNA processing in vivo, underscoring its physiological importance. This in vivo mt:RNase P model will advance our understanding of how loss of mitochondrial tRNA processing causes tissue failure, an important aspect of human mitochondrial disease. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Defective pigment granule biogenesis and aberrant behavior caused by mutations in the Drosophila AP-3beta adaptin gene ruby.

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, D; Poeck, B; Roth, H; Ernst, R; Keller, A; Porsch, M; Strauss, R; Pflugfelder, G O

    2000-01-01

    Lysosomal protein trafficking is a fundamental process conserved from yeast to humans. This conservation extends to lysosome-like organelles such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. Recently, eye and coat color mutations in mouse (mocha and pearl) and Drosophila (garnet and carmine) were shown to affect subunits of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex AP-3 involved in vesicle trafficking. Here we demonstrate that the Drosophila eye color mutant ruby is defective in the AP-3beta subunit gene. ruby expression was found in retinal pigment and photoreceptor cells and in the developing central nervous system. ruby mutations lead to a decreased number and altered size of pigment granules in various cell types in and adjacent to the retina. Humans with lesions in the related AP-3betaA gene suffer from Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, which is caused by defects in a number of lysosome-related organelles. Hermansky-Pudlak patients have a reduced skin pigmentation and suffer from internal bleeding, pulmonary fibrosis, and visual system malfunction. The Drosophila AP-3beta adaptin also appears to be involved in processes other than eye pigment granule biogenesis because all ruby allele combinations tested exhibited defective behavior in a visual fixation paradigm. PMID:10790396

  1. Pioglitazone Enhances Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Ribosomal Protein Biosynthesis in Skeletal Muscle in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Skov, Vibe; Glintborg, Dorte; Knudsen, Steen; Tan, Qihua; Jensen, Thomas; Kruse, Torben A.; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Højlund, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a common metabolic abnormality in women with PCOS and leads to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown that thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve metabolic disturbances in PCOS patients. We hypothesized that the effect of TZDs in PCOS is, in part, mediated by changes in the transcriptional profile of muscle favoring insulin sensitivity. Using Affymetrix microarrays, we examined the effect of pioglitazone (30 mg/day for 16 weeks) on gene expression in skeletal muscle of 10 obese women with PCOS metabolically characterized by a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Moreover, we explored gene expression changes between these PCOS patients before treatment and 13 healthy women. Treatment with pioglitazone improved insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and plasma adiponectin, and reduced fasting serum insulin (all P<0.05). Global pathway analysis using Gene Map Annotator and Pathway Profiler (GenMAPP 2.1) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA 2.0.1) revealed a significant upregulation of genes representing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), ribosomal proteins, mRNA processing reactome, translation factors, and proteasome degradation in PCOS after pioglitazone therapy. Quantitative real-time PCR suggested that upregulation of OXPHOS genes was mediated by an increase in PGC-1α expression (P<0.05). Pretreatment expression of genes representing OXPHOS and ribosomal proteins was down-regulated in PCOS patients compared to healthy women. These data indicate that pioglitazone therapy restores insulin sensitivity, in part, by a coordinated upregulation of genes involved in mitochondrial OXPHOS and ribosomal protein biosynthesis in muscle in PCOS. These transcriptional effects of pioglitazone may contribute to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes in these women. PMID:18560589

  2. Mitochondrial carrier protein biogenesis: role of the chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Zara, Vincenzo; Ferramosca, Alessandra; Robitaille-Foucher, Philippe; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Young, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolite carrier proteins of the mitochondrial inner membrane share homology in their transmembrane domains, which also carries their targeting information. In addition, some carriers have cleavable presequences which are not essential for targeting, but have some other function before import. The cytosolic chaperones Hsc70 (heat-shock cognate 70) and Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) complex with carrier precursors and interact specifically with the Tom (translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane) 70 import receptor to promote import. We analysed how the presequences of the PiC (phosphate carrier) and CIC (citrate carrier) relate to the mechanisms of chaperone-mediated import. Deletion of the PiC presequence reduced the efficiency of import but, notably, not by causing aggregation. Instead, binding of the protein to Hsc70 was reduced, as well as the dependence on Hsc70 for import. Hsp90 binding and function in import was not greatly affected, but it could not entirely compensate for the lack of Hsc70 interaction. Deletion of the presequence from CIC was shown to cause its aggregation, but had little effect on the contribution to import of either Hsc70 or Hsp90. The presequence of PiC, but not that of CIC, conferred Hsc70 binding to dihydrofolate reductase fusion proteins. In comparison, OGC (oxoglutarate carrier) lacks a presequence and was more soluble, though it is still dependent on both Hsc70 and Hsp90. We propose that carrier presequences evolved to improve targeting competence by different mechanisms, depending on physical properties of the precursors in the cytosolic targeting environment. PMID:19143589

  3. Mitochondrial carrier protein biogenesis: role of the chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Zara, Vincenzo; Ferramosca, Alessandra; Robitaille-Foucher, Philippe; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Young, Jason C

    2009-04-15

    Metabolite carrier proteins of the mitochondrial inner membrane share homology in their transmembrane domains, which also carries their targeting information. In addition, some carriers have cleavable presequences which are not essential for targeting, but have some other function before import. The cytosolic chaperones Hsc70 (heat-shock cognate 70) and Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) complex with carrier precursors and interact specifically with the Tom (translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane) 70 import receptor to promote import. We analysed how the presequences of the PiC (phosphate carrier) and CIC (citrate carrier) relate to the mechanisms of chaperone-mediated import. Deletion of the PiC presequence reduced the efficiency of import but, notably, not by causing aggregation. Instead, binding of the protein to Hsc70 was reduced, as well as the dependence on Hsc70 for import. Hsp90 binding and function in import was not greatly affected, but it could not entirely compensate for the lack of Hsc70 interaction. Deletion of the presequence from CIC was shown to cause its aggregation, but had little effect on the contribution to import of either Hsc70 or Hsp90. The presequence of PiC, but not that of CIC, conferred Hsc70 binding to dihydrofolate reductase fusion proteins. In comparison, OGC (oxoglutarate carrier) lacks a presequence and was more soluble, though it is still dependent on both Hsc70 and Hsp90. We propose that carrier presequences evolved to improve targeting competence by different mechanisms, depending on physical properties of the precursors in the cytosolic targeting environment.

  4. Effects of Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Fiber-Type Composition, Mitochondrial Biogenesis, and SIRT1 Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, Masataka; Nakano, Hiroshi; Radak, Zsolt; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2015-01-01

    It was hypothesized that nitric oxide synthases (NOS) regulated SIRT1 expression and lead to a corresponding changes of contractile and metabolic properties in skeletal muscle. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of long-term inhibition of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) on the fiber-type composition, metabolic regulators such as and silent information regulator of transcription 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and components of mitochondrial biogenesis in the soleus and plantaris muscles of rats. Rats were assigned to two groups: control and NOS inhibitor (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), ingested for 8 weeks in drinking water)-treated groups. The percentage of Type I fibers in the L-NAME group was significantly lower than that in the control group, and the percentage of Type IIA fibers was concomitantly higher in soleus muscle. In plantaris muscle, muscle fiber composition was not altered by L-NAME treatment. L-NAME treatment decreased the cytochrome C protein expression and activity of mitochondrial oxidative enzymes in the plantaris muscle but not in soleus muscle. NOS inhibition reduced the SIRT1 protein expression level in both the soleus and plantaris muscles, whereas it did not affect the PGC-1α protein expression. L-NAME treatment also reduced the glucose transporter 4 protein expression in both muscles. These results suggest that NOS plays a role in maintaining SIRT1 protein expression, muscle fiber composition and components of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Key points NOS inhibition by L-NAME treatment decreased the SIRT1 protein expression in skeletal muscle. NOS inhibition induced the Type I to Type IIA fiber type transformation in soleus muscle. NOS inhibition reduced the components of mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. PMID:26336341

  5. Decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and function contribute to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress in fetal lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, Adeleye J; Eis, Annie; Alexander, Maxwell; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Teng, Ru-Jeng; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Konduri, Girija G

    2016-01-01

    Impaired vasodilation in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated the hypothesis that a decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase level leads to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function in a lamb model of PPHN induced by prenatal ductus arteriosus constriction. We ventilated PPHN lambs with 100% O2 alone or with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). We treated pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from normal and PPHN lambs with detaNONOate, an NO donor. We observed decreased mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number, electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunit levels, and ATP levels in PAECs and lung tissue of PPHN fetal lambs at baseline compared with gestation matched controls. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and sirtuin-1, which facilitate mitochondrial biogenesis, were decreased in PPHN. Ventilation with 100% O2 was associated with larger decreases in ETC subunits in the lungs of PPHN lambs compared with unventilated PPHN lambs. iNO administration, which facilitated weaning of FiO2 , partly restored mtDNA copy number, ETC subunit levels, and ATP levels. DetaNONOate increased eNOS phosphorylation and its interaction with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90); increased levels of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) mRNA, protein, and activity; and decreased the mitochondrial superoxide levels in PPHN-PAECs. Knockdown of eNOS decreased ETC protein levels in control PAECs. We conclude that ventilation with 100% O2 amplifies oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in PPHN, which are partly improved by iNO and weaning of oxygen. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Sirtuin 3, a New Target of PGC-1α, Plays an Important Role in the Suppression of ROS and Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xingxing; Wang, Rui; Xue, Yuan; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Huabing; Chen, Yong; Fang, Fude; Chang, Yongsheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is one of the seven mammalian sirtuins, which are homologs of the yeast Sir2 gene. SIRT3 is the only sirtuin with a reported association with the human life span. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) plays important roles in adaptive thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. PGC-1α induces several key reactive oxygen species (ROS)-detoxifying enzymes, but the molecular mechanism underlying this is not well understood. Results Here we show that PGC-1α strongly stimulated mouse Sirt3 gene expression in muscle cells and hepatocytes. Knockdown of PGC-1α led to decreased Sirt3 gene expression. PGC-1α activated the mouse SIRT3 promoter, which was mediated by an estrogen-related receptor (ERR) binding element (ERRE) (−407/−399) mapped to the promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that ERRα bound to the identified ERRE and PGC-1α co-localized with ERRα in the mSirt3 promoter. Knockdown of ERRα reduced the induction of Sirt3 by PGC-1α in C2C12 myotubes. Furthermore, Sirt3 was essential for PGC-1α-dependent induction of ROS-detoxifying enzymes and several components of the respiratory chain, including glutathione peroxidase-1, superoxide dismutase 2, ATP synthase 5c, and cytochrome c. Overexpression of SIRT3 or PGC-1α in C2C12 myotubes decreased basal ROS level. In contrast, knockdown of mSIRT3 increased basal ROS level and blocked the inhibitory effect of PGC-1α on cellular ROS production. Finally, SIRT3 stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis, and SIRT3 knockdown decreased the stimulatory effect of PGC-1α on mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes. Conclusion Our results indicate that Sirt3 functions as a downstream target gene of PGC-1α and mediates the PGC-1α effects on cellular ROS production and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, SIRT3 integrates cellular energy metabolism and ROS generation. The

  7. Maturation of the unusual single-cysteine (XXXCH) mitochondrial c-type cytochromes found in trypanosomatids must occur through a novel biogenesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James W. A.; Ginger, Michael L.; Ferguson, Stuart J.

    2004-01-01

    The c-type cytochromes are characterized by the covalent attachment of haem to the polypeptide via thioether bonds formed from haem vinyl groups and, normally, the thiols of two cysteines in a CXXCH motif. Intriguingly, the mitochondrial cytochromes c and c1 from two euglenids and the Trypanosomatidae contain only a single cysteine within the haem-binding motif (XXXCH). There are three known distinct pathways by which c-type cytochromes are matured post-translationally in different organisms. The absence of genes encoding any of these c-type cytochrome biogenesis machineries is established here by analysis of six trypanosomatid genomes, and correlates with the presence of single-cysteine cytochromes c and c1. In contrast, we have identified a comprehensive catalogue of proteins required for a typical mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation apparatus. Neither spontaneous nor catalysed maturation of the single-cysteine Trypanosoma brucei cytochrome c occurred in Escherichia coli. However, a CXXCH variant was matured by the E. coli cytochrome c maturation machinery, confirming the proposed requirement of the latter for two cysteines in the haem-binding motif and indicating that T. brucei cytochrome c can accommodate a second cysteine in a CXXCH motif. The single-cysteine haem attachment conserved in cytochromes c and c1 of the trypanosomatids is suggested to be related to their cytochrome c maturation machinery, and the environment in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Our genomic and biochemical studies provide very persuasive evidence that the trypanosomatid mitochondrial cytochromes c are matured by a novel biogenesis system. PMID:15500440

  8. Medium-chain TAG improve energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the liver of intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Hou, Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that medium-chain TAG (MCT) could alleviate hepatic oxidative damage in weanling piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). There is a relationship between oxidative status and energy metabolism, a process involved in substrate availability and glucose flux. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IUGR and MCT on hepatic energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets. Twenty-four IUGR piglets and twenty-four normal-birth-weight (NBW) piglets were fed a diet of either soyabean oil (SO) or MCT from 21 d of postnatal age to 49 d of postnatal age. Then, the piglets' biochemical parameters and gene expressions related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were determined (n 4). Compared with NBW, IUGR decreased the ATP contents and succinate oxidation rates in the liver of piglets, and reduced hepatic mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS) activity (P<0·05). IUGR piglets exhibited reductions in hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents and gene expressions related to mitochondrial biogenesis compared with NBW piglets (P<0·05). The MCT diet increased plasma ghrelin concentration and hepatic CS and succinate dehydrogenase activities, but decreased hepatic pyruvate kinase activity compared with the SO diet (P<0·05). The MCT-fed piglets showed improved mtDNA contents and PPARγ coactivator-1α expression in the liver (P<0·05). The MCT diet alleviated decreased mRNA abundance of the hepatic PPARα induced by IUGR (P<0·05). It can therefore be postulated that MCT may have beneficial effects in improving energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets.

  9. Ononitol monohydrate enhances PRDM16 & UCP-1 expression, mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin sensitivity via STAT6 and LTB4R in maturing adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Subash-Babu, P; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2018-03-01

    Ononitol monohydrate (OMH), a glycoside was originally isolated from Cassia tora (Linn.). Glycosides regulate lipid metabolism but scientific validation desired. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the effect of OMH on enhancing mitochondrial potential, mitochondrial biogenesis, upregulate the expression of brown adipogenesis specific genes in maturing adipocytes. In addition, we observed the inter-relation between adipocyte and T-lymphocyte; whether, OMH treated adipocyte-condition medium stimulate T-cell chemokine linked with insulin resistance. In a dose dependent manner OMH treated to preadipocyte significantly inhibited maturation and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, it was confirmed by Oil red 'O and Nile red stain without inducing cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of adipocyte browning related genes such as, PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARγC1α) and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) have been significantly upregulated. In addition, adipogenic transcription factors [such as proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)] and adipogenic genes were significantly down-regulated by treatment with OMH when compared to control cells. Protein expression levels of adiponectin have been increased; leptin, C/EBPα and leukotriene B4 receptor (LTB4R) were down regulated by OMH in mature adipocytes. In addition, adipocyte condition medium and OMH treated T-lymphocyte, significantly increased insulin signaling pathway related mRNAs, such as interlukin-4 (IL-4), signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT 6 ) and decreased leukotriene B4 (LTB 4 ). The present findings suggest that OMH increased browning factors in differentiating and maturing preadipocyte also decreased adipose tissue inflammation as well as the enhanced insulin signaling. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Elevated PGC-1α activity sustains mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle function without extending survival in a mouse model of inherited ALS.

    PubMed

    Da Cruz, Sandrine; Parone, Philippe A; Lopes, Vanda S; Lillo, Concepción; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Lee, Sandra K; Vetto, Anne P; Petrosyan, Susanna; Marsala, Martin; Murphy, Anne N; Williams, David S; Spiegelman, Bruce M; Cleveland, Don W

    2012-05-02

    The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α induces multiple effects on muscle, including increased mitochondrial mass and activity. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal, adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective loss of motor neurons and skeletal muscle degeneration. An early event is thought to be denervation-induced muscle atrophy accompanied by alterations in mitochondrial activity and morphology within muscle. We now report that elevation of PGC-1α levels in muscles of mice that develop fatal paralysis from an ALS-causing SOD1 mutant elevates PGC-1α-dependent pathways throughout disease course. Mitochondrial biogenesis and activity are maintained through end-stage disease, accompanied by retention of muscle function, delayed muscle atrophy, and significantly improved muscle endurance even at late disease stages. However, survival was not extended. Therefore, muscle is not a primary target of mutant SOD1-mediated toxicity, but drugs increasing PGC-1α activity in muscle represent an attractive therapy for maintaining muscle function during progression of ALS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Posttranslational modification of mitochondrial transcription factor A in impaired mitochondria biogenesis: implications in diabetic retinopathy and metabolic memory phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Santos, Julia M; Mishra, Manish; Kowluru, Renu A

    2014-04-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is one of the key regulators of the transcription of mtDNA. In diabetes, despite increase in gene transcripts of TFAM, its protein levels in the mitochondria are decreased and mitochondria copy numbers become subnormal. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for decreased mitochondrial TFAM in diabetes. Using retinal endothelial cells, we have investigated the effect of overexpression of cytosolic chaperone, Hsp70, and TFAM on glucose-induced decrease in mitochondrial TFAM levels, and the transcription of mtDNA-encoded genes, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and cytochrome b (Cytb). To investigate the role of posttranslational modifications in subnormal mitochondrial TFAM, ubiquitination of TFAM was assessed, and the results were confirmed in the retina from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. While overexpression of Hsp70 failed to prevent glucose-induced decrease in mitochondrial TFAM and transcripts of ND6 and Cytb, overexpression of TFAM ameliorated decrease in its mitochondrial protein levels and transcriptional activity. TFAM was ubiquitinated by high glucose, and PYR-41, an inhibitor of ubiquitination, prevented TFAM ubiquitination and restored the transcriptional activity. Similarly, TFAM was ubiquitinated in the retina from diabetic rats, and it continued to be modified after reinstitution of normal glycemia. Our results clearly imply that the ubiquitination of TFAM impedes its transport to the mitochondria resulting in subnormal mtDNA transcription and mitochondria dysfunction, and inhibition of ubiquitination restores mitochondrial homeostasis. Reversal of hyperglycemia does not provide any benefit to TFAM ubiquitination. Thus, strategies targeting posttranslational modification could provide an avenue to preserve mitochondrial homeostasis, and inhibit the development/progression of diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A trypanosomal orthologue of an intermembrane space chaperone has a non-canonical function in biogenesis of the single mitochondrial inner membrane protein translocase.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Christoph; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Warscheid, Bettina; Schneider, André; Harsman, Anke

    2017-08-01

    Mitochondrial protein import is essential for Trypanosoma brucei across its life cycle and mediated by membrane-embedded heterooligomeric protein complexes, which mainly consist of trypanosomatid-specific subunits. However, trypanosomes contain orthologues of small Tim chaperones that escort hydrophobic proteins across the intermembrane space. Here we have experimentally analyzed three novel trypanosomal small Tim proteins, one of which contains only an incomplete Cx3C motif. RNAi-mediated ablation of TbERV1 shows that their import, as in other organisms, depends on the MIA pathway. Submitochondrial fractionation combined with immunoprecipitation and BN-PAGE reveals two pools of small Tim proteins: a soluble fraction forming 70 kDa complexes, consistent with hexamers and a second fraction that is tightly associated with the single trypanosomal TIM complex. RNAi-mediated ablation of the three proteins leads to a growth arrest and inhibits the formation of the TIM complex. In line with these findings, the changes in the mitochondrial proteome induced by ablation of one small Tim phenocopy the effects observed after ablation of TbTim17. Thus, the trypanosomal small Tims play an unexpected and essential role in the biogenesis of the single TIM complex, which for one of them is not linked to import of TbTim17.

  13. Resveratrol and the mitochondria: From triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway to inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, a mechanistic view.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Manayi, Azadeh; Daglia, Maria; Hajheydari, Zohreh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, are known as a cross-road of different cellular signaling pathways. These cytoplasmic double-membraned organelles play a pivotal role in energy metabolism and regulate calcium flux in the cells. It is well known that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with different diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer. A growing body of literature has shown that polyphenolic compounds exert direct effects on mitochondrial ultra-structure and function. Resveratrol is known as one of the most common bioactive constituents of red wine, which improves mitochondrial functions under in vitro and in vivo conditions. This paper aims to review the molecular pathways underlying the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial structure and functions. In addition, we discuss the chemistry and main sources of resveratrol. Resveratrol represents the promising effects on mitochondria in different experimental models. However, there are several reports on the detrimental effects elicited by resveratrol on mitochondria. An understanding of the chemistry and source of resveratrol, its bioavailability and the promising effects on mitochondria brings a new hope to therapy of mitochondrial dysfunction-related diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quercetin attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and biogenesis via upregulated AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway in OA rats.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Linan; Luo, Yuju; Chen, Xiaojuan

    2018-07-01

    Despite the severity of osteoarthritis (OA), current medical therapy strategies for OA aim at symptom control and pain reduction, as there is no ideal drug for effective OA treatment. OA rat model was used to explore the therapeutic function of quercetin on remission of OA, by determining the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial function and extracellular matrix integrity. Quercetin could attenuate ROS generation and augment the glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression levels in OA rat. Quercetin not only enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in mitochondria, but also increased the mitochondrial copy number. Furthermore, the interlukin (IL)-1β-induced accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), matrixmetalloproteinase (MMP)-3) and MMP-13 could be suppressed by quercetin. Finally, we confirmed that the therapeutic properties of quercetin on OA might function through the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/sirtuin 1 (AMPK/SIRT1) signaling pathway. In summary, quercetin could alleviate OA through attenuating the ROS levels, reversing the mitochondrial dysfunction and keeping the integrality of extracellular matrix of joint cartilage. The underlying mechanism might involve the regulation of AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrete mitochondrial aberrations in the spinal cord of sporadic ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Delic, Vedad; Kurien, Crupa; Cruz, Josean; Zivkovic, Sandra; Barretta, Jennifer; Thomson, Avery; Hennessey, Daniel; Joseph, Jaheem; Ehrhart, Jared; Willing, Alison E; Bradshaw, Patrick; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana

    2018-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord leading to muscle atrophy, paralysis, and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to motor neuron degeneration associated with ALS progression. Mitochondrial abnormalities have been determined in spinal cords of animal disease models and ALS patients. However, molecular mechanisms leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in sporadic ALS (sALS) patients remain unclear. Also, segmental or regional variation in mitochondrial activity in the spinal cord has not been extensively examined in ALS. In our study, the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex IV was examined in post-mortem gray and white matter of the cervical and lumbar spinal cords from male and female sALS patients and controls. Mitochondrial distribution and density in spinal cord motor neurons, lateral funiculus, and capillaries in gray and white matter were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that complex IV activity was significantly decreased only in gray matter in both cervical and lumbar spinal cords from ALS patients. In ALS cervical and lumbar spinal cords, significantly increased mitochondrial density and altered distribution were observed in motor neurons, lateral funiculus, and cervical white matter capillaries. Discrete decreased complex IV activity in addition to changes in mitochondria distribution and density determined in the spinal cord in sALS patients are novel findings. These explicit mitochondrial defects in the spinal cord may contribute to ALS pathogenesis and should be considered in development of therapeutic approaches for this disease. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Deficient mitochondrial biogenesis in IL-2 activated NK cells correlates with impaired PGC1-α upregulation in elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Dante; Jara, Claudia; Mejias, Sophia; Ahumada, Viviana; Cortez-San Martin, Marcelo; Ibañez, Jorge; Hirsch, Sandra; Montoya, Margarita

    2018-05-18

    Immunosenescence has been described as age-associated changes in the immune function which are thought to be responsible for the increased morbidity with age. Human Natural Killer (NK) cells are a specialized heterogeneous subpopulation of lymphocytes involved in immune defense against tumor and microbial diseases. Interestingly, aging-related NK cell dysfunction is associated with features of aging such as tumor incidence, reduced vaccination efficacy, and short survival due to infection. It is known that NK cell effector functions are critically dependent on cytokines and metabolic activity. Our aim was to determine whether there is a difference in purified human NK cell function in response to high concentration of IL-2 between young and elder donors. Here, we report that the stimulation of human NK cells with IL-2 (2000 U/mL) enhance NK cell cytotoxic activity from both young and elderly donors. However, while NK cells from young people responded to IL-2 signaling by increasing mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial membrane potential, no increase in these mitochondrial functional parameters was seen in purified NK cells from elderly subjects. Moreover, as purified NK cells from the young exhibited an almost three-fold increase in PGC-1α expression after IL-2 (2000 U/mL) stimulation, PGC-1α expression was inhibited in purified NK cells from elders. Furthermore, this response upon PGC-1α expression after IL-2 stimulation promoted an increase in ROS production in NK cells from elderly humans, while no increase in ROS production was observed in NK cells of young donors. Our data show that IL-2 stimulates NK cell effector function through a signaling pathway which involves a PGC-1α-dependent mitochondrial function in young NK cells, however it seems that NK cells from older donors exhibit an altered IL-2 signaling which affects mitochondrial function associated with an increased production of ROS which could represent a feature of NK cell senescence

  17. Purple sweet potato color attenuates domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits by promoting estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Recent findings suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of domoic acid-induced neurodegeneration. Purple sweet potato color, a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, has beneficial health and biological effects. Recent studies have also shown that anthocyanins have estrogenic activity and can enhance estrogen receptor-α expression. In this study, we evaluated the effect of purple sweet potato color on cognitive deficits induced by hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction in domoic acid-treated mice and explored the potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Our results showed that the oral administration of purple sweet potato color to domoic acid-treated mice significantly improved their behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and a Morris water maze task. These improvements were mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of estrogen receptor-α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and by decreases in the expression of p47phox and gp91phox. Decreases in reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation were also observed, along with a blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Furthermore, purple sweet potato color significantly suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis, which prevented neuron loss and restored the expression of memory-related proteins. However, knockdown of estrogen receptor-α using short hairpin RNA only partially blocked the neuroprotective effects of purple sweet potato color in the hippocampus of mice cotreated with purple sweet potato color and domoic acid, indicating that purple sweet potato color acts through multiple pathways. These results suggest that purple sweet potato color could be a possible candidate for the prevention and treatment of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic and other brain disorders. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-regulation of nuclear respiratory factor-1 by NFκB and CREB links LPS-induced inflammation to mitochondrial biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Suliman, Hagir B.; Sweeney, Timothy E.; Withers, Crystal M.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) gene is activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which might reflect TLR4-mediated mitigation of cellular inflammatory damage via initiation of mitochondrial biogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we examined NRF1 promoter regulation by NFκB, and identified interspecies-conserved κB-responsive promoter and intronic elements in the NRF1 locus. In mice, activation of Nrf1 and its downstream target, Tfam, by Escherichia coli was contingent on NFκB, and in LPS-treated hepatocytes, NFκB served as an NRF1 enhancer element in conjunction with NFκB promoter binding. Unexpectedly, optimal NRF1 promoter activity after LPS also required binding by the energy-state-dependent transcription factor CREB. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed p65 and CREB binding to the NRF1 promoter and p65 binding to intron 1. Functionality for both transcription factors was validated by gene-knockdown studies. LPS regulation of NRF1 led to mtDNA-encoded gene expression and expansion of mtDNA copy number. In cells expressing plasmid constructs containing the NRF-1 promoter and GFP, LPS-dependent reporter activity was abolished by cis-acting κB-element mutations, and nuclear accumulation of NFκB and CREB demonstrated dependence on mitochondrial H2O2. These findings indicate that TLR4-dependent NFκB and CREB activation co-regulate the NRF1 promoter with NFκB intronic enhancement and redox-regulated nuclear translocation, leading to downstream target-gene expression, and identify NRF-1 as an early-phase component of the host antibacterial defenses. PMID:20587593

  19. Requirement of FADD, NEMO, and BAX/BAK for Aberrant Mitochondrial Function in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Necrosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Irrinki, Krishna M.; Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Thapa, Roshan J.; Chandramoorthy, Harish C.; Smith, Frank J.; Jog, Neelakshi R.; Gandhirajan, Rajesh Kumar; Kelsen, Steven G.; Houser, Steven R.; May, Michael J.; Balachandran, Siddharth; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2011-01-01

    Necroptosis represents a form of alternative programmed cell death that is dependent on the kinase RIP1. RIP1-dependent necroptotic death manifests as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria and is accompanied by loss of ATP biogenesis and eventual dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Here, we show that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced necroptosis requires the adaptor proteins FADD and NEMO. FADD was found to mediate formation of the TNF-α-induced pronecrotic RIP1-RIP3 kinase complex, whereas the IκB Kinase (IKK) subunit NEMO appears to function downstream of RIP1-RIP3. Interestingly, loss of RelA potentiated TNF-α-dependent necroptosis, indicating that NEMO regulates necroptosis independently of NF-κB. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that the overexpression of antioxidants alleviates ROS elevation and necroptosis. Finally, elimination of BAX and BAK or overexpression of Bcl-xL protects cells from necroptosis at a later step. These findings provide evidence that mitochondria play an amplifying role in inflammation-induced necroptosis. PMID:21746883

  20. Acetyl-L-carnitine activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivators PGC-1α/PGC-1β-dependent signaling cascade of mitochondrial biogenesis and decreases the oxidized peroxiredoxins content in old rat liver.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Vito; Nicassio, Luigi; Fracasso, Flavio; Musicco, Clara; Cantatore, Palmiro; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola

    2012-04-01

    The behavior of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivators PGC-1α/PGC-β-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway, as well as the level of some antioxidant enzymes and proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics in the liver of old rats before and after 2 months of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) supplementation, was tested. The results reveal that ALCAR treatment is able to reverse the age-associated decline of PGC-1α, PGC-1β, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV) protein levels, of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and of citrate synthase activity. Moreover, it partially reverses the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) decline and reduces the cellular content of oxidized peroxiredoxins. These data demonstrate that ALCAR treatment is able to promote in the old rat liver a new mitochondrial population that can contribute to the cellular oxidative stress reduction. Furthermore, a remarkable decline of Drp1 and of Mfn2 proteins is reported here for the first time, suggesting a reduced mitochondrial dynamics in aging liver with no effect of ALCAR treatment.

  1. Pyruvate kinase M knockdown-induced signaling via AMP-activated protein kinase promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy, and cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Prakasam, Gopinath; Singh, Rajnish Kumar; Iqbal, Mohammad Askandar; Saini, Sunil Kumar; Tiku, Ashu Bhan; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2017-09-15

    Preferential expression of the low-activity (dimeric) M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PK) over its constitutively active splice variant M1 isoform is considered critical for aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. However, our results reported here indicate co-expression of PKM1 and PKM2 and their possible physical interaction in cancer cells. We show that knockdown of either PKM1 or PKM2 differentially affects net PK activity, viability, and cellular ATP levels of the lung carcinoma cell lines H1299 and A549. The stable knockdown of PK isoforms in A549 cells significantly reduced the cellular ATP level, whereas in H1299 cells the level of ATP was unaltered. Interestingly, the PKM1/2 knockdown in H1299 cells activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy to maintain energy homeostasis. In contrast, knocking down either of the PKM isoforms in A549 cells lacking LKB1, a serine/threonine protein kinase upstream of AMPK, failed to activate AMPK and sustain energy homeostasis and resulted in apoptosis. Moreover, in a similar genetic background of silenced PKM1 or PKM2, the knocking down of AMPKα1/2 catalytic subunit in H1299 cells induced apoptosis. Our findings help explain why previous targeting of PKM2 in cancer cells to control tumor growth has not met with the expected success. We suggest that this lack of success is because of AMPK-mediated energy metabolism rewiring, protecting cancer cell viability. On the basis of our observations, we propose an alternative therapeutic strategy of silencing either of the PKM isoforms along with AMPK in tumors. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in plasma and decreased mRNA expression of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, anti-oxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins and glycolytic enzymes in leucocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, H-T; Lin, C-S; Lee, C-S; Tsai, C-Y; Wei, Y-H

    2014-04-01

    We measured plasma levels of the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and leucocyte mRNA expression levels of the genes encoding the 8-OHdG repair enzyme human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), the anti-oxidant enzymes copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), GPx-4, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione synthetase (GS), the mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins mtDNA-encoded ND 1 polypeptide (ND1), ND6, ATPase 6, mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), nuclear respiratory factor 1(NRF-1), pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component alpha subunit (PDHA1), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 1 (PDK-1) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase-II (HK-II), glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphofructokinase (PFK), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHa). We analysed their relevance to oxidative damage in 85 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, four complicated SLE patients undergoing rituximab treatment and 45 healthy individuals. SLE patients had higher plasma 8-OHdG levels (P < 0·01) but lower leucocyte expression of the genes encoding hOGG1(P < 0·01), anti-oxidant enzymes (P < 0·05), mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (P < 0·05) and glycolytic enzymes (P < 0·05) than healthy individuals. The increase in plasma 8-OHdG was correlated positively with the elevation of leucocyte expression of the genes encoding hOGG1 (P < 0·05), anti-oxidant enzymes (P < 0·05), several mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (P < 0·05) and glycolytic enzymes (P < 0·05) in lupus patients. The patients, whose leucocyte mtDNA harboured D310 heteroplasmy, exhibited a positive correlation between the mtDNA copy number and expression of ND1, ND6 and ATPase 6 (P < 0·05) and a negative correlation between mt

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY - BIOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesisSM soil washing technology was developed by BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. to remove organic compounds from soil. The technology uses a proprietary solution (BioGenesisSM cleaner) to transfer organic compounds from the soil matrix to a liquid phase. BioGenesis claims...

  4. Defects of mtDNA Replication Impaired Mitochondrial Biogenesis During Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Human Cardiomyocytes and Chagasic Patients: The Role of Nrf1/2 and Antioxidant Response

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xianxiu; Gupta, Shivali; Zago, Maria P.; Davidson, Mercy M.; Dousset, Pierre; Amoroso, Alejandro; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key determinant in chagasic cardiomyopathy development in mice; however, its relevance in human Chagas disease is not known. We determined if defects in mitochondrial biogenesis and dysregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator-1 (PGC-1)–regulated transcriptional pathways constitute a mechanism or mechanisms underlying mitochondrial oxidative-phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiency in human Chagas disease. Methods and Results We utilized human cardiomyocytes and left-ventricular tissue from chagasic and other cardiomyopathy patients and healthy donors (n>6/group). We noted no change in citrate synthase activity, yet mRNA and/or protein levels of subunits of the respiratory complexes were significantly decreased in Trypanosoma cruzi–infected cardiomyocytes (0 to 24 hours) and chagasic hearts. We observed increased mRNA and decreased nuclear localization of PGC-1-coactivated transcription factors, yet the expression of genes for PPARγ-regulated fatty acid oxidation and nuclear respiratory factor (NRF1/2)–regulated mtDNA replication and transcription machinery was enhanced in infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts. The D-loop formation was normal or higher, but mtDNA replication and mtDNA content were decreased by 83% and 40% to 65%, respectively. Subsequently, we noted that reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, and mtDNA oxidation were significantly increased, yet NRF1/2-regulated antioxidant gene expression remained compromised in infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts. Conclusions The replication of mtDNA was severely compromised, resulting in a significant loss of mtDNA and expression of OXPHOS genes in T cruzi–infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts. Our data suggest increased ROS generation and selective functional incapacity of NRF2-mediated antioxidant gene expression played a role in the defects in mtDNA replication and unfitness of mtDNA for

  5. Barth Syndrome: From Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Associated with Aberrant Production of Reactive Oxygen Species to Pluripotent Stem Cell Studies

    PubMed Central

    Saric, Ana; Andreau, Karine; Armand, Anne-Sophie; Møller, Ian M.; Petit, Patrice X.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme tafazzin, TAZ, cause Barth syndrome (BTHS). Individuals with this X-linked multisystem disorder present cardiomyopathy (CM) (often dilated), skeletal muscle weakness, neutropenia, growth retardation, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Biopsies of the heart, liver and skeletal muscle of patients have revealed mitochondrial malformations and dysfunctions. It is the purpose of this review to summarize recent results of studies on various animal or cell models of Barth syndrome, which have characterized biochemically the strong cellular defects associated with TAZ mutations. Tafazzin is a mitochondrial phospholipidlysophospholipid transacylase that shuttles acyl groups between phospholipids and regulates the remodeling of cardiolipin (CL), a unique inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid dimer consisting of two phosphatidyl residues linked by a glycerol bridge. After their biosynthesis, the acyl chains of CLs may be modified in remodeling processes involving up to three different enzymes. Their characteristic acyl chain composition depends on the function of tafazzin, although the enzyme itself surprisingly lacks acyl specificity. CLs are crucial for correct mitochondrial structure and function. In addition to their function in the basic mitochondrial function of ATP production, CLs play essential roles in cardiac function, apoptosis, autophagy, cell cycle regulation and Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. Recent developments in tafazzin research have provided strong insights into the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important tool has been the generation of BTHS-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from BTHS patients. In a complementary approach, disease-specific mutations have been introduced into wild-type iPSC lines enabling direct comparison with isogenic controls. iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes were then characterized using biochemical and classical bioenergetic

  6. Multi-focal control of mitochondrial gene expression by oncogenic MYC provides potential therapeutic targets in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oran, Amanda R.; Adams, Clare M.; Zhang, Xiao-yong; Gennaro, Victoria J.; Pfeiffer, Harla K.; Mellert, Hestia S.; Seidel, Hans E.; Mascioli, Kirsten; Kaplan, Jordan; Gaballa, Mahmoud R.; Shen, Chen; Rigoutsos, Isidore; King, Michael P.; Cotney, Justin L.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Sharma, Suresh D.; Martinez, Ubaldo E.; Vakoc, Christopher R.; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Thompson, James E.; Bradner, James E.; Cameron, Craig E.; Shadel, Gerald S.; Eischen, Christine M.; McMahon, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite ubiquitous activation in human cancer, essential downstream effector pathways of the MYC transcription factor have been difficult to define and target. Using a structure/function-based approach, we identified the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT) locus as a critical downstream target of MYC. The multifunctional POLRMT enzyme controls mitochondrial gene expression, a process required both for mitochondrial function and mitochondrial biogenesis. We further demonstrate that inhibition of this newly defined MYC effector pathway causes robust and selective tumor cell apoptosis, via an acute, checkpoint-like mechanism linked to aberrant electron transport chain complex assembly and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fortuitously, MYC-dependent tumor cell death can be induced by inhibiting the mitochondrial gene expression pathway using a variety of strategies, including treatment with FDA-approved antibiotics. In vivo studies using a mouse model of Burkitt's Lymphoma provide pre-clinical evidence that these antibiotics can successfully block progression of MYC-dependent tumors. PMID:27590350

  7. Multi-focal control of mitochondrial gene expression by oncogenic MYC provides potential therapeutic targets in cancer.

    PubMed

    Oran, Amanda R; Adams, Clare M; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Gennaro, Victoria J; Pfeiffer, Harla K; Mellert, Hestia S; Seidel, Hans E; Mascioli, Kirsten; Kaplan, Jordan; Gaballa, Mahmoud R; Shen, Chen; Rigoutsos, Isidore; King, Michael P; Cotney, Justin L; Arnold, Jamie J; Sharma, Suresh D; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Vakoc, Christopher R; Chodosh, Lewis A; Thompson, James E; Bradner, James E; Cameron, Craig E; Shadel, Gerald S; Eischen, Christine M; McMahon, Steven B

    2016-11-08

    Despite ubiquitous activation in human cancer, essential downstream effector pathways of the MYC transcription factor have been difficult to define and target. Using a structure/function-based approach, we identified the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT) locus as a critical downstream target of MYC. The multifunctional POLRMT enzyme controls mitochondrial gene expression, a process required both for mitochondrial function and mitochondrial biogenesis. We further demonstrate that inhibition of this newly defined MYC effector pathway causes robust and selective tumor cell apoptosis, via an acute, checkpoint-like mechanism linked to aberrant electron transport chain complex assembly and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fortuitously, MYC-dependent tumor cell death can be induced by inhibiting the mitochondrial gene expression pathway using a variety of strategies, including treatment with FDA-approved antibiotics. In vivo studies using a mouse model of Burkitt's Lymphoma provide pre-clinical evidence that these antibiotics can successfully block progression of MYC-dependent tumors.

  8. A Time to Reap, a Time to Sow: Mitophagy and Biogenesis in Cardiac Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Allen M.; Stotland, Aleksandr; Queliconi, Bruno B.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for maintaining a healthy population of mitochondria and cellular homeostasis. Coordinated interplay between these two forces that govern mitochondrial turnover plays an important role as an adaptive response against various cellular stresses that can compromise cell survival. Failure to maintain the critical balance between mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis or homeostatic turnover of mitochondria results in a population of dysfunctional mitochondria that contribute to various disease processes. In this review we outline the mechanics and relationships between mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, and discuss the implications of a disrupted balance between these two forces, with an emphasis on cardiac physiology. PMID:25444712

  9. Mitochondrial-Associated Cell Death Mechanisms Are Reset to an Embryonic-Like State in Aged Donor-Derived iPS Cells Harboring Chromosomal Aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Prigione, Alessandro; Hossini, Amir M.; Lichtner, Björn; Serin, Akdes; Fauler, Beatrix; Megges, Matthias; Lurz, Rudi; Lehrach, Hans; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cells reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) acquire features of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and thus represent a promising source for cellular therapy of debilitating diseases, such as age-related disorders. However, reprogrammed cell lines have been found to harbor various genomic alterations. In addition, we recently discovered that the mitochondrial DNA of human fibroblasts also undergoes random mutational events upon reprogramming. Aged somatic cells might possess high susceptibility to nuclear and mitochondrial genome instability. Hence, concerns over the oncogenic potential of reprogrammed cells due to the lack of genomic integrity may hinder the applicability of iPSC-based therapies for age-associated conditions. Here, we investigated whether aged reprogrammed cells harboring chromosomal abnormalities show resistance to apoptotic cell death or mitochondrial-associated oxidative stress, both hallmarks of cancer transformation. Four iPSC lines were generated from dermal fibroblasts derived from an 84-year-old woman, representing the oldest human donor so far reprogrammed to pluripotency. Despite the presence of karyotype aberrations, all aged-iPSCs were able to differentiate into neurons, re-establish telomerase activity, and reconfigure mitochondrial ultra-structure and functionality to a hESC-like state. Importantly, aged-iPSCs exhibited high sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis and low levels of oxidative stress and DNA damage, in a similar fashion as iPSCs derived from young donors and hESCs. Thus, the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities within aged reprogrammed cells might not be sufficient to over-ride the cellular surveillance machinery and induce malignant transformation through the alteration of mitochondrial-associated cell death. Taken together, we unveiled that cellular reprogramming is capable of reversing aging-related features in somatic cells from a very old subject, despite the presence of genomic

  10. Mitochondrial dynamics and Parkinson's disease: focus on parkin.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kah-Leong; Ng, Xiao-Hui; Grace, Lim Gui-Yin; Yao, Tso-Pang

    2012-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Despite intensive efforts devoted to drug discovery, the disease remains incurable. To provide more effective medical therapy for PD, better understanding of the underlying causes of the disease is clearly necessary. A broad range of studies conducted over the past few decades have collectively implicated aberrant mitochondrial homeostasis as a key contributor to the development of PD. Supporting this, mutations in several PD-linked genes are directly or indirectly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In particular, recent discoveries have identified parkin, whose mutations are causative of recessive parkinsonism, as a key regulator of mitochondrial homeostasis. Parkin appears to be involved in the entire spectrum of mitochondrial dynamics, including organelle biogenesis, fusion/fission, and clearance via mitophagy. How a single protein can regulate such diverse mitochondrial events is as intriguing as it is amazing; the mechanism underlying this is currently under intense research. Here, we provide an overview of mitochondrial dynamics and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases and discuss current evidence and controversies surrounding the role of parkin in mitochondrial quality control and its relevance to PD pathogenesis. Although the emerging field of parkin-mediated mitochondrial quality control has proven to be exciting, it is important to recognize that PD pathogenesis is likely to involve an intricate network of interacting pathways. Elucidating the reciprocity of pathways, particularly how other PD-related pathways potentially influence mitochondrial homeostasis, may hold the key to therapeutic development.

  11. Acute β-Hydroxy-β-Methyl Butyrate Suppresses Regulators of Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Lipid Oxidation While Increasing Lipid Content in Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Schnuck, Jamie K; Johnson, Michele A; Gould, Lacey M; Gannon, Nicholas P; Vaughan, Roger A

    2016-10-01

    Leucine modulates synthetic and degradative pathways in muscle, possibly providing metabolic benefits for both athletes and diseased populations. Leucine has become popular among athletes for improving performance and body composition, however little is known about the metabolic effects of the commonly consumed leucine-derived metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB). Our work measured the effects of HMB on metabolic protein expression, mitochondrial content and metabolism, as well as lipid content in skeletal muscle cells. Specifically, cultured C2C12 myotubes were treated with either a control or HMB ranging from 6.25 to 25 μM for 24 h and mRNA and/or protein expression, oxygen consumption, glucose uptake, and lipid content were measured. Contrary to leucine's stimulatory effect on metabolism, HMB-treated cells exhibited significantly reduced regulators of lipid oxidation including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and PPARβ/δ, as well as downstream target carnitine palmitoyl transferase, without alterations in glucose or palmitate oxidation. Furthermore, HMB significantly inhibited activation of the master regulator of energetics, AMP-activated protein kinase. As a result, HMB-treated cells also displayed reduced total mitochondrial content compared with true control or cells equivocally treated with leucine. Additionally, HMB treatment amplified markers of lipid biosynthesis (PPARγ and fatty acid synthase) as well as consistently promoted elevated total lipid content versus control cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that HMB did not improve mitochondrial metabolism or content, and may promote elevated cellular lipid content possibly through heightened PPARγ expression. These observations suggest that HMB may be most beneficial for populations interested in stimulating anabolic cellular processes.

  12. Aspirin may promote mitochondrial biogenesis via the production of hydrogen peroxide and the induction of Sirtuin1/PGC-1α genes

    PubMed Central

    Kamble, Pratibha; Selvarajan, Krithika; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Nandave, Mukesh; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2013-01-01

    Based on the rapid hydrolysis of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA, Aspirin) to salicylic acid (SA), the ability of SA to form dihydroxy benzoic acid (DBA), and the latter’s redox reactions to yield hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), we predicted that ASA may have the potential to induce Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) and its downstream effects. We observed that treatment of cultured liver cells with ASA resulted in the induction of Sirt1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1α (PGC-1α), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) genes. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) siRNA transfections inhibited the induction of gene expressions by ASA suggesting the need for the acetyl ester hydrolysis and hydroxylation to DHBA. The latter also induced Sirt1, confirming the proposed pathway. As predicted, ASA and SA treatment resulted in the production of H2O2, a known inducer of Sirt1 and confirmed in the current studies. More importantly, ASA treatment resulted in an increase in mitochondria as seen by tracking dyes. We suggest that DHBA, generated from ASA, via its oxidation/reduction reactions mediated by Nqo1 might be involved in the production of O2-. and H2O2. As Sirt1 and PGC-1α profoundly affect mitochondrial metabolism and energy utilization, ASA may have therapeutic potential beyond its ability to inhibit cyclooxygenases. PMID:23228932

  13. Piper retrofractum Vahl. Extract, as a PPARδ and AMPK Activator, Suppresses UVB-Induced Photoaging through Mitochondrial Biogenesis and MMPs Inhibition in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Photoaging occurs by UVB-irradiation and involves production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), leading to extracellular matrix damage. Piper retrofractum Vahl. is used as a traditional medicine for antiflatulence, expectorant, sedative, and anti-irritant; however, its antiphotoaging effect has not yet been studied. The current study investigated the antiphotoaging effect of standardized Piper retrofractum extract (PRE) on UVB-damaged human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mouse skin. PRE treatment activated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) and the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), consequently upregulating mitochondrial synthesis and reducing ROS production. Additionally, PRE inhibited MMPs expression via suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). PRE downregulated UVB-induced inflammatory reactions by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. PRE also enhanced transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and the Smad signaling pathway, thereby promoting procollagen gene transcription. Furthermore, oral administration of PRE (300 mg/kg/day) similarly regulated the signaling pathways and increased antioxidant enzyme expression, thus attenuating physiological deformations, such as wrinkle formation and erythema response. Collectively, these results suggest that PRE acts as a potent antiphotoaging agent via PPARδ and AMPK activation. PMID:29619069

  14. Piper retrofractum Vahl. Extract, as a PPARδ and AMPK Activator, Suppresses UVB-Induced Photoaging through Mitochondrial Biogenesis and MMPs Inhibition in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jungon; Kim, Changhee; Kim, Mi-Bo; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2018-01-01

    Photoaging occurs by UVB-irradiation and involves production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), leading to extracellular matrix damage. Piper retrofractum Vahl. is used as a traditional medicine for antiflatulence, expectorant, sedative, and anti-irritant; however, its antiphotoaging effect has not yet been studied. The current study investigated the antiphotoaging effect of standardized Piper retrofractum extract (PRE) on UVB-damaged human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mouse skin. PRE treatment activated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR δ ) and the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), consequently upregulating mitochondrial synthesis and reducing ROS production. Additionally, PRE inhibited MMPs expression via suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). PRE downregulated UVB-induced inflammatory reactions by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- κ B) activity. PRE also enhanced transforming growth factor-beta (TGF- β ) and the Smad signaling pathway, thereby promoting procollagen gene transcription. Furthermore, oral administration of PRE (300 mg/kg/day) similarly regulated the signaling pathways and increased antioxidant enzyme expression, thus attenuating physiological deformations, such as wrinkle formation and erythema response. Collectively, these results suggest that PRE acts as a potent antiphotoaging agent via PPAR δ and AMPK activation.

  15. Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Upregulates the Mitochondrial Transcription and Translation Machineries

    PubMed Central

    Weekes, M. P.; Antrobus, R.; Rorbach, J.; van Haute, L.; Umrania, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Minczuk, M.; Lehner, P. J.; Sinclair, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) profoundly affects cellular metabolism. Like in tumor cells, HCMV infection increases glycolysis, and glucose carbon is shifted from the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle to the biosynthesis of fatty acids. However, unlike in many tumor cells, where aerobic glycolysis is accompanied by suppression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, HCMV induces mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Here, we affinity purified mitochondria and used quantitative mass spectrometry to determine how the mitochondrial proteome changes upon HCMV infection. We found that the mitochondrial transcription and translation systems are induced early during the viral replication cycle. Specifically, proteins involved in biogenesis of the mitochondrial ribosome were highly upregulated by HCMV infection. Inhibition of mitochondrial translation with chloramphenicol or knockdown of HCMV-induced ribosome biogenesis factor MRM3 abolished the HCMV-mediated increase in mitochondrially encoded proteins and significantly impaired viral growth under bioenergetically restricting conditions. Our findings demonstrate how HCMV manipulates mitochondrial biogenesis to support its replication. PMID:27025248

  16. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  17. Inflexibility of AMPK-mediated metabolic reprogramming in mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dar-Shong; Kao, Shu-Huei; Ho, Che-Sheng; Wei, Yau-Huei; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Wu, Tsu-Yen; Wang, Tuan-Jen; Jian, Yuan-Ren; Lee, Tsung-Han; Chiang, Ming-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is most commonly caused by the A3243G mutation of mitochondrial DNA. The capacity to utilize fatty acid or glucose as a fuel source and how such dynamic switches of metabolic fuel preferences and transcriptional modulation of adaptive mechanism in response to energy deficiency in MELAS syndrome have not been fully elucidated. The fibroblasts from patients with MELAS syndrome demonstrated a remarkable deficiency of electron transport chain complexes I and IV, an impaired cellular biogenesis under glucose deprivation, and a decreased ATP synthesis. In situ analysis of the bioenergetic properties of MELAS cells demonstrated an attenuated fatty acid oxidation that concomitantly occurred with impaired mitochondrial respiration, while energy production was mostly dependent on glycolysis. Furthermore, the transcriptional modulation was mediated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, which activated its downstream modulators leading to a subsequent increase in glycolytic flux through activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In contrast, the activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase for fatty acid oxidation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 for fatty acid synthesis were reduced and transcriptional regulation factors for biogenesis were not altered. These results provide novel information that MELAS cells lack the adaptive mechanism to switch fuel source from glucose to fatty acid, as glycolysis rates increase in response to energy deficiency. The aberrant secondary cellular responses to disrupted metabolic homeostasis mediated by AMPK signaling pathway may contribute to the development of the clinical phenotype. PMID:29088732

  18. Dealing with an Unconventional Genetic Code in  Mitochondria: The Biogenesis and Pathogenic  Defects of the 5-Formylcytosine Modification in  Mitochondrial tRNAMet.

    PubMed

    Van Haute, Lindsey; Powell, Christopher A; Minczuk, Michal

    2017-03-02

    Human mitochondria contain their own genome, which uses an unconventional genetic code. In addition to the standard AUG methionine codon, the single mitochondrial tRNA Methionine (mt-tRNAMet) also recognises AUA during translation initiation and elongation. Post-transcriptional modifications of tRNAs are important for structure, stability, correct folding and aminoacylation as well as decoding. The unique 5-formylcytosine (f5C) modification of position 34 in mt-tRNAMet has been long postulated to be crucial for decoding of unconventional methionine codons and efficient mitochondrial translation. However, the enzymes responsible for the formation of mitochondrial f5C have been identified only recently. The first step of the f5C pathway consists of methylation of cytosine by NSUN3. This is followed by further oxidation by ABH1. Here, we review the role of f5C, the latest breakthroughs in our understanding of the biogenesis of this unique mitochondrial tRNA modification and its involvement in human disease.

  19. p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} deficiency induces mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ae Jeong; Jee, Hye Jin; Song, Naree

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells exhibited an increase in mitochondrial mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression levels of PGC-1{alpha} and AMPK were upregulated in p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proliferation of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells in galactose medium was significantly impaired. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 may play a role in maintaining proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function. -- Abstract: p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression. However, the role of p21 in mitochondrial function remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of p21 deficiency on mitochondrial function in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. We found thatmore » there was a significant increase in the mitochondrial mass of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells, as measured by 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange staining, as well as an increase in the mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, p53{sup -/-} cells had a mitochondrial mass comparable to that of wild-type HCT116 cells. In addition, the expression levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators PGC-1{alpha} and TFAM and AMPK activity were also elevated in p21{sup -/-} cells, indicating that p21 deficiency induces the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis through the AMPK-PGC-1{alpha} axis. However, the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in p21{sup -/-} cells did not accompany an increase in the cellular steady-state level of ATP. Furthermore, p21{sup -/-} cells exhibited significant proliferation impairment in galactose medium, suggesting that p21 deficiency induces a defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chain in HCT116 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of p21 results in an aberrant increase in the mitochondrial mass and in mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 cells, indicating that p21 is required to maintain proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function.« less

  20. Deletion of PRKAA triggers mitochondrial fission by inhibiting the autophagy-dependent degradation of DNM1L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilong; Wu, Shengnan; Zhu, Huaiping; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoyan; Ouyang, Changhan; Han, Young-Min; Xie, Zhonglin; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2017-02-01

    PRKAA (protein kinase, AMP-activated, α catalytic subunit) regulates mitochondrial biogenesis, function, and turnover. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PRKAA regulates mitochondrial dynamics remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that PRKAA regulated mitochondrial fission via the autophagy-dependent degradation of DNM1L (dynamin 1-like). Deletion of Prkaa1/AMPKα1 or Prkaa2/AMPKα2 resulted in defective autophagy, DNM1L accumulation, and aberrant mitochondrial fragmentation in the mouse aortic endothelium. Furthermore, autophagy inhibition by chloroquine treatment or ATG7 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, upregulated DNM1L expression and triggered DNM1L-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation. In contrast, autophagy activation by overexpression of ATG7 or chronic administration of rapamycin, the MTOR inhibitor, promoted DNM1L degradation and attenuated mitochondrial fragmentation in Prkaa2-deficient (prkaa2 -/- ) mice, suggesting that defective autophagy contributes to enhanced DNM1L expression and mitochondrial fragmentation. Additionally, the autophagic receptor protein SQSTM1/p62, which bound to DNM1L and led to its translocation into the autophagosome, was involved in DNM1L degradation by the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Gene silencing of SQSTM1 markedly reduced the association between SQSTM1 and DNM1L, impaired the degradation of DNM1L, and enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation in PRKAA-deficient endothelial cells. Finally, the genetic (DNM1L siRNA) or pharmacological (mdivi-1) inhibition of DNMA1L ablated mitochondrial fragmentation in the mouse aortic endothelium and prevented the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of isolated mouse aortas. This suggests that aberrant DNM1L is responsible for enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and endothelial dysfunction in prkaa knockout mice. Overall, our results show that PRKAA deletion promoted mitochondrial fragmentation in vascular endothelial cells by inhibiting the autophagy

  1. Molecular Genetics of Mitochondrial Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lee-Jun C.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disorders (RCDs) are a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous diseases because of the fact that protein components of the RC are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and are essential in all cells. In addition, the biogenesis, structure, and function of mitochondria, including DNA…

  2. Cholesterol and myelin biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Saher, Gesine; Simons, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Myelin consists of several layers of tightly compacted membranes wrapped around axons in the nervous system. The main function of myelin is to provide electrical insulation around the axon to ensure the rapid propagation of nerve conduction. As the myelinating glia terminally differentiates, they begin to produce myelin membranes on a remarkable scale. This membrane is unique in its composition being highly enriched in lipids, in particular galactosylceramide and cholesterol. In this review we will summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system.

  3. Peroxisome Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navneet; Reumann, Sigrun; Hu, Jianping

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisomes are small and single membrane-delimited organelles that execute numerous metabolic reactions and have pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In recent years, forward and reverse genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to identify many peroxisome proteins and elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, and further explores the contribution of large-scale analysis, such as in sillco predictions and proteomics, in augmenting our knowledge of peroxisome function In Arabidopsis. PMID:22303249

  4. PIKfyve regulates melanosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jahid, Sohail; Sasaki, Junko; Sasaki, Takehiko; Boissy, Raymond E.; Ganesan, Anand K.

    2018-01-01

    PIKfyve, VAC14, and FIG4 form a complex that catalyzes the production of PI(3,5)P2, a signaling lipid implicated in process ranging from lysosome maturation to neurodegeneration. While previous studies have identified VAC14 and FIG4 mutations that lead to both neurodegeneration and coat color defects, how PIKfyve regulates melanogenesis is unknown. In this study, we sought to better understand the role of PIKfyve in melanosome biogenesis. Melanocyte-specific PIKfyve knockout mice exhibit greying of the mouse coat and the accumulation of single membrane vesicle structures in melanocytes resembling multivesicular endosomes. PIKfyve inhibition blocks melanosome maturation, the processing of the melanosome protein PMEL, and the trafficking of the melanosome protein TYRP1. Taken together, these studies identify a novel role for PIKfyve in controlling the delivery of proteins from the endosomal compartment to the melanosome, a role that is distinct from the role of PIKfyve in the reformation of lysosomes from endolysosomes. PMID:29584722

  5. Integrating multiple aspects of mitochondrial dynamics in neurons: Age-related differences and dynamic changes in a chronic rotenone model

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Beth; Cassady, Steven J.; Van Laar, Victor S.; Berman, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in dynamic properties of mitochondria are increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinson’s disease (PD). Static changes in mitochondrial morphology, often under acutely toxic conditions, are commonly utilized as indicators of changes in mitochondrial fission and fusion. However, in neurons, mitochondrial fission and fusion occur in a dynamic system of axonal/dendritic transport, biogenesis and degradation, and thus, likely interact and change over time. We sought to explore this using a chronic neuronal model (nonlethal low-concentration rotenone over several weeks), examining distal neurites, which may give insight into the earliest changes occurring in PD. Using this model, in live primary neurons, we directly quantified mitochondrial fission, fusion, and transport over time and integrated multiple aspects of mitochondrial dynamics, including morphology and growth/mitophagy. We found that rates of mitochondrial fission and fusion change as neurons age. In addition, we found that chronic rotenone exposure initially increased the ratio of fusion to fission, but later, this was reversed. Surprisingly, despite changes in rates of fission and fusion, mitochondrial morphology was minimally affected, demonstrating that morphology can be an inaccurate indicator of fission/fusion changes. In addition, we found evidence of subcellular compartmentalization of compensatory changes, as mitochondrial density increased in distal neurites first, which may be important in PD, where pathology may begin distally. We propose that rotenone-induced early changes such as in mitochondrial fusion are compensatory, accompanied later by detrimental fission. As evidence, in a dopaminergic neuronal model, in which chronic rotenone caused loss of neurites before cell death (like PD pathology), inhibiting fission protected against the neurite loss. This suggests that aberrant mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to the earliest neuropathologic

  6. Mitochondrial quality control: Easy come, easy go

    PubMed Central

    Stotland, Aleksandr; Gottlieb, Roberta A.

    2015-01-01

    “Friends come and go but enemies accumulate.”Arthur Bloch Mitochondrial networks in eukaryotic cells are maintained via regular cycles of degradation and biogenesis. These complex processes function in concert with one another to eliminate dysfunctional mitochondria in a specific and targeted manner and coordinate the biogenesis of new organelles. This review covers the two aspects of mitochondrial turnover, focusing on the main pathways and mechanisms involved. The review also summarizes the current methods and techniques for analyzing mitochondrial turnover in vivo and in vitro, from the whole animal proteome level to the level of single organelle. PMID:25596427

  7. Biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters in mammalian cells: new insights and relevance to human disease

    PubMed Central

    Rouault, Tracey A.

    2012-01-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ubiquitous cofactors composed of iron and inorganic sulfur. They are required for the function of proteins involved in a wide range of activities, including electron transport in respiratory chain complexes, regulatory sensing, photosynthesis and DNA repair. The proteins involved in the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters are evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans, and many insights into the process of Fe-S cluster biogenesis have come from studies of model organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants. It is now clear that several rare and seemingly dissimilar human diseases are attributable to defects in the basic process of Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Although these diseases –which include Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), ISCU myopathy, a rare form of sideroblastic anemia, an encephalomyopathy caused by dysfunction of respiratory chain complex I and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome – affect different tissues, a feature common to many of them is that mitochondrial iron overload develops as a secondary consequence of a defect in Fe-S cluster biogenesis. This Commentary outlines the basic steps of Fe-S cluster biogenesis as they have been defined in model organisms. In addition, it draws attention to refinements of the process that might be specific to the subcellular compartmentalization of Fe-S cluster biogenesis proteins in some eukaryotes, including mammals. Finally, it outlines several important unresolved questions in the field that, once addressed, should offer important clues into how mitochondrial iron homeostasis is regulated, and how dysfunction in Fe-S cluster biogenesis can contribute to disease. PMID:22382365

  8. A t(1;11) translocation linked to schizophrenia and affective disorders gives rise to aberrant chimeric DISC1 transcripts that encode structurally altered, deleterious mitochondrial proteins

    PubMed Central

    Eykelenboom, Jennifer E.; Briggs, Gareth J.; Bradshaw, Nicholas J.; Soares, Dinesh C.; Ogawa, Fumiaki; Christie, Sheila; Malavasi, Elise L.V.; Makedonopoulou, Paraskevi; Mackie, Shaun; Malloy, Mary P.; Wear, Martin A.; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Bramham, Janice; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Blackwood, Douglas H.; Muir, Walter J.; Porteous, David J.; Millar, J. Kirsty

    2012-01-01

    Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) was identified as a risk factor for psychiatric illness through its disruption by a balanced chromosomal translocation, t(1;11)(q42.1;q14.3), that co-segregates with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. We previously reported that the translocation reduces DISC1 expression, consistent with a haploinsufficiency disease model. Here we report that, in lymphoblastoid cell lines, the translocation additionally results in the production of abnormal transcripts due to the fusion of DISC1 with a disrupted gene on chromosome 11 (DISC1FP1/Boymaw). These chimeric transcripts encode abnormal proteins, designated CP1, CP60 and CP69, consisting of DISC1 amino acids 1–597 plus 1, 60 or 69 amino acids, respectively. The novel 69 amino acids in CP69 induce increased α-helical content and formation of large stable protein assemblies. The same is predicted for CP60. Both CP60 and CP69 exhibit profoundly altered functional properties within cell lines and neurons. Both are predominantly targeted to mitochondria, where they induce clustering and loss of membrane potential, indicative of severe mitochondrial dysfunction. There is currently no access to neural material from translocation carriers to confirm these findings, but there is no reason to suppose that these chimeric transcripts will not also be expressed in the brain. There is thus potential for the production of abnormal chimeric proteins in the brains of translocation carriers, although at substantially lower levels than for native DISC1. The mechanism by which inheritance of the translocation increases risk of psychiatric illness may therefore involve both DISC1 haploinsufficiency and mitochondrial deficiency due to the effects of abnormal chimeric protein expression. GenBank accession numbers: DISC1FP1 (EU302123), Boymaw (GU134617), der 11 chimeric transcript DISC1FP1 exon 2 to DISC1 exon 9 (JQ650115), der 1 chimeric transcript DISC1 exon 4 to DISC1FP1 exon 4 (JQ650116

  9. mCSF1, a nucleus-encoded CRM protein required for the processing of many mitochondrial introns, is involved in the biogenesis of respiratory complexes I and IV in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zmudjak, Michal; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine; Keren, Ido; Shaya, Felix; Belausov, Eduard; Small, Ian; Ostersetzer-Biran, Oren

    2013-07-01

    The coding regions of many mitochondrial genes in plants are interrupted by intervening sequences that are classified as group II introns. Their splicing is essential for the expression of the genes they interrupt and hence for respiratory function, and is facilitated by various protein cofactors. Despite the importance of these cofactors, only a few of them have been characterized. CRS1-YhbY domain (CRM) is a recently recognized RNA-binding domain that is present in several characterized splicing factors in plant chloroplasts. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 16 CRM proteins, but these are largely uncharacterized. Here, we analyzed the intracellular location of one of these hypothetical proteins in Arabidopsis, mitochondrial CAF-like splicing factor 1 (mCSF1; At4 g31010), and analyzed the growth phenotypes and organellar activities associated with mcsf1 mutants in plants. Our data indicated that mCSF1 resides within mitochondria and its functions are essential during embryogenesis. Mutant plants with reduced mCSF1 displayed inhibited germination and retarded growth phenotypes that were tightly associated with reduced complex I and IV activities. Analogously to the functions of plastid-localized CRM proteins, analysis of the RNA profiles in wildtype and mcsf1 plants showed that mCSF1 acts in the splicing of many of the group II intron RNAs in Arabidopsis mitochondria. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. TLR-activated repression of Fe-S cluster biogenesis drives a metabolic shift and alters histone and tubulin acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Nunziata; Palmieri, Erika M.; Ollivierre, Hayden; Ghosh, Manik C.

    2018-01-01

    Given the essential roles of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cofactors in mediating electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and supporting heme biosynthesis, mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature in a growing list of human Fe-S cluster biogenesis disorders, including Friedreich ataxia and GLRX5-related sideroblastic anemia. Here, our studies showed that restriction of Fe-S cluster biogenesis not only compromised mitochondrial oxidative metabolism but also resulted in decreased overall histone acetylation and increased H3K9me3 levels in the nucleus and increased acetylation of α-tubulin in the cytosol by decreasing the lipoylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, decreasing levels of succinate dehydrogenase and the histone acetyltransferase ELP3, and increasing levels of the tubulin acetyltransferase MEC17. Previous studies have shown that the metabolic shift in Toll-like receptor (TLR)–activated myeloid cells involves rapid activation of glycolysis and subsequent mitochondrial respiratory failure due to nitric oxide (NO)–mediated damage to Fe-S proteins. Our studies indicated that TLR activation also actively suppresses many components of the Fe-S cluster biogenesis machinery, which exacerbates NO-mediated damage to Fe-S proteins by interfering with cluster recovery. These results reveal new regulatory pathways and novel roles of the Fe-S cluster biogenesis machinery in modifying the epigenome and acetylome and provide new insights into the etiology of Fe-S cluster biogenesis disorders. PMID:29784770

  11. TLR-activated repression of Fe-S cluster biogenesis drives a metabolic shift and alters histone and tubulin acetylation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wing-Hang; Maio, Nunziata; Zhang, De-Liang; Palmieri, Erika M; Ollivierre, Hayden; Ghosh, Manik C; McVicar, Daniel W; Rouault, Tracey A

    2018-05-22

    Given the essential roles of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cofactors in mediating electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and supporting heme biosynthesis, mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature in a growing list of human Fe-S cluster biogenesis disorders, including Friedreich ataxia and GLRX5-related sideroblastic anemia. Here, our studies showed that restriction of Fe-S cluster biogenesis not only compromised mitochondrial oxidative metabolism but also resulted in decreased overall histone acetylation and increased H3K9me3 levels in the nucleus and increased acetylation of α-tubulin in the cytosol by decreasing the lipoylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, decreasing levels of succinate dehydrogenase and the histone acetyltransferase ELP3, and increasing levels of the tubulin acetyltransferase MEC17. Previous studies have shown that the metabolic shift in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated myeloid cells involves rapid activation of glycolysis and subsequent mitochondrial respiratory failure due to nitric oxide (NO)-mediated damage to Fe-S proteins. Our studies indicated that TLR activation also actively suppresses many components of the Fe-S cluster biogenesis machinery, which exacerbates NO-mediated damage to Fe-S proteins by interfering with cluster recovery. These results reveal new regulatory pathways and novel roles of the Fe-S cluster biogenesis machinery in modifying the epigenome and acetylome and provide new insights into the etiology of Fe-S cluster biogenesis disorders.

  12. Pharmacological approaches to restore mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Andreux, Pénélope A.; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Auwerx, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is not only a hallmark of rare inherited mitochondrial disorders, but is also implicated in age-related diseases, including those that affect the metabolic and nervous system, such as type 2 diabetes and Parkinson’s disease. Numerous pathways maintain and/or restore proper mitochondrial function, including mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. New and powerful phenotypic assays in cell-based models, as well as multicellular organisms, have been developed to explore these different aspects of mitochondrial function. Modulating mitochondrial function has therefore emerged as an attractive therapeutic strategy for a range of diseases, which has spurred active drug discovery efforts in this area. PMID:23666487

  13. Methods to study the biogenesis of membrane proteins in yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Weckbecker, Daniel; Herrmann, Johannes M

    2013-01-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondrial membrane proteins is an intricate process that relies on the import and submitochondrial sorting of nuclear-encoded preproteins and on the synthesis of mitochondrial translation products in the matrix. Subsequently, these polypeptides need to be inserted into the outer and the inner membranes of the organelle where many of them assemble into multisubunit complexes. In this chapter we provide established protocols to study these different processes experimentally using mitochondria of budding yeast. In particular, methods are described in detail to purify mitochondria, to study mitochondrial protein synthesis, to follow the import of radiolabeled preproteins into isolated mitochondria, and to assess membrane association and the aggregation of mitochondrial proteins by fractionation. These protocols and a list of dos and don'ts shall enable beginners and experienced scientists to address the targeting and assembly of mitochondrial membrane proteins.

  14. Biogenesis of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex.

    PubMed

    Zara, Vincenzo; Conte, Laura; Trumpower, Bernard L

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain is composed of four different protein complexes that cooperate in electron transfer and proton pumping across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The cytochrome bc1 complex, or complex III, is a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This review will focus on the biogenesis of the bc1 complex in the mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In wild type yeast mitochondrial membranes the major part of the cytochrome bc1 complex was found in association with one or two copies of the cytochrome c oxidase complex. The analysis of several yeast mutant strains in which single genes or pairs of genes encoding bc1 subunits had been deleted revealed the presence of a common set of bc1 sub-complexes. These sub-complexes are represented by the central core of the bc1 complex, consisting of cytochrome b bound to subunit 7 and subunit 8, by the two core proteins associated with each other, by the Rieske protein associated with subunit 9, and by those deriving from the unexpected interaction of each of the two core proteins with cytochrome c1. Furthermore, a higher molecular mass sub-complex is that composed of cytochrome b, cytochrome c1, core protein 1 and 2, subunit 6, subunit 7 and subunit 8. The identification and characterization of all these sub-complexes may help in defining the steps and the molecular events leading to bc1 assembly in yeast mitochondria.

  15. Interaction between AIF and CHCHD4 Regulates Respiratory Chain Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hangen, Emilie; Féraud, Olivier; Lachkar, Sylvie; Mou, Haiwei; Doti, Nunzianna; Fimia, Gian Maria; Lam, Ngoc-Vy; Zhu, Changlian; Godin, Isabelle; Muller, Kevin; Chatzi, Afroditi; Nuebel, Esther; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Flamant, Stéphane; Bénit, Paule; Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Sauvat, Allan; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Ser-Le Roux, Karine; Gonin, Patrick; Tokatlidis, Kostas; Rustin, Pierre; Piacentini, Mauro; Ruvo, Menotti; Blomgren, Klas; Kroemer, Guido; Modjtahedi, Nazanine

    2015-06-18

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein that, beyond its apoptotic function, is required for the normal expression of major respiratory chain complexes. Here we identified an AIF-interacting protein, CHCHD4, which is the central component of a redox-sensitive mitochondrial intermembrane space import machinery. Depletion or hypomorphic mutation of AIF caused a downregulation of CHCHD4 protein by diminishing its mitochondrial import. CHCHD4 depletion sufficed to induce a respiratory defect that mimicked that observed in AIF-deficient cells. CHCHD4 levels could be restored in AIF-deficient cells by enforcing its AIF-independent mitochondrial localization. This modified CHCHD4 protein reestablished respiratory function in AIF-deficient cells and enabled AIF-deficient embryoid bodies to undergo cavitation, a process of programmed cell death required for embryonic morphogenesis. These findings explain how AIF contributes to the biogenesis of respiratory chain complexes, and they establish an unexpected link between the vital function of AIF and the propensity of cells to undergo apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mitochondrial Metabolic Reprogramming Induced by Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Calorie restriction (CR) is a known intervention that delays most aging processes. Most of the beneficial effects of CR are mediated by improved maintenance of mitochondrial performance in aged individuals. The control of mitochondrial biogenesis, apoptosis, and protein turnover is required for healthy aging. CR is able to induce molecular mechanisms that preserve oxidative capacity and decrease oxidative damage. Recent Advances and Critical Issues: Published data indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is activated in old animals under CR conditions compared to ad libitum counterparts, enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis. Molecular regulation of PGC-1α has recently attracted significant research interest. We discuss the master regulators of energy metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and sirtuin 1 among others that have been demonstrated to activate mitochondrial biogenesis through increased PGC-1α activity at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Additionally, we describe the latest findings that explain how CR promotes mitochondrial efficiency and decreases mitochondrial-derived oxidative damage. Future Directions: Understanding the beneficial mitochondrial changes conferred by CR will aid design of therapies for age-related diseases and help slow the aging process. Given the difficulty for humans to adhere to CR, we also explore new molecules that have been proposed during the last years to mimic the CR phenotype and their potential as future therapeutics. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 310–320. PMID:22901095

  17. Mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming induced by calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; de Cabo, Rafael

    2013-07-20

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a known intervention that delays most aging processes. Most of the beneficial effects of CR are mediated by improved maintenance of mitochondrial performance in aged individuals. The control of mitochondrial biogenesis, apoptosis, and protein turnover is required for healthy aging. CR is able to induce molecular mechanisms that preserve oxidative capacity and decrease oxidative damage. Published data indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is activated in old animals under CR conditions compared to ad libitum counterparts, enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis. Molecular regulation of PGC-1α has recently attracted significant research interest. We discuss the master regulators of energy metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and sirtuin 1 among others that have been demonstrated to activate mitochondrial biogenesis through increased PGC-1α activity at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Additionally, we describe the latest findings that explain how CR promotes mitochondrial efficiency and decreases mitochondrial-derived oxidative damage. Understanding the beneficial mitochondrial changes conferred by CR will aid design of therapies for age-related diseases and help slow the aging process. Given the difficulty for humans to adhere to CR, we also explore new molecules that have been proposed during the last years to mimic the CR phenotype and their potential as future therapeutics.

  18. EVALUATION OF THE BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. (BioGenesis) soil washing technology was demonstrated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in November 1992. The demonstration was conducted over three days at a petrol...

  19. Mammalian Fe-S cluster biogenesis and its implication in disease.

    PubMed

    Beilschmidt, Lena K; Puccio, Hélène M

    2014-05-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are inorganic cofactors that are ubiquitous and essential. Due to their chemical versatility, Fe-S clusters are implicated in a wide range of protein functions including mitochondrial respiration and DNA repair. Composed of iron and sulfur, they are sensible to oxygen and their biogenesis requires a highly conserved protein machinery that facilitates assembly of the cluster as well as its insertion into apoproteins. Mitochondria are the central cellular compartment for Fe-S cluster biogenesis in eukaryotic cells and the importance of proper function of this biogenesis for life is highlighted by a constantly increasing number of human genetic diseases that are associated with dysfunction of this Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathway. Although these disorders are rare and appear dissimilar, common aspects are found among them. This review will give an overview on what is known on mammalian Fe-S cluster biogenesis today, by putting it into the context of what is known from studies from lower model organisms, and focuses on the associated diseases, by drawing attention to the respective mutations. Finally, it outlines the importance of adequate cellular and murine models to uncover not only each protein function, but to resolve their role and requirement throughout the mammalian organism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone controls mitochondrial biology in human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Knuever, Jana; Poeggeler, Burkhard; Gáspár, Erzsébet; Klinger, Matthias; Hellwig-Burgel, Thomas; Hardenbicker, Celine; Tóth, Balázs I; Bíró, Tamás; Paus, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondrial capacity and metabolic potential are under the control of hormones, such as thyroid hormones. The most proximal regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, TRH, is the key hypothalamic integrator of energy metabolism via its impact on thyroid hormone secretion. Here, we asked whether TRH directly modulates mitochondrial functions in normal, TRH-receptor-positive human epidermis. Organ-cultured human skin was treated with TRH (5-100 ng/ml) for 12-48 h. TRH significantly increased epidermal immunoreactivity for the mitochondria-selective subunit I of respiratory chain complex IV (MTCO1). This resulted from an increased MTCO1 transcription and protein synthesis and a stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and TRH-enhanced mitochondrial DNA synthesis. TRH also significantly stimulated the transcription of several other mitochondrial key genes (TFAM, HSP60, and BMAL1), including the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α). TRH significantly enhanced mitochondrial complex I and IV enzyme activity and enhanced the oxygen consumption of human skin samples, which shows that the stimulated mitochondria are fully vital because the main source for cellular oxygen consumption is mitochondrial endoxidation. These findings identify TRH as a potent, novel neuroendocrine stimulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis in human epidermal keratinocytes in situ. Thus, human epidermis offers an excellent model for dissecting neuroendocrine controls of human mitochondrial biology under physiologically relevant conditions and for exploring corresponding clinical applications.

  1. Biogenesis of light harvesting proteins.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Bressan, Mauro; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The LHC family includes nuclear-encoded, integral thylakoid membrane proteins, most of which coordinate chlorophyll and xanthophyll chromophores. By assembling with the core complexes of both photosystems, LHCs form a flexible peripheral moiety for enhancing light-harvesting cross-section, regulating its efficiency and providing protection against photo-oxidative stress. Upon its first appearance, LHC proteins underwent evolutionary diversification into a large protein family with a complex genetic redundancy. Such differentiation appears as a crucial event in the adaptation of photosynthetic organisms to changing environmental conditions and land colonization. The structure of photosystems, including nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded subunits, presented the cell with a number of challenges for the control of the light harvesting function. Indeed, LHC-encoding messages are translated in the cytosol, and pre-proteins imported into the chloroplast, processed to their mature size and targeted to the thylakoids where are assembled with chromophores. Thus, a tight coordination between nuclear and plastid gene expression, in response to environmental stimuli, is required to adjust LHC composition during photoacclimation. In recent years, remarkable progress has been achieved in elucidating structure, function and regulatory pathways involving LHCs; however, a number of molecular details still await elucidation. In this review, we will provide an overview on the current knowledge on LHC biogenesis, ranging from organization of pigment-protein complexes to the modulation of gene expression, import and targeting to the photosynthetic membranes, and regulation of LHC assembly and turnover. Genes controlling these events are potential candidate for biotechnological applications aimed at optimizing light use efficiency of photosynthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Michelle L.; Chourasia, Aparajita H.; Macleod, Kay F.

    2013-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell growth and tumorigenesis is emerging beyond Warburg as an area of research that is under-explored in terms of its significance for clinical management of cancer. Work discussed in this review focuses less on the Warburg effect and more on mitochondria and how dysfunctional mitochondria modulate cell cycle, gene expression, metabolism, cell viability, and other established aspects of cell growth and stress responses. There is increasing evidence that key oncogenes and tumor suppressors modulate mitochondrial dynamics through important signaling pathways and that mitochondrial mass and function vary between tumors and individuals but the significance of these events for cancer are not fully appreciated. We explore the interplay between key molecules involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion and in apoptosis, as well as in mitophagy, biogenesis, and spatial dynamics of mitochondria and consider how these distinct mechanisms are coordinated in response to physiological stresses such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Importantly, we examine how deregulation of these processes in cancer has knock on effects for cell proliferation and growth. We define major forms of mitochondrial dysfunction and address the extent to which the functional consequences of such dysfunction can be determined and exploited for cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24350057

  3. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Steven E.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle. PMID:28589125

  4. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle.

  5. NAD+-Dependent Activation of Sirt1 Corrects the Phenotype in a Mouse Model of Mitochondrial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, Raffaele; Pirinen, Eija; Lamperti, Costanza; Marchet, Silvia; Sauve, Anthony A.; Li, Wei; Leoni, Valerio; Schon, Eric A.; Dantzer, Françoise; Auwerx, Johan; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial disorders are highly heterogeneous conditions characterized by defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been proposed as an effective means to correct the biochemical defects and ameliorate the clinical phenotype in these severely disabling, often fatal, disorders. Pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis are targets of Sirtuin1, a NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase. As NAD+ boosts the activity of Sirtuin1 and other sirtuins, intracellular levels of NAD+ play a key role in the homeostatic control of mitochondrial function by the metabolic status of the cell. We show here that supplementation with nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD+ precursor, or reduction of NAD+ consumption by inhibiting the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, leads to marked improvement of the respiratory chain defect and exercise intolerance of the Sco2 knockout/knockin mouse, a mitochondrial disease model characterized by impaired cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis. This strategy is potentially translatable into therapy of mitochondrial disorders in humans. PMID:24814483

  6. Transcriptome and Small RNA Deep Sequencing Reveals Deregulation of miRNA Biogenesis in Human Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lynette M.; Kivinen, Virpi; Liu, Yuexin; Annala, Matti; Cogdell, David; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-Gong; Sawaya, Raymond; Yli-Harja, Olli; Shmulevich, Ilya; Fuller, Gregory N.; Zhang, Wei; Nykter, Matti

    2013-01-01

    Altered expression of oncogenic and tumor-suppressing microRNAs (miRNAs) is widely associated with tumorigenesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying these alterations are poorly understood. We sought to shed light on the deregulation of miRNA biogenesis promoting the aberrant miRNA expression profiles identified in these tumors. Using sequencing technology to perform both whole-transcriptome and small RNA sequencing of glioma patient samples, we examined precursor and mature miRNAs to directly evaluate the miRNA maturation process, and interrogated expression profiles for genes involved in the major steps of miRNA biogenesis. We found that ratios of mature to precursor forms of a large number of miRNAs increased with the progression from normal brain to low-grade and then to high-grade gliomas. The expression levels of genes involved in each of the three major steps of miRNA biogenesis (nuclear processing, nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, and cytoplasmic processing) were systematically altered in glioma tissues. Survival analysis of an independent data set demonstrated that the alteration of genes involved in miRNA maturation correlates with survival in glioma patients. Direct quantification of miRNA maturation with deep sequencing demonstrated that deregulation of the miRNA biogenesis pathway is a hallmark for glioma genesis and progression. PMID:23007860

  7. Targeting mitochondrial respiration as a therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shenglan; Chen, Heng; Tan, Wei

    2018-05-23

    Targeting mitochondrial respiration has been documented as an effective therapeutic strategy in cancer. However, the impact of mitochondrial respiration inhibition on cervical cancer cells are not well elucidated. Using a panel of cervical cancer cell lines, we show that an existing drug atovaquone is active against the cervical cancer cells with high profiling of mitochondrial biogenesis. Atovaquone inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis with varying efficacy among cervical cancer cell lines regardless of HPV infection, cellular origin and their sensitivity to paclitaxel. We further demonstrated that atovaquone acts on cervical cancer cells via inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. In particular, atovaquone specifically inhibited mitochondrial complex III but not I, II or IV activity, leading to respiration inhibition and energy crisis. Importantly, we found that the different sensitivity of cervical cancer cell lines to atovaquone were due to their differential level of mitochondrial biogenesis and dependency to mitochondrial respiration. In addition, we demonstrated that the in vitro observations were translatable to in vivo cervical cancer xenograft mouse model. Our findings suggest that the mitochondrial biogenesis varies among patients with cervical cancer. Our work also suggests that atovaquone is a useful addition to cervical cancer treatment, particularly to those with high dependency on mitochondrial respiration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NITRIC OXIDE, MITOCHONDRIAL HYPERPOLARIZATION AND T-CELL ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gyorgy; Koncz, Agnes; Fernandez, David; Perl, Andras

    2007-01-01

    T lymphocyte activation is associated with nitric oxide (NO) production that plays an essential role in multiple T cell functions. NO acts as a messenger, activating soluble guanyl cyclase and participating in the transduction signaling pathways involving cyclic GMP. NO modulates mitochondrial events that are involved in apoptosis and regulates mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial biogenesis in many cell types, including lymphocytes. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization (MHP), an early and reversible event during both T lymphocyte activation and apoptosis, is regulated by NO. Here, we discuss recent evidence that NO-induced MHP represents a molecular switch in multiple T cell signaling pathways. Overproduction of NO in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) induces mitochondrial biogenesis and alters Ca2+ signaling. Thus, while NO plays a physiological role in lymphocyte cell signaling, its overproduction may disturb normal T cell function, contributing to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:17462531

  9. VALSARTAN REGULATES MYOCARDIAL AUTOPHAGY AND MITOCHONDRIAL TURNOVER IN EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Zi-Lun; Crane, John A.; Jordan, Kyra L.; Pawar, Aditya S.; Textor, Stephen C.; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension alters cardiac structure and function. Autophagy is activated during left ventricular hypertrophy and linked to adverse cardiac function. The Angiotensin II receptor blocker Valsartan lowers blood pressure and is cardioprotective, but whether it modulates autophagy in the myocardium is unclear. We hypothesized that Valsartan would alleviate autophagy and improve left ventricular myocardial mitochondrial turnover in swine renovascular hypertension. Domestic pigs were randomized to control, unilateral renovascular hypertension, and renovascular hypertension treated with Valsartan (320 mg/day) or conventional triple therapy (Reserpine+hydralazine+hydrochlorothiazide) for 4 weeks post 6-weeks of renovascular hypertension (n=7 each group). Left ventricular remodeling, function and myocardial oxygenation and microcirculation were assessed by multi-detector computer tomography, blood-oxygen-level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging and microcomputer tomography. Myocardial autophagy, markers for mitochondrial degradation and biogenesis, and mitochondrial respiratory-chain proteins were examined ex vivo. Renovascular hypertension induced left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial hypoxia, enhanced cellular autophagy and mitochondrial degradation, and suppressed mitochondrial biogenesis. Valsartan and triple therapy similarly decreased blood pressure, but Valsartan solely alleviated left ventricular hypertrophy, ameliorated myocardial autophagy and mitophagy, and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. In contrast, triple therapy only slightly attenuated autophagy and preserved mitochondrial proteins, but elicited no improvement in mitophagy. These data suggest a novel potential role of Valsartan in modulating myocardial autophagy and mitochondrial turnover in renovascular hypertension-induced hypertensive heart disease, which may possibly bolster cardiac repair via a blood pressure-independent manner. PMID:24752430

  10. Melatonin: A Mitochondrial Targeting Molecule Involving Mitochondrial Protection and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C.; Qin, Lilan; Reiter, Russel J.

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been speculated to be mainly synthesized by mitochondria. This speculation is supported by the recent discovery that aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase/serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT/SNAT) is localized in mitochondria of oocytes and the isolated mitochondria generate melatonin. We have also speculated that melatonin is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. It accumulates in mitochondria with high concentration against a concentration gradient. This is probably achieved by an active transportation via mitochondrial melatonin transporter(s). Melatonin protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), and activating uncoupling proteins (UCPs). Thus, melatonin maintains the optimal mitochondrial membrane potential and preserves mitochondrial functions. In addition, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics is also regulated by melatonin. In most cases, melatonin reduces mitochondrial fission and elevates their fusion. Mitochondrial dynamics exhibit an oscillatory pattern which matches the melatonin circadian secretory rhythm in pinealeocytes and probably in other cells. Recently, melatonin has been found to promote mitophagy and improve homeostasis of mitochondria. PMID:27999288

  11. Biogenesis of cytosolic ribosomes requires the essential iron–sulphur protein Rli1p and mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Kispal, Gyula; Sipos, Katalin; Lange, Heike; Fekete, Zsuzsanna; Bedekovics, Tibor; Janáky, Tamás; Bassler, Jochen; Aguilar Netz, Daili J; Balk, Janneke; Rotte, Carmen; Lill, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondria perform a central function in the biogenesis of cellular iron–sulphur (Fe/S) proteins. It is unknown to date why this biosynthetic pathway is indispensable for life, the more so as no essential mitochondrial Fe/S proteins are known. Here, we show that the soluble ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein Rli1p carries N-terminal Fe/S clusters that require the mitochondrial and cytosolic Fe/S protein biogenesis machineries for assembly. Mutations in critical cysteine residues of Rli1p abolish association with Fe/S clusters and lead to loss of cell viability. Hence, the essential character of Fe/S clusters in Rli1p explains the indispensable character of mitochondria in eukaryotes. We further report that Rli1p is associated with ribosomes and with Hcr1p, a protein involved in rRNA processing and translation initiation. Depletion of Rli1p causes a nuclear export defect of the small and large ribosomal subunits and subsequently a translational arrest. Thus, ribosome biogenesis and function are intimately linked to the crucial role of mitochondria in the maturation of the essential Fe/S protein Rli1p. PMID:15660134

  12. Mitochondrial dynamics in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Van Laar, Victor S.; Berman, Sarah B.

    2009-01-01

    The unique energy demands of neurons require well-orchestrated distribution and maintenance of mitochondria. Thus, dynamic properties of mitochondria, including fission, fusion, trafficking, biogenesis, and degradation, are critical to all cells, but may be particularly important in neurons. Dysfunction in mitochondrial dynamics has been linked to neuropathies and is increasingly being linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, but the evidence is particularly strong, and continuously accumulating, in Parkinson's disease (PD). The unique characteristics of neurons that degenerate in PD may predispose those neuronal populations to susceptibility to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics. In addition, evidence from PD-related toxins supports that mitochondrial fission, fusion, and transport may be involved in pathogenesis. Furthermore, rapidly increasing evidence suggests that two proteins linked to familial forms of the disease, parkin and PINK1, interact in a common pathway to regulate mitochondrial fission/fusion. Parkin may also play a role in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis through targeting damaged mitochondria for mitophagy. Taken together, the current data suggests that mitochondrial dynamics may play a role in PD pathogenesis, and a better understanding of mitochondrial dynamics within the neuron may lead to future therapeutic treatments for PD, potentially aimed at some of the earliest pathogenic events. PMID:19332061

  13. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  14. Redox Regulation of Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Handy, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Redox-dependent processes influence most cellular functions, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Mitochondria are at the center of these processes, as mitochondria both generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that drive redox-sensitive events and respond to ROS-mediated changes in the cellular redox state. In this review, we examine the regulation of cellular ROS, their modes of production and removal, and the redox-sensitive targets that are modified by their flux. In particular, we focus on the actions of redox-sensitive targets that alter mitochondrial function and the role of these redox modifications on metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, receptor-mediated signaling, and apoptotic pathways. We also consider the role of mitochondria in modulating these pathways, and discuss how redox-dependent events may contribute to pathobiology by altering mitochondrial function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1323–1367. PMID:22146081

  15. Role of FAST Kinase Domains 3 (FASTKD3) in Post-transcriptional Regulation of Mitochondrial Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, Erik; Zornoza, María; Jourdain, Alexis A.; Delmiro Magdalena, Aitor; García-Consuegra, Inés; Torres Merino, Rebeca; Orduña, Antonio; Martín, Miguel A.; Martinou, Jean-Claude; De la Fuente, Miguel A.; Simarro, María

    2016-01-01

    The Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FASTK) family of proteins has recently emerged as a central regulator of mitochondrial gene expression through the function of an unusual RNA-binding domain named RAP (for RNA-binding domain abundant in Apicomplexans), shared by all six members of the family. Here we describe the role of one of the less characterized members, FASTKD3, in mitochondrial RNA metabolism. First, we show that, in contrast to FASTK, FASTKD2, and FASTKD5, FASTKD3 does not localize in mitochondrial RNA granules, which are sites of processing and maturation of mtRNAs and ribosome biogenesis. Second, we generated FASTKD3 homozygous knock-out cell lines by homologous recombination and observed that the absence of FASTKD3 resulted in increased steady-state levels and half-lives of a subset of mature mitochondrial mRNAs: ND2, ND3, CYTB, COX2, and ATP8/6. No aberrant processing of RNA precursors was observed. Rescue experiments demonstrated that RAP domain is required for FASTKD3 function in mRNA stability. Besides, we describe that FASTKD3 is required for efficient COX1 mRNA translation without altering mRNA levels, which results in a decrease in the steady-state levels of COX1 protein. This finding is associated with reduced mitochondrial complex IV assembly and activity. Our observations suggest that the function of this family of proteins goes beyond RNA processing and ribosome assembly and includes RNA stability and translation regulation within mitochondria. PMID:27789713

  16. Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in mammalian cells: new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cluster delivery

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Nunziata; Rouault, Tracey. A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ancient, ubiquitous cofactors composed of iron and inorganic sulfur. The combination of the chemical reactivity of iron and sulfur, together with many variations of cluster composition, oxidation states and protein environments, enables Fe-S clusters to participate in numerous biological processes. Fe-S clusters are essential to redox catalysis in nitrogen fixation, mitochondrial respiration and photosynthesis, to regulatory sensing in key metabolic pathways (i. e. cellular iron homeostasis and oxidative stress response), and to the replication and maintenance of the nuclear genome. Fe-S cluster biogenesis is a multistep process that involves a complex sequence of catalyzed protein- protein interactions and coupled conformational changes between the components of several dedicated multimeric complexes. Intensive studies of the assembly process have clarified key points in the biogenesis of Fe-S proteins. However several critical questions still remain, such as: what is the role of frataxin? Why do some defects of Fe-S cluster biogenesis cause mitochondrial iron overload? How are specific Fe-S recipient proteins recognized in the process of Fe-S transfer? This review focuses on the basic steps of Fe-S cluster biogenesis, drawing attention to recent advances achieved on the identification of molecular features that guide selection of specific subsets of nascent Fe-S recipients by the cochaperone HSC20. Additionally, it outlines the distinctive phenotypes of human diseases due to mutations in the components of the basic pathway. PMID:25245479

  17. Protective effects of a natural product, curcumin, against amyloid β induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, Xiangling; Grady, Mary Catharine; Mitchell, Andrew; Kandimalla, Ramesh; Kuruva, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the protective effects of a natural product—‘curcumin’— in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurons. Although much research has been done in AD, very little has been reported on the effects of curcumin on mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, function and synaptic activities. Therefore, the present study investigated the protective effects against amyloid β (Aβ) induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities. Using human neuroblastoma (SHSY5Y) cells, curcumin and Aβ, we studied the protective effects of curcumin against Aβ. Further, we also studied preventive (curcumin+Aβ) and intervention (Aβ+curcumin) effects of curcumin against Aβ in SHSY5Y cells. Using real time RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we measured mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic genes. We also assessed mitochondrial function by measuring hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity and mitochondrial ATP. Cell viability was studied using the MTT assay. Aβ was found to impair mitochondrial dynamics, reduce mitochondrial biogenesis and decrease synaptic activity and mitochondrial function. In contrast, curcumin enhanced mitochondrial fusion activity and reduced fission machinery, and increased biogenesis and synaptic proteins. Mitochondrial function and cell viability were elevated in curcumin treated cells. Interestingly, curcumin pre- and post-treated cells incubated with Aβ showed reduced mitochondrial dysfunction, and maintained cell viability and mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic activity. Further, the protective effects of curcumin were stronger in pretreated SHSY5Y cells than in post-treated cells, indicating that curcumin works better in prevention than treatment in AD-like neurons. Our findings suggest that curcumin is a promising drug molecule to treat AD patients. PMID:27521081

  18. Protective effects of a natural product, curcumin, against amyloid β induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, Xiangling; Grady, Mary Catharine; Mitchell, Andrew; Kandimalla, Ramesh; Kuruva, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the protective effects of a natural product-'curcumin'- in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurons. Although much research has been done in AD, very little has been reported on the effects of curcumin on mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, function and synaptic activities. Therefore, the present study investigated the protective effects against amyloid β (Aβ) induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities. Using human neuroblastoma (SHSY5Y) cells, curcumin and Aβ, we studied the protective effects of curcumin against Aβ. Further, we also studied preventive (curcumin+Aβ) and intervention (Aβ+curcumin) effects of curcumin against Aβ in SHSY5Y cells. Using real time RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we measured mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic genes. We also assessed mitochondrial function by measuring hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity and mitochondrial ATP. Cell viability was studied using the MTT assay. Aβ was found to impair mitochondrial dynamics, reduce mitochondrial biogenesis and decrease synaptic activity and mitochondrial function. In contrast, curcumin enhanced mitochondrial fusion activity and reduced fission machinery, and increased biogenesis and synaptic proteins. Mitochondrial function and cell viability were elevated in curcumin treated cells. Interestingly, curcumin pre- and post-treated cells incubated with Aβ showed reduced mitochondrial dysfunction, and maintained cell viability and mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic activity. Further, the protective effects of curcumin were stronger in pretreated SHSY5Y cells than in post-treated cells, indicating that curcumin works better in prevention than treatment in AD-like neurons. Our findings suggest that curcumin is a promising drug molecule to treat AD patients. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical

  19. Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, fatty acids and mitochondrial physiology.

    PubMed

    Kastaniotis, Alexander J; Autio, Kaija J; Kerätär, Juha M; Monteuuis, Geoffray; Mäkelä, Anne M; Nair, Remya R; Pietikäinen, Laura P; Shvetsova, Antonina; Chen, Zhijun; Hiltunen, J Kalervo

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria and fatty acids are tightly connected to a multiplicity of cellular processes that go far beyond mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. In line with this view, there is hardly any common metabolic disorder that is not associated with disturbed mitochondrial lipid handling. Among other aspects of mitochondrial lipid metabolism, apparently all eukaryotes are capable of carrying out de novo fatty acid synthesis (FAS) in this cellular compartment in an acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent manner. The dual localization of FAS in eukaryotic cells raises the questions why eukaryotes have maintained the FAS in mitochondria in addition to the "classic" cytoplasmic FAS and what the products are that cannot be substituted by delivery of fatty acids of extramitochondrial origin. The current evidence indicates that mitochondrial FAS is essential for cellular respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis. Although both β-oxidation and FAS utilize thioester chemistry, CoA acts as acyl-group carrier in the breakdown pathway whereas ACP assumes this role in the synthetic direction. This arrangement metabolically separates these two pathways running towards opposite directions and prevents futile cycling. A role of this pathway in mitochondrial metabolic sensing has recently been proposed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipids of Mitochondria edited by Guenther Daum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>500) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitochondrial...

  1. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Rivero, Juan M.; Villanueva-Paz, Marina; de la Cruz-Ojeda, Patricia; de la Mata, Mario; Cotán, David; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; de Lavera, Isabel; Álvarez-Córdoba, Mónica; Luzón-Hidalgo, Raquel; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are very versatile organelles in continuous fusion and fission processes in response to various cellular signals. Mitochondrial dynamics, including mitochondrial fission/fusion, movements and turnover, are essential for the mitochondrial network quality control. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics can cause neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in which mitochondrial fusion and transport are impaired, or dominant optic atrophy which is caused by a reduced mitochondrial fusion. On the other hand, mitochondrial dysfunction in primary mitochondrial diseases promotes reactive oxygen species production that impairs its own function and dynamics, causing a continuous vicious cycle that aggravates the pathological phenotype. Mitochondrial dynamics provides a new way to understand the pathophysiology of mitochondrial disorders and other diseases related to mitochondria dysfunction such as diabetes, heart failure, or Hungtinton’s disease. The knowledge about mitochondrial dynamics also offers new therapeutics targets in mitochondrial diseases. PMID:28933354

  2. Mitochondrial Metabolism in Aging Heart

    PubMed Central

    Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Chen, Qun; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Altered mitochondrial metabolism is the underlying basis for the increased sensitivity in the aged heart to stress. The aged heart exhibits impaired metabolic flexibility, with a decreased capacity to oxidize fatty acids and enhanced dependence on glucose metabolism. Aging impairs mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, with a greater role played by the mitochondria located between the myofibrils, the interfibrillar mitochondria. With aging, there is a decrease in activity of complexes III and IV, which account for the decrease in respiration. Furthermore, aging decreases mitochondrial content among the myofibrils. The end result is that in the interfibrillar area there is an approximate 50% decrease in mitochondrial function, affecting all substrates. The defective mitochondria persist in the aged heart, leading to enhanced oxidant production and oxidative injury and the activation of oxidant signaling for cell death. Aging defects in mitochondria represent new therapeutic targets, whether by manipulation of the mitochondrial proteome, modulation of electron transport, activation of biogenesis or mitophagy, or the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion. These mechanisms provide new ways to attenuate cardiac disease in elders by preemptive treatment of age-related defects, in contrast to the treatment of disease-induced dysfunction. PMID:27174952

  3. Targeting Pin1 by inhibitor API-1 regulates microRNA biogenesis and suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma development.

    PubMed

    Pu, Wenchen; Li, Jiao; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Shen, Xianyan; Fan, Xin; Zhou, Jian-Kang; He, Juan; Deng, Yulan; Liu, Xuesha; Wang, Chun; Yang, Shengyong; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Lunxu; Zhang, Guolin; Wei, Yu-Quan; Peng, Yong

    2018-01-30

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, but there are few effective treatments. Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis is correlated with HCC development. We previously demonstrated that peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) participates in miRNA biogenesis and is a potential HCC treatment target. However, how Pin1 modulates miRNA biogenesis remains obscure. Here, we present in vivo evidence that Pin1 overexpression is directly linked to the development of HCC. Administration with the Pin1 inhibitor (API-1), a specific small molecule targeting Pin1 peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain and inhibiting Pin1 cis-trans isomerizing activity, suppresses in vitro cell proliferation and migration of HCC cells. But API-1-induced Pin1 inhibition is insensitive to HCC cells with low Pin1 expression and/or low exportin-5 (XPO5) phosphorylation. Mechanistically, Pin1 recognizes and isomerizes the phosphorylated serine-proline motif of phosphorylated XPO5 and passivates phosphorylated XPO5. Pin1 inhibition by API-1 maintains the active conformation of phosphorylated XPO5 and restores XPO5-driven precursor miRNA nuclear-to-cytoplasm export, activating anticancer miRNA biogenesis and leading to both in vitro HCC suppression and HCC suppression in xenograft mice. Experimental evidence suggests that Pin1 inhibition by API-1 up-regulates miRNA biogenesis by retaining active XPO5 conformation and suppresses HCC development, revealing the mechanism of Pin1-mediated miRNA biogenesis and unequivocally supporting API-1 as a drug candidate for HCC therapy, especially for Pin1-overexpressing, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-activated HCC. (Hepatology 2018). © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Principal Aspects Regarding the Maintenance of Mammalian Mitochondrial Genome Integrity.

    PubMed

    Vasileiou, Panagiotis V S; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Pantos, Constantinos

    2017-08-22

    Mitochondria have emerged as key players regarding cellular homeostasis not only due to their contribution regarding energy production through oxidative phosphorylation, but also due to their involvement in signaling, ion regulation, and programmed cell death. Indeed, current knowledge supports the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis and function require the coordinated action of two genomes: nuclear and mitochondrial. Unfortunately, both intrinsic and environmental genotoxic insults constantly threaten the integrity of nuclear as well as mitochondrial DNA. Despite the extensive research that has been made regarding nuclear genome instability, the importance of mitochondrial genome integrity has only recently begun to be elucidated. The specific architecture and repair mechanisms of mitochondrial DNA, as well as the dynamic behavior that mitochondria exert regarding fusion, fission, and autophagy participate in mitochondrial genome stability, and therefore, cell homeostasis.

  5. Principal Aspects Regarding the Maintenance of Mammalian Mitochondrial Genome Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Vasileiou, Panagiotis V. S.; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Pantos, Constantinos

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria have emerged as key players regarding cellular homeostasis not only due to their contribution regarding energy production through oxidative phosphorylation, but also due to their involvement in signaling, ion regulation, and programmed cell death. Indeed, current knowledge supports the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis and function require the coordinated action of two genomes: nuclear and mitochondrial. Unfortunately, both intrinsic and environmental genotoxic insults constantly threaten the integrity of nuclear as well as mitochondrial DNA. Despite the extensive research that has been made regarding nuclear genome instability, the importance of mitochondrial genome integrity has only recently begun to be elucidated. The specific architecture and repair mechanisms of mitochondrial DNA, as well as the dynamic behavior that mitochondria exert regarding fusion, fission, and autophagy participate in mitochondrial genome stability, and therefore, cell homeostasis. PMID:28829360

  6. Targeted Transgenic Overexpression of Mitochondrial Thymidine Kinase (TK2) Alters Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Mitochondrial Polypeptide Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed H.; Kohler, James J.; Haase, Chad P.; Tioleco, Nina; Stuart, Tami; Keebaugh, Erin; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Green, Elgin; Long, Robert; Wang, Liya; Eriksson, Staffan; Lewis, William

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity limits nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. NRTI triphosphates, the active moieties, inhibit human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA polymerase pol-γ. NRTI phosphorylation seems to correlate with mitochondrial toxicity, but experimental evidence is lacking. Transgenic mice (TGs) with cardiac overexpression of thymidine kinase isoforms (mitochondrial TK2 and cytoplasmic TK1) were used to study NRTI mitochondrial toxicity. Echocardiography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging defined cardiac performance and structure. TK gene copy and enzyme activity, mitochondrial (mt) DNA and polypeptide abundance, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, and electron microscopy correlated with transgenesis, mitochondrial structure, and biogenesis. Antiretroviral combinations simulated therapy. Untreated hTK1 or TK2 TGs exhibited normal left ventricle mass. In TK2 TGs, cardiac TK2 gene copy doubled, activity increased 300-fold, and mtDNA abundance doubled. Abundance of the 17-kd subunit of complex I, succinate dehydrogenase histochemical activity, and cristae density increased. NRTIs increased left ventricle mass 20% in TK2 TGs. TK activity increased 3 logs in hTK1 TGs, but no cardiac phenotype resulted. NRTIs abrogated functional effects of transgenically increased TK2 activity but had no effect on TK2 mtDNA abundance. Thus, NRTI mitochondrial phosphorylation by TK2 is integral to clinical NRTI mitochondrial toxicity. PMID:17322372

  7. GPA protects the nigrostriatal dopamine system by enhancing mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Tamas L; Erion, Derek M; Elsworth, John D; Roth, Robert H; Shulman, Gerald I; Andrews, Zane B

    2011-07-01

    Guanidinopropionic acid (GPA) increases AMPK activity, mitochondrial function and biogenesis in muscle and improves physiological function, for example during aging. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Here we tested whether GPA prevents neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system in MPTP-treated mice. Mice were fed a diet of 1% GPA or normal chow for 4 weeks and then treated with either MPTP or saline. Indices of nigrostriatal function were examined by HPLC, immunohistochemistry, stereology, electron microscopy and mitochondrial respiration. MPTP intoxication decreased TH neurons in the SNpc of normal chow-fed mice; however GPA-fed mice remarkably exhibited no loss of TH neurons in the SNpc. MPTP caused a decrease in striatal dopamine of both normal chow- and GPA-fed mice, although this effect was significantly attenuated in GPA-fed mice. GPA-fed mice showed increased AMPK activity, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial number in nigrostriatal TH neurons, suggesting that the neuroprotective effects of GPA involved AMPK-dependent increases in mitochondrial function and biogenesis. MPTP treatment produced a decrease in mitochondrial number and volume in normal chow-fed mice but not GPA-fed mice. Our results show the neuroprotective properties of GPA in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease are partially mediated by AMPK and mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common problem in neurodegeneration and thus GPA may slow disease progression in other models of neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of Aging and Exercise on Mitochondrial Quality Control in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yuho; Triolo, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are characterized by its pivotal roles in managing energy production, reactive oxygen species, and calcium, whose aging-related structural and functional deteriorations are observed in aging muscle. Although it is still unclear how aging alters mitochondrial quality and quantity in skeletal muscle, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamic controls has been suggested as key players for that. In this paper, we summarize current understandings on how aging regulates muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, while focusing on transcriptional regulations including PGC-1α, AMPK, p53, mtDNA, and Tfam. Further, we review current findings on the muscle mitochondrial dynamic systems in aging muscle: fusion/fission, autophagy/mitophagy, and protein import. Next, we also discuss how endurance and resistance exercises impact on the mitochondrial quality controls in aging muscle, suggesting possible effective exercise strategies to improve/maintain mitochondrial health. PMID:28656072

  9. The tRNA(Gly) T10003C mutation in mitochondrial haplogroup M11b in a Chinese family with diabetes decreases the steady-state level of tRNA(Gly), increases aberrant reactive oxygen species production, and reduces mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wen, Chaowei; Li, Weixing; Wang, Hailing; Guan, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wanlin; Ye, Wei; Lu, Jianxin

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial diabetes originates mainly from mutations located in maternally transmitted, mitochondrial tRNA-coding genes. In a genetic screening program of type 2 diabetes conducted with a Chinese Han population, we found one family with suggestive maternally transmitted diabetes. The proband's mitochondrial genome was analyzed using DNA sequencing. Total 42 known nucleoside changes and 1 novel variant were identified, and the entire mitochondrial DNA sequence was assigned to haplogroup M11b. Phylogenetic analysis showed that a homoplasmic mutation, 10003T>C transition, occurred at the highly conserved site in the gene encoding tRNA(Gly). Using a transmitochondrial cybrid cell line harboring this mutation, we observed that the steady-state level of tRNA(Gly) significantly affected and the amount of tRNA(Gly) decreased by 97%, production of reactive oxygen species was enhanced, and mitochondrial membrane potential, mtDNA copy number and cellular oxygen consumption rate were remarkably decreased compared with wild-type cybrid cells. The homoplasmic 10003T>C mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA(Gly) gene suggested to be as a pathogenesis-related mutation which might contribute to the maternal inherited diabetes in the Han Chinese family.

  10. Autophagosome biogenesis in primary neurons follows an ordered and spatially regulated pathway.

    PubMed

    Maday, Sandra; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2014-07-14

    Autophagy is an essential degradative pathway in neurons, yet little is known about mechanisms driving autophagy in highly polarized cells. Here, we use dual-color live-cell imaging to investigate the neuron-specific mechanisms of constitutive autophagosome biogenesis in primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hippocampal cultures. Under basal conditions, autophagosomes are continuously generated in the axon tip. There is an ordered assembly of proteins recruited with stereotypical kinetics onto the developing autophagosome. Plasma- or mitochondrial-derived membranes were not incorporated into nascent autophagosomes in the distal axon. Rather, autophagosomes are generated at double FYVE-containing protein 1 (DFCP1)-positive subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), distinct from ER exit sites. Biogenesis events are enriched distally; autophagosomes form infrequently in dendrites, the soma, or midaxon, consistent with a compartmentalized pathway for constitutive autophagy in primary neurons. Distal biogenesis may facilitate degradation of damaged mitochondria and long-lived cytoplasmic proteins reaching the axon tip via slow axonal transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contribution of Mössbauer spectroscopy to the investigation of Fe/S biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Serres, Ricardo; Clémancey, Martin; Latour, Jean-Marc; Blondin, Geneviève

    2018-01-19

    Fe/S cluster biogenesis involves a complex machinery comprising several mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. Fe/S cluster biosynthesis is closely intertwined with iron trafficking in the cell. Defects in Fe/S cluster elaboration result in severe diseases such as Friedreich ataxia. Deciphering this machinery is a challenge for the scientific community. Because iron is a key player, 57 Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy is especially appropriate for the characterization of Fe species and monitoring the iron distribution. This minireview intends to illustrate how Mössbauer spectroscopy contributes to unravel steps in Fe/S cluster biogenesis. Studies were performed on isolated proteins that may be present in multiple protein complexes. Since a few decades, Mössbauer spectroscopy was also performed on whole cells or on isolated compartments such as mitochondria and vacuoles, affording an overview of the iron trafficking. This minireview aims at presenting selected applications of 57 Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy to Fe/S cluster biogenesis.

  12. Analysis of photosystem II biogenesis in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Steffen; Liauw, Pasqual; Nickelsen, Jörg; Nowaczyk, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Photosystem II (PSII), a large multisubunit membrane protein complex found in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae and plants, catalyzes light-driven oxygen evolution from water and reduction of plastoquinone. Biogenesis of PSII requires coordinated assembly of at least 20 protein subunits, as well as incorporation of various organic and inorganic cofactors. The stepwise assembly process is facilitated by numerous protein factors that have been identified in recent years. Further analysis of this process requires the development or refinement of specific methods for the identification of novel assembly factors and, in particular, elucidation of the unique role of each. Here we summarize current knowledge of PSII biogenesis in cyanobacteria, focusing primarily on the impact of methodological advances and innovations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Conrad Mullineaux. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cholesterol in myelin biogenesis and hypomyelinating disorders.

    PubMed

    Saher, Gesine; Stumpf, Sina Kristin

    2015-08-01

    The largest pool of free cholesterol in mammals resides in myelin membranes. Myelin facilitates rapid saltatory impulse propagation by electrical insulation of axons. This function is achieved by ensheathing axons with a tightly compacted stack of membranes. Cholesterol influences myelination at many steps, from the differentiation of myelinating glial cells, over the process of myelin membrane biogenesis, to the functionality of mature myelin. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate-limiting for the development of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system. Moreover, disorders that interfere with sterol synthesis or intracellular trafficking of cholesterol and other lipids cause hypomyelination and neurodegeneration. This review summarizes recent results on the roles of cholesterol in CNS myelin biogenesis in normal development and under different pathological conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain Lipids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Circadian Clock Coordinates Ribosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Symul, Laura; Martin, Eva; Atger, Florian; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Biological rhythms play a fundamental role in the physiology and behavior of most living organisms. Rhythmic circadian expression of clock-controlled genes is orchestrated by a molecular clock that relies on interconnected negative feedback loops of transcription regulators. Here we show that the circadian clock exerts its function also through the regulation of mRNA translation. Namely, the circadian clock influences the temporal translation of a subset of mRNAs involved in ribosome biogenesis by controlling the transcription of translation initiation factors as well as the clock-dependent rhythmic activation of signaling pathways involved in their regulation. Moreover, the circadian oscillator directly regulates the transcription of ribosomal protein mRNAs and ribosomal RNAs. Thus the circadian clock exerts a major role in coordinating transcription and translation steps underlying ribosome biogenesis. PMID:23300384

  15. Oil body biogenesis during Brassica napus embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Qing; Wu, Yan

    2009-08-01

    Although the oil body is known to be an important membrane enclosed compartment for oil storage in seeds, we have little understanding about its biogenesis during embryogenesis. In the present study we investigated the oil body emergence and variations in Brassica napus cv. Topas. The results demonstrate that the oil bodies could be detected already at the heart stage, at the same time as the embryos began to turn green, and the starch grains accumulated in the chloroplast stroma. In comparison, we have studied the development of oil bodies between Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col) and the low-seed-oil mutant wrinkled1-3. We observed that the oil body development in the embryos of Col is similar to that of B. napus cv. Topas, and that the size of the oil bodies was obviously smaller in the embryos of wrinkled1-3. Our results suggest that the oil body biogenesis might be coupled with the embryo chloroplast.

  16. Enantiomeric Natural Products: Occurrence and Biogenesis**

    PubMed Central

    Finefield, Jennifer M.; Sherman, David H.; Kreitman, Martin; Williams, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In Nature, chiral natural products are usually produced in optically pure form; however, on occasion Nature is known to produce enantiomerically opposite metabolites. These enantiomeric natural products can arise in Nature from a single species, or from different genera and/or species. Extensive research has been carried out over the years in an attempt to understand the biogenesis of naturally occurring enantiomers, however, many fascinating puzzles and stereochemical anomalies still remain. PMID:22555867

  17. Erythropoietin Activates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Couples Red Cell Mass to Mitochondrial Mass in the Heart

    EPA Science Inventory

    RATIONALE: Erythropoietin (EPO) is often administered to cardiac patients with anemia, particularly from chronic kidney disease, and stimulation of erythropoiesis may stabilize left ventricular and renal function by recruiting protective effects beyond the correction of anemia. O...

  18. Mitochondria-Division Inhibitor 1 Protects Against Amyloid-β induced Mitochondrial Fragmentation and Synaptic Damage in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, XiangLing

    2017-01-01

    The purpose our study was to determine the protective effects of mitochondria division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mdivi1 is hypothesized to reduce excessive fragmentation of mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction in AD neurons. Very little is known about whether Mdivi1 can confer protective effects in AD. In the present study, we sought to determine the protective effects of Mdivi1 against amyloid-β (Aβ)- and mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-induced excessive fragmentation of mitochondria in AD progression. We also studied preventive (Mdivi1+Aβ42) and intervention (Aβ42+Mdivi1) effects against Aβ42 in N2a cells. Using real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis, we measured mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis, and synaptic genes. We also assessed mitochondrial function by measuring H2O2, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity, and mitochondrial ATP. MTT assays were used to assess the cell viability. Aβ42 was found to impair mitochondrial dynamics, lower mitochondrial biogenesis, lower synaptic activity, and lower mitochondrial function. On the contrary, Mdivi1 enhanced mitochondrial fusion activity, lowered fission machinery, and increased biogenesis and synaptic proteins. Mitochondrial function and cell viability were elevated in Mdivi1-treated cells. Interestingly, Mdivi1 pre- and post-treated cells treated with Aβ showed reduced mitochondrial dysfunction, and maintained cell viability, mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis, and synaptic activity. The protective effects of Mdivi1 were stronger in N2a+Aβ42 pre-treated with Mdivi1, than in N2a+Aβ42 cells than Mdivi1 post-treated cells, indicating that Mdivi1 works better in prevention than treatment in AD like neurons.

  19. Mitochondrial Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Mitochondrial diseases are a group of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria are ... cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how many mitochondria ...

  20. Cancer: Mitochondrial Origins.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Kream, Richard M

    2015-12-01

    The primacy of glucose derived from photosynthesis as an existential source of chemical energy across plant and animal phyla is universally accepted as a core principle in the biological sciences. In mammalian cells, initial processing of glucose to triose phosphate intermediates takes place within the cytosolic glycolytic pathway and terminates with temporal transport of reducing equivalents derived from pyruvate metabolism by membrane-associated respiratory complexes in the mitochondrial matrix. The intra-mitochondrial availability of molecular oxygen as the ultimate electron acceptor drives the evolutionary fashioned chemiosmotic production of ATP as a high-efficiency biological process. The mechanistic bases of carcinogenesis have demonstrated profound alteration of normative mitochondrial function, notably dysregulated respiratory processes. Accordingly, the classic Warburg effect functionally links aerobic glycolysis, aberrant production and release of lactate, and metabolic down-regulation of mitochondrial oxidative processes with the carcinogenetic phenotype. We surmise, however, that aerobic fermentation by cancer cells may also represent a developmental re-emergence of an evolutionarily conserved early phenotype, which was "sidelined" with the emergence of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as a primary mechanism for ATP production in normal cells. Regardless of state-dependent physiological status in mixed populations of cancer cells, it has been established that mitochondria are functionally linked to the initiation of cancer and its progression. Biochemical, molecular, and physiological differences in cancer cell mitochondria, notably mtDNA heteroplasmy and allele-specific expression of selected nuclear genes, may represent major focal points for novel targeting and elimination of cancer cells in metastatic disease afflicting human populations. To date, and despite considerable research efforts, the practical realization of advanced mitochondrial

  1. Leucine modulation of mitochondrial mass and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaocun; Zemel, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    Background The effects of dairy on energy metabolism appear to be mediated, in part, by leucine and calcium which regulate both adipocyte and skeletal muscle energy metabolism. We recently demonstrated that leucine and calcitriol regulate fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells in vitro, with leucine promoting and calcitriol suppressing fatty acid oxidation. Moreover, leucine coordinately regulated adipocyte lipid metabolism to promote flux of lipid to skeletal muscle and regulate metabolic flexibility. We have now investigated the role of mitochondrial biogenesis in mediating these effects. Methods We tested the effect of leucine, calcitriol and calcium in regulation of mitochondrial mass using a fluorescence method and tested mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory genes as well mitochondrial component genes using real-time PCR. We also evaluated the effect of leucine on oxygen consumption with a modified perfusion system. Results Leucine (0.5 mM) increased mitochondrial mass by 30% and 53% in C2C12 myocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively, while calcitriol (10 nM) decreased mitochondrial abundance by 37% and 27% (p < 0.02). Leucine also stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis genes SIRT-1, PGC-1α and NRF-1 as well as mitochondrial component genes UCP3, COX, and NADH expression by 3–5 fold in C2C12 cells (p < 0.003). Adipocyte-conditioned medium reduced mitochondrial abundance (p < 0.001) and decreased UCP3 but increased PGC-1α expression in myocytes, suggesting a feedback stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Similar data were observed in C2C12 myocytes co-cultured with adipocytes, with co-culture markedly suppressing mitochondrial abundance (p < 0.02). Leucine stimulated oxygen consumption in both C2C12 cells and adipocytes compared with either control or valine-treated cells. Transfection of C2C12 myocytes with SIRT-1 siRNA resulted in parallel suppression of SIRT-1 expression and leucine-induced stimulation of PGC-1α and NRF-1, indicating that SIRT

  2. SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN MELANOSOME BIOGENESIS AND PATHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2010-01-01

    Melanosomes are the specialized intracellular organelles of pigment cells devoted to the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin pigments, which are responsible for most visible pigmentation in mammals and other vertebrates. As a direct consequence, any genetic mutation resulting in alteration of melanosomal function, either because affecting pigment cell survival, migration and differentiation, or because interfering with melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer to keratinocytes, is immediately translated into color variations of skin, fur, hair or eyes. Thus, over one hundred genes and proteins have been identified as pigmentary determinants in mammals, providing us with a deep understanding of this biological system, which functions by using mechanisms and processes that have parallels in other tissues and organs. In particular, many genes implicated in melanosome biogenesis have been characterized, so that melanosomes represent an incredible source of information and a model for organelles belonging to the secretory pathway. Furthermore, the function of melanosomes can be associated with common physiological phenotypes, such as variation of pigmentation among individuals, and with rare pathological conditions, such as albinism, characterized by severe visual defects. Among the most relevant mechanisms operating in melanosome biogenesis are the signal transduction pathways mediated by two peculiar G protein-coupled receptors: the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), involved in the fair skin/red hair phenotype and skin cancer; and OA1 (GPR143), whose loss-of-function results in X-linked ocular albinism. This review will focus on the most recent novelties regarding the functioning of these two receptors, by highlighting emerging signaling mechanisms and general implications for cell biology and pathology. PMID:20381640

  3. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jens C; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-06-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species. © 2015 Schmidt and Cech Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, increased hepatic glucose production, increased lipolysis in adipose tissue, and altered insulin secretion. Studies of individuals with insulin resistance, both with established T2D and high-risk individuals, have consistently demonstrated a diverse array of defects in mitochondrial function (i.e., bioenergetics, biogenesis and dynamics). However, it remains uncertain whether mitochondrial dysfunction is primary (critical initiating defect) or secondary to the subtle derangements in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and defective insulin secretion present early in the course of disease development. In this chapter, we will present the evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and review the potential for mitochondrial targets as a therapeutic approach for T2D.

  5. Mitochondrial ribosome assembly in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Dasmanthie; Tu, Ya-Ting; Amunts, Alexey; Fontanesi, Flavia; Barrientos, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    The ribosome is a structurally and functionally conserved macromolecular machine universally responsible for catalyzing protein synthesis. Within eukaryotic cells, mitochondria contain their own ribosomes (mitoribosomes), which synthesize a handful of proteins, all essential for the biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system. High-resolution cryo-EM structures of the yeast, porcine and human mitoribosomal subunits and of the entire human mitoribosome have uncovered a wealth of new information to illustrate their evolutionary divergence from their bacterial ancestors and their adaptation to synthesis of highly hydrophobic membrane proteins. With such structural data becoming available, one of the most important remaining questions is that of the mitoribosome assembly pathway and factors involved. The regulation of mitoribosome biogenesis is paramount to mitochondrial respiration, and thus to cell viability, growth and differentiation. Moreover, mutations affecting the rRNA and protein components produce severe human mitochondrial disorders. Despite its biological and biomedical significance, knowledge on mitoribosome biogenesis and its deviations from the much-studied bacterial ribosome assembly processes is scarce, especially the order of rRNA processing and assembly events and the regulatory factors required to achieve fully functional particles. This article focuses on summarizing the current available information on mitoribosome assembly pathway, factors that form the mitoribosome assembly machinery, and the effect of defective mitoribosome assembly on human health. PMID:26030272

  6. PI(5)P Regulates Autophagosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vicinanza, Mariella; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Ashkenazi, Avraham; Puri, Claudia; Menzies, Fiona M.; Clarke, Jonathan H.; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of class III PI3K VPS34, recruits specific autophagic effectors, like WIPI2, during the initial steps of autophagosome biogenesis and thereby regulates canonical autophagy. However, mammalian cells can produce autophagosomes through enigmatic noncanonical VPS34-independent pathways. Here we show that PI(5)P can regulate autophagy via PI(3)P effectors and thereby identify a mechanistic explanation for forms of noncanonical autophagy. PI(5)P synthesis by the phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase PIKfyve was required for autophagosome biogenesis, and it increased levels of PI(5)P, stimulated autophagy, and reduced the levels of autophagic substrates. Inactivation of VPS34 impaired recruitment of WIPI2 and DFCP1 to autophagic precursors, reduced ATG5-ATG12 conjugation, and compromised autophagosome formation. However, these phenotypes were rescued by PI(5)P in VPS34-inactivated cells. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for alternative VPS34-independent autophagy-initiating pathways, like glucose starvation, and unravel a cytoplasmic function for PI(5)P, which previously has been linked predominantly to nuclear roles. PMID:25578879

  7. Mitochondrial vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Zarrouk-Mahjoub, Sinda

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are usually multisystem disorders (mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome) either on from onset or starting at a point during the disease course. Most frequently affected tissues are those with a high oxygen demand such as the central nervous system, the muscle, endocrine glands, or the myocardium. Recently, it has been shown that rarely also the arteries may be affected (mitochondrial arteriopathy). This review focuses on the type, diagnosis, and treatment of mitochondrial vasculopathy in MID patients. A literature search using appropriate search terms was carried out. Mitochondrial vasculopathy manifests as either microangiopathy or macroangiopathy. Clinical manifestations of mitochondrial microangiopathy include leukoencephalopathy, migraine-like headache, stroke-like episodes, or peripheral retinopathy. Mitochondrial macroangiopathy manifests as atherosclerosis, ectasia of arteries, aneurysm formation, dissection, or spontaneous rupture of arteries. The diagnosis relies on the documentation and confirmation of the mitochondrial metabolic defect or the genetic cause after exclusion of non-MID causes. Treatment is not at variance compared to treatment of vasculopathy due to non-MID causes. Mitochondrial vasculopathy exists and manifests as micro- or macroangiopathy. Diagnosing mitochondrial vasculopathy is crucial since appropriate treatment may prevent from severe complications. PMID:27231520

  8. From centriole biogenesis to cellular function: centrioles are essential for cell division at critical developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Martins, Ana; Riparbelli, Maria; Callaini, Giuliano; Glover, David M; Bettencourt-Dias, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Centrioles are essential for the formation of cilia, flagella and centrosome organization. Abnormalities in centrosome structure and number in many cancers can be associated with aberrant cell division and genomic instability.(1,2) Canonical centriole duplication occurs in coordination with the cell division cycle, such that a single new "daughter" centriole arises next to each "mother" centriole. If destroyed, or eliminated during development, centrioles can form de novo.(3-5) Here we discuss our recent data demonstrating a molecular pathway that operates in both de novo and canonical centriole biogenesis involving SAK/PLK4, SAS-6 and SAS-4.(6) We showed that centriole biogenesis is a self-assembly process locally triggered by high SAK/PLK4 activity that may or not be associated with an existing centriole. SAS-6 acts downstream of SAK/PLK4 to organize nine precentriolar units, which we call here enatosomes, fitting together laterally and longitudinally, specifying a tube-like centriole precursor.(7,8) The identification of mutants impaired in centriole biogenesis has permitted the study of the physiological consequences of their absence in the whole organism. In Drosophila, centrioles are not necessary for somatic cell divisions.(9,10) However, we show here that mitotic abnormalities arise in syncytial SAK/PLK4-derived mutant embryos resulting in lethality. Moreover male meiosis fails in both SAK/PLK4 and DSAS-4 mutant spermatids that have no centrioles. These results show diversity in the need for centrioles in cell division. This suggests that tissue specific constraints selected for different contributions of centrosome-independent and dependent mechanisms in spindle function. This heterogeneity should be taken into account both in reaching an understanding of spindle function and when designing drugs that target cell division.

  9. Loss of mitochondrial exo/endonuclease EXOG affects mitochondrial respiration and induces ROS-mediated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tigchelaar, Wardit; Yu, Hongjuan; de Jong, Anne Margreet; van Gilst, Wiek H; van der Harst, Pim; Westenbrink, B Daan; de Boer, Rudolf A; Silljé, Herman H W

    2015-01-15

    Recently, a locus at the mitochondrial exo/endonuclease EXOG gene, which has been implicated in mitochondrial DNA repair, was associated with cardiac function. The function of EXOG in cardiomyocytes is still elusive. Here we investigated the role of EXOG in mitochondrial function and hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes. Depletion of EXOG in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs) induced a marked increase in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Depletion of EXOG, however, did not result in loss of mitochondrial DNA integrity. Although EXOG depletion did not induce fetal gene expression and common hypertrophy pathways were not activated, a clear increase in ribosomal S6 phosphorylation was observed, which readily explains increased protein synthesis. With the use of a Seahorse flux analyzer, it was shown that the mitochondrial oxidative consumption rate (OCR) was increased 2.4-fold in EXOG-depleted NRVCs. Moreover, ATP-linked OCR was 5.2-fold higher. This increase was not explained by mitochondrial biogenesis or alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blotting confirmed normal levels of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes. The increased OCR was accompanied by a 5.4-fold increase in mitochondrial ROS levels. These increased ROS levels could be normalized with specific mitochondrial ROS scavengers (MitoTEMPO, mnSOD). Remarkably, scavenging of excess ROS strongly attenuated the hypertrophic response. In conclusion, loss of EXOG affects normal mitochondrial function resulting in increased mitochondrial respiration, excess ROS production, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Caenorhabditis elegans neuron degeneration and mitochondrial suppression caused by selected environmental chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shaoyu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial alterations have been documented for many years in the brains of Parkinson’s disease (PD), a disorder that is characterized by the selective loss of dopamine neurons. Recent studies have demonstrated that Parkinson’s disease-associated proteins are either present in mitochondria or translocated into mitochondria in response to stress, further reinforcing the importance of the mitochondrial function in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Exposure to environmental chemicals such as pesticides and heavy metals has been suggested as risk factors in the development of Parkinson’s disease. It has been reported that a number of environmental agents including tobacco smoke and perfluorinated compounds, pesticides, as well as metals (Mn2+ and Pb2+) modulate mitochondrial function. However the exact mechanism of mitochondrial alteration has not been defined in the context of the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease. The complexity of the mammalian system has made it difficult to dissect the molecular components involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. In the present study we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model of neuron degeneration and investigated the effect of environmental chemicals on mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial gene regulation. Chronic exposure to low concentration (2 or 4 μM) of pesticide rotenone, resulted in significant loss of dopamine neuron in C. elegans, a classic feature of Parkinson’s disease. We then determined if the rotenone-induced neuron degeneration is accompanied by a change in mitochondria biogenesis. Analysis of mitochondrial genomic replication by quantitative PCR showed a dramatic decrease in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copies of rotenone-treated C. elegans compared to control. This decreased mitochondrial biogenesis occurred prior to the development of loss of dopamine neurons, and was persistent. The inhibition of mtDNA replication was also found in C

  11. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP-1) Regulates Ribosomal Biogenesis in Drosophila Nucleoli

    PubMed Central

    Boamah, Ernest K.; Kotova, Elena; Garabedian, Mikael; Jarnik, Michael; Tulin, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), a nuclear protein, utilizes NAD to synthesize poly(AD-Pribose) (pADPr), resulting in both automodification and the modification of acceptor proteins. Substantial amounts of PARP1 and pADPr (up to 50%) are localized to the nucleolus, a subnuclear organelle known as a region for ribosome biogenesis and maturation. At present, the functional significance of PARP1 protein inside the nucleolus remains unclear. Using PARP1 mutants, we investigated the function of PARP1, pADPr, and PARP1-interacting proteins in the maintenance of nucleolus structure and functions. Our analysis shows that disruption of PARP1 enzymatic activity caused nucleolar disintegration and aberrant localization of nucleolar-specific proteins. Additionally, PARP1 mutants have increased accumulation of rRNA intermediates and a decrease in ribosome levels. Together, our data suggests that PARP1 enzymatic activity is required for targeting nucleolar proteins to the proximity of precursor rRNA; hence, PARP1 controls precursor rRNA processing, post-transcriptional modification, and pre-ribosome assembly. Based on these findings, we propose a model that explains how PARP1 activity impacts nucleolar functions and, consequently, ribosomal biogenesis. PMID:22242017

  12. The RNA-binding protein Hfq is important for ribosome biogenesis and affects translation fidelity.

    PubMed

    Andrade, José M; Dos Santos, Ricardo F; Chelysheva, Irina; Ignatova, Zoya; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2018-06-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a complex process involving multiple factors. Here, we show that the widely conserved RNA chaperone Hfq, which can regulate sRNA-mRNA basepairing, plays a critical role in rRNA processing and ribosome assembly in Escherichia coli Hfq binds the 17S rRNA precursor and facilitates its correct processing and folding to mature 16S rRNA Hfq assists ribosome assembly and associates with pre-30S particles but not with mature 30S subunits. Inactivation of Hfq strikingly decreases the pool of mature 70S ribosomes. The reduction in ribosome levels depends on residues located in the distal face of Hfq but not on residues found in the proximal and rim surfaces which govern interactions with the sRNAs. Our results indicate that Hfq-mediated regulation of ribosomes is independent of its function as sRNA-regulator. Furthermore, we observed that inactivation of Hfq compromises translation efficiency and fidelity, both features of aberrantly assembled ribosomes. Our work expands the functions of the Sm-like protein Hfq beyond its function in small RNA-mediated regulation and unveils a novel role of Hfq as crucial in ribosome biogenesis and translation. © 2018 The Authors.

  13. A Mitochondrial Mutator System in Maize1[w

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmin, Evgeny V.; Duvick, Donald N.; Newton, Kathleen J.

    2005-01-01

    The P2 line of maize (Zea mays) is characterized by mitochondrial genome destabilization, initiated by recessive nuclear mutations. These alleles alter copy number control of mitochondrial subgenomes and disrupt normal transfer of mitochondrial genomic components to progeny, resulting in differences in mitochondrial DNA profiles among sibling plants and between parents and progeny. The mitochondrial DNA changes are often associated with variably defective phenotypes, reflecting depletion of essential mitochondrial genes. The P2 nuclear genotype can be considered a natural mutagenesis system for maize mitochondria. It dramatically accelerates mitochondrial genomic divergence by increasing low copy-number subgenomes, by rapidly amplifying aberrant recombination products, and by causing the random loss of normal components of the mitochondrial genomes. PMID:15681663

  14. Development of pharmacological strategies for mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kanabus, M; Heales, S J; Rahman, S

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are an unusually genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous group of disorders, which are extremely challenging to treat. Currently, apart from supportive therapy, there are no effective treatments for the vast majority of mitochondrial diseases. Huge scientific effort, however, is being put into understanding the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial disease pathology and developing potential treatments. To date, a variety of treatments have been evaluated by randomized clinical trials, but unfortunately, none of these has delivered breakthrough results. Increased understanding of mitochondrial pathways and the development of many animal models, some of which are accurate phenocopies of human diseases, are facilitating the discovery and evaluation of novel prospective treatments. Targeting reactive oxygen species has been a treatment of interest for many years; however, only in recent years has it been possible to direct antioxidant delivery specifically into the mitochondria. Increasing mitochondrial biogenesis, whether by pharmacological approaches, dietary manipulation or exercise therapy, is also currently an active area of research. Modulating mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy and the mitochondrial membrane lipid milieu have also emerged as possible treatment strategies. Recent technological advances in gene therapy, including allotopic and transkingdom gene expression and mitochondrially targeted transcription activator-like nucleases, have led to promising results in cell and animal models of mitochondrial diseases, but most of these techniques are still far from clinical application. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24116962

  15. Mitochondrial myopathies.

    PubMed

    DiMauro, Salvatore

    2006-11-01

    Our understanding of mitochondrial diseases (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is expanding rapidly. In this review, I will give the latest information on disorders affecting predominantly or exclusively skeletal muscle. The most recently described mitochondrial myopathies are due to defects in nuclear DNA, including coenzyme Q10 deficiency and mutations in genes controlling mitochondrial DNA abundance and structure, such as POLG, TK2, and MPV17. Barth syndrome, an X-linked recessive mitochondrial myopathy/cardiopathy, is associated with decreased amount and altered structure of cardiolipin, the main phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane, but a secondary impairment of respiratory chain function is plausible. The role of mutations in protein-coding genes of mitochondrial DNA in causing isolated myopathies has been confirmed. Mutations in tRNA genes of mitochondrial DNA can also cause predominantly myopathic syndromes and--contrary to conventional wisdom--these mutations can be homoplasmic. Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing exercise intolerance, cramps, recurrent myoglobinuria, or fixed weakness, which often affects extraocular muscles and results in droopy eyelids (ptosis) and progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

  16. A Molecular Approach to Mitophagy and Mitochondrial Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung-Min; Jung, Yong-Keun

    2018-01-01

    Mitochondrial quality control systems are essential for the maintenance of functional mitochondria. At the organelle level, they include mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion and fission, to compensate for mitochondrial function, and mitophagy, for degrading damaged mitochondria. Specifically, in mitophagy, the target mitochondria are recognized by the autophagosomes and delivered to the lysosome for degradation. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of mitophagy and the factors that play an important role in this process. In particular, we focus on the roles of mitophagy adapters and receptors in the recognition of damaged mitochondria by autophagosomes. In addition, we also address a functional association of mitophagy with mitochondrial dynamics through the interaction of mitophagy adaptor and receptor proteins with mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins. PMID:29370689

  17. Biogenesis and Function of Multivesicular Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Robert C.; Katzmann, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The two major cellular sites for membrane protein degradation are the proteasome and the lysosome. Ubiquitin attachment is a sorting signal for both degradation routes. For lysosomal degradation, ubiquitination triggers the sorting of cargo proteins into the lumen of late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/endosomes. MVB formation occurs when a portion of the limiting membrane of an endosome invaginates and buds into its own lumen. Intralumenal vesicles are degraded when MVBs fuse to lysosomes. The proper delivery of proteins to the MVB interior relies on specific ubiquitination of cargo, recognition and sorting of ubiquitinated cargo to endosomal subdomains, and the formation and scission of cargo-filled intralumenal vesicles. Over the past five years, a number of proteins that may directly participate in these aspects of MVB function and biogenesis have been identified. However, major questions remain as to exactly what these proteins do at the molecular level and how they may accomplish these tasks. PMID:17506697

  18. Direct effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on poor bone health in Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroki; Han, Xu; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Masuda, Keiji; Hirofuji, Yuta; Sato, Hiroshi; Pham, Thanh Thi Mai; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Nonaka, Kazuaki

    2017-11-04

    Mitochondrial diseases are the result of aberrant mitochondrial function caused by mutations in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA. Poor bone health has recently been suggested as a symptom of mitochondrial diseases; however, a direct link between decreased mitochondrial function and poor bone health in mitochondrial disease has not been demonstrated. In this study, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) were isolated from a child with Leigh syndrome (LS), a mitochondrial disease, and the effects of decreased mitochondrial function on poor bone health were analyzed. Compared with control SHED, LS SHED displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation and calcium mineralization. The intracellular and mitochondrial calcium levels were lower in LS SHED than in control SHED. Furthermore, the mitochondrial activity of LS SHED was decreased compared with control SHED both with and without osteoblastic differentiation. Our results indicate that decreased osteoblast differentiation potential and osteoblast function contribute to poor bone health in mitochondrial diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mitochondrial O-GlcNAc Transferase (mOGT) Regulates Mitochondrial Structure, Function, and Survival in HeLa Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Sacoman, Juliana L.; Dagda, Raul Y.; Burnham-Marusich, Amanda R.; Dagda, Ruben K.; Berninsone, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) catalyzes O-GlcNAcylation of target proteins and regulates numerous biological processes. OGT is encoded by a single gene that yields nucleocytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms. To date, the role of the mitochondrial isoform of OGT (mOGT) remains largely unknown. Using high throughput proteomics, we identified 84 candidate mitochondrial glycoproteins, of which 44 are novel. Notably, two of the candidate glycoproteins identified (cytochrome oxidase 2 (COX2) and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 4 (MT-ND4)) are encoded by mitochondrial DNA. Using siRNA in HeLa cells, we found that reducing endogenous mOGT expression leads to alterations in mitochondrial structure and function, including Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation, reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, and a significant loss of mitochondrial content in the absence of mitochondrial ROS. These defects are associated with a compensatory increase in oxidative phosphorylation per mitochondrion. mOGT is also critical for cell survival; siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous mOGT protected cells against toxicity mediated by rotenone, a complex I inhibitor. Conversely, reduced expression of both nucleocytoplasmic (ncOGT) and mitochondrial (mOGT) OGT isoforms is associated with increased mitochondrial respiration and elevated glycolysis, suggesting that ncOGT is a negative regulator of cellular bioenergetics. Last, we determined that mOGT is probably involved in the glycosylation of a restricted set of mitochondrial targets. We identified four proteins implicated in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism regulation as candidate substrates of mOGT, including leucine-rich PPR-containing protein and mitochondrial aconitate hydratase. Our findings suggest that mOGT is catalytically active in vivo and supports mitochondrial structure, health, and survival, whereas ncOGT predominantly regulates cellular bioenergetics. PMID:28100784

  20. Mitochondrial Proteome Studies in Seeds during Germination

    PubMed Central

    Czarna, Malgorzata; Kolodziejczak, Marta; Janska, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination is considered to be one of the most critical phases in the plant life cycle, establishing the next generation of a plant species. It is an energy-demanding process that requires functioning mitochondria. One of the earliest events of seed germination is progressive development of structurally simple and metabolically quiescent promitochondria into fully active and cristae-containing mitochondria, known as mitochondrial biogenesis. This is a complex and tightly regulated process, which is accompanied by sequential and dynamic gene expression, protein synthesis, and post-translational modifications. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive summary of seed mitochondrial proteome studies during germination of various plant model organisms. We describe different gel-based and gel-free proteomic approaches used to characterize mitochondrial proteomes of germinating seeds as well as challenges and limitations of these proteomic studies. Furthermore, the dynamic changes in the abundance of the mitochondrial proteomes of germinating seeds are illustrated, highlighting numerous mitochondrial proteins involved in respiration, tricarboxycylic acid (TCA) cycle, metabolism, import, and stress response as potentially important for seed germination. We then review seed mitochondrial protein carbonylation, phosphorylation, and S-nitrosylation as well as discuss the possible link between these post-translational modifications (PTMs) and the regulation of seed germination. PMID:28248229

  1. Targeted transgenic overexpression of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) alters mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial polypeptide abundance: transgenic TK2, mtDNA, and antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed H; Kohler, James J; Haase, Chad P; Tioleco, Nina; Stuart, Tami; Keebaugh, Erin; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Green, Elgin; Long, Robert; Wang, Liya; Eriksson, Staffan; Lewis, William

    2007-03-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity limits nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. NRTI triphosphates, the active moieties, inhibit human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA polymerase pol-gamma. NRTI phosphorylation seems to correlate with mitochondrial toxicity, but experimental evidence is lacking. Transgenic mice (TGs) with cardiac overexpression of thymidine kinase isoforms (mitochondrial TK2 and cytoplasmic TK1) were used to study NRTI mitochondrial toxicity. Echocardiography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging defined cardiac performance and structure. TK gene copy and enzyme activity, mitochondrial (mt) DNA and polypeptide abundance, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, and electron microscopy correlated with transgenesis, mitochondrial structure, and biogenesis. Antiretroviral combinations simulated therapy. Untreated hTK1 or TK2 TGs exhibited normal left ventricle mass. In TK2 TGs, cardiac TK2 gene copy doubled, activity increased 300-fold, and mtDNA abundance doubled. Abundance of the 17-kd subunit of complex I, succinate dehydrogenase histochemical activity, and cristae density increased. NRTIs increased left ventricle mass 20% in TK2 TGs. TK activity increased 3 logs in hTK1 TGs, but no cardiac phenotype resulted. NRTIs abrogated functional effects of transgenically increased TK2 activity but had no effect on TK2 mtDNA abundance. Thus, NRTI mitochondrial phosphorylation by TK2 is integral to clinical NRTI mitochondrial toxicity.

  2. Cytochrome c Oxidase Biogenesis and Metallochaperone Interactions: Steps in the Assembly Pathway of a Bacterial Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Biogenesis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a complex process involving the coordinate expression and assembly of numerous subunits (SU) of dual genetic origin. Moreover, several auxiliary factors are required to recruit and insert the redox-active metal compounds, which in most cases are buried in their protein scaffold deep inside the membrane. Here we used a combination of gel electrophoresis and pull-down assay techniques in conjunction with immunostaining as well as complexome profiling to identify and analyze the composition of assembly intermediates in solubilized membranes of the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans. Our results show that the central SUI passes through at least three intermediate complexes with distinct subunit and cofactor composition before formation of the holoenzyme and its subsequent integration into supercomplexes. We propose a model for COX biogenesis in which maturation of newly translated COX SUI is initially assisted by CtaG, a chaperone implicated in CuB site metallation, followed by the interaction with the heme chaperone Surf1c to populate the redox-active metal-heme centers in SUI. Only then the remaining smaller subunits are recruited to form the mature enzyme which ultimately associates with respiratory complexes I and III into supercomplexes. PMID:28107462

  3. Exercise training improves vascular mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Rossman, Matthew J.; Gifford, Jayson R.; Bharath, Leena P.; Bauersachs, Johann; Richardson, Russell S.; Abel, E. Dale; Symons, J. David

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is recognized to improve cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity; however, the impact of chronic exercise on vascular mitochondrial respiratory function is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise training concomitantly increases both vascular mitochondrial respiratory capacity and vascular function. Arteries from both sedentary (SED) and swim-trained (EX, 5 wk) mice were compared in terms of mitochondrial respiratory function, mitochondrial content, markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and vessel function. Mitochondrial complex I and complex I + II state 3 respiration and the respiratory control ratio (complex I + II state 3 respiration/complex I state 2 respiration) were greater in vessels from EX relative to SED mice, despite similar levels of arterial citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, compared with the SED mice, arteries from EX mice displayed elevated transcript levels of peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and the downstream targets cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1, isocitrate dehydrogenase (Idh) 2, and Idh3a, increased manganese superoxide dismutase protein expression, increased endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation (Ser1177), and suppressed reactive oxygen species generation (all P < 0.05). Although there were no differences in EX and SED mice concerning endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, phenylephrine-induced vasocontraction was blunted in vessels from EX compared with SED mice, and this effect was normalized by NOS inhibition. These training-induced increases in vascular mitochondrial respiratory capacity and evidence of improved redox balance, which may, at least in part, be attributable to elevated NO bioavailability, have the potential to protect against age- and disease-related challenges to arterial function. PMID:26825520

  4. Complex IV Deficient Surf1−/− Mice Initiate Mitochondrial Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Pulliam, Daniel A.; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S.; Liu, Yuhong; Hill, Shauna; Lin, Ai-Ling; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Shi, Yun; Sloane, Lauren; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Van Remmen, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mutations in SURF1 cytochrome c oxidase (COX) assembly protein are associated with Leigh’s syndrome, a human mitochondrial disorder that manifests as severe mitochondrial phenotypes and early lethality. In contrast, mice lacking the Surf1 protein (Surf1−/−) are viable and were previously shown to have enhanced longevity and a greater than 50% reduction in COX activity. We measured mitochondrial function in heart and skeletal muscle, and despite the significant reduction in COX activity, we found little or no difference in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, membrane potential, ATP production or respiration in isolated mitochondria from Surf1−/− mice compared to wild-type. However, blood lactate levels are elevated and Surf1−/− mice have reduced running endurance, suggesting compromised mitochondrial energy metabolism in vivo. Decreased COX activity in Surf1−/− mice is associated with increased markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and VDAC) in both heart and skeletal muscle. While mitochondrial biogenesis is a common response in the two tissues, skeletal muscle have an up-regulation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRMT) and heart exhibits induction of the Nrf2 antioxidant response pathway. These data are the first to report induction of the UPRMT in a mammalian model of diminished COX activity. In addition our results suggest that impaired mitochondrial function can lead to induction of mitochondrial stress pathways to confer protective effects on cellular homeostasis. Loss of complex IV assembly factor Surf1 in mice results in compensatory responses including mitochondrial biogenesis, the nrf2 pathway and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. This compensatory response may contribute to the lack of deleterious phenotypes under basal conditions. PMID:24911525

  5. OF TRYPANOSOMATIDS. ENDOTRANSFORMATIONS AND ABERRATIONS].

    PubMed

    Frolov, A O; Malysheva, M N; Kostygov, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Endotransformations and aberrations of the life cycle in the evolutionary history of trypanosomatids (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) are analyzed. We treat the term "endotransformations" as evolutionarily fixed changes of phases and/or developmental stages of parasites. By contrast, we treat aberrations as evolutionary unstable, periodically arising deformations of developmental phases of trypanosomatids, never leading to life cycle changes. Various examples of life cycle endotransformations and aberrations in representatives of the family Trypanosomatidae are discussed.

  6. Laminar shear stress promotes mitochondrial homeostasis in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Hong; Chang, Hao-Chun; Ting, Pei-Ching; Wang, Danny L

    2018-06-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly subjected to flow-induced shear stress that is crucial for endothelial functions. Laminar shear stress (LSS) exerts atheroprotection to ECs. Mitochondrial homeostasis is essential for cellular survival. However, the effects of LSS on mitochondrial homeostasis in ECs remain unclear. Mitochondrial homeostasis in ECs exposed to LSS was examined. Cultured human umbilical vein ECs were subjected to LSS (12 dynes/cm 2 ) generated by a parallel-plate flow chamber system. ECs subjected to LSS demonstrated an increment of mitochondria in tubular form coupled with the increase of fusion proteins (Mfn2, OPA1) and the decrease of fission protein (Fis1). An increase of both long- and short- OPA1 along with a higher protease YME1L level were observed. LSS triggered a rapid phosphorylation on S637 but a decrease on S616 of fission-controlled protein Drp1. Consistently, Drp1 translocation to mitochondria was decreased in sheared ECs, suggesting that LSS promotes mitochondrial fusion. Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis in sheared ECs was shown by the increase of mitochondrial mass and its regulatory proeins (PGC1α, TFAM, Nrf1). LSS enhances the expression of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes and improves mitochondrial functions indicated by the increase of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ATP generation. TNFα treatment decreased mitochondrial tubular network and its functions in ECs. LSS mitigated TNFα-induced mitochondrial impairments in ECs. Our results clearly indicate that LSS promotes mitochondrial homeostasis and attenuates inflammation-induced mitochondrial impairments in ECs. Our results provide novel insights into the manner of mitochondrial dynamics and functions modulated by LSS that contribute to endothelial integrity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mitochondrial loss, dysfunction and altered dynamics in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Moody, Jennifer P; Edgerly, Christina K; Bordiuk, Olivia L; Cormier, Kerry; Smith, Karen; Beal, M Flint; Ferrante, Robert J

    2010-10-15

    Although a direct causative pathway from the gene mutation to the selective neostriatal neurodegeneration remains unclear in Huntington's disease (HD), one putative pathological mechanism reported to play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of this neurological disorder is mitochondrial dysfunction. We examined mitochondria in preferentially vulnerable striatal calbindin-positive neurons in moderate-to-severe grade HD patients, using antisera against mitochondrial markers of COX2, SOD2 and cytochrome c. Combined calbindin and mitochondrial marker immunofluorescence showed a significant and progressive grade-dependent reduction in the number of mitochondria in spiny striatal neurons, with marked alteration in size. Consistent with mitochondrial loss, there was a reduction in COX2 protein levels using western analysis that corresponded with disease severity. In addition, both mitochondrial transcription factor A, a regulator of mtDNA, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-co-activator gamma-1 alpha, a key transcriptional regulator of energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, were also significantly reduced with increasing disease severity. Abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics were observed, showing a significant increase in the fission protein Drp1 and a reduction in the expression of the fusion protein mitofusin 1. Lastly, mitochondrial PCR array profiling in HD caudate nucleus specimens showed increased mRNA expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial localization, membrane translocation and polarization and transport that paralleled mitochondrial derangement. These findings reveal that there are both mitochondrial loss and altered mitochondrial morphogenesis with increased mitochondrial fission and reduced fusion in HD. These findings provide further evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HD.

  8. Mitochondrial redox system, dynamics, and dysfunction in lung inflammaging and COPD.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Chad A; Sundar, Isaac K; Rahman, Irfan

    2016-12-01

    Myriad forms of endogenous and environmental stress disrupt mitochondrial function by impacting critical processes in mitochondrial homeostasis, such as mitochondrial redox system, oxidative phosphorylation, biogenesis, and mitophagy. External stressors that interfere with the steady state activity of mitochondrial functions are generally associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species, inflammatory response, and induction of cellular senescence (inflammaging) potentially via mitochondrial damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPS). Many of these are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its exacerbations. In this review, we highlight the primary mitochondrial quality control mechanisms that are influenced by oxidative stress/redox system, including role of mitochondria during inflammation and cellular senescence, and how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD and its exacerbations via pathogenic stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>600) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitoc...

  10. Effective treatment of mitochondrial myopathy by nicotinamide riboside, a vitamin B3.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nahid A; Auranen, Mari; Paetau, Ilse; Pirinen, Eija; Euro, Liliya; Forsström, Saara; Pasila, Lotta; Velagapudi, Vidya; Carroll, Christopher J; Auwerx, Johan; Suomalainen, Anu

    2014-06-01

    Nutrient availability is the major regulator of life and reproduction, and a complex cellular signaling network has evolved to adapt organisms to fasting. These sensor pathways monitor cellular energy metabolism, especially mitochondrial ATP production and NAD(+)/NADH ratio, as major signals for nutritional state. We hypothesized that these signals would be modified by mitochondrial respiratory chain disease, because of inefficient NADH utilization and ATP production. Oral administration of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a vitamin B3 and NAD(+) precursor, was previously shown to boost NAD(+) levels in mice and to induce mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we treated mitochondrial myopathy mice with NR. This vitamin effectively delayed early- and late-stage disease progression, by robustly inducing mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue, preventing mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormalities and mtDNA deletion formation. NR further stimulated mitochondrial unfolded protein response, suggesting its protective role in mitochondrial disease. These results indicate that NR and strategies boosting NAD(+) levels are a promising treatment strategy for mitochondrial myopathy. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY license.

  11. Effective treatment of mitochondrial myopathy by nicotinamide riboside, a vitamin B3

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nahid A; Auranen, Mari; Paetau, Ilse; Pirinen, Eija; Euro, Liliya; Forsström, Saara; Pasila, Lotta; Velagapudi, Vidya; Carroll, Christopher J; Auwerx, Johan; Suomalainen, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient availability is the major regulator of life and reproduction, and a complex cellular signaling network has evolved to adapt organisms to fasting. These sensor pathways monitor cellular energy metabolism, especially mitochondrial ATP production and NAD+/NADH ratio, as major signals for nutritional state. We hypothesized that these signals would be modified by mitochondrial respiratory chain disease, because of inefficient NADH utilization and ATP production. Oral administration of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a vitamin B3 and NAD+ precursor, was previously shown to boost NAD+ levels in mice and to induce mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we treated mitochondrial myopathy mice with NR. This vitamin effectively delayed early- and late-stage disease progression, by robustly inducing mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue, preventing mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormalities and mtDNA deletion formation. NR further stimulated mitochondrial unfolded protein response, suggesting its protective role in mitochondrial disease. These results indicate that NR and strategies boosting NAD+ levels are a promising treatment strategy for mitochondrial myopathy. PMID:24711540

  12. Mitochondrial Myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and nutritional supplements) that appear to offer general defenses against aging and disease. In such cases, excess ... sporadic, meaning that they occur without any family history. To understand how mitochondrial diseases are inherited, it ...

  13. Mitochondrial Myopathies

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle cells and nerve cells have especially high energy needs, muscular and ease), mitochondrial diseases are so- ... and coordination, sei- eases affect the mitochondria — tiny energy zures and learning deficits — are common factories found ...

  14. Biogenesis and Metabolic Maintenance of Rubisco.

    PubMed

    Bracher, Andreas; Whitney, Spencer M; Hartl, F Ulrich; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2017-04-28

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) mediates the fixation of atmospheric CO 2 in photosynthesis by catalyzing the carboxylation of the 5-carbon sugar ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP). Rubisco is a remarkably inefficient enzyme, fixing only 2-10 CO 2 molecules per second. Efforts to increase crop yields by bioengineering Rubisco remain unsuccessful, owing in part to the complex cellular machinery required for Rubisco biogenesis and metabolic maintenance. The large subunit of Rubisco requires the chaperonin system for folding, and recent studies have shown that assembly of hexadecameric Rubisco is mediated by specific assembly chaperones. Moreover, Rubisco function can be inhibited by a range of sugar-phosphate ligands, including RuBP. Metabolic repair depends on remodeling of Rubisco by the ATP-dependent Rubisco activase and hydrolysis of inhibitory sugar phosphates by specific phosphatases. Here, we review our present understanding of the structure and function of these auxiliary factors and their utilization in efforts to engineer more catalytically efficient Rubisco enzymes.

  15. Ribosome Biogenesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Woolford, John L.; Baserga, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes. PMID:24190922

  16. Resveratrol improves high-fat diet induced insulin resistance by rebalancing subsarcolemmal mitochondrial oxidation and antioxidantion.

    PubMed

    Haohao, Zhang; Guijun, Qin; Juan, Zheng; Wen, Kong; Lulu, Chen

    2015-03-01

    Although resveratrol (RES) is thought to be a key regulator of insulin sensitivity in rodents, the exact mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Therefore, we sought to investigate how RES affects skeletal muscle oxidative and antioxidant levels of subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondrial populations in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance (IR) rats. Systemic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity together with expressions of several genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and skeletal muscle SIRT1, SIRT3 protein levels were studied in rats fed a normal diet, a HFD, and a HFD with intervention of RES for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in SS and IMF mitochondria. HFD fed rats exhibited obvious systemic and skeletal muscle IR as well as decreased SIRT1 and SIRT3 expressions, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and mitochondrial biogenesis (p < 0.05). Both SS and IMF mitochondria demonstrated elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. In addition, SS mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly lower, while IMF mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activities were higher (p < 0.05). By contrast, RES treatment protected rats against diet induced IR, increased SIRT1 and SIRT3 expressions, mtDNA, and mitochondrial biogenesis (p < 0.05). Moreover, the activities of SS and IMF mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes were increased, which reverted the increased SS mitochondrial oxidative stress levels (p < 0.05). This study suggests that RES ameliorates insulin sensitivity consistent with improved SIRT3 expressions and rebalance between SS mitochondrial oxidative stress and antioxidant competence in HFD rats.

  17. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  18. United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    Facebook Twitter Google+ Youtube Vimeo Instagram Email Menu Understanding Mitochondrial Disease What is Mito? What is Mitochondrial Disease? Types of Mitochondrial Disease Possible Symptoms Links to Other ...

  19. Nitrate-containing beetroot enhances myocyte metabolism and mitochondrial content

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Gannon, Nicholas P.; Carriker, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Beetroot (甜菜 tián cài) juice consumption is of current interest for improving aerobic performance by acting as a vasodilator and possibly through alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism and physiology. This work explored the effects of a commercially available beetroot supplement on metabolism, gene expression, and mitochondrial content in cultured myocytes. C2C12 myocytes were treated with various concentrations of the beetroot supplement for various durations. Glycolytic metabolism and oxidative metabolism were quantified via measurement of extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption, respectively. Metabolic gene expression was measured using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, and mitochondrial content was assessed with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Cells treated with beetroot exhibited significantly increased oxidative metabolism, concurrently with elevated metabolic gene expression including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and glucose transporter 4, leading to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data show that treatment with a beetroot supplement increases basal oxidative metabolism. Our observations are also among the first to demonstrate that beetroot extract is an inducer of metabolic gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. These observations support the need for further investigation into the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of nitrate-containing supplements for health and athletic benefits. PMID:26870674

  20. The effects and mechanisms of mitochondrial nutrient alpha-lipoic acid on improving age-associated mitochondrial and cognitive dysfunction: an overview.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiankang

    2008-01-01

    We have identified a group of nutrients that can directly or indirectly protect mitochondria from oxidative damage and improve mitochondrial function and named them "mitochondrial nutrients". The direct protection includes preventing the generation of oxidants, scavenging free radicals or inhibiting oxidant reactivity, and elevating cofactors of defective mitochondrial enzymes with increased Michaelis-Menten constant to stimulate enzyme activity, and also protect enzymes from further oxidation, and the indirect protection includes repairing oxidative damage by enhancing antioxidant defense systems either through activation of phase 2 enzymes or through increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. In this review, we take alpha-lipoic acid (LA) as an example of mitochondrial nutrients by summarizing the protective effects and possible mechanisms of LA and its derivatives on age-associated cognitive and mitochondrial dysfunction of the brain. LA and its derivatives improve the age-associated decline of memory, improve mitochondrial structure and function, inhibit the age-associated increase of oxidative damage, elevate the levels of antioxidants, and restore the activity of key enzymes. In addition, co-administration of LA with other mitochondrial nutrients, such as acetyl-L: -carnitine and coenzyme Q10, appears more effective in improving cognitive dysfunction and reducing oxidative mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, administrating mitochondrial nutrients, such as LA and its derivatives in combination with other mitochondrial nutrients to aged people and patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, may be an effective strategy for improving mitochondrial and cognitive dysfunction.

  1. PARP10 (ARTD10) modulates mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Lilla; Vida, András; Kis, Gréta; Brunyánszki, Attila; Antal, Miklós; Lüscher, Bernhard; Bai, Péter

    2018-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)10 is a PARP family member that performs mono-ADP-ribosylation of target proteins. Recent studies have linked PARP10 to metabolic processes and metabolic regulators that prompted us to assess whether PARP10 influences mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. The depletion of PARP10 by specific shRNAs increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity in cellular models of breast, cervical, colorectal and exocrine pancreas cancer. Upon silencing of PARP10, mitochondrial superoxide production decreased in line with increased expression of antioxidant genes pointing out lower oxidative stress upon PARP10 silencing. Improved mitochondrial oxidative capacity coincided with increased AMPK activation. The silencing of PARP10 in MCF7 and CaCo2 cells decreased the proliferation rate that correlated with increased expression of anti-Warburg enzymes (Foxo1, PGC-1α, IDH2 and fumarase). By analyzing an online database we showed that lower PARP10 expression increases survival in gastric cancer. Furthermore, PARP10 expression decreased upon fasting, a condition that is characterized by increases in mitochondrial biogenesis. Finally, lower PARP10 expression is associated with increased fatty acid oxidation. PMID:29293500

  2. Melanocortin 4 Receptor Activation Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Hao; Liu, Jiao; Qin, Gui-Jun; Li, Xia-Lian; Du, Pei-Jie; Hao, Xiao; Zhao, Di; Tian, Tian; Wu, Jing; Yun, Meng; Bai, Yan-Hui

    2017-11-01

    A previous study has confirmed that the central melanocortin system was able to mediate skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in mice fed a high-fat diet, while activation of the AMPK signaling pathway significantly induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Our hypothesis was that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) was involved in the development of skeletal muscle injury in diabetic rats. In this study, we treated diabetic rats intracerebroventricularly with MC4R agonist R027-3225 or antagonist SHU9119, respectively. Then, we measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and mitochondrial biogenesis, and the protein levels of p-AMPK, AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. The results showed that there was significant skeletal muscle injury in the diabetic rats along with serious oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial biogenesis. Treatment with R027-3225 reduced oxidative stress and induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, and also activated the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α signaling pathway. However, diabetic rats injected with MC4R antagonist SHU9119 showed an aggravated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our results revealed that MC4R activation was able to attenuate oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle induced by diabetes partially through activating the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4072-4079, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. NAD(+)-dependent activation of Sirt1 corrects the phenotype in a mouse model of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Raffaele; Pirinen, Eija; Lamperti, Costanza; Marchet, Silvia; Sauve, Anthony A; Li, Wei; Leoni, Valerio; Schon, Eric A; Dantzer, Françoise; Auwerx, Johan; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo

    2014-06-03

    Mitochondrial disorders are highly heterogeneous conditions characterized by defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been proposed as an effective means to correct the biochemical defects and ameliorate the clinical phenotype in these severely disabling, often fatal, disorders. Pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis are targets of Sirtuin1, a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase. As NAD(+) boosts the activity of Sirtuin1 and other sirtuins, intracellular levels of NAD(+) play a key role in the homeostatic control of mitochondrial function by the metabolic status of the cell. We show here that supplementation with nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, or reduction of NAD(+) consumption by inhibiting the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, leads to marked improvement of the respiratory chain defect and exercise intolerance of the Sco2 knockout/knockin mouse, a mitochondrial disease model characterized by impaired cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis. This strategy is potentially translatable into therapy of mitochondrial disorders in humans. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  5. Intrauterine Growth Retardation Increases the Susceptibility of Pigs to High-Fat Diet-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbo; Chen, Daiwen; Yao, Ying; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Huang, Zhiqing; Zheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF) diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW), and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22523560

  6. Protective Effects of Myricetin on Acute Hypoxia-Induced Exercise Intolerance and Mitochondrial Impairments in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Dan; Liu, Peng; Chen, Ka; Xie, Qi; Liang, Xinyu; Bai, Qian; Zhou, Qicheng; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Exercise tolerance is impaired in hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of myricetin, a dietary flavonoid compound widely found in fruits and vegetables, on acute hypoxia-induced exercise intolerance in vivo and in vitro. Methods Male rats were administered myricetin or vehicle for 7 days and subsequently spent 24 hours at a barometric pressure equivalent to 5000 m. Exercise capacity was then assessed through the run-to-fatigue procedure, and mitochondrial morphology in skeletal muscle cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The enzymatic activities of electron transfer complexes were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). mtDNA was quantified by real-time-PCR. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 staining. Protein expression was detected through western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Results Myricetin supplementation significantly prevented the decline of run-to-fatigue time of rats in hypoxia, and attenuated acute hypoxia-induced mitochondrial impairment in skeletal muscle cells in vivo and in vitro by maintaining mitochondrial structure, mtDNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential, and activities of the respiratory chain complexes. Further studies showed that myricetin maintained mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells under hypoxic conditions by up-regulating the expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis-related regluators, in addition, AMP-activated protein kinase(AMPK) plays a crucial role in this process. Conclusions Myricetin may have important applications for improving physical performance under hypoxic environment, which may be attributed to the protective effect against mitochondrial impairment by maintaining mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25919288

  7. Tob38, a novel essential component in the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins of mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Waizenegger, Thomas; Habib, Shukry J; Lech, Maciej; Mokranjac, Dejana; Paschen, Stefan A; Hell, Kai; Neupert, Walter; Rapaport, Doron

    2004-01-01

    Insertion of β-barrel proteins into the outer membrane of mitochondria is mediated by the TOB complex. Known constituents of this complex are Tob55 and Mas37. We identified a novel component, Tob38. It is essential for viability of yeast and the function of the TOB complex. Tob38 is exposed on the surface of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It interacts with Mas37 and Tob55 and is associated with Tob55 even in the absence of Mas37. The Tob38–Tob55 core complex binds precursors of β-barrel proteins and facilitates their insertion into the outer membrane. Depletion of Tob38 results in strongly reduced levels of Tob55 and Mas37 and the residual proteins no longer form a complex. Tob38-depleted mitochondria are deficient in the import of β-barrel precursor proteins, but not of other outer membrane proteins or proteins of other mitochondrial subcompartments. We conclude that Tob38 has a crucial function in the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins of mitochondria. PMID:15205677

  8. COX16 promotes COX2 metallation and assembly during respiratory complex IV biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Abhishek; Wang, Cong; Chowdhury, Arpita; Ronsör, Christin; Pacheu-Grau, David; Richter-Dennerlein, Ricarda; Dennerlein, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system reduces molecular oxygen with redox equivalent-derived electrons. The conserved mitochondrial-encoded COX1- and COX2-subunits are the heme- and copper-center containing core subunits that catalyze water formation. COX1 and COX2 initially follow independent biogenesis pathways creating assembly modules with subunit-specific, chaperone-like assembly factors that assist in redox centers formation. Here, we find that COX16, a protein required for cytochrome c oxidase assembly, interacts specifically with newly synthesized COX2 and its copper center-forming metallochaperones SCO1, SCO2, and COA6. The recruitment of SCO1 to the COX2-module is COX16- dependent and patient-mimicking mutations in SCO1 affect interaction with COX16. These findings implicate COX16 in CuA-site formation. Surprisingly, COX16 is also found in COX1-containing assembly intermediates and COX2 recruitment to COX1. We conclude that COX16 participates in merging the COX1 and COX2 assembly lines. PMID:29381136

  9. Mitochondrial Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Viewed through the lens of the genome it contains, the mitochondrion is of unquestioned bacterial ancestry, originating from within the bacterial phylum α-Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria). Accordingly, the endosymbiont hypothesis—the idea that the mitochondrion evolved from a bacterial progenitor via symbiosis within an essentially eukaryotic host cell—has assumed the status of a theory. Yet mitochondrial genome evolution has taken radically different pathways in diverse eukaryotic lineages, and the organelle itself is increasingly viewed as a genetic and functional mosaic, with the bulk of the mitochondrial proteome having an evolutionary origin outside Alphaproteobacteria. New data continue to reshape our views regarding mitochondrial evolution, particularly raising the question of whether the mitochondrion originated after the eukaryotic cell arose, as assumed in the classical endosymbiont hypothesis, or whether this organelle had its beginning at the same time as the cell containing it. PMID:22952398

  10. Cardiac-Targeted Transgenic Mutant Mitochondrial Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, James J.; Hosseini, Seyed H.; Green, Elgin; Hoying-Brandt, Amy; Cucoranu, Ioan; Haase, Chad P.; Russ, Rodney; Srivastava, Jaya; Ivey, Kristopher; Ludaway, Tomika; Kapoor, Victor; Abuin, Allison; Shapoval, Alexsey; Santoianni, Robert; Saada, Ann; Elpeleg, Orly; Lewis, William

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA biogenesis is critical to cardiac contractility. DNA polymerase gamma (pol γ) replicates mtDNA, whereas thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) monophosphorylates pyrimidines intramitochondrially. Point mutations in POLG and TK2 result in clinical diseases associated with mtDNA depletion and organ dysfunction. Pyrimidine analogs (NRTIs) inhibit Pol γ and mtDNA replication. Cardiac “dominant negative” murine transgenes (TGs; Pol γ Y955G, and TK2 H121N or I212N) defined the role of each in the heart. mtDNA abundance, histopathological features, histochemistry, mitochondrial protein abundance, morphometry, and echocardiography were determined for TGs in “2 × 2” studies with or without pyrimidine analogs. Cardiac mtDNA abundance decreased in Y955C TGs (∼50%) but increased in H121N and I212N TGs (20-70%). Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) increased in hearts of all mutants. Ultrastructural changes occurred in Y955C and H121N TGs. Histopathology demonstrated hypertrophy in H121N, LV dilation in I212N, and both hypertrophy and dilation in Y955C TGs. Antiretrovirals increased LV mass (≈50%) for all three TGs which combined with dilation indicates cardiomyopathy. Taken together, these studies demonstrate three manifestations of cardiac dysfunction that depend on the nature of the specific mutation and antiretroviral treatment. Mutations in genes for mtDNA biogenesis increase risk for defective mtDNA replication, leading to LV hypertrophy. PMID:18446447

  11. Role of Mitochondrial Homeostasis and Dynamics in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Selfridge, J. Eva; Lezi, E; Lu, Jianghua; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects a staggering percentage of the aging population and causes memory loss and cognitive decline. Mitochondrial abnormalities can be observed systemically and in brains of patients suffering from AD, and may account for part of the disease phenotype. In this review, we summarize some of the key findings that indicate mitochondrial dysfunction is present in AD-affected subjects, including cytochrome oxidase deficiency, endophenotype data, and altered mitochondrial morphology. Special attention is given to recently described perturbations in mitochondrial autophagy, fission-fusion dynamics, and biogenesis. We also briefly discuss how mitochondrial dysfunction may influence amyloidosis in Alzheimer’s disease, why mitochondria are a valid therapeutic target, and strategies for addressing AD-specific mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22266017

  12. MIDAS/GPP34, a nuclear gene product, regulates total mitochondrial mass in response to mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nakashima-Kamimura, Naomi; Asoh, Sadamitsu; Ishibashi, Yoshitomo; Mukai, Yuri; Shidara, Yujiro; Oda, Hideaki; Munakata, Kae; Goto, Yu-Ichi; Ohta, Shigeo

    2005-11-15

    To investigate the regulatory system in mitochondrial biogenesis involving crosstalk between the mitochondria and nucleus, we found a factor named MIDAS (mitochondrial DNA absence sensitive factor) whose expression was enhanced by the absence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In patients with mitochondrial diseases, MIDAS expression was increased only in dysfunctional muscle fibers. A majority of MIDAS localized to mitochondria with a small fraction in the Golgi apparatus in HeLa cells. To investigate the function of MIDAS, we stably transfected HeLa cells with an expression vector carrying MIDAS cDNA or siRNA. Cells expressing the MIDAS protein and the siRNA constitutively showed an increase and decrease in the total mass of mitochondria, respectively, accompanying the regulation of a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin. In contrast, amounts of the mitochondrial DNA, RNA and proteins did not depend upon MIDAS. Thus, MIDAS is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial lipids, leading to increases of total mitochondrial mass in response to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  13. Congenital sideroblastic anemia due to mutations in the mitochondrial HSP70 homologue HSPA9

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; Ciesielski, Szymon J.; Schmidt, Paul J.; Campagna, Dean R.; Rahimov, Fedik; Schilke, Brenda A.; Cuijpers, Marloes; Rieneck, Klaus; Lausen, Birgitte; Linenberger, Michael L.; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Guo, Chaoshe; Hofmann, Inga; Newburger, Peter E.; Matthews, Dana; Shimamura, Akiko; Snijders, Pieter J. L. M.; Towne, Meghan C.; Niemeyer, Charlotte M.; Watson, Henry G.; Dziegiel, Morten H.; Heeney, Matthew M.; May, Alison; Bottomley, Sylvia S.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Markianos, Kyriacos; Craig, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    The congenital sideroblastic anemias (CSAs) are relatively uncommon diseases characterized by defects in mitochondrial heme synthesis, iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis, or protein synthesis. Here we demonstrate that mutations in HSPA9, a mitochondrial HSP70 homolog located in the chromosome 5q deletion syndrome 5q33 critical deletion interval and involved in mitochondrial Fe-S biogenesis, result in CSA inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. In a fraction of patients with just 1 severe loss-of-function allele, expression of the clinical phenotype is associated with a common coding single nucleotide polymorphism in trans that correlates with reduced messenger RNA expression and results in a pseudodominant pattern of inheritance. PMID:26491070

  14. Effects of exercise on obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jun-Won; No, Mi-Hyun; Park, Dong-Ho; Kang, Ju-Hee; Seo, Dae Yun; Han, Jin; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is known to induce inhibition of glucose uptake, reduction of lipid metabolism, and progressive loss of skeletal muscle function, which are all associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that regulate cellular metabolism and bioenergetics, including ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Due to these critical roles of mitochondria, mitochondrial dysfunction results in various diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with impairment of mitochondrial function (e.g., decrease in O2 respiration and increase in oxidative stress) in skeletal muscle. The balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission is critical to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Obesity impairs mitochondrial dynamics, leading to an unbalance between fusion and fission by favorably shifting fission or reducing fusion proteins. Mitophagy is the catabolic process of damaged or unnecessary mitochondria. Obesity reduces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and increases accumulation of dysfunctional cellular organelles, suggesting that mitophagy does not work properly in obesity. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are reported to trigger apoptosis, and mitochondrial apoptosis is induced by obesity in skeletal muscle. It is well known that exercise is the most effective intervention to protect against obesity. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exercise protects against obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle are not clearly elucidated, exercise training attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction, allows mitochondria to maintain the balance between mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy, and reduces apoptotic signaling in obese skeletal muscle. PMID:29200899

  15. Role of AAA(+)-proteins in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Immanuel; Erdmann, Ralf; Girzalsky, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the PEX1 gene, which encodes a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis, are the most common cause of the Zellweger spectrum diseases. The recognition that Pex1p shares a conserved ATP-binding domain with p97 and NSF led to the discovery of the extended family of AAA+-type ATPases. So far, four AAA+-type ATPases are related to peroxisome function. Pex6p functions together with Pex1p in peroxisome biogenesis, ATAD1/Msp1p plays a role in membrane protein targeting and a member of the Lon-family of proteases is associated with peroxisomal quality control. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the AAA+-proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

  16. Impaired TFEB-mediated Lysosome Biogenesis and Autophagy Promote Chronic Ethanol-induced Liver Injury and Steatosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chao, Xiaojuan; Wang, Shaogui; Zhao, Katrina; Li, Yuan; Williams, Jessica A; Li, Tiangang; Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha; He, Xi C; Li, Linheng; Ballabio, Andrea; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2018-05-18

    Defects in lysosome function and autophagy contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption affects these processes, evaluating the functions transcription factor EB (TFEB), which regulates lysosomal biogenesis. We performed studies with GFP-LC3 mice, mice with liver-specific deletion of transcription factor EB (TFEB), mice with disruption of the transcription factor E3 gene (TFE3-knockout mice), mice with disruption of the Tefb and Tfe3 genes (TFEB, TFE3 double-knockout mice), and Tfeb flox/flox albumin cre-negative mice (controls). TFEB was overexpressed from adenoviral vectors or knocked down with small interfering RNAs in mouse livers. Mice were placed on diets of chronic ethanol feeding plus an acute binge to induce liver damage (ethanol diet); some mice were also given injections of torin1, an inhibitor of the kinase activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Liver tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunoblots, and quantitative real-time PCR to monitor lysosome biogenesis. We analyzed levels of TFEB in liver tissues from patients with alcoholic hepatitis and from healthy donors (controls) by immunohistochemistry. Liver tissues from mice on the ethanol diet had lower levels of total and nuclear TFEB, compared with control mice, and hepatocytes had reduced lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. Hepatocytes from mice on the ethanol diet had increased translocation of mTOR into lysosomes, resulting increased mTOR activation. Administration of torin1 increased liver levels of TFEB and reduced steatosis and liver injury induced by ethanol. Mice that overexpressed TFEB in liver developed less-severe ethanol-induced liver injury and had increased lysosomal biogenesis and mitochondrial bioenergetics compared to mice carrying a control vector. Mice with knockdown of TFEB, as well as TFEB, TFE3 double-knockout mice, developed more severe liver injury in response to the

  17. The pathophysiology of mitochondrial disease as modeled in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Douglas C; Fan, Weiwei

    2009-08-01

    It is now clear that mitochondrial defects are associated with a plethora of clinical phenotypes in man and mouse. This is the result of the mitochondria's central role in energy production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) biology, and apoptosis, and because the mitochondrial genome consists of roughly 1500 genes distributed across the maternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the Mendelian nuclear DNA (nDNA). While numerous pathogenic mutations in both mtDNA and nDNA mitochondrial genes have been identified in the past 21 years, the causal role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the common metabolic and degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging is still debated. However, the development of mice harboring mitochondrial gene mutations is permitting demonstration of the direct cause-and-effect relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and disease. Mutations in nDNA-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses, apoptosis via the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP), mitochondrial fusion, and mtDNA biogenesis have already demonstrated the phenotypic importance of mitochondrial defects. These studies are being expanded by the recent development of procedures for introducing mtDNA mutations into the mouse. These studies are providing direct proof that mtDNA mutations are sufficient by themselves to generate major clinical phenotypes. As more different mtDNA types and mtDNA gene mutations are introduced into various mouse nDNA backgrounds, the potential functional role of mtDNA variation in permitting humans and mammals to adapt to different environments and in determining their predisposition to a wide array of diseases should be definitively demonstrated.

  18. The life of plant mitochondrial complex I.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hans-Peter; Binder, Stefan; Brennicke, Axel; Eubel, Holger; Fernie, Alisdair R; Finkemeier, Iris; Klodmann, Jennifer; König, Ann-Christine; Kühn, Kristina; Meyer, Etienne; Obata, Toshihiro; Schwarzländer, Markus; Takenaka, Mizuki; Zehrmann, Anja

    2014-11-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) of the respiratory chain has several remarkable features in plants: (i) particularly many of its subunits are encoded by the mitochondrial genome, (ii) its mitochondrial transcripts undergo extensive maturation processes (e.g. RNA editing, trans-splicing), (iii) its assembly follows unique routes, (iv) it includes an additional functional domain which contains carbonic anhydrases and (v) it is, indirectly, involved in photosynthesis. Comprising about 50 distinct protein subunits, complex I of plants is very large. However, an even larger number of proteins are required to synthesize these subunits and assemble the enzyme complex. This review aims to follow the complete "life cycle" of plant complex I from various molecular perspectives. We provide arguments that complex I represents an ideal model system for studying the interplay of respiration and photosynthesis, the cooperation of mitochondria and the nucleus during organelle biogenesis and the evolution of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying small molecule phenotypic effects using mitochondrial morpho-functional fingerprinting and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Lionel; Smeitink, Jan A. M.; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E.; Vogels, Caroline; Pellegrini, Mina; Jonckheere, An I.; Rodenburg, Richard J. T.; Buydens, Lutgarde M. C.; Beyrath, Julien; Willems, Peter H. G. M.; Koopman, Werner J. H.

    2015-01-01

    In primary fibroblasts from Leigh Syndrome (LS) patients, isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency is associated with increased reactive oxygen species levels and mitochondrial morpho-functional changes. Empirical evidence suggests these aberrations constitute linked therapeutic targets for small chemical molecules. However, the latter generally induce multiple subtle effects, meaning that in vitro potency analysis or single-parameter high-throughput cell screening are of limited use to identify these molecules. We combine automated image quantification and artificial intelligence to discriminate between primary fibroblasts of a healthy individual and a LS patient based upon their mitochondrial morpho-functional phenotype. We then evaluate the effects of newly developed Trolox variants in LS patient cells. This revealed that Trolox ornithylamide hydrochloride best counterbalanced mitochondrial morpho-functional aberrations, effectively scavenged ROS and increased the maximal activity of mitochondrial complexes I, IV and citrate synthase. Our results suggest that Trolox-derived antioxidants are promising candidates in therapy development for human mitochondrial disorders.

  20. Quantifying small molecule phenotypic effects using mitochondrial morpho-functional fingerprinting and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Lionel; Smeitink, Jan A M; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; Vogels, Caroline; Pellegrini, Mina; Jonckheere, An I; Rodenburg, Richard J T; Buydens, Lutgarde M C; Beyrath, Julien; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H

    2015-01-26

    In primary fibroblasts from Leigh Syndrome (LS) patients, isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency is associated with increased reactive oxygen species levels and mitochondrial morpho-functional changes. Empirical evidence suggests these aberrations constitute linked therapeutic targets for small chemical molecules. However, the latter generally induce multiple subtle effects, meaning that in vitro potency analysis or single-parameter high-throughput cell screening are of limited use to identify these molecules. We combine automated image quantification and artificial intelligence to discriminate between primary fibroblasts of a healthy individual and a LS patient based upon their mitochondrial morpho-functional phenotype. We then evaluate the effects of newly developed Trolox variants in LS patient cells. This revealed that Trolox ornithylamide hydrochloride best counterbalanced mitochondrial morpho-functional aberrations, effectively scavenged ROS and increased the maximal activity of mitochondrial complexes I, IV and citrate synthase. Our results suggest that Trolox-derived antioxidants are promising candidates in therapy development for human mitochondrial disorders.

  1. On the Definition of Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minghui; Wang, Guangli

    2014-12-01

    There was a groundbreaking step in the history of astronomy in 1728 when the effect of aberration was discovered by James Bradley (1693-1762). Recently, the solar acceleration, due to the variations in the aberrational effect of extragalactic sources caused by it, has been determined from VLBI observations with an uncertainty of about 0.5 mm{\\cdot}{s^{-1}}{\\cdot}{yr^{-1}} level. As a basic concept in astrometry with a nearly 300-year history, the definition of aberration, however, is still equivocal and discordant in the literature. It has been under continuing debate whether it depends on the relative motion between the observer and the observed source or only on the motion of the observer with respect to the frame of reference. In this paper, we will review the debate and the inconsistency in the definition of the aberration since the last century, and then discuss its definition in detail, which involves the discussions on the planetary aberration, the stellar aberration, the proper motion of an object during the travel time of light from the object to the observer, and the way of selecting the reference frame to express and distinguish the motions of the source and the observer. The aberration is essentially caused by the transformation between coordinate systems, and consequently quantified by the velocity of the observer with respect to the selected reference frame, independent of the motion of the source. Obviously, this nature is totally different from that of the definition given by the IAU WG NFA (Capitaine, 2007) in 2006, which is stated as, ``the apparent angular displacement of the observed position of a celestial object from its geometric position, caused by the finite velocity of light in combination with the motions of the observer and of the observed object.''

  2. Parkin loss leads to PARIS-dependent declines in mitochondrial mass and respiration

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Daniel A.; Lee, Yunjong; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun-Il; Bower, Aaron; Jiang, Haisong; Kang, Sung-Ung; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Dawson, Valina L.; Shin, Joo-Ho; Dawson, Ted M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in parkin lead to early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease (PD) and inactivation of parkin is thought to contribute to sporadic PD. Adult knockout of parkin in the ventral midbrain of mice leads to an age-dependent loss of dopamine neurons that is dependent on the accumulation of parkin interacting substrate (PARIS), zinc finger protein 746 (ZNF746), and its transcriptional repression of PGC-1α. Here we show that adult knockout of parkin in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial size, number, and protein markers consistent with a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis. This decrease in mitochondrial mass is prevented by short hairpin RNA knockdown of PARIS. PARIS overexpression in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial number and protein markers and PGC-1α–dependent deficits in mitochondrial respiration. Taken together, these results suggest that parkin loss impairs mitochondrial biogenesis, leading to declining function of the mitochondrial pool and cell death. PMID:26324925

  3. Saxagliptin Restores Vascular Mitochondrial Exercise Response in the Goto-Kakizaki Rat

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Amy C.; Knaub, Leslie A.; Miller, Matthew W.; Birdsey, Nicholas; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality are largely predicted by physical fitness. Exercise stimulates vascular mitochondrial biogenesis through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), sirtuins, and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a response absent in diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that an agent regulating eNOS in the context of diabetes could reconstitute exercise-mediated signaling to mitochondrial biogenesis. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulates eNOS and blood flow; we used saxagliptin, an inhibitor of GLP-1 degradation, to test whether vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in diabetes could be restored. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese, type 2 diabetes model, and Wistar controls were exposed to an 8-day exercise intervention with or without saxagliptin (10 mg·kg−1·d−1). We evaluated the impact of exercise and saxagliptin on mitochondrial proteins and signaling pathways in aorta. Mitochondrial protein expression increased with exercise in the Wistar aorta and decreased or remained unchanged in the GK animals. GK rats treated with saxagliptin plus exercise showed increased expression of mitochondrial complexes, cytochrome c, eNOS, nNOS, PGC-1α, and UCP3 proteins. Notably, a 3-week saxagliptin plus exercise intervention significantly increased running time in the GK rats. These data suggest that saxagliptin restores vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in a diabetic rodent model and may augment the impact of exercise on the vasculature. PMID:25264749

  4. Saxagliptin restores vascular mitochondrial exercise response in the Goto-Kakizaki rat.

    PubMed

    Keller, Amy C; Knaub, Leslie A; Miller, Matthew W; Birdsey, Nicholas; Klemm, Dwight J; Reusch, Jane E B

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality are largely predicted by physical fitness. Exercise stimulates vascular mitochondrial biogenesis through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), sirtuins, and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a response absent in diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that an agent regulating eNOS in the context of diabetes could reconstitute exercise-mediated signaling to mitochondrial biogenesis. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulates eNOS and blood flow; we used saxagliptin, an inhibitor of GLP-1 degradation, to test whether vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in diabetes could be restored. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese, type 2 diabetes model, and Wistar controls were exposed to an 8-day exercise intervention with or without saxagliptin (10 mg·kg·d). We evaluated the impact of exercise and saxagliptin on mitochondrial proteins and signaling pathways in aorta. Mitochondrial protein expression increased with exercise in the Wistar aorta and decreased or remained unchanged in the GK animals. GK rats treated with saxagliptin plus exercise showed increased expression of mitochondrial complexes, cytochrome c, eNOS, nNOS, PGC-1α, and UCP3 proteins. Notably, a 3-week saxagliptin plus exercise intervention significantly increased running time in the GK rats. These data suggest that saxagliptin restores vascular mitochondrial adaptation to exercise in a diabetic rodent model and may augment the impact of exercise on the vasculature.

  5. Exercise-induced mitochondrial p53 repairs mtDNA mutations in mutator mice.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Adeel; Khrapko, Konstantin; Flynn, James M; Saleem, Ayesha; De Lisio, Michael; Johnston, Adam P W; Kratysberg, Yevgenya; Samjoo, Imtiaz A; Kitaoka, Yu; Ogborn, Daniel I; Little, Jonathan P; Raha, Sandeep; Parise, Gianni; Akhtar, Mahmood; Hettinga, Bart P; Rowe, Glenn C; Arany, Zoltan; Prolla, Tomas A; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Human genetic disorders and transgenic mouse models have shown that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and telomere dysfunction instigate the aging process. Epidemiologically, exercise is associated with greater life expectancy and reduced risk of chronic diseases. While the beneficial effects of exercise are well established, the molecular mechanisms instigating these observations remain unclear. Endurance exercise reduces mtDNA mutation burden, alleviates multisystem pathology, and increases lifespan of the mutator mice, with proofreading deficient mitochondrial polymerase gamma (POLG1). We report evidence for a POLG1-independent mtDNA repair pathway mediated by exercise, a surprising notion as POLG1 is canonically considered to be the sole mtDNA repair enzyme. Here, we show that the tumor suppressor protein p53 translocates to mitochondria and facilitates mtDNA mutation repair and mitochondrial biogenesis in response to endurance exercise. Indeed, in mutator mice with muscle-specific deletion of p53, exercise failed to prevent mtDNA mutations, induce mitochondrial biogenesis, preserve mitochondrial morphology, reverse sarcopenia, or mitigate premature mortality. Our data establish a new role for p53 in exercise-mediated maintenance of the mtDNA genome and present mitochondrially targeted p53 as a novel therapeutic modality for diseases of mitochondrial etiology.

  6. Alternative splicing suggests extended function of PEX26 in peroxisome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Weller, Sabine; Cajigas, Ivelisse; Morrell, James; Obie, Cassandra; Steel, Gary; Gould, Stephen J; Valle, David

    2005-06-01

    Matsumoto and colleagues recently identified PEX26 as the gene responsible for complementation group 8 of the peroxisome biogenesis disorders and showed that it encodes an integral peroxisomal membrane protein with a single C-terminal transmembrane domain and a cytosolic N-terminus that interacts with the PEX1/PEX6 heterodimer through direct binding to the latter. They proposed that PEX26 functions as the peroxisomal docking factor for the PEX1/PEX6 heterodimer. Here, we identify new PEX26 disease alleles, localize the PEX6-binding domain to the N-terminal half of the protein (aa 29-174), and show that, at the cellular level, PEX26 deficiency impairs peroxisomal import of both PTS1- and PTS2-targeted matrix proteins. Also, we find that PEX26 undergoes alternative splicing to produce several splice forms--including one, PEX26- delta ex5, that maintains frame and encodes an isoform lacking the transmembrane domain of full-length PEX26 (PEX26-FL). Despite its cytosolic location, PEX26- delta ex5 rescues peroxisome biogenesis in PEX26-deficient cells as efficiently as does PEX26-FL. To test our observation that a peroxisomal location is not required for PEX26 function, we made a chimeric protein (PEX26-Mito) with PEX26 as its N-terminus and the targeting segment of a mitochondrial outer membrane protein (OMP25) at its C-terminus. We found PEX26-Mito localized to the mitochondria and directed all detectable PEX6 and a fraction of PEX1 to this extraperoxisomal location; yet PEX26-Mito retains the full ability to rescue peroxisome biogenesis in PEX26-deficient cells. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that a peroxisomal localization of PEX26 and PEX6 is not required for their function and that the interaction of PEX6 with PEX1 is dynamic. This model predicts that, once activated in an extraperoxisomal location, PEX1 moves to the peroxisome and completes the function of the PEX1/6 heterodimer.

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 regulates mitochondrial quality control in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Travis D.; Boddu, Ravindra; Guo, Lingling; Tisher, Cornelia C.; Traylor, Amie M.; Patel, Bindiya; Joseph, Reny; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Suliman, Hagir B.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; George, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The cardioprotective inducible enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) degrades prooxidant heme into equimolar quantities of carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and iron. We hypothesized that HO-1 mediates cardiac protection, at least in part, by regulating mitochondrial quality control. We treated WT and HO-1 transgenic mice with the known mitochondrial toxin, doxorubicin (DOX). Relative to WT mice, mice globally overexpressing human HO-1 were protected from DOX-induced dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac cytoarchitectural derangement, and infiltration of CD11b+ mononuclear phagocytes. Cardiac-specific overexpression of HO-1 ameliorated DOX-mediated dilation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum as well as mitochondrial disorganization in the form of mitochondrial fragmentation and increased numbers of damaged mitochondria in autophagic vacuoles. HO-1 overexpression promotes mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating protein expression of NRF1, PGC1α, and TFAM, which was inhibited in WT animals treated with DOX. Concomitantly, HO-1 overexpression inhibited the upregulation of the mitochondrial fission mediator Fis1 and resulted in increased expression of the fusion mediators, Mfn1 and Mfn2. It also prevented dynamic changes in the levels of key mediators of the mitophagy pathway, PINK1 and parkin. Therefore, these findings suggest that HO-1 has a novel role in protecting the heart from oxidative injury by regulating mitochondrial quality control. PMID:27110594

  8. Resveratrol stimulates mitochondrial fusion by a mechanism requiring mitofusin-2.

    PubMed

    Robb, Ellen L; Moradi, Fereshteh; Maddalena, Lucas A; Valente, Andrew J F; Fonseca, Joao; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2017-04-01

    Resveratrol (RES) is a plant-derived stilbene associated with a wide range of health benefits. Mitochondria are a key downstream target of RES, and in some cell types RES promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, altered cellular redox status, and a shift toward oxidative metabolism. Mitochondria exist as a dynamic network that continually remodels via fusion and fission processes, and the extent of fusion is related to cellular redox status and metabolism. We investigated RES's effects on mitochondrial network morphology in several cell lines using a quantitative approach to measure the extent of network fusion. 48 h continuous treatment with 10-20 μM RES stimulated mitochondrial fusion in C2C12 myoblasts, PC3 cancer cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts stimulated significant increases in fusion in all instances, resulting in larger and more highly branched mitochondrial networks. Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) is a key protein facilitating mitochondrial fusion, and its expression was also stimulated by RES. Using Mfn2-null cells we demonstrated that RES's effects on mitochondrial fusion, cellular respiration rates, and cell growth are all dependent upon the presence of Mfn2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are affected by RES in ways that appear to relate to RES's known effects on cellular metabolism and growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibiotic tigecycline enhances cisplatin activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jun; Song, Meijun; Zhou, Mi

    Targeting mitochondrial metabolism has been recently demonstrated to be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various cancer. In this work, we demonstrate that antibiotic tigecycline is selectively against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. Tigecycline is more effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of HCC than normal liver cells. Importantly, tigecycline significantly enhances the inhibitory effects of chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in HCC in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, tigecycline specifically inhibits mitochondrial translation as shown by the decreased protein levels of Cox-1 and -2 but not Cox-4 or Grp78, and increased mRNA levels of Cox-1more » and -2 but not Cox-4 in HCC cells exposed to tigecycline. In addition, tigecycline significantly induces mitochondrial dysfunction in HCC cells via decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, complex I and IV activities, mitochondrial respiration and ATP levels. Tigecycline also increases levels of mitochondrial superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and ROS levels. Consistent with oxidative stress, oxidative damage on DNA, protein and lipid are also observed in tigecycline-treated cells. Importantly, antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reverses the effects of tigecycline, suggesting that oxidative stress is required for the action of tigecycline in HCC cells. We further show that HCC cells have higher level of mitochondrial biogenesis than normal liver cells which might explain the different sensitivity to tigecycline between HCC and normal liver cells. Our work is the first to demonstrate that tigecycline is a promising candidate for HCC treatment and highlight the therapeutic value of targeting mitochondrial metabolism in HCC. - Highlights: • Tigecycline selectively targets HCC in vitro and in vivo. • Tigecycline enhances HCC cell response to chemotherapeutic drug. • Tigecycline inhibits mitochondrial

  10. Mitochondrial function at extreme high altitude.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrew J; Horscroft, James A

    2016-03-01

    At high altitude, barometric pressure falls and with it inspired P(O2), potentially compromising O2 delivery to the tissues. With sufficient acclimatisation, the erythropoietic response increases red cell mass such that arterial O2 content (C(aO2)) is restored; however arterial P(O2)(P(aO2)) remains low, and the diffusion of O2 from capillary to mitochondrion is impaired. Mitochondrial respiration and aerobic capacity are thus limited, whilst reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases. Restoration of P(aO2) with supplementary O2 does not fully restore aerobic capacity in acclimatised individuals, possibly indicating a peripheral impairment. With prolonged exposure to extreme high altitude (>5500 m), muscle mitochondrial volume density falls, with a particular loss of the subsarcolemmal population. It is not clear whether this represents acclimatisation or deterioration, but it does appear to be regulated, with levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis factor PGC-1α falling, and shows similarities to adapted Tibetan highlanders. Qualitative changes in mitochondrial function also occur, and do so at more moderate high altitudes with shorter periods of exposure. Electron transport chain complexes are downregulated, possibly mitigating the increase in ROS production. Fatty acid oxidation capacity is decreased and there may be improvements in biochemical coupling at the mitochondrial inner membrane that enhance O2 efficiency. Creatine kinase expression falls, possibly impairing high-energy phosphate transfer from the mitochondria to myofibrils. In climbers returning from the summit of Everest, cardiac energetic reserve (phosphocreatine/ATP) falls, but skeletal muscle energetics are well preserved, possibly supporting the notion that mitochondrial remodelling is a core feature of acclimatisation to extreme high altitude. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  11. Regulated Cell Death of Lymphoma Cells after Graded Mitochondrial Damage is Differentially Affected by Drugs Targeting Cell Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Tomás; Folgar, Martín Gil; Salaverry, Luciana; Rey-Roldán, Estela; Alvarez, Elida M; Carreras, María C; Kornblihtt, Laura; Blanco, Guillermo A

    2018-05-01

    Collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) is often considered the initiation of regulated cell death (RCD). Carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) is an uncoupler of the electron transport chain (ETC) that facilitates the translocation of protons into the mitochondrial matrix leading to the collapse of the MMP. Several cell stress responses such as mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and the ubiquitin proteasome system may differentially contribute to restrain the initiation of RCD depending on the extent of mitochondrial damage. We induced graded mitochondrial damage after collapse of MMP with the mitochondrial uncoupler CCCP in Burkitt's lymphoma cells, and we evaluated the effect of several drugs targeting cell stress responses over RCD at 72 hr, using a multiparametric flow cytometry approach. CCCP caused collapse of MMP after 30 min., massive mitochondrial fission, oxidative stress and increased mitophagy within the 5-15 μM low-dose range (LDR) of CCCP. Within the 20-50 μM high-dose range (HDR), CCCP caused lysosomal destabilization and rupture, thus precluding mitophagy and autophagy. Cell death after 72 hr was below 20%, with increased mitochondrial mass (MM). The inhibitors of mitophagy 3-(2,4-dichloro-5-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-4(1H)-quinazolinone (Mdivi-1) and vincristine (VCR) increased cell death from CCCP within the LDR, while valproic acid (an inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis) also increased MM and cell death within the LDR. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, increased cell death only in the HDR. Doxycycline, an antibiotic that disrupts mitochondrial biogenesis, had no effect on cell survival, while iodoacetamide, an inhibitor of glycolysis, increased cell death at the HDR. We conclude that mitophagy influenced RCD of lymphoma cells after MMP collapse by CCCP only within the LDR, while proteasome activity and glycolysis contributed to survival in the HDR under extensive mitochondria and lysosome damage. © 2017

  12. Downregulation of ribosome biogenesis during early forebrain development

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Kevin F; Shannon, Morgan L; Fame, Ryann M; Fonseca, Erin; Mullan, Hillary; Johnson, Matthew B; Sendamarai, Anoop K; Springel, Mark W; Laurent, Benoit

    2018-01-01

    Forebrain precursor cells are dynamic during early brain development, yet the underlying molecular changes remain elusive. We observed major differences in transcriptional signatures of precursor cells from mouse forebrain at embryonic days E8.5 vs. E10.5 (before vs. after neural tube closure). Genes encoding protein biosynthetic machinery were strongly downregulated at E10.5. This was matched by decreases in ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis, together with age-related changes in proteomic content of the adjacent fluids. Notably, c-MYC expression and mTOR pathway signaling were also decreased at E10.5, providing potential drivers for the effects on ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. Interference with c-MYC at E8.5 prematurely decreased ribosome biogenesis, while persistent c-MYC expression in cortical progenitors increased transcription of protein biosynthetic machinery and enhanced ribosome biogenesis, as well as enhanced progenitor proliferation leading to subsequent macrocephaly. These findings indicate large, coordinated changes in molecular machinery of forebrain precursors during early brain development. PMID:29745900

  13. PLK4 trans-Autoactivation Controls Centriole Biogenesis in Space.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla A M; Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Cunha-Ferreira, Inês; Zitouni, Sihem; Bento, Inês; Duarte, Paulo; Gilberto, Samuel; Freixo, Francisco; Guerrero, Adán; Francia, Maria; Lince-Faria, Mariana; Carneiro, Jorge; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica

    2015-10-26

    Centrioles are essential for cilia and centrosome assembly. In centriole-containing cells, centrioles always form juxtaposed to pre-existing ones, motivating a century-old debate on centriole biogenesis control. Here, we show that trans-autoactivation of Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), the trigger of centriole biogenesis, is a critical event in the spatial control of that process. We demonstrate that centrioles promote PLK4 activation through its recruitment and local accumulation. Though centriole removal reduces the proportion of active PLK4, this is rescued by concentrating PLK4 to the peroxisome lumen. Moreover, while mild overexpression of PLK4 only triggers centriole amplification at the existing centriole, higher PLK4 levels trigger both centriolar and cytoplasmatic (de novo) biogenesis. Hence, centrioles promote their assembly locally and disfavor de novo synthesis. Similar mechanisms enforcing the local concentration and/or activity of other centriole components are likely to contribute to the spatial control of centriole biogenesis under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders: Biological, Clinical and Pathophysiological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Nancy E.; D'Agostino, Maria Daniela; MacLean, Gillian E.

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders in which peroxisome assembly is impaired, leading to multiple peroxisome enzyme deficiencies, complex developmental sequelae and progressive disabilities. Mammalian peroxisome assembly involves the protein products of 16 "PEX" genes;…

  15. Minotaur is critical for primary piRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vagin, Vasily V.; Yu, Yang; Jankowska, Anna; Luo, Yicheng; Wasik, Kaja A.; Malone, Colin D.; Harrison, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam; Wakimoto, Barbara T.; Fagegaltier, Delphine; Muerdter, Felix; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Piwi proteins and their associated small RNAs are essential for fertility in animals. In part, this is due to their roles in guarding germ cell genomes against the activity of mobile genetic elements. piRNA populations direct Piwi proteins to silence transposon targets and, as such, form a molecular code that discriminates transposons from endogenous genes. Information ultimately carried by piRNAs is encoded within genomic loci, termed piRNA clusters. These give rise to long, single-stranded, primary transcripts that are processed into piRNAs. Despite the biological importance of this pathway, neither the characteristics that define a locus as a source of piRNAs nor the mechanisms that catalyze primary piRNA biogenesis are well understood. We searched an EMS-mutant collection annotated for fertility phenotypes for genes involved in the piRNA pathway. Twenty-seven homozygous sterile strains showed transposon-silencing defects. One of these, which strongly impacted primary piRNA biogenesis, harbored a causal mutation in CG5508, a member of the Drosophila glycerol-3-phosphate O-acetyltransferase (GPAT) family. These enzymes catalyze the first acylation step on the path to the production of phosphatidic acid (PA). Though this pointed strongly to a function for phospholipid signaling in the piRNA pathway, a mutant form of CG5508, which lacks the GPAT active site, still functions in piRNA biogenesis. We have named this new biogenesis factor Minotaur. PMID:23788724

  16. microRNA biogenesis and turnover in plants.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K; Chen, X

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs that regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. The biogenesis and turnover of miRNAs determine their spatiotemporal accumulation within tissues. miRNA biogenesis is a multistep process that entails transcription, processing, nuclear export, and formation of the miRNA-ARGONAUTE complex. Factors that perform each of these steps have been identified. Generation of mature miRNAs from primary transcripts, i.e., miRNA processing, is a key step in miRNA biogenesis. Our understanding of miRNA processing has expanded beyond the enzyme that performs the reactions, as more and more additional factors that impact the efficiency and accuracy of miRNA processing are uncovered. In contrast to miRNA biogenesis, miRNA turnover is an important but poorly understood process that contributes to the steady-state levels of miRNAs. Enzymes responsible for miRNA degradation have only recently been identified. This review describes the processes of miRNA maturation and degradation in plants.

  17. Therapeutically targeting mitochondrial redox signalling alleviates endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Cathal; Kenny, Louise C

    2016-09-08

    Aberrant placentation generating placental oxidative stress is proposed to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Unfortunately, therapeutic trials of antioxidants have been uniformly disappointing. There is provisional evidence implicating mitochondrial dysfunction as a source of oxidative stress in preeclampsia. Here we provide evidence that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediates endothelial dysfunction and establish that directly targeting mitochondrial scavenging may provide a protective role. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to 3% plasma from women with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia resulted in a significant decrease in mitochondrial function with a subsequent significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation compared to cells exposed to plasma from women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Real-time PCR analysis showed increased expression of inflammatory markers TNF-α, TLR-9 and ICAM-1 respectively in endothelial cells treated with preeclampsia plasma. MitoTempo is a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, pre-treatment of cells with MitoTempo protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Furthermore MitoTempo significantly reduced mitochondrial superoxide production in cells exposed to preeclampsia plasma by normalising mitochondrial metabolism. MitoTempo significantly altered the inflammatory profile of plasma treated cells. These novel data support a functional role for mitochondrial redox signaling in modulating the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and identifies mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants as potential therapeutic candidates.

  18. Biogenesis of mitochondria in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds subjected to temperature stress and recovery involves regulation of the complexome, respiratory chain activity, organellar translation and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Rurek, Michal; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2015-01-01

    The biogenesis of the cauliflower curd mitochondrial proteome was investigated under cold, heat and the recovery. For the first time, two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was used to study the plant mitochondrial complexome in heat and heat recovery. Particularly, changes in the complex I and complex III subunits and import proteins, and the partial disintegration of matrix complexes were observed. The presence of unassembled subunits of ATP synthase was accompanied by impairment in mitochondrial translation of its subunit. In cold and heat, the transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes were uncorrelated. The in-gel activities of respiratory complexes were particularly affected after stress recovery. Despite a general stability of respiratory chain complexes in heat, functional studies showed that their activity and the ATP synthesis yield were affected. Contrary to cold stress, heat stress resulted in a reduced efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation likely due to changes in alternative oxidase (AOX) activity. Stress and stress recovery differently modulated the protein level and activity of AOX. Heat stress induced an increase in AOX activity and protein level, and AOX1a and AOX1d transcript level, while heat recovery reversed the AOX protein and activity changes. Conversely, cold stress led to a decrease in AOX activity (and protein level), which was reversed after cold recovery. Thus, cauliflower AOX is only induced by heat stress. In heat, contrary to the AOX activity, the activity of rotenone-insensitive internal NADH dehydrogenase was diminished. The relevance of various steps of plant mitochondrial biogenesis to temperature stress response and recovery is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Seipin performs dissectible functions in promoting lipid droplet biogenesis and regulating droplet morphology

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Bethany R.; Binns, Derk D.; Hilton, Christopher L.; Han, Sungwon; Gao, Qiang; Goodman, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Seipin is necessary for both adipogenesis and lipid droplet (LD) organization in nonadipose tissues; however, its molecular function is incompletely understood. Phenotypes in the seipin-null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae include aberrant droplet morphology (endoplasmic reticulum–droplet clusters and size heterogeneity) and sensitivity of droplet size to changes in phospholipid synthesis. It has not been clear, however, whether seipin acts in initiation of droplet synthesis or at a later step. Here we utilize a system of de novo droplet formation to show that the absence of seipin results in a delay in droplet appearance with concomitant accumulation of neutral lipid in membranes. We also demonstrate that seipin is required for vectorial budding of droplets toward the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we find that the normal rate of droplet initiation depends on 14 amino acids at the amino terminus of seipin, deletion of which results in fewer, larger droplets that are consistent with a delay in initiation but are otherwise normal in morphology. Importantly, other functions of seipin, namely vectorial budding and resistance to inositol, are retained in this mutant. We conclude that seipin has dissectible roles in both promoting early LD initiation and in regulating LD morphology, supporting its importance in LD biogenesis. PMID:25540432

  20. Sonic hedgehog pathway activation increases mitochondrial abundance and activity in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Pamela J.; Manor, Uri; Petralia, Ronald S.; Brose, Rebecca D.; Wu, Ryan T. Y.; Ott, Carolyn; Wang, Ya-Xian; Charnoff, Ari; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Mattson, Mark P.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles whose biogenesis, structure, and function are regulated by many signaling pathways. We present evidence that, in hippocampal neurons, activation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway affects multiple aspects of mitochondria. Mitochondrial mass was increased significantly in neurons treated with Shh. Using biochemical and fluorescence imaging analyses, we show that Shh signaling activity reduces mitochondrial fission and promotes mitochondrial elongation, at least in part, via suppression of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-like GTPase Drp1. Mitochondria from Shh-treated neurons were more electron-dense, as revealed by electron microscopy, and had higher membrane potential and respiratory activity. We further show that Shh protects neurons against a variety of stresses, including the mitochondrial poison rotenone, amyloid β-peptide, hydrogen peroxide, and high levels of glutamate. Collectively our data suggest a link between Shh pathway activity and the physiological properties of mitochondria in hippocampal neurons. PMID:27932496

  1. Mitochondrial function as a therapeutic target in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David A.; Perry, Justin B.; Allen, Mitchell E.; Sabbah, Hani N.; Stauffer, Brian L.; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Cleland, John G. F.; Colucci, Wilson S.; Butler, Javed; Voors, Adriaan A.; Anker, Stefan D.; Pitt, Bertram; Pieske, Burkert; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Greene, Stephen J.; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure is a pressing worldwide public-health problem with millions of patients having worsening heart failure. Despite all the available therapies, the condition carries a very poor prognosis. Existing therapies provide symptomatic and clinical benefit, but do not fully address molecular abnormalities that occur in cardiomyocytes. This shortcoming is particularly important given that most patients with heart failure have viable dysfunctional myocardium, in which an improvement or normalization of function might be possible. Although the pathophysiology of heart failure is complex, mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be an important target for therapy to improve cardiac function directly. Mitochondrial abnormalities include impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain activity, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, shifted metabolic substrate utilization, aberrant mitochondrial dynamics, and altered ion homeostasis. In this Consensus Statement, insights into the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in heart failure are presented, along with an overview of emerging treatments with the potential to improve the function of the failing heart by targeting mitochondria. PMID:28004807

  2. The Art of Optical Aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylde, Clarissa Eileen Kenney

    Art and optics are inseparable. Though seemingly opposite disciplines, the combination of art and optics has significantly impacted both culture and science as they are now known. As history has run its course, in the sciences, arts, and their fruitful combinations, optical aberrations have proved to be a problematic hindrance to progress. In an effort to eradicate aberrations the simple beauty of these aberrational forms has been labeled as undesirable and discarded. Here, rather than approach aberrations as erroneous, these beautiful forms are elevated to be the photographic subject in a new body of work, On the Bright Side. Though many recording methods could be utilized, this work was composed on classic, medium-format, photographic film using white-light, Michelson interferometry. The resulting images are both a representation of the true light rays that interacted on the distorted mirror surfaces (data) and the artist's compositional eye for what parts of the interferogram are chosen and displayed. A detailed description of the captivating interdisciplinary procedure is documented and presented alongside the final artwork, CCD digital reference images, and deformable mirror contour maps. This alluring marriage between the arts and sciences opens up a heretofore minimally explored aspect of the inextricable art-optics connection. It additionally provides a fascinating new conversation on the importance of light and optics in photographic composition.

  3. Increased Degradation Rates in the Components of the Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Chain in the Cerebellum of Old Mice

    PubMed Central

    Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Sandu, Raluca E.; Cristin, Coman; Uzoni, Adriana; Welle, Kevin A.; Hryhorenko, Jennifer R.; Ghaemmaghami, Sina

    2018-01-01

    Brain structures differ in the magnitude of age-related neuron loss with the cerebellum being more affected. An underlying cause could be an age-related decline in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Successful aging of mitochondria reflects a balanced turnover of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy. Thus, an imbalance in mitochondrial turnover can contribute to the diminution of cellular function seen during aging. Mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy are mediated by a set of proteins including MFN1, MFN2, OPA1, DRP1, FIS1 as well as DMN1l and DNM1, all of which are required for mitochondrial fission. Using N15 labeling, we report that the turnover rates for DMN1l and FIS1 go in opposite directions in the cerebellum of 22-month-old C57BL6j mice as compared to 3-month-old mice. Previous studies have reported decreased turnover rates for the mitochondrial respiratory complexes of aged rodents. In contrast, we found increased turnover rates for mitochondrial proteins of the oxidative phosphorylation chain in the aged mice as compared to young mice. Furthermore, the turnover rate of the components that are most affected by aging –complex III components (ubiquinol cytochrome C oxidoreductase) and complex IV components (cytochrome C oxidase)– was significantly increased in the senescent cerebellum. However, the turnover rates of proteins involved in mitophagy (i.e., the proteasomal and lysosomal degradation of damaged mitochondria) were not significantly altered with age. Overall, our results suggest that an age-related imbalance in the turnover rates of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy (DMN1l, FIS1) in conjunction with an age-related imbalance in the turnover rates of proteins of the complexes III and IV of the electron transfer chain, might impair cerebellar mitochondrial bioenergetics in old mice. PMID:29503614

  4. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh; Godbole, Madan M

    2010-07-02

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1alpha, NRF-1alpha and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estrogen receptor-β in mitochondria: implications for mitochondrial bioenergetics and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tien-Ling; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Yu, Chao-Lan; Wang, Yi-Pei; Kao, Shu-Huei

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen enhances mitochondrial function by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and sustaining mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity. Shifts in mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis have been hypothesized to be involved in estrogen-induced tumorigenesis. Studies have shown that mitochondria are an important target of estrogen. Estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) has been shown to localize to mitochondria in a ligand-dependent or -independent manner and can affect mitochondrial bioenergetics and anti-apoptotic signaling. However, the functional role of mitochondrial ERβ in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Clinical studies of ERβ-related tumorigenesis have shown that ERβ stimulates mitochondrial metabolism to meet the high energy demands of processes such as cell proliferation, cell survival, and transformation. Thus, in elucidating the precise role of mitochondrial ERβ in cell transformation and tumorigenesis, it will be particularly valuable to explore new approaches for the development of medical treatments targeting mitochondrial ERβ-mediated mitochondrial function and preventing apoptosis. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1{alpha}, NRF-1{alpha} and Tfam. Also, we for themore » first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.« less

  7. Synergistic interaction of fatty acids and oxysterols impairs mitochondrial function and limits liver adaptation during nafld progression.

    PubMed

    Bellanti, Francesco; Villani, Rosanna; Tamborra, Rosanna; Blonda, Maria; Iannelli, Giuseppina; di Bello, Giorgia; Facciorusso, Antonio; Poli, Giuseppe; Iuliano, Luigi; Avolio, Carlo; Vendemiale, Gianluigi; Serviddio, Gaetano

    2018-05-01

    The complete mechanism accounting for the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been elucidated. Lipotoxicity refers to cellular injury caused by hepatic free fatty acids (FFAs) and cholesterol accumulation. Excess cholesterol autoxidizes to oxysterols during oxidative stress conditions. We hypothesize that interaction of FAs and cholesterol derivatives may primarily impair mitochondrial function and affect biogenesis adaptation during NAFLD progression. We demonstrated that the accumulation of specific non-enzymatic oxysterols in the liver of animals fed high-fat+high-cholesterol diet induces mitochondrial damage and depletion of proteins of the respiratory chain complexes. When tested in vitro, 5α-cholestane-3β,5,6β-triol (triol) combined to FFAs was able to reduce respiration in isolated liver mitochondria, induced apoptosis in primary hepatocytes, and down-regulated transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Finally, a lower protein content in the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was observed in human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, hepatic accumulation of FFAs and non-enzymatic oxysterols synergistically facilitates development and progression of NAFLD by impairing mitochondrial function, energy balance and biogenesis adaptation to chronic injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Distortion of ultrashort pulses caused by aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Z. L.; Kovács, A. P.; Bor, Zs.

    The effect of the primary wave aberrations (spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma) on ultrashort pulses is studied by the Nijboer-Zernike theory. The results of the geometrical and the wave optical treatments are compared.

  9. Metabolomics Reveals Signature of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Bethany; Mathew, Anna V.; Gangoiti, Jon A.; Wassel, Christina L.; Saito, Rintaro; Pu, Minya; Sharma, Shoba; You, Young-Hyun; Wang, Lin; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Forsblom, Carol; Wu, Wei; Ix, Joachim H.; Ideker, Trey; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Nigam, Sanjay K.; Cohen, Clemens D.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Barshop, Bruce A.; Natarajan, Loki; Nyhan, William L.; Naviaux, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of ESRD, but few biomarkers of diabetic kidney disease are available. This study used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify 94 urine metabolites in screening and validation cohorts of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and CKD(DM+CKD), in patients with DM without CKD (DM–CKD), and in healthy controls. Compared with levels in healthy controls, 13 metabolites were significantly reduced in the DM+CKD cohorts (P≤0.001), and 12 of the 13 remained significant when compared with the DM–CKD cohort. Many of the differentially expressed metabolites were water-soluble organic anions. Notably, organic anion transporter-1 (OAT1) knockout mice expressed a similar pattern of reduced levels of urinary organic acids, and human kidney tissue from patients with diabetic nephropathy demonstrated lower gene expression of OAT1 and OAT3. Analysis of bioinformatics data indicated that 12 of the 13 differentially expressed metabolites are linked to mitochondrial metabolism and suggested global suppression of mitochondrial activity in diabetic kidney disease. Supporting this analysis, human diabetic kidney sections expressed less mitochondrial protein, urine exosomes from patients with diabetes and CKD had less mitochondrial DNA, and kidney tissues from patients with diabetic kidney disease had lower gene expression of PGC1α (a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis). We conclude that urine metabolomics is a reliable source for biomarkers of diabetic complications, and our data suggest that renal organic ion transport and mitochondrial function are dysregulated in diabetic kidney disease. PMID:23949796

  10. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial health and spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Laura C; Gorgey, Ashraf S

    2016-10-18

    Mitochondria are the main source of cellular energy production and are dynamic organelles that undergo biogenesis, remodeling, and degradation. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in a number of disease states including acute and chronic central or peripheral nervous system injury by traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury (SCI), and neurodegenerative disease as well as in metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes and obesity. Mitochondrial dysfunction is most commonly observed in high energy requiring tissues like the brain and skeletal muscle. In persons with chronic SCI, changes to skeletal muscle may include remarkable atrophy and conversion of muscle fiber type from oxidative to fast glycolytic, combined with increased infiltration of intramuscular adipose tissue. These changes contribute to a proinflammatory environment, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The loss of metabolically active muscle combined with inactivity predisposes individuals with SCI to type II diabetes and obesity. The contribution of skeletal muscle mitochondrial density and electron transport chain activity to the development of the aforementioned comorbidities following SCI is unclear. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics is imperative to designing and testing effective treatments for this growing population. The current editorial will review ways to study mitochondrial function and the importance of improving skeletal muscle mitochondrial health in clinical populations with a special focus on chronic SCI.

  11. Chemoprevention of obesity by dietary natural compounds targeting mitochondrial regulation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Shu; Wu, Jia-Ching; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2017-06-01

    Mitochondria are at the center stage in the control of energy homeostasis in many organs and tissues including adipose tissue. Recently, abundant evidence from experimental studies has clearly supported the strong correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes and obesity. Various physiological conditions such as excessive nutrition, genetic factors, hypoxia, and toxins disrupt mitochondrial function by impairing mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and oxidative capacity. Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes could have an impact on differentiation, adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and the significant alteration in their metabolic function, which ultimately results in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Numerous dietary natural compounds are the subject of research for the prevention and treatment of obesity through reprogramming multiple metabolic pathways. Some of them have the potential against obesity by modulating insulin signaling, decreasing oxidative damage, downregulating adipokines secretion, and increasing mitochondrial DNA that improves mitochondrial function and thus maintain metabolic homeostasis. Here, we focus on and summarize and briefly discuss the currently known targets and the mitochondria-targeting effects of dietary natural compounds in the intervention of obesity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Metastasis suppressor KISS1 seems to reverse the Warburg effect by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cancer cells tend to utilize aerobic glycolysis even under normoxic conditions, commonly called the "Warburg Effect." Aerobic glycolysis often directly correlates with malignancy, but its purpose, if any, in metastasis remains unclear. When wild-type KISS1 metastasis suppressor is expressed, aerob...

  13. The iron-binding CyaY and IscX proteins assist the ISC-catalyzed Fe-S biogenesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Roche, Béatrice; Huguenot, Allison; Barras, Frédéric; Py, Béatrice

    2015-02-01

    In eukaryotes, frataxin deficiency (FXN) causes severe phenotypes including loss of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster protein activity, accumulation of mitochondrial iron and leads to the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's ataxia. In contrast, in prokaryotes, deficiency in the FXN homolog, CyaY, was reported not to cause any significant phenotype, questioning both its importance and its actual contribution to Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Because FXN is conserved between eukaryotes and prokaryotes, this surprising discrepancy prompted us to reinvestigate the role of CyaY in Escherichia coli. We report that CyaY (i) potentiates E. coli fitness, (ii) belongs to the ISC pathway catalyzing the maturation of Fe-S cluster-containing proteins and (iii) requires iron-rich conditions for its contribution to be significant. A genetic interaction was discovered between cyaY and iscX, the last gene of the isc operon. Deletion of both genes showed an additive effect on Fe-S cluster protein maturation, which led, among others, to increased resistance to aminoglycosides and increased sensitivity to lambda phage infection. Together, these in vivo results establish the importance of CyaY as a member of the ISC-mediated Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathway in E. coli, like it does in eukaryotes, and validate IscX as a new bona fide Fe-S cluster biogenesis factor. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mitochondrial-epigenetic crosstalk in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Weinhouse, Caren

    2017-11-01

    Crosstalk between the nuclear epigenome and mitochondria, both in normal physiological function and in responses to environmental toxicant exposures, is a developing sub-field of interest in environmental and molecular toxicology. The majority (∼99%) of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome, so programmed communication among nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial compartments is essential for maintaining cellular health. In this review, we will focus on correlative and mechanistic evidence for direct impacts of each system on the other, discuss demonstrated or potential crosstalk in the context of chemical insult, and highlight biological research questions for future study. We will first review the two main signaling systems: nuclear signaling to the mitochondria [anterograde signaling], best described in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and mitochondrial biogenesis in response to environmental signals received by the nucleus, and mitochondrial signals to the nucleus [retrograde signaling]. Both signaling systems can communicate intracellular energy needs or a need to compensate for dysfunction to maintain homeostasis, but both can also relay inappropriate signals in the presence of dysfunction in either system and contribute to adverse health outcomes. We will first review these two signaling systems and highlight known or biologically feasible epigenetic contributions to both, then briefly discuss the emerging field of epigenetic regulation of the mitochondrial genome, and finally discuss putative "crosstalk phenotypes", including biological phenomena, such as caloric restriction, maintenance of stemness, and circadian rhythm, and states of disease or loss of function, such as cancer and aging, in which both the nuclear epigenome and mitochondria are strongly implicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pumping up the volume - vacuole biogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Falco; Schumacher, Karin

    2017-07-08

    Plant architecture follows the need to collect CO 2, solar energy, water and mineral nutrients via large surface areas. It is by the presence of a central vacuole that fills much of the cell volume that plants manage to grow at low metabolic cost. In addition vacuoles buffer the fluctuating supply of essential nutrients and help to detoxify the cytosol when plants are challenged by harmful molecules. Despite their large size and multiple important functions, our knowledge of vacuole biogenesis and the machinery underlying their amazing dynamics is still fragmentary. In this review, we try to reconcile past and present models for vacuole biogenesis with the current knowledge of multiple parallel vacuolar trafficking pathways and the molecular machineries driving membrane fusion and organelle shape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecology and Biogenesis of Functional Amyloids in Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Sarah L; Matthews, Stephen J; Dueholm, Morten S

    2018-05-16

    Functional amyloids can be found in the extracellular matrix produced by many bacteria during biofilm growth. They mediate the initial attachment of bacteria to surfaces and provide stability and functionality to mature biofilms. Efficient amyloid biogenesis requires a highly coordinated system of amyloid subunits, molecular chaperones and transport systems. The functional amyloid of Pseudomonas (Fap) represents such a system. Here, we review the phylogenetic diversification of the Fap system, its potential ecological role and the dedicated machinery required for Fap biogenesis, with a particular focus on the amyloid exporter FapF, the structure of which has been recently resolved. We also present a sequence covariance-based in silico model of the FapC fiber-forming subunit. Finally, we highlight key questions that remain unanswered and we believe deserve further attention by the scientific community. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Regulation of chloroplast biogenesis: the immutans mutant of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Rodermel, Steven

    The immutans (im) variegation mutant of Arabidopsis is an ideal model to gain insight into factors that control chloroplast biogenesis. im defines the gene for PTOX, a plastoquinol terminal oxidase that participates in control of thylakoid redox. Here, we report that the im defect can be suppressed during the late stages of plant development by gigantea (gi2), which defines the gene for GIGANTEA (GI), a central component of the circadian clock that plays a poorly-understood role in diverse plant developmental processes. imgi2 mutants are late-flowering and display other well-known phenotypes associated with gi2, such as starch accumulation and resistance tomore » oxidative stress. We show that the restoration of chloroplast biogenesis in imgi2 is caused by a developmental-specific de-repression of cytokinin signaling that involves crosstalk with signaling pathways mediated by gibberellin (GA) and SPINDLY (SPY), a GA response inhibitor. Suppression of the plastid defect in imgi2 is likely caused by a relaxation of excitation pressures in developing plastids by factors contributed by gi2, including enhanced rates of photosynthesis and increased resistance to oxidative stress. Interestingly, the suppression phenotype of imgi can be mimicked by crossing im with the starch accumulation mutant, sex1, perhaps because sex1 utilizes pathways similar to gi. We conclude that our studies provide a direct genetic linkage between GIGANTEA and chloroplast biogenesis, and we construct a model of interactions between signaling pathways mediated by gi, GA, SPY, cytokinins, and sex1 that are required for chloroplast biogenesis.« less

  18. Germ Plasm Biogenesis--An Oskar-Centric Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Germ granules are the hallmark of all germ cells. These membrane-less, electron-dense structures were first observed over 100 years ago. Today, their role in regulating and processing transcripts critical for the establishment, maintenance, and protection of germ cells is well established, and pathways outlining the biochemical mechanisms and physical properties associated with their biogenesis are emerging. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The presequence pathway is involved in protein sorting to the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Opaliński, Lukasz; Schuler, Max-Hinderk; Ellenrieder, Lars; Ieva, Raffaele; Böttinger, Lena; Qiu, Jian; van der Laan, Martin; Wiedemann, Nils; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Becker, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains integral α-helical and β-barrel proteins that are imported from the cytosol. The machineries importing β-barrel proteins have been identified, however, different views exist on the import of α-helical proteins. It has been reported that the biogenesis of Om45, the most abundant signal-anchored protein, does not depend on proteinaceous components, but involves direct insertion into the outer membrane. We show that import of Om45 occurs via the translocase of the outer membrane and the presequence translocase of the inner membrane. Assembly of Om45 in the outer membrane involves the MIM machinery. Om45 thus follows a new mitochondrial biogenesis pathway that uses elements of the presequence import pathway to direct a protein to the outer membrane. © 2014 The Authors.

  20. Biogenesis of Golgi Stacks in Imaginal Discs of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kondylis, Vangelis; Goulding, Sarah E.; Dunne, Jonathan C.; Rabouille, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of Golgi stack biogenesis that takes place in vivo during one of the morphogenetic events in the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. In early third-instar larvae, small clusters consisting mostly of vesicles and tubules were present in epithelial imaginal disk cells. As larvae progressed through mid- and late-third instar, these larval clusters became larger but also increasingly formed cisternae, some of which were stacked. In white pupae, the typical Golgi stack was observed. We show that larval clusters are Golgi stack precursors by 1) localizing various Golgi-specific markers to the larval clusters by electron and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, 2) driving this conversion in wild-type larvae incubated at 37°C for 2 h, and 3) showing that this conversion does not take place in an NSF1 mutant (comt 17). The biological significance of this conversion became clear when we found that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) is critically involved in this conversion. In its absence, Golgi stack biogenesis did not occur and the larval clusters remained unaltered. We showed that dGM130 and sec23p expression increases approximately three- and fivefold, respectively, when discs are exposed to ecdysone in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that we have developed an in vivo system to study the ecdysone-triggered Golgi stack biogenesis. PMID:11514618

  1. Mizoribine corrects defective nephrin biogenesis by restoring intracellular energy balance.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, Aya; Khoshnoodi, Jamshid; Takenaka, Hitoshi; Hagiwara, Emi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kawakami, Hayato; Kurayama, Ryota; Sekine, Yuji; Bessho, Fumio; Takahashi, Shori; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Tryggvason, Karl; Yan, Kunimasa

    2007-09-01

    Proteins are modified and folded within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When the influx of proteins exceeds the capacity of the ER to handle the load, the ER is "stressed" and protein biogenesis is affected. We have previously shown that the induction of ER stress by ATP depletion in podocytes leads to mislocalization of nephrin and subsequent injury of podocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ER stress is associated with proteinuria in vivo and whether the immunosuppressant mizoribine may exert its antiproteinuric effect by restoring normal nephrin biogenesis. Induction of nephrotic-range proteinuria with puromycin aminonucleoside in mice increased expression of the ER stress marker GRP78 in podocytes, and led to the mislocalization of nephrin to the cytoplasm. In vitro, mizoribine, through a mechanism likely dependent on the inhibition of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity in podocytes, restored the intracellular energy balance by increasing levels of ATP and corrected the posttranslational processing of nephrin. Therefore, we speculate that mizoribine may induce remission of proteinuria, at least in part, by restoring the biogenesis of slit diaphragm proteins in injured podocytes. Further understanding of the ER microenvironment may lead to novel approaches to treat diseases in which abnormal handling of proteins plays a role in pathogenesis.

  2. Dissecting Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Biogenesis Using Differential Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Martorana, Alessandra M.; Motta, Sara; Di Silvestre, Dario; Falchi, Federica; Dehò, Gianni; Mauri, Pierluigi; Sperandeo, Paola; Polissi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex multi-layered structure comprising an inner cytoplasmic membrane and an additional asymmetric lipid bilayer, the outer membrane, which functions as a selective permeability barrier and is essential for viability. Lipopolysaccharide, an essential glycolipid located in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane, greatly contributes to the peculiar properties exhibited by the outer membrane. This complex molecule is transported to the cell surface by a molecular machine composed of seven essential proteins LptABCDEFG that form a transenvelope complex and function as a single device. While advances in understanding the mechanisms that govern the biogenesis of the cell envelope have been recently made, only few studies are available on how bacterial cells respond to severe envelope biogenesis defects on a global scale. Here we report the use of differential proteomics based on Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to investigate how Escherichia coli cells respond to a block of lipopolysaccharide transport to the outer membrane. We analysed the envelope proteome of a lptC conditional mutant grown under permissive and non permissive conditions and identified 123 proteins whose level is modulated upon LptC depletion. Most such proteins belong to pathways implicated in cell envelope biogenesis, peptidoglycan remodelling, cell division and protein folding. Overall these data contribute to our understanding on how E. coli cells respond to LPS transport defects to restore outer membrane functionality. PMID:24967819

  3. Microprocessor activity controls differential miRNA biogenesis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Marsico, Annalisa; Gehre, Maja; Orom, Ulf Andersson

    2014-10-23

    In miRNA biogenesis, pri-miRNA transcripts are converted into pre-miRNA hairpins. The in vivo properties of this process remain enigmatic. Here, we determine in vivo transcriptome-wide pri-miRNA processing using next-generation sequencing of chromatin-associated pri-miRNAs. We identify a distinctive Microprocessor signature in the transcriptome profile from which efficiency of the endogenous processing event can be accurately quantified. This analysis reveals differential susceptibility to Microprocessor cleavage as a key regulatory step in miRNA biogenesis. Processing is highly variable among pri-miRNAs and a better predictor of miRNA abundance than primary transcription itself. Processing is also largely stable across three cell lines, suggesting a major contribution of sequence determinants. On the basis of differential processing efficiencies, we define functionality for short sequence features adjacent to the pre-miRNA hairpin. In conclusion, we identify Microprocessor as the main hub for diversified miRNA output and suggest a role for uncoupling miRNA biogenesis from host gene expression. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maintenance of mitochondrial DNA copy number and expression are essential for preservation of mitochondrial function and cell growth.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Jaan-Yeh; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Lee, Jing-Wen; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Fong, Tsorng-Han; Hsieh, Rong-Hong

    2008-02-01

    To examine whether a reduction in the mtDNA level will compromise mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function, we created a cell model with depleted mtDNA. Stable transfection of small interfering (si)RNA of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) was used to interfere with Tfam gene expression. Selected stable clones showed 60-95% reduction in Tfam gene expression and 50-90% reduction in cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene expression. Tfam gene knockdown clones also showed decreased mtDNA-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX I) protein expression. However, no significant differences in protein expression were observed in nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded mitochondrial respiratory enzyme subunits. The cell morphology changed from a rhombus-like to a spindle-like form as determined in clones with decreased expressions of Tfam, mtRNA, and mitochondrial proteins. The mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities and ATP production in such clones were significantly lower. The proportions of mtDNA mutations including 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a 4,977-bp deletion, and a 3,243-point mutation were also examined in these clones. No obvious increase in mtDNA mutations was observed in mitochondrial dysfunctional cell clones. The mitochondrial respiratory activity and ATP production ability recovered in cells with increased mtDNA levels after removal of the specific siRNA treatment. These experimental results provide direct evidence to substantiate that downregulation of mtDNA copy number and expression may compromise mitochondrial function and subsequent cell growth and morphology. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Mitochondrial Aging: Is There a Mitochondrial Clock?

    PubMed

    Zorov, Dmitry B; Popkov, Vasily A; Zorova, Ljubava D; Vorobjev, Ivan A; Pevzner, Irina B; Silachev, Denis N; Zorov, Savva D; Jankauskas, Stanislovas S; Babenko, Valentina A; Plotnikov, Egor Y

    2017-09-01

    Fragmentation (fission) of mitochondria, occurring in response to oxidative challenge, leads to heterogeneity in the mitochondrial population. It is assumed that fission provides a way to segregate mitochondrial content between the "young" and "old" phenotype, with the formation of mitochondrial "garbage," which later will be disposed. Fidelity of this process is the basis of mitochondrial homeostasis, which is disrupted in pathological conditions and aging. The asymmetry of the mitochondrial fission is similar to that of their evolutionary ancestors, bacteria, which also undergo an aging process. It is assumed that mitochondrial markers of aging are recognized by the mitochondrial quality control system, preventing the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, which normally are subjected to disposal. Possibly, oncocytoma, with its abnormal proliferation of mitochondria occupying the entire cytoplasm, represents the case when segregation of damaged mitochondria is impaired during mitochondrial division. It is plausible that mitochondria contain a "clock" which counts the degree of mitochondrial senescence as the extent of flagging (by ubiquitination) of damaged mitochondria. Mitochondrial aging captures the essence of the systemic aging which must be analyzed. We assume that the mitochondrial aging mechanism is similar to the mechanism of aging of the immune system which we discuss in detail. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Chronic plus binge ethanol feeding induces myocardial oxidative stress, mitochondrial and cardiovascular dysfunction, and steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Matyas, Csaba; Varga, Zoltan V.; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Paloczi, Janos; Lajtos, Tamas; Erdelyi, Katalin; Nemeth, Balazs T.; Nan, Mintong; Hasko, Gyorgy; Gao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy in humans develops in response to chronic excessive alcohol consumption; however, good models of alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy in mice are lacking. Herein we describe mouse models of alcoholic cardiomyopathies induced by chronic and binge ethanol (EtOH) feeding and characterize detailed hemodynamic alterations, mitochondrial function, and redox signaling in these models. Mice were fed a liquid diet containing 5% EtOH for 10, 20, and 40 days (d) combined with single or multiple EtOH binges (5 g/kg body wt). Isocalorically pair-fed mice served as controls. Left ventricular (LV) function and morphology were assessed by invasive pressure-volume conductance approach and by echocardiography. Mitochondrial complex (I, II, IV) activities, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels, gene expression of markers of oxidative stress (gp91phox, p47phox), mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α), and fibrosis were examined. Cardiac steatosis and fibrosis were investigated by histological/immunohistochemical methods. Chronic and binge EtOH feeding (already in 10 days EtOH plus single binge group) was characterized by contractile dysfunction (decreased slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and preload recruitable stroke work), impaired relaxation (decreased time constant of LV pressure decay and maximal slope of systolic pressure decrement), and vascular dysfunction (impaired arterial elastance and lower total peripheral resistance). This was accompanied by enhanced myocardial oxidative/nitrative stress (3-NT; gp91phox; p47phox; angiotensin II receptor, type 1a) and deterioration of mitochondrial complex I, II, IV activities and mitochondrial biogenesis, excessive cardiac steatosis, and higher mortality. Collectively, chronic plus binge EtOH feeding in mice leads to alcohol-induced cardiomyopathies (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism models) characterized by increased myocardial oxidative

  7. Chronic plus binge ethanol feeding induces myocardial oxidative stress, mitochondrial and cardiovascular dysfunction, and steatosis.

    PubMed

    Matyas, Csaba; Varga, Zoltan V; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Paloczi, Janos; Lajtos, Tamas; Erdelyi, Katalin; Nemeth, Balazs T; Nan, Mintong; Hasko, Gyorgy; Gao, Bin; Pacher, Pal

    2016-06-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy in humans develops in response to chronic excessive alcohol consumption; however, good models of alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy in mice are lacking. Herein we describe mouse models of alcoholic cardiomyopathies induced by chronic and binge ethanol (EtOH) feeding and characterize detailed hemodynamic alterations, mitochondrial function, and redox signaling in these models. Mice were fed a liquid diet containing 5% EtOH for 10, 20, and 40 days (d) combined with single or multiple EtOH binges (5 g/kg body wt). Isocalorically pair-fed mice served as controls. Left ventricular (LV) function and morphology were assessed by invasive pressure-volume conductance approach and by echocardiography. Mitochondrial complex (I, II, IV) activities, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels, gene expression of markers of oxidative stress (gp91phox, p47phox), mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α), and fibrosis were examined. Cardiac steatosis and fibrosis were investigated by histological/immunohistochemical methods. Chronic and binge EtOH feeding (already in 10 days EtOH plus single binge group) was characterized by contractile dysfunction (decreased slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and preload recruitable stroke work), impaired relaxation (decreased time constant of LV pressure decay and maximal slope of systolic pressure decrement), and vascular dysfunction (impaired arterial elastance and lower total peripheral resistance). This was accompanied by enhanced myocardial oxidative/nitrative stress (3-NT; gp91phox; p47phox; angiotensin II receptor, type 1a) and deterioration of mitochondrial complex I, II, IV activities and mitochondrial biogenesis, excessive cardiac steatosis, and higher mortality. Collectively, chronic plus binge EtOH feeding in mice leads to alcohol-induced cardiomyopathies (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism models) characterized by increased myocardial oxidative

  8. Sequential Actions of SIRT1-RELB-SIRT3 Coordinate Nuclear-Mitochondrial Communication during Immunometabolic Adaptation to Acute Inflammation and Sepsis*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tie Fu; Vachharajani, Vidula; Millet, Patrick; Bharadwaj, Manish S.; Molina, Anthony J.; McCall, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    We reported that NAD+-dependent SIRT1, RELB, and SIRT6 nuclear proteins in monocytes regulate a switch from the glycolysis-dependent acute inflammatory response to fatty acid oxidation-dependent sepsis adaptation. We also found that disrupting SIRT1 activity during adaptation restores immunometabolic homeostasis and rescues septic mice from death. Here, we show that nuclear SIRT1 guides RELB to differentially induce SIRT3 expression and also increases mitochondrial biogenesis, which alters bioenergetics during sepsis adaptation. We constructed this concept using TLR4-stimulated THP1 human promonocytes, a model that mimics the initiation and adaptation stages of sepsis. Following increased expression, mitochondrial SIRT3 deacetylase activates the rate-limiting tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 and superoxide dismutase 2, concomitant with increases in citrate synthase activity. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate increases early and decreases during adaptation, parallel with modifications to membrane depolarization, ATP generation, and production of mitochondrial superoxide and whole cell hydrogen peroxide. Evidence of SIRT1-RELB induction of mitochondrial biogenesis included increases in mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial-to-nuclear DNA ratios, and both nuclear and mitochondrial encoded proteins. We confirmed the SIRT-RELB-SIRT3 adaptation link to mitochondrial bioenergetics in both TLR4-stimulated normal and sepsis-adapted human blood monocytes and mouse splenocytes. We also found that SIRT1 inhibition ex vivo reversed the sepsis-induced changes in bioenergetics. PMID:25404738

  9. Insulin alleviates mitochondrial oxidative stress involving upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 and uncoupling protein 2 in septic acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Dao; Zhang, Jun-Liang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Zhang, Ju-Xing; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Qi-Yi

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of insulin on mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups: Control group, sham surgery group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, and CLP plus insulin group. Blood specimens and kidney tissues were obtained at 12 and 24 h after surgery as separate experiments. Analyses of histology and indicators of renal injury [blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (CRE) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)], mitochondrial function [adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)], oxidative stress [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO)], endogenous antioxidant systems [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)] as well as the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP), PINK1 protein (a major mediator of mitophagy), PGC1α protein (a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis) were performed. Compared with CLP group, the CLP plus insulin group had milder histological damage, higher levels of ATP and MMP as well as lower levels of BUN, serum CRE and NGAL, intrarenal iNOS, mitochondrial ROS and total NO. Moreover, the CLP plus insulin group demonstrated increased expression of SOD2 and UCP2. In contrast, insulin administration suppressed mitophagy meanwhile did not upregulate total GSH and induce mitochondrial biogenesis following CLP. These findings indicated that the upregulation of SOD2 and UCP2 may be involved in insulin protecting against mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic AKI. PMID:29563990

  10. Insulin alleviates mitochondrial oxidative stress involving upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 and uncoupling protein 2 in septic acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-Dao; Zhang, Jun-Liang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Zhang, Ju-Xing; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Qi-Yi

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of insulin on mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups: Control group, sham surgery group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, and CLP plus insulin group. Blood specimens and kidney tissues were obtained at 12 and 24 h after surgery as separate experiments. Analyses of histology and indicators of renal injury [blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (CRE) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)], mitochondrial function [adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)], oxidative stress [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO)], endogenous antioxidant systems [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)] as well as the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP), PINK1 protein (a major mediator of mitophagy), PGC1α protein (a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis) were performed. Compared with CLP group, the CLP plus insulin group had milder histological damage, higher levels of ATP and MMP as well as lower levels of BUN, serum CRE and NGAL, intrarenal iNOS, mitochondrial ROS and total NO. Moreover, the CLP plus insulin group demonstrated increased expression of SOD2 and UCP2. In contrast, insulin administration suppressed mitophagy meanwhile did not upregulate total GSH and induce mitochondrial biogenesis following CLP. These findings indicated that the upregulation of SOD2 and UCP2 may be involved in insulin protecting against mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic AKI.

  11. Mask-induced aberration in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Sato, Takashi; Inanami, Ryoichi; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

    2009-04-01

    We estimated aberrations using Zernike sensitivity analysis. We found the difference of the tolerated aberration with line direction for illumination. The tolerated aberration of perpendicular line for illumination is much smaller than that of parallel line. We consider this difference to be attributable to the mask 3D effect. We call it mask-induced aberration. In the case of the perpendicular line for illumination, there was a difference in CD between right line and left line without aberration. In this report, we discuss the possibility of pattern formation in NA 0.25 generation EUV lithography tool. In perpendicular pattern for EUV light, the dominant part of aberration is mask-induced aberration. In EUV lithography, pattern correction based on the mask topography effect will be more important.

  12. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A ceRNA Analysis Pointed to a Crosstalk between SOX2, TP53, and microRNA Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carina, Valeria; Tomasello, Laura; Pitrone, Maria; Baiamonte, Concetta; Amato, Marco Calogero

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that cancer stem cells (CSC) may play a central role in oncogenesis, especially in undifferentiated tumours. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has characteristics suggestive of a tumour enriched in CSC. Previous studies suggested that the stem cell factor SOX2 has a preeminent hierarchical role in determining the characteristics of stem cells in SW1736 ATC cell line. In detail, silencing SOX2 in SW1736 is able to suppress the expression of the stem markers analysed, strongly sensitizing the line to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, in order to further investigate the role of SOX2 in ATC, a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) analysis was conducted in order to isolate new functional partners of SOX2. Among the interactors, of particular interest are genes involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs (DICER1, RNASEN, and EIF2C2), in the control cell cycle (TP53, CCND1), and in mitochondrial activity (COX8A). The data suggest that stemness, microRNA biogenesis and functions, p53 regulatory network, cyclin D1, and cell cycle control, together with mitochondrial activity, might be coregulated. PMID:25705224

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid but not docosahexaenoic acid restores skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity in old mice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew L; Lalia, Antigoni Z; Dasari, Surendra; Pallauf, Maximilian; Fitch, Mark; Hellerstein, Marc K; Lanza, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is often observed in aging skeletal muscle and is implicated in age-related declines in physical function. Early evidence suggests that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) improve mitochondrial function. Here, we show that 10 weeks of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation partially attenuated the age-related decline in mitochondrial function in mice, but this effect was not observed with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The improvement in mitochondrial function with EPA occurred in the absence of any changes in mitochondrial abundance or biogenesis, which was evaluated from RNA sequencing, large-scale proteomics, and direct measurements of muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis rates. We find that EPA improves muscle protein quality, specifically by decreasing mitochondrial protein carbamylation, a post-translational modification that is driven by inflammation. These results demonstrate that EPA attenuated the age-related loss of mitochondrial function and improved mitochondrial protein quality through a mechanism that is likely linked with anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 PUFAs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EPA and DHA exert some common biological effects (anticoagulation, anti-inflammatory, reduced FXR/RXR activation), but also exhibit many distinct biological effects, a finding that underscores the importance of evaluating the therapeutic potential of individual n-3 PUFAs. PMID:26010060

  14. Eicosapentaenoic acid but not docosahexaenoic acid restores skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity in old mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew L; Lalia, Antigoni Z; Dasari, Surendra; Pallauf, Maximilian; Fitch, Mark; Hellerstein, Marc K; Lanza, Ian R

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is often observed in aging skeletal muscle and is implicated in age-related declines in physical function. Early evidence suggests that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) improve mitochondrial function. Here, we show that 10 weeks of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation partially attenuated the age-related decline in mitochondrial function in mice, but this effect was not observed with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The improvement in mitochondrial function with EPA occurred in the absence of any changes in mitochondrial abundance or biogenesis, which was evaluated from RNA sequencing, large-scale proteomics, and direct measurements of muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis rates. We find that EPA improves muscle protein quality, specifically by decreasing mitochondrial protein carbamylation, a post-translational modification that is driven by inflammation. These results demonstrate that EPA attenuated the age-related loss of mitochondrial function and improved mitochondrial protein quality through a mechanism that is likely linked with anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 PUFAs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EPA and DHA exert some common biological effects (anticoagulation, anti-inflammatory, reduced FXR/RXR activation), but also exhibit many distinct biological effects, a finding that underscores the importance of evaluating the therapeutic potential of individual n-3 PUFAs. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. ES1 is a mitochondrial enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in zebrafish cones.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takamasa; Wada, Yasutaka; Kawamura, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Total mass of mitochondria increases during cell proliferation and differentiation through mitochondrial biogenesis, which includes mitochondrial proliferation and growth. During the mitochondrial growth, individual mitochondria have been considered to be enlarged independently of mitochondrial fusion. However, molecular basis for this enlarging process has been poorly understood. Cone photoreceptor cells in the retina possess large mitochondria, so-called mega-mitochondria that have been considered to arise via the enlarging process. Here we show that ES1 is a novel mitochondria-enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in cones. ES1 is specifically expressed in cones and localized to mitochondria including mega-mitochondria. Knockdown of ES1 markedly reduced the mitochondrial size in cones. In contrast, ectopic expression of ES1 in rods significantly increased both the size of individual mitochondria and the total mass of the mitochondrial cluster without changing the number of them. RNA-seq analysis showed that ERRα and its downstream mitochondrial genes were significantly up-regulated in the ES1-expressing rods, suggesting facilitation of mitochondrial enlargement via ERRα-dependent processes. Furthermore, higher energy state was detected in the ES1-expressing rods, indicating that the enlarged mitochondria by ES1 are capable of producing high energy. ES1 is the mitochondrial protein that is first found to promote enlargement of individual mitochondria.

  16. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  17. SIRT1 Activation by Resveratrol Alleviates Cardiac Dysfunction via Mitochondrial Regulation in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Chen, Jiangwei; Li, Xiang; Yang, Bo; Li, Xiujuan; Fan, Miaomiao; Li, Congye; Tian, Zuhong

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major threat for diabetic patients. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) has a regulatory effect on mitochondrial dynamics, which is associated with DCM pathological changes. Our study aims to investigate whether resveratrol, a SRIT1 activator, could exert a protective effect against DCM. Methods and Results Cardiac-specific SIRT1 knockout (SIRT1KO) mice were generated using Cre-loxP system. SIRT1KO mice displayed symptoms of DCM, including cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, insulin resistance, and abnormal glucose metabolism. DCM and SIRT1KO hearts showed impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function, while SIRT1 activation by resveratrol reversed this in DCM mice. High glucose caused increased apoptosis, impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in cardiomyocytes, which was alleviated by resveratrol. SIRT1 deletion by both SIRT1KO and shRNA abolished the beneficial effects of resveratrol. Furthermore, the function of SIRT1 is mediated via the deacetylation effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), thus inducing increased expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), NRF-2, estrogen-related receptor-α (ERR-α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Conclusions Cardiac deletion of SIRT1 caused phenotypes resembling DCM. Activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol ameliorated cardiac injuries in DCM through PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial regulation. Collectively, SIRT1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for DCM. PMID:28883902

  18. Fructose-Rich Diet Affects Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Repair in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Federica; Senese, Rosalba; Lasala, Pasquale; Ziello, Angela; Mazzoli, Arianna; Crescenzo, Raffaella; Liverini, Giovanna; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando; Iossa, Susanna

    2017-03-24

    Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in metabolic disease resulting from a fructose-rich diet. In the present study, we evaluated the degree of oxidative damage to liver mtDNA and its repair, in addition to the state of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet. We used male rats feeding on a high-fructose or control diet for eight weeks. Our results showed an increase in mtDNA damage in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet and this damage, as evaluated by the expression of DNA polymerase γ, was not repaired; in addition, the mtDNA copy number was found to be significantly reduced. A reduction in the mtDNA copy number is indicative of impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, as is the finding of a reduction in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, a fructose-rich diet leads to mitochondrial and mtDNA damage, which consequently may have a role in liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases.

  19. SIRT1 Activation by Resveratrol Alleviates Cardiac Dysfunction via Mitochondrial Regulation in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Ran; Chen, Jiangwei; Han, Dong; Li, Xiang; Yang, Bo; Li, Xiujuan; Fan, Miaomiao; Li, Congye; Tian, Zuhong; Wang, Yabin; Cao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major threat for diabetic patients. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) has a regulatory effect on mitochondrial dynamics, which is associated with DCM pathological changes. Our study aims to investigate whether resveratrol, a SRIT1 activator, could exert a protective effect against DCM. Cardiac-specific SIRT1 knockout (SIRT1 KO ) mice were generated using Cre-loxP system. SIRT1 KO mice displayed symptoms of DCM, including cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, insulin resistance, and abnormal glucose metabolism. DCM and SIRT1 KO hearts showed impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function, while SIRT1 activation by resveratrol reversed this in DCM mice. High glucose caused increased apoptosis, impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in cardiomyocytes, which was alleviated by resveratrol. SIRT1 deletion by both SIRT1 KO and shRNA abolished the beneficial effects of resveratrol. Furthermore, the function of SIRT1 is mediated via the deacetylation effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), thus inducing increased expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), NRF-2, estrogen-related receptor-α (ERR-α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Cardiac deletion of SIRT1 caused phenotypes resembling DCM. Activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol ameliorated cardiac injuries in DCM through PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial regulation. Collectively, SIRT1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for DCM.

  20. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2013-12-01

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypoxia signaling controls postnatal changes in cardiac mitochondrial morphology and function

    PubMed Central

    Neary, Marianne T.; Ng, Keat-Eng; Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Hall, Andrew R.; Piotrowska, Izabela; Ong, Sang-Bing; Hausenloy, Derek J.; Mohun, Timothy J.; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Breckenridge, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiomyocyte adaptation to low levels of oxygen in utero is incompletely understood, and is of interest as hypoxia tolerance is lost after birth, leading to vulnerability of adult cardiomyocytes. It is known that cardiac mitochondrial morphology, number and function change significantly following birth, although the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological stimuli are undefined. Here we show that the decrease in cardiomyocyte HIF-signaling in cardiomyocytes immediately after birth acts as a physiological switch driving mitochondrial fusion and increased postnatal mitochondrial biogenesis. We also investigated mechanisms of ATP generation in embryonic cardiac mitochondria. We found that embryonic cardiac cardiomyocytes rely on both glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle to generate ATP, and that the balance between these two metabolic pathways in the heart is controlled around birth by the reduction in HIF signaling. We therefore propose that the increase in ambient oxygen encountered by the neonate at birth acts as a key physiological stimulus to cardiac mitochondrial adaptation. PMID:24984146

  2. [Mitochondrial and microcirculatory distress syndrome in the critical patient. Therapeutic implications].

    PubMed

    Navarrete, M L; Cerdeño, M C; Serra, M C; Conejero, R

    2013-10-01

    Mitochondrial and microcirculatory distress syndrome (MMDS) can occur during systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and is characterized by cytopathic tissue hypoxia uncorrected by oxygen transport optimization, and associated with an acquired defect in the use of oxygen and energy production in mitochondria, leading to multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). We examine the pathogenesis of MMDS, new diagnostic methods, and recent therapeutic approaches adapted to each of the three phases in the evolution of the syndrome. In the initial phase, the aim is prevention and early reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction. Once the latter is established, the aim is to restore flow of the electron chain, mitochondrial respiration, and to avoid cellular energy collapse. Finally, in the third (resolution) stage, treatment should focus on stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis and the repair or replacement of damaged mitochondria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  4. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating

  5. Role of Parkin and endurance training on mitochondrial turnover in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chris Chin Wah; Erlich, Avigail T; Hood, David A

    2018-03-17

    Parkin is a ubiquitin ligase that is involved in the selective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. This process is termed mitophagy and can assist in mitochondrial quality control. Endurance training can produce adaptations in skeletal muscle toward a more oxidative phenotype, an outcome of enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. It remains unknown whether Parkin-mediated mitophagy is involved in training-induced increases in mitochondrial content and function. Our purpose was to determine a role for Parkin in maintaining mitochondrial turnover in muscle, and its requirement in mediating mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance exercise training. Wild-type and Parkin knockout (KO) mice were trained for 6 weeks and then treated with colchicine or vehicle to evaluate the role of Parkin in mediating changes in mitochondrial content, function and acute exercise-induced mitophagy flux. Our results indicate that Parkin is required for the basal maintenance of mitochondrial function. The absence of Parkin did not significantly alter mitophagy basally; however, acute exercise produced an elevation in mitophagy flux, a response that was Parkin-dependent. Mitochondrial content was increased following training in both genotypes, but this occurred without an induction of PGC-1α signaling in KO animals. Interestingly, the increased muscle mitochondrial content in response to training did not influence basal mitophagy flux, despite an enhanced expression and localization of Parkin to mitochondria in WT animals. Furthermore, exercise-induced mitophagy flux was attenuated with training in WT animals, suggesting a lower rate of mitochondrial degradation resulting from improved organelle quality with training. In contrast, training led to a higher mitochondrial content, but with persistent dysfunction, in KO animals. Thus, the lack of a rescue of mitochondrial dysfunction with training in the absence of Parkin is the likely reason for the impaired training-induced attenuation of

  6. Mitochondrial genome-maintaining activity of mouse mitochondrial transcription factor A and its transcript isoform in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Geol; Koob, Michael D; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2011-09-15

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) binds to and organizes mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome into a mitochondrial nucleoid (mt-nucleoid) structure, which is necessary for mtDNA transcription and maintenance. Here, we demonstrate the mtDNA-organizing activity of mouse Tfam and its transcript isoform (Tfam(iso)), which has a smaller high-mobility group (HMG)-box1 domain, using a yeast model system that contains a deletion of the yeast homolog of mouse Tfam protein, Abf2p. When the mouse Tfam genes were introduced into the ABF2 locus of yeast genome, the corresponding mouse proteins, Tfam and Tfam(iso), can functionally replace the yeast Abf2p and support mtDNA maintenance and mitochondrial biogenesis in yeast. Growth properties, mtDNA content and mitochondrial protein levels of genes encoded in the mtDNA were comparable in the strains expressing mouse proteins and the wild-type yeast strain, indicating that the proteins have robust mtDNA-maintaining and -expressing function in yeast mitochondria. These results imply that the mtDNA-organizing activities of the mouse mt-nucleoid proteins are structurally and evolutionary conserved, thus they can maintain the mtDNA of distantly related and distinctively different species, such as yeast. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ribosome biogenesis in replicating cells: Integration of experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Tyler M; Cole, John A; Peterson, Joseph R; Hallock, Michael J; Kuhlman, Thomas E; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2016-10-01

    Ribosomes-the primary macromolecular machines responsible for translating the genetic code into proteins-are complexes of precisely folded RNA and proteins. The ways in which their production and assembly are managed by the living cell is of deep biological importance. Here we extend a recent spatially resolved whole-cell model of ribosome biogenesis in a fixed volume [Earnest et al., Biophys J 2015, 109, 1117-1135] to include the effects of growth, DNA replication, and cell division. All biological processes are described in terms of reaction-diffusion master equations and solved stochastically using the Lattice Microbes simulation software. In order to determine the replication parameters, we construct and analyze a series of Escherichia coli strains with fluorescently labeled genes distributed evenly throughout their chromosomes. By measuring these cells' lengths and number of gene copies at the single-cell level, we could fit a statistical model of the initiation and duration of chromosome replication. We found that for our slow-growing (120 min doubling time) E. coli cells, replication was initiated 42 min into the cell cycle and completed after an additional 42 min. While simulations of the biogenesis model produce the correct ribosome and mRNA counts over the cell cycle, the kinetic parameters for transcription and degradation are lower than anticipated from a recent analytical time dependent model of in vivo mRNA production. Describing expression in terms of a simple chemical master equation, we show that the discrepancies are due to the lack of nonribosomal genes in the extended biogenesis model which effects the competition of mRNA for ribosome binding, and suggest corrections to parameters to be used in the whole-cell model when modeling expression of the entire transcriptome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 735-751, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Conserved TCP domain of Sas-4/CPAP is essential for pericentriolar material tethering during centrosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangdong; Gooi, Li Ming; Wason, Arpit; Gabriel, Elke; Mehrjardi, Narges Zare; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Xingrun; Debec, Alain; Basiri, Marcus L.; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Poser, Ina; Šarić, Tomo; Hyman, Anthony A.; Li, Haitao; Gopalakrishnan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Pericentriolar material (PCM) recruitment to centrioles forms a key step in centrosome biogenesis. Deregulation of this process leads to centrosome aberrations causing disorders, one of which is autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH), a neurodevelopmental disorder where brain size is reduced. During PCM recruitment, the conserved centrosomal protein Sas-4/CPAP/MCPH6, known to play a role in centriole formation, acts as a scaffold for cytoplasmic PCM complexes to bind and then tethers them to centrioles to form functional centrosomes. To understand Sas-4’s tethering role, we determined the crystal structure of its T complex protein 10 (TCP) domain displaying a solvent-exposed single-layer of β-sheets fold. This unique feature of the TCP domain suggests that it could provide an “extended surface-like” platform to tether the Sas-4–PCM scaffold to a centriole. Functional studies in Drosophila, human cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells were used to test this hypothesis, where point mutations within the 9–10th β-strands (β9–10 mutants including a MCPH-associated mutation) perturbed PCM tethering while allowing Sas-4/CPAP to scaffold cytoplasmic PCM complexes. Specifically, the Sas-4 β9–10 mutants displayed perturbed interactions with Ana2, a centrosome duplication factor, and Bld-10, a centriole microtubule-binding protein, suggesting a role for the β9–10 surface in mediating protein–protein interactions for efficient Sas-4–PCM scaffold centriole tethering. Hence, we provide possible insights into how centrosomal protein defects result in human MCPH and how Sas-4 proteins act as a vehicle to tether PCM complexes to centrioles independent of its well-known role in centriole duplication. PMID:24385583

  9. The Biogenesis of Lysosomes and Lysosome-Related Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Luzio, J. Paul; Hackmann, Yvonne; Dieckmann, Nele M.G.; Griffiths, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomes were once considered the end point of endocytosis, simply used for macromolecule degradation. They are now recognized to be dynamic organelles, able to fuse with a variety of targets and to be re-formed after fusion events. They are also now known to be the site of nutrient sensing and signaling to the cell nucleus. In addition, lysosomes are secretory organelles, with specialized machinery for regulated secretion of proteins in some cell types. The biogenesis of lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles is discussed, taking into account their dynamic nature and multiple roles. PMID:25183830

  10. Biogenesis of the multifunctional lipid droplet: Lipids, proteins, and sites

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous dynamic organelles that store and supply lipids in all eukaryotic and some prokaryotic cells for energy metabolism, membrane synthesis, and production of essential lipid-derived molecules. Interest in the organelle’s cell biology has exponentially increased over the last decade due to the link between LDs and prevalent human diseases and the discovery of new and unexpected functions of LDs. As a result, there has been significant recent progress toward understanding where and how LDs are formed, and the specific lipid pathways that coordinate LD biogenesis. PMID:24590170

  11. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  12. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  13. Copper supplementation restores cytochrome c oxidase assembly defect in a mitochondrial disease model of COA6 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Alok; Trivedi, Prachi P; Timbalia, Shrishiv A; Griffin, Aaron T; Rahn, Jennifer J; Chan, Sherine S L; Gohil, Vishal M

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain biogenesis is orchestrated by hundreds of assembly factors, many of which are yet to be discovered. Using an integrative approach based on clues from evolutionary history, protein localization and human genetics, we have identified a conserved mitochondrial protein, C1orf31/COA6, and shown its requirement for respiratory complex IV biogenesis in yeast, zebrafish and human cells. A recent next-generation sequencing study reported potential pathogenic mutations within the evolutionarily conserved Cx₉CxnCx₁₀C motif of COA6, implicating it in mitochondrial disease biology. Using yeast coa6Δ cells, we show that conserved residues in the motif, including the residue mutated in a patient with mitochondrial disease, are essential for COA6 function, thus confirming the pathogenicity of the patient mutation. Furthermore, we show that zebrafish embryos with zfcoa6 knockdown display reduced heart rate and cardiac developmental defects, recapitulating the observed pathology in the human mitochondrial disease patient who died of neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The specific requirement of Coa6 for respiratory complex IV biogenesis, its intramitochondrial localization and the presence of the Cx₉CxnCx₁₀C motif suggested a role in mitochondrial copper metabolism. In support of this, we show that exogenous copper supplementation completely rescues respiratory and complex IV assembly defects in yeast coa6Δ cells. Taken together, our results establish an evolutionarily conserved role of Coa6 in complex IV assembly and support a causal role of the COA6 mutation in the human mitochondrial disease patient. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    High-order monochromatic aberrations could potentially influence vision-dependent refractive development in a variety of ways. As a first step in understanding the effects of wave aberration on refractive development, we characterized the maturational changes that take place in the high-order aberrations of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations of infant and adolescent animals and measured the longitudinal changes in the high-order aberrations of infant monkeys during the early period when emmetropization takes place. Our main findings were that (1) adolescent monkey eyes have excellent optical quality, exhibiting total RMS errors that were slightly better than those for adult human eyes that have the same numerical aperture and (2) shortly after birth, infant rhesus monkeys exhibited relatively larger magnitudes of high-order aberrations predominately spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil, which decreased rapidly to assume adolescent values by about 200 days of age. The results demonstrate that rhesus monkey eyes are a good model for studying the contribution of individual ocular components to the eye’s overall aberration structure, the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in optical quality that occur during early ocular development, and the effects of high-order aberrations on ocular growth and emmetropization. PMID:16750549

  15. Doxorubicin-induced mitophagy and mitochondrial damage is associated with dysregulation of the PINK1/parkin pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Guo, Jiabin; Zhang, Qiang; Cui, Lan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Tingfen; Zhao, Jun; Li, Jin; Middleton, Alistair; Carmichael, Paul L; Peng, Shuangqing

    2018-09-01

    The usefulness of doxorubicin (DOX), a potent anticancer agent, is limited by its cardiotoxicity. Mitochondria play a central role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity though the precise mechanisms are still obscure. Increasing evidence indicates that excessive activation of mitophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction are key causal events leading to DOX-induced cardiac injury. The PINK1/parkin pathway has emerged as a critical pathway in regulation of mitophagy as well as mitochondrial function. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of PINK1/parkin pathway in DOX-induced mitochondrial damage and cardiotoxicity. Our results showed that DOX concentration-dependently induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxic effects including mitochondrial superoxide accumulation, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial DNA copy number, as well as mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations. DOX induced mitophagy as evidenced by increases of the markers of autophagosomes, LC3, Beclin 1, reduction of p62, and co-localization of LC3 in mitochondria. DOX activated PINK1/parkin pathway and promoted translocation of PINK1/parkin to mitochondria. Meanwhile, DOX inhibited the expression of PGC-1α and its downstream targets nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and reduced the expression of mitochondrial proteins. Inhibition of mitophagy by mdivi-1 was found to attenuate activation of the PINK1/parkin pathway by DOX and preserve mitochondrial biogenesis, consequently mitigating DOX-induced mitochondrial superoxide overproduction and mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, scavenging mitochondrial superoxide by Mito-tempo was also found to effectively attenuate activation of the PINK1/parkin pathway and rescue the cells from DOX-induced adverse effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that DOX-induced mitophagy and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes are mediated, at least in part, by dysregulation of the PINK1

  16. Overexpression of the Mitochondrial T3 Receptor p43 Induces a Shift in Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types

    PubMed Central

    Casas, François; Pessemesse, Laurence; Grandemange, Stéphanie; Seyer, Pascal; Gueguen, Naïg; Baris, Olivier; Lepourry, Laurence; Cabello, Gérard; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, we have characterized a new hormonal pathway involving a mitochondrial T3 receptor (p43) acting as a mitochondrial transcription factor and consequently stimulating mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial biogenesis. We have established the involvement of this T3 pathway in the regulation of in vitro myoblast differentiation.We have generated mice overexpressing p43 under control of the human α-skeletal actin promoter. In agreement with the previous characterization of this promoter, northern-blot and western-blot experiments confirmed that after birth p43 was specifically overexpressed in skeletal muscle. As expected from in vitro studies, in 2-month old mice, p43 overexpression increased mitochondrial genes expression and mitochondrial biogenesis as attested by the increase of mitochondrial mass and mt-DNA copy number. In addition, transgenic mice had a body temperature 0.8°C higher than control ones and displayed lower plasma triiodothyronine levels. Skeletal muscles of transgenic mice were redder than wild-type animals suggesting an increased oxidative metabolism. In line with this observation, in gastrocnemius, we recorded a strong increase in cytochrome oxidase activity and in mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, we observed that p43 drives the formation of oxidative fibers: in soleus muscle, where MyHC IIa fibers were partly replaced by type I fibers; in gastrocnemius muscle, we found an increase in MyHC IIa and IIx expression associated with a reduction in the number of glycolytic fibers type IIb. In addition, we found that PGC-1α and PPARδ, two major regulators of muscle phenotype were up regulated in p43 transgenic mice suggesting that these proteins could be downstream targets of mitochondrial activity. These data indicate that the direct mitochondrial T3 pathway is deeply involved in the acquisition of contractile and metabolic features of muscle fibers in particular by regulating PGC-1α and PPARδ. PMID:18575627

  17. Increased mitochondrial-encoded gene transcription in immortal DF-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; You, S; Kim, I J; Farris, J; Foster, L K; Foster, D N

    2001-05-01

    We have established, in continuous cell culture, a spontaneously immortalized chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell line (DF-1) as well as several other immortal CEF cell lines. The immortal DF-1 cells divided more rapidly than primary and other immortal CEF cells. To identify the genes involved in rapidly dividing DF-1 cells, we have used differential display RT-PCR. Of the numerous genes analyzed, three mitochondrial-encoded genes (ATPase 8/6, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome b) were shown to express at higher levels in DF-1 cells compared to primary and other immortal CEF cells. The inhibition of mitochondrial translation by treatment with chloramphenicol markedly decreased ATP production and cell proliferation in DF-1 cells, while not affecting growth in either primary or other immortal CEF cells. This result suggests a correlation between rapid cell proliferation and the increased mitochondrial respiratory functions. We also determined that the increased transcription of mitochondrial-encoded genes in DF-1 cells is due to increased de novo transcript synthesis as shown by mitochondrial run-on assays, and not the result of either increased mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial transcript half-lives. Together, the present studies suggest that the transcriptional activation of mitochondrial-encoded genes and the elevated respiratory function should be one of the characteristics of rapidly dividing immortal cells. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. PINK1/Parkin-Dependent Mitochondrial Surveillance: From Pleiotropy to Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mouton-Liger, Francois; Jacoupy, Maxime; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Corti, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disease caused by the preferential, progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta. PD is characterized by a multifaceted pathological process involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and metabolism deregulation. The molecular mechanisms governing the complex interplay between the different facets of this process are still unknown. PARK2/Parkin and PARK6/PINK1, two genes responsible for familial forms of PD, act as a ubiquitous core signaling pathway, coupling mitochondrial stress to mitochondrial surveillance, by regulating mitochondrial dynamics, the removal of damaged mitochondrial components by mitochondria-derived vesicles, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis. Over the last decade, PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control emerged as a pleiotropic regulatory pathway. Loss of its function impinges on a number of physiological processes suspected to contribute to PD pathogenesis. Its role in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammatory processes stands out, providing compelling support to the contribution of non-cell-autonomous immune mechanisms in PD. In this review, we illustrate the central role of this multifunctional pathway at the crossroads between mitochondrial stress, neuroinflammation and metabolism. We discuss how its dysfunction may contribute to PD pathogenesis and pinpoint major unresolved questions in the field. PMID:28507507

  19. Endurance exercise rescues progeroid aging and induces systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation in mtDNA mutator mice

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Adeel; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M.; Ogborn, Daniel I.; Little, Jonathan P.; Hettinga, Bart P.; Akhtar, Mahmood; Thompson, James E.; Melov, Simon; Mocellin, Nicholas J.; Kujoth, Gregory C.; Prolla, Tomas A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    A causal role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis in mammalian aging is supported by recent studies demonstrating that the mtDNA mutator mouse, harboring a defect in the proofreading-exonuclease activity of mitochondrial polymerase gamma, exhibits accelerated aging phenotypes characteristic of human aging, systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, multisystem pathology, and reduced lifespan. Epidemiologic studies in humans have demonstrated that endurance training reduces the risk of chronic diseases and extends life expectancy. Whether endurance exercise can attenuate the cumulative systemic decline observed in aging remains elusive. Here we show that 5 mo of endurance exercise induced systemic mitochondrial biogenesis, prevented mtDNA depletion and mutations, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and respiratory chain assembly, restored mitochondrial morphology, and blunted pathological levels of apoptosis in multiple tissues of mtDNA mutator mice. These adaptations conferred complete phenotypic protection, reduced multisystem pathology, and prevented premature mortality in these mice. The systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation through endurance exercise promises to be an effective therapeutic approach to mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and related comorbidities. PMID:21368114

  20. Hippocampal mutant APP and amyloid beta-induced cognitive decline, dendritic spine loss, defective autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial abnormalities in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Manczak, Maria; Kandimalla, Ramesh; Yin, Xiangling; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2018-04-15

    The purpose of our study was to determine the toxic effects of hippocampal mutant APP and amyloid beta (Aβ) in 12-month-old APP transgenic mice. Using rotarod and Morris water maze tests, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, Golgi-cox staining and transmission electron microscopy, we assessed cognitive behavior, protein levels of synaptic, autophagy, mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, dendritic protein MAP2 and quantified dendritic spines and mitochondrial number and length in 12-month-old APP mice that express Swedish mutation. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring the levels of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial ATP. Morris water maze and rotarod tests revealed that hippocampal learning and memory and motor learning and coordination were impaired in APP mice relative to wild-type (WT) mice. Increased levels of mitochondrial fission proteins, Drp1 and Fis1 and decreased levels of fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1) biogenesis (PGC1α, NRF1, NRF2 and TFAM), autophagy (ATG5 and LC3BI, LC3BII), mitophagy (PINK1 and TERT), synaptic (synaptophysin and PSD95) and dendritic (MAP2) proteins were found in 12-month-old APP mice relative to age-matched non-transgenic WT mice. Golgi-cox staining analysis revealed that dendritic spines are significantly reduced. Transmission electron microscopy revealed significantly increased mitochondrial numbers and reduced mitochondrial length in APP mice. These findings suggest that hippocampal accumulation of mutant APP and Aβ is responsible for abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and defective biogenesis, reduced MAP2, autophagy, mitophagy and synaptic proteins and reduced dendritic spines and hippocampal-based learning and memory impairments, and mitochondrial structural and functional changes in 12-month-old APP mice.

  1. SIRT1/PGC-1α Signaling Promotes Mitochondrial Functional Recovery and Reduces Apoptosis after Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Shaohua; Li, Yixin; Yu, Shanshan; Zhao, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) exerts neuroprotection in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is not clear if SIRT1 has protective effects after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury in rats. Thus, our goal was to examine the influence of SIRT1 on ICH injuries and any underlying mechanisms of this influence. Brain injury was induced by autologous arterial blood (60 μL) injection into rat brains, and data show that activation of SIRT1 with SRT1720 (5 mg/kg) restored nuclear SIRT1, deacetylation of PGC-1α, and mitochondrial biogenesis and decreased mortality, behavioral deficits, and brain water content without significant changes in phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) induced by ICH. Activation of SIRT1 with SRT1720 also restored mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins and decreased apoptotic proteins in ICH; however, these changes were reversed after ICH. In contrast, treatment with PGC-1α siRNA yielded opposite effects. To explore the protective effects of SIRT1 after ICH, siRNAs were used to knockdown SIRT1. Treatment with SIRT1 siRNA increased mortality, behavioral deficits, brain water content, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurocyte apoptosis after ICH. Thus, activation of SIRT1 promotes recovery of mitochondrial protein and function by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and reduces apoptosis after ICH via the PGC-1α mitochondrial pathway. These data may suggest a new therapeutic approach for ICH injuries. PMID:29375306

  2. What Is Mitochondrial Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review Mitochondrial Structure, Function and Diseases Review Cell Biology of Diagnosis and Treatment of Mitochondrial Diseases Review ... Factories and Much More The conventional teaching in biology and medicine is that mitochondria function only as “ ...

  3. New insights into the biogenesis of nuclear RNA polymerases?1

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Philippe; Coulombe, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    More than 30 years of research on nuclear RNA polymerases (RNAP I, II, and III) has uncovered numerous factors that regulate the activity of these enzymes during the transcription reaction. However, very little is known about the machinery that regulates the fate of RNAPs before or after transcription. In particular, the mechanisms of biogenesis of the 3 nuclear RNAPs, which comprise both common and specific subunits, remains mostly uncharacterized and the proteins involved are yet to be discovered. Using protein affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP–MS), we recently unraveled a high-density interaction network formed by nuclear RNAP subunits from the soluble fraction of human cell extracts. Validation of the dataset using a machine learning approach trained to minimize the rate of false positives and false negatives yielded a high-confidence dataset and uncovered novel interactors that regulate the RNAP II transcription machinery, including a set of proteins we named the RNAP II-associated proteins (RPAPs). One of the RPAPs, RPAP3, is part of an 11-subunit complex we termed the RPAP3/R2TP/prefoldin-like complex. Here, we review the literature on the subunits of this complex, which points to a role in nuclear RNAP biogenesis. PMID:20453924

  4. Intestinal ABCA1 directly contributes to HDL biogenesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Brunham, Liam R.; Kruit, Janine K.; Iqbal, Jahangir; Fievet, Catherine; Timmins, Jenelle M.; Pape, Terry D.; Coburn, Bryan A.; Bissada, Nagat; Staels, Bart; Groen, Albert K.; Hussain, M. Mahmood; Parks, John S.; Kuipers, Folkert; Hayden, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma HDL cholesterol levels are inversely related to risk for atherosclerosis. The ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) mediates the rate-controlling step in HDL particle formation, the assembly of free cholesterol and phospholipids with apoA-I. ABCA1 is expressed in many tissues; however, the physiological functions of ABCA1 in specific tissues and organs are still elusive. The liver is known to be the major source of plasma HDL, but it is likely that there are other important sites of HDL biogenesis. To assess the contribution of intestinal ABCA1 to plasma HDL levels in vivo, we generated mice that specifically lack ABCA1 in the intestine. Our results indicate that approximately 30% of the steady-state plasma HDL pool is contributed by intestinal ABCA1 in mice. In addition, our data suggest that HDL derived from intestinal ABCA1 is secreted directly into the circulation and that HDL in lymph is predominantly derived from the plasma compartment. These data establish a critical role for intestinal ABCA1 in plasma HDL biogenesis in vivo. PMID:16543947

  5. New insights into the biogenesis of nuclear RNA polymerases?

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Philippe; Coulombe, Benoit

    2010-04-01

    More than 30 years of research on nuclear RNA polymerases (RNAP I, II, and III) has uncovered numerous factors that regulate the activity of these enzymes during the transcription reaction. However, very little is known about the machinery that regulates the fate of RNAPs before or after transcription. In particular, the mechanisms of biogenesis of the 3 nuclear RNAPs, which comprise both common and specific subunits, remains mostly uncharacterized and the proteins involved are yet to be discovered. Using protein affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS), we recently unraveled a high-density interaction network formed by nuclear RNAP subunits from the soluble fraction of human cell extracts. Validation of the dataset using a machine learning approach trained to minimize the rate of false positives and false negatives yielded a high-confidence dataset and uncovered novel interactors that regulate the RNAP II transcription machinery, including a set of proteins we named the RNAP II-associated proteins (RPAPs). One of the RPAPs, RPAP3, is part of an 11-subunit complex we termed the RPAP3/R2TP/prefoldin-like complex. Here, we review the literature on the subunits of this complex, which points to a role in nuclear RNAP biogenesis.

  6. MicroRNA biogenesis and function in plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuemei

    2005-10-31

    A microRNA (miRNA) is a 21-24 nucleotide RNA product of a non-protein-coding gene. Plants, like animals, have a large number of miRNA-encoding genes in their genomes. The biogenesis of miRNAs in Arabidopsis is similar to that in animals in that miRNAs are processed from primary precursors by at least two steps mediated by RNAse III-like enzymes and that the miRNAs are incorporated into a protein complex named RISC. However, the biogenesis of plant miRNAs consists of an additional step, i.e., the miRNAs are methylated on the ribose of the last nucleotide by the miRNA methyltransferase HEN1. The high degree of sequence complementarity between plant miRNAs and their target mRNAs has facilitated the bioinformatic prediction of miRNA targets, many of which have been subsequently validated. Plant miRNAs have been predicted or confirmed to regulate a variety of processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress responses. A large category of miRNA targets consists of genes encoding transcription factors that play important roles in patterning the plant form.

  7. Biogenesis, maintenance and dynamics of glycosomes in trypanosomatid parasites.

    PubMed

    Haanstra, Jurgen R; González-Marcano, Eglys B; Gualdrón-López, Melisa; Michels, Paul A M

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes of organisms belonging to the protist group Kinetoplastea, which include trypanosomatid parasites of the genera Trypanosoma and Leishmania, are unique in playing a crucial role in glycolysis and other parts of intermediary metabolism. They sequester the majority of the glycolytic enzymes and hence are called glycosomes. Their glycosomal enzyme content can vary strongly, particularly quantitatively, between different trypanosomatid species, and within each species during its life cycle. Turnover of glycosomes by autophagy of redundant ones and biogenesis of a new population of organelles play a pivotal role in the efficient adaptation of the glycosomal metabolic repertoire to the sudden, major nutritional changes encountered during the transitions in their life cycle. The overall mechanism of glycosome biogenesis is similar to that of peroxisomes in other organisms, but the homologous peroxins involved display low sequence conservation as well as variations in motifs mediating crucial protein-protein interactions in the process. The correct compartmentalisation of enzymes is essential for the regulation of the trypanosomatids' metabolism and consequently for their viability. For Trypanosoma brucei it was shown that glycosomes also play a crucial role in its life-cycle regulation: a crucial developmental control switch involves the translocation of a protein phosphatase from the cytosol into the organelles. Many glycosomal proteins are differentially phosphorylated in different life-cycle stages, possibly indicative of regulation of enzyme activities as an additional means to adapt the metabolic network to the different environmental conditions encountered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic evolution and biogenesis of small RNAs during sex reversal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Luo, Majing; Sheng, Yue; Hong, Qiang; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-06

    Understanding origin, evolution and functions of small RNA (sRNA) genes has been a great challenge in the past decade. Molecular mechanisms underlying sexual reversal in vertebrates, particularly sRNAs involved in this process, are largely unknown. By deep-sequencing of small RNA transcriptomes in combination with genomic analysis, we identified a large amount of piRNAs and miRNAs including over 1,000 novel miRNAs, which were differentially expressed during gonad reversal from ovary to testis via ovotesis. Biogenesis and expressions of miRNAs were dynamically changed during the reversal. Notably, phylogenetic analysis revealed dynamic expansions of miRNAs in vertebrates and an evolutionary trajectory of conserved miR-17-92 cluster in the Eukarya. We showed that the miR-17-92 cluster in vertebrates was generated through multiple duplications from ancestor miR-92 in invertebrates Tetranychus urticae and Daphnia pulex from the Chelicerata around 580 Mya. Moreover, we identified the sexual regulator Dmrt1 as a direct target of the members miR-19a and -19b in the cluster. These data suggested dynamic biogenesis and expressions of small RNAs during sex reversal and revealed multiple expansions and evolutionary trajectory of miRNAs from invertebrates to vertebrates, which implicate small RNAs in sexual reversal and provide new insight into evolutionary and molecular mechanisms underlying sexual reversal.

  9. Computational Analysis of Mouse piRNA Sequence and Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Betel, Doron; Sheridan, Robert; Marks, Debora S; Sander, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The recent discovery of a new class of 30-nucleotide long RNAs in mammalian testes, called PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA), with similarities to microRNAs and repeat-associated small interfering RNAs (rasiRNAs), has raised puzzling questions regarding their biogenesis and function. We report a comparative analysis of currently available piRNA sequence data from the pachytene stage of mouse spermatogenesis that sheds light on their sequence diversity and mechanism of biogenesis. We conclude that (i) there are at least four times as many piRNAs in mouse testes than currently known; (ii) piRNAs, which originate from long precursor transcripts, are generated by quasi-random enzymatic processing that is guided by a weak sequence signature at the piRNA 5′ends resulting in a large number of distinct sequences; and (iii) many of the piRNA clusters contain inverted repeats segments capable of forming double-strand RNA fold-back segments that may initiate piRNA processing analogous to transposon silencing. PMID:17997596

  10. Resveratrol Rescues Kidney Mitochondrial Function Following Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Guan, Yuxia; Karamercan, Mehmet Akif; Ye, Lan; Bhatti, Tricia; Becker, Lance B.; Baur, Joseph A.; Sims, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hemorrhagic shock may contribute to acute kidney injury by profoundly altering renal mitochondrial function. Resveratrol (RSV), a naturally occurring sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) activator, has been shown to promote mitochondrial function and reduce oxidative damage in a variety of aging-related disease states. We hypothesized that RSV treatment during resuscitation would ameliorate kidney mitochondrial dysfunction and decrease oxidative damage following hemorrhagic shock. Method Using a decompensated hemorrhagic shock model, male Long-Evans rats (n=6 per group) were sacrificed prior to hemorrhage (Sham), at severe shock, and following either lactated Ringer’s (LR) Resuscitation or LR+RSV Resuscitation (RSV: 30mg/kg). At each time point, blood samples were assayed for arterial blood gases, lactate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Mitochondria were also isolated from kidney samples in order to assess individual electron transport complexes (CI, CII, and CIV) using high-resolution respirometry. Total mitochondria reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using fluorometry and lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring 4-hydroxynonenal by Western blot. qPCR was used quantify mRNA from PGC1-α, SIRT1, and proteins known to mitigate oxidative damage and promote mitochondrial biogenesis. Results RSV supplementation during resuscitation restored mitochondrial respiratory capacity, decreased mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation. Compared to standard LR resuscitation, RSV treatment significantly increased SIRT1 and PGC1-α expression and significantly increased both SOD2 and catalase expression. Although RSV was associated with decreased lactate production, pH, BUN and serum creatinine values did not differ between resuscitation strategies. Conclusions Resuscitation with RSV significantly restored renal mitochondrial function and decreased oxidative damage following hemorrhagic shock. PMID:25895148

  11. Sex-specific differences in mitochondria biogenesis, morphology, respiratory function, and ROS homeostasis in young mouse heart and brain.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Abdel Rahman M; Abdel-Rahman, Engy A; Mahmoud, Ali M; Ali, Mohamed H; Noureldin, Maha; Saber, Saber H; Mohsen, Mahmoud; Ali, Sameh S

    2017-03-01

    Sex-specific differences in mitochondrial function and free radical homeostasis are reported in the context of aging but not well-established in pathogeneses occurring early in life. Here, we examine if sex disparity in mitochondria function, morphology, and redox status starts early and hence can be implicated in sexual dimorphism in cardiac as well as neurological disorders prevalent at young age. Although mitochondrial activity in the heart did not significantly vary between sexes, female brain exhibited enhanced respiration and higher reserve capacity. This was associated with lower H 2 O 2 production in female cardiac and brain tissues. Using transmission electron microscopy, we found that the number of female cardiac mitochondria is moderately greater (117 ± 3%, P  = 0.049, N  = 4) than male's, which increased significantly for cortical mitochondria (134 ± 4%, P  = 0.001, N  = 4). However, male's cardiac mitochondria exhibited fragmented, circular, and smaller mitochondria relative to female's mitochondria, while no morphologic sex-dependent differences were observed in cortical mitochondria. No sex differences were detected in Nox2 and Nox4 proteins or O 2 -consuming/H 2 O 2 -producing activities in brain homogenate or synaptosomes. However, a strong trend of increased EPR-detected NOX superoxide in male synaptosomes hinted at higher superoxide dismutase activity in female brains, which was confirmed by two independent protocols. We also provide direct evidence that respiring mitochondria generally produce an order-of-magnitude lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) proportions than currently estimated. Our results indicate that sex differences in mitochondrial biogenesis, bioenergetics, and morphology may start at young age and that sex-dependent SOD capacity may be responsible for differences in ROS homeostasis in heart and brain. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological

  12. Roles of mitochondrial fragmentation and reactive oxygen species in mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Saotome, Masao, E-mail: msaotome@hama-med.ac.jp; Nobuhara, Mamoru

    Purpose: Evidence suggests an association between aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac diseases. Because myocardial metabolic deficiency caused by insulin resistance plays a crucial role in heart disease, we investigated the role of dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP1; a mitochondrial fission protein) in the pathogenesis of myocardial insulin resistance. Methods and Results: DRP1-expressing H9c2 myocytes, which had fragmented mitochondria with mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ{sub m}) depolarization, exhibited attenuated insulin signaling and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) uptake, indicating insulin resistance. Treatment of the DRP1-expressing myocytes with Mn(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin pentachloride (TMPyP) significantly improved insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. When myocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}),more » they increased DRP1 expression and mitochondrial fragmentation, resulting in ΔΨ{sub m} depolarization and insulin resistance. When DRP1 was suppressed by siRNA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance were restored. Our results suggest that a mutual enhancement between DRP1 and reactive oxygen species could induce mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant myocytes, neither DRP1-suppression nor TMPyP restored the ΔΨ{sub m} depolarization and impaired 2-DG uptake, however they improved insulin signaling. Conclusions: A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS could promote mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of insulin signal transduction. However, other mechanisms, including lipid metabolite-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, may be involved in palmitate-induced insulin resistance. - Highlights: • DRP1 promotes mitochondrial fragmentation and insulin-resistance. • A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS ipromotes insulin-resistance. • Palmitate increases DRP1 expression and induces insulin

  13. MicroRNA as biomarkers of mitochondrial toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, Bethany R., E-mail: bethany.baumgart@bms

    Mitochondrial toxicity can be difficult to detect as most cells can tolerate reduced activity as long as minimal capacity for function is maintained. However, once minimal capacity is lost, apoptosis or necrosis occurs quickly. Identification of more sensitive, early markers of mitochondrial toxicity was the objective of this work. Rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a mitochondrial complex II inhibitor, were administered daily to male Sprague–Dawley rats at subcutaneous doses of 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg/day and intraperitoneal doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 1 week. Samples of kidney, skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris), and serummore » were collected for analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns. MtDNA was significantly decreased with administration of rotenone at 0.3 mg/kg/day and 3-NP at 5 and 10 mg/kg/day in the quadriceps femoris and with 3-NP at 10 mg/kg/day in the kidney. Additionally, rotenone and 3-NP treatment produced changes to miRNA expression that were similar in direction (i.e. upregulation, downregulation) to those previously linked to mitochondrial functions, such as mitochondrial damage and biogenesis (miR-122, miR-202-3p); regulation of ATP synthesis, abolished oxidative phosphorylation, and loss of membrane potential due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (miR-338-5p, miR-546, miR-34c); and mitochondrial DNA damage and depletion (miR-546). These results suggest that miRNAs may be sensitive biomarkers for early detection of mitochondrial toxicity. - Highlights: • MtDNA decreased after treatment with respiratory chain inhibitors rotenone and 3-NP. • Decrease in mtDNA is generally dose-related and indicative of mitochondrial toxicity. • Altered miRNA has reported roles in regulating mitochondrial function. • Induction of miR-338-5p in kidney and serum suggests potential as renal biomarker. • Induction of miR-122

  14. Translation and Assembly of Radiolabeled Mitochondrial DNA-Encoded Protein Subunits from Cultured Cells and Isolated Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Formosa, Luke E; Hofer, Annette; Tischner, Christin; Wenz, Tina; Ryan, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the mitochondrial electron transport chain consists of five multi-subunit membrane complexes responsible for the generation of cellular ATP. Of these, four complexes are under dual genetic control as they contain subunits encoded by both the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, thereby adding another layer of complexity to the puzzle of respiratory complex biogenesis. These subunits must be synthesized and assembled in a coordinated manner in order to ensure correct biogenesis of different respiratory complexes. Here, we describe techniques to (1) specifically radiolabel proteins encoded by mtDNA to monitor the rate of synthesis using pulse labeling methods, and (2) analyze the stability, assembly, and turnover of subunits using pulse-chase methods in cultured cells and isolated mitochondria.

  15. Harmonic oscillator states in aberration optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    The states of the three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator classify optical aberrations of axis-symmetric systems due to the isomorphism between the two mathematical structures. Cartesian quanta and angular momentum classifications have their corresponding aberration classifications. The operation of concatenation of optical elements introduces a new operation between harmonic oscillator states.

  16. Rooting Out Aberrant Behavior in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokalis, Jerry, Jr.; Paquin, Dave

    1989-01-01

    Discusses aberrant, or disruptive, behavior in an industrial/business, classroom-based, instructor-led training setting. Three examples of aberrant behavior are described, typical case studies are provided for each, and preventive (long-term) and corrective (on-the-spot) strategies for dealing with the problems are discussed. (LRW)

  17. Effect of monochromatic aberrations on photorefractive patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Melanie C. W.; Bobier, W. R.; Roorda, A.

    1995-08-01

    Photorefractive methods have become popular in the measurement of refractive and accommodative states of infants and children owing to their photographic nature and rapid speed of measurement. As in the case of any method that measures the refractive state of the human eye, monochromatic aberrations will reduce the accuracy of the measurement. Monochromatic aberrations cannot be as easily predicted or controlled as chromatic aberrations during the measurement, and accordingly they will introduce measurement errors. This study defines this error or uncertainty by extending the existing paraxial optical analyses of coaxial and eccentric photorefraction. This new optical analysis predicts that, for the amounts of spherical aberration (SA) reported for the human eye, there will be a significant degree of measurement uncertainty introduced for all photorefractive methods. The dioptric amount of this uncertainty may exceed the maximum amount of SA present in the eye. The calculated effects on photorefractive measurement of a real eye with a mixture of spherical aberration and coma are shown to be significant. The ability, developed here, to predict photorefractive patterns corresponding to different amounts and types of monochromatic aberration may in the future lead to an extension of photorefractive methods to the dual measurement of refractive states and aberrations of individual eyes. aberration, retinal image quality,

  18. High-fat diet induces an initial adaptation of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the kidney despite evident oxidative stress and mitochondrial ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Christine; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Cleland, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with an increased risk for several diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy and chronic kidney diseases. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are often proposed mechanisms in various organs in obesity models, but limited data are available on the kidney. Here, we fed a lard-based high-fat diet to mice to investigate structural changes, cellular and subcellular oxidative stress and redox status, and mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the kidney. The diet induced characteristic changes, including glomerular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and interstitial scarring, which were accompanied by a proinflammatory transition. We demonstrate evidence for oxidative stress in the kidney through 3-nitrotyrosine and protein radical formation on high-fat diet with a contribution from iNOS and NOX-4 as well as increased generation of mitochondrial oxidants on carbohydrate- and lipid-based substrates. The increased H2O2 emission in the mitochondria suggests altered redox balance and mitochondrial ROS generation, contributing to the overall oxidative stress. No major derailments were observed in respiratory function or biogenesis, indicating preserved and initially improved bioenergetic parameters and energy production. We suggest that, regardless of the oxidative stress events, the kidney developed an adaptation to maintain normal respiratory function as a possible response to an increased lipid overload. These findings provide new insights into the complex role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial redox status in the pathogenesis of the kidney in obesity and indicate that early oxidative stress-related changes, but not mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction, may contribute to the pathogenesis and development of obesity-linked chronic kidney diseases. PMID:21386058

  19. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  20. SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Price, Nathan L.; Gomes, Ana P.; Ling, Alvin J.Y.; Duarte, Filipe V.; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; North, Brian J.; Agarwal, Beamon; Ye, Lan; Ramadori, Giorgio; Teodoro, Joao S.; Hubbard, Basil P.; Varela, Ana T.; Davis, James G.; Varamini, Behzad; Hafner, Angela; Moaddel, Ruin; Rolo, Anabela P.; Coppari, Roberto; Palmeira, Carlos M.; de Cabo, Rafael; Baur, Joseph A.; Sinclair, David A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and protects against metabolic decline but whether SIRT1 mediates these benefits is the subject of debate. To circumvent the developmental defects of germ-line SIRT1 knockouts, we have developed the first inducible system that permits whole-body deletion of SIRT1 in adult mice. Mice treated with a moderate dose of resveratrol showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, AMPK activation and increased NAD+ levels in skeletal muscle, whereas SIRT1 knockouts displayed none of these benefits. A mouse overexpressing SIRT1 mimicked these effects. A high dose of resveratrol activated AMPK in a SIRT1-independent manner, demonstrating that resveratrol dosage is a critical factor. Importantly, at both doses of resveratrol no improvements in mitochondrial function were observed in animals lacking SIRT1. Together these data indicate that SIRT1 plays an essential role in the ability of moderate doses of resveratrol to stimulate AMPK and improve mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22560220

  1. Ginsenoside Rg3 attenuates sepsis-induced injury and mitochondrial dysfunction in liver via AMPK-mediated autophagy flux.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wei; Yang, Lei; Peng, Yue; Wang, Qianlu; Gao, Min; Yang, Mingshi; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2017-08-31

    Sepsis-led mitochondrial dysfunction has become a critical pathophysiological procedure in sepsis. Since ginsenosides have been applied in the treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction, ginsenoside Rg3 was employed to study its effects on the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sepsis. The apoptosis rate, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant glutathione (GSH) pools, and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were determined in LPS-induced sepsis hepatocytes treated with different concentrations of Rg3. Then, the protein expression levels of mitochondrial biogenesis related transcription factors, autophagy-related proteins, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal pathway related proteins were determined by Western blotting in both in vitro and in vivo sepsis models. Rg3 shows functions of promotion of OCR, attenuation of ROS, and maintenance of GSH pools, and its conjugating activity in the in vitro sepsis models. Rg3-treated cells were observed to have a higher MTP value compared with the LPS only induced cells. Moreover, Rg3 treatment can inhibit mitochondrial dysfunction via increasing the protein expression levels of mitochondrial biogenesis related transcription factors. Rg3 treatment has the function of inhibitor of apoptosis of human primary hepatocytes, and Rg3 can up-regulate the autophagy-related proteins and activate AMPK signal pathway in sepsis models. Meanwhile, the mitochondrial protective function exerted by Rg3 decreased after the autophagy inhibitors or AMPK inhibitor treatment in LPS-induced human primary hepatocytes. Rg3 can improve mitochondrial dysfunction by regulating autophagy in mitochondria via activating the AMPK signal pathway, thus protecting cell and organ injuries caused by sepsis. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Mitochondrial NAD(P)H In vivo: Identifying Natural Indicators of Oxidative Phosphorylation in the (31)P Magnetic Resonance Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Conley, Kevin E; Ali, Amir S; Flores, Brandon; Jubrias, Sharon A; Shankland, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    Natural indicators provide intrinsic probes of metabolism, biogenesis and oxidative protection. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolites (NAD(P)) are one class of indicators that have roles as co-factors in oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and anti-oxidant protection, as well as signaling in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway. These many roles are made possible by the distinct redox states (NAD(P)(+) and NAD(P)H), which are compartmentalized between cytosol and mitochondria. Here we provide evidence for detection of NAD(P)(+) and NAD(P)H in separate mitochondrial and cytosol pools in vivo in human tissue by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P MRS). These NAD(P) pools are identified by chemical standards (NAD(+), NADP(+), and NADH) and by physiological tests. A unique resonance reflecting mitochondrial NAD(P)H is revealed by the changes elicited by elevation of mitochondrial oxidation. The decline of NAD(P)H with oxidation is matched by a stoichiometric rise in the NAD(P)(+) peak. This unique resonance also provides a measure of the improvement in mitochondrial oxidation that parallels the greater phosphorylation found after exercise training in these elderly subjects. The implication is that the dynamics of the mitochondrial NAD(P)H peak provides an intrinsic probe of the reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction in elderly muscle. Thus, non-invasive detection of NAD(P)(+) and NAD(P)H in cytosol vs. mitochondria yields natural indicators of redox compartmentalization and sensitive intrinsic probes of the improvement of mitochondrial function with an intervention in human tissues in vivo. These natural indicators hold the promise of providing mechanistic insight into metabolism and mitochondrial function in vivo in a range of tissues in health, disease and with treatment.

  3. Afzelin ameliorates D‐galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide‐induced fulminant hepatic failure by modulating mitochondrial quality control and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang‐Bin; Kang, Jung‐Woo; Kim, So‐Jin; Ahn, Jongmin; Kim, Jinwoong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a fatal clinical syndrome that results in excessive inflammation and hepatocyte death. Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be a possible mechanism of FHF. Afzelin, a flavonol glycoside found in Houttuynia cordata Thunberg, has anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study elucidated the cytoprotective mechanisms of afzelin against D‐galactosamine (GalN)/LPS induced FHF, particularly focusing on mitochondrial quality control and dynamics. Experimental Approach Mice were administered afzelin i.p. 1 h before receiving GalN (800 mg·kg−1)/LPS (40 μg·kg−1), and they were then killed 5 h after GalN/LPS treatment. Key Results Afzelin improved the survival rate and reduced the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and pro‐inflammatory cytokines in GalN/LPS‐treated mice. Afzelin attenuated the mitochondrial damage, as indicated by diminished mitochondrial swelling and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase activity in GalN/LPS‐treated mice. Afzelin enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, as indicated by increased levels of PPAR‐γ coactivator 1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A. Afzelin also decreased the level of mitophagy‐related proteins, parkin and PTEN‐induced putative kinase 1. Furthermore, while GalN/LPS significantly increased the level of fission‐related protein, dynamin‐related protein 1, and decreased the level of fusion‐related protein, mitofusin 2; these effects were attenuated by afzelin. Conclusions and Implications Our findings demonstrated that afzelin protects against GalN/LPS‐induced liver injury by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis, suppressing excessive mitophagy and balancing mitochondrial dynamics. PMID:27861739

  4. Overexpression of PGC-1α increases peroxisomal activity and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in human primary myotubes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tai-Yu; Zheng, Donghai; Houmard, Joseph A; Brault, Jeffrey J; Hickner, Robert C; Cortright, Ronald N

    2017-04-01

    Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles for lipid metabolism in humans, and their biogenesis has been assumed to be under regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, recent studies in hepatocytes suggest that the mitochondrial proliferator PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α) also acts as an upstream transcriptional regulator for enhancing peroxisomal abundance and associated activity. It is unknown whether the regulatory mechanism(s) for enhancing peroxisomal function is through the same node as mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle (HSkM) and whether fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is affected. Primary myotubes from vastus lateralis biopsies from lean donors (BMI = 24.0 ± 0.6 kg/m 2 ; n = 6) were exposed to adenovirus encoding human PGC-1α or GFP control. Peroxisomal biogenesis proteins (peroxins) and genes ( PEXs ) responsible for proliferation and functions were assessed by Western blotting and real-time qRT-PCR, respectively. [1- 14 C]palmitic acid and [1- 14 C]lignoceric acid (exclusive peroxisomal-specific substrate) were used to assess mitochondrial oxidation of peroxisomal-derived metabolites. After overexpression of PGC-1α, 1 ) peroxisomal membrane protein 70 kDa (PMP70), PEX19, and mitochondrial citrate synthetase protein content were significantly elevated ( P < 0.05), 2 ) PGC-1α , PMP70 , key PEXs , and peroxisomal β-oxidation mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated ( P < 0.05), and 3 ) a concomitant increase in lignoceric acid oxidation by both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activity was observed ( P < 0.05). These novel findings demonstrate that, in addition to the proliferative effect on mitochondria, PGC-1α can induce peroxisomal activity and accompanying elevations in long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acid oxidation by a peroxisomal-mitochondrial functional cooperation, as observed in HSkM cells. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. [Monochromatic aberration in accommodation. Dynamic wavefront analysis].

    PubMed

    Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J

    2011-06-01

    Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement

  6. Biogenesis of zinc storage granules in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Guzmán, Carlos; Rosas-Arellano, Abraham; Kroll, Thomas; Webb, Samuel M; Barajas-Aceves, Martha; Osorio, Beatriz; Missirlis, Fanis

    2018-03-19

    Membrane transporters and sequestration mechanisms concentrate metal ions differentially into discrete subcellular microenvironments for use in protein cofactors, signalling, storage or excretion. Here we identify zinc storage granules as the insect's major zinc reservoir in principal Malpighian tubule epithelial cells of Drosophila melanogaster The concerted action of Adaptor Protein-3, Rab32, HOPS and BLOC complexes as well as of the white-scarlet (ABCG2-like) and ZnT35C (ZnT2/ZnT3/ZnT8-like) transporters is required for zinc storage granule biogenesis. Due to lysosome-related organelle defects caused by mutations in the homologous human genes, patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome may lack zinc granules in beta pancreatic cells, intestinal paneth cells and presynaptic vesicles of hippocampal mossy fibers. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. The logistics of myelin biogenesis in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Snaidero, Nicolas; Simons, Mikael

    2017-07-01

    Rapid nerve conduction depends on myelin, but not all axons in the central nervous system (CNS) are myelinated to the same extent. Here, we review our current understanding of the biology of myelin biogenesis in the CNS. We focus on how the different steps of myelination are interconnected and how distinct patterns of myelin are generated. Possibly, a "basal" mode of myelination is laying the groundwork in areas devoted to basic homeostasis early in development, whereas a "targeted" mode generates myelin in regions controlling more complex tasks throughout adulthood. Such mechanisms may explain why myelination progresses in some areas according to a typical chronological and topographic sequence, while in other regions it is regulated by environmental stimuli contributing to interindividual variability of myelin structure. GLIA 2017;65:1021-1031. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cryptococcus neoformans Iron-Sulfur Protein Biogenesis Machinery Is a Novel Layer of Protection against Cu Stress.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Santamarina, Sarela; Uzarska, Marta A; Festa, Richard A; Lill, Roland; Thiele, Dennis J

    2017-10-31

    Copper (Cu) ions serve as catalytic cofactors to drive key biochemical processes, and yet Cu levels that exceed cellular homeostatic control capacity are toxic. The underlying mechanisms for Cu toxicity are poorly understood. During pulmonary infection by the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans , host alveolar macrophages compartmentalize Cu to the phagosome, and the ability to detoxify Cu is critical for its survival and virulence. Here, we report that iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are critical targets of Cu toxicity in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. neoformans in a manner that depends on the accessibility of Cu to the Fe-S cofactor. To respond to this Cu-dependent Fe-S stress, C. neoformans induces the transcription of mitochondrial ABC transporter Atm1, which functions in cytosolic-nuclear Fe-S protein biogenesis in response to Cu and in a manner dependent on the Cu metalloregulatory transcription factor Cuf1. As Atm1 functions in exporting an Fe-S precursor from the mitochondrial matrix to the cytosol, C. neoformans cells depleted for Atm1 are sensitive to Cu even while the Cu-detoxifying metallothionein proteins are highly expressed. We provide evidence for a previously unrecognized microbial defense mechanism to deal with Cu toxicity, and we highlight the importance for C. neoformans of having several distinct mechanisms for coping with Cu toxicity which together could contribute to the success of this microbe as an opportunistic human fungal pathogen. IMPORTANCE C. neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen that causes lethal meningitis in over 650,000 people annually. The severity of C. neoformans infections is further compounded by the use of toxic or poorly effective systemic antifungal agents as well as by the difficulty of diagnosis. Cu is a natural potent antimicrobial agent that is compartmentalized within the macrophage phagosome and used by innate immune cells to neutralize microbial pathogens. While the Cu detoxification machinery of C

  9. Progranulin regulates lysosomal function and biogenesis through acidification of lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Genjiro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Hosokawa, Masato; Serrano, Geidy; Beach, Thomas G; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Hasegawa, Masato; Nishihara, Masugi

    2017-03-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) haploinsufficiency resulting from loss-of-function mutations in the PGRN gene causes frontotemporal lobar degeneration accompanied by TDP-43 accumulation, and patients with homozygous mutations in the PGRN gene present with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Although it remains unknown why PGRN deficiency causes neurodegenerative diseases, there is increasing evidence that PGRN is implicated in lysosomal functions. Here, we show PGRN is a secretory lysosomal protein that regulates lysosomal function and biogenesis by controlling the acidification of lysosomes. PGRN gene expression and protein levels increased concomitantly with the increase of lysosomal biogenesis induced by lysosome alkalizers or serum starvation. Down-regulation or insufficiency of PGRN led to the increased lysosomal gene expression and protein levels, while PGRN overexpression led to the decreased lysosomal gene expression and protein levels. In particular, the level of mature cathepsin D (CTSDmat) dramatically changed depending upon PGRN levels. The acidification of lysosomes was facilitated in cells transfected with PGRN. Then, this caused degradation of CTSDmat by cathepsin B. Secreted PGRN is incorporated into cells via sortilin or cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, and facilitated the acidification of lysosomes and degradation of CTSDmat. Moreover, the change of PGRN levels led to a cell-type-specific increase of insoluble TDP-43. In the brain tissue of FTLD-TDP patients with PGRN deficiency, CTSD and phosphorylated TDP-43 accumulated in neurons. Our study provides new insights into the physiological function of PGRN and the role of PGRN insufficiency in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. MicroRNA: Biogenesis, Function and Role in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Leigh-Ann; Murphy, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small, highly conserved non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerases II and III, generating precursors that undergo a series of cleavage events to form mature microRNA. The conventional biogenesis pathway consists of two cleavage events, one nuclear and one cytoplasmic. However, alternative biogenesis pathways exist that differ in the number of cleavage events and enzymes responsible. How microRNA precursors are sorted to the different pathways is unclear but appears to be determined by the site of origin of the microRNA, its sequence and thermodynamic stability. The regulatory functions of microRNAs are accomplished through the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). MicroRNA assembles into RISC, activating the complex to target messenger RNA (mRNA) specified by the microRNA. Various RISC assembly models have been proposed and research continues to explore the mechanism(s) of RISC loading and activation. The degree and nature of the complementarity between the microRNA and target determine the gene silencing mechanism, slicer-dependent mRNA degradation or slicer-independent translation inhibition. Recent evidence indicates that P-bodies are essential for microRNA-mediated gene silencing and that RISC assembly and silencing occurs primarily within P-bodies. The P-body model outlines microRNA sorting and shuttling between specialized P-body compartments that house enzymes required for slicer –dependent and –independent silencing, addressing the reversibility of these silencing mechanisms. Detailed knowledge of the microRNA pathways is essential for understanding their physiological role and the implications associated with dysfunction and dysregulation. PMID:21532838

  11. Dynamics of miRNA biogenesis and nuclear transport.

    PubMed

    Kotipalli, Aneesh; Gutti, Ravikumar; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNA sequences ~22 nucleotides in length that play an important role in gene regulation-transcription and translation. The processing of these miRNAs takes place in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm while the final maturation occurs in the cytoplasm. Some mature miRNAs with nuclear localisation signals (NLS) are transported back to the nucleus and some remain in the cytoplasm. The functional roles of these miRNAs are seen in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, miRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to the targeted promoter sequences and affect either the transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) or transcriptional gene activation (TGA). In the cytoplasm, targeted mRNAs are translationally repressed or cleaved based on the complementarity between the two sequences at the seed region of miRNA and mRNA. The selective transport of mature miRNAs to the nucleus follows the classical nuclear import mechanism. The classical nuclear import mechanism is a highly regulated process, involving exportins and importins. The nuclear pore complex (NPC) regulates all these transport events like a gate keeper. The half-life of miRNAs is rather low, so within a short time miRNAs perform their function. Temporal studies of miRNA biogenesis are, therefore, useful. We have carried out simulation studies for important miRNA biogenesis steps and also classical nuclear import mechanism using ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver in the Octave software.

  12. Dynamics of miRNA biogenesis and nuclear transport.

    PubMed

    Kotipalli, Aneesh; Gutti, Ravikumar; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2016-12-22

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNA sequences ~22 nucleotides in length that play an important role in gene regulation-transcription and translation. The processing of these miRNAs takes place in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm while the final maturation occurs in the cytoplasm. Some mature miRNAs with nuclear localisation signals (NLS) are transported back to the nucleus and some remain in the cytoplasm. The functional roles of these miRNAs are seen in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, miRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to the targeted promoter sequences and affect either the transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) or transcriptional gene activation (TGA). In the cytoplasm, targeted mRNAs are translationally repressed or cleaved based on the complementarity between the two sequences at the seed region of miRNA and mRNA. The selective transport of mature miRNAs to the nucleus follows the classical nuclear import mechanism. The classical nuclear import mechanism is a highly regulated process, involving exportins and importins. The nuclear pore complex (NPC) regulates all these transport events like a gate keeper. The half-life of miRNAs is rather low, so within a short time miRNAs perform their function. Temporal studies of miRNA biogenesis are, therefore, useful. We have carried out simulation studies for important miRNA biogenesis steps and also classical nuclear import mechanism using ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver in the Octave software.

  13. Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-associated missense mutation in HSPD1 blunts mitochondrial dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Eguchi, Takahiro; Kawahara, Kazuko

    Myelin-forming glial cells undergo dynamic morphological changes in order to produce mature myelin sheaths with multiple layers. In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes differentiate to insulate neuronal axons with myelin sheaths. Myelin sheaths play a key role in homeostasis of the nervous system, but their related disorders lead not only to dismyelination and repeated demyelination but also to severe neuropathies. Hereditary hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HLDs) are a group of such diseases affecting oligodendrocytes and are often caused by missense mutations of the respective responsible genes. Despite increasing identification of gene mutations through advanced nucleotide sequencing technology, studies on the relationshipsmore » between gene mutations and their effects on cellular and subcellular aberrance have not followed at the same rapid pace. In this study, we report that an HLD4-associated (Asp-29-to-Gly) mutant of mitochondrial heat shock 60-kDa protein 1 (HSPD1) causes short-length morphologies and increases the numbers of mitochondria due to their aberrant fission and fusion cycles. In experiments using a fluorescent dye probe, this mutation decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential. Also, mitochondria accumulate in perinuclear regions. HLD4-associated HSPD1 mutant blunts mitochondrial dynamics, probably resulting in oligodendrocyte malfunction. This study constitutes a first finding concerning the relationship between disease-associated HSPD1 mutation and mitochondrial dynamics, which may be similar to the relationship between another disease-associated HSPD1 mutation (MitCHAP-60 disease) and aberrant mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial fission frequency. • The HLD4 mutant decreases mitochondrial fusion frequency. • Mitochondria harboring the HLD4 mutant exhibit slow motility. • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial membrane potential. • HLD4-related

  14. Mitochonic Acid 5 (MA-5) Facilitates ATP Synthase Oligomerization and Cell Survival in Various Mitochondrial Diseases.

    PubMed

    Matsuhashi, Tetsuro; Sato, Takeya; Kanno, Shin-Ichiro; Suzuki, Takehiro; Matsuo, Akihiro; Oba, Yuki; Kikusato, Motoi; Ogasawara, Emi; Kudo, Tai; Suzuki, Kosuke; Ohara, Osamu; Shimbo, Hiroko; Nanto, Fumika; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Saigusa, Daisuke; Mukaiyama, Yasuno; Watabe, Akiko; Kikuchi, Koichi; Shima, Hisato; Mishima, Eikan; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Oikawa, Yoshitsugu; Hsin-Jung, H O; Akiyama, Yukako; Suzuki, Chitose; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Ogata, Masaki; Kumagai, Naonori; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Hozawa, Atsushi; Mano, Nariyasu; Owada, Yuji; Aiba, Setsuya; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Kure, Shigeo; Ito, Sadayoshi; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Osaka, Hitoshi; Abe, Takaaki

    2017-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction increases oxidative stress and depletes ATP in a variety of disorders. Several antioxidant therapies and drugs affecting mitochondrial biogenesis are undergoing investigation, although not all of them have demonstrated favorable effects in the clinic. We recently reported a therapeutic mitochondrial drug mitochonic acid MA-5 (Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2015). MA-5 increased ATP, rescued mitochondrial disease fibroblasts and prolonged the life span of the disease model "Mitomouse" (JASN, 2016). To investigate the potential of MA-5 on various mitochondrial diseases, we collected 25 cases of fibroblasts from various genetic mutations and cell protective effect of MA-5 and the ATP producing mechanism was examined. 24 out of the 25 patient fibroblasts (96%) were responded to MA-5. Under oxidative stress condition, the GDF-15 was increased and this increase was significantly abrogated by MA-5. The serum GDF-15 elevated in Mitomouse was likewise reduced by MA-5. MA-5 facilitates mitochondrial ATP production and reduces ROS independent of ETC by facilitating ATP synthase oligomerization and supercomplex formation with mitofilin/Mic60. MA-5 reduced mitochondria fragmentation, restores crista shape and dynamics. MA-5 has potential as a drug for the treatment of various mitochondrial diseases. The diagnostic use of GDF-15 will be also useful in a forthcoming MA-5 clinical trial. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A ketogenic diet accelerates neurodegeneration in mice with induced mitochondrial DNA toxicity in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Knut H; Hasan-Olive, Md Mahdi; Regnell, Christine E; Kleppa, Liv; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Gjedde, Albert; Klungland, Arne; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda H

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial genome maintenance plays a central role in preserving brain health. We previously demonstrated accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage and severe neurodegeneration in transgenic mice inducibly expressing a mutated mitochondrial DNA repair enzyme (mutUNG1) selectively in forebrain neurons. Here, we examine whether severe neurodegeneration in mutUNG1-expressing mice could be rescued by feeding the mice a ketogenic diet, which is known to have beneficial effects in several neurological disorders. The diet increased the levels of superoxide dismutase 2, and mitochondrial mass, enzymes, and regulators such as SIRT1 and FIS1, and appeared to downregulate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2A/B and upregulate γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A ) receptor subunits α 1 . However, unexpectedly, the ketogenic diet aggravated neurodegeneration and mitochondrial deterioration. Electron microscopy showed structurally impaired mitochondria accumulating in neuronal perikarya. We propose that aggravation is caused by increased mitochondrial biogenesis of generally dysfunctional mitochondria. This study thereby questions the dogma that a ketogenic diet is unambiguously beneficial in mitochondrial disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A ketogenic diet accelerates neurodegeneration in mice with induced mitochondrial DNA toxicity in the forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Knut H.; Hasan-Olive, Md Mahdi; Regnell, Christine E.; Kleppa, Liv; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Gjedde, Albert; Klungland, Arne; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda H.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome maintenance plays a central role in preserving brain health. We previously demonstrated accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage and severe neurodegeneration in transgenic mice inducibly expressing a mutated mitochondrial DNA repair enzyme (mutUNG1) selectively in forebrain neurons. Here, we examine whether severe neurodegeneration in mutUNG1-expressing mice could be rescued by feeding the mice a ketogenic diet, which is known to have beneficial effects in several neurological disorders. The diet increased the levels of superoxide dismutase 2, and mitochondrial mass, enzymes, and regulators such as SIRT1 and FIS1, and appeared to downregulate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2A/B and upregulate γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunits α1. However, unexpectedly, the ketogenic diet aggravated neurodegeneration and mitochondrial deterioration. Electron microscopy showed structurally impaired mitochondria accumulating in neuronal perikarya. We propose that aggravation is caused by increased mitochondrial biogenesis of generally dysfunctional mitochondria. This study thereby questions the dogma that a ketogenic diet is unambiguously beneficial in mitochondrial disorders. PMID:27639119

  17. PGC-1α Regulation of Mitochondrial Degeneration in Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joungil; Chandrasekaran, Krish; Inoue, Tatsuya; Muragundla, Anjaneyulu; Russell, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial degeneration is considered to play an important role in the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in humans. Mitochondrial degeneration and the corresponding protein regulation associated with the degeneration were studied in an animal model of diabetic neuropathy. PGC-1α and its-regulated transcription factors including TFAM and NRF1, which are master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, are significantly downregulated in streptozotocin diabetic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Diabetic mice develop peripheral neuropathy, loss of mitochondria, decreased mitochondrial DNA content and increased protein oxidation. Importantly, this phenotype is exacerbated in PGC-1α (−/−) diabetic mice, which develop a more severe neuropathy with reduced mitochondrial DNA and a further increase in protein oxidation. PGC-1α (−/−) diabetic mice develop an increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides, and a decrease in TFAM and NRF1 protein levels. Loss of PGC-1α causes severe mitochondrial degeneration with vacuolization in DRG neurons, coupled with reduced state 3 and 4 respiration, reduced expression of oxidative stress response genes and an increase in protein oxidation. In contrast, overexpression of PGC-1α in cultured adult mouse neurons prevents oxidative stress associated with increased glucose levels. The study provides new insights into the role of PGC-1α in mitochondrial regeneration in peripheral neurons and suggests that therapeutic modulation of PGC-1α function may be an attractive approach for treatment of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24423644

  18. Measurement of Mitochondrial Cholesterol Import Using a Mitochondria-Targeted CYP11A1 Fusion Construct.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Barry E; Charman, Mark; Karten, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    All animal membranes require cholesterol as an essential regulator of biophysical properties and function, but the levels of cholesterol vary widely among different subcellular compartments. Mitochondria, and in particular the inner mitochondrial membrane, have the lowest levels of cholesterol in the cell. Nevertheless, mitochondria need cholesterol for membrane maintenance and biogenesis, as well as oxysterol, steroid, and hepatic bile acid production. Alterations in mitochondrial cholesterol have been associated with a range of pathological conditions, including cancer, hepatosteatosis, cardiac ischemia, Alzheimer's, and Niemann-Pick Type C Disease. The mechanisms of mitochondrial cholesterol import are not fully elucidated yet, and may vary in different cell types and environmental conditions. Measuring cholesterol trafficking to the mitochondrial membranes is technically challenging because of its low abundance; for example, traditional pulse-chase experiments with isotope-labeled cholesterol are not feasible. Here, we describe improvements to a method first developed by the Miller group at the University of California to measure cholesterol trafficking to the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) through the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. This method uses a mitochondria-targeted, ectopically expressed fusion construct of CYP11A1, ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin. Pregnenolone is formed exclusively from cholesterol at the IMM, and can be analyzed with high sensitivity and specificity through ELISA or radioimmunoassay of the medium/buffer to reflect mitochondrial cholesterol import. This assay can be used to investigate the effects of genetic or pharmacological interventions on mitochondrial cholesterol import in cultured cells or isolated mitochondria.

  19. Mitochondrial energy deficiency leads to hyperproliferation of skeletal muscle mitochondria and enhanced insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Ryan M; Picard, Martin; Derbeneva, Olga; Leipzig, Jeremy; McManus, Meagan J; Gouspillou, Gilles; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Dos Santos, Carlos; Hepple, Russell T; Murdock, Deborah G; Wallace, Douglas C

    2017-03-07

    Diabetes is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in the presence of excess insulin. Glucose and fatty acids provide reducing equivalents to mitochondria to generate energy, and studies have reported mitochondrial dysfunction in type II diabetes patients. If mitochondrial dysfunction can cause diabetes, then we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial metabolism should render animals resistant to diabetes. This was confirmed in mice in which the heart-muscle-brain adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 1 (ANT1) was inactivated. ANT1-deficient animals are insulin-hypersensitive, glucose-tolerant, and resistant to high fat diet (HFD)-induced toxicity. In ANT1-deficient skeletal muscle, mitochondrial gene expression is induced in association with the hyperproliferation of mitochondria. The ANT1-deficient muscle mitochondria produce excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are partially uncoupled. Hence, the muscle respiration under nonphosphorylating conditions is increased. Muscle transcriptome analysis revealed the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis, down-regulation of diabetes-related genes, and increased expression of the genes encoding the myokines FGF21 and GDF15. However, FGF21 was not elevated in serum, and FGF21 and UCP1 mRNAs were not induced in liver or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Hence, increased oxidation of dietary-reducing equivalents by elevated muscle mitochondrial respiration appears to be the mechanism by which ANT1-deficient mice prevent diabetes, demonstrating that the rate of mitochondrial oxidation of calories is important in the etiology of metabolic disease.

  20. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Isoliquiritigenin reduces oxidative damage and alleviates mitochondrial impairment by SIRT1 activation in experimental diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Kalvala, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-09-01

    Sirtuin (SIRT1) inactivation underlies the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia-associated vascular complications, but its role in diabetic neuropathy (DN) has not been yet explored. We have evaluated hyperglycaemia-induced alteration of SIRT1 signalling and the effect of isoliquiritigenin (ILQ) on SIRT1-directed AMP kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) signalling in peripheral nerves of streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg, ip)-induced diabetic rats and in high glucose (30 mM)-exposed neuro2a (N2A) cells. Diabetic rats and high glucose-exposed N2A cells showed reduction in SIRT1 expression with consequent decline in mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy. ILQ (10 & 20 mg/kg, po) administration to diabetic rats for 2 weeks and exposure to glucose-insulted N2A cells resulted in significant SIRT1 activation with concurrent increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy. ILQ administration also enhanced NAD + /NADH ratio in peripheral sciatic nerves which explains its possible SIRT1 modulatory effect. Functional and behavioural studies show beneficial effect of ILQ as it alleviated nerve conduction and nerve blood flow deficits in diabetic rats along with improvement in behavioural parameters (hyperalgesia and allodynia). ILQ treatment to N2A cells reduced high glucose-driven ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Further, ILQ-mediated SIRT1 activation facilitated the Nrf2-directed antioxidant signalling. Overall, results from this study suggest that SIRT1 activation by ILQ mimic effects of calorie restriction, that is, PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis, FOXO3a mediated stress resistance and AMPK mediated autophagy effects to counteract the multiple manifestations in experimental DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Iteration of ultrasound aberration correction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maasoey, Svein-Erik; Angelsen, Bjoern; Varslot, Trond

    2004-05-01

    Aberration in ultrasound medical imaging is usually modeled by time-delay and amplitude variations concentrated on the transmitting/receiving array. This filter process is here denoted a TDA filter. The TDA filter is an approximation to the physical aberration process, which occurs over an extended part of the human body wall. Estimation of the TDA filter, and performing correction on transmit and receive, has proven difficult. It has yet to be shown that this method works adequately for severe aberration. Estimation of the TDA filter can be iterated by retransmitting a corrected signal and re-estimate until a convergence criterion is fulfilled (adaptive imaging). Two methods for estimating time-delay and amplitude variations in receive signals from random scatterers have been developed. One method correlates each element signal with a reference signal. The other method use eigenvalue decomposition of the receive cross-spectrum matrix, based upon a receive energy-maximizing criterion. Simulations of iterating aberration correction with a TDA filter have been investigated to study its convergence properties. A weak and strong human-body wall model generated aberration. Both emulated the human abdominal wall. Results after iteration improve aberration correction substantially, and both estimation methods converge, even for the case of strong aberration.

  3. Up-regulation of ribosome biogenesis by MIR196A2 genetic variation promotes endometriosis development and progression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cherry Yin-Yi; Lai, Ming-Tsung; Chen, Yi; Yang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Hui-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Chen, Chih-Mei; Chan, Carmen; Chung, Ching; Tseng, Chun-Cheng; Hwang, Tritium; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2016-11-22

    Aberrant miRNA expression has been reported in endometriosis and miRNA gene polymorphisms have been linked to cancer. Because certain ovarian cancers arise from endometriosis, we genotyped seven cancer-related miRNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (MiRSNPs) to investigate their possible roles in endometriosis. Genetic variants in MIR196A2 (rs11614913) and MIR100 (rs1834306) were found to be associated with endometriosis development and related clinical phenotypes, such as infertility and pain. Downstream analysis of the MIR196A2 risk allele revealed upregulation of rRNA editing and protein synthesis genes, suggesting hyper-activation of ribosome biogenesis as a driving force for endometriosis progression. Clinical studies confirmed higher levels of small nucleolar RNAs and ribosomal proteins in atypical endometriosis lesions, and this was more pronounced in the associated ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Treating ovarian clear cells with CX5461, an RNA polymerase I inhibitor, suppressed cell growth and mobility followed by cell cycle arrest at G2/M stage and apoptosis. Our study thus uncovered a novel tumorigenesis pathway triggered by the cancer-related MIR196A2 risk allele during endometriosis development and progression. We suggest that anti-RNA polymerase I therapy may be efficacious for treating endometriosis and associated malignancies.

  4. Reversible infantile mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Boczonadi, Veronika; Bansagi, Boglarka; Horvath, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are usually severe and progressive conditions; however, there are rare forms that show remarkable spontaneous recoveries. Two homoplasmic mitochondrial tRNA mutations (m.14674T>C/G in mt-tRNA(Glu)) have been reported to cause severe infantile mitochondrial myopathy in the first months of life. If these patients survive the first year of life by extensive life-sustaining measures they usually recover and develop normally. Another mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of the 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase (TRMU) causes severe liver failure in infancy, but similar to the reversible mitochondrial myopathy, within the first year of life these infants may also recover completely. Partial recovery has been noted in some other rare forms of mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of mitochondrial tRNA synthetases and mitochondrial tRNA modifying enzymes. Here we summarize the clinical presentation of these unique reversible mitochondrial diseases and discuss potential molecular mechanisms behind the reversibility. Understanding these mechanisms may provide the key to treatments of potential broader relevance in mitochondrial disease, where for the majority of the patients no effective treatment is currently available.

  5. Identification of Human Cytomegalovirus Genes Important for Biogenesis of the Cytoplasmic Virion Assembly Complex

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subhendu; Ortiz, Daniel A.; Gurczynski, Stephen J.; Khan, Fatin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has many effects on cells, including remodeling the cytoplasm to form the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex (cVAC), the site of final virion assembly. Viral tegument, envelope, and some nonstructural proteins localize to the cVAC, and cytoskeletal filaments radiate from a microtubule organizing center in the cVAC. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi intermediate compartment, Golgi apparatus, and trans-Golgi network form a ring that outlines the cVAC. The center of the cVAC ring is occupied by numerous vesicles that share properties with recycling endosomes. In prior studies, we described the three-dimensional structure and the extensive remodeling of the cytoplasm and shifts in organelle identity that occur during development of the cVAC. The objective of this work was to identify HCMV proteins that regulate cVAC biogenesis. Because the cVAC does not form in the absence of viral DNA synthesis, we employed HCMV-infected cells transfected with synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that targeted 26 candidate early-late and late protein-coding genes required for efficient virus replication. We identified three HCMV genes (UL48, UL94, and UL103) whose silencing had major effects on cVAC development, including failure to form the Golgi ring and dispersal of markers of early and recycling endosomes. To confirm and extend the siRNA results, we constructed recombinant viruses in which pUL48 and pUL103 are fused with a regulatable protein destabilization domain (dd-FKBP). In the presence of a stabilizing ligand (Shield-1), the cVAC appeared to develop normally. In its absence, cVAC development was abrogated, verifying roles for pUL48 and pUL103 in cVAC biogenesis. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important human pathogen that causes disease and disability in immunocompromised individuals and in children infected before birth. Few drugs are available for treatment of HCMV infections. HCMV remodels the interior of

  6. Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, U D; Adhikari, S

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve is most commonly due to its damage by trauma. A ten-month old child presented with the history of a fall from a four-storey building. She developed traumatic third nerve palsy and eventually the clinical features of aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. The adduction of the eye improved over time. She was advised for patching for the strabismic amblyopia as well. Traumatic third nerve palsy may result in aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. In younger patients, motility of the eye in different gazes may improve over time. © NEPjOPH.

  7. Parkin and PINK1 function in a vesicular trafficking pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control

    PubMed Central

    McLelland, Gian-Luca; Soubannier, Vincent; Chen, Carol X; McBride, Heidi M; Fon, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin and PINK1, two genes associated with familial PD, have been implicated in the degradation of depolarized mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy). Here, we describe the involvement of parkin and PINK1 in a vesicular pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control. This pathway is distinct from canonical mitophagy and is triggered by the generation of oxidative stress from within mitochondria. Wild-type but not PD-linked mutant parkin supports the biogenesis of a population of mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs), which bud off mitochondria and contain a specific repertoire of cargo proteins. These MDVs require PINK1 expression and ultimately target to lysosomes for degradation. We hypothesize that loss of this parkin- and PINK1-dependent trafficking mechanism impairs the ability of mitochondria to selectively degrade oxidized and damaged proteins leading, over time, to the mitochondrial dysfunction noted in PD. PMID:24446486

  8. Mitochondrial Translation and Beyond: Processes Implicated in Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Paulien; Smeitink, Jan; van den Heuvel, Lambert

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are a heterogeneous group of often multisystemic and early fatal diseases, which are amongst the most common inherited human diseases. These disorders are caused by defects in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, which comprises five multisubunit enzyme complexes encoded by both the nuclear and the mitochondrial genomes. Due to the multitude of proteins and intricacy of the processes required for a properly functioning OXPHOS system, identifying the genetic defect that underlies an OXPHOS deficiency is not an easy task, especially in the case of combined OXPHOS defects. In the present communication we give an extensive overview of the proteins and processes (in)directly involved in mitochondrial translation and the biogenesis of the OXPHOS system and their roles in combined OXPHOS deficiencies. This knowledge is important for further research into the genetic causes, with the ultimate goal to effectively prevent and cure these complex and often devastating disorders. PMID:20396601

  9. Mitochondrial lipids in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Aufschnaiter, Andreas; Kohler, Verena; Diessl, Jutta; Peselj, Carlotta; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Keller, Walter; Büttner, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including proteinopathies such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, which are characterized by the deposition of aggregated proteins in the form of insoluble fibrils or plaques. The distinct molecular processes that eventually result in mitochondrial dysfunction during neurodegeneration are well studied but still not fully understood. However, defects in mitochondrial fission and fusion, mitophagy, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial bioenergetics have been linked to cellular demise. These processes are influenced by the lipid environment within mitochondrial membranes as, besides membrane structure and curvature, recruitment and activity of different proteins also largely depend on the respective lipid composition. Hence, the interaction of neurotoxic proteins with certain lipids and the modification of lipid composition in different cell compartments, in particular mitochondria, decisively impact cell death associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we discuss the relevance of mitochondrial lipids in the pathological alterations that result in neuronal demise, focussing on proteinopathies.

  10. Tools for assessing mitochondrial dynamics in mouse tissues and neurodegenerative models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Anh H.

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo membrane fusion and fission and transport. The dynamic properties of mitochondria are important for regulating mitochondrial function. Defects in mitochondrial dynamics are linked neurodegenerative diseases and affect the development of many tissues. To investigate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in diseases, versatile tools are needed to explore the physiology of these dynamic organelles in multiple tissues. Current tools for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics have been limited to studies in cell culture, which may be inadequate model systems for exploring the network of tissues. Here, we have generated mouse models for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics in a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types. The Photo-Activatable Mitochondrial (PhAM floxed) line enables Cre-inducible expression of a mitochondrial targeted photoconvertible protein, Dendra2 (mito-Dendra2). In the PhAMexcised line, mito-Dendra2 is ubiquitously expressed to facilitate broad analysis of mitochondria at various developmental processes. We have utilized these models to study mitochondrial dynamics in the nigrostriatal circuit of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in the development of skeletal muscles. Increasing evidences implicate aberrant regulation of mitochondrial fusion and fission in models of PD. To assess the function of mitochondrial dynamics in the nigrostriatal circuit, we utilized transgenic techniques to abrogate mitochondrial fusion. We show that deletion of the Mfn2 leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and Parkinson's-like features in mice. To elucidate the dynamic properties of mitochondria during muscle development, we established a platform for examining mitochondrial compartmentalization in skeletal muscles. This model system may yield clues to the role of mitochondrial dynamics in mitochondrial myopathies.

  11. Erythropoietin activates SIRT1 to protect human cardiomyocytes against doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lan; Guo, Jiabin; Zhang, Qiang; Yin, Jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Tingfen; Yuan, Haitao; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Li; Carmichael, Paul L; Peng, Shuangqing

    2017-06-05

    The hormone erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to protect against chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. We hypothesized that silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), an NAD + -dependent protein deacetylase that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), plays a crucial role in regulating mitochondrial function and mediating the beneficial effect of EPO. Our study in human cardiomyocyte AC16 cells showed that DOX-induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction, as manifested by decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased mitochondrial superoxide accumulation, can be mitigated by EPO pretreatment. EPO was found to upregulate SIRT1 activity and protein expression to reverse DOX-induced acetylation of PGC-1α and suppression of a suite of PGC-1α-activated genes involved in mitochondrial function and biogenesis, such as nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), citrate synthase (CS), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), cytochrome c oxidase IV (COXIV), and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). Silencing of SIRT1 via small RNA interference sensitized AC16 cells to DOX-induced cytotoxicity and reduction in mtDNA copy number. Although with SIRT1 silenced, EPO could reverse to some extent DOX-induced mitochondrial superoxide accumulation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP depletion, it failed to normalize protein expression of PGC-1α and its downstream genes. Taken together, our results indicated that EPO may activate SIRT1 to enhance mitochondrial function and protect against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. LL-37 attenuates inflammatory impairment via mTOR signaling-dependent mitochondrial protection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenyan; Zheng, Yan; Lu, Zhuoyang; Wang, Hui; Feng, Zhihui; Wang, Juan; Xiao, Shengxiang; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jiankang

    2014-09-01

    The human cationic antimicrobial protein LL-37 is a multifunctional host defense peptide with a wide range of immunomodulatory activities. Previous work has shown that LL-37 exerts both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. The role of mitochondria in the skin inflammatory effects of LL-37 has not been well studied. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of LL-37 in HaCaT cells and to delineate the underlying mechanisms related to mitochondrial function. Immunohistochemistry results from tissue microarrays showed strong cytoplasmic LL-37 staining in inflammatory cells in chronic dermatic inflammation. Using exogenous LL-37 stimulation and LL-37 knockdown and overexpression, LL-37 was demonstrated to dramatically reduce the mRNA levels and protein secretion of inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, IL-1α and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which are induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The anti-inflammatory effects of LL-37 are dependent upon its ability to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Furthermore, we observed that LL-37 enhances the LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin can neutralize the protective effects of LL-37 on mitochondria. In conclusion, these results suggest that high LL-37 expression levels correlate with chronic skin inflammation; mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in HaCaT cells during inflammation; and LL-37 attenuates inflammatory impairment by stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis and protecting mitochondrial function, which are dependent upon mTOR signaling. These findings provide new insights into targeting mitochondria with LL-37 to prevent skin inflammatory reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aberrations in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, Jacopo; Burke, Daniel; Booth, Martin J.

    2017-12-01

    Like all methods of super-resolution microscopy, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy can suffer from the effects of aberrations. The most important aspect of a STED microscope is that the depletion focus maintains a minimum, ideally zero, intensity point that is surrounded by a region of higher intensity. It follows that aberrations that cause a non-zero value of this minimum intensity are the most detrimental, as they inhibit fluorescence emission even at the centre of the depletion focus. We present analysis that elucidates the nature of these effects in terms of the different polarisation components at the focus for two-dimensional and three-dimensional STED resolution enhancement. It is found that only certain low-order aberration modes can affect the minimum intensity at the Gaussian focus. This has important consequences for the design of adaptive optics aberration correction systems.

  14. Mitochondrial threshold effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Rodrigue; Faustin, Benjamin; Rocher, Christophe; Malgat, Monique; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Letellier, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial diseases has revealed dramatic variability in the phenotypic presentation of mitochondrial genetic defects. To attempt to understand this variability, different authors have studied energy metabolism in transmitochondrial cell lines carrying different proportions of various pathogenic mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. The same kinds of experiments have been performed on isolated mitochondria and on tissue biopsies taken from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The results have shown that, in most cases, phenotypic manifestation of the genetic defect occurs only when a threshold level is exceeded, and this phenomenon has been named the 'phenotypic threshold effect'. Subsequently, several authors showed that it was possible to inhibit considerably the activity of a respiratory chain complex, up to a critical value, without affecting the rate of mitochondrial respiration or ATP synthesis. This phenomenon was called the 'biochemical threshold effect'. More recently, quantitative analysis of the effects of various mutations in mitochondrial DNA on the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis has revealed the existence of a 'translational threshold effect'. In this review these different mitochondrial threshold effects are discussed, along with their molecular bases and the roles that they play in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:12467494

  15. Transcription profiling suggests that mitochondrial topoisomerase IB acts as a topological barrier and regulator of mitochondrial DNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Zhang, Hongliang; Khiati, Salim; Wu, Xiaolin; Pommier, Yves

    2017-12-08

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for cell viability because it encodes subunits of the respiratory chain complexes. Mitochondrial topoisomerase IB (TOP1MT) facilitates mtDNA replication by removing DNA topological tensions produced during mtDNA transcription, but it appears to be dispensable. To test whether cells lacking TOP1MT have aberrant mtDNA transcription, we performed mitochondrial transcriptome profiling. To that end, we designed and implemented a customized tiling array, which enabled genome-wide, strand-specific, and simultaneous detection of all mitochondrial transcripts. Our technique revealed that Top1mt KO mouse cells process the mitochondrial transcripts normally but that protein-coding mitochondrial transcripts are elevated. Moreover, we found discrete long noncoding RNAs produced by H-strand transcription and encompassing the noncoding regulatory region of mtDNA in human and murine cells and tissues. Of note, these noncoding RNAs were strongly up-regulated in the absence of TOP1MT. In contrast, 7S DNA, produced by mtDNA replication, was reduced in the Top1mt KO cells. We propose that the long noncoding RNA species in the D-loop region are generated by the extension of H-strand transcripts beyond their canonical stop site and that TOP1MT acts as a topological barrier and regulator for mtDNA transcription and D-loop formation.

  16. Quality factor analysis for aberrated laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafary, B.; Alavynejad, M.; Kashani, F. D.

    2006-12-01

    The quality factor of laser beams has attracted considerable attention and some different approaches have been reported to treat the problem. In this paper we analyze quality factor of laser beam and compare the effect of different aberrations on beam quality by expanding pure phase term of wavefront in terms of Zernike polynomials. Also we analyze experimentally the change of beam quality for different Astigmatism aberrations, and compare theoretical results with experimentally results. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement.

  17. Corneal spherical aberration in Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayyari, Tarfah M.; Fawzy, Samah M.; Al-Saleh, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To find out the mean corneal spherical aberration and its changes with age in Saudi population. Setting AlHokama Eye Specialist Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods Three hundred (300) eyes of 185 Saudi subjects (97 men and 88 women), whose age ranged from 15 to 85 years old, with matched refractive errors, were divided into three groups according to their age, 100 for each. All the subjects were included in measuring the spherical aberration (SA) using pentacam HR (OCULUS, Germany) at the 6-mm optical zone. Results The mean corneal spherical aberration (CSA) of the fourth order (Z40) of the whole groups was 0.252 ± 0.1154 μm. Patients from 15 to 35 years old have root mean square (RMS) of CSA of 0.2068 ± 0.07151 μm, 0.2370 ± 0.08023 μm was the RMS of CSA of the patients from 35 to 50 years old, while those from 50 to 85 years old have a CSA-RMS of 0.31511 ± 0.1503 μm (P < 0.0001). A positive correlation was found between the spherical aberration (Z40) and the progress of age (r = 0.3429, P < 0.0001). The high order aberration (HOA) presented 28.1% of the total corneal aberrations. While the fourth order corneal spherical aberration constituted 57% of the HOA and 16% of the total aberration. The pupil diameter shows a negative correlation with the increase in age (P = 0.0012). Conclusion Our results showed a CSA (Z40) that is varied among the population, comparable to other studies, and significantly correlates to the progress of age. PMID:25278799

  18. Protection of scaffold protein Isu from degradation by the Lon protease Pim1 as a component of Fe-S cluster biogenesis regulation.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Szymon J; Schilke, Brenda; Marszalek, Jaroslaw; Craig, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, essential protein cofactors, are assembled on the mitochondrial scaffold protein Isu and then transferred to recipient proteins via a multistep process in which Isu interacts sequentially with multiple protein factors. This pathway is in part regulated posttranslationally by modulation of the degradation of Isu, whose abundance increases >10-fold upon perturbation of the biogenesis process. We tested a model in which direct interaction with protein partners protects Isu from degradation by the mitochondrial Lon-type protease. Using purified components, we demonstrated that Isu is indeed a substrate of the Lon-type protease and that it is protected from degradation by Nfs1, the sulfur donor for Fe-S cluster assembly, as well as by Jac1, the J-protein Hsp70 cochaperone that functions in cluster transfer from Isu. Nfs1 and Jac1 variants known to be defective in interaction with Isu were also defective in protecting Isu from degradation. Furthermore, overproduction of Jac1 protected Isu from degradation in vivo, as did Nfs1. Taken together, our results lead to a model of dynamic interplay between a protease and protein factors throughout the Fe-S cluster assembly and transfer process, leading to up-regulation of Isu levels under conditions when Fe-S cluster biogenesis does not meet cellular demands. © 2016 Ciesielski et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Mitochondrial medicine for neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Du, Heng; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2010-05-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in a wide array of neurological disorders ranging from neuromuscular to neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies on neurodegenerative diseases have revealed that mitochondrial pathology is generally found in inherited or sporadic neurodegenerative diseases and is believed to be involved in the pathophysiological process of these diseases. Commonly seen types of mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases include excessive free radical generation, lowered ATP production, mitochondrial permeability transition, mitochondrial DNA lesions, perturbed mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis. Mitochondrial medicine as an emerging therapeutic strategy targeted to mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases has been proven to be of value, though this area of research is still at in its early stage. In this article, we report on recent progress in the development of several mitochondrial therapies including antioxidants, blockade of mitochondrial permeability transition, and mitochondrial gene therapy as evidence that mitochondrial medicine has promise in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accommodation to wavefront vergence and chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B; Li, James S; Lin, Peter L; Stark, Lawrence R

    2011-05-01

    Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In this study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less.

  1. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  2. Changes in mitochondrial respiration in the human placenta over gestation.

    PubMed

    Holland, Olivia J; Hickey, Anthony J R; Alvsaker, Anna; Moran, Stephanie; Hedges, Christopher; Chamley, Lawrence W; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-09-01

    Placental mitochondria are subjected to micro-environmental changes throughout gestation, in particular large variations in oxygen. How placental mitochondrial respiration adapts to changing oxygen concentrations remains unexplored. Additionally, placental tissue is often studied in culture; however, the effect of culture on placental mitochondria is unclear. Placental tissue was obtained from first trimester and term (laboured and non-laboured) pregnancies, and selectively permeabilized to access mitochondria. Respirometry was used to compare respiration states and substrate use in mitochondria. Additionally, explants of placental tissue were cultured for four, 12, 24, 48, or 96 h and respiration measured. Mitochondrial respiration decreased at 11 weeks compared to earlier gestations (p = 0.05-0.001), and mitochondrial content increased at 12-13 weeks compared to 7-10 weeks (p = 0.042). In term placentae, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) through mitochondrial complex IV (p < 0.001), the relative proportion of OXPHOS CI (p < 0.001), the total capacity of the respiratory system (p = 0.003), and mitochondrial content (p < 0.001) were higher compared to first trimester. Respiration was increased (p ≤ 0.006-0.001) in laboured compared to non-laboured placenta. After four hours of culture, respiration was depressed compared to fresh tissue from the same placenta and continued to decline with time in culture. Markers of apoptosis were increased, while markers of autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial membrane potential were decreased after four hours of culture. Respiration and mitochondrial content alter over gestation/with labour. Decreased respiration at 11 weeks and increased mitochondrial content at 12-13 weeks may relate to onset of maternal blood flow, and increased respiration as a result of labour may be an adaptation to ischaemia-reperfusion. At term, mitochondria were more susceptible to changes in respiratory function

  3. Flavivirus Infection Impairs Peroxisome Biogenesis and Early Antiviral Signaling

    PubMed Central

    You, Jaehwan; Hou, Shangmei; Malik-Soni, Natasha; Xu, Zaikun; Kumar, Anil; Rachubinski, Richard A.; Frappier, Lori

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Flaviviruses are significant human pathogens that have an enormous impact on the global health burden. Currently, there are very few vaccines against or therapeutic treatments for flaviviruses, and our understanding of how these viruses cause disease is limited. Evidence suggests that the capsid proteins of flaviviruses play critical nonstructural roles during infection, and therefore, elucidating how these viral proteins affect cellular signaling pathways could lead to novel targets for antiviral therapy. We used affinity purification to identify host cell proteins that interact with the capsid proteins of West Nile and dengue viruses. One of the cellular proteins that formed a stable complex with flavivirus capsid proteins is the peroxisome biogenesis factor Pex19. Intriguingly, flavivirus infection resulted in a significant loss of peroxisomes, an effect that may be due in part to capsid expression. We posited that capsid protein-mediated sequestration and/or degradation of Pex19 results in loss of peroxisomes, a situation that could result in reduced early antiviral signaling. In support of this hypothesis, we observed that induction of the lambda interferon mRNA in response to a viral RNA mimic was reduced by more than 80%. Together, our findings indicate that inhibition of peroxisome biogenesis may be a novel mechanism by which flaviviruses evade the innate immune system during early stages of infection. IMPORTANCE RNA viruses infect hundreds of millions of people each year, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Chief among these pathogens are the flaviviruses, which include dengue virus and West Nile virus. Despite their medical importance, there are very few prophylactic or therapeutic treatments for these viruses. Moreover, the manner in which they subvert the innate immune response in order to establish infection in mammalian cells is not well understood. Recently, peroxisomes were reported to function in early antiviral signaling, but

  4. Valproate Attenuates Nitroglycerin-Induced Trigeminovascular Activation by Preserving Mitochondrial Function in a Rat Model of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruxian; Liu, Yushuang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Yitong; Song, Ge; Zhang, Zhongling

    2016-01-01

    Background Migraine is a chronic disease that interferes with life quality and work productivity. Valproate shows protective effects against migraine, yet the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the potential effect of valproate on migraine using a rat model of nitroglycerin-induced trigeminovascular activation, as well as to explore the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods Intraperitoneal injection of nitroglycerin was conducted to induce trigeminovascular activation in rats. To explore the protective effect of valproate, a low dose (100 mg/kg) or a high dose (200 mg/kg) of valproate was intraperitoneally injected into rats, and then the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and nitric oxide in the peripheral blood were examined. The mtDNA copy number and the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in the spinal trigeminal nucleus were detected to evaluate the biogenesis of mitochondria. The mitochondrial energy metabolism was determined by the mitochondrial membrane potential and the levels of adenosine triphosphate, cytochrome C oxidase, and reactive oxygen species. Results Valproate attenuated nitroglycerin-induced trigeminovascular activation in rats, with reduced scratching behavior and restored 5-hydroxytryptamine and nitric oxide levels. Moreover, the mitochondrial energy metabolism and the biogenesis of mitochondria were preserved by valproate in nitroglycerin-treated rats. Conclusions The protective effect of valproate against migraine may be achieved through the modulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Our study provides evidence for the potential use of valproate in the treatment of migraine. PMID:27618395

  5. Valproate Attenuates Nitroglycerin-Induced Trigeminovascular Activation by Preserving Mitochondrial Function in a Rat Model of Migraine.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruxian; Liu, Yushuang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Yitong; Song, Ge; Zhang, Zhongling

    2016-09-12

    BACKGROUND Migraine is a chronic disease that interferes with life quality and work productivity. Valproate shows protective effects against migraine, yet the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the potential effect of valproate on migraine using a rat model of nitroglycerin-induced trigeminovascular activation, as well as to explore the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Intraperitoneal injection of nitroglycerin was conducted to induce trigeminovascular activation in rats. To explore the protective effect of valproate, a low dose (100 mg/kg) or a high dose (200 mg/kg) of valproate was intraperitoneally injected into rats, and then the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and nitric oxide in the peripheral blood were examined. The mtDNA copy number and the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in the spinal trigeminal nucleus were detected to evaluate the biogenesis of mitochondria. The mitochondrial energy metabolism was determined by the mitochondrial membrane potential and the levels of adenosine triphosphate, cytochrome C oxidase, and reactive oxygen species. RESULTS Valproate attenuated nitroglycerin-induced trigeminovascular activation in rats, with reduced scratching behavior and restored 5-hydroxytryptamine and nitric oxide levels. Moreover, the mitochon