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Sample records for aberrant mongolian spots

  1. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePlus

    Mongolian spots; Congenital dermal melanocytosis; Dermal melanocytosis ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, Native American, Hispanic, East Indian, and African descent. The color ...

  2. Halolike Phenomenon Around a Café au Lait Spot Superimposed on a Mongolian Spot.

    PubMed

    Neri, Iria; Lambertini, Martina; Tengattini, Vera; Rivalta, Beatrice; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2017-05-01

    An 8-month-old Caucasian infant with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with a congenital plexiform neurofibroma and multiple café au lait spots. A pale area surrounded one of the café au lait spots located on the left gluteus in the area of dermal melanocytosis. This halolike phenomenon results from the disappearance of the Mongolian spot around the café au lait spots, revealing normal pigmented skin. This sign has been described rarely in the literature and the pathogenic mechanism is unclear. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis: Implications for severity with special reference to Mongolian spots associated with Sturge-Weber and Klippel-Trenaunay syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hall, Bryan D; Cadle, Ronald G; Morrill-Cornelius, Shannon M; Bay, Carolyn A

    2007-12-15

    In 1947 the term phakomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) was coined to represent the association of widespread, aberrant, and persistent nevus flammeus and pigmentary abnormalities. Four types of PPV have been recognized with type II (nevus flammeus and Mongolian spots) being the most common. Most early cases were of Asian or African descent. Many cases were subsequently associated with Sturge-Weber (S-W) and Klippel-Trenaunay (K-T) syndromes. Almost no literature reports have appeared in the genetic or dysmorphology literature! We present six cases of PPV in which five were either African, Asian or Hispanic, and five of six had an admixture of K-T and S-W. Four had macrocephaly, and one had microcephaly. Four had CNS abnormalities (three with hydrocephalus, one with Arnold-Chiari and one with polymicrogyria), three had mental retardation, and one had seizures. One each had thumb hypoplasia, hydronephrosis, glaucoma, coronal synostosis, and 3-4 finger syndactyly. It is our suspicion and hypothesis that in the presence of persistent, extensive and aberrant Mongolian spots, vascular abnormalities as are seen in K-T and S-W carry a worse prognosis. This may be particularly true either of children of Asian, Hispanic or African heritage or any individuals from darker pigmented skin groups. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. A spot pattern test chart technique for measurement of geometric aberrations caused by an intervening medium—a novel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A. R.; Arulmozhivarman, P.; Jesson, M.

    2005-12-01

    Accurate surface metrology and transmission characteristics measurements have become vital to certify the manufacturing excellence in the field of glass visors, windshields, menu boards and transportation industries. We report a simple, cost-effective and novel technique for the measurement of geometric aberrations in transparent materials such as glass sheets, Perspex, etc. The technique makes use of an array of spot pattern, we call the spot pattern test chart technique, in the diffraction limited imaging position having large field of view. Performance features include variable angular dynamic range and angular sensitivity. Transparent sheets as the intervening medium introduced in the line of sight, causing aberrations, are estimated in real time using the Zernike reconstruction method. Quantitative comparative analysis between a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the proposed new method is presented and the results are discussed.

  5. Trilingual Education and Mongolian Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilik, Naran; Erdene, Has

    2016-01-01

    Anxieties about Chinese-Mongolian-English trilingual program in Inner Mongolia reflect three linguistic ideologies, that is, the instrumental and the essentialist among Mongolian elites and the assimilationist among Han elites. Mongolian ethnicity is on trial in front of an upsurge of Chinese nationalism. Both pro and con trilingual education…

  6. Simulation of eye-tracker latency, spot size, and ablation pulse depth on the correction of higher order wavefront aberrations with scanning spot laser systems.

    PubMed

    Bueeler, Michael; Mrochen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this theoretical work was to investigate the robustness of scanning spot laser treatments with different laser spot diameters and peak ablation depths in case of incomplete compensation of eye movements due to eye-tracker latency. Scanning spot corrections of 3rd to 5th Zernike order wavefront errors were numerically simulated. Measured eye-movement data were used to calculate the positioning error of each laser shot assuming eye-tracker latencies of 0, 5, 30, and 100 ms, and for the case of no eye tracking. The single spot ablation depth ranged from 0.25 to 1.0 microm and the spot diameter from 250 to 1000 microm. The quality of the ablation was rated by the postoperative surface variance and the Strehl intensity ratio, which was calculated after a low-pass filter was applied to simulate epithelial surface smoothing. Treatments performed with nearly ideal eye tracking (latency approximately 0) provide the best results with a small laser spot (0.25 mm) and a small ablation depth (250 microm). However, combinations of a large spot diameter (1000 microm) and a small ablation depth per pulse (0.25 microm) yield the better results for latencies above a certain threshold to be determined specifically. Treatments performed with tracker latencies in the order of 100 ms yield similar results as treatments done completely without eye-movement compensation. CONCWSIONS: Reduction of spot diameter was shown to make the correction more susceptible to eye movement induced error. A smaller spot size is only beneficial when eye movement is neutralized with a tracking system with a latency <5 ms.

  7. Pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma: a new model of experimentally induced cholesteatoma in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2010-06-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics. To investigate the origin of the cholesteatoma cells, we analyzed spontaneously occurring cholesteatomas associated with a new transplantation model in Mongolian gerbils (gerbils). Cholesteatomas were induced in gerbils with a transplanted tympanic membrane by using the external auditory canal (EAC) ligation method. After the pars flaccida of the tympanic membranes were completely removed from male gerbils, corresponding portions of tympanic membranes of female gerbils were transplanted to the area of defect, and then we ligated the EAC (hybrid-model group). As a control group, the EAC of normal male and female gerbils was ligated without myringoplasty. In all ears of each group, the induced cholesteatomas were seen. In situ PCR was then performed to detect the mouse X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene on the paraffin sections. One pgk-1 spot in the epithelial nuclei was detected in male cholesteatoma, and two pgk-1 spots were detected in female cholesteatoma, respectively. On the other hand, in the hybrid-model group, we detected not only one but also two pgk-1 spots in the epithelial nuclei of cholesteatoma. These results strengthened the evidence that the origin of epithelial cells in cholesteatoma is the tympanic membrane in this model, but not the residential middle ear epithelial cells or the skin of the EAC.

  8. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  9. [Variety systematization and research progress of Mongolian medicine "Bashaga"].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-Shan; Bi, Ya-Qiong; Lei, Lu-Jing; Zhu, Xiang-Hui; Lv, Ying; Zhang, Chun-Hong; Li, Min-Hui

    2017-03-01

    Mongolian medicine is the traditional drug with the theory of Mongolian medicine and pharmacy as a guide, which made a great contribution to the survival and development of the Mongolian people. Mongolian medicine "Bashaga" faced the situations of origin is unclear, and clinical therapy is confused and so on. This paper summarizes the original plants and studies the species textual research and ethnopharmacology of Mongolian medicine "Bashaga". This paper intends to ensure authentic plant and provide comprehensive insight into the chemical constituents, pharmacology and application status of Mongolian medicine "Bashaga" to discuss the rationality of the confirmation in "Bashaga" authentic plant. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Analysis of Mongolian Students' Common Translation Errors and Its Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Changhua

    2013-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, those Mongolian students face lots of difficulties in learning English. Especially the English translation ability of Mongolian students is a weak point. It is worth to think a problem that how to let our students use the English freely on a certain foundation. This article investigates the problems of Mongolian English learners…

  11. Genitive Case-Marked Subject in Modern Mongolian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayabaatar, Dalai; Dashdavaa, Vanchinsuren; Enkhjargal, Dagvasumberel; Onon, Tsulbaatar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents peculiarities of the genitive case marked subject in Modern Mongolian. First, we argue that subordinate clauses with the genitive case-marked subject in Modern Mongolian are CP. Second, we provide an explanation for certain conditions of the genitive subject construction in Modern Mongolian (MM). Third, we attempt to show the…

  12. The genome of a Mongolian individual reveals the genetic imprints of Mongolians on modern human populations.

    PubMed

    Bai, Haihua; Guo, Xiaosen; Zhang, Dong; Narisu, Narisu; Bu, Junjie; Jirimutu, Jirimutu; Liang, Fan; Zhao, Xiang; Xing, Yanping; Wang, Dingzhu; Li, Tongda; Zhang, Yanru; Guan, Baozhu; Yang, Xukui; Yang, Zili; Shuangshan, Shuangshan; Su, Zhe; Wu, Huiguang; Li, Wenjing; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Shilin; Bayinnamula, Bayinnamula; Chang, Yuqi; Gao, Ying; Lan, Tianming; Suyalatu, Suyalatu; Huang, Hui; Su, Yan; Chen, Yujie; Li, Wenqi; Yang, Xu; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jun; Wu, Qizhu; Yin, Ye; Zhou, Huanmin

    2014-11-05

    Mongolians have played a significant role in modern human evolution, especially after the rise of Genghis Khan (1162[?]-1227). Although the social cultural impacts of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian population have been well documented, explorations of their genome structure and genetic imprints on other human populations have been lacking. We here present the genome of a Mongolian male individual. The genome was de novo assembled using a total of 130.8-fold genomic data produced from massively parallel whole-genome sequencing. We identified high-confidence variation sets, including 3.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 756,234 short insertions and deletions. Functional SNP analysis predicted that the individual has a pathogenic risk for carnitine deficiency. We located the patrilineal inheritance of the Mongolian genome to the lineage D3a through Y haplogroup analysis and inferred that the individual has a common patrilineal ancestor with Tibeto-Burman populations and is likely to be the progeny of the earliest settlers in East Asia. We finally investigated the genetic imprints of Mongolians on other human populations using different approaches. We found varying degrees of gene flows between Mongolians and populations living in Europe, South/Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. The analyses demonstrate that the genetic impacts of Mongolians likely resulted from the expansion of the Mongolian Empire in the 13th century. The genome will be of great help in further explorations of modern human evolution and genetic causes of diseases/traits specific to Mongolians. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. The Genome of a Mongolian Individual Reveals the Genetic Imprints of Mongolians on Modern Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qizhu; Yin, Ye; Zhou, Huanmin

    2014-01-01

    Mongolians have played a significant role in modern human evolution, especially after the rise of Genghis Khan (1162[?]–1227). Although the social cultural impacts of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian population have been well documented, explorations of their genome structure and genetic imprints on other human populations have been lacking. We here present the genome of a Mongolian male individual. The genome was de novo assembled using a total of 130.8-fold genomic data produced from massively parallel whole-genome sequencing. We identified high-confidence variation sets, including 3.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 756,234 short insertions and deletions. Functional SNP analysis predicted that the individual has a pathogenic risk for carnitine deficiency. We located the patrilineal inheritance of the Mongolian genome to the lineage D3a through Y haplogroup analysis and inferred that the individual has a common patrilineal ancestor with Tibeto-Burman populations and is likely to be the progeny of the earliest settlers in East Asia. We finally investigated the genetic imprints of Mongolians on other human populations using different approaches. We found varying degrees of gene flows between Mongolians and populations living in Europe, South/Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. The analyses demonstrate that the genetic impacts of Mongolians likely resulted from the expansion of the Mongolian Empire in the 13th century. The genome will be of great help in further explorations of modern human evolution and genetic causes of diseases/traits specific to Mongolians. PMID:25377941

  14. [Brief history of education of Mongolian medicine 1947-1977].

    PubMed

    Yan, H X; Zhen, Y

    2017-03-28

    From 1947 to 1977, the education of Mongolian medicine was developed to a certain degree, in different levels and different forms with attribute of modern education. Through opening training school and class, the traditional Mongolian practitioners and its education are standardized and its levels elevated. In addition, by means of medical colleges and health schools, Mongolian medical talents of different types at different levels were cultivated. All of them were at the forefront of the development of Mongolian medicine later. In 1958, the first undergraduate education, a Department of Sino-Mongolian Medicine was set up in Inner Mongolia Medical College, marking the development of beginning of the higher education of Mongolian medicine. Therefore, Mongolian medicine was the forerunner of higher education of Chinese minority medicine.

  15. Rooting Out Aberrant Behavior in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokalis, Jerry, Jr.; Paquin, Dave

    1989-01-01

    Discusses aberrant, or disruptive, behavior in an industrial/business, classroom-based, instructor-led training setting. Three examples of aberrant behavior are described, typical case studies are provided for each, and preventive (long-term) and corrective (on-the-spot) strategies for dealing with the problems are discussed. (LRW)

  16. Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics in the natural plague foci of Chinese Mongolian gerbils based on spatial autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai-Wen; Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Da-Fang; Jiang, Xiao-San

    2017-08-07

    The nest flea index of Meriones unguiculatus is a critical indicator for the prevention and control of plague, which can be used not only to detect the spatial and temporal distributions of Meriones unguiculatus, but also to reveal its cluster rule. This research detected the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the plague natural foci of Mongolian gerbils by body flea index from 2005 to 2014, in order to predict plague outbreaks. Global spatial autocorrelation was used to describe the entire spatial distribution pattern of the body flea index in the natural plague foci of typical Chinese Mongolian gerbils. Cluster and outlier analysis and hot spot analysis were also used to detect the intensity of clusters based on geographic information system methods. The quantity of M. unguiculatus nest fleas in the sentinel surveillance sites from 2005 to 2014 and host density data of the study area from 2005 to 2010 used in this study were provided by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemic focus regions of the Mongolian gerbils remain the same as the hot spot regions relating to the body flea index. High clustering areas possess a similar pattern as the distribution pattern of the body flea index indicating that the transmission risk of plague is relatively high. In terms of time series, the area of the epidemic focus gradually increased from 2005 to 2007, declined rapidly in 2008 and 2009, and then decreased slowly and began trending towards stability from 2009 to 2014. For the spatial change, the epidemic focus regions began moving northward from the southwest epidemic focus of the Mongolian gerbils from 2005 to 2007, and then moved from north to south in 2007 and 2008. The body flea index of Chinese gerbil foci reveals significant spatial and temporal aggregation characteristics through the employing of spatial autocorrelation. The diversity of temporary and spatial distribution is mainly affected by seasonal variation, the human

  17. Multi-font printed Mongolian document recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liangrui; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hua; Jin, Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Mongolian is one of the major ethnic languages in China. Large amount of Mongolian printed documents need to be digitized in digital library and various applications. Traditional Mongolian script has unique writing style and multi-font-type variations, which bring challenges to Mongolian OCR research. As traditional Mongolian script has some characteristics, for example, one character may be part of another character, we define the character set for recognition according to the segmented components, and the components are combined into characters by rule-based post-processing module. For character recognition, a method based on visual directional feature and multi-level classifiers is presented. For character segmentation, a scheme is used to find the segmentation point by analyzing the properties of projection and connected components. As Mongolian has different font-types which are categorized into two major groups, the parameter of segmentation is adjusted for each group. A font-type classification method for the two font-type group is introduced. For recognition of Mongolian text mixed with Chinese and English, language identification and relevant character recognition kernels are integrated. Experiments show that the presented methods are effective. The text recognition rate is 96.9% on the test samples from practical documents with multi-font-types and mixed scripts.

  18. [Professor B. Jigmed's conception on the division of stages of history of Mongolian medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, X H; Bao, L

    2017-03-28

    The division of stages on the formation and development of Mongolian medicine is a major issue on the history of Mongolian medicine. Based on Mongolian social, economic and cultural development and the characteristics of Mongolian medicine itself, Professor B. Jigmed creatively puts forward the three stages of development of ancient and modern times of Mongolian medicine. He also reasonably sorts out historical materials to comprehensively and systematically display the general picture of its development. This approach exerts great effect on restructuring the body of Mongolian medicine itself, unveils its rule of development, and promotes its disciplinary construction.

  19. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  20. Sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, A.V.; Kopf, D.A.

    In an electron beam device in which an electron beam is developed and then focused by a lens to a particular spot, there is provided a means for eliminating spherical aberration. A sextupole electromagnetic lens is positioned between two focusing lenses. The interaction of the sextupole with the beam compensates for spherical aberration. (GHT)

  1. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  2. When and how did Bos indicus introgress into Mongolian cattle?

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Ran; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yunsheng; Huang, Jieping; Chang, Zhenhua; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2014-03-10

    The Mongolian cattle are one of the most widespread breeds with strictly Bos taurus morphological features in northern China. In our current study, we presented a diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region and Y chromosome SNP markers in 25 male and 8 female samples of Mongolian cattle from the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in Western China, and detected 21 B. taurus and four Bos indicus (zebu) mtDNA haplotypes. Among four B. indicus mtDNA haplotypes, two haplotypes belonged to I1 haplogroup and the remaining two haplotypes belonged to I2 haplogroup. In contrast, all 25 male Mongolian cattle samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotype and no B. indicus haplotypes were found. Historical and archeological records indicate that B. taurus was introduced to Xinjiang during the second millennium BC and B. indicus appeared in this region by the second century AD. The two types of cattle coexisted for many centuries in Xinjiang, as depicted in clay and wooden figurines unearthed in the Astana cemetery in Turfan (3rd-8th century AD). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the earliest B. indicus introgression in the Mongolian cattle may have occurred during the 2nd-7th centuries AD through the Silk Road around the Xinjiang region. This conclusion differs from the previous hypothesis that zebu introgression to Mongolian cattle happened during the Mongol Empire era in the 13th century. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous Osteoblastic Osteosarcoma in a Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Salyards, Gregory W; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Mishra, Sasmita; Harvey, Stephen B; Butler, Abigail M

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous neoplasms in Mongolian gerbils have an incidence of 20% to 26.8%, but osteosarcomas occur at a much lower rate. Here we report a 1-y-old Mongolian gerbil with a spontaneous osteosarcoma at the level of the proximal tibia, with metastases to the pectoral muscles and lungs. Grossly, the tibial mass obliterated the tibia and adjacent muscles, and an axillary mass with a bloody, cavitary center expanded the pectoral muscles. Microscopically, the tibial mass was an infiltrative, osteoblastic mesenchymal neoplasm, and the axillary mass was an anaplastic mesenchymal neoplasm with hemorrhage. The lung contained multiple metastatic foci. Immunohistochemistry for osteonectin was strongly positive in the tibial, axillary, and pulmonary metastases. Although osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm that occurs spontaneously in all laboratory and domestic animal species and humans, it arises less frequently than does other neoplasms. The current case of spontaneous osteoblastic osteosarcoma of the proximal tibia and metastases to the pectoral muscles and lung in a Mongolian gerbil is similar in presentation, histology, and predilection site of both osteoblastic and telangiectatic osteosarcomas in humans. In addition, this case is an unusual manifestation of osteosarcoma in the appendicular skeleton of a Mongolian gerbil. PMID:23561939

  4. Life Aspirations, Values and Moral Foundations in Mongolian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bespalov, Alexander; Prudnikova, Marina; Nyamdorj, Bavuu; Vlasov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Life aspirations have aroused much interest in youth studies. Yet, their psychological correlates remain unclear, especially in countries outside the US. The aim of this study was to explore associations among aspirations, values and moral foundations in 157 Mongolian youth, through questionnaires used widely around the world. Correlational and…

  5. Acoustic Analysis on the Palatalized Vowels of Modern Mongolian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgantamir, Sangidkhorloo

    2015-01-01

    In Modern Mongolian the palatalized vowels [a?, ??, ?? ] before palatalized consonants are considered as phoneme allophones according to the most scholars. Nevertheless theses palatalized vowels have the distinctive features what could be proved by the minimal pairs and nowadays this question is open and not profoundly studied. The purpose of this…

  6. Pinky Extension as a Phonestheme in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) is a visual-gestural language that developed from multiple languages interacting as a result of both geographic proximity and political relations and of the natural development of a communication system by deaf community members. Similar to the phonological systems of other signed languages, MSL combines handshapes,…

  7. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  8. Epidemiologic features of metabolic syndrome in a general Mongolian population.

    PubMed

    Enkh-Oyun, Tsogzolbaatar; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Davaa, Gombojav; Ganchimeg, Ulziibayar; Angarmurun, Dayan; Khuderchuluun, Nanjid; Batzorig, Bayartsogt; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Ae, Ryusuke; Aoyama, Yasuko; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2015-05-01

    Although cardiovascular health is a crucial problem for Mongolian people, little information about metabolic syndrome, which is well known to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, is available in Mongolia. The aim of this study was to observe the epidemiological features of metabolic syndrome in a general Mongolian population. This cross-sectional study was performed in 1911 general Mongolian subjects (717 men, 1194 women), who were ≥40 years old and free of ischemic heart disease, by using a dataset from a nationwide population-based cohort study in Mongolia. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria, was determined. Alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and physical activity were evaluated. Education, marital status, income, and occupation were also examined as factors of socioeconomic status (SES). Their association with metabolic syndrome was determined by logistic regression models. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in women (n=488, 40.6%) than in men (n=138, 19.4%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high, especially in the Khangai region, in women. Moderate-to-high alcohol consumption was a significantly positively associated factor of metabolic syndrome in men [odds ratio (OR)=2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-3.51; adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.41; 95% CI 1.31-4.44] and widowed status was a significantly positively associated factor of metabolic syndrome in women (OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.18-2.18; AOR=1.49, 95% CI 1.07-2.08). Metabolic syndrome was prevalent in women compared with men among Mongolian adults. Preventive strategies aimed at men with a higher alcohol consumption and women with widowed status may help reduce metabolic syndrome, thereby improving cardiovascular health conditions in Mongolia.

  9. Alkaloids from Mongolian species Hypecoum lactiflorum Kar. et Kir. Pazij.

    PubMed

    Philipov, Stefan; Istatkova, Ralitsa; Denkova, Pavletta; Dangaa, Selenge; Samdan, Javzan; Krosnova, Marieta; Munkh-Amgalan, Chogsom

    2009-01-01

    A new secoberbine alkaloid (-)-N-methylcorydalisol was isolated from the aerial parts of Hypecoum lactiflorum Kar. et Kir. Pazij. (Papaveraceae) of Mongolian origin and was characterised. The known alkaloids of protopine and protoberberine type protopine, allocryptopine, (-)-N-methylcanadine and (-)-N-methylstylopine were also isolated. (-)-N-methylstylopine is a new alkaloid for the genus, while (-)-N-methylcanadine is new for the species. All structures were established by physical and spectral analysis.

  10. Evidence for Very Recent Positive Selection in Mongolians.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Jun; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Munkhtulga, Lkagvasuren; Iwamoto, Sadahiko

    2017-08-01

    Mongols, the founders of the largest continental empire in history, successfully adapted to the harsh environments of Inner Asia through nomadic pastoralism. Considerable interest exists in ascertaining whether genetic adaptation also contributed to the Mongols' success, and dissecting the genome diversity of present-day populations in Mongolia can help address this question. To this end, we determined the genotypes of nearly 2.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 96 unrelated Mongolian individuals in Ulaanbaatar city, and performed genome-wide scans for population-specific positive selection. We discovered signatures of Mongolian-specific positive selection at the chromosomal region 3p12.1, in which hits in genome-wide association studies were reported for medical and biological traits related to energy metabolism and reproduction. The top SNP, rs117799927, showed a distinctive geographic distribution: the frequency of the derived allele, rs117799927 G, was extremely low among worldwide populations (0.005) but exceptionally high in Mongolians (0.247). Approximate Bayesian computation-based age estimation showed that the rs117799927 G allele emerged or positive selection began to operate 50 generations before the present, near the age of the climate anomaly named Late Antique Little Ice Age. Furthermore, rs117799927 showed significant associations with multiple adiposity-related traits in Mongolians and allelic difference in enhancer activity in cells of adipocyte lineage, suggesting that positive selection at 3p12.1 might be related to adaptation in the energy metabolism system. These findings provide novel evidence for a very recent positive-selection event in Homo sapiens and offer insights into the roles of genes in 3p12.1 in the adaptive evolution of our species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The recent glacier changes in Mongolian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuki, H.; Ohata, T.

    2009-12-01

    In the 4th IPCC report (AR-4) is reported that global warming in recent years is a clear thing. Shrinkage of the mountain glacier and two poles is reporting as an observation fact as the actual condition of the cryosphere by warming. There are mass balance reports of the glacier of 80 of world by WGMS (World Glacier Monitoring Service) as a report of the actual condition of glacier mass balance change, and the actual condition of the glacier mass change in world is clarified. In the report of WGMS, after 1980’s the glacier mass balance, in the Europe Alps and the Alaska region are decreases, and in Scandinavia region are increases. On the other hand, the glacier mass balance in the Russia Altai Mountains located in Central Asia has the little change after 1980’s. These are research using the long-term observational data of Russian region of western part of Altai Mountains. The Altai Mountains including Russia, China, and Mongolia Kazakhstan, and there are description to a World Glacier Inventory (WGI) about the glaciers of Russia, China and Kazakhstan area, but the glaciers of a Mongolian area, there are no description to the WGI. There is almost no information on the glacier of a Mongolian Altai region, and there are many unknown points about glacier change of the whole Altai Mountain region. In this research, while research clarified the present condition of glacier distribution of the Mongolia Altai region, the actual condition of a glacier change in recent years was clarified by comparison with the past topographical map. In this research, the glacier area was distinguished based on the satellite image of the Mongolian glacier regions. The used satellite image were 17 Landsat 7 ETM+ in 1999 to 2002. The glacier distinguishes using NDSI (Normalized Difference Snow Index) indexusing Band5 and Band2. The topographical map of the Mongolian area was got based on the distribution information on this satellite glacier area. The topographical map is 1/100,000 which

  12. Sentential Negative Markers as Pro-Forms of Negative Sentences in Modern Mongolian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagvasumberel, Enkhjargal

    2015-01-01

    Negation in modern Mongolian was analyzed by scholars namely: Luvsanvandan Sh (1968, 2000), Wonsoo Yu (1991), Mönkh-Amgalan Yu (1998), Purev-Ochir B. (1998, 2001), Byambasan P. (2006), Kunihiko Hasimoto (2008), BatIreedui J.(2009), Ravdan E. (2009), Mönkh-Amgalan Yu & Kan Shin (2014). Sentential negation in modern Mongolian is not sufficiently…

  13. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgonsuren, Tseden

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if…

  14. DAGUR MONGOLIAN GRAMMAR, TEXTS, AND LEXICON. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, SAMUEL E.

    THIS DESCRIPTION OF DAGUR, A MONGOLIAN LANGUAGE, IS BASED ON THE DIALECT OF A SPEAKER BORN IN INNER MONGOLIA IN NORTHWEST MANCHURIA. SECTION I OF THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES OTHER WORKS PUBLISHED IN MONGOLIAN LINGUISTICS WHICH HAVE USED THE SAME INFORMANT, AND PRESENTS THE AUTHOR'S APPROACH, IN TERMS OF A PHRASE-STRUCTURE GRAMMAR. SECTION II PRESENTS…

  15. Ideas, properties, and standards of fracture repositioning with osteopathy in traditional Mongolian medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Wang, Hongxia; Zhao, Namula

    2015-02-01

    To explore the unique ideas, properties, and standards of fracture repositioning with osteopathy in traditional Mongolian medicine in China. Based on the natural life concept of "integration of universe and man", osteopathy in traditional Mongolian medicine in China uses the modern principles and methods of physiology, psychology, and biomechanics. Against this background, we explored the unique ideas, properties, and stan- dards of fracture repositioning in traditional Mongolian medicine. Fracture treatment with osteopathy in traditional Mongolian medicine in China is based on (a) the ideas of natural, sealed, self and dynamic repositioning of fractures; (b) the properties of structural continuity and functional completeness; (c) the standards of "integration of movement and stillness" and "force to force". The unique ideas, properties, and standards of fracture repositioning with osteopathy in traditional Mongolian medicine in China have resulted in the widespread use of such techniques and represents the future direction of the development of fracture repositioning.

  16. Clinical Trial Research on Mongolian Medical Warm Acupuncture in Treating Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Bo, Agula; Si, Lengge; Wang, Yuehong; Xiu, Lan; Wu, Rihan; Li, Yutang; Mu, Rigenjiya; Ga, Latai; Miao, Mei; Shuang, Fu; Wu, Yunhua; Jin, Qiu; Tong, Suocai; Wuyun, Gerile; Guan, Wurihan; Mo, Rigen; Hu, Sileng; Zhang, Lixia; Peng, Rui; Bao, Lidao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Insomnia is one of the most common sleep disorders. Hypnotics have poor long-term efficacy. Mongolian medical warm acupuncture has significant efficacy in treating insomnia. The paper evaluates the role of Mongolian medical warm acupuncture in treating insomnia by investigating the Mongolian medicine syndromes and conditions, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, and polysomnography indexes. Method. The patients were diagnosed in accordance with International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2). The insomnia patients were divided into the acupuncture group (40 cases) and the estazolam group (40 cases). The patients underwent intervention of Mongolian medical warm acupuncture and estazolam. The indicators of the Mongolian medicine syndromes and conditions, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and polysomnography indexes (PSG) have been detected. Result. Based on the comparison of the Mongolian medicine syndrome scores between the warm acupuncture group and the drug treatment group, the result indicated P < 0.01. The clinical efficacy result showed that the effective rate (85%) in the warm acupuncture group was higher than that (70%) in the drug group. The total scores of PSQI of both groups were approximated. The sleep quality indexes of both groups decreased significantly ( P < 0.05). The sleep quality index in the Mongolian medical warm acupuncture group decreased significantly ( P < 0.01) and was better than that in the estazolam group. The sleep efficiency and daytime functions of the patients in the Mongolian medical warm acupuncture group improved significantly ( P < 0.01). The sleep time was significantly extended ( P < 0.01) in the Mongolian medical warm acupuncture group following PSG intervention. The sleep time during NREM in the Mongolian warm acupuncture group increased significantly ( P < 0.01). The sleep time exhibited a decreasing trend during REM and it decreased significantly in the Mongolian warm acupuncture group ( P < 0.01). The

  17. SPOT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of Mongolian domestic Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus).

    PubMed

    Chuluunbat, B; Charruau, P; Silbermayr, K; Khorloojav, T; Burger, P A

    2014-08-01

    The tradition of animal husbandry in the context of a nomadic lifestyle has been of great significance in the Mongolian society. Both Bactrian camels and horses have been invaluable for the survival and development of human activities in the harsh arid environment of the Mongolian steppe. As camels offer unique and sustainable opportunities for livestock production in marginal agro-ecological zones, we investigated the current genetic diversity of three local Mongolian camel breeds and compared their levels of variation with common native Mongolian camels distributed throughout the country. Based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we found levels of genetic diversity in Mongolian populations similar to that reported for Chinese Bactrian camels and for dromedaries. Little differentiation was detected between single breeds, except for a small group originating from the northwestern Mongolian Altai. We found neither high inbreeding levels in the different breeds nor evidence for a population decline. Although the Mongolian camel census size has severely declined over the past 20 years, our analyses suggest that there still exists a stable population with adequate genetic variation for continued sustainable utilization. © 2014 The Authors. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of Mongolian domestic Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus)

    PubMed Central

    Chuluunbat, B; Charruau, P; Silbermayr, K; Khorloojav, T; Burger, P A

    2014-01-01

    The tradition of animal husbandry in the context of a nomadic lifestyle has been of great significance in the Mongolian society. Both Bactrian camels and horses have been invaluable for the survival and development of human activities in the harsh arid environment of the Mongolian steppe. As camels offer unique and sustainable opportunities for livestock production in marginal agro-ecological zones, we investigated the current genetic diversity of three local Mongolian camel breeds and compared their levels of variation with common native Mongolian camels distributed throughout the country. Based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we found levels of genetic diversity in Mongolian populations similar to that reported for Chinese Bactrian camels and for dromedaries. Little differentiation was detected between single breeds, except for a small group originating from the northwestern Mongolian Altai. We found neither high inbreeding levels in the different breeds nor evidence for a population decline. Although the Mongolian camel census size has severely declined over the past 20 years, our analyses suggest that there still exists a stable population with adequate genetic variation for continued sustainable utilization. PMID:24749721

  20. Unique Features of Ethnic Mongolian Gut Microbiome revealed by metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jiachao; Wu, Chunyan; Cai, Shunfeng; Huang, Weiqiang; Chen, Jing; Xi, Xiaoxia; Liang, Zebin; Hou, Qiangchuan; Zhou, Bing; Qin, Nan; Zhang, Heping

    2016-10-06

    The human gut microbiota varies considerably among world populations due to a variety of factors including genetic background, diet, cultural habits and socioeconomic status. Here we characterized 110 healthy Mongolian adults gut microbiota by shotgun metagenomic sequencing and compared the intestinal microbiome among Mongolians, the Hans and European cohorts. The results showed that the taxonomic profile of intestinal microbiome among cohorts revealed the Actinobaceria and Bifidobacterium were the key microbes contributing to the differences among Mongolians, the Hans and Europeans at the phylum level and genus level, respectively. Metagenomic species analysis indicated that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Coprococcus comeswere enrich in Mongolian people which might contribute to gut health through anti-inflammatory properties and butyrate production, respectively. On the other hand, the enriched genus Collinsella, biomarker in symptomatic atherosclerosis patients, might be associated with the high morbidity of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in Mongolian adults. At the functional level, a unique microbial metabolic pathway profile was present in Mongolian's gut which mainly distributed in amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism. We can attribute the specific signatures of Mongolian gut microbiome to their unique genotype, dietary habits and living environment.

  1. Word Spotting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, James

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the use of word-spotting in psycholinguistic research. Notes that listeners hear a list of nonsense words, some of which contain embedded real words, and they detect those embedded words, a task designed to study the segmentation of continuous speech. Describes the task and summarizes its advantages and disadvantages. (12 references)…

  2. Dark Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  3. A network pharmacology study of Sendeng-4, a Mongolian medicine.

    PubMed

    Zi, Tian; Yu, Dong

    2015-02-01

    We collected the data on the Sendeng-4 chemical composition corresponding targets through the literature and from DrugBank, SuperTarget, TTD (Therapeutic Targets Database) and other databases and the relevant signaling pathways from the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database and established models of the chemical composition-target network and chemical composition-target-disease network using Cytoscape software, the analysis indicated that the chemical composition had at least nine different types of targets that acted together to exert effects on the diseases, suggesting a "multi-component, multi-target" feature of the traditional Mongolian medicine. We also employed the rat model of rheumatoid arthritis induced by Collgen Type II to validate the key targets of the chemical components of Sendeng-4, and three of the key targets were validated through laboratory experiments, further confirming the anti-inflammatory effects of Sendeng-4. In all, this study predicted the active ingredients and targets of Sendeng-4, and explored its mechanism of action, which provided new strategies and methods for further research and development of Sendeng-4 and other traditional Mongolian medicines as well. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P < 0.0001). When stratified by age, the prevalence was highest among young patients, and tended to decrease in patients aged 50 years or older. The anti-East-Asian CagA-specific antibody was negative in 99.4% of H. pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001), with the exception of the intestinal

  5. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-07-21

    To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P < 0.0001). When stratified by age, the prevalence was highest among young patients, and tended to decrease in patients aged 50 years or older. The anti-East-Asian CagA-specific antibody was negative in 99.4% of H. pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001), with the exception of the intestinal metaplasia score of

  6. Defrosting Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    3 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, defrosting spots formed on a polygon-cracked plain in the south polar region of Mars. The surface was covered with carbon dioxide frost during the previous winter. In spring, the material begins to sublime away, creating a pattern of dark spots that sometimes have wind streaks emanating from them, as wind carries away or erodes the frost.

    Location near: 87.2oS, 28.4oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  7. Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1998-06-01

    New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.

  8. The Spot of Arago and Its Role in Aberration Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Finally, my family and in- laws were always there with patience, love and support. This thesis would have been impossible were it not for my wife...five was chosen to judge the entries. The panel members were Laplace, Biot, Arago, Sime6n Denis Poisson and Joseph - Louis Gay- Lussac . Laplace, Biot and...Poisson were staunch adherents of P the particle theory of light while Arago advocated Fresnel’s view. P - *..*. ..-. 9 Gay- Lussac , a chemist, was

  9. Changing Climate and Overgrazing Are Decimating Mongolian Steppes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi Y.; Evans, Jason P.; McCabe, Matthew F.; de Jeu, Richard A. M.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Dolman, Albertus J.; Saizen, Izuru

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations identify the Mongolian steppes as a hotspot of global biomass reduction, the extent of which is comparable with tropical rainforest deforestation. To conserve or restore these grasslands, the relative contributions of climate and human activities to degradation need to be understood. Here we use a recently developed 21-year (1988–2008) record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass), to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature. After removing these climate induced influences, a significant decreasing trend still persists in the VOD residuals across regions of Mongolia. Correlations in spatial patterns and temporal trends suggest that a marked increase in goat density with associated grazing pressures and wild fires are the most likely non-climatic factors behind grassland degradation. PMID:23451249

  10. Tetrahydroxanthones from Mongolian medicinal plant Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuangxin; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Damdinjav, Davaadagva; Dorjbal, Enkhjargal; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-10-01

    Two tetrahydroxanthones, 1,3,5S,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (1) and 1,3,5R,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (2), and six new tetrahydroxanthone glycosides, amarellins A-F (3-8), were isolated from the aerial parts of a Mongolian medicinal plant Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta (Gentianaceae). The structures of 1-8 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, chemical conversion, and ECD calculation. Amarellins A-C (3-5) were assigned as 8-O-β-D-glucoside, 8-O-β-D-xyloside, and 1-O-β-D-glucoside of 1, respectively, while amarellins D-F (6-8) were elucidated to be 8-O-β-D-xyloside, 1-O-β-D-glucoside, and 3-O-β-D-glucoside of 2, respectively.

  11. Changing climate and overgrazing are decimating Mongolian steppes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Y; Evans, Jason P; McCabe, Matthew F; de Jeu, Richard A M; van Dijk, Albert I J M; Dolman, Albertus J; Saizen, Izuru

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations identify the Mongolian steppes as a hotspot of global biomass reduction, the extent of which is comparable with tropical rainforest deforestation. To conserve or restore these grasslands, the relative contributions of climate and human activities to degradation need to be understood. Here we use a recently developed 21-year (1988-2008) record of satellite based vegetation optical depth (VOD, a proxy for vegetation water content and aboveground biomass), to show that nearly all steppe grasslands in Mongolia experienced significant decreases in VOD. Approximately 60% of the VOD declines can be directly explained by variations in rainfall and surface temperature. After removing these climate induced influences, a significant decreasing trend still persists in the VOD residuals across regions of Mongolia. Correlations in spatial patterns and temporal trends suggest that a marked increase in goat density with associated grazing pressures and wild fires are the most likely non-climatic factors behind grassland degradation.

  12. Mongolians core gut microbiota and its correlation with seasonal dietary changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Lim, Angela An Qi; Zheng, Yi; Koh, Eileen Y; Ho, Danliang; Qiao, Jianmin; Huo, Dongxue; Hou, Qiangchuan; Huang, Weiqiang; Wang, Lifeng; Javzandulam, Chimedsuren; Narangerel, Choijilsuren; Jirimutu; Menghebilige; Lee, Yuan-Kun; Zhang, Heping

    2014-05-16

    Historically, the Mongol Empire ranks among the world's largest contiguous empires, and the Mongolians developed their unique lifestyle and diet over thousands of years. In this study, the intestinal microbiota of Mongolians residing in Ulan Bator, TUW province and the Khentii pasturing area were studied using 454 pyrosequencing and q-PCR technology. We explored the impacts of lifestyle and seasonal dietary changes on the Mongolians' gut microbes. At the phylum level, the Mongolians's gut populations were marked by a dominance of Bacteroidetes (55.56%) and a low Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (0.71). Analysis based on the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level revealed that the Mongolian core intestinal microbiota comprised the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Subdoligranulum and Coprococcus. Urbanisation and life-style may have modified the compositions of the gut microbiota of Mongolians from Ulan Bator, TUW and Khentii. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, we found that the dietary structure was diverse and stable throughout the year in Ulan Bator and TUW, but was simple and varied during the year in Khentii. Accordingly, seasonal effects on intestinal microbiota were more distinct in Khentii residents than in TUW or Ulan Bator residents.

  13. Mongolians core gut microbiota and its correlation with seasonal dietary changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Lim, Angela An Qi; Zheng, Yi; Koh, Eileen Y.; Ho, Danliang; Qiao, Jianmin; Huo, Dongxue; Hou, Qiangchuan; Huang, Weiqiang; Wang, Lifeng; Javzandulam, Chimedsuren; Narangerel, Choijilsuren; Jirimutu; Menghebilige; Lee, Yuan-Kun; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the Mongol Empire ranks among the world's largest contiguous empires, and the Mongolians developed their unique lifestyle and diet over thousands of years. In this study, the intestinal microbiota of Mongolians residing in Ulan Bator, TUW province and the Khentii pasturing area were studied using 454 pyrosequencing and q-PCR technology. We explored the impacts of lifestyle and seasonal dietary changes on the Mongolians' gut microbes. At the phylum level, the Mongolians's gut populations were marked by a dominance of Bacteroidetes (55.56%) and a low Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (0.71). Analysis based on the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level revealed that the Mongolian core intestinal microbiota comprised the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Subdoligranulum and Coprococcus. Urbanisation and life-style may have modified the compositions of the gut microbiota of Mongolians from Ulan Bator, TUW and Khentii. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, we found that the dietary structure was diverse and stable throughout the year in Ulan Bator and TUW, but was simple and varied during the year in Khentii. Accordingly, seasonal effects on intestinal microbiota were more distinct in Khentii residents than in TUW or Ulan Bator residents. PMID:24833488

  14. Mongolian Oil Shale, hosted in Mesozoic Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bat-Orshikh, E.; Lee, I.; Norov, B.; Batsaikhan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Mongolia contains several Mesozoic sedimentary basins, which filled >2000 m thick non-marine successions. Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic foreland basins were formed under compression tectonic conditions, whereas Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rift valleys were formed through extension tectonics. Also, large areas of China were affected by these tectonic events. The sedimentary basins in China host prolific petroleum and oil shale resources. Similarly, Mongolian basins contain hundreds meter thick oil shale as well as oil fields. However, petroleum system and oil shale geology of Mongolia remain not well known due to lack of survey. Mongolian oil shale deposits and occurrences, hosted in Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous units, are classified into thirteen oil shale-bearing basins, of which oil shale resources were estimated to be 787 Bt. Jurassic oil shale has been identified in central Mongolia, while Lower Cretaceous oil shale is distributed in eastern Mongolia. Lithologically, Jurassic and Cretaceous oil shale-bearing units (up to 700 m thick) are similar, composed mainly of alternating beds of oil shale, dolomotic marl, siltstone and sandstone, representing lacustrine facies. Both Jurassic and Cretaceous oil shales are characterized by Type I kerogen with high TOC contents, up to 35.6% and low sulfur contents ranging from 0.1% to 1.5%. Moreover, S2 values of oil shales are up to 146 kg/t. The numbers indicate that the oil shales are high quality, oil prone source rocks. The Tmax values of samples range from 410 to 447, suggesting immature to early oil window maturity levels. PI values are consistent with this interpretation, ranging from 0.01 to 0.03. According to bulk geochemistry data, Jurassic and Cretaceous oil shales are identical, high quality petroleum source rocks. However, previous studies indicate that known oil fields in Eastern Mongolia were originated from Lower Cretaceous oil shales. Thus, further detailed studies on Jurassic oil shale and its

  15. Plant Functional Diversity and Species Diversity in the Mongolian Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guofang; Xie, Xiufang; Ye, Duo; Ye, Xuehua; Tuvshintogtokh, Indree; Mandakh, Bayart; Huang, Zhenying; Dong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mongolian steppe is one of the most important grasslands in the world but suffers from aridization and damage from anthropogenic activities. Understanding structure and function of this community is important for the ecological conservation, but has seldom been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a total of 324 quadrats located on the three main types of Mongolian steppes were surveyed. Early-season perennial forbs (37% of total importance value), late-season annual forbs (33%) and late-season perennial forbs (44%) were dominant in meadow, typical and desert steppes, respectively. Species richness, diversity and plant functional type (PFT) richness decreased from the meadow, via typical to desert steppes, but evenness increased; PFT diversity in the desert and meadow steppes was higher than that in typical steppe. However, above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) was far lower in desert steppe than in the other two steppes. In addition, the slope of the relationship between species richness and PFT richness increased from the meadow, via typical to desert steppes. Similarly, with an increase in species diversity, PFT diversity increased more quickly in both the desert and typical steppes than that in meadow steppe. Random resampling suggested that this coordination was partly due to a sampling effect of diversity. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that desert steppe should be strictly protected because of its limited functional redundancy, which its ecological functioning is sensitive to species loss. In contrast, despite high potential forage production shared by the meadow and typical steppes, management of these two types of steppes should be different: meadow steppe should be preserved due to its higher conservation value characterized by more species redundancy and higher spatial heterogeneity, while typical steppe could be utilized moderately because its dominant grass genus Stipa is resistant to

  16. [Cytological and cytogenetic studies of cells of Mongolian gerbils' retinal epithelium and marrow following 12-day space flight].

    PubMed

    Vorozhtsova, S V; Abrosimova, A N; Fedorenko, B S; Rakov, D V

    2011-01-01

    The paper report the results of studying mitotic activity and cytogenetic disorders in marrow and retinal epithelium cells of Mongolian gerbils in 21 - 23 hrs. of landing space apparatus Foton-M3, and the animals of synchronous and vivarium controls. Cells of the space flown gerbils displayed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) gain in the ratio of mitosis prophases and metaphases to the sum of ana- and telophases (1.7 +/- 0.3 and 2 +/- 0.1, respectively) as compared to these parameters in the synchronous and vivarium controls, where the ratio made up 0.6 +/- 0.1 and 0.7 +/- 0.1, respectively. Frequency of aberrant mytoses in the form of bridges was increased equally in both types of cells. Patterns of chromosome damages occurred in flight infer that the major portion of changes was not due to chromosome breakage but adhesion and ensuing wrong disjunction. These results seem to have been caused by acute g-stress to organism during re-entry and return from micro-g to the normal gravity.

  17. Red Spot Spotted by Juno

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-30

    NASA's Juno spacecraft obtained this color view on June 28, 2016, at a distance of 3.9 million miles (6.2 million kilometers) from Jupiter. As Juno nears its destination, features on the giant planet are increasingly visible, including the Great Red Spot. The spacecraft is approaching over Jupiter's north pole, providing a unique perspective on the Jupiter system, including its four large moons. The scene was captured by the mission's imaging camera, called JunoCam, which is designed to acquire high resolution views of features in Jupiter's atmosphere from very close to the planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20705

  18. Jupiter's Great Red Spot, Spotted

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-19

    This image of Jupiter's iconic Great Red Spot and surrounding turbulent zones was captured by NASA's Juno spacecraft. The color-enhanced image is a combination of three separate images taken on April 1 between 3:09 a.m. PDT (6:09 a.m. EDT) and 3:24 a.m. PDT (6:24 a.m. EDT), as Juno performed its 12th close flyby of Jupiter. At the time the images were taken, the spacecraft was 15,379 miles (24,749 kilometers) to 30,633 miles (49,299 kilometers) from the tops of the clouds of the planet at a southern latitude spanning 43.2 to 62.1 degrees. Citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Seán Doran processed this image using data from the JunoCam imager. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21985

  19. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  20. OF TRYPANOSOMATIDS. ENDOTRANSFORMATIONS AND ABERRATIONS].

    PubMed

    Frolov, A O; Malysheva, M N; Kostygov, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Endotransformations and aberrations of the life cycle in the evolutionary history of trypanosomatids (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) are analyzed. We treat the term "endotransformations" as evolutionarily fixed changes of phases and/or developmental stages of parasites. By contrast, we treat aberrations as evolutionary unstable, periodically arising deformations of developmental phases of trypanosomatids, never leading to life cycle changes. Various examples of life cycle endotransformations and aberrations in representatives of the family Trypanosomatidae are discussed.

  1. Research on the Ancient Mongolian Place-Name Along the Silk Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashunwuritu; Baiyinbateer; Duoxi

    2016-06-01

    "Silk Road" is an ancient commercial trade channel connecting China with Asia, Africa and Europe and a major link of the economy, politics and culture of the East and West as well. In the 13th Century, with the westward expedition of Mongolian, the communication and integration of culture among different countries was accelerated, which led to many Mongolian place-names scattered in the countries along the silk-road, such as Khwarezmia, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Kipchak, Persian, involving today's Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Austria, Italy, Serbia, Syria, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India and many other countries and regions. The place-name is a kind of important factor that can represent the changes of culture, economic in history. We analyzed the current place-names in different countries or regions with different language to find out ancient Mongolian place-names, and marked the names on the digital map. Through the changes and transition of the place-name, we explored the development of Mongolian language changes itself, Mongolian blends with other languages, and furtherly reveal information of culture exchange.

  2. [Herbal textual research of common Mongolian medicine "Du Ge Mo Nong"].

    PubMed

    Xi, Jie; Zhong, Hua-Rong; Wucharila-Tu; Buhe Bater; Li, Hui-Hu; Zhong, Guo-Yue

    2016-11-01

    This study is aimed to provide the source for clinical medication by clarifing the common base of Mongolia medicinal materials "Du Ge Mo Nong". In this paper literature research and plant taxonomy method were adopted combined with investigation of the markets and clinical use status to clarify the origin of common traditional Mongolian medicine "Du Ge Mo Nong". The results showed that the Mongolian medicine "Du Ge Mo Nong" and Tibetan medicine "Du Mu Niu" were the same crude drug and originated from the seeds of Holarrhena antidysenteriaca of family Apocynaceae in earliest time. In Mongolian medicine clinic, the seed of Cynanchum thesioides of family Asclepiadaceae and the fruit of Forsythia suspense of family Oleaceae was used respectively about 18 century and recent time, as the substitutes of H. antidysenteriaca. In present standards on Mongolian material medicine, C. thesioides is including only, and H. antidysenterica is not used almost. In Tibetan medicine clinic, H. antidysenterica is being used so far. But there are various substitutes including the seeds, fruits or grass of many species classified to family Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Onagraceae from ancient time to the present, and C. forrestii and C. komarovii may be used at present. It's necessary to strengthen the arrangement on Mongolian medicine's varieties by the multidisciplinary methods including literature research, investigation of resources and the use state, and comparison of active substances and biological activities between the different substitutes,and so on. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Southern Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03092 Southern Spots

    This VIS image of the south polar region was collected during the summer season. The markings of the pole are very diverse and easy to see after the winter frost has been removed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79.7S, Longitude 56.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Mongolia’s Economic Security: How can Economic Development Further Support Mongolian National Security through Developing its Mining Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    MONGOLIA’S ECONOMIC SECURITY: HOW CAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FURTHER SUPPORT MONGOLIAN NATIONAL SECURITY THROUGH DEVELOPING ITS MINING SECTOR... Economic Security: How can Economic Development Further Support Mongolian National Security through Developing its Mining Sector? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...geographic position between two political and economic powers (China and Russia) provides both opportunities and disadvantages for Mongolia’s economy

  5. World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan: The Mongolian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker; Avirmed, Baljnnyam; Yi, Yoon Kyoung; Shirmen, Batchimeg; Abbott, Geoff; Galea, Mary P

    2018-04-18

    To provide an update on disability and rehabilitation in Mongolia, and to identify potential barriers and facilitators for implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Disability Action Plan (GDAP). A 4-member rehabilitation team from the Royal Melbourne Hospital conducted an intensive 6-day workshop at the Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, for local healthcare professionals (n = 77) from medical rehabilitation facilities (urban/rural, public/private) and non-governmental organizations. A modified Delphi method (interactive sessions, consensus agreement) identified challenges for rehabilitation service provision and disability education and attitudes, using GDAP objectives. The GDAP summary actions were considered useful for clinicians, policy-makers, government and persons with disabilities. The main challenges identified were: limited knowledge of disability services and rehabilitation within healthcare sectors; lack of coordination between sectors; geo-topographical issues; limited skilled workforces; lack of disability data, guidelines and accreditation standards; poor legislation and political commitment. The facilitators were: strong leadership; advocacy of disability-inclusive development; investment in local infrastructure/human resources; opportunities for coordination and partnerships between the healthcare sector and other stakeholders; research opportunities; and dissemination of information. Disability and rehabilitation is an emerging priority in Mongolia to address the rights and needs of persons with disabilities. The GDAP provides guidance to facilitate access and strengthen rehabilitation services.

  6. The pathology of the Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): a review.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A L; Rodrick, G E; Sodeman, W A

    1979-10-01

    Both naturally occurring disease processes and experimental models of human disease in the Mongolian gerbil were reviewed. The gerbil was highly susceptible to cerebral infarction following unilateral ligation of one common carotid artery and was useful in studies of the pathogenesis of stroke. Spontaneous epileptiform seizures mimicked those of human idiopathic epilepsy, and both seizure-sensitive and resistant strains have been bred. Perhaps because of its more efficient nephron, the gerbil accumulated four to six times as much renal lead as the rat, and the gerbil has been proposed as an experimental model of lead nephropathy. On standard diets, about 10% of the animals became obese, and some showed decreased glucose tolerance, elevated serum immunoreactive insulin and diabetic changes in the pancreas and other organs. Some breeders exhibited hyperactivity of the adrenal cortex associated with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and degenerative vascular disease. Although dietary supplements of cholesterol were toxic and did not induce atherosclerosis, the gerbil was useful in other studies of cholesterol absorption and metabolism. Spontaneous, insidious periodontal disease became evident after about 6 months on standard diets, and dental caries were induced by cariogenic diets or by pathodontic streptococci. Spontaneous neoplasia occurred in 8.4--24% of gerbils, usually after 2 years of life. Adrenal cortical, ovarian and cutaneous tumors were the most consistently reported neoplasms.

  7. Relationships between climate, productivity and vegetation in southern Mongolian drylands

    PubMed Central

    von Wehrden, H.; Wesche, K.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between open-source data on net primary production and precipitation for the southern Mongolian Gobi, and related this information to data obtained from a set of 1418 vegetation relevés sampled in the region. Gradients determining plant community diversity and composition were examined, and the relation between α-diversity and key environmental parameters was tested. The correlation between net primary production and precipitation within our working area was fairly high (r2 = 0.66). The variance of the net primary production was related to the average annual precipitation; at sites with more than ~220 mm/a precipitation the median coefficient of variation in productivity data decreased, indicating a rather gradual shift from a non-equilibrium ecosystem towards an equilibrium ecosystem with increasing moisture. A DCA-ordination showed that the main gradient in plant community composition was closely correlated to environmental variables for altitude, precipitation and net primary production. All three parameters were also significant predictors of the species diversity. The final model, which included an additional quadratic term for longitude, predicted local plant biodiversity at r2 = 0.57. The results can be directly applied to both resource management and nature conservation within the area. For future studies a closer focus on the characterisation of non-equilibrium rangelands based on modelled productivity layers is suggested. PMID:22318349

  8. Orography and the Boreal Winter Stratosphere: The Importance of the Mongolian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. H.; Battisti, D. S.; Sheshadri, A.

    2018-02-01

    The impact of mountains on stratospheric circulation is explored using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. The "Mongolian mountains" decrease the boreal winter stratospheric jet strength by ˜1/3 and increase the frequency of major sudden stratospheric warmings from 0.08 year-1 to the observed 0.60 year-1. These changes are twice the magnitude of the impacts of the Tibetan plateau and Himalayas. Consistent with the decrease in the zonal jet, there is enhanced Eliassen-Palm flux convergence; this is predominantly from changes in wave propagation pathways through changes to the upper troposphere circulation, not from an increased amplitude of planetary waves reaching the stratosphere. The Mongolian mountains have the greater impact on upper tropospheric circulation due to their meridional location. The Rocky Mountains have no significant impact on the stratospheric jet. Changes in wave propagation in response to the Mongolian mountains are similar to those associated with major sudden stratospheric warming events in observations.

  9. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  10. First stable isotope analysis of Asiatic wild ass tail hair from the Mongolian Gobi.

    PubMed

    Horacek, Micha; Sturm, Martina Burnik; Kaczensky, Petra

    Stable isotope analysis has become a powerful tool to study feeding ecology, water use or movement pattern in contemporary, historic and ancient species. Certain hair and teeth grow continuously, and when sampled longitudinally can provide temporally explicit information on dietary regime and movement pattern. In an initial trial, we analysed a tail sample of an Asiatic wild ass ( Equus hemionus ) from the Mongolian Gobi. We found seasonal variations in H, C and N isotope patterns, likely being the result of temporal variations in available feeds, water supply and possibly physiological status. Thus stable isotope analysis shows promise to study the comparative ecology of the three autochthonous equid species in the Mongolian Gobi.

  11. Helicobacter pylori genetic diversification in the Mongolian gerbil model.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Amber C; Loh, John T; Chopra, Abha; Leary, Shay; Lin, Aung Soe; McDonnell, Wyatt J; Dixon, Beverly R E A; Noto, Jennifer M; Israel, Dawn A; Peek, Richard M; Mallal, Simon; Algood, Holly M Scott; Cover, Timothy L

    2018-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori requires genetic agility to infect new hosts and establish long-term colonization of changing gastric environments. In this study, we analyzed H. pylori genetic adaptation in the Mongolian gerbil model. This model is of particular interest because H. pylori -infected gerbils develop a high level of gastric inflammation and often develop gastric adenocarcinoma or gastric ulceration. We analyzed the whole genome sequences of H. pylori strains cultured from experimentally infected gerbils, in comparison to the genome sequence of the input strain. The mean annualized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rate per site was 1.5e -5 , which is similar to the rates detected previously in H. pylori- infected humans. Many of the mutations occurred within or upstream of genes associated with iron-related functions ( fur , tonB1 , fecA2 , fecA3 , and frpB3 ) or encoding outer membrane proteins ( alpA, oipA, fecA2, fecA3, frpB3 and cagY ). Most of the SNPs within coding regions (86%) were non-synonymous mutations. Several deletion or insertion mutations led to disruption of open reading frames, suggesting that the corresponding gene products are not required or are deleterious during chronic H. pylori colonization of the gerbil stomach. Five variants (three SNPs and two deletions) were detected in isolates from multiple animals, which suggests that these mutations conferred a selective advantage. One of the mutations (FurR88H) detected in isolates from multiple animals was previously shown to confer increased resistance to oxidative stress, and we now show that this SNP also confers a survival advantage when H. pylori is co-cultured with neutrophils. Collectively, these analyses allow the identification of mutations that are positively selected during H. pylori colonization of the gerbil model.

  12. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  13. A novel DSPP mutation causes dentinogenesis imperfecta type II in a large Mongolian family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that the clinical phenotypes of dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) may be caused by mutations in dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP). However, no previous studies have documented the clinical phenotype and genetic basis of DGI-II in a Mongolian family from China. Methods We identified a large five-generation Mongolian family from China with DGI-II, comprising 64 living family members of whom 22 were affected. Linkage analysis of five polymorphic markers flanking DSPP gene was used to genotype the families and to construct the haplotypes of these families. All five DSPP exons including the intron-exon boundaries were PCR-amplified and sequenced in 48 members of this large family. Results All affected individuals showed discoloration and severe attrition of their teeth, with obliterated pulp chambers and without progressive high frequency hearing loss or skeletal abnormalities. No recombination was found at five polymorphic markers flanking DSPP in the family. Direct DNA sequencing identified a novel A→G transition mutation adjacent to the donor splicing site within intron 3 in all affected individuals but not in the unaffected family members and 50 unrelated Mongolian individuals. Conclusion This study identified a novel mutation (IVS3+3A→G) in DSPP, which caused DGI-II in a large Mongolian family. This expands the spectrum of mutations leading to DGI-II. PMID:20146806

  14. Evolving Identities among Russian-Born Buriat Mongolian Children in a Chinese Bilingual School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartor, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses identity issues among a specific group of Indigenous youth, young Buriat Mongolian students, born in Russia, who struggled to understand their sense of cultural identity while living and studying in Chinese Inner Mongolia. This qualitative research project employed ethnographic methodology. Sociocultural theory, specifically…

  15. Glossary of Mongolian Technical Terms. Program in Oriental Languages. Publications Series B--Aids--Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Frederick H.

    This glossary of Mongolian technical terms includes approximately 4,500 entries, covering such areas as political administration, economics, science, railways, stockfarming, agriculture, medicine, foreign affairs, military matters and miscellaneous items. A number of colloquial expressions are included, since they occur quite frequently and appear…

  16. A Case Study of Chinese Mongolian Students in ELT under the Background of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Lili

    2015-01-01

    In response to the current reform of college English teaching, a case study of Chinese Mongolian students in English language teaching under the influence of MOOCs is carried out in an attempt to examine the efficacy of the integration of information technology into English language teaching. After a brief introduction of the teaching mode of…

  17. Analysis of the microflora in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Cynthia; Osaki, Takako; Hanawa, Tomoko; Yonezawa, Hideo; Kurata, Satoshi; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    Mongolian gerbils are frequently used to study Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis and its consequences. The presence of some gastric flora with a suppressive effect on H. pylori suggests inhibitory microflora against H. pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to analyze the microflora in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils with H. pylori infection. H. pylori ureA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the fecal samples of infected Mongolian gerbils. H. pylori was isolated from the gastric mucosa of the gerbils by microaerophilic cultivation. Gastric microflora were isolated by aerobic and anaerobic culture, and the identification of gastric bacterial species was performed by API20E and API20A. Oral administration of H. pylori TK1402 induced colonization and gastric inflammation of the stomach of the Mongolian gerbils. According to the frequency of detection of H. pylori ureA in fecal samples, the gerbils were divided into three groups (frequently detected, moderately detected and infrequently detected). According to the analysis of the gastric microflora in the frequently and infrequently detected groups, Lactobacillus spp. and Eubacterium limosum were isolated from the former and latter group, respectively. Some gastric flora, such as Lactobacillus spp., may inhibit colonization by H. pylori.

  18. Evaluation of the True Wavefront Aberrations in Eyes Implanted With a Rotationally Asymmetric Multifocal Intraocular Lens.

    PubMed

    Akondi, Vyas; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Alejandre, Nicolás; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Standard evaluation of aberrations from wavefront slope measurements in patients implanted with a rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL), the Lentis Mplus (Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany), results in large magnitude primary vertical coma, which is attributed to the intrinsic IOL design. The new proposed method analyzes aberrometry data, allowing disentangling the IOL power pupillary distribution from the true higher order aberrations of the eye. The new method of wavefront reconstruction uses retinal spots obtained at both the near and far foci. The method was tested using ray tracing optical simulations in a computer eye model virtually implanted with the Lentis Mplus IOL, with a generic cornea or with anterior segment geometry obtained from custom quantitative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in a real patient. The method was applied to laser ray tracing aberrometry data at near and far fixation obtained in a patient implanted with the Lentis Mplus IOL. Higher order aberrations evaluated from simulated and real retinal spot diagrams following the new reconstruction approach matched the nominal aberrations (approximately 98%). Previously reported primary vertical coma in patients implanted with this IOL lost significance with the application of the proposed reconstruction. Custom analysis of ray tracing-based retinal spot diagrams allowed decoupling of the true higher order aberrations of the patient's eye from the power pupillary distribution of a rotationally asymmetric multifocal IOL, therefore providing the appropriate phase map to accurately evaluate through-focus optical quality. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(4):257-265.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Low-Order Aberrations in Band-limited Lyot Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Allic V.; Lloyd, James P.; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Makidon, Russell B.

    2005-12-01

    We study the way Lyot coronagraphs with unapodized entrance pupils respond to small, low-order phase aberrations. This study is applicable to ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphs operating at 90% and higher Strehl ratios, as well as to some space-based coronagraphs with intrinsically higher Strehl ratio imaging. We utilize a second-order expansion of the monochromatic point-spread function (written as a power spectrum of a power series in the phase aberration over clear aperture) to derive analytical expressions for the response of a ``band-limited'' Lyot coronagraph (BLC) to small, low-order, phase aberrations. The BLC possesses a focal plane mask with an occulting spot whose opacity profile is a spatially band-limited function rather than a hard-edged, opaque disk. The BLC is, to first order, insensitive to tilt and astigmatism. Undersizing the stop in the reimaged pupil plane (the Lyot plane) following the focal plane mask can alleviate second-order effects of astigmatism, at the expense of system throughput and angular resolution. The optimal degree of such undersizing depends on individual instrument designs and goals. Our analytical work engenders physical insight and complements existing numerical work on this subject. Our methods can be extended to treat the passage of higher order aberrations through band-limited Lyot coronagraphs by using our polynomial decomposition or an analogous Fourier approach.

  20. Saturn's red spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This false color image, taken on November 6, 1980 from a distance of about 8 million kilometers, shows somewhat similar, although much smaller, red spot on Saturn. False color was used to make the faint spot more visible.

  1. On the Definition of Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minghui; Wang, Guangli

    2014-12-01

    There was a groundbreaking step in the history of astronomy in 1728 when the effect of aberration was discovered by James Bradley (1693-1762). Recently, the solar acceleration, due to the variations in the aberrational effect of extragalactic sources caused by it, has been determined from VLBI observations with an uncertainty of about 0.5 mm{\\cdot}{s^{-1}}{\\cdot}{yr^{-1}} level. As a basic concept in astrometry with a nearly 300-year history, the definition of aberration, however, is still equivocal and discordant in the literature. It has been under continuing debate whether it depends on the relative motion between the observer and the observed source or only on the motion of the observer with respect to the frame of reference. In this paper, we will review the debate and the inconsistency in the definition of the aberration since the last century, and then discuss its definition in detail, which involves the discussions on the planetary aberration, the stellar aberration, the proper motion of an object during the travel time of light from the object to the observer, and the way of selecting the reference frame to express and distinguish the motions of the source and the observer. The aberration is essentially caused by the transformation between coordinate systems, and consequently quantified by the velocity of the observer with respect to the selected reference frame, independent of the motion of the source. Obviously, this nature is totally different from that of the definition given by the IAU WG NFA (Capitaine, 2007) in 2006, which is stated as, ``the apparent angular displacement of the observed position of a celestial object from its geometric position, caused by the finite velocity of light in combination with the motions of the observer and of the observed object.''

  2. A stochastic model of tree architecture and biomass partitioning: application to Mongolian Scots pines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Kang, Mengzhen; Lu, Qi; Letort, Véronique; Han, Hui; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal species used for windbreak and sand stabilization in arid and semi-arid areas in northern China. A model-assisted analysis of its canopy architectural development and functions is valuable for better understanding its behaviour and roles in fragile ecosystems. However, due to the intrinsic complexity and variability of trees, the parametric identification of such models is currently a major obstacle to their evaluation and their validation with respect to real data. The aim of this paper was to present the mathematical framework of a stochastic functional–structural model (GL2) and its parameterization for Mongolian Scots pines, taking into account inter-plant variability in terms of topological development and biomass partitioning. Methods In GL2, plant organogenesis is determined by the realization of random variables representing the behaviour of axillary or apical buds. The associated probabilities are calibrated for Mongolian Scots pines using experimental data including means and variances of the numbers of organs per plant in each order-based class. The functional part of the model relies on the principles of source–sink regulation and is parameterized by direct observations of living trees and the inversion method using measured data for organ mass and dimensions. Key Results The final calibration accuracy satisfies both organogenetic and morphogenetic processes. Our hypothesis for the number of organs following a binomial distribution is found to be consistent with the real data. Based on the calibrated parameters, stochastic simulations of the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in plantations are generated by the Monte Carlo method, allowing analysis of the inter-individual variability of the number of organs and biomass partitioning. Three-dimensional (3D) architectures of young Mongolian Scots pines were simulated for 4-, 6- and 8-year-old trees

  3. A stochastic model of tree architecture and biomass partitioning: application to Mongolian Scots pines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Kang, Mengzhen; Lu, Qi; Letort, Véronique; Han, Hui; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2011-04-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal species used for windbreak and sand stabilization in arid and semi-arid areas in northern China. A model-assisted analysis of its canopy architectural development and functions is valuable for better understanding its behaviour and roles in fragile ecosystems. However, due to the intrinsic complexity and variability of trees, the parametric identification of such models is currently a major obstacle to their evaluation and their validation with respect to real data. The aim of this paper was to present the mathematical framework of a stochastic functional-structural model (GL2) and its parameterization for Mongolian Scots pines, taking into account inter-plant variability in terms of topological development and biomass partitioning. In GL2, plant organogenesis is determined by the realization of random variables representing the behaviour of axillary or apical buds. The associated probabilities are calibrated for Mongolian Scots pines using experimental data including means and variances of the numbers of organs per plant in each order-based class. The functional part of the model relies on the principles of source-sink regulation and is parameterized by direct observations of living trees and the inversion method using measured data for organ mass and dimensions. The final calibration accuracy satisfies both organogenetic and morphogenetic processes. Our hypothesis for the number of organs following a binomial distribution is found to be consistent with the real data. Based on the calibrated parameters, stochastic simulations of the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in plantations are generated by the Monte Carlo method, allowing analysis of the inter-individual variability of the number of organs and biomass partitioning. Three-dimensional (3D) architectures of young Mongolian Scots pines were simulated for 4-, 6- and 8-year-old trees. This work provides a new method for characterizing

  4. First stable isotope analysis of Asiatic wild ass tail hair from the Mongolian Gobi

    PubMed Central

    Horacek, Micha; Sturm, Martina Burnik; Kaczensky, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become a powerful tool to study feeding ecology, water use or movement pattern in contemporary, historic and ancient species. Certain hair and teeth grow continuously, and when sampled longitudinally can provide temporally explicit information on dietary regime and movement pattern. In an initial trial, we analysed a tail sample of an Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) from the Mongolian Gobi. We found seasonal variations in H, C and N isotope patterns, likely being the result of temporal variations in available feeds, water supply and possibly physiological status. Thus stable isotope analysis shows promise to study the comparative ecology of the three autochthonous equid species in the Mongolian Gobi. PMID:26339116

  5. The Fiber Contractility and Cytoskeleton Losses in Space are Less Pronounced in Mongolian Gerbils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipets, E. N.; Ponomareva, E. V.; Ogneva, I. V.; Vikhliantsev, I. M.; Karaduleva, E. V.; Kartashkina, N. L.; Kuznetsov, S. L.; Podlubnaia, Z. A.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2008-06-01

    This work was purposed on the comparison of space flight effects on m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior of Mongolian gerbils. The animals have been flown onboard biosatellite Foton-M3 for 12 days. Contractile properties of single skinned muscle fibers were studied. It was revealed that diameter of m. soleus skinned fibers and maximal isometric tension were decreased by 19.7% and 21.8% respectively. The Ca-sensitivity reduction wasn't significant, that was in accordance with absence of changes of titin and nebulin relative content in soleus and minor manifestations in slow-to-fast fiber ratio (9%, p<0.05). There weren't observed significant changes of the same parameters in m. tibialis anterior. Ultimately the fiber contractility and cytoskeleton losses in space are less pronounced in Mongolian gerbils than in rats.

  6. Influences of human and livestock density on winter habitat selection of Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa).

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhenhua; Liu, Bingwan; Liu, Songtao; Jiang, Zhigang; Halbrook, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Human and livestock related disturbances of habitat selection by ungulates are topics of global concern, as they have profound impacts on ungulate survival, population density, fitness, and management; however, differences in ungulate habitat use under different human and livestock densities are not fully understood. Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa), an endemic ungulate species on the Asia-European steppe, faces varying intensities of human and livestock disturbances in the area around Dalai Lake, China. To investigate how habitat selection strategies vary as disturbance intensity changes, we randomly set 20 transects containing 1486 plots, on which we conducted repeated surveys of 21 ecological factors during the winters in the period of 2005-2008. We aimed to: 1) determine the critical factors underlying habitat selection of the gazelles; 2) determine the gazelles' habitat preferences in this area; 3) determine how habitat selection varies with disturbance intensity and explore the primary underlying mechanism. We used binary-logistic regressions and information theoretic approaches to build best-fit habitat selection models, and calculated resource selection functions. Sixty-six herds, 522 individuals, and 499 tracks were recorded. Our results indicate that snow depth and aboveground biomass are the main factors affecting habitat selection by Mongolian gazelle throughout the district in winter. Thin snow cover and abundant aboveground biomass are preferred. Avoiding disturbance was the primary factor accounting for habitat selection in low disturbance areas, although with increasing human or live-stock-related disturbance, gazelle maintained a reduced distance to the source of the disturbance. Presumably owing to that shift, movement costs were more important as disturbance increased. In addition, Mongolian gazelle selected habitats based on topographical features promoting greater visibility where disturbance was lower. We suggest several management

  7. The correlation between serum amyloid A and reactive oxygen metabolites in a young Mongolian population.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Uurtuya, Shuumarjav; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with lifestyle-related diseases. Research into the pathophysiology of lifestyle-related diseases is important for Mongolian people. Our study investigated the correlation among the d-ROMs test (a measure of the total oxidant capacity of blood), serum amyloid A (SAA) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in a young Mongolian population. The data, including anthropometric and biochemical markers, were collected from 78 Mongolian volunteers (male/female = 27/ 51, mean age 21 years). The correlation between the SAA and d-ROMs levels was examined, as well as the correlation between the hs-CRP and d-ROMs levels. The SAA levels were 3.2 microg/mL (median), hs-CRP .04 mg/dL (median) and d-ROMs 309 CARR U, respectively. There was a significant and positive correlation between the SAA and d-ROMs levels (r=.40, P<.01), in addition to a significant and positive correlation between the hs-CRP and d-ROMs levels (r = .32, P < .01). These significant correlations remained independent in a multiple linear regression analysis. A subgroup analysis by sex revealed the positive correlation between the SAA and d-ROMs levels to be greater, relative to that between the hs-CRP and d-ROMs levels, particularly in the female group. The coexistence of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress can be present even in young Mongolian people, suggesting that their coexistence may be a target of early prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. In addition, not only hs-CRP, but also SAA can be used to evaluate the relationship of oxidative stress in this population. Further studies are necessary to confirm the observed relationship.

  8. The Art of Optical Aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylde, Clarissa Eileen Kenney

    Art and optics are inseparable. Though seemingly opposite disciplines, the combination of art and optics has significantly impacted both culture and science as they are now known. As history has run its course, in the sciences, arts, and their fruitful combinations, optical aberrations have proved to be a problematic hindrance to progress. In an effort to eradicate aberrations the simple beauty of these aberrational forms has been labeled as undesirable and discarded. Here, rather than approach aberrations as erroneous, these beautiful forms are elevated to be the photographic subject in a new body of work, On the Bright Side. Though many recording methods could be utilized, this work was composed on classic, medium-format, photographic film using white-light, Michelson interferometry. The resulting images are both a representation of the true light rays that interacted on the distorted mirror surfaces (data) and the artist's compositional eye for what parts of the interferogram are chosen and displayed. A detailed description of the captivating interdisciplinary procedure is documented and presented alongside the final artwork, CCD digital reference images, and deformable mirror contour maps. This alluring marriage between the arts and sciences opens up a heretofore minimally explored aspect of the inextricable art-optics connection. It additionally provides a fascinating new conversation on the importance of light and optics in photographic composition.

  9. Portrayal of tobacco in Mongolian language YouTube videos: policy gaps.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Feng-Jen; Sainbayar, Bolor

    2016-07-01

    This study examined how effectively current policy measures control depictions of tobacco in Mongolian language YouTube videos. A search of YouTube videos using the Mongolian term for 'tobacco', and employing 'relevance' and 'view count' criteria, resulted in a total sample of 120 videos, from which 38 unique videos were coded and analysed. Most videos were antismoking public service announcements; however, analyses of viewing patterns showed that pro-smoking videos accounted for about two-thirds of all views. Pro-smoking videos were also perceived more positively and had a like:dislike ratio of 4.6 compared with 3.5 and 1.5, respectively, for the magic trick and antismoking videos. Although Mongolia prohibits tobacco advertising, 3 of the pro-smoking videos were made by a tobacco company; additionally, 1 pro-smoking video promoted electronic cigarettes. Given the popularity of Mongolian YouTube videos that promote smoking, policy changes are urgently required to control this medium, and more effectively protect youth and young adults from insidious tobacco marketing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Distortion of ultrashort pulses caused by aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Z. L.; Kovács, A. P.; Bor, Zs.

    The effect of the primary wave aberrations (spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma) on ultrashort pulses is studied by the Nijboer-Zernike theory. The results of the geometrical and the wave optical treatments are compared.

  11. Reconstructive correction of aberrations in nuclear particle spectrographs

    SciTech Connect

    Berz, M.; Joh, K.; Nolen, J.A.

    A method is presented that allows the reconstruction of trajectories in particle spectrographs and the reconstructive correction of residual aberrations that otherwise limit the resolution. Using a computed or fitted high order transfer map that describes the uncorrected aberrations of the spectrograph, it is possible to calculate a map via an analytic recursion relation that allows the computation of the corrected data of interest such as reaction energy and scattering angle as well as the reconstructed trajectories in terms of position measurements in two planes near the focal plane. The technique is only limited by the accuracy of the positionmore » measurements, the incoherent spot sizes, and the accuracy of the transfer map. In practice the method can be expressed as an inversion of a nonlinear map and implemented in the differential algebraic framework. The method is applied to correct residual aberrations in the S800 spectrograph which is under construction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University and to two other high resolution spectrographs.« less

  12. Spotted Owl: Strix occidentalis

    Treesearch

    Joseph L. Ganey

    1997-01-01

    The scientific name, Strix occidentalis, translates as "owl of the west," an appropriate name for this inhabitant of western forests. The subspecies found in Arizona, the Mexican Spotted Owl, is S. o. lucida - "light" or "bright" owl of the west. This race is generally lighter in color than Spotted...

  13. Jupiter Great Red Spot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-07

    This view of Jupiter Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by NASA Galileo spacecraft. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. The image was taken on June 26, 1996. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00296

  14. The Earth's Hot Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Gregory E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hot spots are isolated areas of geologic activity where volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and upwelling currents occur far from plate boundaries. These mantle plumes are relatively stable and crustal plates drift over them. The nature and location of hot spots (with particular attention to the Hawaiian Islands and Iceland) are discussed. (DH)

  15. Comparative study on the song behavior and song control nuclei in male and female Mongolian larks (Melanocorypha mongolica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuebo; Zeng, Shaoju; Zhang, Xinwen; Zuo, Mingxue

    2011-09-12

    Songbirds can produce a remarkable diversity of songs, which is well-characterized learned behavior that reflects the basic processes of language learning in humans. As song control nuclei governing song behavior has been identified, bird song provides an excellent model to address the relationship between brain areas and their controlling behavior. The Mongolian lark (Melanocorypha mongolica), a species of the Alaudidae family, is well known for its elaborate singing and ability to learn new songs, even in adulthood. Here, we studied the singing behavior and underlying neural structures of the Mongolian lark in both sexes. We found that the sizes of song bouts and song phrases (song repertoires) in male Mongolian larks are extremely large, and that each song repertoire or phrase has a complex structure, comprising several different syllables that seldom appear in other types of song bouts. In accordance with these complex songs, Mongolian lark song control nuclei are well developed and can be easily detected by Nissl staining. In contrast to male Mongolian larks, females were not observed to sing. However, they possess significant song control nuclei with abundant neural connectivity within them despite their small sizes compared with males. These data provide new evidence that help further clarify the mechanisms by which songbirds sing. Our results also have implications for the evolution of complex birdsongs and song control nuclei in oscine birds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The consumption of more vegetables and less meat is associated with higher levels of acculturation among Mongolians in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Hwang, Jinah; Lee, Jounghee; Park, Haeryun

    2013-12-01

    Although Mongolian immigrants are a rapidly growing population in South Korea, the 2 countries have distinct diets because of climatic and geographical differences. The Mongolian diet is mostly animal-based with few vegetables and fruits, whereas the Korean diet is largely plant based. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and dietary intakes among Mongolians living in South Korea. We hypothesized that higher levels of acculturation would be associated with higher vegetable, fruit, and plant-based food intakes among Mongolian immigrants. A total of 500 Mongolian immigrants participated in this study conducted between December 2010 and May 2011. To measure the acculturation level, we developed an acculturation scale based on the Suinn-Lew Asian self-identity acculturation scale. Dietary intakes were assessed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. Associations between acculturation and dietary intakes were investigated using a general linear model adjusted for demographic characteristics. The participants were grouped into either a low-acculturation group or a high-acculturation group. The high-acculturation group reported significantly higher consumption of vegetables and rice and significantly lower consumption of meat, potatoes, and flour products compared with their low-acculturation counterparts. However, a higher level of acculturation was also significantly related to a higher intake of sodium. These findings could be used to tailor nutrition programs to different acculturation levels. 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mask-induced aberration in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Sato, Takashi; Inanami, Ryoichi; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

    2009-04-01

    We estimated aberrations using Zernike sensitivity analysis. We found the difference of the tolerated aberration with line direction for illumination. The tolerated aberration of perpendicular line for illumination is much smaller than that of parallel line. We consider this difference to be attributable to the mask 3D effect. We call it mask-induced aberration. In the case of the perpendicular line for illumination, there was a difference in CD between right line and left line without aberration. In this report, we discuss the possibility of pattern formation in NA 0.25 generation EUV lithography tool. In perpendicular pattern for EUV light, the dominant part of aberration is mask-induced aberration. In EUV lithography, pattern correction based on the mask topography effect will be more important.

  18. Myopic aberrations: Simulation based comparison of curvature and Hartmann Shack wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavaraju, Roopashree M.; Akondi, Vyas; Weddell, Stephen J.; Budihal, Raghavendra Prasad

    2014-02-01

    In comparison with a Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor, the curvature wavefront sensor is known for its higher sensitivity and greater dynamic range. The aim of this study is to numerically investigate the merits of using a curvature wavefront sensor, in comparison with a Hartmann Shack (HS) wavefront sensor, to analyze aberrations of the myopic eye. Aberrations were statistically generated using Zernike coefficient data of 41 myopic subjects obtained from the literature. The curvature sensor is relatively simple to implement, and the processing of extra- and intra-focal images was linearly resolved using the Radon transform to provide Zernike modes corresponding to statistically generated aberrations. Simulations of the HS wavefront sensor involve the evaluation of the focal spot pattern from simulated aberrations. Optical wavefronts were reconstructed using the slope geometry of Southwell. Monte Carlo simulation was used to find critical parameters for accurate wavefront sensing and to investigate the performance of HS and curvature sensors. The performance of the HS sensor is highly dependent on the number of subapertures and the curvature sensor is largely dependent on the number of Zernike modes used to represent the aberration and the effective propagation distance. It is shown that in order to achieve high wavefront sensing accuracy while measuring aberrations of the myopic eye, a simpler and cost effective curvature wavefront sensor is a reliable alternative to a high resolution HS wavefront sensor with a large number of subapertures.

  19. Influence of alignment errors of a telescope system on its aberration field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shack, R. V.; Thompson, K.

    1980-01-01

    The study of aberrations in a system is considered. It is pointed out that a system in which the elements are tilted and decentered has no axial symmetry, and in fact no symmetry at all if the tilts, and decentrations are not coplanar. It is customary in such a case to give up on an aberration-theoretic treatment and simply trace enough rays to produce a set of spot diagrams for various points in the field. However, in connection with the lack of symmetry, it is necessary to select a relatively large number of points. The considered investigation is concerned with an aberration-theoretic approach which can be applied to such systems. This approach provides insight into the field behavior of the aberrations with great economy in the calculation. It is based on a concept suggested by Buchroeder (1976). In the given case, this concept considers for the component fields corresponding to the various surfaces centers of symmetry which do not coincide. Attention is given to the procedure for locating the centers of symmetry, aberrations fields, spherical aberration, and various types of astigmatism.

  20. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  1. Apigenin has anti-atrophic gastritis and anti-gastric cancer progression effects in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Weng, Bi-Chuang; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Wu, Deng-Chang; Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-02-12

    Apigenin, one of the most common flavonoids, is abundant in celery, parsley, chamomile, passionflower, and other vegetables and fruits. Celery is recognized as a medicinal vegetable in Oriental countries to traditionally treat inflammation, swelling, blood pressure, serum lipid, and toothache. In this study, we investigated apigenin treatment effects on Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression in Mongolian gerbils. Five to eight-week-old Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with Helicobacter pylori for four weeks without (atrophic gastritis group) or with N'-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) (gastric cancer group) in drinking water, and were then rested for two weeks. During the 7th-32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 7th-52th (gastric cancer group) weeks, they were given various doses (0-60 mg/kgbw/day) of apigenin. At the end of the 32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 52th (atrophic gastritis group) week, all Mongolian gerbils were sacrificed using the CO2 asphyxia method. The histological changes of Helicobacter pylori colonization, neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations, and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils were examined using immunohistochemistry stain and Sydney System scoring. Apigenin treatments (30-60 mg/kgbw/day) effectively decreased atrophic gastritis (atrophic gastritis group) and dysplasia/gastric cancer (gastric cancer group) rates in Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin treatment (60 mg/kgbw/day) significantly decreased Helicobacter pylori colonization and Helicobacter pylori-induced histological changes of neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin has the remarkable ability to inhibit Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression as well as possessing potent anti-gastric cancer activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  2. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2013-12-01

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The fate of medical knowledge and the neurosciences during the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Brasiliense, Leonardo B C; Workman, Ryan K; Talley, Melanie C; Feiz-Erfan, Iman; Theodore, Nicholas; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2007-01-01

    In 25 years, the Mongolian army of Genghis Khan conquered more of the known world than the Roman Empire accomplished in 400 years of conquest. The recent revised view is that Genghis Khan and his descendants brought about "pax Mongolica" by securing trade routes across Eurasia. After the initial shock of destruction by an unknown barbaric tribe, almost every country conquered by the Mongols was transformed by a rise in cultural communication, expanded trade, and advances in civilization. Medicine, including techniques related to surgery and neurological surgery, became one of the many areas of life and culture that the Mongolian Empire influenced.

  4. Variability and distribution of spatial evapotranspiration in semi arid Inner Mongolian grasslands from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Schaffrath, David; Bernhofer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Grasslands in Inner Mongolia are important for livestock farming while ecosystem functioning and water consumption are dominated by evapotranspiration (ET). In this paper we studied the spatiotemporal distribution and variability of ET and its components in Inner Mongolian grasslands over a period of 10 years, from 2002 to 2011. ET was modelled pixel-wise for more than 3000 1 km(2) pixels with the physically-based hydrological model BROOK90. The model was parameterised from eddy-covariance measurements and daily input was generated from MODIS leaf area index and surface temperatures. Modelled ET was also compared with the ET provided by the MODIS MOD16 ET data. The study showed ET to be highly variable in both time and space in Inner Mongolian grasslands. The mean coefficient of variation of 8-day ET in the study area varied between 25% and 40% and was up to 75% for individual pixels indicating a high innerannual variability of ET. Generally, ET equals or exceeds P during the vegetation period, but high precipitation in 2003 clearly exceeded ET in this year indicating a recharge of soil moisture and groundwater. Despite the high interannual and innerannual variations of spatial ET, the study also showed the existence of an intrinsic long-term spatial pattern of ET distribution, which can be explained partly by altitude and longitude (R(2) = 0.49). In conclusion, the results of this research suggest the development of dynamic and productive rangeland management systems according to the inherent variability of rainfall, productivity and ET in order to restore and protect Inner Mongolian grasslands.

  5. Helicobacter suis causes severe gastric pathology in mouse and mongolian gerbil models of human gastric disease.

    PubMed

    Flahou, Bram; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; D'Herde, Katharina; Driessen, Ann; Van Deun, Kim; Smet, Annemieke; Duchateau, Luc; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard

    2010-11-22

    "Helicobacter (H.) heilmannii" type 1 is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans suffering from gastric disease. It has been shown to be identical to H. suis, a bacterium which is mainly associated with pigs. To obtain better insights into the long-term pathogenesis of infections with this micro-organism, experimental infections were carried out in different rodent models. Mongolian gerbils and mice of two strains (BALB/c and C57BL/6) were infected with H. suis and sacrificed at 3 weeks, 9 weeks and 8 months after infection. Gastric tissue samples were collected for PCR analysis, histological and ultrastructural examination. In gerbils, bacteria mainly colonized the antrum and a narrow zone in the fundus near the forestomach/stomach transition zone. In both mice strains, bacteria colonized the entire glandular stomach. Colonization with H. suis was associated with necrosis of parietal cells in all three animal strains. From 9 weeks after infection onwards, an increased proliferation rate of mucosal epithelial cells was detected in the stomach regions colonized with H. suis. Most gerbils showed a marked lymphocytic infiltration in the antrum and in the forestomach/stomach transition zone, becoming more pronounced in the course of time. At 8 months post infection, severe destruction of the normal antral architecture at the inflamed sites and development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma-like lesions were observed in some gerbils. In mice, the inflammatory response was less pronounced than in gerbils, consisting mainly of mononuclear cell infiltration and being most severe in the fundus. H. suis causes death of parietal cells, epithelial cell hyperproliferation and severe inflammation in mice and Mongolian gerbil models of human gastric disease. Moreover, MALT lymphoma-like lesions were induced in H. suis-infected Mongolian gerbils. Therefore, the possible involvement of this micro-organism in human gastric disease

  6. Patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities in temperate grasslands on the Mongolian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Hu, H.; Hao, B.; Liu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Ma, W.

    2016-12-01

    Soil microorganisms play key roles in regulating many important ecosystem processes. However, our understanding of the patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities at the regional scale remains limited. In this study, on the basis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, we investigated large-scale patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities using data from 78 sites between two depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) within three major grassland types (desert steppe, typical steppe, and meadow steppe) on the Mongolian Plateau. Our findings demonstrated that, at the regional scale, the total soil microbial biomass, fungal biomass, bacterial biomass, and actinomycete biomass in Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands were all positively associated with mean annual precipitation (MAP), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio, plant aboveground biomass (AGB), and plant species richness (SR), but negatively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), soil bulk density (BD), and soil pH in both depths, except actinomycete biomass with MAP and BD in 10-20 cm. A stepwise regression analysis revealed that soil microbial community variations in Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands were mainly explained by C : N ratio in 0-10 cm, but by SR (total soil microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and actinomycete biomass) and MAT (bacterial biomass) in 10-20 cm. Our findings strongly indicate that the dominant drivers of spatial variations in soil microbial communities between 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm in the Inner Mongolia grasslands are significantly different, with edaphic factors (e.g., C: N ratio) in 0-10 cm but climatic (e.g, MAT) and/or biotic (e.g, SR) in 10-20 cm.

  7. SPOT4 Management Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrune, Yves; Labbe, X.; Roussel, A.; Vielcanet, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the context of the CNES SPOT4 program CISI is particularly responsible for the development of the SPOT4 Management Centre, part of the SPOT4 ground control system located at CNES Toulouse (France) designed to provide simultaneous control over two satellites. The main operational activities are timed to synchronize with satellite visibilities (ten usable passes per day). The automatic capability of this system is achieved through agenda services (sequence of operations as defined and planned by operator). Therefore, the SPOT4 Management Centre offers limited, efficient and secure human interventions for supervision and decision making. This paper emphasizes the main system characteristics as degree of automation, level of dependability and system parameterization.

  8. Concerning seed spots

    Treesearch

    J. A. Larsen; R. J. Smith

    1913-01-01

    In connection with the sowing of Yellow pine, White pine and Western larch on The Blackfeet National Forest during the sea sons of 1911 and 1912, seventeen and one-half acres were sowed directly in seed spots.

  9. Mononucleosis spot test

    MedlinePlus

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  10. Lincoln's Spot Resolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1988-01-01

    Examines the events leading to and immediately following the declaration of war on Mexico in 1846. Includes the second and third pages of Abraham Lincoln's "Spot Resolutions" and presents teaching suggestions for interpreting the document and assessing public opinion. (GEA)

  11. Effects of higher order aberrations on beam shape in an optical recording system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Mark S.; Milster, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    An unexpected irradiance pattern in the detector plane of an optical data storage system was observed. Through wavefront measurement and scalar diffraction modeling, it was discovered that the energy redistribution is due to residual third-order and fifth-order spherical aberration of the objective lens and cover-plate assembly. The amount of residual aberration is small, and the beam focused on the disk would be considered diffraction limited by several criteria. Since the detector is not in the focal plane, even this small amount of aberration has a significant effect on the energy distribution. We show that the energy redistribution can adversely affect focus error signals, which are responsible for maintaining sub-micron spot diameters on the spinning disk.

  12. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  13. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating

  14. Bowling Ball Spotting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Exactatron, an accurate weighing and spotting system in bowling ball manufacture, was developed by Ebonite International engineers with the assistance of a NASA computer search which identified Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) technology. The JPL research concerned a means of determining the center of an object's mass, and an apparatus for measuring liquid viscosity, enabling Ebonite to identify the exact spotting of the drilling point for top weighting.

  15. Molecular Epidemiological Survey and Genetic Characterization of Anaplasma Species in Mongolian Livestock.

    PubMed

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that cause great economic loss to the animal industry. Few studies on Anaplasma infections in Mongolian livestock have been conducted. This study examined the prevalence of Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Anaplasma bovis by polymerase chain reaction assay in 928 blood samples collected from native cattle and dairy cattle (Bos taurus), yaks (Bos grunniens), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) in four provinces of Ulaanbaatar city in Mongolia. We genetically characterized positive samples through sequencing analysis based on the heat-shock protein groEL, major surface protein 4 (msp4), and 16S rRNA genes. Only A. ovis was detected in Mongolian livestock (cattle, yaks, sheep, and goats), with 413 animals (44.5%) positive for groEL and 308 animals (33.2%) positive for msp4 genes. In the phylogenetic tree, we separated A. ovis sequences into two distinct clusters based on the groEL gene. One cluster comprised sequences derived mainly from sheep and goats, which was similar to that in A. ovis isolates from other countries. The other divergent cluster comprised sequences derived from cattle and yaks and appeared to be newly branched from that in previously published single isolates in Mongolian cattle. In addition, the msp4 gene of A. ovis using same and different samples with groEL gene of the pathogen demonstrated that all sequences derived from all animal species, except for three sequences derived from cattle and yak, were clustered together, and were identical or similar to those in isolates from other countries. We used 16S rRNA gene sequences to investigate the genetically divergent A. ovis and identified high homology of 99.3-100%. However, the sequences derived from cattle did not match those derived from sheep and goats. The results of this study on the prevalence and molecular characterization of A. ovis in Mongolian livestock can facilitate

  16. Opiate receptor binding in the brain of the seizure sensitive Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Olsen, R W; Lomax, P; McCabe, R T; Wamsley, J K

    1984-12-01

    Opiate receptor binding was studied in seizure sensitive (SS) and seizure resistant (SR) strains of the Mongolian gerbil. Cryostat sections of the brain were labeled with [3H]-dihydromorphine, subjected to autoradiography and analysed by microdensitometry. SS gerbils, prior to seizure induction, demonstrated overall greater brain opiate binding when compared to SR animals. Immediately following a seizure, binding in the interpeduncular nucleus fell to levels found in SR animals. The increased opiate binding in the SS (pre-seizure) compared to SR gerbils could reflect a deficit of endogenous ligand which could underlie the seizure diathesis in the gerbil.

  17. Environmental effects on the ontogeny of exploratory and escape behaviors of Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Clark, M M; Galet, B G

    1982-03-01

    Mongolian gerbils reared in standard laboratory cages and gerbils reared in cages containing a burrowlike shelter did not differ in their rate of development of escape responses to sudden visual stimulation. The presence of shelter in the rearing environment did, however, markedly slow the development of adult-like patterns of exploration. Reduced exposure to illumination, experienced by shelter-reared subjects, proved responsible for this retardation of development. The effect of shelter-rearing on the development of exploratory behavior is interpreted as demonstrating an environmentally induced maintenance of an adaptive juvenile pattern of behavior.

  18. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  19. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  20. Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    High-order monochromatic aberrations could potentially influence vision-dependent refractive development in a variety of ways. As a first step in understanding the effects of wave aberration on refractive development, we characterized the maturational changes that take place in the high-order aberrations of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations of infant and adolescent animals and measured the longitudinal changes in the high-order aberrations of infant monkeys during the early period when emmetropization takes place. Our main findings were that (1) adolescent monkey eyes have excellent optical quality, exhibiting total RMS errors that were slightly better than those for adult human eyes that have the same numerical aperture and (2) shortly after birth, infant rhesus monkeys exhibited relatively larger magnitudes of high-order aberrations predominately spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil, which decreased rapidly to assume adolescent values by about 200 days of age. The results demonstrate that rhesus monkey eyes are a good model for studying the contribution of individual ocular components to the eye’s overall aberration structure, the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in optical quality that occur during early ocular development, and the effects of high-order aberrations on ocular growth and emmetropization. PMID:16750549

  1. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy significantly reduces Helicobacter pylori -induced gastric mucosal damage in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Chao; Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Lien, Gi-Shih; Lee, Yuarn-Jang; Lou, Horng-Yuan; Hsieh, Ching-Ruey; Fang, Chia-Lang; Pan, Shiann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of 4 d’ anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy on the H pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils based on physiological and pathological changes. METHODS: We used 6-wk-old male gerbils orally inoculated with H pylori (ATCC43504, 2x108 CFU/mL). Seven weeks after H pylori inoculation, the animals of study group received 4 d’ anti-H pylori triple therapy (H pylori-eradicated group). Seven days later, all animals of the H pylori-eradicated and control groups (H pylori-infected & H pylori-uninfected groups) were sacrificed. We examined gastric mucosal lesions macroscopically, studied gastritis microscopically and determined the stomach weight ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin (PG) E2 level. RESULTS: The results showed that both macroscopic and histological gastric damages were significantly less in H pylori-eradicated group than H pylori-infected group. Stomach weight ratio, MPO activity and PGE2 levels were significantly higher in H pylori-infected group than those in the other two groups. CONCLUSION: Four days’ anti-H pylori therapy was effective in the improvement of H pylori-induced gastric lesions in Mongolian gerbils. PMID:15742400

  2. Depression in Mongolian women over the first 2 months after childbirth: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pollock, J I; Manaseki-Holland, S; Patel, V

    2009-07-01

    Social, political and economic changes in Mongolia have followed post-Soviet style government policies and contributed to both increased liberalisation and reduced security in employment and family finances. This is the first study to attempt to assess the prevalence of depression in a population of Mongolian women in the post-partum period and assess risk factors, including financial position, associated with the condition. A total of 1044 women who had delivered healthy babies in Ulaanbaatar between October and December 2002 were screened for depression using the WHO Self Reporting Questionnaire between 5 and 9 weeks post-partum. Further details on the mother, her family and social and economic circumstances were simultaneously collected. Analysis of risk factors for probable depression was undertaken using multiple logistic regression techniques. The prevalence of depression was 9.1% (95% CLs 7.5%-11.1%). Variables significantly and independently associated with risk of probable maternal depression included economic factors, mother being subject to physical abuse, dissatisfied with the pregnancy, concerned about her baby's behaviour, and her own health problems. The sample was drawn from a population of mothers all of whom had healthy, full-term babies of normal birth weight. Clinical confirmation of diagnosis was not established. Mongolian women with young infants in Ulaanbaatar probably experience depression at rates comparable with other cultures. Factors associated with probable depression were dominated by health, relationships and financial position.

  3. [Effects of wind speed on drying processes of fuelbeds composed of Mongolian oak broad-leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li Bin; Sun, Ping; Jin, Sen

    2016-11-18

    Water desorption processes of fuel beds with Mongolian oak broad-leaves were observed under conditions with various wind speeds but nearly constant air temperature and humidity. The effects of wind speed on drying coefficients of fuel beds with various moisture contents were analyzed. Three phases of drying process, namely high initial moisture content (>75%) of phase 1, transition state of phase 2, and equilibrium phase III could be identified. During phase 1, water loss rate under higher wind speed was higher than that under lower wind speed. Water loss rate under higher wind speed was lower than that under lower wind speed during phase 2. During phase 3, water loss rates under different wind speeds were similar. The wind effects decreased with the decrease of fuel moisture. The drying coefficient of the Mongolian oak broad-leaves fuel beds was affected by wind speed and fuel bed compactness, and the interaction between these two factors. The coefficient increased with wind speed roughly in a monotonic cubic polynomial form.

  4. The investigation of probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Mongolian dairy products.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shiro; Yamasaki, Keiko; Takeshita, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Yukiharu; Tsend-Ayush, Chuluunbat; Dashnyam, Bumbein; Ahhmed, Abdulatef M; Kawahara, Satoshi; Muguruma, Michio

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Mongolian dairy products, and to estimate the probiotic potential of the isolated strains. We collected 66 samples of the traditional Mongolian dairy products tarag (n = 45), airag (n = 7), aaruul (n = 8), byasulag (n = 1) and eezgii (n = 5), from which 543 LAB strains were isolated and identified based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence. The predominant species of those products were Lactobacillus (L.) delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, L. helveticus, L. fermentum, L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis. However, we could not detect any LAB strains from eezgii. All LAB isolates were screened for tolerance to low pH and to bile acid, gas production from glucose, and adherence to Caco-2 cells. In vitro, we found 10 strains possess probiotic properties, and almost identified them as L. plantarum or L. paracasei subspecies, based on 16S ribosomal DNA and carbohydrate fermentation pattern. These strains were differentiated from each other individually by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Additionally, it was notable that 6/10 strains were isolated from camel milk tarag from the Dornogovi province. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Patterns of burns and scalds in Mongolian children: a hospital-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gerelmaa, Gunsmaa; Tumen-Ulzii, Badarch; Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

    2018-03-01

    To describe the circumstances of burn injury occurrence among Mongolian children and the products involved. Study participants were children aged 15 years and younger who were admitted to the Burn Unit of the National Trauma Orthopedic Research Center from August 2015 to July 2016. We collected data on participant demographics and the aetiology and clinical features of their burn injuries, and we analysed the data based on the NOMESCO Classification model. Of 906 children, 83% were aged 0-3 years, 66% were injured around the cooking area in the traditional tent-like dwelling called a ger or a detached house where no specified kitchen exists, and 28% were injured in a kitchen. Burn injuries resulted mostly from exposure to overflowing hot liquids (93%). Electric pots and electric kettles were the products most frequently involved in causing burn injuries (41% and 14%, respectively). Of 601 major burn injuries, 52% were due to electric pots. Moreover, burn injuries inflicted by electric pots were most likely to be major burn injuries (83%). Children typically fell into electric pots, while electric kettles were often pulled down by children. Burn injuries among Mongolian children mainly occurred in cooking area of a ger involving electric pots. The current practice of cooking on the floor should be reconsidered for child burn prevention. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prefer feeling bad? Subcultural differences in emotional preferences between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xinmei; Cheng, Chen; Chow, Hiu Mei; Ding, Xuechen

    2018-03-01

    As a multi-ethnic country that is comprised of diverse cultural systems, there has been little research on the subcultural differences in emotional preferences in China. Also, little attention has been paid to examine how explicit and implicit attitudes towards emotions influence emotional preferences interactively. In this study, we manipulated explicit attitudes towards emotions among Han (N = 62) and Mongolian Chinese individuals (N = 70). We assessed participants' implicit attitudes towards emotions to explore their contributions to emotional preferences. (a) Han Chinese had lower preferences for pleasant emotions than Mongolian Chinese after inducing contra-hedonic attitudes towards emotions, and (b) after priming contra-hedonic attitudes towards emotions, the more Han Chinese participants evaluated pleasant emotions as negative implicitly, the less they preferred to engage in pleasant emotional activities. These findings contribute to the growing literature of subcultural differences and demonstrate that explicit and implicit attitudes towards emotions interactively influence individuals' emotional preferences between different subculture groups. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Paternal behavior in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): Estrogenic and androgenic regulation.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ana; Ramos, Guillermo; Martínez-Torres, Martín; Nicolás, Leticia; Carmona, Agustín; Cárdenas, Mario; Luis, Juana

    2015-05-01

    Here, we analyzed the effects of testosterone (T) and its metabolites, estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), on the onset of paternal behavior in virgin male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We hypothesized that T and E2, but not DHT, would facilitate the onset of paternal behavior. Seventy males displaying aggression toward pups were selected through a paternal behavior screening test. Forty males were bilaterally castrated. Of them, 10 were implanted with T, 10 with E2, and 10 with DHT, and 10 received no treatment. Another 30 males underwent a sham procedure. In these gerbils, T, E2 and DHT were measured to obtain the basal levels of these hormones. After treatment, the paternal behavior test was conducted again. Blood samples were obtained immediately after the administration of the test for the quantification of T, E2 and DHT by radioimmunoassay. Surprisingly, 100% of the males that received T, E2 and DHT implants stopped being aggressive and became paternal. Castrated and sham-operated males displayed no changes in their aggressive behaviors. This is the first report that T and its metabolites are involved in neuroendocrine mechanisms that inhibit aggression toward pups and facilitate paternal behavior in virgin male Mongolian gerbils. In addition, this is the first report of regulation of paternal behavior in a rodent by estrogenic and androgenic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in vegetation phenology on the Mongolian Plateau and their climatic determinants.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lijuan; Müller, Daniel; Cui, Xuefeng; Ma, Meihong

    2017-01-01

    Climate change affects the timing of phenological events, such as the start, end, and length of the growing season of vegetation. A better understanding of how the phenology responded to climatic determinants is important in order to better anticipate future climate-ecosystem interactions. We examined the changes of three phenological events for the Mongolian Plateau and their climatic determinants. To do so, we derived three phenological metrics from remotely sensed vegetation indices and associated these with climate data for the period of 1982 to 2011. The results suggested that the start of the growing season advanced by 0.10 days yr-1, the end was delayed by 0.11 days yr-1, and the length of the growing season expanded by 6.3 days during the period from 1982 to 2011. The delayed end and extended length of the growing season were observed consistently in grassland, forest, and shrubland, while the earlier start was only observed in grassland. Partial correlation analysis between the phenological events and the climate variables revealed that higher temperature was associated with an earlier start of the growing season, and both temperature and precipitation contributed to the later ending. Overall, our findings suggest that climate change will substantially alter the vegetation phenology in the grasslands of the Mongolian Plateau, and likely also in biomes with similar environmental conditions, such as other semi-arid steppe regions.

  9. Environmental metabolomics reveal geographic variation in aerobic metabolism and metabolic substrates in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Shi, Yao-Long; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Liu, Wei; Fu, He-Ping; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) have a large-scale distribution in northern China. Geographic physiological variations which related to energy and water metabolism are critical to animals' local adaptation and distribution. However, the underlying biochemical mechanism of such variation and its role in adaptation remains largely unknown. We used GC-MS metabolomics approach to investigate the biochemical adaptation of Mongolian gerbils from xeric (desert), transition (desert steppe) and mesic (typical steppe) environments. Gerbils in desert population had lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) than mesic population. Serum metabolomics revealed that concentrations of five tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (citrate, cis-aconitate, α-ketoglutarate, fumarate and malate) were lower in desert population than mesic population. Gastrocnemius metabolomics and citrate synthase activity analysis showed a lower concentration of citrate and lower citrate synthase activity in desert population. These findings suggest that desert dwelling gerbils decrease RMR and TEWL via down-regulation of aerobic respiration. Gastrocnemius metabolomics also revealed that there were higher concentrations of glucose and glycolytic intermediates, but lower concentrations of lipids, amino acids and urea in desert population than mesic population. This geographic variation in metabolic substrates may enhance metabolic water production per oxygen molecule for desert population while constraining aerobic respiration to reduce RMR and TEWL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fasting suppresses T cell-mediated immunity in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Xu, De-Li; Wang, De-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Immune defense is important for organisms' survival and fitness. Small mammals in temperate zone often face seasonal food shortages. Generally fasting can suppress immune function in laboratory rodents and little information is available for wild rodents. The present study tested the hypothesis that Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) could inhibit T cell-mediated immunity to adapt to acute fasting. Forty-two females were divided into the fed and fasted groups, in which the latter was deprived of food for 3days. After 66h fasting, half of the gerbils in each group were injected with phosphate buffered saline or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) solution. T cell-mediated immunity assessed by PHA response was suppressed in the fasted gerbils compared with the fed gerbils. The fasted gerbils had lower body fat mass, wet and dry thymus mass, dry spleen mass, white blood cells, serum leptin and blood glucose concentrations, but higher corticosterone concentrations than those of the controls. Moreover, PHA response was positively correlated with body fat mass and serum leptin levels in the immunochallenged groups. Taken together, acute fasting leads to immunosuppression, which might be caused by low body fat mass and low serum leptin concentrations in female Mongolian gerbils.

  11. Glucose supplement reverses the fasting-induced suppression of cellular immunity in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Xu, De-Li; Wang, De-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Glucose plays an important role in immunity. Three day fasting will decrease cellular immunity and blood glucose levels in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that glucose supplement can reverse the fasting-induced suppression in cellular immunity in gerbils. Twenty-eight male gerbils were selected and randomly divided into fed and fasting groups. Half of the gerbils in each group were then provided with either 10% glucose water or pure water. After 66 h, each gerbil was injected with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) solution to challenge cellular immunity. Results showed that glucose supplement restored blood glucose levels in fasted gerbils to those of the fed controls. It also recovered cellular immunity, body fat mass and serum leptin levels in fasted gerbils to the values of the fed controls. Blood glucose levels were positively correlated with body fat mass, leptin levels and cellular immune responses. Thymus and spleen masses, and white blood cells in fasted gerbils were not affected by glucose supplement. In general, our data demonstrate that glucose supplement could reverse fasting-induced suppression of cellular immunity in Mongolian gerbils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Bone mass and lifestyle related factors: a comparative study between Japanese and Inner Mongolian young premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Shimmura, T; Bi, L F; Nagase, H; Nishino, H; Kajita, E; Eto, M; Wang, H B; Su, X L; Chang, H; Aratani, T; Kagamimori, S

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ethnic difference in bone mass between Japanese and Inner Mongolian young premenopausal women and to assess the contribution of lifestyle related and anthropometric factors to bone mass. We studied 33 Japanese and 44 Inner Mongolian healthy young women, aged 20-34 years, in urban area. Speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and stiffness index (SI) were measured at the calcaneus using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) analysis. Age at menarche, regularity of menstruation and lifestyle related factors were estimated by a self-reported questionnaire. There were no differences between the two groups in age, height, weight, BMI, regularity of menstruation, frequency of meat intake, frequency of yellow-green vegetable intake and exercise habit. Japanese women had significantly lower age at menarche and higher proportion of milk consumption habit at junior high school, senior school and present. Before adjustment, Japanese women had significantly higher SOS and SI than Inner Mongolian women. However, after adjustment for age at menarche and milk consumption habit at junior high school, both of which were significantly different between groups, no group-differences remained in either SOS or SI. These results suggest that the differences in age at menarche and milk consumption habit at junior high school, which relate to hormonal and nutritional status during puberty, may account for the differences in bone mass between Japanese and Inner Mongolian young women.

  13. New Method for Insomnia Mongolian Mind-Body Interactive Psychotherapy in the Assessment of Chronic Insomnia: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    He, Nagongbilige; Lan, Wu; Jiang, Aruna; Jia, Haserden; Bao, Shuzhi; Bao, Longmei; Qin, Altansha; Bao, Orgel; Bao, Shinjiltu; Wang, Nandin; Bao, Suyaltu; Dai, Shuangfu; Bao, Sarula; Arlud, Sarnai

    2018-06-19

    Insomnia is a common clinical complaint, and if not addressed it can increase the risk of developing other underlying diseases such as hypertension, depression and anxiety. The use of Mongolian mind-body interactive therapy as a comprehensive psychotherapeutic approach in chronic insomnia has been shown in this retrospective study. Subjects who had suffered insomnia for more than 1 month participated in the Mongolian mind-body interactive psychotherapy program between June 2012 and February 2014. They were interviewed by telephone at least 10 months before participating in the program. Their sleep was assessed using the Athens insomnia scale. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and regression analysis were used for data analysis by SPSS software. Mongolian mind-body interactive psychotherapy significantly improved sleeping conditions. In ANOVA analysis, both short- and long-term outcomes were significantly affected by the treatment period. Patients who previously took medication and pre-treatment sleeping condition (ASI score) had a significant influence on long-term outcomes, as well as treatment time related to the duration of insomnia. Mongolian mind-body interactive psychotherapy is a new method for insomnia, and narrative therapy and hypnotic methods together improve the sleeping condition, However, a further controlled randomized clinical study is needed to understand the efficacy.

  14. Attack pattern of Platypus koryoensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodidae) in relation to crown dieback of Mongolian oak in Korea

    Treesearch

    Jung-Su Lee; Robert A. Haack; Won Il. Choi

    2011-01-01

    The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis (Murayama), vectors the Korean oak wilt (KOW) pathogen, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae K.H. Kim, Y.J. Choi, & H.D. Shin, in Korea, which is highly lethal to Mongolian oak, Quercus mongolica Fisch., and is considered a major threat to forest ecosystem health. We...

  15. Hot spots of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, J. C.; Sinton, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    The size and temperature, morphology and distribution, variability, possible absorption features, and processes of hot spots on Io are discussed, and an estimate of the global heat flux is made. Size and temperature information is deconvolved to obtain equivalent radius and temperature of hot spots, and simultaneously obtained Voyager thermal and imaging data is used to match hot sources with specific geologic features. In addition to their thermal output, it is possible that hot spots are also characterized by production of various gases and particulate materials; the spectral signature of SO2 has been seen. Origins for relatively stable, low temperature sources, transient high temperature sources, and relatively stable, high-tmperature sources are discussed.

  16. Laser spot dynamics.

    PubMed

    Postan, A

    1987-03-01

    The dynamics of a pulsed laser spot covering an optical aperture of a receiver is analyzed. This analysis includes the influence of diffraction, jitter, atmospheric absorption and scattering, and atmospheric turbulence. A simple expression for the probability of response of the receiver illuminated by the laser spot is derived. It is found that this probability would not always increase as the laser beam divergence decreases. Moreover, this probability has an optimum (maximum) with respect to the laser beam divergence or rather with respect to the diameter of the transmitting optics.

  17. The distribution of hot spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanick, M.; Jurdy, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical analyses are compared for two published hot spot data sets, one minimal set of 42 and another larger set of 117, using three different approaches. First, the earths surface is divided into 16 equal-area fractions and the observed distribution of hot spots among them is analyzed using chi-square tests. Second, cumulative distributions about the principal axes of the hot spot inertia tensor are used to describe hot spot distribution. Finally, a hot spot density function is constructed for each of the two hot spot data sets. The methods all indicate that hot spots have a nonuniform distribution, even when statistical fluctuations are considered. To the first order, hot spots are concentrated on one half of of the earth's surface area; within that portion, the distribution is consistent with a uniform distribution. The observed hot spot densities for neither data set are explained solely by plate speed.

  18. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  19. Harmonic oscillator states in aberration optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    The states of the three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator classify optical aberrations of axis-symmetric systems due to the isomorphism between the two mathematical structures. Cartesian quanta and angular momentum classifications have their corresponding aberration classifications. The operation of concatenation of optical elements introduces a new operation between harmonic oscillator states.

  20. Effect of monochromatic aberrations on photorefractive patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Melanie C. W.; Bobier, W. R.; Roorda, A.

    1995-08-01

    Photorefractive methods have become popular in the measurement of refractive and accommodative states of infants and children owing to their photographic nature and rapid speed of measurement. As in the case of any method that measures the refractive state of the human eye, monochromatic aberrations will reduce the accuracy of the measurement. Monochromatic aberrations cannot be as easily predicted or controlled as chromatic aberrations during the measurement, and accordingly they will introduce measurement errors. This study defines this error or uncertainty by extending the existing paraxial optical analyses of coaxial and eccentric photorefraction. This new optical analysis predicts that, for the amounts of spherical aberration (SA) reported for the human eye, there will be a significant degree of measurement uncertainty introduced for all photorefractive methods. The dioptric amount of this uncertainty may exceed the maximum amount of SA present in the eye. The calculated effects on photorefractive measurement of a real eye with a mixture of spherical aberration and coma are shown to be significant. The ability, developed here, to predict photorefractive patterns corresponding to different amounts and types of monochromatic aberration may in the future lead to an extension of photorefractive methods to the dual measurement of refractive states and aberrations of individual eyes. aberration, retinal image quality,

  1. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  2. Delta spots and great flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, Harold; Liggett, Margaret A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of delta spots and the great flares they produce are reviewed based on 18 years of observations. Delta groups are found to develop in three ways: (1) by the eruption of a single complex active region formed below the surface; (2) by the eruption of large satellite spots near a large older spot; and (3) by the collision of spots of opposite polarity from different dipoles. It is shown that the present sample of 21 delta spots never separate once they lock together, and that the driving force for the shear is spot motion. Indicators for the prediction of the occurrence of great flares are identified.

  3. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan

    2017-01-01

    The tick-borne disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) can have deadly outcomes unless treated appropriately, yet nonspecific flu-like symptoms complicate diagnosis. Occupational health nurses must have a high index of suspicion with symptomatic workers and recognize that recent recreational or occupational activities with potential tick exposure may suggest RMSF.

  4. Cucumber leaf spot virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber leaf spot virus (CLSV) was originally identified from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in Germany, but has since been found in various parts of Europe, the UK, and the Middle East, including Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Bulgaria, Poland, and Spain. CLSV is known to cause symptoms ranging from chloroti...

  5. White-Spotted Sawyer

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1962-01-01

    The white-spotted sawyer (Monochamus scutellatus (Say)) is an important wood-boring insect in North America. Its range, encompasses an area from Newfoundland southward to North Carolina, westward from the Atlantic coast through the North Central States to Minnesota, and northwestward into Alaska, wherever its coniferous host, are found.

  6. Bacterial leaf spot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  7. Five millennia of frozen vegetation and fire dynamics from an ice core in the Mongolian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügger, S. O.; Gobet, E.; Sigl, M.; Osmont, D.; Papina, T.; Rudaya, N.; Schwikowski, M.; Tinner, W.

    2017-12-01

    The steppes of the Altai region in Central Asia are highly vulnerable to e.g. drought and overgrazing. Degradation during the past decades may undermine their resilience under global change conditions. Knowledge about past vegetation and fire dynamics in Mongolian Altai may contribute to a better understanding of future climate and human impact responses, however, paleo records are scarce in the area. Our novel high-alpine ice record from Tsambagarav glacier (48°39.338'N, 90°50.826'E, 4130m asl) in the Mongolian Altai provides unique paleoenvironmental informations at the landscape scale. The site is surrounded by dry steppes with scattered boreal tree stands. We assume that the site collects pollen and spores within several hundred km. The archive provides an exceptional temporal resolution with a sound chronology covering the past 5500 years (Herren et al. 2013). Microfossil analysis allows to reconstruct large-scale fire and vegetation dynamics to gain a better understanding of the timing and causes of late Holocene response variability. We use pollen as proxies for vegetation composition and structure, microscopic charcoal as a proxy for fire activity (Eichler et al. 2011), and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs or soots) as a proxy for fossil fuel combustion. Here we present the first microscopic charcoal record from Mongolia and link it to vegetation dynamics of the past. The reconstructed mid to late Holocene forest collapses likely in response to climate change underscore the vulnerability of relict forest ecosystems in the Mongolian Altai. Our multiproxy-study suggests that moisture is more important than temperature for forest preservation. The lacking resilience of vegetation to moisture changes in the past emphasizes the vulnerability of large forests in neighboring dry areas such as the Russian Altai, if global warming is associated to moisture declines as future projections forecast (IPCC; Climate Change 2013). References: Eichler et al. (2011

  8. Traditional Mongolian medicine Eerdun Wurile improves stroke recovery through regulation of gene expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gaowa, Saren; Bao, Narisi; Da, Man; Qiburi, Qiburi; Ganbold, Tsogzolmaa; Chen, Lu; Altangerel, Altanzul; Temuqile, Temuqile; Baigude, Huricha

    2018-05-16

    Eerdun Wurile (EW) is one of the key Mongolian medicines for treatment of neurological and cardiological disorders. EW is ranked most regularly used Mongolian medicine in clinic. Components of EW which mainly originate from natural products are well defined and are unique to Mongolian medicine. Although the recipe of EW contains known neuroactive chemicals originated from plants, its mechanism of action has never been elucidated at molecular level. The objective of the present study is to explore the mechanism of neuroregenerative activity of EW by focusing on the regulation of gene expression in the brain of rat model of stroke. Rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models were treated with EW for 15 days. Then, total RNAs from the cerebral cortex of rat MCAO models treated with either EW or control (saline) were extracted and analyzed by transcriptome sequencing. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed for their functions during the recovery of ischemic stroke. The expression level of significantly differentially expressed genes such as growth factors, microglia markers and secretive enzymes in the lesion was further validated by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Previously identified neuroactive compounds, such as geniposide (Yu et al., 2009), myristicin (Shin et al., 1988), costunolide (Okugawa et al., 1996), toosendanin (Shi and Chen, 1999) were detected in EW formulation. Bederson scale indicated that the treatment of rat MCAO models with EW showed significantly lowered neurological deficits (p < 0.01). The regional cerebral blood circulation was also remarkably higher in rat MCAO models treated with EW compared to the control group. A total of 186 genes were upregulated in the lesion of rat MCAO models treated with EW compared to control group. Among them, growth factors such as Igf1 (p < 0.05), Igf2 (p < 0.01), Grn (p < 0.01) were significantly upregulated in brain after treatment of rat MCAO models with EW. Meanwhile, greatly

  9. TV spots' impact.

    PubMed

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  10. [Monochromatic aberration in accommodation. Dynamic wavefront analysis].

    PubMed

    Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J

    2011-06-01

    Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement

  11. Association between HLA-A and -B polymorphisms and susceptibility to Henoch-Schönlein purpura in Han and Mongolian children from Inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Ren, S M; Yang, G L; Liu, C Z; Zhang, C X; Shou, Q H; Yu, S F; Li, W C; Su, X L

    2012-02-03

    We examined a possible association between HLA-A and -B polymorphisms and susceptibility to Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) in Han and Mongolian children in Inner Mongolia, through a case-control study. Two hundred and sixty-eight unrelated children were enrolled, including 56 Mongolian and 50 Han children with HSP, 66 healthy Mongolian and 96 healthy Han children as a control group. HLA-A and -B alleles were indentified by PCR-sequence-specific oligonucleotide analysis and were further analyzed by PCR-sequencing-based typing (SBT). Frequencies of HLA-A*11, HLA-B*15 in Mongolian patients and HLA-A*26, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*52 in Han patients were higher than those in the corresponding control group (P < 0.05), while frequencies of HLA-B*07 and -B*40 in Mongolian HSP patients were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Further analysis using PCR-SBT showed that all HLA-A*11 were HLA-A*1101, and most HLA-B*15 were HLA-B*1501 in Mongolian HSP patients. All HLA-A*26 were HLA-A*2601 and HLA-B*35 were mostly HLA-B*3503 in Han patients. There were more Han patients with severe manifestations than Mongolian patients (P < 0.05). Frequencies of HLA-A*26, HLA-B*35 and HLA-B*52 in Han patients were higher than in Mongolian patients (P < 0.05). We conclude that HLA-A*11(*1101) and -B*15(*1501) are associated with susceptibility to HSP in Mongolian children and HLA-A*26(*2601), HLA-B*35(*3503) and HLA-B*52 are associated with susceptibility to HSP in Han children. HLA-B*07 and -B*40 may be protective genes in Mongolian children. The different frequencies of HLA-A and -B in Mongolian and Han children may be responsible for the different manifestations in these two ethnic groups.

  12. Iteration of ultrasound aberration correction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maasoey, Svein-Erik; Angelsen, Bjoern; Varslot, Trond

    2004-05-01

    Aberration in ultrasound medical imaging is usually modeled by time-delay and amplitude variations concentrated on the transmitting/receiving array. This filter process is here denoted a TDA filter. The TDA filter is an approximation to the physical aberration process, which occurs over an extended part of the human body wall. Estimation of the TDA filter, and performing correction on transmit and receive, has proven difficult. It has yet to be shown that this method works adequately for severe aberration. Estimation of the TDA filter can be iterated by retransmitting a corrected signal and re-estimate until a convergence criterion is fulfilled (adaptive imaging). Two methods for estimating time-delay and amplitude variations in receive signals from random scatterers have been developed. One method correlates each element signal with a reference signal. The other method use eigenvalue decomposition of the receive cross-spectrum matrix, based upon a receive energy-maximizing criterion. Simulations of iterating aberration correction with a TDA filter have been investigated to study its convergence properties. A weak and strong human-body wall model generated aberration. Both emulated the human abdominal wall. Results after iteration improve aberration correction substantially, and both estimation methods converge, even for the case of strong aberration.

  13. The Metabolism Distribution and Effect of Thiamethoxam After Oral Exposure in Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinghuan; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Peng; Guo, Baoyuan; Li, Wei

    2018-06-20

    Systematically evaluation of the metabolism, distribution and effect of thiamethoxam in mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) were carried out after oral exposure. The HPLC equipped with Q Exactive focus was used for identification and concentration analysis of thiamethoxam and its metabolites. Percutaneous and urine excretions were the primary ways for the elimination of thiamethoxam and its metabolites, and the limiting factor was urine output. Demethylation thiamethoxam and clothianidin were the main metabolites of thiamethoxam in lizard. The CYP3A4, CYP3A7 and CYP2C9 played a crucial role in the metabolism process. Aldehyde oxidase only dominated the nitro-reduction process of demethylation thiamethoxam and clothianidin. Glutathione S-transferase might be related to the clearance process of thiamethoxam and its metabolites. The findings indicated that thiamethoxam might pose potential carcinogenic and hepatic injury risk to lizards. The results enrich and supplement the knowledge of the environmental fate of thiamethoxam in reptiles.

  14. Food webs in Mongolian grasslands: the analysis of 13C and 15N natural abundances.

    PubMed

    Kohzu, Ayato; Iwata, T; Kato, M; Nishikawa, J; Wada, Eitaro; Amartuvshin, N; Namkhaidorj, B; Fujita, N

    2009-09-01

    Overgrazing often lowers species richness and productivity of grassland communities. For Mongolian grassland ecosystems, a lack of detailed information about food-web structures makes it difficult to predict the effects of overgrazing on species diversity and community composition. We analysed the delta13C and delta15N signatures of herbaceous plants, arthropods (grouped by feeding habit), wild and domestic mammals, and humans in central Mongolia to understand the predominant food-web pathways in this grassland ecosystem. The delta13C and delta15N values of mammals showed little variation within species, but varied considerably with slope position for arthropods. The apparent isotopic discrimination between body tissue and hair of mammals was estimated as 2.0 per thousand for delta13C and 2.1 per thousand for delta15N, which was large enough to cause overestimation of the trophic level of mammals if not taken into account when using hair samples to measure isotopic enrichment.

  15. Investigations on Rickettsia in Ticks at the Sino-Russian and Sino-Mongolian Borders, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijuan; Chen, Qian; Yang, Yu; Wang, Jiancheng; Cao, Xiaomei; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Hong; Hou, Yong; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Baoliang

    2015-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of Rickettsia in ticks at the Sino-Russian and Sino-Mongolian borders, a total of 292 ticks were collected and tested by conventional PCR assays. The prevalence of Rickettsia was 53.4%, and phylogenetic analysis showed that they belonged to R. raoultii species after alignment for the ompA, ompB, and gltA genes, respectively. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected for 14%, and no Ehrlichia, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Babesia species were found. Co-infection of two pathogens was 9.9%, and no co-infection with three or more pathogens was found. This study suggested Rickettsia was the most common pathogen in the ticks and co-infection was found. The findings might be helpful to provide advice on the prevention and control of tick-borne disease potential for tourists and residents.

  16. High-throughput sequencing for the detection of the bacterial and fungal diversity in Mongolian naturally fermented cow's milk in Russia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjun; Zheng, Yi; Kwok, Lai-Yu; Sun, Zhihong; Zhang, Jiachao; Guo, Zhuang; Hou, Qiangchuan; Menhe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping

    2015-02-22

    Traditional fermented dairy products are major components of the typical Mongolian diet since ancient times. However, almost all the previous studies on the microbial composition of traditional Mongolian fermented dairy products analyzed food samples from the Chinese Mongolian region and Mongolia but not the Russian Mongolian region. In this study, the bacterial and fungal community diversity of nineteen naturally fermented cow's milk (NFCM) samples from local Mongolian families residing in Kalmykia and Chita of Russia was investigated with pyrosequencing. Firmicutes and Ascomycota were the predominant phyla respectively for bacteria and fungi. The abundance of the bacterial phylum Acidobacteria was considerably different between the samples from the two regions. At genus level, Lactobacillus and Pichia were the predominating bacterial and fungal genera, respectively, while six bacterial genera significantly differed between the Kalmykia (enrichment of Aeromonas, Bacillus, Clostridium, Streptococcus, Vogesella) and Chita (enrichment of Lactococcus) samples. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on the bacterial or fungal composition of the Kalmykia and Chita samples revealed a different microbiota structure between the samples collected in these two locations. The redundancy analysis (RDA) identified 60 bacterial and 21 fungal OTUs as the key variables responsible for such microbiota structural difference. Our results suggest that structural differences existed in the microbiota of NFCM between Kalmykia and Chita. The difference in geographic environment may be an important factor influencing the microbial diversity of NFCM made by the Mongolians in Russia.

  17. Human Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Ecological study of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Costa Rica. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986;35:192–6. 6. Calero MC, Munez JM, Silva R. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in...J Jr, McKechnie DB, Treadwell TA, et al. Hidden mortality attributable to Rocky Mountain spotted fever : immunohistochemical detection of fatal

  18. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  19. Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, U D; Adhikari, S

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve is most commonly due to its damage by trauma. A ten-month old child presented with the history of a fall from a four-storey building. She developed traumatic third nerve palsy and eventually the clinical features of aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. The adduction of the eye improved over time. She was advised for patching for the strabismic amblyopia as well. Traumatic third nerve palsy may result in aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. In younger patients, motility of the eye in different gazes may improve over time. © NEPjOPH.

  20. Satellite observed widespread decline in Mongolian grasslands largely due to overgrazing.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Thomas; Natsagdorj, Enkhjargal; Waring, Richard H; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2014-02-01

    The Mongolian Steppe is one of the largest remaining grassland ecosystems. Recent studies have reported widespread decline of vegetation across the steppe and about 70% of this ecosystem is now considered degraded. Among the scientific community there has been an active debate about whether the observed degradation is related to climate, or over-grazing, or both. Here, we employ a new atmospheric correction and cloud screening algorithm (MAIAC) to investigate trends in satellite observed vegetation phenology. We relate these trends to changes in climate and domestic animal populations. A series of harmonic functions is fitted to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed phenological curves to quantify seasonal and inter-annual changes in vegetation. Our results show a widespread decline (of about 12% on average) in MODIS observed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) across the country but particularly in the transition zone between grassland and the Gobi desert, where recent decline was as much as 40% below the 2002 mean NDVI. While we found considerable regional differences in the causes of landscape degradation, about 80% of the decline in NDVI could be attributed to increase in livestock. Changes in precipitation were able to explain about 30% of degradation across the country as a whole but up to 50% in areas with denser vegetation cover (P < 0.05). Temperature changes, while significant, played only a minor role (r(2)  = 0.10, P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the cumulative effect of overgrazing is a primary contributor to the degradation of the Mongolian steppe and is at least partially responsible for desertification reported in previous studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Association between maternal education and malocclusion in Mongolian adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tumurkhuu, Tsasan; Fujiwara, Takeo; Komazaki, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Yoko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Inazawa, Johji; Ganburged, Ganjargal; Bazar, Amarsaikhan; Ogawa, Takuya; Moriyama, Keiji

    2016-11-01

    Malocclusion is a highly prevalent condition, affecting 20-60% of adolescents worldwide. Although its treatment is often expensive and unaffordable for disadvantaged individuals, few studies have examined the relationship between malocclusion and socioeconomic status. We investigated the prevalence of malocclusion among Mongolian adolescents and its association with maternal education in a community-based sample in Mongolia. Cross-sectional study. 2 large secondary schools with different backgrounds in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Complete dental casts of 557 randomly recruited Mongolian schoolchildren aged 11-16 years were evaluated using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need to dichotomise orthodontic treatment requirements. Exclusion criteria were the presence of orthodontic treatment history and absence of maternal educational status. Questionnaires were administered to caregivers to assess socioeconomic status. Poisson regression analysis was performed to examine the association between malocclusion and maternal educational status. The prevalence of malocclusion requiring orthodontic treatment among all adolescents was 35.2% (95% CI 31.2 to 39.2). In the unadjusted analysis, the prevalence ratio (PR) for malocclusion was higher (PR=1.46; 95% CI 0.96 to 2.20) among adolescents of mothers with a high educational background than among those of mothers with a low educational background. After adjusting for covariates, the PR remained significantly higher (PR=1.72; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.82) among adolescents of mothers with a high educational background. Other socioeconomic status variables, including family income and the educational level of the father, showed no association with malocclusion. These findings suggest that malocclusion requiring orthodontic treatment in adolescents is more prevalent among children of mothers with high levels of education. Further studies are needed to clarify the behavioural factors and environmental

  2. Association between maternal education and malocclusion in Mongolian adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tumurkhuu, Tsasan; Fujiwara, Takeo; Komazaki, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Yoko; Inazawa, Johji; Ganburged, Ganjargal; Bazar, Amarsaikhan; Ogawa, Takuya; Moriyama, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Objective Malocclusion is a highly prevalent condition, affecting 20–60% of adolescents worldwide. Although its treatment is often expensive and unaffordable for disadvantaged individuals, few studies have examined the relationship between malocclusion and socioeconomic status. We investigated the prevalence of malocclusion among Mongolian adolescents and its association with maternal education in a community-based sample in Mongolia. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings 2 large secondary schools with different backgrounds in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Participants Complete dental casts of 557 randomly recruited Mongolian schoolchildren aged 11–16 years were evaluated using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need to dichotomise orthodontic treatment requirements. Exclusion criteria were the presence of orthodontic treatment history and absence of maternal educational status. Questionnaires were administered to caregivers to assess socioeconomic status. Poisson regression analysis was performed to examine the association between malocclusion and maternal educational status. Results The prevalence of malocclusion requiring orthodontic treatment among all adolescents was 35.2% (95% CI 31.2 to 39.2). In the unadjusted analysis, the prevalence ratio (PR) for malocclusion was higher (PR=1.46; 95% CI 0.96 to 2.20) among adolescents of mothers with a high educational background than among those of mothers with a low educational background. After adjusting for covariates, the PR remained significantly higher (PR=1.72; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.82) among adolescents of mothers with a high educational background. Other socioeconomic status variables, including family income and the educational level of the father, showed no association with malocclusion. Conclusions These findings suggest that malocclusion requiring orthodontic treatment in adolescents is more prevalent among children of mothers with high levels of education. Further studies are

  3. Management applicability of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis across Mongolian rangeland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takehiro; Okubo, Satoru; Okayasu, Tomoo; Jamsran, Undarmaa; Ohkuro, Toshiya; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2009-03-01

    The current growing body of evidence for diversity-disturbance relationships suggests that the peaked pattern predicted by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) may not be the rule. Even if ecologists could quantify the diversity-disturbance relationship consistent with the IDH, the applicability of the IDH to land management has rarely been addressed. We examined two hypotheses related to the generality and management applicability of the IDH to Mongolian rangeland ecosystems: that the diversity-disturbance relationship varies as a function of landscape condition and that some intermediate scales of grazing can play an important role in terms of sustainable rangeland management through a grazing gradient approach. We quantified the landscape condition of each ecological site using an ordination technique and determined two types of landscape conditions: relatively benign and harsh environmental conditions. At the ecological sites characterized by relatively benign environmental conditions, diversity-disturbance relationships were generally consistent with the IDH, and maximum diversity was observed at some intermediate distance from the source of the grazing gradient. In contrast, the IDH was not supported at most (but not all) sites characterized by relatively harsh environmental conditions. The intermediate levels of grazing were generally located below the ecological threshold representing the points or zones at which disturbance should be limited to prevent drastic changes in ecological conditions, suggesting that there is little "conundrum" with regard to intermediate disturbance in the studied systems in terms of land management. We suggest that the landscape condition is one of the primary factors that cause inconsistencies in diversity-disturbance relationships. The ecological threshold can extend its utility in rangeland management because it also has the compatibility with the maintenance of species diversity. This study thus suggests that some

  4. Anthropogenic dust emissions due to livestock trampling in a Mongolian temperate grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munkhtsetseg, Erdenebayar; Shinoda, Masato; Ishizuka, Masahide; Mikami, Masao; Kimura, Reiji; Nikolich, George

    2017-09-01

    Mongolian grasslands are a natural dust source region and they contribute to anthropogenic dust due to the long tradition of raising livestock there. Past decades of abrupt changes in a nomadic society necessitate a study on the effects of livestock trampling on dust emissions, so that research studies may help maintain a sustainable ecosystem and well-conditioned atmospheric environment. In this study, we conducted a mini wind tunnel experiment (using a PI-SWERL® device) to measure dust emissions fluxes from trampling (at three disturbance levels of livestock density, N) and zero trampling (natural as the background level) at test areas in a Mongolian temperate grassland. Moreover, we scaled anthropogenic dust emissions to natural dust emissions as a relative consequence of livestock trampling. We found a substantial increase in dust emissions due to livestock trampling. This effect of trampling on dust emissions was persistent throughout all wind friction velocities, u* (varying from 0.44 to 0.82 m s-1). Significantly higher dust loading occurs after a certain disturbance level has been reached by the livestock trampling. Our results suggest that both friction velocity (u*) and disturbance level of livestock density (N) have an enormous combinational effect on dust emissions from the trampling test surface. This means that the effect of livestock trampling on dust emissions can be seen or revealed when wind is strong. Our results also emphasize that better management for livestock allocation coupled with strategies to prevent anthropogenic dust loads are needed. However, there are many uncertainties and assumptions to be improved on in this study.

  5. Connectivity of the Asiatic wild ass population in the Mongolian Gobi

    PubMed Central

    Kaczensky, Petra; Kuehn, Ralph; Lhagvasuren, Badamjav; Pietsch, Stephanie; Yang, Weikang; Walzer, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Long-distance migrations of wildlife have been identified as important biological phenomena, but their conservation remains a major challenge. The Mongolian Gobi is one of the last refuges for the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) and other threatened migratory mammals. Using historic and current distribution ranges, population genetics, and telemetry data we assessed the connectivity of the wild ass population in the context of natural and anthropogenic landscape features and the existing network of protected areas. In the Mongolian Gobi mean biomass production is highly correlated with human and livestock density and seems to predict wild ass occurrence at the upper level. The current wild ass distribution range largely falls into areas below the 250 gC/m2/year productivity isoline, suggesting that under the present land use more productive areas have become unavailable for wild asses. Population genetics results identified two subpopulations and delineated a genetic boundary between the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi for which the most likely explanation are the mountain ranges separating the two areas. Home ranges and locations of 19 radiomarked wild asses support the assumed restricting effects of more productive habitats and mountain ranges and additionally point towards a barrier effect of fences. Furthermore, telemetry data shows that in the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi individual wild ass rarely ventured outside of the protected areas, whereas in the southeast Gobi asses only spend a small fraction of their time within the protected area network. Conserving the continuity of the wild ass population will need a landscape level approach, also including multi-use landscapes outside of protected areas, particularly in the southeast Gobi. In the southwest Gobi, allowing for openings in the border fence to China and managing the border area as an ecological corridor would connect three large protected areas together covering over 70,000 km2 of wild ass

  6. Connectivity of the Asiatic wild ass population in the Mongolian Gobi.

    PubMed

    Kaczensky, Petra; Kuehn, Ralph; Lhagvasuren, Badamjav; Pietsch, Stephanie; Yang, Weikang; Walzer, Chris

    2011-02-01

    Long-distance migrations of wildlife have been identified as important biological phenomena, but their conservation remains a major challenge. The Mongolian Gobi is one of the last refuges for the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) and other threatened migratory mammals. Using historic and current distribution ranges, population genetics, and telemetry data we assessed the connectivity of the wild ass population in the context of natural and anthropogenic landscape features and the existing network of protected areas. In the Mongolian Gobi mean biomass production is highly correlated with human and livestock density and seems to predict wild ass occurrence at the upper level. The current wild ass distribution range largely falls into areas below the 250 gC/m(2)/year productivity isoline, suggesting that under the present land use more productive areas have become unavailable for wild asses. Population genetics results identified two subpopulations and delineated a genetic boundary between the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi for which the most likely explanation are the mountain ranges separating the two areas. Home ranges and locations of 19 radiomarked wild asses support the assumed restricting effects of more productive habitats and mountain ranges and additionally point towards a barrier effect of fences. Furthermore, telemetry data shows that in the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi individual wild ass rarely ventured outside of the protected areas, whereas in the southeast Gobi asses only spend a small fraction of their time within the protected area network. Conserving the continuity of the wild ass population will need a landscape level approach, also including multi-use landscapes outside of protected areas, particularly in the southeast Gobi. In the southwest Gobi, allowing for openings in the border fence to China and managing the border area as an ecological corridor would connect three large protected areas together covering over 70,000 km(2) of wild ass

  7. Satellite Observed Widespread Decline in Mongolian Grasslands Largely Due to Overgrazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilker, Thomas; Natsagdorj, Enkhjargal; Waring, Richard H.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    The Mongolian Steppe is one of the largest remaining grassland ecosystems. Recent studies have reported widespread decline of vegetation across the steppe and about 70 percent of this ecosystem is now considered degraded. Among the scientific community there has been an active debate about whether the observed degradation is related to climate, or overgrazing, or both. Here, we employ a new atmospheric correction and cloud screening algorithm (MAIAC) to investigate trends in satellite observed vegetation phenology. We relate these trends to changes in climate and domestic animal populations. A series of harmonic functions is fitted to MODIS observed phenological curves to quantify seasonal and inter-annual changes in vegetation. Our results show a widespread decline (of about 12 percent on average) in MODIS observed NDVI across the country but particularly in the transition zone between grassland and the Gobi desert, where recent decline was as much as 40 percent below the 2002 mean NDVI. While we found considerable regional differences in the causes of landscape degradation, about 80 percent of the decline in NDVI could be attributed to increase in livestock. Changes in precipitation were able to explain about 30 percent of degradation across the country as a whole but up to 50 percent in areas with denser vegetation cover (p0.05). Temperature changes, while significant, played only a minor role (r20.10, p0.05). Our results suggest that the cumulative effect of overgrazing is a primary contributor to the degradation of the Mongolian steppe and is at least partially responsible for desertification reported in previous studies.

  8. Global Gene Expression Profiling of Hyperkeratotic Skin Lesions from Inner Mongolians Chronically Exposed to Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    The skin is an organ that is highly sensitive to chronic arsenic exposure. Skin lesions such as hyperkeratoses (HKs), which are characterized by hyperproliferation and aberrations in terminal epidermal differentiation, are common early manifestations of arsenicosis in humans. H...

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Lacz, N L; Schwartz, R A; Kapila, R

    2006-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an unusual but important dermatological condition to identify without hesitation. The classic triad of headache, fever, and a rash that begins on the extremities and travels proximally to involve the trunk is found in a majority of patients. The cutaneous centripetal pattern is a result of cell to cell migration by the causative organism Rickettsia rickettsii. Such individuals should receive prompt antimicrobial therapy and supportive care to avoid serious and potentially fatal complications.

  10. Mongolian Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kevin C., Comp.; Grimme, Holger K., Ed.

    What Hans Christian Andersen and the Grimm brothers achieved by collecting stories from the common people that had been handed down orally from generation to generation is also achieved in this collection of folktales consisting of 45 fables and 65 tales and short stories. This publication, addressed to educators, anthropologists, and specialists…

  11. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-01-01

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management. PMID:22696623

  12. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-04-19

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B(12) injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management.

  13. Aberrations in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, Jacopo; Burke, Daniel; Booth, Martin J.

    2017-12-01

    Like all methods of super-resolution microscopy, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy can suffer from the effects of aberrations. The most important aspect of a STED microscope is that the depletion focus maintains a minimum, ideally zero, intensity point that is surrounded by a region of higher intensity. It follows that aberrations that cause a non-zero value of this minimum intensity are the most detrimental, as they inhibit fluorescence emission even at the centre of the depletion focus. We present analysis that elucidates the nature of these effects in terms of the different polarisation components at the focus for two-dimensional and three-dimensional STED resolution enhancement. It is found that only certain low-order aberration modes can affect the minimum intensity at the Gaussian focus. This has important consequences for the design of adaptive optics aberration correction systems.

  14. Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic Peri-Pacific Accretionary Evolution of the Mongolian Collage System: Insights From Geochemical and U-Pb Zircon Data From the Ordovician Sedimentary Wedge in the Mongolian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y. D.; Schulmann, K.; Kröner, A.; Sun, M.; Lexa, O.; Janoušek, V.; Buriánek, D.; Yuan, C.; Hanžl, P.

    2017-11-01

    Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic accretionary processes of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt have been evaluated so far mainly using the geology of ophiolites and/or magmatic arcs. Thus, the knowledge of the nature and evolution of associated sedimentary prisms remains fragmentary. We carried out an integrated geological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological study on a giant Ordovician metasedimentary succession of the Mongolian Altai Mountains. This succession is characterized by dominant terrigenous components mixed with volcanogenic material. It is chemically immature, compositionally analogous to graywacke, and marked by significant input of felsic to intermediate arc components, pointing to an active continental margin depositional setting. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages suggest a source dominated by products of early Paleozoic magmatism prevailing during the Cambrian-Ordovician and culminating at circa 500 Ma. We propose that the Ordovician succession forms an "Altai sedimentary wedge," the evolution of which can be linked to the geodynamics of the margins of the Mongolian Precambrian Zavhan-Baydrag blocks. This involved subduction reversal from southward subduction of a passive continental margin (Early Cambrian) to the development of the "Ikh-Mongol Magmatic Arc System" and the giant Altai sedimentary wedge above a north dipping subduction zone (Late Cambrian-Ordovician). Such a dynamic process resembles the tectonic evolution of the peri-Pacific accretionary Terra Australis Orogen. A new model reconciling the Baikalian metamorphic belt along the southern Siberian Craton with peri-Pacific Altai accretionary systems fringing the Mongolian microcontinents is proposed to explain the Cambro-Ordovician geodynamic evolution of the Mongolian collage system.

  15. Quality factor analysis for aberrated laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafary, B.; Alavynejad, M.; Kashani, F. D.

    2006-12-01

    The quality factor of laser beams has attracted considerable attention and some different approaches have been reported to treat the problem. In this paper we analyze quality factor of laser beam and compare the effect of different aberrations on beam quality by expanding pure phase term of wavefront in terms of Zernike polynomials. Also we analyze experimentally the change of beam quality for different Astigmatism aberrations, and compare theoretical results with experimentally results. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement.

  16. Corneal spherical aberration in Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayyari, Tarfah M.; Fawzy, Samah M.; Al-Saleh, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To find out the mean corneal spherical aberration and its changes with age in Saudi population. Setting AlHokama Eye Specialist Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods Three hundred (300) eyes of 185 Saudi subjects (97 men and 88 women), whose age ranged from 15 to 85 years old, with matched refractive errors, were divided into three groups according to their age, 100 for each. All the subjects were included in measuring the spherical aberration (SA) using pentacam HR (OCULUS, Germany) at the 6-mm optical zone. Results The mean corneal spherical aberration (CSA) of the fourth order (Z40) of the whole groups was 0.252 ± 0.1154 μm. Patients from 15 to 35 years old have root mean square (RMS) of CSA of 0.2068 ± 0.07151 μm, 0.2370 ± 0.08023 μm was the RMS of CSA of the patients from 35 to 50 years old, while those from 50 to 85 years old have a CSA-RMS of 0.31511 ± 0.1503 μm (P < 0.0001). A positive correlation was found between the spherical aberration (Z40) and the progress of age (r = 0.3429, P < 0.0001). The high order aberration (HOA) presented 28.1% of the total corneal aberrations. While the fourth order corneal spherical aberration constituted 57% of the HOA and 16% of the total aberration. The pupil diameter shows a negative correlation with the increase in age (P = 0.0012). Conclusion Our results showed a CSA (Z40) that is varied among the population, comparable to other studies, and significantly correlates to the progress of age. PMID:25278799

  17. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and risk factors related to hypertension among urban adults in Inner Mongolia 2014: differences between Mongolian and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoju; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wenrui; Dong, Fen; Qian, Yonggang; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Li, Yanlong; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Guangjin; Shan, Guangliang

    2016-04-01

    Han and Mongolian populations constitute approximately 96% of the population of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and the two ethnic groups have different genetic backgrounds and lifestyle. We aim to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and related risk factors of hypertension among urban adults in Inner Mongolia, with the comparison of the differences between Mongolian and Han populations in this respect. Three thousand two hundred fifty-one individuals aged 20-80 years (2326 Han and 925 Mongolian) were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from Inner Mongolia in 2014. The adjusted prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were evaluated by the Logistic regression. In addition, possible interactions were also tested. When interactions were found significant, strata-specific analysis were performed. Multivariate logistic regression was used for estimating independent associations between risk factors and hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 27.47% for Han population, 31.46% for Mongolian population. The adjusted prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 26.45, 65.43, 78.24 and 48.28% in Han, and 31.30, 68.22, 85.57 and 50.55% in Mongolian, respectively. There was no significant difference in the adjusted awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among Mongolian and Han adult residents (all P >0.05). Lower prevalence of hypertension was associated with younger age and healthy weight in both Mongolian and Han adults. Within Han adults, high education, moderate physical activity and non-alcohol drinkers were additionally associated with lower prevalence of hypertension, whereas within Mongolian adults, lower prevalence was associated with being female. Among residents with medium education level, nondrinkers had 0.60 times lower odds of having hypertension than current drinkers (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.82); among residents with high education level, nondrinkers has 0

  18. Accommodation to wavefront vergence and chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B; Li, James S; Lin, Peter L; Stark, Lawrence R

    2011-05-01

    Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In this study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less.

  19. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  20. Dust Episodes in Hong Kong (South China) and their Relationship with the Sharav and Mongolian Cyclones and Jet Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Wenig, Mark; Zhang, Zhenxi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Larko, Dave; Diehl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this paper analyses two dust episodes in Hong Kong, one occurring in March 2006 and the other on 22 March 2010. The latter is the worst dust episode on Hong Kong record. The focus is on the relationship between the dust episodes and the Sharav/Mongolian cyclones and jet streams. The 16 March 2006 episode is traceable to a continental-scale Saharan dust outbreak of 5-9 March 2006 caused by the cold front of an East Mediterranean Sharav cyclone arriving at north-west Africa on 5 March 2006. The eastward movement of the cyclone along the North African coast is clearly illustrated in the geopotential height contours. Simulations by the chemistry transport model GOCART provide a visible evidence of the transport as well as an estimate of contributions from the Sahara to the aerosol concentration levels in Hong Kong. The transport simulations suggest that the dust is injected to the polar jet north of the Caspian Sea, while it is transported eastward simultaneously by the more southerly subtropical jet. The major source of dust for Hong Kong is usually the Gobi desert. Despite the effect of remote sources, the 16 March 2006 dust episode was still mainly under the influence of the Mongolian cyclone cold fronts. In the recent episode of 22 March 2010, the influence of the Mongolian cyclone predominated as well. It appears that the concurrent influence of the Sharav and Mongolian cyclones on Hong Kong and East Asia is not a common occurrence. Besides transporting dusts from non-East Asian sources to Hong Kong and East Asia, the strong subtropical jet on 21 March 2010 (i.e. 1 day prior to the major dust episode) is believed to have strengthened an easterly monsoon surge to South China causing the transport of voluminous dusts to Taiwan and Hong Kong the following day.

  1. Development of the nasolacrimal apparatus in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), with notes on network topology and function.

    PubMed

    Rehorek, Susan J; Cunningham, Jayna; Bruening, Amanda E; Johnson, Jessica L; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P; Smith, Timothy D; Hillenius, Willem J

    2015-09-01

    The nasolacrimal apparatus (NLA) is a multicomponent functional system comprised of multiple orbital glands (up to four larger multicellular exocrine structures), a nasal chemosensory structure (vomeronasal organ: VNO), and a connecting duct (nasolacrimal duct: NLD). Although this system has been described in all tetrapod vertebrate lineages, albeit not always with all three main components present, considerably less is known about its ontogeny. The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is a common lab rodent in which the individual components of the adult NLA have been well studied, but as yet nothing is known about the ontogeny of the NLA. In this study, serial sections of 15 fetal and three adult Mongolian gerbil heads show that the development of the NLA falls into three fetal stages: inception (origin of all features), elongation (lengthening of all features), and expansion (widening of all features). No postnatal or juvenile specimens were observed in this study, but considerable growth evidently occurs before the final adult condition is reached. The development of the orbital glands and the VNO in the Mongolian gerbil is largely consistent with those in other mammals, despite a slight nomenclatural conundrum for the anterior orbital glands. However, the Mongolian gerbil NLD follows a more circuitous route than in other tetrapods, due mainly to the convoluted arrangement of the narial cartilages, the development of a pair of enlarged incisors as well as an enlarged infraorbital foramen. The impact of these associated features on the ontogeny and phylogeny of the NLA could be examined through the approach of network science. This approach allows for the incorporation of adaptations to specific lifestyles as potential explanations for the variation observed in the NLA across different tetrapod clades. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separatormore » to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were

  3. A Comparative Histopathology, Serology and Molecular Study, on Experimental Ocular Toxocariasis by Toxocara cati in Mongolian Gerbils and Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zibaei, Mohammad; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Karamian, Mehdi; Uga, Shoji; Oryan, Ahmad; Jahadi-Hosseini, Seyed Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three in-house diagnostic tests, that is, histopathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for the diagnosis after experimental infection with Toxocara cati. Twenty Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (n = 2/group). Toxocara cati infections were established in Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats by administering doses of 240 and 2500 embryonated Toxocara cati eggs by gavage, respectively. Tissue sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and observed under the light microscope. Sera and vitreous fluid collected from separate infected groups were tested against Toxocara cati antigens, for 92 days postinfection. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks, and aqueous fluids belong to the animals. The histopathology test gave negative results among the groups of animals examined between 5 and 92 days postinfection. The ELISA results showed that anti-Toxocara antibodies have risen between 7 and 61 days postinfection in sera and vitreous fluid in the animals infected, respectively. Analysis of PCR products revealed positive band (660 bp) in the orbital tissue infected Mongolian gerbils at 5 days postinfection. Of the three evaluated methods, the PCR could be recommended for scientific and laboratory diagnoses of toxocariasis in experimentally infected animals. PMID:24069585

  4. A comparative histopathology, serology and molecular study, on experimental ocular toxocariasis by Toxocara cati in Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zibaei, Mohammad; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Karamian, Mehdi; Uga, Shoji; Oryan, Ahmad; Jahadi-Hosseini, Seyed Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three in-house diagnostic tests, that is, histopathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for the diagnosis after experimental infection with Toxocara cati. Twenty Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (n = 2/group). Toxocara cati infections were established in Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats by administering doses of 240 and 2500 embryonated Toxocara cati eggs by gavage, respectively. Tissue sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and observed under the light microscope. Sera and vitreous fluid collected from separate infected groups were tested against Toxocara cati antigens, for 92 days postinfection. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks, and aqueous fluids belong to the animals. The histopathology test gave negative results among the groups of animals examined between 5 and 92 days postinfection. The ELISA results showed that anti-Toxocara antibodies have risen between 7 and 61 days postinfection in sera and vitreous fluid in the animals infected, respectively. Analysis of PCR products revealed positive band (660 bp) in the orbital tissue infected Mongolian gerbils at 5 days postinfection. Of the three evaluated methods, the PCR could be recommended for scientific and laboratory diagnoses of toxocariasis in experimentally infected animals.

  5. An inter-decadal increase in summer sea level pressure over the Mongolian region around the early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Li, Xiuzhen; Chen, Ruidan

    2018-05-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon is affected by processes in the mid-high latitudes in addition to various tropical and subtropical systems. The present study investigates the summer sea level pressure (SLP) variability over northern East Asia (NEA) and emphasizes the closed active center over the Mongolian region. It is found that the seasonal mean Mongolian SLP (MSLP) anomaly is closely connected with the variability of summertime regional synoptic extra-tropical cyclones on longer time scales. A significant inter-decadal increase in the MSLP around the early 1990s has been detected, which is accompanied by a weakening in the activity of regional extra-tropical cyclones. Recent warming over NEA may have a contribution to the inter-decadal change, which features evidently meridional inhomogeneity around 45°N. The inhomogeneous air temperature anomaly distribution results in decreased vertical wind shear, reduced atmospheric baroclinicity over the Mongolian region, and thus inactive regional cyclones and increased MSLP in the latter decade. The associated temperature anomaly distribution may be partly attributed to regional inhomogeneity in cloud and radiation anomalies, and it is further maintained by two positive feedback mechanisms associated with atmospheric internal processes: one via adiabatic heating and the other via horizontal temperature advection.

  6. Risk factors for the development of essential hypertension in a Mongolian population of China: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dalai, N; Cui, H; Yan, M; Rile, G; Li, S; Su, X

    2014-04-29

    Lifestyle, habits, diet, and genetics are all important factors associated with the prevalence of hypertension. Many association studies have been performed in the Chinese Han population, whereas data explaining the high prevalence of hypertension in the Mongolian population remain scarce. In the present study, we aimed to determine the factors associated with the development of essential hypertension in Mongolians. A total of 194 hypertensive cases and 201 controls from Dongwu County were enrolled in the study. Demographics, anthropometric and blood biochemical parameters, food intake, lifestyle, habits, education, occupation, and family history were recorded for each subject. Genotype and allele frequencies of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the kallikrein 1 (KLK1) gene were also examined. Mean body mass index, waistline, hipline, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels were all significantly higher in the hypertensive group (P<0.01). Hypertensives consumed less milk, vegetables, and fruits, and had higher cigarette, alcohol, and salt intake (P<0.05). There were also less regular physical exercisers and manual workers among the hypertensive group (P<0.05). The mean inheritance rank of the hypertensive group was higher than that of controls (P<0.05). There were no differences in the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of the six SNPs between the hypertensive and control groups (P>0.05). These results suggest that dietary history and habits have the most important influence on the development of essential hypertension in the Mongolian population.

  7. Comparative analysis of gastric bacterial microbiota in Mongolian gerbils after long-term infection with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Takako; Matsuki, Takahiro; Asahara, Takashi; Zaman, Cynthia; Hanawa, Tomoko; Yonezawa, Hideo; Kurata, Satoshi; Woo, Timothy Derg-hoong; Nomoto, Koji; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative (qt) real time PCR using 16SrDNA primers is useful for determination of the bacterial composition of the gastric microbiota in Mongolian gerbils. The aim of this study was to determine the change in the gastric microbiota after long-term infection with Helicobacter pylori. One year after inoculation with H. pylori, five gerbils were determined as H. pylori-positive and 6 gerbils H. pylori-negative by culture and real time qt PCR methods. The gastric microbiota of each group of gerbils was also compared with that of 6 gerbils uninfected with H. pylori. DNA from the Atopobium cluster, Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were detected in the gastric mucus of both infected and uninfected gerbils. In contrast, Eubacterium cylindroides group and Prevotella spp. were detected only in H. pylori-negative gerbils. The numbers of C. leptum subgroup, C. coccoides group and Bifidobacterium spp. in gastric mucus of H. pylori-negative Mongolian gerbils were significantly lower than those in non-infected gerbils. The results obtained suggest that the composition of gastric indigenous microbiota in Mongolian gerbils may be disturbed by long-term infection with H. pylori, and that these changes may in fact inhibit H. pylori infection.

  8. Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual's regulatory motivation. However, China is a multi-ethnic country and not much is known about subcultural differences in mixed emotions. The aim of this study was to examine the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and regulatory motivation played in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han ( N = 61) and Mongolian Chinese ( N = 46). Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese showed stronger associations between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions during pleasant emotional events. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation during pleasant emotional events had higher levels of mixed emotions than those who had hedonic motivation. No significant differences were found in terms of mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggest that the psychological mechanisms underlying differences in mixed emotions also require a more comprehensive understanding from a subcultural perspective.

  9. Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual’s regulatory motivation. However, China is a multi-ethnic country and not much is known about subcultural differences in mixed emotions. The aim of this study was to examine the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and regulatory motivation played in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han (N = 61) and Mongolian Chinese (N = 46). Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese showed stronger associations between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions during pleasant emotional events. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation during pleasant emotional events had higher levels of mixed emotions than those who had hedonic motivation. No significant differences were found in terms of mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggest that the psychological mechanisms underlying differences in mixed emotions also require a more comprehensive understanding from a subcultural perspective. PMID:27833582

  10. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  11. Dark Spots and Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As winter turns to spring at the south polar ice cap of Mars, the rising sun reveals dark spots and fans emerging from the cold polar night. Using visual images (left) and temperature data (right) from the Thermal Emission Imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, scientists have built a new model for the origin of the dark markings. Scientists propose the markings come from dark sand and dust strewn by high-speed jets of carbon-dioxide gas. These erupt from under a layer of carbon-dioxide ice that forms each Martian winter.

  12. Ocular aberrations with ray tracing and Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensors: Does polarization play a role?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Susana; Diaz-Santana, Luis; Llorente, Lourdes; Dainty, Chris

    2002-06-01

    Ocular aberrations were measured in 71 eyes by using two reflectometric aberrometers, employing laser ray tracing (LRT) (60 eyes) and a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (S-H) (11 eyes). In both techniques a point source is imaged on the retina (through different pupil positions in the LRT or a single position in the S-H). The aberrations are estimated by measuring the deviations of the retinal spot from the reference as the pupil is sampled (in LRT) or the deviations of a wave front as it emerges from the eye by means of a lenslet array (in the S-H). In this paper we studied the effect of different polarization configurations in the aberration measurements, including linearly polarized light and circularly polarized light in the illuminating channel and sampling light in the crossed or parallel orientations. In addition, completely depolarized light in the imaging channel was obtained from retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence. The intensity distribution of the retinal spots as a function of entry (for LRT) or exit pupil (for S-H) depends on the polarization configuration. These intensity patterns show bright corners and a dark area at the pupil center for crossed polarization, an approximately Gaussian distribution for parallel polarization and a homogeneous distribution for the autofluorescence case. However, the measured aberrations are independent of the polarization states. These results indicate that the differences in retardation across the pupil imposed by corneal birefringence do not produce significant phase delays compared with those produced by aberrations, at least within the accuracy of these techniques. In addition, differences in the recorded aerial images due to changes in polarization do not affect the aberration measurements in these reflectometric aberrometers.

  13. Little Bright Spot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-12

    A bright spot can be seen on the left side of Rhea in this image. The spot is the crater Inktomi, named for a Lakota spider spirit. Inktomi is believed to be the youngest feature on Rhea (949 miles or 1527 kilometers across). The relative youth of the feature is evident by its brightness. Material that is newly excavated from below the moon's surface and tossed across the surface by a cratering event, appears bright. But as the newly exposed surface is subjected to the harsh space environment, it darkens. This is one technique scientists use to date features on surfaces. This view looks toward the trailing hemisphere of Rhea. North on Rhea is up and rotated 21 degrees to the left. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 29, 2013. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.0 million miles (1.6 million kilometers) fro http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18300

  14. Spots on Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-02

    As Cassini closes in on Saturn, its view is growing sharper with time and now reveals new atmospheric features in the planet's southern hemisphere. Atmospheric features, such as two small, faint dark spots, visible in the planet's southern hemisphere, will become clearer in the coming months. The spots are located at 38 degrees south latitude. The spacecraft's narrow angle camera took several exposures on March 8, 2004, which have been combined to create this natural color image. The image contrast and colors have been slightly enhanced to aid visibility. Moons visible in the lower half of this image are: Mimas (398 kilometers, or 247 miles across) at left, just below the rings; Dione (1,118 kilometers, or 695 miles across) at left, below Mimas; and Enceladus (499 kilometers, 310 miles across) at right. The moons had their brightness enhanced to aid visibility. The spacecraft was then 56.4 million kilometers (35 million miles) from Saturn, or slightly more than one-third of the distance from Earth to the Sun. The image scale is approximately 338 kilometers (210 miles) per pixel. The planet is 23 percent larger in this image than it appeared in the preceding color image, taken four weeks earlier. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05385

  15. Jovian Dark Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A recently discovered black spot in Jupiter's clouds is darker than any feature ever before observed on the giant planet. The spot may be the result of a downward spiraling wind that blows away high clouds and reveals deeper, very dark cloud layers. These three panels depict the same area of Jupiter's atmosphere. A map of Jovian temperatures near 250 millibar pressure (top) panel is derived from the photopolarimeter-radiometer instrument on NASA's Galileo Jupiter orbiter. This map is compared with maps derived from images of the same area in visible light (middle panel)and thermal radiation sensitive to cloud-top temperatures (bottom panel).

    The single downward-pointing arrow in the top panel indicates the location of a warm area that corresponds to the position of a so-called 'black spot'(shown in the middle panel), a feature that is about a year old. Features this dark are rare on Jupiter. The bottom panel, sensitive to temperatures at Jupiter's cloud tops, shows this feature as a bright object, meaning that upper-level cold clouds are missing - allowing us to see deeper into Jupiter's warmer interior. The dark visible appearance of the feature than most likely represents the color of very deep clouds. The warm temperatures and cloud-free conditions imply that this feature is a region where dry upper-atmospheric gas is being forced to converge, is warmed up and then forced to descend, clearing out clouds. It is the opposite of wet, upwelling gas in areas such as Jupiter's Great Red Spot or white ovals. On the other hand, it is unlike the dry and relatively cloudless feature into which the Galileo probe descended in 1995, because that region had the same temperatures as its surroundings and did not appear nearly as dark as this new spot.

    The temperatures sampled by the photopolarimeter radiometer are near the top of Jupiter's troposphere, where wind motions control the atmosphere. The top row of arrows shows the location of temperature waves in a warm region

  16. Linear phase conjugation for atmospheric aberration compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Stappaerts, Eddy A.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric induced aberrations can seriously degrade laser performance, greatly affecting the beam that finally reaches the target. Lasers propagated over any distance in the atmosphere suffer from a significant decrease in fluence at the target due to these aberrations. This is especially so for propagation over long distances. It is due primarily to fluctuations in the atmosphere over the propagation path, and from platform motion relative to the intended aimpoint. Also, delivery of high fluence to the target typically requires low beam divergence, thus, atmospheric turbulence, platform motion, or both results in a lack of fine aimpoint control to keep the beam directed at the target. To improve both the beam quality and amount of laser energy delivered to the target, Northrop Grumman has developed the Active Tracking System (ATS); a novel linear phase conjugation aberration compensation technique. Utilizing a silicon spatial light modulator (SLM) as a dynamic wavefront reversing element, ATS undoes aberrations induced by the atmosphere, platform motion or both. ATS continually tracks the target as well as compensates for atmospheric and platform motion induced aberrations. This results in a high fidelity, near-diffraction limited beam delivered to the target.

  17. Microbial processes and factors controlling their activities in alkaline lakes of the Mongolian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namsaraev, Zorigto B.; Zaitseva, Svetlana V.; Gorlenko, Vladimir M.; Kozyreva, Ludmila P.; Namsaraev, Bair B.

    2015-11-01

    A striking feature of the Mongolian plateau is the wide range of air temperatures during a year, -30 to 30°C. High summer temperatures, atmospheric weathering and the arid climate lead to formation of numerous alkaline soda lakes that are covered by ice during 6-7 months per year. During the study period, the lakes had pH values between 8.1 to 10.4 and salinity between 1.8 and 360 g/L. According to chemical composition, the lakes belong to sodium carbonate, sodium chloride-carbonate and sodium sulfate-carbonate types. This paper presents the data on the water chemical composition, results of the determination of the rates of microbial processes in microbial mats and sediments in the lakes studied, and the results of a Principal Component Analysis of environmental variables and microbial activity data. Temperature was the most important factor that influenced both chemical composition and microbial activity. pH and salinity are also important factors for the microbial processes. Dark CO2 fixation is impacted mostly by salinity and the chemical composition of the lake water. Total photosynthesis and sulfate-reduction are impacted mostly by pH. Photosynthesis is the dominant process of primary production, but the highest rate (386 mg C/(L•d)) determined in the lakes studied were 2-3 times lower than in microbial mats of lakes located in tropical zones. This can be explained by the relatively short warm period that lasts only 3-4 months per year. The highest measured rate of dark CO2 assimilation (59.8 mg C/(L•d)) was much lower than photosynthesis. The highest rate of sulfate reduction was 60 mg S/(L•d), while that of methanogenesis was 75.6 μL CN4/(L•d) in the alkaline lakes of Mongolian plateau. The rate of organic matter consumption during sulfate reduction was 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that associated with methanogenesis.

  18. Spotting effect in microarray experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mary-Huard, Tristan; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Robin, Stéphane; Bitton, Frédérique; Cabannes, Eric; Hilson, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Background Microarray data must be normalized because they suffer from multiple biases. We have identified a source of spatial experimental variability that significantly affects data obtained with Cy3/Cy5 spotted glass arrays. It yields a periodic pattern altering both signal (Cy3/Cy5 ratio) and intensity across the array. Results Using the variogram, a geostatistical tool, we characterized the observed variability, called here the spotting effect because it most probably arises during steps in the array printing procedure. Conclusions The spotting effect is not appropriately corrected by current normalization methods, even by those addressing spatial variability. Importantly, the spotting effect may alter differential and clustering analysis. PMID:15151695

  19. [A prevalence study on mild cognitive impairment among the elderly populations of Mongolian and Han nationalities in a pastoral area of Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Hu, Riletemuer; Zhao, Shi-gang; Wang, De-sheng; Wen, Shi-rong; Niu, Guang-ming; A, Rong; Wang, Zhi-guang; Jiang, Ming-fang; Zhang, Chun-yu

    2012-04-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics and distribution of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly populations from Mongolian and Han nationalities living in the pastoral areas of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. According to the MCI clinical diagnostic criteria from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th revised edition (DSM-IV) by American Psychiatric Association, the individuals under study were at the age of 55 or over, with Mongolian or Han ethnicities and living in the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia. The crude MCI morbidity rates of Mongolian and Han of the study populations in the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China was 19.48% (1782/9146) and the standardization morbidity was 18.98%. The crude MCI morbidity rates of both Mongolian and Han ethnicities were 17.46% (the standardization morbidity was 16.99%) and 20.60% (the standardization morbidity was 19.98%), respectively. There showed a significant positive correlation between the crude morbidities and age, also significantly increasing with the latter. In the Mongolian population, the morbidity increased from 12.17% at the age 55-59 to 27.78% at 85 while in the Han population, the morbidity increased from 15.50% at the age 55-59 to 23.53% at 85. In both the populations of Mongolian and Han, there was a statistically difference found between the morbidities of MCI (χ2=13.229, P=0.000). The morbidity was higher in Hans than in the Mongolians. However, there was no statistically significant difference noticed between the morbidities of MCI in the Mongolian males and females (χ2=2.376, P=0.123). There was statistically significant difference found between the morbidities of MCI in the Han males and females, with females having higher risk than males (χ2=24.470, P=0.000). The morbidity of MCI in the elderly Mongolian and Han populations from the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China was considered to be quite high and

  20. [Tree-ring growth responses of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) to climate change in southern northeast: a case study in Qianshan Mountains].

    PubMed

    Teng, Li; Xing-Yuan, He; Zhen-Ju, Chen

    2014-07-01

    Mongolian oak is one of the most important broad-leaved tree species in forests, Northeast China. Based on the methodology of dendrochronology, the variations of tree ring radial growth of Mongolian oak in Qianshan Mountains, south of Northeast China, were analyzed. Combined with the temperature and precipitation data from meteorological stations since 1951, the relationships between standardized tree ring width chronology and main climatic factors were analyzed. In this region, the precipitation between April and July of the current year had an significant relationship with the tree ring width of Mongolian oak, and was the main factor limiting the radial growth. The extreme maximum temperature of May was also a key factor influencing the tree ring width, which had a significant on the tree ring width of Mongolian oak. The precipitation in April had a significant and stable relationship with the growth of Mongolian oak since the 1950s. The 'divergence problem' was found in the study area, which the sensitivity of tree growth to summer temperature reduced since the 1980s. The tree growth response to temperature showed a seasonal change from summer to spring.

  1. Recurrent branchial sinus tract with aberrant extension.

    PubMed

    Barret, J P

    2004-01-01

    Second branchial cysts are the commonest lesions among congenital lateral neck anomalies. Good knowledge of anatomy and embryology are necessary for proper treatment. Surgical treatment involves resection of all branchial remnants, which extend laterally in the neck, medial to the sternocleidomastoid muscle with cranial extension to the pharynx and ipsilateral tonsillar fosa. However, infections and previous surgery can distort anatomy, making the approach to branchial anomalies more difficult. We present a case of a 17-year-old patient who presented with a second branchial tract anomaly with an aberrant extension to the midline and part of the contralateral neck. Previous surgical interventions and chronic infections may have been the primary cause for this aberrant tract. All head and neck surgeons should bear in mind that aberrant presentations may exist when reoperating on chronic branchial cysts fistulas.

  2. Aberration correction for charged particle lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Eric; Zhu, Xieqing; Rouse, John A.; Liu, Haoning

    2001-12-01

    At present, the throughput of projection-type charge particle lithography systems, such as PREVAIL and SCALPEL, is limited primarily by the combined effects of field curvature in the projection lenses and Coulomb interaction in the particle beam. These are fundamental physical limitations, inherent in charged particle optics, so there seems little scope for significantly improving the design of such systems, using conventional rotationally symmetric electron lenses. This paper explores the possibility of overcoming the field aberrations of round electron lense, by using a novel aberration corrector, proposed by Professor H. Rose of University of Darmstadt, called a hexapole planator. In this scheme, a set of round lenses is first used to simultaneously correct distortion and coma. The hexapole planator is then used to correct the field curvature and astigmatism, and to create a negative spherical aberration. The size of the transfer lenses around the planator can then be adjusted to zero the residual spherical aberration. In a way, an electron optical projection system is obtained that is free of all primary geometrical aberrations. In this paper, the feasibility of this concept has been studied with a computer simulation. The simulations verify that this scheme can indeed work, for both electrostatic and magnetic projection systems. Two design studies have been carried out. The first is for an electrostatic system that could be used for ion beam lithography, and the second is for a magnetic projection system for electron beam lithography. In both cases, designs have been achieved in which all primary third-order geometrical aberrations are totally eliminated.

  3. Spherical aberrations of human astigmatic corneas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huawei; Dai, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li; Weeber, Henk A; Piers, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the average spherical aberration of human astigmatic corneas is statistically equivalent to human nonastigmatic corneas. Spherical aberrations of 445 astigmatic corneas prior to laser vision correction were retrospectively investigated to determine Zernike coefficients for central corneal areas 6 mm in diameter using CTView (Sarver and Associates). Data were divided into groups according to cylinder power (0.01 to 0.25 diopters [D], 0.26 to 0.75 D, 0.76 to 1.06 D, 1.07 to 1.53 D, 1.54 to 2.00 D, and >2.00 D) and according to age by decade. Spherical aberrations were correlated with age and astigmatic power among groups and the entire population. Statistical analyses were conducted, and P<.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean patient age was 42.6±11 years. Astigmatic corneas had an average astigmatic power of 0.78±0.58 D and mean spherical aberration was 0.25±0.13 μm for the entire population and approximately the same (0.27 μm) for individual groups, ranging from 0.23 to 0.29 μm (P>.05 for all tested groups). Mean spherical aberration of astigmatic corneas was not correlated significantly with cylinder power or age (P>.05). Spherical aberrations are similar to those of nonastigmatic corneas, permitting the use of these additional data in the design of aspheric toric intra-ocular lenses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Analysis of a delta spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Zhang, H. Q.

    2002-05-01

    delta -groups generally develop in three different ways: eruption of a single complex active region, eruption of large satellite spots near a large older spot, or collision of spots of opposite polarity from different dipoles. In this paper, we present a rare observational result in which a delta -spot forms from rapid coalescence of two opposite magnetic features in a pre-existing delta -configuration. The white-light (WL) observations of this delta -spot in active region NOAA 9077 were performed by TRACE. The time-lapse movie of the co-aligned WL images shows that the whole active region was undergoing rapid disintegration and reconstruction on 11-17 July 2000. The preceding ({p}) and following ({f}) components of the delta -spot continue to grow in size, while the active region is in the decaying phase. Their proper motions are determined as a function of time using SOHO/MDI full-disk magnetograms. A major flare (3B/X5.7) erupted in the active region on 14 July. Initially, a relative shearing motion is visible between the {p} and {f} spots on this day. About two hours before the major flare, the shearing motion suddenly stops and the velocities change significantly. The ribbons of the flare are located just outside of the delta -configuration. An interesting finding is the sign reversal of the helicity of the {f} spot also just 2 hours before the flare. The delta -spot obviously separates after the flare. Our results clearly demonstrate that helicity reversal in magnetic features of a delta -configuration is likely to destabilize the compact structure, as well as to re-organize the magnetic field configuration, and, hence, is important for the rapid disintegration of a delta -spot during major flares. A model is presented to explain why a spot can change its chirality.

  5. Research on the compensation of laser launch optics to improve the performance of the LGS spot.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Yuning; Tian, Donghe; Zheng, Quan; Lin, Xudong; Wang, Liang; Yang, Qingyun

    2018-02-01

    To improve the beam quality of the uplink laser, a 37 channel piezo-ceramic deformable mirror was inserted into the laser launch optics to compensate the static aberrations. An interferometer was used as the calibration light source as well as the wavefront sensor to perform closed-loop correction for the moment. About 0.38λ root mean square (rms) aberrations, including the deformable mirror's initial figure error, were compensated, and the residual error was less than 0.07λ rms. Field observations with a 2 m optical telescope demonstrated that the peak intensity value of the laser guide star (LGS) spot increased from 5650 to 7658, and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) size reduced from 4.07 arcseconds to 3.52 arcseconds. With the compensation, an improved guide star spot can be obtained, which is crucial for the adaptive optics systems of ground-based large telescopes.

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2007-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a life-threatening disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, an obligately intracellular bacterium that is spread to human beings by ticks. More than a century after its first clinical description, this disease is still among the most virulent human infections identified, being potentially fatal even in previously healthy young people. The diagnosis of RMSF is based on the patient's history and a physical examination, and often presents a dilemma for clinicians because of the non-specific presentation of the disease in its early course. Early empirical treatment is essential to prevent severe complications or a fatal outcome, and treatment should be initiated even in unconfirmed cases. Because there is no vaccine available against RMSF, avoidance of tick-infested areas is still the best way to prevent the infection.

  7. Diverging climate trends in Mongolian taiga forests influence growth and regeneration of Larix sibirica

    PubMed Central

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Khishigjargal, Mookhor; Leuschner, Hanns Hubert; Leuschner, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Central and semiarid north-eastern Asia was subject to twentieth century warming far above the global average. Since forests of this region occur at their drought limit, they are particularly vulnerable to climate change. We studied the regional variations of temperature and precipitation trends and their effects on tree growth and forest regeneration in Mongolia. Tree-ring series from more than 2,300 trees of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) collected in four regions of Mongolia’s forest zone were analyzed and related to available weather data. Climate trends underlie a remarkable regional variation leading to contrasting responses of tree growth in taiga forests even within the same mountain system. Within a distance of a few hundred kilometers (140–490 km), areas with recently reduced growth and regeneration of larch alternated with regions where these parameters remained constant or even increased. Reduced productivity could be correlated with increasing summer temperatures and decreasing precipitation; improved growth conditions were found at increasing precipitation, but constant summer temperatures. An effect of increasing winter temperatures on tree-ring width or forest regeneration was not detectable. Since declines of productivity and regeneration are more widespread in the Mongolian taiga than the opposite trend, a net loss of forests is likely to occur in the future, as strong increases in temperature and regionally differing changes in precipitation are predicted for the twenty-first century. PMID:20571829

  8. Diverging climate trends in Mongolian taiga forests influence growth and regeneration of Larix sibirica.

    PubMed

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Khishigjargal, Mookhor; Leuschner, Hanns Hubert; Leuschner, Christoph

    2010-08-01

    Central and semiarid north-eastern Asia was subject to twentieth century warming far above the global average. Since forests of this region occur at their drought limit, they are particularly vulnerable to climate change. We studied the regional variations of temperature and precipitation trends and their effects on tree growth and forest regeneration in Mongolia. Tree-ring series from more than 2,300 trees of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) collected in four regions of Mongolia's forest zone were analyzed and related to available weather data. Climate trends underlie a remarkable regional variation leading to contrasting responses of tree growth in taiga forests even within the same mountain system. Within a distance of a few hundred kilometers (140-490 km), areas with recently reduced growth and regeneration of larch alternated with regions where these parameters remained constant or even increased. Reduced productivity could be correlated with increasing summer temperatures and decreasing precipitation; improved growth conditions were found at increasing precipitation, but constant summer temperatures. An effect of increasing winter temperatures on tree-ring width or forest regeneration was not detectable. Since declines of productivity and regeneration are more widespread in the Mongolian taiga than the opposite trend, a net loss of forests is likely to occur in the future, as strong increases in temperature and regionally differing changes in precipitation are predicted for the twenty-first century.

  9. Population genetic structure of endangered Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) from the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Park, Han-Chan; Suk, Ho Young; Jeong, Eu-Jin; Park, Dae-Sik; Lee, Hang; Min, Mi-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) is a small lacertid lizard species, and its distribution range encompasses the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, China and Russia. Eremias argus is widespread, but populations on the Korean Peninsula are small and declining, provoking concerns that genetic diversity is being lost. This species is currently listed under the Protection of Wild Fauna and Flora Act in South Korea. In this study, nine novel microsatellites for E. argus were developed with a biotin-enrichment method and used to understand its population genetic structure and delineate conservation units on the Korean Peninsula. Overall, low intrapopulation genetic diversity was observed (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.463; mean H E = 0.398) from 10 populations investigated (n = 110). Two populations (among five with n≥ 10) showed an excess of heterozygosity expected under HWE relative to that expected at mutation-drift equilibrium, indicating severe reduction in population sizes. With only a few exceptions, the overall genetic differentiation among populations was substantial with the high levels of pairwise-F ST (0.006-0.746) and -R ST (0.034-0.940) values. The results of Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed that E. argus populations on the Korean Peninsula were most likely partitioned into three genetic clusters. Taken all together, such low levels of gene flow and strong genetic structuring have critical implications for the conservation of this endangered species and its management.

  10. Divergences of Two Coupled Human and Natural Systems on the Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Central to the concept of coupled natural and human (CNH) systems is that humans and nature are organized in interacting sub-systems that make a cohesive whole at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Following an overview of the challenges in implementing the CNH concept at the regional level, we used widely available measures of states in the social, economic, and ecological systems, including gross domestic product, population size, net primary productivity, and livestock and their ratios, to examine the CNH dynamics on the Mongolian Plateau during 1981-2010. Our cross-border analysis of the coupled dynamics over the past three decades demonstrated striking contrasts between Inner Mongolia (IM) and Mongolia (MG), with policies playing shifting roles on the above measures. For prioritizing future research on the CNH concept, we propose the hypothesis that while the divergence of IM and MG for 1981-2010 was largely driven by market economic reforms, the importance of socioeconomic forces relative to climate changes will gradually decrease in IM while they remain important in MG.

  11. Production of bacteriocin by Leuconostoc mesenteroides 406 isolated from Mongolian fermented mare's milk, airag.

    PubMed

    Wulijideligen; Asahina, Takayuki; Hara, Kazushi; Arakawa, Kensuke; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Taku

    2012-10-01

    The purification and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain 406 that was isolated from traditional Mongolian fermented mare's milk, airag, were carried out. Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain 406 was identified on the basis of its morphological and biochemical characteristics and carbohydrate fermentation profile and by API 50 CH kit and 16S ribosomal DNA analyses. The neutral-pH cell-free supernatant of this bacterium inhibited the growth of several lactic acid bacteria and food spoilage and pathogenic organisms, including Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum. The bacteriocin was heat-stable and not sensitive to acid and alkaline conditions, but was sensitive to several proteolytic enzymes such as pepsin, pronase E, proteinase K, trypsin, and α-chymotrypsin, but not catalase. Optimum bacteriocin production (4000 activity units/mL) was achieved when the strain was cultured at 25°C for 24-36 h in Man Rogosa Sharpe medium. The bacteriocin was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (80% saturation), dialysis (cut-off MW: 1000), and gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the bacteriocin had a molecular weight of approximately 3.3 kDa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of a bacteriocin-producing Leuconostoc strain from airag. An application to fermented milks would be desired. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Development of wide-band middle ear transmission in the Mongolian gerbil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overstreet, Edward H.; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2002-01-01

    Stapes vibrations were measured in deeply anesthetized adult and neonatal (ages: 14 to 20 days) Mongolian gerbils. In adult gerbils, the velocity magnitude of stapes responses to tones was approximately constant over the entire frequency range of measurements, 1 to 40 kHz. Response phases referred to pressure near the tympanic membrane varied approximately linearly as a function of increasing stimulus frequency, with a slope corresponding to a group delay of 30 μs. In neonatal gerbils, the sensitivity of stapes responses to tones was lower than in adults, especially at mid-frequencies (e.g., by about 15 dB at 10-20 kHz in gerbils aged 14 days). The input impedance of the adult gerbil cochlea, calculated from stapes vibrations and published measurements of pressure in scala vestibuli near the oval window [E. Olson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 3445-3463 (1998)], is principally dissipative at frequencies lower than 10 kHz. Conclusions: (a) middle-ear vibrations in adult gerbils do not limit the input to the cochlea up to at least 40 kHz, i.e., within 0.5 oct of the high-frequency cutoff of the behavioral audiogram; and (b) the results in both adult and neonatal gerbils are inconsistent with the hypothesis that mass reactance controls high-frequency ossicular vibrations and support the idea that the middle ear functions as a transmission line.

  13. Carbonic fluid inclusions in amphibolite-facies pelitic schists from Bodonch area, western Mongolian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorigtkhuu, Oyun-Erdene; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Dash, Batulzii

    We report first fluid inclusion data on amphibolite-facies pelitic schists from Bodonch area of western Mongolian Altai in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Three categories of fluid inclusions have been observed in quartz: dominant primary and secondary inclusions, and least dominant pseudosecondary inclusions. The melting temperatures of all the categories of inclusions lie in the narrow range of -57.5 °C to -56.6 °C, close to the triple point of pure CO2. Homogenization of fluids occurs into liquid phase at temperature between -33.3 °C to +19.4 °C, which convert into densities in the range of 0.78 g/cm3 to 1.09 g/cm3. The estimated CO2 isochores for primary and pseudosecondary high-density inclusions is broadly consistent with the peak metamorphic condition of the studied area (6.3-7.3 kbar at 655 °C). The results of this study, together with the primary and pseudosecondary nature of the inclusions, indicate CO2 was the dominant fluid component during the peak amphibolite-facies metamorphism of the study area. The examined quartz grains are texturally associated with biotite, kyanite and staurolite, which are regarded as high-grade minerals formed during prograde to peak metamorphism. Therefore quartz probably formed by high-grade metamorphism and the primary fluid inclusions trapped in the minerals probably preserve fluids at around peak metamorphism.

  14. Influence of shovel-shaped incisors on the dental arch crowding in Mongolian females.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yuh; Terada, Kazuto; Kageyama, Ikuo; Tsukada, Shin-ichi; Uzuka, Satoshi; Nakahara, Rizako; Nakahara, Sen

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of shovel-shaped incisors on the dental arch crowding in the samples of modern young female adult Mongolians (belonging to the Khalkha-Mogol grouping) ranged between 18.5 and 25.0 years, with a mean age of 20.7 years. Materials in this study comprised of 33 dental casts. Plaster replicas of the A.S.U. system plaques were used to facilitate standardization in scoring and classify shoveling regarding both upper central and lateral incisors. Dimensions of the dental arch namely, overjet, overbite, arch depth, arch width and irregularity index were measured. The correlation between the shovel shape of the central incisor and the lateral incisor was highly significant. Significantly relations were found between the grades of shoveling and the mesiodistal diameters of upper first molars and lower incisors. Positive correlation was admitted between the shoveling and upper arch depth anterior, and upper arch depth. It may be considered that the grades of shoveling are indirectly related with upper and/or lower anterior crowding. Although crowding is looks like an expression of disharmony between teeth and alveolar arch, it may be caused by multiple etiologic factors interacted directly and/or indirectly.

  15. Climate impact and adaptation of husbandry on the Mongolian plateau: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, L.; Cui, X.

    2015-12-01

    There has been an evolution in the treatment of regional aspects of climate and land use change: from a patchwork of case examples towards a more systematic coverage of regional issues at continental and sub-continental scales in the latest Intergovernmental panel on climate change, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. The region of Inner Asia has long been characterised by important cultural, economic, and ecological ties that transcend international borders, including a common steppe environment, a long history of mobile pastoralism, as well as comparable experiences of socialist and postsocialist transformation. In this research, we focused on the study of the Mongolian Plateau located in eastern Inner Asia, since climate change has already had large impacts on grassland and local households. We explored how the vegetation and animal husbandry responses to climate change in comparison between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia. Our central question then was: how are people in different parts of Inner Mongolia and the Republic of Mongolia are experiencing and responding to climate change across a common grassland environment as a result of the differing social, economic, political, and ecological conditions within each particular state? We believe that comparative and interdisciplinary investigation offers the best prospect for the evaluation of the differing trajectories currently being followed by each Inner Asian state, and the anticipation of the likely effects on the societies and environment of the region in the future.

  16. Spatiotemporal variations in precipitation across the Chinese Mongolian plateau over the past half century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ruizhong; Li, Fengling; Wang, Xixi; Liu, Tingxi; Du, Dandan; Bai, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Precipitation, as affected by climate change, controls the growth of steppe grasses and grassland degradation/desertification in semiarid/arid regions, including the Chinese Mongolian plateau. This study examined the spatial variability and temporal trends in precipitation across the plateau in terms of four indexes: total precipitation (P), number of rainy days (Wd), number of precipitation events (N), and average precipitation intensity (Imean). Although seldom published in the literature, this information is vital for efforts to develop adaptive measures to sustain this vulnerable pasture economy. Seven hundred time series were formulated by preprocessing the data on daily precipitation over the period 1960 to 2012 at 25 weather stations scattered across the plateau. The results indicated that although the plateau was becoming drier overall, the intensity of storm events increased markedly, as indicated by decreasing trends for P, Wd and N but an increasing trend for Imean. On average, P decreased by 0.65 mm yr- 1 over the study period, while Imean increased by 0.2 mm d- 1 yr- 1. Across the plateau, the western part was becoming wetter, while the central-eastern part was becoming drier. This spatial discrepancy in the precipitation trends was particularly obvious in the winter dry season, with Imean tending to increase more rapidly in the central-eastern than western part, especially in the spring dry season. It is expected that these trends will continue, thus further challenging the already vulnerable eco-environment of the plateau.

  17. Flavonoid C- and O-glycosides from the Mongolian medicinal plant Dianthus versicolor Fisch.

    PubMed

    Obmann, Astrid; Werner, Ingrid; Presser, Armin; Zehl, Martin; Swoboda, Zita; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Narantuya, Samdan; Kletter, Christa; Glasl, Sabine

    2011-09-27

    Eighteen flavonoids were identified from an aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor, a plant used in traditional Mongolian medicine against liver diseases. The flavonoid C- and O-glycosides isoorientin-7-O-rutinoside, isoorientin-7-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside, isovitexin-7-O-rutinoside, isovitexin-7-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside, isoscoparin-7-O-rutinoside, isoscoparin-7-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside, isoscoparin-7-O-galactoside, and isoorientin-7-O-galactoside were isolated and structurally elucidated. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic techniques including LC-UV-DAD, LC-MS(n), LC-HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by GC-MS analysis after hydrolysis. Flavonoids with such a high glycosylation pattern are rare within the genus Dianthus. Furthermore, isovitexin-7-O-glucoside (saponarin), isovitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside, apigenin-6-glucoside (isovitexin), luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, as well as the aglycons luteolin, apigenin, chrysoeriol, diosmetin, and acacetin were identified by TLC and LC-DAD-MS(n) in comparison to reference substances or literature data. The NMR data of seven structures have not been reported in the literature to date. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil Carbon Recovery of Degraded Steppe Ecosystems of the Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Togtohyn, C.; Qi, J.

    2013-12-01

    Mongolian steppe grassland systems are critical source of ecosystem services to societal groups in temperate East Asia. These systems are characterized by their arid and semiarid environments where rainfall tends to be too variable or evaporative losses reduce water availability to reliably support cropping systems or substantial forest cover. These steppe ecosystems have supported land use practices to accommodate the variable rainfall patterns, and seasonal and spatial patterns of forage production displayed by the nomadic pastoral systems practiced across Asia. These pastoral systems are dependent on grassland ecosystem services, including forage production, wool, skins, meat and dairy products, and in many systems provide critical biodiversity and land and water protection services which serve to maintain pastoral livelihoods. Precipitation variability and associated drought conditions experienced frequently in these grassland systems are key drivers of these systems. However, during the past several decades climate change and grazing and land use conversion have resulted in degradation of ecosystem services and loss of soil organic matter. Recent efforts in China and Mongolia are investigating different grazing management practices to restore soil organic matter in these degraded systems. Simulation modeling is being applied to evaluate the long-term benefits of different grazing management regimes under various climate scenarios.

  19. Gene mapping study for constitutive skin color in an isolated Mongolian population.

    PubMed

    Paik, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seungbok; Im, Sun-Wha; Ju, Young Seok; Yeon, Je Ho; Jo, Seong Jin; Eun, Hee Chul; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Jong-Il

    2012-03-31

    To elucidate the genes responsible for constitutive human skin color, we measured the extent of skin pigmentation in the buttock, representative of lifelong non-sun-exposed skin, and conducted a gene mapping study on skin color in an isolated Mongolian population composed of 344 individuals from 59 families who lived in Dashbalbar, Mongolia. The heritability of constitutive skin color was 0.82, indicating significant genetic association on this trait. Through the linkage analysis using 1,039 short tandem repeat (STR) microsatellite markers, we identified a novel genomic region regulating constitutive skin color on 11q24.2 with an logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 3.39. In addition, we also found other candidate regions on 17q23.2, 6q25.1, and 13q33.2 (LOD ≥ 2). Family-based association tests on these regions with suggestive linkage peaks revealed ten and two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the linkage regions of chromosome 11 and 17, respectively. We were able to discover four possible candidate genes that would be implicated to regulate human skin color: ETS1, UBASH3B, ASAM, and CLTC.

  20. Impaired auditory temporal selectivity in the inferior colliculus of aged Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Khouri, Leila; Lesica, Nicholas A; Grothe, Benedikt

    2011-07-06

    Aged humans show severe difficulties in temporal auditory processing tasks (e.g., speech recognition in noise, low-frequency sound localization, gap detection). A degradation of auditory function with age is also evident in experimental animals. To investigate age-related changes in temporal processing, we compared extracellular responses to temporally variable pulse trains and human speech in the inferior colliculus of young adult (3 month) and aged (3 years) Mongolian gerbils. We observed a significant decrease of selectivity to the pulse trains in neuronal responses from aged animals. This decrease in selectivity led, on the population level, to an increase in signal correlations and therefore a decrease in heterogeneity of temporal receptive fields and a decreased efficiency in encoding of speech signals. A decrease in selectivity to temporal modulations is consistent with a downregulation of the inhibitory transmitter system in aged animals. These alterations in temporal processing could underlie declines in the aging auditory system, which are unrelated to peripheral hearing loss. These declines cannot be compensated by traditional hearing aids (that rely on amplification of sound) but may rather require pharmacological treatment.

  1. Stakeholders’ perspectives towards effective climate change adaptation on the Mongolian livestock sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batbaatar, A.; Apichayakul, P.; Tantanee, S.

    2018-03-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest threats that world is facing today, and having significant deleterious effects on natural and human systems. Recent climate-induced extreme events and their impacts demand timely adaptation actions to the changing odds of their occurrence. The great phenomenon is already being felt in the Mongolian plateau, especially on the livestock sector. The sector provides the main income and livelihood for one-third of the population of about three million people. A high number of livestock is lost due to a unique phenomenon is known as a “dzud”. This paper examines the key stakeholders’ perspectives in the implementation of climate change adaptation and identifies its barriers, with a focus on the livestock sector. In order to meet the objectives, this research used a semi-structured interview with organizations related to the livestock sector and climate change. The extent of stakeholders’ perspectives might be depending on the way they share information, stakeholder engagement, and their experiences with extreme events, as well as their location and level in government. The research findings will indicate an understanding of climate change perspectives, adaptation, and level of capacity of organizations, which can be used as a guideline for organizations to develop climate change adaptation policies related to the livestock sector in Mongolia.

  2. Gene mapping study for constitutive skin color in an isolated Mongolian population

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seungbok; Im, Sun-Wha; Ju, Young Seok; Yeon, Je Ho; Jo, Seong Jin; Eun, Hee Chul; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the genes responsible for constitutive human skin color, we measured the extent of skin pigmentation in the buttock, representative of lifelong non-sun-exposed skin, and conducted a gene mapping study on skin color in an isolated Mongolian population composed of 344 individuals from 59 families who lived in Dashbalbar, Mongolia. The heritability of constitutive skin color was 0.82, indicating significant genetic association on this trait. Through the linkage analysis using 1,039 short tandem repeat (STR) microsatellite markers, we identified a novel genomic region regulating constitutive skin color on 11q24.2 with an logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 3.39. In addition, we also found other candidate regions on 17q23.2, 6q25.1, and 13q33.2 (LOD ≥ 2). Family-based association tests on these regions with suggestive linkage peaks revealed ten and two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the linkage regions of chromosome 11 and 17, respectively. We were able to discover four possible candidate genes that would be implicated to regulate human skin color: ETS1, UBASH3B, ASAM, and CLTC. PMID:22198297

  3. Leaf-trait plasticity and species vulnerability to climate change in a Mongolian steppe.

    PubMed

    Liancourt, Pierre; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Song, Daniel S; Spence, Laura A; Helliker, Brent R; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is expected to modify plant assemblages in ways that will have major consequences for ecosystem functions. How climate change will affect community composition will depend on how individual species respond, which is likely related to interspecific differences in functional traits. The extraordinary plasticity of some plant traits is typically neglected in assessing how climate change will affect different species. In the Mongolian steppe, we examined whether leaf functional traits under ambient conditions and whether plasticity in these traits under altered climate could explain climate-induced biomass responses in 12 co-occurring plant species. We experimentally created three probable climate change scenarios and used a model selection procedure to determine the set of baseline traits or plasticity values that best explained biomass response. Under all climate change scenarios, plasticity for at least one leaf trait correlated with change in species performance, while functional leaf-trait values in ambient conditions did not. We demonstrate that trait plasticity could play a critical role in vulnerability of species to a rapidly changing environment. Plasticity should be considered when examining how climate change will affect plant performance, species' niche spaces, and ecological processes that depend on plant community composition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  5. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

    2007-01-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. PMID:18214179

  6. Black-spot poison ivy.

    PubMed

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  7. Effect of aberrations in human eye on contrast sensitivity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Wang, Feng-lin; Wang, Zhao-qi

    2011-06-01

    The quantitative analysis of the effect of aberrations in human eye on vision has important clinical value in the correction of aberrations. The wave-front aberrations of human eyes were measured with the Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor and modulation transfer function (MTF) was computed from the wave-front aberrations. Contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was obtained from MTF and the retinal aerial image modulation (AIM). It is shown that the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th Zernike aberrations deteriorate contrast sensitivity function. When the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th Zernike aberrations are corrected high contrast sensitivity function can be obtained.

  8. Holographic Adaptive Laser Optics System (HALOS): Fast, Autonomous Aberration Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, G.; MacDonald, K.; Gelsinger-Austin, P.

    2013-09-01

    We present an adaptive optics system which uses a multiplexed hologram to deconvolve the phase aberrations in an input beam. This wavefront characterization is extremely fast as it is based on simple measurements of the intensity of focal spots and does not require any computations. Furthermore, the system does not require a computer in the loop and is thus much cheaper, less complex and more robust as well. A fully functional, closed-loop prototype incorporating a 32-element MEMS mirror has been constructed. The unit has a footprint no larger than a laptop but runs at a bandwidth of 100kHz over an order of magnitude faster than comparable, conventional systems occupying a significantly larger volume. Additionally, since the sensing is based on parallel, all-optical processing, the speed is independent of actuator number running at the same bandwidth for one actuator as for a million. We are developing the HALOS technology with a view towards next-generation surveillance systems for extreme adaptive optics applications. These include imaging, lidar and free-space optical communications for unmanned aerial vehicles and SSA. The small volume is ideal for UAVs, while the high speed and high resolution will be of great benefit to the ground-based observation of space-based objects.

  9. Spectral estimation for characterization of acoustic aberration.

    PubMed

    Varslot, Trond; Angelsen, Bjørn; Waag, Robert C

    2004-07-01

    Spectral estimation based on acoustic backscatter from a motionless stochastic medium is described for characterization of aberration in ultrasonic imaging. The underlying assumptions for the estimation are: The correlation length of the medium is short compared to the length of the transmitted acoustic pulse, an isoplanatic region of sufficient size exists around the focal point, and the backscatter can be modeled as an ergodic stochastic process. The motivation for this work is ultrasonic imaging with aberration correction. Measurements were performed using a two-dimensional array system with 80 x 80 transducer elements and an element pitch of 0.6 mm. The f number for the measurements was 1.2 and the center frequency was 3.0 MHz with a 53% bandwidth. Relative phase of aberration was extracted from estimated cross spectra using a robust least-mean-square-error method based on an orthogonal expansion of the phase differences of neighboring wave forms as a function of frequency. Estimates of cross-spectrum phase from measurements of random scattering through a tissue-mimicking aberrator have confidence bands approximately +/- 5 degrees wide. Both phase and magnitude are in good agreement with a reference characterization obtained from a point scatterer.

  10. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  11. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  12. Human cytomegalovirus UL76 induces chromosome aberrations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is known to induce chromosome aberrations in infected cells, which can lead to congenital abnormalities in infected fetuses. HCMV UL76 belongs to a conserved protein family from herpesviruses. Some reported roles among UL76 family members include involvement in virulence determination, lytic replication, reactivation of latent virus, modulation of gene expression, induction of apoptosis, and perturbation of cell cycle progression, as well as potential nuclease activity. Previously, we have shown that stable expression of UL76 inhibits HCMV replication in glioblastoma cells. Methods To examine chromosomal integrity and the DNA damage signal γ-H2AX in cells constitutively expressing UL76, immunofluorescent cell staining and Western blotting were performed. The comet assay was employed to assess DNA breaks in cells transiently expressing UL76. Results We report that stably transfected cells expressing UL76 developed chromosome aberrations including micronuclei and misaligned chromosomes, lagging and bridging. In mitotic cells expressing UL76, aberrant spindles were increased compared to control cells. However, cells with supernumerary centrosomes were marginally increased in UL76-expressing cells relative to control cells. We further demonstrated that UL76-expressing cells activated the DNA damage signal γ-H2AX and caused foci formation in nuclei. In addition, the number of cells with DNA breaks increased in proportion to UL76 protein levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the virus-associated protein UL76 induces DNA damage and the accumulation of chromosome aberrations. PMID:19930723

  13. Dark Spots on Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-02

    This recent image of Titan reveals more complex patterns of bright and dark regions on the surface, including a small, dark, circular feature, completely surrounded by brighter material. During the two most recent flybys of Titan, on March 31 and April 16, 2005, Cassini captured a number of images of the hemisphere of Titan that faces Saturn. The image at the left is taken from a mosaic of images obtained in March 2005 (see PIA06222) and shows the location of the more recently acquired image at the right. The new image shows intriguing details in the bright and dark patterns near an 80-kilometer-wide (50-mile) crater seen first by Cassini's synthetic aperture radar experiment during a Titan flyby in February 2005 (see PIA07368) and subsequently seen by the imaging science subsystem cameras as a dark spot (center of the image at the left). Interestingly, a smaller, roughly 20-kilometer-wide (12-mile), dark and circular feature can be seen within an irregularly-shaped, brighter ring, and is similar to the larger dark spot associated with the radar crater. However, the imaging cameras see only brightness variations, and without topographic information, the identity of this feature as an impact crater cannot be conclusively determined from this image. The visual infrared mapping spectrometer, which is sensitive to longer wavelengths where Titan's atmospheric haze is less obscuring -- observed this area simultaneously with the imaging cameras, so those data, and perhaps future observations by Cassini's radar, may help to answer the question of this feature's origin. The new image at the right consists of five images that have been added together and enhanced to bring out surface detail and to reduce noise, although some camera artifacts remain. These images were taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera using a filter sensitive to wavelengths of infrared light centered at 938 nanometers -- considered to be the imaging science subsystem's best spectral filter

  14. Assessing Plant Senescence Reflectance Index retrieved vegetation phenology and its spatiotemporal response to climate change in the Inner Mongolian Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, S.; Chen, X.; An, S.

    2016-12-01

    Other than green vegetation indices, Plant Senescence Reflectance Index (PSRI) is sensitive to carotenoids/chlorophyll ratio in plant leaves, and shows a reversed bell curve during the growing season. Up to now, performances of PSRI in monitoring vegetation phenology are still unclear. Here, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2011 to determine PSRI-derived start (SOS) and end (EOS) dates of the growing season in the Inner Mongolian Grassland, and validated the reliability of PSRI-derived SOS and EOS dates using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived SOS and EOS dates. Then, we conducted temporal and spatial correlation analyses between SOS/EOS date and climatic factors. Moreover, we revealed spatiotemporal patterns of PSRI-derived SOS and EOS dates across the entire research region at pixel scales. Results show that PSRI has similar performance with NDVI in extracting SOS and EOS dates in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. Precipitation regime is the key climate driver of interannual variation of grassland phenology, while temperature and precipitation regimes are the crucial controlling factors of spatial differentiation of grassland phenology. Thus, PSRI-derived vegetation phenology can effectively reflect land surface vegetation dynamics and its response to climate change. Moreover, significant linear trend of PSRI-derived SOS and EOS dates was detected only at small portions of pixels, which is consistent with that of greenup and brownoff dates of herbaceous plant species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. Overall, PSRI is a useful and robust metric in addition to NDVI for monitoring land surface grassland phenology.

  15. Alcohol Drinking, Dyslipidemia, and Diabetes: A Population-based Prospective Cohort Study among Inner Mongolians in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhu; Qiu, Qiao Yan; Wu, Jia Hui; Zhou, Jing Wen; Xu, Tian; Zhang, Ming Zhi; Zhang, Yong Hong; Zhang, Shao Yan

    2016-08-01

    No previous studies have evaluated the association between dyslipidemia, alcohol drinking, and diabetes in an Inner Mongolian population. We aimed to evaluate the co-effects of drinking and dyslipidemia on diabetes incidence in this population. The present study was based on 1880 participants from a population-based prospective cohort study among Inner Mongolians living in China. Participants were classified into four subgroups according to their drinking status and dyslipidemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the association between alcohol drinking, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. During the follow-up period, 203 participants were found to have developed diabetes. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the incidence of non-dyslipidemia/drinkers, dyslipidemia/non-drinkers, and dyslipidemia/drinkers in diabetic patients were 1.40 (0.82-2.37), 1.73 (1.17-2.55), and 2.31 (1.38-3.87), respectively, when compared with non-dyslipidemia/non-drinkers. The area under the ROC curve for a model containing dyslipidemia and drinking status along with conventional factors (AUC=0.746) was significantly (P=0.003) larger than the one containing only conventional factors (AUC=0.711). The present study showed that dyslipidemia was an independent risk factor for diabetes, and that drinkers with dyslipidemia had the highest risk of diabetes in the Mongolian population. These findings suggest that dyslipidemia and drinking status may be valuable in predicting diabetes incidence. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. Structured Laguerre-Gaussian beams for mitigation of spherical aberration in tightly focused regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, S.; Bouzid, O.; Fromager, M.; Hasnaoui, A.; Harfouche, A.; Cagniot, E.; Forbes, A.; Aït-Ameur, K.

    2018-04-01

    Many laser applications utilise a focused laser beam having a single-lobed intensity profile in the focal plane, ideally with the highest possible on-axis intensity. Conventionally, this is achieved with the lowest-order Laguerre-Gaussian mode (LG00), the Gaussian beam, in a tight focusing configuration. However, tight focusing often involves significant spherical aberration due to the high numerical aperture of the systems involved, thus degrading the focal quality. Here, we demonstrate that a high-order radial LG p0 mode can be tailored to meet and in some instances exceed the performance of the Gaussian. We achieve this by phase rectification of the mode using a simple binary diffractive optic. By way of example, we show that the focusing of a rectified LG50 beam is almost insensitive to a spherical aberration coefficient of over three wavelengths, in contrast with the usual Gaussian beam for which the intensity of the focal spot is reduced by a factor of two. This work paves the way towards enhanced focal spots using structured light.

  17. Saturn's Hot Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the sharpest image of Saturn's temperature emissions taken from the ground; it is a mosaic of 35 individual exposures made at the W.M. Keck I Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii on Feb. 4, 2004.

    The images to create this mosaic were taken with infrared radiation. The mosaic was taken at a wavelength near 17.65 microns and is sensitive to temperatures in Saturn's upper troposphere. The prominent hot spot at the bottom of the image is right at Saturn's south pole. The warming of the southern hemisphere was expected, as Saturn was just past southern summer solstice, but the abrupt changes in temperature with latitude were not expected. The tropospheric temperature increases toward the pole abruptly near 70 degrees latitude from 88 to 89 Kelvin (-301 to -299 degrees Fahrenheit) and then to 91 Kelvin (-296 degrees Fahrenheit) right at the pole.

    Ring particles are not at a uniform temperature everywhere in their orbit around Saturn. The ring particles are orbiting clockwise in this image. Particles are coldest just after having cooled down in Saturn's shadow (lower left). As they orbit Saturn, the particles increase in temperature up to a maximum (lower right) just before passing behind Saturn again in shadow.

    A small section of the ring image is missing because of incomplete mosaic coverage during the observing sequence.

  18. Spotting psychopaths using technology.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, Sarah; Adeli, Hojjat

    2015-01-01

    For the past three and a half decades, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the self-report Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) have been the standard measures for the diagnosis of psychopathy. Technological approaches can enhance these diagnostic methodologies. The purpose of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art review of various technological approaches for spotting psychopathy, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and other measures. Results of EEG event-related potential (ERP) experiments support the theory that impaired amygdala function may be responsible for abnormal fear processing in psychopathy, which can ultimately manifest as psychopathic traits, as outlined by the PCL-R or PPI-R. Imaging studies, in general, point to reduced fear processing capabilities in psychopathic individuals. While the human element, introduced through researcher/participant interactions, can be argued as unequivocally necessary for diagnosis, these purely objective technological approaches have proven to be useful in conjunction with the subjective interviewing and questionnaire methods for differentiating psychopaths from non-psychopaths. Furthermore, these technologies are more robust than behavioral measures, which have been shown to fail.

  19. Theoretical investigation of aberrations upon ametropic human eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.; Baker, Kevin

    2003-11-01

    The human eye aberrations are important for visual acuity and ophthalmic diagnostics and surgical procedures. Reported monochromatic aberration data of the normal 20/20 human eyes are scarce. There exist even fewer reports of the relation between ametropic conditions and aberrations. We theoretically investigate the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of human eyes for refractive errors of -10 to +10 diopters. Schematic human eye models are employed using optical design software for axial, index, and refractive types of ametropia.

  20. Aberration control in adaptive optics: a numerical study of arbitrarily deformable liquid lenses.

    PubMed

    Lima, N C; Mishra, K; Mugele, F

    2017-03-20

    By means of numerical simulations, using a computational fluid dynamics software together with an optical ray tracing analysis platform, we show that we can tune various optical aberrations by electrically manipulating the shape of liquid lenses using one hundred individually addressable electrodes. To demonstrate the flexibility of our design, we define electrode patterns based on specific Zernike modes and show that aspherical, cylindrical and decentered shapes of liquid lenses can be produced. Using different voltages, we evaluate the tuning range of spherical aberration (Z11), astigmatism (Z5 and Z6) and coma (Z7), while a hydrostatic pressure is applied to control the average curvature of a microlens with a diameter of 1mm. Upon activating all electrodes simultaneously spherical aberrations of 0.15 waves at a pressure of 30Pa can be suppressed almost completely for the highest voltages applied. For astigmatic and comatic patterns, the values of Z5, Z6 and Z7 increase monotonically with the voltage reaching values up to 0.06, 0.06 and 0.2 waves, respectively. Spot diagrams, wavefront maps and modulation transfer function are reported to quantify the optical performance of each lens. Crosstalk and independence of tunability are discussed in the context of possible applications of the approach for general wavefront shaping.

  1. The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, H S; McGadey, J; Thompson, G G; Moore, M R; Payne, A P

    1983-01-01

    The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content were examined in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). The gland consisted of tubules lined by a single layer of epithelial cells and a myoepithelial network. The tubule cells were often binucleate and possessed lipid vacuoles in the apical half of the cell, a corona of granular endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the nucleus, and cytoplasmic 'slashes'. The latter are probably derived from dense membranous couplets and may be precursors of the lipid vacuoles. Holocrine and merocrine secretion was observed. Interstitial cells included plasma cells, mast cells and (predominantly) melanocytes which render the gland black. The gland was surrounded by a collagen capsule and an outer layer of highly attenuated (possibly endothelioid) cells. Within the gland, the secretory duct was lined by a single layer of normal tubule cells. Outside the gland, the duct enlarged to form an ampulla, from which clefts led off to deep crypts. The ampulla and clefts were lined by cells with small dense apical granules and stubby microvilli; some possessed lipid vacuoles. The crypts were lined by serous cells with active Golgi regions. At the duct opening, ampullary cells became squamous and goblet cells occurred. Geometric crystalloid deposits (with a layered structure of 7.6 nm periodicity) occurred at cleft-crypt junctions. Islets of extra-glandular ductal tissue were occasionally found within the gland. Porphyrins were detectable both by chemical assay and fluorescence microscopy. There was a trend for female glands to have a higher content than males. Solid intraluminal accretions of porphyrin and/or lipid were present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:6654750

  2. Urbanization and environmental change during the economic transition on the Mongolian Plateau: Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peilei; Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet

    2016-01-01

    Driven by drastic socioeconomic changes in China and Mongolia, urbanization has become one of the most significant driving forces in the transformation of the Mongolian Plateau in the past 30 years. Using Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar as case studies, we developed a holistic approach to examine the socioeconomic and natural driving forces for urbanization and to investigate the impact on the urban environment. We used a multidisciplinary approach and relied on a variety of data sources to assess the changes of the landscape and environment of the two cities. We detected a rapid urbanization in Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar, both in terms of urban population growth and urban land expansion, from 1990 to 2010, with a much faster speed in 2000-2010. The local geo-physical conditions have constrained the spatial direction of expansion. Ulaanbaatar lagged behind Hohhot for about a decade when measured by indicators of urban population and urban land. Both cities have a degraded urban environment and a growing air pollution epidemic. While Hohhot had worse air pollution than Ulaanbaatar in the early 2000s, the gap between the two cities became smaller after 2010. The research presented here highlights the following as key determinants for urbanization and environmental change: (1) the co-evolution of urbanization, economic development, and environmental change; (2) the urbanization of transitional economies driven by the change of the economic structure, i.e., the development by both manufacturing and tertiary sectors and the change in the primary sector; and (3) the recent institutional changes and increased integration with the global economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.

  4. Policy shifts influence the functional changes of the CNH systems on the Mongolian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet; Shao, Changliang; Fan, Yi; Zhang, Yaoqi; Amarjargal, Amartuvshin; Brown, Daniel G.; Qi, Jiaguo; Han, Juanjuan; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Dong, Gang

    2015-08-01

    By applying the concept of the coupled natural and human system (CNH), we compared spatiotemporal changes in livestock (LSK), land cover, and ecosystem production to understand the relative roles that natural and social driving forces have on CNH dynamics on the Mongolia plateau. We used socioeconomic and physical data at prefecture level for Inner Mongolia and Mongolia from 1981 through 2010 to represent changes in net primary productivity (NPP), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), precipitation, annual average temperature, LSK, livestock density (LSKD), land cover change (LCC), gross domestic production (GDP), and population (POP). The ratios such as LSK:NPP, LSKD: EVI, LSKD:albedo, LSK:POP, and LSK:GDP were examined and compared between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to quantify the complex interactions. Substantial differences in LSK, POP, and economic development were found among the biomes and between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia. When various indicators for policy shifts—such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) for China, the Third Campaign to Reclaim Abandoned Agriculture Lands (ATAR-3), and the Grain for Green Program for China (GFG)—were added into our SEM, the results showed significant change in the strength of the above relationships. After China joined the WTO, the relationships in Inner Mongolia between LSKD:LCC and LSKD:NPP were immensely strengthened, whereas relationships in NPP:LCC were weakened. In Mongolia, the ATAR-3 program first appeared to be an insignificant policy, but the Collapse of the Soviet Union enhanced the correlation between LSKD:LCC, weakened the connection of LCC:NPP, and did not affect LSKD:NPP. We conclude that human influences on the Mongolian CNH system exceeded those of the biophysical changes, but that the significance varies in time and per biome, as well as between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia.

  5. Primary aberrations in focused radially polarized vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, David P.; Brown, T. G.

    2004-02-01

    We study the effect of primary aberrations on the 3-D polarization of the electric field in a focused lowest order radially polarized beam. A full vector diffraction treatment of the focused beams is used. Attention is given to the effects of primary spherical, astigmatic, and comatic aberrations on the local polarization, Strehl ratio, and aberration induced degradation of the longitudinal field at focus

  6. Aberration Compensation in Aplanatic Solid Immersion Lens Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-08

    model and ray tracing software ( Zemax ) to understand how much aberrations are in the system and how much can be compensated by the DM. Subsequently...aberration. Table 2 shows the Zemax simulation on this particular case. With aberration compensation, the finest resolvable group is at 252 nm

  7. Four spot laser anemometer and optical access techniques for turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    A time-of-flight anemometer (TOFA) system utilizing a spatial lead-lag filter for bipolar pulse generation has been constructed and tested. This system, called a four-spot laser anemometer, was specifically designed for use in high-speed, turbulent flows in the presence of walls or surfaces. The TOFA system uses elliptical spots to increase the flow acceptance angle to be comparable with that of a fringe-type anemometer. The tightly focused spots used in the four spot yield excellent flare light rejection capabilities. Good results have been obtained to 75 microns normal to a surface, with an f/2.5 collection lens. This system is being evaluated for use in a warm turbine facility. Results from both a particle-lag velocity experiment and boundary layer profiles will be discussed. In addition, an analysis of the use of curved windows in a turbine casing will be presented. Curved windows, matching the inner radius of the turbine casing, preserve the flow conditions, but introduce astigmatic aberrations. A correction optic was designed that virtually eliminates these astigmatic aberrations throughout the intrablade survey region for normal incidence.

  8. Four spot laser anemometer and optical access techniques for turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    A time-of-flight anemometer (TOFA) system, utilizing a spatial lead-lag filter for bipolar pulse generation was constructed and tested. This system, called a Four Spot Laser Anemometer, was specifically designed for use in high speed, turbulent flows in the presence of walls or surfaces. The TOFA system uses elliptical spots to increase the flow acceptance angle to be comparable with that of a fringe type anemometer. The tightly focused spots used in the Four Spot yield excellent flare light rejection capabilities. Good results were obtained to 75 microns normal to a surface, with a f/2.5 collecting lens. This system is being evaluated for use in a warm turbine facility. Results from both a particle lag velocity experiment and boundary layer profiles will be discussed. In addition, an analysis of the use of curved windows in a turbine casing will be presented. Curved windows, matching the inner radius of the turbine casing, preserve the flow conditions, but introduce astigmatic aberrations. A correction optic was designed that virtually eliminates these astigmatic aberrations throughout the intrablade survey region for normal incidence.

  9. Four spot laser anemometer and optical access techniques for turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1987-01-01

    A time-of-flight anemometer (TOFA) system utilizing a spatial lead-lag filter for bipolar pulse generation has been constructed and tested. This system, called a four-spot laser anemometer, was specifically designed for use in high-speed, turbulent flows in the presence of walls or surfaces. The TOFA system uses elliptical spots to increase the flow acceptance angle to be comparable with that of a fringe-type anemometer. The tightly focused spots used in the four spot yield excellent flare light rejection capabilities. Good results have been obtained to 75 microns normal to a surface, with an f/2.5 collection lens. This system is being evaluated for use in a warm turbine facility. Results from both a particle-lag velocity experiment and boundary layer profiles will be discussed. In addition, an analysis of the use of curved windows in a turbine casing will be presented. Curved windows, matching the inner radius of the turbine casing, preserve the flow conditions, but introduce astigmatic aberrations. A correction optic was designed that virtually eliminates these astigmatic aberrations throughout the intrablade survey region for normal incidence.

  10. Four spot laser anemometer and optical access techniques for turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1987-01-01

    A time-of-flight anemometer (TOFA) system, utilizing a spatial lead-lag filter for bipolar pulse generation was constructed and tested. This system, called a Four Spot Laser Anemometer, was specifically designed for use in high speed, turbulent flows in the presence of walls or surfaces. The TOFA system uses elliptical spots to increase the flow acceptance angle to be comparable with that of a fringe type anemometer. The tightly focused spots used in the Four Spot yield excellent flare light rejection capabilities. Good results were obtained to 75 microns normal to a surface, with a f/2.5 collecting lens. This system is being evaluated for use in a warm turbine facility. Results from both a particle lag velocity experiment and boundary layer profiles will be discussed. In addition, an analysis of the use of curved windows in a turbine casing will be presented. Curved windows, matching the inner radius of the turbine casing, preserve the flow conditions, but introduce astigmatic aberrations. A correction optic was designed that virtually eliminates these astigmatic aberrations throughout the intrablade survey region for normal incidence.

  11. Weird Warm Spot on Exoplanet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-19

    This frame from an animation based on NASA Spitzer Space Telescope data illustrates an unexpected warm spot on the surface of a gaseous exoplanet.The bright orange patches are the hottest part of the planet.

  12. Programmable Positioner For Spot Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roden, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Welding station mechanized by installing preset indexing system and gear drive. Mechanism includes a low-cost, versatile, single-axis motion control and motor drive to provide fully-automatic weld sequencing and spot-to-spot spacing. Welding station relieves operator of some difficult, tedious tasks and increases both productivity and quality of welds. Results in welds of higher quality and greater accuracy, fewer weld defects, and faster welding operation.

  13. RADIATION-INDUCED CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS IN MAN

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, M.; Ottoman, R.E.; Norman, A.

    1963-10-01

    A study was made of the production and elimination of radioinduced chromosomal aberrations in leukocytes from the peripheral blood of persons exposed to chronic or acute doses of high-energy radiation. Included in the group were radiologists and laboratory scientists, for whom there were available complete records of the radiation dose received during their working life, and a number of distinguished radiologists who have practiced more than 25 yrs and who may have received substantial doses One of seven leukocytes from a distinguished radiologist contained a pair of chromosomes that could be classified as pseudo- diploid. In laboratory personnel for whommore » the doses received were significantly within the prescribed limits, the incidence of pseudo-diploid cells, of dicentrics, and of other chroNonemosomal aberrations was significantly higher than in a more or less comparable control group. (tr-auth)« less

  14. Aberrations associated with rigid contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Atchison, D A

    1995-10-01

    A rigid contact lens on an eye can produce levels of spherical aberration very different from those produced by a spectacle lens in front of the eye. These levels are considerably affected by contact lens surface asphericity. Change in longitudinal spherical aberration associated with aspherizing a contact lens surface is well predicted by a simple equation for change in sagittal power of the surface. Displacing an aspheric contact lens on the eye can produce considerable defocus, which is well predicted by simple equations for change in sagittal and tangential surface powers. The best refractive correction with contact lenses can be determined only by overrefraction with a patient wearing a contact lens of power and characteristics similar to that which will be prescribed. An aspheric contact lens that moves to a considerable extent on the eye will cause more unstable vision than will a spherical lens that moves to the same extent.

  15. Anterior Corneal, Posterior Corneal, and Lenticular Contributions to Ocular Aberrations.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Suheimat, Marwan; Mathur, Ankit; Lister, Lucas J; Rozema, Jos

    2016-10-01

    To determine the corneal surfaces and lens contributions to ocular aberrations. There were 61 healthy participants with ages ranging from 20 to 55 years and refractions -8.25 diopters (D) to +3.25 D. Anterior and posterior corneal topographies were obtained with an Oculus Pentacam, and ocular aberrations were obtained with an iTrace aberrometer. Raytracing through models of corneas provided total corneal and surface component aberrations for 5-mm-diameter pupils. Lenticular contributions were given as differences between ocular and corneal aberrations. Theoretical raytracing investigated influence of object distance on aberrations. Apart from defocus, the highest aberration coefficients were horizontal astigmatism, horizontal coma, and spherical aberration. Most correlations between lenticular and ocular parameters were positive and significant, with compensation of total corneal aberrations by lenticular aberrations for 5/12 coefficients. Anterior corneal aberrations were approximately three times higher than posterior corneal aberrations and usually had opposite signs. Corneal topographic centers were displaced from aberrometer pupil centers by 0.32 ± 0.19 mm nasally and 0.02 ± 0.16 mm inferiorly; disregarding corneal decentration relative to pupil center was significant for oblique astigmatism, horizontal coma, and horizontal trefoil. An object at infinity, rather than at the image in the anterior cornea, gave incorrect aberration estimates of the posterior cornea. Corneal and lenticular aberration magnitudes are similar, and aberrations of the anterior corneal surface are approximately three times those of the posterior surface. Corneal decentration relative to pupil center has significant effects on oblique astigmatism, horizontal coma, and horizontal trefoil. When estimating component aberrations, it is important to use correct object/image conjugates and heights at surfaces.

  16. Contemporary management of aberrant right subclavian arteries.

    PubMed

    Stone, William M; Ricotta, Joseph J; Fowl, Richard J; Garg, Nitin; Bower, Thomas C; Money, Samuel R

    2011-05-01

    Aberrant origin of right subclavian arteries represents the most common of the aortic arch anomalies. This variant has few published series to guide management. Our goal was to review treatment options and results for these potentially complex reconstructions. A retrospective review was performed on all patients with a diagnosis of aberrant right subclavian artery at our institution between January 2003 and July 2009. A total of 24 patients, which comprises one of the largest series reported, including 10 males and 14 females (mean age: 46.6 years, range: 7-77), were diagnosed with an aberrant right subclavian artery. Sixteen (66%) were diagnosed incidentally, but eight (33%) had symptoms of either dysphagia, upper extremity ischemia, or both. Computed tomography was most commonly used to establish the diagnosis (19 patients, 79%). Magnetic resonance imaging established the diagnosis in three patients (12%), upper gastrointestinal barium study in one (4%), and standard angiography in one (4%). A Kommerell's diverticulum (KD) was the most common associated anomaly (seven patients, 29%). All seven patients (100%) with a KD required intervention for either symptoms or aneurysmal degeneration. Intervention was performed in 10 patients (42%), including carotid subclavian bypass in five (50%), carotid subclavian transposition in three (30%), and ascending aorta to subclavian bypass in two (20%). Four patients (40%) had additional intervention for management of aneurysmal disease of the aorta or KD, with open aortic replacement in two (20%) and aortic endografting in two (20%). There was one perioperative death (10%) in a patient undergoing aortic arch debranching with placement of an aortic endograft. In all, 18 patients survived without symptoms after a mean follow-up of 38 months. Aberrant right subclavian arteries are most commonly found incidentally with computed tomography. The presence of a KD seemed to correlate with the need for intervention. Patients with no

  17. Aberrant phenotypes in peripheral T cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Hastrup, N; Ralfkiaer, E; Pallesen, G

    1989-01-01

    Seventy six peripheral T cell lymphomas were examined immunohistologically to test their reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies against 11 T cell associated antigens (CD1-8, CD27, UCHL1, and the T cell antigen receptor). Sixty two (82%) lymphomas showed aberrant phenotypes, and four main categories were distinguished as follows: (i) lack of one or several pan-T cell antigens (49, 64% of the cases); (ii) loss of both the CD4 and CD8 antigens (11, 15% of the cases); (iii) coexpression of the CD4 and CD8 antigens (13, 17% of the cases); and (iv) expression of the CD1 antigen (eight, 11% of the cases). No correlation was seen between the occurrence of aberrant phenotypes and the histological subtype. It is concluded that the demonstration of an aberrant phenotype is a valuable supplement to histological assessment in the diagnosis of peripheral T cell lymphomas. It is recommended that the panel of monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens should be fairly large, as apparently any antigen may be lost in the process of malignant transformation. Images Figure PMID:2469701

  18. Influence of essential trace minerals and micronutrient insufficiencies on harmful metal overload in a Mongolian patient with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue; Kaneko, Yoshinori; Kudoh, Hideki; Purvee, Baatar; Otgon, Jugder; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen

    2012-07-01

    Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders are prevalent in Mongolia. Our previous studies revealed a significant correlation of these diseases with high oxidative stress due to a high body burden of harmful metals, such as manganese, iron, lead, cadmium, and aluminum. This report describes a 37-year-old male Mongolian patient with multiple sclerosis and essential micronutrient deficiency. This patient demonstrated high oxidative stress, as shown by high urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels of 14.7 and 14.3 ng/mg creatinine (crea), although his hair levels of these toxic metals were markedly lower than other Mongolians. In addition, this patient was deficient not only in various essential minerals, including selenium, magnesium, copper, cobalt, vanadium, and nickel, but also in micronutrients such as vitamin B6, C, E, folic acid, niacin, and β-carotene. Furthermore, after taking 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, a chelating agent, urinary excretion of lead, cadmium, manganese, aluminum, iron, copper, and lithium were increased 156-, 8.4-, 7.6-, 4.3-, 3.3-, 2.1-, and 2.1-fold, respectively. These results suggest that this patient suffered from a deficiency in micronutrients such as essential minerals and vitamins, which resulted in a disturbance in the ability to excrete harmful metals into the urine and hair. It is possible that a deficiency of micronutrients and a high burden of heavy metals play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Nutritional treatment may be an effective approach to this disease.

  19. ß-Carotene from Red Carrot Maintains Vitamin A Status, but Lycopene Bioavailability Is Lower Relative to Tomato Paste in Mongolian Gerbils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red carrots contain lycopene in addition to ß-Carotene. The utility of red carrot as a functional food depends in part on the bioavailability of its constituent carotenoids. Lycopene bioavailability was compared in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) fed freeze-dried red carrot and tomato pa...

  20. Studies on Typhus and Spotted Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever , DNA, homology, genome, lymphocytes, immunity...spotted fever group. Certain studies have suggested that R. canada may be able to cause a severe illness in man clinically similar to Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Z...the Conference and are also in press. 10. Paul Fiset, Charles L. Wisseman, Jr., A. Farhang-Azad, Harvey Fischman. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

  1. Managing emerging threats to spotted owls

    Treesearch

    Ho Yi Wan; Joseph L. Ganey; Christina D. Vojta; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The 3 spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies in North America (i.e., northern spotted owl [S. o. caurina], California spotted owl [S. o. occidentalis], Mexican spotted owl [S. o. lucida]) have all experienced population declines over the past century due to habitat loss and fragmentation from logging. Now, the emerging influences of climate change, high-severity...

  2. 3D resolved mapping of optical aberrations in thick tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun; Mahou, Pierre; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Débarre, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple method for mapping optical aberrations with 3D resolution within thick samples. The method relies on the local measurement of the variation in image quality with externally applied aberrations. We discuss the accuracy of the method as a function of the signal strength and of the aberration amplitude and we derive the achievable resolution for the resulting measurements. We then report on measured 3D aberration maps in human skin biopsies and mouse brain slices. From these data, we analyse the consequences of tissue structure and refractive index distribution on aberrations and imaging depth in normal and cleared tissue samples. The aberration maps allow the estimation of the typical aplanetism region size over which aberrations can be uniformly corrected. This method and data pave the way towards efficient correction strategies for tissue imaging applications. PMID:22876353

  3. Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.

  4. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  5. Human eyes do not need monochromatic aberrations for dynamic accommodation.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Molina, Paula; Marín-Franch, Iván; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Esteve-Taboada, Jose J; López-Gil, Norberto; Kruger, Philip B; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-09-01

    To determine if human accommodation uses the eye's own monochromatic aberrations to track dynamic accommodative stimuli. Wavefront aberrations were measured while subjects monocularly viewed a monochromatic Maltese cross moving sinusoidally around 2D of accommodative demand with 1D amplitude at 0.2 Hz. The amplitude and phase (delay) of the accommodation response were compared to the actual vergence of the stimulus to obtain gain and temporal phase, calculated from wavefront aberrations recorded over time during experimental trials. The tested conditions were as follows: Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus (C); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and habitual second-order astigmatism (AS); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and odd higher-order aberrations (HOAs); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and even HOAs (E); Natural aberrations of the subject's eye, i.e., the adaptive-optics system only corrected the optical system's aberrations (N); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and fourth-order spherical aberration (SA). The correction was performed at 20 Hz and each condition was repeated six times in randomised order. Average gain (±2 standard errors of the mean) varied little across conditions; between 0.55 ± 0.06 (SA), and 0.62 ± 0.06 (AS). Average phase (±2 standard errors of the mean) also varied little; between 0.41 ± 0.02 s (E), and 0.47 ± 0.02 s (O). After Bonferroni correction, no statistically significant differences in gain or phase were found in the presence of specific monochromatic aberrations or in their absence. These results show that the eye's monochromatic aberrations are not necessary for accommodation to track dynamic accommodative stimuli. © 2017 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.

  6. Quantifying Spot Size Reduction of a 1.8 kA Electron Beam for Flash Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Burris-Mog, Trevor John; Moir, David C.

    The spot size of Axis-I at the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility was reduced by 15.5% by including a small diameter drift tube that acts to aperture the outer diameter of the electron beam. Comparing the measured values to both analytic calculations and results from a particle-in-cell model shows that one-third to one-half of the spot size reduction is due to a drop in beam emittance. We infer that one-half to two-thirds of the spot-size reduction is due to a reduction in beam-target interactions. Sources of emittance growth and the scaling of the final focal spot size with emittancemore » and solenoid aberrations are also presented.« less

  7. Quantifying Spot Size Reduction of a 1.8 kA Electron Beam for Flash Radiography

    DOE PAGES

    Burris-Mog, Trevor John; Moir, David C.

    2018-03-14

    The spot size of Axis-I at the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility was reduced by 15.5% by including a small diameter drift tube that acts to aperture the outer diameter of the electron beam. Comparing the measured values to both analytic calculations and results from a particle-in-cell model shows that one-third to one-half of the spot size reduction is due to a drop in beam emittance. We infer that one-half to two-thirds of the spot-size reduction is due to a reduction in beam-target interactions. Sources of emittance growth and the scaling of the final focal spot size with emittancemore » and solenoid aberrations are also presented.« less

  8. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing based on binary-aberration-mode filtering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing; Dong, Lizhi; Ao, Mingwu

    2015-02-23

    Spot centroid detection is required by Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing since the technique was first proposed. For a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, the standard structure is to place a camera behind a lenslet array to record the image of spots. We proposed a new Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing technique without using spot centroid detection. Based on the principle of binary-aberration-mode filtering, for each subaperture, only one light-detecting unit is used to measure the local wavefront slopes. It is possible to adopt single detectors in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Thereby, the method is able to gain noise benefits from using singe detectors behind each subaperture when used for sensing rapid varying wavefront in weak light. Moreover, due to non-discrete pixel imaging, this method is a potential solution for high measurement precision with fewer detecting units. Our simulations demonstrate the validity of the theoretical model. In addition, the results also indicate the advantage in measurement accuracy.

  9. Unusually high-pitched neonate distress calls of the open-habitat Mongolian gazelle ( Procapra gutturosa) and their anatomical and hormonal predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, Ilya A.; Volodina, Elena V.; Frey, Roland; Kirilyuk, Vadim E.; Naidenko, Sergey V.

    2017-06-01

    In neonate ruminants, the acoustic structure of vocalizations may depend on sex, vocal anatomy, hormonal profiles and body mass and on environmental factors. In neonate wild-living Mongolian gazelles Procapra gutturosa, hand-captured during biomedical monitoring in the Daurian steppes at the Russian-Mongolian border, we spectrographically analysed distress calls and measured body mass of 22 individuals (6 males, 16 females). For 20 (5 male, 15 female) of these individuals, serum testosterone levels were also analysed. In addition, we measured relevant dimensions of the vocal apparatus (larynx, vocal folds, vocal tract) in one stillborn male Mongolian gazelle specimen. Neonate distress calls of either sex were high in maximum fundamental frequency (800-900 Hz), but the beginning and minimum fundamental frequencies were significantly lower in males than in females. Body mass was larger in males than in females. The levels of serum testosterone were marginally higher in males. No correlations were found between either body mass or serum testosterone values and any acoustic variable for males and females analysed together or separately. We discuss that the high-frequency calls of neonate Mongolian gazelles are more typical for closed-habitat neonate ruminants, whereas other open-habitat neonate ruminants (goitred gazelle Gazella subgutturosa, saiga antelope Saiga tatarica and reindeer Rangifer tarandus) produce low-frequency (<200 Hz) distress calls. Proximate cause for the high fundamental frequency of distress calls of neonate Mongolian gazelles is their very short, atypical vocal folds (4 mm) compared to the 7-mm vocal folds of neonate goitred gazelles, producing distress calls as low as 120 Hz.

  10. A structural transect across the Mongolian Western Altai: Active transpressional mountain building in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson Cunningham, W.; Windley, Brian F.; Dorjnamjaa, D.; Badamgarov, G.; Saandar, M.

    1996-02-01

    We present results from the first detailed geological transect across the Mongolian Western Altai using modern methods of structural geology and fault kinematic analysis. Our purpose was to document the structures responsible for Cenozoic uplift of the range in order to better understand processes of intracontinental mountain building. Historical right-lateral strike-slip and oblique-slip earthquakes have previously been documented from the Western Altai, and many mountain fronts are marked by active fault scarps indicating current tectonic activity and uplift. The dominant structures in the range are long (>200 km) NNW trending right-lateral strike-slip faults. Our transect can be divided into three separate domains that contain active, right-lateral strike-slip master faults and thrust faults with opposing vergence. The current deformation regime is thus transpressional. Each domain has an asymmetric flower structure cross-sectional geometry, and the transect as a whole is interpreted as three separate large flower structures. The mechanism of uplift along the transect appears to be horizontal and vertical growth of flower structures rooted into the dominant right-lateral strike-slip faults. The major Bulgan Fault forms the southern structural boundary to the range and is a 3.5-km-wide brittle-ductile zone that has accommodated reverse and left-lateral strike-slip displacements. It appears to be linked to the North Gobi Fault Zone to the east and Irtysh Fault zone to the west and thus may be over 900 km in length. Two major ductile left-lateral extensional shear zones were identified in the interior of the range that appear to be preserved structures related to a regional Paleozoic or Mesozoic extensional event. Basement rocks along the transect are dominantly metavolcanic, metasedimentary, or intrusive units probably representing a Paleozoic accretionary prism and arc complex. The extent to which Cenozoic uplift has been accommodated by reactivation of older

  11. Satellite-based Monotoring of mitiple natural disasters in Mongolian socio-ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sinkyu

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, a conceptual mechanisms how multiple natural hazards (i.e. drought, dust storm, land degradation, and Dzud) in Mongolia are linked with each other and how satellite earth observation (EO) data can be utilized to analyze cause-and results relations and to predict the natural hazards. Massive loss of livestock and wildlife animal during winter seasons (dzud) is an endemic climatic disaster in the Central Asia grasslands but the mechanisms are not well understood yet. Recent national-wide sever Dzud occurred during 2009-2010 winter in Mongolia. Whereas, high stocking rate of livestock may give negative effects on sustainable use of pastureland. Dzud is a natural mechanism reducing grazing pressure when stocking rate is high enough to cause the negative effect. Both Dzud and land degradation were directly linked with drought phenomena, which is associated with dust storm occurrence because those conditions can cause sparse vegetation and increase of sensible heat generating strong vertical wind. At a lower level of administration (i.e., soum), stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find significant factors of inter-annual livestock change. For a period from 2003 to 2010, various datasets were prepared from national census and satellite data (summer and winter temperature and precipitation, and summer dryness and vegetation index, NDVI). As results, linear regression models were successfully produced at 70% of soums studied. Summer and winter variables appeared equally important in controlling livestock dynamics. Single-factor models were predominant. The primary factor of each soum showed certain regional patterns incident well with climate severity and foraging resource availability (e.g. temperature in north, dryness in south, and NDVI in middle). Our results indicate that Mongolian pastoral livelihood is highly vulnerable to extreme variability of endemic regional climate factors and hence, there are still rooms for enhancing

  12. Purification and characterization of two bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Mongolian airag.

    PubMed

    Batdorj, B; Dalgalarrondo, M; Choiset, Y; Pedroche, J; Métro, F; Prévost, H; Chobert, J-M; Haertlé, T

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) issued from Mongolian airag (traditional fermented mare's milk), and to purify and characterize bacteriocins produced by these LAB. Identification of the bacteria (Enterococcus durans) was carried out on the basis of its morphological, biochemical characteristics and carbohydrate fermentation profile and by API50CH kit and 16S rDNA analyses. The pH-neutral cell-free supernatant of this bacterium inhibited the growth of several Lactobacillus spp. and food-borne pathogens including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua. The antimicrobial agent (enterocin A5-11) was heat stable and was not sensitive to acid and alkaline conditions (pH 2-10), but was sensitive to several proteolytic enzymes. Its inhibitory activity was completely eliminated after treatment with proteinase K and alpha-chymotrypsin. The activity was however not completely inactivated by other proteases including trypsin and pepsin. Three-step purification procedure with high recovery yields was developed to separate two bacteriocins. The applied procedure allowed the recovery of 16% and 64% of enterocins A5-11A and A5-11B, respectively, present in the culture supernatant with purity higher than 99%. SDS-PAGE analyses revealed that enterocin A5-11 has a molecular mass of 5000 Da and mass spectrometry analyses demonstrates molecular masses of 5206 and 5218 Da for fractions A and B, respectively. Amino acid analyses of both enterocins indicated significant quantitative difference in their contents in threonine, alanine, isoleucine and leucine. Their N-termini were blocked hampering straightforward Edman degradation. Bacteriocins A5-11A and B from Ent. durans belong to the class II of bacteriocins. Judging from molecular masses, amino acid composition and spectrum of activities, bacteriocins A5-11A and B from Ent. durans show high degree of similarity with enterocins L50A and L50B

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils does not initiate hematological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuan; Xu, Li-Yao; Li, Wei; Yang, Zhen; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection contributes to idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) onset in gerbils. METHODS: A total of 135 Mongolian gerbils were randomly divided into two groups: an H. pylori infection group and a control group. Both groups were fed the same diet and the same amount of food. Each group was then divided into three subgroups, which were sacrificed at 6, 12, or 18 mo for analysis. At each time point, arterial blood was collected from the abdominal aorta and a complete blood cell count was analyzed in the clinical laboratory in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in platelet counts (938.00 ± 270.27/L vs 962.95 ± 162.56 × 109/L), red blood cell counts (8.11 ± 1.25/L vs 8.44 ± 1.48 × 1012/L), or hemoglobin levels (136.9 ± 8.76 g/L vs 123.21 ± 18.42 g/L) between the control and the H. pylori groups, respectively, at 18 mo. With the exception of the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), all other indicators, including white blood cell counts, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell distribution width, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, lymphocyte count, and lymphocyte count percentage, showed no significant differences between the control and H. pylori infection groups at each time point. The MCV in the H. pylori infection group (52.32 f/L ± 2.86 f/L) was significantly lower than the control group (55.63 ± 1.89 f/L) at 18 mo (P = 0.005), though no significant differences were observed at 6 (54.40 ± 2.44 f/L vs 53.30 ± 1.86 f/L) or 12 mo (53.73 ± 2.31 f/L vs 54.80 ± 3.34 f/L). CONCLUSION: A single H. pylori infection is insufficient to cause onset of ITP or IDA and other factors may be required for disease onset. PMID:25232266

  14. Basaltic Martian analogues from the Baikal Rift Zone and Mongolian terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgurewicz, J.; Kostylew, J.

    2007-08-01

    In order to compare the results of studies of the western part of the Valles Marineris canyon on Mars there have been done field works on terrestrial surface areas similar with regard to geological setting and environmental conditions. One of the possible terrestrial analogues of the Valles Marineris canyon is the Baikal Rift Zone [1]. Field investigations have been done on the south end of the Baikal Lake, in the Khamar-Daban massif, where the outcrops of volcanic rocks occur. The second part of the field works has been done in the Mongolian terranes: Mandalovoo, Gobi Altay and Bayanhongor, because of environmental conditions being similar to those on Mars. The Mandalovoo terrane comprises a nearly continuous Paleozoic islandarc sequence [2]. In the Gobi Altay terrane an older sequence is capped by younger Devonian-Triassic volcanic-sedimentary deposits [2]. The Bayanhongor terrane forms a northwest-trending, discontinuous, narrow belt that consists of a large ophiolite allochton [3]. The collected samples of basalts derive from various geologic environments. The CORONA satellite-images have been used for the imaging of the Khamar-Daban massif and the Mandalovoo terrane. These images have the same spatial resolution and range as the Mars Orbiter Camera images of the Mars Global Surveyor mission. In the Mandalovoo terrane these images allowed to find an area with large amounts of tectonic structures, mainly faults (part of the Ongi massif), similar to the studied area on Mars. Microscopic observations in thin sections show diversification of composition and structures of basalts. These rocks have mostly a porphyric structure, rarely aphyric. The main components are plagioclases, pyroxenes and olivines phenocrysts, in different proportions. The groundmass usually consist of plagioclases, pyroxenes and opaques. The most diversified are basalts from the Mandalovoo terrane. Infrared spectroscopy has been used to analyse the composition of the rock material and compare

  15. Chemical and mineralogical composition of the Mongolian rural soils and their uranium sorption behavior.

    PubMed

    Tserenpil, Sh; Maslov, O D; Norov, N; Liu, Q C; Fillipov, M F; Theng, Benny K G; Belov, A G

    2013-04-01

    Distribution of uranium (VI) between soil solids and solutions is a key parameter in assessing the risk to the biosphere of disposing uranium-rich waste products from nuclear plants as well as uranium (U) ore mining. Both of these topics have recently been brought to public attention in Mongolia. Regional background levels of soil elements are an important dataset for accessing the actual environmental situation and monitoring pollution levels. Little information, however, is available on background concentrations of various elements in Mongolian soils. Thirteen rural soils were sampled from six provinces in Mongolia, and the concentrations of macro-, micro- and trace elements were measured. The values obtained served as a reference (baseline) for uncontaminated soils. The soils were characterized with slightly acidic to strongly alkaline pH values. With the exception of the sample from a western province, all the soils investigated contained little organic matter. The content of soil elements did not vary widely among geographical regions. The concentration of most micro elements was within the range of worldwide soil values but the value for Zn tended to be moderately higher. The U (VI) sorption into the soils was investigated using the batch technique and the (237)U radionuclide tracer, produced by the photo fission reaction (238)U(γ, n) (237)U at an electron accelerator. The (237)U distribution coefficient (K(d)), derived from the sorption isotherms, was related to solution pH and varying from 9 to 2547 mL g(-1) when the pH ranged between 3 and 7.7. The sorption process was interpreted in terms of the formation of different U (VI) species at given concentrations, calculated using the Speciation program with and without carbonate in the system. The U sorption isotherm displayed two general patterns: one where sorption decreased as solution pH increased, showing a maximum at pH 3, and another pattern revealed an adsorption maximum at pH 5 and then decreased up

  16. Optical elements design of optical pick-up with characteristics of read-out spot for high density optical storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lihua; Ma, Jianshe; Liu, Lin; Pan, Longfa; Zhang, Jianyong; Lu, Junhui

    2005-09-01

    It is well known that the optical pick-up (OPU) plays a very important role in optical storage system. And the quality of OPU can be measured by the characteristics of OPU read-out spot for high density optical storage. Therefore this paper mainly designs an OPU model for high density optical storage to study the characteristics of OPU read-out spot. Firstly it analyses the optical read-out principle in OPU and contrives an optical read-out system based on the hereinbefore theory. In this step it chiefly designs the grating, splitter, collimator lens and objective lens. Secondly based on the aberrations analysis and theory involved by the splitter, the collimator lens and the optical lens, the paper uses the software CODE V to calculate the aberrations and to optimize the optical read-out system. Then the author can receive an ideal OPU read-out spot for high density optical storage and obtain the characteristics of the ideal OPU read-out spot. At the same time this paper analyses some influence factors which can directly affect the characteristics of the OPU read-out spot. Thirdly according to the up data the author practically manufactures a real optical pick-up to validate the hereinbefore designed optical read-out system. And it uses the Optical Spot Analyzer to get the image of the read-out spot. Comparing the ideal image to the actual image of the designed optical read-out system, the author finds out that the upwards analyses and design is suitable for high density storage and can be used in the actual production. And the author also receives the conclusion that the mostly influences on characteristics of OPU read-out spot for high density optical storage factors is not only the process of designing the grating, splitter, collimator lens and objective lens, but also the assembling work precision

  17. Wavefront aberrations of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams.

    PubMed

    Liao, Keliang; Hong, Youli; Sheng, Weifan

    2014-10-01

    The effects of dynamical diffraction in x-ray diffractive optics with large numerical aperture render the wavefront aberrations difficult to describe using the aberration polynomials, yet knowledge of them plays an important role in a vast variety of scientific problems ranging from optical testing to adaptive optics. Although the diffraction theory of optical aberrations was established decades ago, its application in the area of x-ray dynamical diffraction theory (DDT) is still lacking. Here, we conduct a theoretical study on the aberration properties of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams. By treating the modulus of the complex envelope as the amplitude weight function in the orthogonalization procedure, we generalize the nonrecursive matrix method for the determination of orthonormal aberration polynomials, wherein Zernike DDT and Legendre DDT polynomials are proposed. As an example, we investigate the aberration evolution inside a tilted multilayer Laue lens. The corresponding Legendre DDT polynomials are obtained numerically, which represent balanced aberrations yielding minimum variance of the classical aberrations of an anamorphic optical system. The balancing of classical aberrations and their standard deviations are discussed. We also present the Strehl ratio of the primary and secondary balanced aberrations.

  18. Detecting independent and recurrent copy number aberrations using interval graphs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Ta; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2014-06-15

    Somatic copy number aberrations SCNAS: are frequent in cancer genomes, but many of these are random, passenger events. A common strategy to distinguish functional aberrations from passengers is to identify those aberrations that are recurrent across multiple samples. However, the extensive variability in the length and position of SCNA: s makes the problem of identifying recurrent aberrations notoriously difficult. We introduce a combinatorial approach to the problem of identifying independent and recurrent SCNA: s, focusing on the key challenging of separating the overlaps in aberrations across individuals into independent events. We derive independent and recurrent SCNA: s as maximal cliques in an interval graph constructed from overlaps between aberrations. We efficiently enumerate all such cliques, and derive a dynamic programming algorithm to find an optimal selection of non-overlapping cliques, resulting in a very fast algorithm, which we call RAIG (Recurrent Aberrations from Interval Graphs). We show that RAIG outperforms other methods on simulated data and also performs well on data from three cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). In contrast to existing approaches that employ various heuristics to select independent aberrations, RAIG optimizes a well-defined objective function. We show that this allows RAIG to identify rare aberrations that are likely functional, but are obscured by overlaps with larger passenger aberrations. http://compbio.cs.brown.edu/software. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Roth Spots in Ocular Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Furtado, João M; Toscano, Marcelo; Castro, Vinicius; Rodrigues, Murilo W

    2016-10-01

    To report a case with unilateral preexisting ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) and newly occurred active retinochoroidal inflammation associated with white-centered retinal hemorrhages (Roth spots) in the healthy eye. Case report. A 20 year-old man presented with a decrease of visual acuity in his right eye associated with 2+ cells in the anterior chamber. Ophthalmoscopy revealed an active retinochoroidal lesion on the upper nasal border of the optic disc associated with local hemorrhage and vitritis. The posterior pole presented white-centered flame-shaped retinal hemorrhages. Toxoplasmosis serology showed an IgG titer >300IU/ml and a negative IgM titer. A complete blood count revealed no abnormalities; other serologies were negative. After 2 weeks of treatment with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, folinic acid and prednisone, although the peripapillary lesion was still active, the Roth spots disappeared. OT may be one differential diagnosis of patients suffering Roth spots in association with retinochoroidal inflammation.

  20. Intermittency Models and Spot Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental work at the University of Oxford Osney Lab has demonstrated characteristics of the late-stage transition process by the use of thin-film heat transfer gauges. The development of turbulent spots has been observed in a range of environments, including flat plates, turbine blade cascade tests and wake-passing experiments. These results were taken at Mach/Reynolds numbers and gas-to-wall temperature ratios representative of gas turbines. Analyses of the spot characteristics are consistent with measurements taken in low speed experiments, and support the Schubauer and Klebanoff type of turbulent spots. The addition of simulated wakes from upstream stages has been observed to be primarily superpositional for these tests.

  1. Poisson's spot and Gouy phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Paz, I. G.; Soldati, Rodolfo; Cabral, L. A.; de Oliveira, J. G. G.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    Recently there have been experimental results on Poisson spot matter-wave interferometry followed by theoretical models describing the relative importance of the wave and particle behaviors for the phenomenon. We propose an analytical theoretical model for Poisson's spot with matter waves based on the Babinet principle, in which we use the results for free propagation and single-slit diffraction. We take into account effects of loss of coherence and finite detection area using the propagator for a quantum particle interacting with an environment. We observe that the matter-wave Gouy phase plays a role in the existence of the central peak and thus corroborates the predominantly wavelike character of the Poisson's spot. Our model shows remarkable agreement with the experimental data for deuterium (D2) molecules.

  2. Genomic aberrations in borderline ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background According to the scientific literature, less than 30 borderline ovarian tumors have been karyotyped and less than 100 analyzed for genomic imbalances by CGH. Methods We report a series of borderline ovarian tumors (n = 23) analyzed by G-banding and karyotyping as well as high resolution CGH; in addition, the tumors were analyzed for microsatellite stability status and by FISH for possible 6q deletion. Results All informative tumors were microsatellite stable and none had a deletion in 6q27. All cases with an abnormal karyotype had simple chromosomal aberrations with +7 and +12 as the most common. In three tumors with single structural rearrangements, a common breakpoint in 3q13 was detected. The major copy number changes detected in the borderline tumors were gains from chromosome arms 2q, 6q, 8q, 9p, and 13q and losses from 1p, 12q, 14q, 15q, 16p, 17p, 17q, 19p, 19q, and 22q. The series included five pairs of bilateral tumors and, in two of these pairs, informative data were obtained as to their clonal relationship. In both pairs, similarities were found between the tumors from the right and left side, strongly indicating that bilaterality had occurred via a metastatic process. The bilateral tumors as a group showed more aberrations than did the unilateral ones, consistent with the view that bilaterality is a sign of more advanced disease. Conclusion Because some of the imbalances found in borderline ovarian tumors seem to be similar to imbalances already known from the more extensively studied overt ovarian carcinomas, we speculate that the subset of borderline tumors with detectable imbalances or karyotypic aberrations may contain a smaller subset of tumors with a tendency to develop a more malignant phenotype. The group of borderline tumors with no imbalances would, in this line of thinking, have less or no propensity for clonal evolution and development to full-blown carcinomas. PMID:20184781

  3. Correction of large amplitude wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, S. A.; Bierden, P. A.; Bifano, T. G.; Webb, R. H.; Burns, S.; Pappas, S.

    2005-12-01

    Recently, a number of research groups around the world have developed ophthalmic instruments capable of in vivo diffraction limited imaging of the human retina. Adaptive optics was used in these systems to compensate for the optical aberrations of the eye and provide high contrast, high resolution images. Such compensation uses a wavefront sensor and a wavefront corrector (usually a deformable mirror) coordinated in a closed- loop control system that continuously works to counteract aberrations. While those experiments produced promising results, the deformable mirrors have had insufficient range of motion to permit full correction of the large amplitude aberrations of the eye expected in a normal population of human subjects. Other retinal imaging systems developed to date with MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) DMs suffer similar limitations. This paper describes the design, manufacture and testing of a 6um stroke polysilicon surface micromachined deformable mirror that, coupled with an new optical method to double the effective stroke of the MEMS-DM, will permit diffraction-limited retinal imaging through dilated pupils in at least 90% of the human population. A novel optical design using spherical mirrors provides a double pass of the wavefront over the deformable mirror such that a 6um mirror displacement results in 12um of wavefront compensation which could correct for 24um of wavefront error. Details of this design are discussed. Testing of the effective wavefront modification was performed using a commercial wavefront sensor. Results are presented demonstrating improvement in the amplitude of wavefront control using an existing high degree of freedom MEMS deformable mirror.

  4. Predicting aberrant CpG island methylation

    PubMed Central

    Feltus, F. A.; Lee, E. K.; Costello, J. F.; Plass, C.; Vertino, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one mechanism leading to loss of tumor suppressor function in human cancer. Profiling of CpG island methylation indicates that some genes are more frequently methylated than others, and that each tumor type is associated with a unique set of methylated genes. However, little is known about why certain genes succumb to this aberrant event. To address this question, we used Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning to analyze the susceptibility of 1,749 unselected CpG islands to de novo methylation driven by overexpression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We found that although the overall incidence of CpG island methylation was increased in cells overexpressing DNMT1, not all loci were equally affected. The majority of CpG islands (69.9%) were resistant to de novo methylation, regardless of DNMT1 overexpression. In contrast, we identified a subset of methylation-prone CpG islands (3.8%) that were consistently hypermethylated in multiple DNMT1 overexpressing clones. Methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG islands were not significantly different with respect to size, C+G content, CpG frequency, chromosomal location, or promoter association. We used DNA pattern recognition and supervised learning techniques to derive a classification function based on the frequency of seven novel sequence patterns that was capable of discriminating methylation-prone from methylation-resistant CpG islands with 82% accuracy. The data indicate that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to de novo methylation, and suggest that the propensity for a CpG island to become aberrantly methylated can be predicted based on its sequence context. PMID:14519846

  5. Predicting aberrant CpG island methylation.

    PubMed

    Feltus, F A; Lee, E K; Costello, J F; Plass, C; Vertino, P M

    2003-10-14

    Epigenetic silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one mechanism leading to loss of tumor suppressor function in human cancer. Profiling of CpG island methylation indicates that some genes are more frequently methylated than others, and that each tumor type is associated with a unique set of methylated genes. However, little is known about why certain genes succumb to this aberrant event. To address this question, we used Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning to analyze the susceptibility of 1,749 unselected CpG islands to de novo methylation driven by overexpression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We found that although the overall incidence of CpG island methylation was increased in cells overexpressing DNMT1, not all loci were equally affected. The majority of CpG islands (69.9%) were resistant to de novo methylation, regardless of DNMT1 overexpression. In contrast, we identified a subset of methylation-prone CpG islands (3.8%) that were consistently hypermethylated in multiple DNMT1 overexpressing clones. Methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG islands were not significantly different with respect to size, C+G content, CpG frequency, chromosomal location, or promoter association. We used DNA pattern recognition and supervised learning techniques to derive a classification function based on the frequency of seven novel sequence patterns that was capable of discriminating methylation-prone from methylation-resistant CpG islands with 82% accuracy. The data indicate that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to de novo methylation, and suggest that the propensity for a CpG island to become aberrantly methylated can be predicted based on its sequence context.

  6. Laser based spot weld characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  7. Higher-order aberrations of lenticular opacities.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Nisha; Ormonde, Susan E; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2004-08-01

    To measure and quantify higher-order aberrations induced by different types of lenticular opacities. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Auckland, and Department of Ophthalmology, Auckland Public Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Patients with lenticular opacities were recruited from outpatient clinics of a major tertiary referral center for ophthalmology. Patients were included if they had clinically evident, mild to moderate lenticular opacity with no coexisting ocular pathology. Patients were examined using standard preoperative techniques with additional assessment by wavefront aberrometry (Zywave, Bausch & Lomb) and Scheimpflug photography (EAS-1000, Nidek). For comparison, 20 eyes of 10 subjects with no lenticular opacity (control group) were recruited and assessed in an identical manner. Thirty persons were recruited and 40 eyes assessed, 20 with lenticular opacities. Ten eyes had predominantly cortical opacification, and 10 had mainly nuclear opacification. In eyes with predominantly cortical opacification, the mean logMAR uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 0.5 +/- 0.2 (SD) (6/18 Snellen equivalent) and the mean logMAR best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), 0.2 +/- 0.2 (6/9). Analysis of aberrometry data for a 6.0 mm pupil in this group revealed an increase in coma of cosine phase (Z(3), P =.06) and tetrafoil of cosine phase (Z(4), P =.07) compared to eyes in the control group. Eyes with predominantly nuclear opacification had a mean logMAR UCVA of 0.7 +/- 0.2 (6/30) and a logMAR BSCVA of 0.4 +/- 0.2 (6/15). Aberrometry data for this cohort for a 6.0 mm pupil showed a statistically greater amount of spherical aberration (Z(4)(0), P =.001) and tetrafoil of cosine phase (Z(4), P =.005; Z(4)(-4), P =.004). This pilot study suggests that different types of early lenticular opacities induce different wavefront aberration profiles. Predominantly cortical opacification produced an increase in coma and nuclear opacification induced an increase in

  8. Mechanism of Mongolian medical warm acupuncture in treating insomnia by regulating miR-101a in rats with insomnia.

    PubMed

    Bo, Agula; Si, Lengge; Wang, Yuehong; Bao, Lidao; Yuan, Hongwei

    2017-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) and the target genes before and after warm acupuncture at the genetic level were assessed, and the cytokines and neurotransmitters related to insomnia were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to create PCPA insomnia rat models and randomly divided into the normal, model, warm acupuncture, and drug groups. The Dinghui Acupoint, Heyi Acupoint, and Xin Acupoint were inserted in the Mongolian medicine warm acupuncture group. The differential expression profile of microRNA in the brain tissue of the insomnia rats was determined before and after Mongolian medicine warm acupuncture for establishment of miR-101a mimics and inhibitor. qPCR was used to detect the expression level of miR-101a. Western blotting was used to detect the expression level of PAX8. The rats receiving Mongolian medicine warm acupuncture had 141 miRNAs with differential expression compared with the normal rats. The expression level of miR-101a in the cells of the hippocampus of the insomnia rats transfected with miR-101a mimics increased significantly at 72 h (P<0.05). The activity of the neuronal cells transfected with miR-101a inhibitor increased significantly at 72 h (P<0.05). The western blotting result indicated that the expression of the PAX8 protein in the neuronal cells of the insomnia model rats was inhibited and downregulated significantly at 72 h after addition of miR-101a mimics compared with that in the scramble added group (P<0.01). The levels of the interleukins IL-1, IL-2, and IL-6 and the tumor necrosis factor-α in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex decreased significantly compared with those in the blank control group (P<0.05). The levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and glutamic decreased significantly following warm acupuncture or western medicine treatment (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the upregulation of miR-101a in the rats treated with warm acupuncture is directly associated with PAX8 regulation.

  9. Mechanism of Mongolian medical warm acupuncture in treating insomnia by regulating miR-101a in rats with insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Agula; Si, Lengge; Wang, Yuehong; Bao, Lidao; Yuan, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) and the target genes before and after warm acupuncture at the genetic level were assessed, and the cytokines and neurotransmitters related to insomnia were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to create PCPA insomnia rat models and randomly divided into the normal, model, warm acupuncture, and drug groups. The Dinghui Acupoint, Heyi Acupoint, and Xin Acupoint were inserted in the Mongolian medicine warm acupuncture group. The differential expression profile of microRNA in the brain tissue of the insomnia rats was determined before and after Mongolian medicine warm acupuncture for establishment of miR-101a mimics and inhibitor. qPCR was used to detect the expression level of miR-101a. Western blotting was used to detect the expression level of PAX8. The rats receiving Mongolian medicine warm acupuncture had 141 miRNAs with differential expression compared with the normal rats. The expression level of miR-101a in the cells of the hippocampus of the insomnia rats transfected with miR-101a mimics increased significantly at 72 h (P<0.05). The activity of the neuronal cells transfected with miR-101a inhibitor increased significantly at 72 h (P<0.05). The western blotting result indicated that the expression of the PAX8 protein in the neuronal cells of the insomnia model rats was inhibited and downregulated significantly at 72 h after addition of miR-101a mimics compared with that in the scramble added group (P<0.01). The levels of the interleukins IL-1, IL-2, and IL-6 and the tumor necrosis factor-α in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex decreased significantly compared with those in the blank control group (P<0.05). The levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and glutamic decreased significantly following warm acupuncture or western medicine treatment (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the upregulation of miR-101a in the rats treated with warm acupuncture is directly associated with PAX8 regulation. PMID

  10. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  11. Third-rank chromatic aberrations of electron lenses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients of round electron lenses are analytically derived and numerically calculated by Mathematica. Furthermore, the numerical results are cross-checked by the differential algebraic (DA) method, which verifies that all the formulas for the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients are completely correct. It is hoped that this work would be helpful for further chromatic aberration correction in electron microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Riftogenic magmatism of western part of the Early Mesozoic Mongolian-Transbaikalian igneous province: Results of geochronological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Kozlovsky, A. M.; Salnikova, E. B.; Travin, A. V.; Kudryashova, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    Geochronological studies of rocks from a bimodal high-alkali volcanic-plutonic complex collected in the area of Kharkhorin zone of the Early Mesozoic Mongolian-Transbaikalian igneous province (MTIP) are made. The age of alkali granites from Olziit sum is 211 ± 1 Ma (U-Pb ID-TIMS on zircon) to 209 ± 2 and 217 ± 4 Ma (40Ar/39Ar on alkali amphibole); the age of alkali granite-porphyries from the area of Sant sum is 206 ± 1 Ma (U-Pb ID-TIMS on zircon). These rock series formed syncronously to the analogous magmatism episode in the Northern Gobi and Western Transbaikalian rift zones of the MTIP. The similarity of the age and composition of igneous associations of the MTIP suggests a common mechanism of its formation related to the effect of a mantle plume on the continental lithosphere at the base of the entire igneous zone having a zonal structure.

  13. Effects of an Extended Cage-change Interval on Ammonia Levels and Reproduction in Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Elizabeth A; McCullagh, Peter; Klug, Achim; Leszczynski, Jori K; Fong, Derek L

    2017-11-01

    Prompted by the cage cleanliness of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), we evaluated a prolonged cage-change interval. We compared the effects of a 2-wk and 6-wk cage-change schedule on ammonia levels, temperature, humidity, and reproductive performance in breeding pairs housed in IVC. We hypothesized that ammonia levels would remain below our threshold for cage changing and that reproductive performance would not be affected. Although ammonia levels increased over time, they remained low (less than 5 ppm) over the 6-wk period. In addition, the 6-wk cage-change interval did not significantly influence reproductive parameters, such as average pup weaning weight, number of litters, and number of pups per litter. We conclude that an extended cage-change interval (6-wk) can be used for gerbils without significant increases in intracage ammonia levels or effects on reproduction.

  14. Acculturation and Dietary Intakes by Gender Among Mongolians in South Korea: Nutrition Education Implication for Multicultural Families.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Ryun; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Lee, Joung Hee; Lim, Young Suk

    2017-10-01

    We explored the relationship between acculturation and dietary intake by gender for 500 Mongolians residing in South Korea. The high acculturation (HA) group females consumed more fish and shellfish, vegetables, beans, and rice, and less meats, flours, and oil than the low acculturation (LA) group did. However, there was no statistical difference in food group intake between HA and LA group males. HA group females showed higher intake of carbohydrates, fiber, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, and folate compared with LA group females. However, only folate and vitamin B2 intake was statistically different between HA and LA group males. Acculturation and gender interactions were found for the consumption of meats, flours, fish and shellfish, beans, and vegetables. The findings from this study have implications for developing customized nutrition intervention programs by gender for immigrants.

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    PubMed

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  16. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Zaki, Sherif

    2007-01-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America. PMID:18217566

  17. Chapter 5: California spotted owls

    Treesearch

    S. Roberts; M. North

    2012-01-01

    California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) are habitat specialists that are strongly associated with late-successional forests. For nesting and roosting, they require large trees and snags embedded in a stand with a complex forest structure (Blakesley et al. 2005, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, Verner et al. 1992b). In...

  18. Comparison of Aberrations After Standard and Customized Refractive Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; He, X.; Wang, Y.

    2013-09-01

    To detect possible differences in residual wavefront aberrations between standard and customized laser refractive surgery based onmathematical modeling, the residual optical aberrations after conventional and customized laser refractive surgery were compared accordingto the ablation profile with transition zone. The results indicated that ablation profile has a significant impact on the residual aberrations.The amount of residual aberrations for conventional correction is higher than that for customized correction. Additionally, the residualaberrations for high myopia eyes are markedly larger than those for moderate myopia eyes. For a 5 mm pupil, the main residual aberrationterm is coma and yet it is spherical aberration for a 7 mm pupil. When the pupil diameter is the same as optical zone or greater, themagnitudes of residual aberrations is obviously larger than that for a smaller pupil. In addition, the magnitudes of the residual fifth orsixth order aberrations are relatively large, especially secondary coma in a 6 mm pupil and secondary spherical aberration in a 7 mm pupil.Therefore, the customized ablation profile may be superior to the conventional correction even though the transition zone and treatmentdecentration are taken into account. However, the customized ablation profile will still induce significant amount of residual aberrations.

  19. Whole eye wavefront aberrations in Mexican male subjects.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Roberto; Rosales, Marco A; Tepichín, Eduardo; Curioca, Andrée; Montes, Victor; Bonilla, Julio

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics, incidence, and appearance of wavefront aberrations in undilated, normal, unoperated eyes. Eighty-eight eyes of 44 healthy male Mexican subjects (mean age 25.32 years, range 18 to 36 yr) were divided into three groups based on uncorrected visual acuity of greater than or equal to 20/20, 20/30, or 20/40. UCVA measurements were obtained using an Acuity Max computer screen chart. Wavefront aberrations were measured with the Nidek OPD-Scan ARK 10000, Ver. 1.11b. All measurements were carried out at the same center by the same technician during a single session, following manufacturer instructions. Background illumination was 3 Lux. Wavefront aberration measurements for each group were statistically analyzed using StatView; an average eye was characterized and the resulting aberrations were simulated using MATLAB. We obtained wavefront aberration maps for the 20/20 undilated normal unoperated eyes for total, low, and high order aberration coefficients. Wavefront maps for right eyes were practically the same as those for left eyes. Higher aberrations did not contribute substantially to total wavefront analysis. Average aberrations of this "normal eye" will be used as criteria to decide the necessity of wavefront-guided ablation in our facilities. We will focus on the nearly zero average of high order aberrations in this normal whole eye as a reference to be matched.

  20. Dynamic accommodation with simulated targets blurred with high order aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Gambra, Enrique; Wang, Yinan; Yuan, Jing; Kruger, Philip B.; Marcos, Susana

    2010-01-01

    High order aberrations have been suggested to play a role in determining the direction of accommodation. We have explored the effect of retinal blur induced by high order aberrations on dynamic accommodation by measuring the accommodative response to sinusoidal variations in accommodative demand (1–3 D). The targets were blurred with 0.3 and 1 μm (for a 3-mm pupil) of defocus, coma, trefoil and spherical aberration. Accommodative gain decreased significantly when 1-μm of aberration was induced. We found a strong correlation between the relative accommodative gain (and phase lag) and the contrast degradation imposed on the target at relevant spatial frequencies. PMID:20600230

  1. Imaging characteristics of Zernike and annular polynomial aberrations.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Virendra N; Díaz, José Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The general equations for the point-spread function (PSF) and optical transfer function (OTF) are given for any pupil shape, and they are applied to optical imaging systems with circular and annular pupils. The symmetry properties of the PSF, the real and imaginary parts of the OTF, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a system with a circular pupil aberrated by a Zernike circle polynomial aberration are derived. The interferograms and PSFs are illustrated for some typical polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of one wave, and 3D PSFs and MTFs are shown for 0.1 wave. The Strehl ratio is also calculated for polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of 0.1 wave, and shown to be well estimated from the sigma value. The numerical results are compared with the corresponding results in the literature. Because of the same angular dependence of the corresponding annular and circle polynomial aberrations, the symmetry properties of systems with annular pupils aberrated by an annular polynomial aberration are the same as those for a circular pupil aberrated by a corresponding circle polynomial aberration. They are also illustrated with numerical examples.

  2. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  3. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with large dynamic range by adaptive spot search method.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Hironobu; Saita, Yusuke; Nomura, Takanori

    2016-07-10

    A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) that consists of a microlens array and an image sensor has been used to measure the wavefront aberrations of human eyes. However, a conventional SHWFS has finite dynamic range depending on the diameter of the each microlens. The dynamic range cannot be easily expanded without a decrease of the spatial resolution. In this study, an adaptive spot search method to expand the dynamic range of an SHWFS is proposed. In the proposed method, spots are searched with the help of their approximate displacements measured with low spatial resolution and large dynamic range. By the proposed method, a wavefront can be correctly measured even if the spot is beyond the detection area. The adaptive spot search method is realized by using the special microlens array that generates both spots and discriminable patterns. The proposed method enables expanding the dynamic range of an SHWFS with a single shot and short processing time. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of a conventional SHWFS by optical experiments. Furthermore, the dynamic range of the proposed method is quantitatively evaluated by numerical simulations.

  4. Regional Approach for Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies Under Climate Change of Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Galvin, K.; Togtohyn, C.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral systems in Mongolia. Recently, market forces and development strategies are affecting land and water resources of the pastoral communities which are being further stressed due to climatic changes. Evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the social-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information about the social-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia. Our research indicate that sustainability of pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate integrated analysis of landscape management and livelihood strategies provides a framework which links ecosystem services to critical resource assets. Analysis of the available livelihood assets provides insights to the adaptive capacity of various agents in a region or in a community. Sustainable development pathways which enable the development of these adaptive capacity elements will lead to more effective adaptive management strategies for pastoral land use and herder's living standards. Pastoralists will have the

  5. Long-Term Grazing Exclusion Improves the Composition and Stability of Soil Organic Matter in Inner Mongolian Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyan; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Jinjing; Lv, Yuliang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of the composition of soil organic matter (SOM) in Inner Mongolian grassland soils associated with the duration of grazing exclusion (GE) has been considered an important index for evaluating the restoring effects of GE practice. By using five plots from a grassland succession series from free grazing to 31-year GE, we measured the content of soil organic carbon (SOC), humic acid carbon (HAC), fulvic acid carbon (FAC), humin carbon (HUC), and humic acid structure to evaluate the changes in SOM composition. The results showed that SOC, HUC, and the ratios of HAC/FAC and HAC/extractable humus carbon (C) increased significantly with prolonged GE duration, and their relationships can be well fitted by positive exponential equations, except for FAC. In contrast, the HAC content increased logarithmically with prolonged GE duration. Long-term GE enhanced the content of SOC and soil humification, which was obvious after more than 10 years of GE. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the ratios of alkyl C/O-alkyl C first decreased, and then remained stable with prolonged GE. Alternately, the ratios of aromaticity and hydrophobicity first increased, and then were maintained at relatively stable levels. Thus, a decade of GE improved the composition and structure of SOM in semiarid grassland soil and made it more stable. These findings provide new evidence to support the positive effects of long-term GE on soil SOC sequestration in the Inner Mongolian grasslands, in view of the improvement of SOM structure and stability. PMID:26057249

  6. Long-Term Grazing Exclusion Improves the Composition and Stability of Soil Organic Matter in Inner Mongolian Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyan; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Jinjing; Lv, Yuliang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of the composition of soil organic matter (SOM) in Inner Mongolian grassland soils associated with the duration of grazing exclusion (GE) has been considered an important index for evaluating the restoring effects of GE practice. By using five plots from a grassland succession series from free grazing to 31-year GE, we measured the content of soil organic carbon (SOC), humic acid carbon (HAC), fulvic acid carbon (FAC), humin carbon (HUC), and humic acid structure to evaluate the changes in SOM composition. The results showed that SOC, HUC, and the ratios of HAC/FAC and HAC/extractable humus carbon (C) increased significantly with prolonged GE duration, and their relationships can be well fitted by positive exponential equations, except for FAC. In contrast, the HAC content increased logarithmically with prolonged GE duration. Long-term GE enhanced the content of SOC and soil humification, which was obvious after more than 10 years of GE. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the ratios of alkyl C/O-alkyl C first decreased, and then remained stable with prolonged GE. Alternately, the ratios of aromaticity and hydrophobicity first increased, and then were maintained at relatively stable levels. Thus, a decade of GE improved the composition and structure of SOM in semiarid grassland soil and made it more stable. These findings provide new evidence to support the positive effects of long-term GE on soil SOC sequestration in the Inner Mongolian grasslands, in view of the improvement of SOM structure and stability.

  7. Effect of Mycoplasma hominis and cytomegalovirus infection on pregnancy outcome: A prospective study of 200 Mongolian women and their newborns

    PubMed Central

    Batbaatar, Gunchin; Tsogtsaikhan, Sandag; Enkhtsetseg, Jamsranjav; Enkhjargal, Altangerel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Adams, Ortwin; Battogtokh, Chimeddorj

    2017-01-01

    In Mongolia, diagnostic tests for the detection of the sexually transmitted mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, Herpes simplex virus (HSV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are currently not routinely used in clinical settings and the frequency of these STIs are enigmatic. The prevalence of these STI pathogens were prospectively evaluated among 200 Mongolian pregnant women and their newborns and correlated with pregnancy outcome. TaqMan PCRs were used to detect bacterial and viral STI pathogens in pre-birth vaginal swabs of the pregnant women and in oral swabs of their newborns. A standardized questionnaire concerning former and present pregnancies was developed and linear regression analysis was used to correlate pathogen detection with pregnancy outcome. Ureaplasmas were the most prevalent of the tested pathogens (positive in 90.5% positive women and 47.5% newborns), followed by mycoplasmas (32.5% and 7.5%), chlamydia (14.5% and 7.5%), trichomonas (8.5% and 4.0%) and gonococcus (0.5% and 0%). CMV was found in 46.5% of the pregnant women and in 10.5% of their newborns, whereas HSV-2 was detected in only two mothers. Multiple regression analyses indicate that colonization of the mothers with U. urealyticum, M. hominis, T. vaginalis or CMV is associated with transmission to newborns and that transmission of M. hominis or CMV from Mongolian pregnant women to offspring is associated with reduced neonatal length and gestational age. Thus, diagnostic tests for their detection should be implemented in the clinical settings in Mongolia. PMID:28257513

  8. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  9. Overlapped Fourier coding for optical aberration removal

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We present an imaging procedure that simultaneously optimizes a camera’s resolution and retrieves a sample’s phase over a sequence of snapshots. The technique, termed overlapped Fourier coding (OFC), first digitally pans a small aperture across a camera’s pupil plane with a spatial light modulator. At each aperture location, a unique image is acquired. The OFC algorithm then fuses these low-resolution images into a full-resolution estimate of the complex optical field incident upon the detector. Simultaneously, the algorithm utilizes redundancies within the acquired dataset to computationally estimate and remove unknown optical aberrations and system misalignments via simulated annealing. The result is an imaging system that can computationally overcome its optical imperfections to offer enhanced resolution, at the expense of taking multiple snapshots over time. PMID:25321982

  10. 7 CFR 1421.11 - Spot checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot checks. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.11 Spot checks. (a) CCC... CCC access to the farm and storage facility as necessary to conduct collateral inspections, or “spot...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1435 - Maxwell spot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maxwell spot. 886.1435 Section 886.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1435 Maxwell spot. (a) Identification. A Maxwell spot is an AC...

  12. Geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope-geochemical patterns of metavolcanic rocks, diabase, and metagabbroids on the northeastern flank of the South Mongolian-Khingan orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Yu. V.; Sorokin, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    The first results of geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope-geochemical studies of metavolcanic rocks, metagabbroids, and diabase of the Nora-Sukhotino terrane, the least studied part of the South Mongolian-Khingan orogenic belt in the system of the Central Asian orogenic belt are reported. It is established that the basic rocks composing this terrane include varieties comparable with E-MORB, tholeiitic, and calc-alkaline basalt of island arc, calc-alkaline gabbro-diabase, and gabbroids of island arcs. Most likely, these formations should be correlated with metabasalt and associated Late Ordovician gabbro-amphibolite of the Sukdulkin "block" of the South Mongolian-Khingan orogenic belt, which are similar to tholeiite of intraplate island arcs by their geochemical characteristics.

  13. Modified Matching Ronchi Test to Visualize Lens Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Kh; Ziafi, H. Hooshmand

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work…

  14. Aberrated laser beams in terms of Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alda, Javier; Alonso, Jose; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    1996-11-01

    The characterization of light beams has devoted a lot of attention in the past decade. Several formalisms have been presented to treat the problem of parameter invariance and characterization in the propagation of light beam along ideal, ABCD, optical systems. The hard and soft apertured optical systems have been treated too. Also some aberrations have been analyzed, but it has not appeared a formalism able to treat the problem as a whole. In this contribution we use a classical approach to describe the problem of aberrated, and therefore apertured, light beams. The wavefront aberration is included in a pure phase term expanded in terms of the Zernike polynomials. Then, we can use the relation between the lower order Zernike polynomia and the Seidel or third order aberrations. We analyze the astigmatism, the spherical aberration and the coma, and we show how higher order aberrations can be taken into account. We have calculated the divergence, and the radius of curvature of such aberrated beams and the influence of these aberrations in the quality of the light beam. Some numerical simulations have been done to illustrate the method.

  15. Aberrant Breast in a Rare Site: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yeniay, Levent; Mulailwa, Kilongo; Asgerov, Elmir; Hoşcoşkun, Cüneyt; Zekioğlu, Osman

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant breast tissue is an anomaly in the embryogenesis of the breast that is found along the mammary ridge or out of that line. We report a case of a 71-year-old female patient with an abdominal aberrant breast tissue found incidentally in a piece of mesenteric biopsy. The histological features were consistent with breast tissue. PMID:22792115

  16. Statistical estimation of ultrasonic propagation path parameters for aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Waag, Robert C; Astheimer, Jeffrey P

    2005-05-01

    Parameters in a linear filter model for ultrasonic propagation are found using statistical estimation. The model uses an inhomogeneous-medium Green's function that is decomposed into a homogeneous-transmission term and a path-dependent aberration term. Power and cross-power spectra of random-medium scattering are estimated over the frequency band of the transmit-receive system by using closely situated scattering volumes. The frequency-domain magnitude of the aberration is obtained from a normalization of the power spectrum. The corresponding phase is reconstructed from cross-power spectra of subaperture signals at adjacent receive positions by a recursion. The subapertures constrain the receive sensitivity pattern to eliminate measurement system phase contributions. The recursion uses a Laplacian-based algorithm to obtain phase from phase differences. Pulse-echo waveforms were acquired from a point reflector and a tissue-like scattering phantom through a tissue-mimicking aberration path from neighboring volumes having essentially the same aberration path. Propagation path aberration parameters calculated from the measurements of random scattering through the aberration phantom agree with corresponding parameters calculated for the same aberrator and array position by using echoes from the point reflector. The results indicate the approach describes, in addition to time shifts, waveform amplitude and shape changes produced by propagation through distributed aberration under realistic conditions.

  17. Accuracy of modal wavefront estimation from eye transverse aberration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of random errors in measurement of eye transverse aberrations on the accuracy of reconstructing wave aberration as well as ametropia and astigmatism parameters is investigated. The dependence of mentioned errors on a ratio between the number of measurement points and the number of polynomial coefficients is found for different pupil location of measurement points. Recommendations are proposed for setting these ratios.

  18. Structural centrosome aberrations promote non-cell-autonomous invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Ganier, Olivier; Schnerch, Dominik; Oertle, Philipp; Lim, Roderick Yh; Plodinec, Marija; Nigg, Erich A

    2018-05-02

    Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells. Although centrosome aberrations are common in tumors, their consequences remain subject to debate. Here, we studied the impact of structural centrosome aberrations, induced by deregulated expression of ninein-like protein (NLP), on epithelial spheres grown in Matrigel matrices. We demonstrate that NLP-induced structural centrosome aberrations trigger the escape ("budding") of living cells from epithelia. Remarkably, all cells disseminating into the matrix were undergoing mitosis. This invasive behavior reflects a novel mechanism that depends on the acquisition of two distinct properties. First, NLP-induced centrosome aberrations trigger a re-organization of the cytoskeleton, which stabilizes microtubules and weakens E-cadherin junctions during mitosis. Second, atomic force microscopy reveals that cells harboring these centrosome aberrations display increased stiffness. As a consequence, mitotic cells are pushed out of mosaic epithelia, particularly if they lack centrosome aberrations. We conclude that centrosome aberrations can trigger cell dissemination through a novel, non-cell-autonomous mechanism, raising the prospect that centrosome aberrations contribute to the dissemination of metastatic cells harboring normal centrosomes. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  19. Optical aberrations measurement with a low cost optometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Walter D.; Muñoz-Escrivá, L.; Pons, A.; Martínez-Corral, M.

    2002-08-01

    A simple experimental method for measuring optical aberrations of a single lens is proposed. The technique is based on the use of an optometric instrument employed for the assessment of the refractive state of the eye: the retinoscope. Experimental results for spherical aberration and astigmatism are obtained.

  20. Statistical virtual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-Mei; Liu, Chun-Ling; Luo, Yi-Ning; Liu, Yi-Guang; Hu, Bing-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Wavefront aberration affects the quality of retinal image directly. This paper reviews the representation and reconstruction of wavefront aberration, as well as the construction of virtual eye model based on Zernike polynomial coefficients. In addition, the promising prospect of virtual eye model is emphasized. PMID:23173112

  1. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  2. Great Red Spot Rotation (animation)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-11

    Winds around Jupiter's Great Red Spot are simulated in this JunoCam view that has been animated using a model of the winds there. The wind model, called a velocity field, was derived from data collected by NASA's Voyager spacecraft and Earth-based telescopes. NASA's Juno spacecraft acquired the original, static view during passage over the spot on July 10, 2017. Citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Justin Cowart turned the JunoCam data into a color image mosaic. Juno scientists Shawn Ewald and Andrew Ingersoll applied the velocity data to the image to produce a looping animation. An animation is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22178

  3. Dark Spot and Jovian Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-24

    This enhanced-color image of a mysterious dark spot on Jupiter seems to reveal a Jovian "galaxy" of swirling storms. Juno acquired this JunoCam image on Feb. 2, 2017, at 5:13 a.m. PDT (8:13 a.m. EDT), at an altitude of 9,000 miles (14,500 kilometers) above the giant planet's cloud tops. This publicly selected target was simply titled "Dark Spot." In ground-based images it was difficult to tell that it is a dark storm. Citizen scientist Roman Tkachenko enhanced the color to bring out the rich detail in the storm and surrounding clouds. Just south of the dark storm is a bright, oval-shaped storm with high, bright, white clouds, reminiscent of a swirling galaxy. As a final touch, he rotated the image 90 degrees, turning the picture into a work of art. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21386

  4. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  5. Measurement of laser spot quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Treptau, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of measuring spot quality are compared. We examine in detail various figures of merit such as full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at 1/(e exp 2) maximum, Strehl ratio, and encircled energy. Our application is optical data storage, but results can be applied to other areas like space communications and high energy lasers. We found that the optimum figure of merit in many cases is Strehl ratio.

  6. Image based method for aberration measurement of lithographic tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Bo; Guo, Yongxing; Li, Gongfa

    2018-01-01

    Information of lens aberration of lithographic tools is important as it directly affects the intensity distribution in the image plane. Zernike polynomials are commonly used for a mathematical description of lens aberrations. Due to the advantage of lower cost and easier implementation of tools, image based measurement techniques have been widely used. Lithographic tools are typically partially coherent systems that can be described by a bilinear model, which entails time consuming calculations and does not lend a simple and intuitive relationship between lens aberrations and the resulted images. Previous methods for retrieving lens aberrations in such partially coherent systems involve through-focus image measurements and time-consuming iterative algorithms. In this work, we propose a method for aberration measurement in lithographic tools, which only requires measuring two images of intensity distribution. Two linear formulations are derived in matrix forms that directly relate the measured images to the unknown Zernike coefficients. Consequently, an efficient non-iterative solution is obtained.

  7. Surgical and healing changes to ocular aberrations following refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jochen; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To measure ocular aberrations before and at several time periods after LASIK surgery to determine the change to the aberration structure of the eye. Methods: A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure 88 LASIK patients pre-operatively and at 1 week and 12 months following surgery. Reconstructed wavefront errors are compared to look at induced differences. Manifest refraction was measured at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months following surgery. Sphere, cylinder, spherical aberration, and pupil diameter are analyzed. Results: A dramatic elevation in spherical aberration is seen following surgery. This elevation appears almost immediately and remains for the duration of the study. A temporary increase in pupil size is seen following surgery. Conclusions: LASIK surgery dramatically reduces defocus and astigmatism in the eye, but simultaneously increases spherical aberration levels. This increase occurs at the time of surgery and is not an effect of the healing response.

  8. Hydronephrosis by an Aberrant Renal Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung Seok; Jeong, Taek Kyun; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan; Kim, Nam Ho; Choi, Ki Chul; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2003-01-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction is usually intrinsic and is most common in children. Aberrant renal arteries are present in about 30% of individuals. Aberrant renal arteries to the inferior pole cross anteriorly to the ureter and may cause hydronephrosis. To the best of our knowledge, although there are some papers about aberrant renal arteries producing ureteropelvic junction obstruction, there is no report of a case which is diagnosed by the new modalities, such as computed tomography angiogram (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA). We describe a 36-year-old woman with right hydronephrosis. Kidney ultrasonogram and excretory urogram revealed right hydronephrosis. CTA and MRA clearly displayed an aberrant renal artery and hydronephrosis. The patient underwent surgical exploration. For the evaluation of hydronephrosis by an aberrant renal artery, use of CTA and MRA is advocated. PMID:12760271

  9. Systematic Propulsion Optimization Tools (SPOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark; Celestian, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a computer program written by senior-level Mechanical Engineering students at the University of Alabama in Huntsville which is capable of optimizing user-defined delivery systems for carrying payloads into orbit. The custom propulsion system is designed by the user through the input of configuration, payload, and orbital parameters. The primary advantages of the software, called Systematic Propulsion Optimization Tools (SPOT), are a user-friendly interface and a modular FORTRAN 77 code designed for ease of modification. The optimization of variables in an orbital delivery system is of critical concern in the propulsion environment. The mass of the overall system must be minimized within the maximum stress, force, and pressure constraints. SPOT utilizes the Design Optimization Tools (DOT) program for the optimization techniques. The SPOT program is divided into a main program and five modules: aerodynamic losses, orbital parameters, liquid engines, solid engines, and nozzles. The program is designed to be upgraded easily and expanded to meet specific user needs. A user's manual and a programmer's manual are currently being developed to facilitate implementation and modification.

  10. [Fire behavior of Mongolian oak leaves fuel-bed under no-wind and zero-slope conditions. I. Factors affecting fire spread rate and modeling].

    PubMed

    Jin, Sen; Liu, Bo-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Chu, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Li

    2012-01-01

    Aimed to understand the fire behavior of Mongolian oak leaves fuel-bed under field condition, the leaves of a secondary Mongolian oak forest in Northeast Forestry University experimental forest farm were collected and brought into laboratory to construct fuel-beds with varied loading, height, and moisture content, and a total of 100 experimental fires were burned under no-wind and zero-slope conditions. It was observed that the fire spread rate of the fuel-beds was less than 0.5 m x min(-1). Fuel-bed loading, height, and moisture contents all had significant effects on the fire spread rate. The effect of fuel-bed moisture content on the fire spread had no significant correlations with fuel-bed loading and height, but the effect of fuel-bed height was related to the fuel-bed loading. The packing ratio of fuel-beds had less effect on the fire spread rate. Taking the fuel-bed loading, height, and moisture content as predictive variables, a prediction model for the fire spread rate of Mongolian oak leaves fuel-bed was established, which could explain 83% of the variance of the fire spread rate, with a mean absolute error 0.04 m x min(-1) and a mean relative error less than 17%.

  11. Aberration-free intraocular lenses - What does this really mean?

    PubMed

    Langenbucher, Achim; Schröder, Simon; Cayless, Alan; Eppig, Timo

    2017-09-01

    So-called aberration-free intraocular lenses (IOLs) are well established in modern cataract surgery. Usually, they are designed to perfectly refract a collimated light beam onto the focal point. We show how much aberration can be expected with such an IOL in a convergent light beam such as that found anterior to the human cornea. Additionally, the aberration in a collimated beam is estimated for an IOL that has no aberrations in the convergent beam. The convergent beam is modelled as the pencil of rays corresponding to the spherical wavefront resulting from a typical corneal power of 43m -1 . The IOLs are modelled as infinitely thin phase plates with 20m -1 optical power placed 5mm behind the cornea. Their aberrations are reported in terms of optical path length difference and longitudinal spherical aberration (LSA) of the marginal rays, as well as nominal spherical aberration (SA) calculated based on a Zernike representation of the wavefront-error at the corneal plane within a 6mm aperture. The IOL designed to have no aberrations in a collimated light beam has an optical path length difference of -1.8μm, and LSA of 0.15m -1 in the convergent beam of a typical eye. The corresponding nominal SA is 0.065μm. The IOL designed to have no aberrations in a convergent light beam has an optical path length difference of 1.8μm, and LSA of -0.15m -1 in the collimated beam. An IOL designed to have no aberrations in a collimated light beam will increase the SA of a patient's eye after implantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Huang, Juan; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and treated monkeys reared with optically induced defocus or form deprivation showed a decrease in the magnitude of high-order aberrations with age. However, the decrease in aberrations was typically smaller in the treated animals. Thus, at the end of the lens-rearing period, higher than normal amounts of aberrations were observed in treated eyes, both hyperopic and myopic eyes and treated eyes that developed astigmatism, but not spherical ametropias. The total RMS wavefront error increased with the degree of spherical refractive error, but was not correlated with the degree of astigmatism. Both myopic and hyperopic treated eyes showed elevated amounts of coma and trefoil and the degree of trefoil increased with the degree of spherical ametropia. Myopic eyes also exhibited a much higher prevalence of positive spherical aberration than normal or treated hyperopic eyes. Following the onset of unrestricted vision, the amount of high-order aberrations decreased in the treated monkeys that also recovered from the experimentally induced refractive errors. Our results demonstrate that high-order aberrations are influenced by visual experience in young primates and that the increase in high-order aberrations in our treated monkeys appears to be an optical byproduct of the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth that underlie changes in refractive error. The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development. PMID:17825347

  13. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    PubMed

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  14. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  15. [Clinical value of cupping spot effect].

    PubMed

    Ji, Chang-Chun; Huang, Li-Ping; Yang, Gai-Qin; Zhao, Jing-Yu; Zou, Wei; Guo, Xiao-Chuan; Liu, Shao-Ming

    2014-12-01

    The cupping spot is considered as one kind of skin change due to cupping treatment. With literature regarding cupping spot, the influencing factors and value of cupping spot in clinical diagnosis and treatment were analyzed, which could make a further exploration on the action mechanism of cupping treatment. The literature showed that the formation of cupping spot was related with cupping temperature, pressure, cup-retaining time, cupping area, individual difference and health condition, etc; cupping spot had the ability to assist diagnosis, prevent disease, cure disease and evaluate clinical efficacy. Previous studies on cupping spot have already made some progress, and played a positive significance on finding cupping rule and studying its mechanism. However, the research for this area is still in the primary stage, which needed deeper study to reveal scientific connotations of cupping spot.

  16. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  17. A Evaluation of Optical Aberrations in Underwater Hologrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, J. M.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. An iterative ray-trace procedure is developed in conjunction with semi-analytic expressions for spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism in the reconstructed holographic images of underwater objects. An exact expression for the astigmatic difference is obtained, based on the geometry of the caustic for refraction. The geometrical characteristics of the aberrated images associated with axial and non-axial field positions are represented by ray intersection diagrams. A third order expression for the wavefront aberration introduced at a planar air/water boundary is given. The associated third order aberration coefficients are used to obtain analytic expressions for the aberrations observed in underwater hologrammetry. The results of the third order treatment are shown to give good agreement with the results obtained by geometrical ray tracing and by direct measurement on the reconstructed real image. The third order aberration coefficients are employed to estimate the limit of resolution in the presence of the aberrations associated with reconstruction in air. In concurrence with practical observations it is found that the estimated resolution is primarily limited by astigmatism. The limitations of the planar window in underwater imaging applications are outlined and various schemes are considered to effect a reduction in the extent of aberration. The analogous problems encountered in underwater photography are examined in order to establish the grounds for a common solution based on a conventional optical corrector. The performance of one such system, the Ivanoff Corrector, is investigated. The spherical aberration associated with axial image formation is evaluated. The equivalence of the third order wavefront aberration introduced at a planar air/water boundary to that introduced upon reconstruction by an appropriate wavelength change is shown to provide a basis for the compensation of aberrations in

  18. Aberration corrected STEM by means of diffraction gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Linck, Martin; Ercius, Peter A.; Pierce, Jordan S.

    In the past 15 years, the advent of aberration correction technology in electron microscopy has enabled materials analysis on the atomic scale. This is made possible by precise arrangements of multipole electrodes and magnetic solenoids to compensate the aberrations inherent to any focusing element of an electron microscope. In this paper, we describe an alternative method to correct for the spherical aberration of the objective lens in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a passive, nanofabricated diffractive optical element. This holographic device is installed in the probe forming aperture of a conventional electron microscope and can be designed to removemore » arbitrarily complex aberrations from the electron's wave front. In this work, we show a proof-of-principle experiment that demonstrates successful correction of the spherical aberration in STEM by means of such a grating corrector (GCOR). Our GCOR enables us to record aberration-corrected high-resolution high-angle annular dark field (HAADF-) STEM images, although yet without advancement in probe current and resolution. Finally, improvements in this technology could provide an economical solution for aberration-corrected high-resolution STEM in certain use scenarios.« less

  19. Population dynamics of aberrant chromosome 1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Sabantsev, I; Spitsin, O; Agulnik, S; Ruvinsky, A

    1993-05-01

    Natural populations of two semispecies of house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m. musculus, were found to be polymorphic for an aberrant chromosome 1 bearing a large inserted block of homogeneously staining heterochromatin. Strong meiotic drive for the aberrant chromosome from M.m. musculus was previously observed in heterozygous female mice. There are at least three meiotic drive levels determined by different allelic variants of distorter. Homozygotes had low viability and females showed low fertility. Both homo- and heterozygous males had normal fertility and their segregation patterns did not deviate from normal. Computer simulations were performed of the dynamics of aberrant chromosome 1 in demes and populations. The data demonstrate that a spontaneous mutation (inversion) of an aberrant chromosome 1, once arisen, has a high probability of spreading in a population at high coefficients of meiotic drive and migration. In the long-term, the population attains a stationary state which is determined by the drive level and migration intensity. The state of stable genotypic equilibrium is independent of deme and population size, as well as of the initial concentration of the aberrant chromosome. As populations initially polymorphic for the distorters approach the stationary state, the stronger distorter is eliminated. The frequencies of the aberrant chromosome determined by computer analysis agree well with those obtained for the studied Asian M.m. musculus populations. The evolutionary pathways for the origin and fixation of the aberrant chromosome in natural populations are considered.

  20. Aberration corrected STEM by means of diffraction gratings

    DOE PAGES

    Linck, Martin; Ercius, Peter A.; Pierce, Jordan S.; ...

    2017-06-12

    In the past 15 years, the advent of aberration correction technology in electron microscopy has enabled materials analysis on the atomic scale. This is made possible by precise arrangements of multipole electrodes and magnetic solenoids to compensate the aberrations inherent to any focusing element of an electron microscope. In this paper, we describe an alternative method to correct for the spherical aberration of the objective lens in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a passive, nanofabricated diffractive optical element. This holographic device is installed in the probe forming aperture of a conventional electron microscope and can be designed to removemore » arbitrarily complex aberrations from the electron's wave front. In this work, we show a proof-of-principle experiment that demonstrates successful correction of the spherical aberration in STEM by means of such a grating corrector (GCOR). Our GCOR enables us to record aberration-corrected high-resolution high-angle annular dark field (HAADF-) STEM images, although yet without advancement in probe current and resolution. Finally, improvements in this technology could provide an economical solution for aberration-corrected high-resolution STEM in certain use scenarios.« less

  1. Prevalence of classic signs and symptoms of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in Mongolian children and women.

    PubMed

    Uush, Tserendolgor

    2013-07-01

    In order to assess the current nutrition status of Mongolian population, including rickets and vitamin D deficiency of children and women, the Fourth National Nutrition Cross-Sectional Survey was conducted in 21 aimags (provinces) of 4 economic regions of the country and capital city Ulaanbaatar in 2010. Children of age under five years, and non-pregnant women of reproductive age were used as subjects for assessing rickets and vitamin D deficiency. A total of 400 households were randomly selected from each of 4 economic regions and Ulaanbaatar city. Clinical examinations were performed on 706 children of age under five years. Interviews were used to assess vitamin D supplement use. The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in 524 children aged 6-59 months and in 867 women of reproductive age. This survey found that 21.8% of children had vitamin D deficiency, 20.6% had low vitamin D reserve, and 30.0% of women had vitamin D deficiency and 22.2% had low vitamin D reserve. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children (35.0%, 95% CI, 24.7-47.0) and women (54.9%, 95% CI 45.5-64.0) in the Eastern Region was (35.0%, 95% CI, 24.7-47.0) significantly higher than in the Western, Khangai, Central Regions, and Ulaanbaatar. Further it was found that 27.4% of children under-two years had received vitamin D supplementation. The proportion of children, who did not receive vitamin D supplementation had a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than that of the children of the Eastern Region. None of the women who were involved in this survey had received vitamin D supplementation; 10.2% of them had delivered in the past 12 months, and 22.5% were breastfeeding. The prevalence of classic signs and symptoms of rickets were commonly reported among children of age under five, and skeletal abnormalities more commonly reported in children aged 12-47 months. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of classic signs and symptoms of rickets in children of age under five

  2. Distinctive proteolytic activity of cell envelope proteinase of Lactobacillus helveticus isolated from airag, a traditional Mongolian fermented mare's milk.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Mari; Ueno, Hiroshi M; Watanabe, Masayuki; Tatsuma, Yumi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Taku; Nakajima, Hadjime

    2015-03-16

    Airag is a traditional fermented milk of Mongolia that is usually made from raw mare's milk. Lactobacillus helveticus is one of the lactic acid bacteria most frequently isolated from airag. In this study, we investigated the genetic and physiological characteristics of L. helveticus strains isolated from airag and clarified their significance in airag by comparing them with strains from different sources. Six strains of L. helveticus were isolated from five home-made airag samples collected from different regions of Mongolia. The optimal temperature for acidification in skim milk was 30 to 35°C for all the Mongolian strains, which is lower than those for the reference strains (JCM 1554 and JCM 1120(T)) isolated from European cheeses. All of the strains had a prtH1-like gene encoding a variant type of cell envelope proteinase (CEP). The CEP amino acid sequence in Snow Brand Typeculture (SBT) 11087 isolated from airag shared 71% identity with PrtH of L. helveticus CNRZ32 (AAD50643.1) but 98% identity with PrtH of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 (AEG40278.1) isolated from a traditional fermented milk in Tibet. The proteolytic activities of the CEP from SBT11087 on artificial substrate (N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide) and pure casein were measured using an intact-cell degradation assay. The activity of the CEP from SBT11087 was observed to be weak and exhibited a lower optimal temperature (40°C) than those from the reference strains (45-50°C). The specificity of the SBT11087 CEP for αS1-casein was typical of the CEPs previously reported in L. helveticus, as determined through the degradation profiles obtained through gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses. In contrast, the degradation profile of β-casein revealed that the CEP of SBT11087 primarily hydrolyzes its C-terminal domain and hydrolyzed nine of the 16 cleavage sites shared among the CEPs of other L. helveticus strains. Thus, the CEP of SBT11087 is distinct from those from

  3. Accretionary history of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: perspectives from granitic zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2014-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) consists of many tectonic terranes with distinct origin and complicated evolutionary history. Understanding of individual block is crucial to reconstruct the geodynamic history of the gigantic accetionary collage. This study presents zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for the granitoid rocks in the Russian Altai mountain range (including Gorny Altai, Altai-Mongolian terrane and CTUS suture zone between them), in order to clarify the timing of granitic magmatism, source nature, continental crustal growth and tectonic evolution. Our dating results suggest that granitic magmatism of the Russian Altai mountain range occurred in three major episodes including 445~429 Ma, 410~360 Ma and ~241 Ma. Most of the zircons within the Paleozoic granitoids present comparable positive ɛHf(t) values and Neoproterozoic crustal model ages, which favor the interpretation that the juvenile crustal materials produced in the early stage of CAOB were probably dominant sources for the Paleozoic magmatism in the region. The inference is also supported by widespread occurrence of short-lived juvenile materials including ophiolites, seamount relics and arc assemblages in the north CAOB. Consequently, the Paleozoic massive granitic rocks maybe not represent continental crustal growth at the time when they were emplaced, but rather record reworking of relatively juvenile Proterozoic crustal rocks although mantle-derived mafic magma was possibly involved to sever as heat engine during granitic magma generation. The Early Triassic granitic intrusion may be product in an intra-plate environment, as the case of same type rocks in the adjacent areas. The positive ɛHf(t) values (1.81~7.47) and corresponding Hf model ages (0.80~1.16 Ga) together with evidence of petrology are consistent with the interpretation that the parental magma of the Triassic granitic intrusion was produced from enriched mantle-derived sources under an usually high temperature condition

  4. The Mechanisms of Aberrant Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Samuel; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chris; Knowles, Tuomas

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a kinetic theory for understanding the aberrant loss of solubility of proteins. The failure to maintain protein solubility results often in the assembly of organized linear structures, commonly known as amyloid fibrils, the formation of which is associated with over 50 clinical disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A true microscopic understanding of the mechanisms that drive these aggregation processes has proved difficult to achieve. To address this challenge, we apply the methodologies of chemical kinetics to the biomolecular self-assembly pathways related to protein aggregation. We discuss the relevant master equation and analytical approaches to studying it. In particular, we derive the underlying rate laws in closed-form using a self-consistent solution scheme; the solutions that we obtain reveal scaling behaviors that are very generally present in systems of growing linear aggregates, and, moreover, provide a general route through which to relate experimental measurements to mechanistic information. We conclude by outlining a study of the aggregation of the Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide. The study identifies the dominant microscopic mechanism of aggregation and reveals previously unidentified therapeutic strategies.

  5. Ocular higher-order aberrations in a school children population.

    PubMed

    Papamastorakis, George; Panagopoulou, Sophia; Tsilimbaris, Militadis K; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Plainis, Sotiris

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to explore the statistics of ocular higher-order aberrations in a population of primary and secondary school children. A sample of 557 children aged 10-15 years were selected from two primary and two secondary schools in Heraklion, Greece. Children were classified by age in three subgroups: group I (10.7±0.5 years), group II (12.4±0.5 years) and group III (14.5±0.5 years). Ocular aberrations were measured using a wavefront aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences, USA) at mesopic light levels (illuminance at cornea was 4lux). Wavefront analysis was achieved for a 5mm pupil. Statistical analysis was carried out for the right eye only. The average coefficient of most high-order aberrations did not differ from zero with the exception of vertical (0.076μm) and horizontal (0.018μm) coma, oblique trefoil (-0.055μm) and spherical aberration (0.018μm). The most prominent change between the three groups was observed for the spherical aberration, which increased from 0.007μm (SE 0.005) in group I to 0.011μm (SE 0.004) in group II and 0.030μm (SE 0.004) in group III. Significant differences were also found for the oblique astigmatism and the third-order coma aberrations. Differences in the low levels of ocular spherical aberration in young children possibly reflect differences in lenticular spherical aberration and relate to the gradient refractive index of the lens. The evaluation of spherical aberration at certain stages of eye growth may help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of myopia development. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Ocular higher-order aberrations in a school children population

    PubMed Central

    Papamastorakis, George; Panagopoulou, Sophia; Tsilimbaris, Militadis K.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Plainis, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of the study was to explore the statistics of ocular higher-order aberrations in a population of primary and secondary school children. Methods A sample of 557 children aged 10–15 years were selected from two primary and two secondary schools in Heraklion, Greece. Children were classified by age in three subgroups: group I (10.7 ± 0.5 years), group II (12.4 ± 0.5 years) and group III (14.5 ± 0.5 years). Ocular aberrations were measured using a wavefront aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences, USA) at mesopic light levels (illuminance at cornea was 4 lux). Wavefront analysis was achieved for a 5 mm pupil. Statistical analysis was carried out for the right eye only. Results The average coefficient of most high-order aberrations did not differ from zero with the exception of vertical (0.076 μm) and horizontal (0.018 μm) coma, oblique trefoil (−0.055 μm) and spherical aberration (0.018 μm). The most prominent change between the three groups was observed for the spherical aberration, which increased from 0.007 μm (SE 0.005) in group I to 0.011 μm (SE 0.004) in group II and 0.030 μm (SE 0.004) in group III. Significant differences were also found for the oblique astigmatism and the third-order coma aberrations. Conclusions Differences in the low levels of ocular spherical aberration in young children possibly reflect differences in lenticular spherical aberration and relate to the gradient refractive index of the lens. The evaluation of spherical aberration at certain stages of eye growth may help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of myopia development. PMID:25288226

  7. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  8. Jupiter's Great Red Spot Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-12

    This enhanced-color image of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was created by citizen scientist Kevin Gill using data from the JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft. The image was taken on July 10, 2017 at 07:07 p.m. PDT (10:07 p.m. EDT), as the Juno spacecraft performed its 7th close flyby of Jupiter. At the time the image was taken, the spacecraft was about 6,130 miles (9,866 kilometers) from the tops of the clouds of the planet. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21395

  9. Collaboration spotting for dental science.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A

    2014-10-06

    The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to Dental Science. In order to create a Sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro--maxillo--facial critical size defects, namely the use of Porous HydroxyApatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex--vivo of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. We produced the Sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on--line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state--of--the--art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used for Dental Science and produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped

  10. Collaboration Spotting for oral medicine.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to oral medicine. In order to create a sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro-maxillo-facial critical size defects, namely the use of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex vivo of mesenchymal stem cells. We produced the sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on-line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state-of-the-art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used in oral medicine as is produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped technologies in

  11. Visceral leishmaniasis with Roth spots

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Jagdish; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra; Vats, Pallavi; Pawaria, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the bite of infected sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes. The protozoa is obliged intracellularly and causes a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes: VL (‘kala azar’), cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (espundia). Kala azar is the most aggressive form and if untreated causes high mortality. Here, we describe a case of VL that presented to us with high-grade fever and found to have Roth spots that were resolved after 15 days of therapy. PMID:25988048

  12. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Florian T A; Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd U

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting, monofocal intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS Twenty-one patients (34 eyes) aged 50 to 83y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity (CS) under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations (HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight (C-Quant). RESULTS Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27 (primary coma components) and -0.04±0.16 (spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed (P≥0.28). CONCLUSION The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataract surgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration (HOA) and normal straylight. PMID:26309872

  13. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  14. Spotted bass Micropterus punctulatus (Rafinesque 1819)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Timothy N.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2015-01-01

    Three subspecies of Spotted Bass Micropterus punctulatus were historically recognized: the smaller Northern Spotted Bass M. p. punctulatus, the larger, longer-lived Alabama Spotted Bass M. p. henshalli, and the now invalidated Wichita Spotted Bass M. p. wichitae (Bailey and Hubbs 1940; Cofer 1995; Warren 2009; Rider and Maceina 2015, this volume). The subspecific status has been examined over the past decade as advanced genetic analyses have been developed (e.g., Kassler et al. 2002; Baker et al. 2008; Tringali et al. 2015, this volume). The American Fisheries Society has recently changed the designation of the Alabama Spotted Bass to a separate species, Alabama Bass M. henshalli (Page et al. 2013). The remainder of this paper will discuss the biology and conservation of only Spotted Bass. Both species have been observed to hybridize with other Micropterus spp. (Koppelman 1994; Pierce and Van Den Avyle 1997; Barwick et al. 2006).

  15. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  16. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  17. Instructor Debrief Training in SPOT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Orasanu, Judith; Villeda, Eric; Conners, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One way to enhance the effectiveness of Special Purpose Operational Training' (SPOT) debriefing sessions may be for instructors to make explicit connections between the Crew Resource Management (CRM) concepts a carrier advocates and the behaviors displayed by the crew in question. A tool listing key behaviors from the scenario was devised, accompanied by an instructors' training session in which links were made between the behaviors and the underlying CRM processes they reflect. The aim of the tool is to assist instructors to focus the debriefing on the key SPOT/ CRM issues, in this case on planning. A second tool suggested ways to facilitate the discussion. Fourteen instructors at a major U.S. carrier took part in the training session and used the toolkit in their subsequent debriefs. Pre- and post-training debriefing samples from each instructor were compared to assess whether there were any changes in instructors' approaches to discussions in terms of the topics they covered and how they raised the points.

  18. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

  19. Integrating Sustainable Hunting in Biodiversity Protection in Central Africa: Hot Spots, Weak Spots, and Strong Spots

    PubMed Central

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  20. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  1. Studies on Typhus and Spotted Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever , scrub typhus, trench fever, R. prowazekil, R. mooseri, R. Canada, R...rickettsia- static action: erythromycin and rifampin. Although erythromycin aiready had proven to be unreliable in the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever , the...DC. 9. DuPont, H. L., R. B. Hornick, A. T. Dawkins, G. G. heiner. I. B. Fabrikant, C. L. Wisseman. Jr, and T. E. Woodward. 1VU1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever :

  2. Coconut oil enhances tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation compared to safflower oil in the Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ).

    PubMed

    Conlon, Lauren E; King, Ryan D; Moran, Nancy E; Erdman, John W

    2012-08-29

    Evidence suggests that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats facilitate greater absorption of carotenoids than saturated fats. However, the comparison of consuming a polyunsaturated fat source versus a saturated fat source on tomato carotenoid bioaccumulation has not been examined. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of coconut oil and safflower oil on tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) fed a 20% fat diet. Coconut oil feeding increased carotenoid concentrations among many compartments including total carotenoids in the serum (p = 0.0003), adrenal glandular phytoene (p = 0.04), hepatic phytofluene (p = 0.0001), testicular all-trans-lycopene (p = 0.01), and cis-lycopene (p = 0.006) in the prostate-seminal vesicle complex compared to safflower oil. Safflower oil-fed gerbils had greater splenic lycopene concentrations (p = 0.006) compared to coconut oil-fed gerbils. Coconut oil feeding increased serum cholesterol (p = 0.0001) and decreased hepatic cholesterol (p = 0.0003) compared to safflower oil. In summary, coconut oil enhanced tissue uptake of tomato carotenoids to a greater degree than safflower oil. These results may have been due to the large proportion of medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil, which might have caused a shift in cholesterol flux to favor extrahepatic carotenoid tissue deposition.

  3. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271–1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. PMID:25487330

  4. Inhibitory effect of etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on stomach carcinogenesis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils

    SciTech Connect

    Magari, Hirohito; Shimizu, Yasuhito; Inada, Ken-ichi

    2005-08-26

    The effect of the selective COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, on Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-associated stomach carcinogenesis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils (MGs). Hp-infected MGs were fed for 23 weeks with drinking water containing 10 ppm N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. They were then switched to distilled water and placed on a diet containing 5-30 mg/kg/day etodolac for 30 weeks. We found that etodolac dose-dependently inhibited the development of gastric cancer, and no cancer was detected at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Etodolac did not affect the extent of inflammatory cell infiltration or oxidative DNA damage, but it significantly inhibited mucosal cell proliferation and dose-dependently repressed themore » development of intestinal metaplasia in the stomachs of Hp-infected MGs. These results suggest that COX-2 is a key molecule in inflammation-mediated stomach carcinogenesis and that chemoprevention of stomach cancer should be possible by controlling COX-2 expression or activity.« less

  5. Leaf extract of Wasabia japonica relieved oxidative stress induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and stress loading in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Fumiyo; Deguchi, Yuya; Masuda, Hideki; Toyoizumi, Tomoyasu; Masuda, Shuichi; Kinae, Naohide

    2010-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can induce gastric disorders, and though its presence cannot explain disease pathogenesis and does not have associations with other factors, it is well known that H. pylori infection causes stomach inflammation following oxidative stress. We examined the suppressive effects of a leaf extract of Wasabia japonica on H. pylori infection and on stress loading in Mongolian gerbils. Following oral administration of wasabi extract of 50 and 200 mg/kg B.W./d for 10 d, the animals were exposed to restraint stress for 90 and 270 min. As for the results, the level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in the stomach and oxidative DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes at 270 min significantly increased. That elevation was significantly suppressed by the addition of the leaf extract. We concluded that the simultaneous loading of H. pylori infection and physical stress loading might induce oxidative DNA damage additively, while a leaf extract attenuated this DNA damage in the stomach as well as the peripheral erythrocytes.

  6. Anatomy of the auditory thalamocortical system in the Mongolian gerbil: nuclear origins and cortical field-, layer-, and frequency-specificities.

    PubMed

    Saldeitis, Katja; Happel, Max F K; Ohl, Frank W; Scheich, Henning; Budinger, Eike

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical organization of the auditory thalamocortical (TC) system is fundamental for the understanding of auditory information processing in the brain. In the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), a valuable model species in auditory research, the detailed anatomy of this system has not yet been worked out in detail. Here, we investigated the projections from the three subnuclei of the medial geniculate body (MGB), namely, its ventral (MGv), dorsal (MGd), and medial (MGm) divisions, as well as from several of their subdivisions (MGv: pars lateralis [LV], pars ovoidea [OV], rostral pole [RP]; MGd: deep dorsal nucleus [DD]), to the auditory cortex (AC) by stereotaxic pressure injections and electrophysiologically guided iontophoretic injections of the anterograde tract tracer biocytin. Our data reveal highly specific features of the TC connections regarding their nuclear origin in the subdivisions of the MGB and their termination patterns in the auditory cortical fields and layers. In addition to tonotopically organized projections, primarily of the LV, OV, and DD to the AC, a large number of axons diverge across the tonotopic gradient. These originate mainly from the RP, MGd (proper), and MGm. In particular, neurons of the MGm project in a columnar fashion to several auditory fields, forming small- and medium-sized boutons, and also hitherto unknown giant terminals. The distinctive layer-specific distribution of axonal endings within the AC indicates that each of the TC connectivity systems has a specific function in auditory cortical processing. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Changes in Spatial Patterns of Caragana stenophylla along a Climatic Drought Gradient on the Inner Mongolian Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li-Na; Guo, Hong-Yu; Gabler, Christopher A.; Li, Qing-Fang; Ma, Cheng-Cang

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the influence of water availability on plant population spatial patterns. We studied changes in the spatial patterns of Caragana stenophylla along a climatic drought gradient within the Inner Mongolian Plateau, China. We examined spatial patterns, seed density, “nurse effects” of shrubs on seedlings, transpiration rates and water use efficiency (WUE) of C. stenophylla across semi-arid, arid, and intensively arid zones. Our results showed that patches of C. stenophylla populations shifted from a random to a clumped spatial pattern towards drier environments. Seed density and seedling survival rate of C. stenophylla decreased from the semi-arid zone to the intensively arid zone. Across the three zones, there were more C. stenophylla seeds and seedlings underneath shrub canopies than outside shrub canopies; and in the intensively arid zone, there were almost no seeds or seedlings outside shrub canopies. Transpiration rates of outer-canopy leaves and WUE of both outer-canopy and inner-canopy leaves increased from the semi-arid zone to the intensively arid zone. In the intensively arid zone, transpiration rates and WUE of inner-canopy leaves were significantly lower and higher, respectively, than those of outer-canopy leaves. We conclude that, as drought stress increased, seed density decreased, seed proportions inside shrubs increased, and “nurse effects” of shrubs on seedlings became more important. These factors, combined with water-saving characteristics associated with clumped spatial patterns, are likely driving the changes in C. stenophylla spatial patterns. PMID:25785848

  8. Response of aboveground biomass and diversity to nitrogen addition along a degradation gradient in the Inner Mongolian steppe, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaotian; Liu, Hongyan; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Wei; Hu, Guozheng; Qi, Zhaohuan

    2015-01-01

    Although nitrogen addition and recovery from degradation can both promote production of grassland biomass, these two factors have rarely been investigated in combination. In this study, we established a field experiment with six N-treatment (CK, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 g N m−2 yr−1) on five fields with different degradation levels in the Inner Mongolian steppe of China from 2011–2013. Our observations showed that while the external nitrogen increased the aboveground biomass in all five grasslands, the magnitude of the effects differed with the severity of degradation. Fields with a higher level of degradation tended to have a higher saturation value (20 g N m−2 yr−1) than those with a lower degradation level ( < 10 g N m−2 yr−1). After three years of experimentation, species richness showed little change across degradation levels. Among the four functional groups of grasses, sedges, forbs and legumes, grasses shared the most similar response patterns with those of the whole community, demonstrating the predominant role that they play in the restoration of grassland under a stimulus of nitrogen addition. PMID:26194184

  9. Chronic exposure to low doses bisphenol A interferes with pair-bonding and exploration in female Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Razzoli, M; Valsecchi, P; Palanza, P

    2005-04-15

    Estrogenic endocrine disruptors, synthetic or naturally occurring substances found in the environment, can interfere with the vertebrate endocrine system and, mimicking estrogens, interact with the neuroendocrine substrates of behavior. Since species vary in their sensitivity to steroids, it is of great interest to widen the range of species included in the researches on neurobehavioral effects of estrogenic endocrine disruptors. We examined socio-sexual and exploratory behavior of Mongolian gerbil females (Meriones unguiculatus), a monogamous rodent, in response to chronic exposure to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor bisphenol A. Paired females were daily administered with one of the following treatments: bisphenol A (2 or 20 microg/kg body weight/day); 17alpha-ethynil estradiol (0.04 microg/kg body weight/day 17alphaE); oil (vehicle). Females were treated for 3 weeks after pairing. Starting on day of pairing, social interactions within pairs were daily recorded. Three weeks after pairing, females were individually tested in a free exploratory paradigm. Bisphenol A and 17alphaE affected male-female social interactions by increasing social investigation. Bisphenol A reduced several exploratory parameters, indicating a decreased exploratory propensity of females. These results highlight the sensitivity of adult female gerbils to bisphenol A during the hormonally sensitive period of pair formation, also considering that the bisphenol A doses tested are well below the suggested human tolerable daily intake.

  10. Effects of gestational exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate and mineral oil on testis development of the Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Christante, C M; Pinto-Fochi, M E; Negrin, A C; Taboga, S R; Góes, R M

    2018-06-14

    Phthalate esters are endocrine disrupters that can affect the development of the testis in a species-specific manner. However, their interference in the male gonads of the Mongolian gerbil is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether gestational exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) interferes with the development of the gerbil testis during the first six weeks of life. Males were evaluated at 1, 7, 14, 28, 35 and 42 days of age in an untreated (control) group or groups exposed from 8 to 23 days gestation to DBP (100mgkg-1day-1 in mineral oil) or vehicle by maternal gavage. DBP exposure impaired cell proliferation within the seminiferous cords at birth, but increased proliferation at the end of the first week, when higher testosterone concentrations were observed. The vehicle (mineral oil) reduced the total number of gonocytes and attenuated the decrease in testosterone concentrations at 7 days. The vehicle also altered gonocyte relocation at 14 days and increased oestrogen concentrations at 28 days by approximately 112%. In summary, both DBP and oil interfered in gonadal development and testosterone plasma concentrations in the first week of postnatal life. However, the changes observed at the beginning of puberty were not seen after exposure to DBP, indicating a more harmful effect of mineral oil in this period.

  11. Postnatal development of microcyst in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the Mongolian gerbil: a light- and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shang-Ming; Ko, Tsui-Ling; Lin, Kwan-Hwa

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the postnatal formation and origin of the microcyst, which are not fully elucidated at present, in the cochlear nucleus of gerbils. Sixty-six Mongolian gerbils were investigated at the light microscope level, and 35 of them were observed at the electron microscopic level. Foamy structures were evidently found at 2 days of age and remained unchanged through 4-8 days. The first small vacuole, presumably the former microcyst, appeared at 8 days. Myelin sheath bundles first appeared at 13 days. Electron-dense bodies were frequently found in the junction of the superficial layer and the deep layer at 2 days. The medium-sized vacuole was found in close association with the spherical bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) as early as 5 weeks. Various large and small vacuoles were presumably coalesced to form a large vacuole at 3 and 6 months. Membranous structures and red blood cells were in the budding-like vacuoles at 6 months. In addition to membranous structures, the microcyst contained distorted mitochondria and parts of myelin sheaths. The vacuole was interposed between spherical bushy cells at age of 10 months. Small vacuoles were mainly located in the flame-shaped neurons at 14 months. An internal detachment and an external protrusion of the myelin sheath into the adjacent microcyst were found. Thus, this study suggests the first appearance of microcysts at 8 days. Also, the microcyst and the blood vessel may exchange their contents through a leakage in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus.

  12. Electron Optics for Biologists: Physical Origins of Spherical Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geissler, Peter; Zadunaisky, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Reports on the physical origins of spherical aberrations in axially symmetric electrostatic lenses to convey the essentials of electon optics to those who must think critically about the resolution of the electron microscope. (GS)

  13. Brillouin micro-spectroscopy through aberrations via sensorless adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edrei, Eitan; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2018-04-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is a powerful optical technique for non-contact viscoelastic characterizations which has recently found applications in three-dimensional mapping of biological samples. Brillouin spectroscopy performances are rapidly degraded by optical aberrations and have therefore been limited to homogenous transparent samples. In this work, we developed an adaptive optics (AO) configuration designed for Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to engineer the incident wavefront and correct for aberrations. Our configuration does not require direct wavefront sensing and the injection of a "guide-star"; hence, it can be implemented without the need for sample pre-treatment. We used our AO-Brillouin spectrometer in aberrated phantoms and biological samples and obtained improved precision and resolution of Brillouin spectral analysis; we demonstrated 2.5-fold enhancement in Brillouin signal strength and 1.4-fold improvement in axial resolution because of the correction of optical aberrations.

  14. Using aberrant behaviors as reinforcers for autistic children.

    PubMed Central

    Charlop, M H; Kurtz, P F; Casey, F G

    1990-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we assessed the efficacy of using autistic children's aberrant behaviors as reinforcers to increase their correct task responding. In Experiment 1, reinforcer conditions of stereotypy, food, and varied (food or stereotypy) were compared. In Experiment 2, the conditions were delayed echolalia, food, and varied (food or delayed echolalia), and in Experiment 3, perseverative behavior was compared with stereotypy and food as potential reinforcers. A multielement design was used for all comparisons, and side-effect measures were recorded during and after teaching sessions as well as at home. Results indicated that, in general, task performance was highest when brief opportunities to engage in aberrant behaviors were provided as reinforcers. Edibles were associated with the lowest performance. Furthermore, no negative side effects (e.g., an increase in aberrant behaviors) occurred. The results are discussed in terms of suggesting a more pragmatic treatment approach by addressing the contingent use of autistic children's aberrant behaviors as reinforcers. PMID:2373653

  15. Hot spot and trench volcano separations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    It is suggested that the distribution of separations between trench volcanos located along subduction zones reflects the depth of partial melting, and that the separation distribution for hot spot volcanoes near spreading centers provides a measure of the depth of mantle convection cells. It is further proposed that the lateral dimensions of mantle convection cells are also represented by the hot-spot separations (rather than by ridge-trench distances) and that a break in the distribution of hot spot separations at 3000 km is evidence for both whole mantle convection and a deep thermal plume origin of hot spots.

  16. SwiSpot: modeling riboswitches by spotting out switching sequences.

    PubMed

    Barsacchi, Marco; Novoa, Eva Maria; Kellis, Manolis; Bechini, Alessio

    2016-11-01

    Riboswitches are cis-regulatory elements in mRNA, mostly found in Bacteria, which exhibit two main secondary structure conformations. Although one of them prevents the gene from being expressed, the other conformation allows its expression, and this switching process is typically driven by the presence of a specific ligand. Although there are a handful of known riboswitches, our knowledge in this field has been greatly limited due to our inability to identify their alternate structures from their sequences. Indeed, current methods are not able to predict the presence of the two functionally distinct conformations just from the knowledge of the plain RNA nucleotide sequence. Whether this would be possible, for which cases, and what prediction accuracy can be achieved, are currently open questions. Here we show that the two alternate secondary structures of riboswitches can be accurately predicted once the 'switching sequence' of the riboswitch has been properly identified. The proposed SwiSpot approach is capable of identifying the switching sequence inside a putative, complete riboswitch sequence, on the basis of pairing behaviors, which are evaluated on proper sets of configurations. Moreover, it is able to model the switching behavior of riboswitches whose generated ensemble covers both alternate configurations. Beyond structural predictions, the approach can also be paired to homology-based riboswitch searches. SwiSpot software, along with the reference dataset files, is available at: http://www.iet.unipi.it/a.bechini/swispot/Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. a.bechini@ing.unipi.it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Aberration correction results in the IBM STEM instrument.

    PubMed

    Batson, P E

    2003-09-01

    Results from the installation of aberration correction in the IBM 120 kV STEM argue that a sub-angstrom probe size has been achieved. Results and the experimental methods used to obtain them are described here. Some post-experiment processing is necessary to demonstrate the probe size of about 0.078 nm. While the promise of aberration correction is demonstrated, we remain at the very threshold of practicality, given the very stringent stability requirements.

  18. Stability of corneal topography and wavefront aberrations in young Singaporeans.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingxia; Collins, Michael J; Yeo, Anna C H

    2013-09-01

    The aim was to investigate the differences between and variations across time in corneal topography and ocular wavefront aberrations in young Singaporean myopes and emmetropes. We used a videokeratoscope and wavefront sensor to measure the ocular surface topography and wavefront aberrations of the total-eye optics in the morning, midday and late afternoon on two separate days. Topographic data were used to derive the corneal surface wavefront aberrations. Both the corneal and total wavefronts were analysed up to the fourth radial order of the Zernike polynomial expansion and were centred on the entrance pupil (5.0 mm). The participants included 12 young progressing myopes, 13 young stable myopes and 15 young age-matched emmetropes. For all subjects considered together, there were significant changes in some of the aberrations across the day, such as spherical aberration ( Z(4 0)) and vertical coma ( Z (3 - 1)) (repeated measures analysis of variance, p < 0.05). The magnitude of positive spherical aberration ( Z(4 0)) was significantly lower in the progressing myopic group than in the stable myopic (p = 0.04) and emmetropic (p = 0.02) groups. There were also significant interactions between refractive group and time of day for with and against-the-rule astigmatism ( Z(2 2)). Significantly lower fourth-order root mean square of ocular wavefront aberrations were found in the progressing myopic group compared with the stable myopes and emmetropes (p < 0.01). These differences and variations in the corneal and total aberrations may have significance for our understanding of refractive error development and for clinical applications requiring accurate wavefront measurements. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  19. Aberrant alternative splicing is another hallmark of cancer.

    PubMed

    Ladomery, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of human genes are alternatively spliced. Not surprisingly, aberrant alternative splicing is increasingly linked to cancer. Splice isoforms often encode proteins that have distinct and even antagonistic properties. The abnormal expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in cancer changes the alternative splicing of critically important pre-mRNAs. Aberrant alternative splicing should be added to the growing list of cancer hallmarks.

  20. Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E.; Sun, Wenzhi; Tan, Zhongchao; Kerlin, Aaron; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas S.; Ji, Na

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multiplexed aberration measurement method that modulates the intensity or phase of light rays at multiple pupil segments in parallel to determine their phase gradients. Applicable to fluorescent-protein-labeled structures of arbitrary complexity, it allows us to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in various samples in vivo. For the strongly scattering mouse brain, a single aberration correction improves structural and functional imaging of fine neuronal processes over a large imaging volume. PMID:25128976

  1. Generalized Alvarez lens for correction of laser aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    LaFortune, K N

    2004-12-02

    The Alvarez lens (US Patent No. 3,305,294 [1]) is a compact aberration corrector. The original design emphasized in the patent consists of a pair of adjacent optical elements that provide a variable focus. A lens system with a variable effective focal length is nothing new. Such systems are widely used in cameras, for example. It is the compactness and simplicity of operation that is the key advantage of the Alvarez lens. All of the complexity is folded into the design and fabrication of the optical elements. As mentioned in the Alvarez patent [1] and elaborated upon in Palusinski et al.more » [2], if one is willing to fold even more complexity into the optical elements, it is possible to correct higher-order aberrations as well. There is no theoretical limit to the number or degree of wavefront distortions that can be corrected. The only limitation is that there must be a fixed relative magnitude of the aberrations. Independent correction of each component of the higher-order aberrations can not be performed without additional elements and degrees of freedom [3]. Under some circumstances, coupling may be observed between different aberrations. This can be mitigated with the appropriate choice of design parameters. New methods are available today that increase the practicality of making higher-order aberration correctors [4,5,6].« less

  2. Lesion Generation Through Ribs Using Histotripsy Therapy Without Aberration Correction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction. PMID:22083767

  3. Lesion generation through ribs using histotripsy therapy without aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction.

  4. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of chromosome aberrations in human cells by charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations induced by high-energy charged particles in normal human lymphocytes and human fibroblasts have been investigated. The charged particles included 250 MeV/nucleon protons, 290 MeV/nucleon carbon ions and 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. The energies of the charged particles were higher than in most of the studies reported in the literature. Lymphocytes were stimulated to grow immediately after irradiation, while fibroblasts were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h for repair. Chromosomes were collected at the first mitosis after irradiation and chromosome aberrations were scored using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with a whole-chromosome 4 probe. Chromosome aberrations were classified as reciprocal exchanges, incomplete exchanges, deletions and complex exchanges. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for each type of aberration was calculated by dividing a dose of 4 Gy by the dose of the charged particles producing the same effect as 4 Gy of gamma rays. Results of this study showed that complex aberrations have the highest RBE for radiation of high linear energy transfer (LET) for human lymphocytes, but for fibroblasts, the greatest effect was for incomplete exchanges. For both lymphocytes and fibroblasts, iron ions induced a similar fraction of aberrant cells.

  6. Structural centrosome aberrations sensitize polarized epithelia to basal cell extrusion.

    PubMed

    Ganier, Olivier; Schnerch, Dominik; Nigg, Erich A

    2018-06-01

    Centrosome aberrations disrupt tissue architecture and may confer invasive properties to cancer cells. Here we show that structural centrosome aberrations, induced by overexpression of either Ninein-like protein (NLP) or CEP131/AZI1, sensitize polarized mammalian epithelia to basal cell extrusion. While unperturbed epithelia typically dispose of damaged cells through apical dissemination into luminal cavities, certain oncogenic mutations cause a switch in directionality towards basal cell extrusion, raising the potential for metastatic cell dissemination. Here we report that NLP-induced centrosome aberrations trigger the preferential extrusion of damaged cells towards the basal surface of epithelial monolayers. This switch in directionality from apical to basal dissemination coincides with a profound reorganization of the microtubule cytoskeleton, which in turn prevents the contractile ring repositioning that is required to support extrusion towards the apical surface. While the basal extrusion of cells harbouring NLP-induced centrosome aberrations requires exogenously induced cell damage, structural centrosome aberrations induced by excess CEP131 trigger the spontaneous dissemination of dying cells towards the basal surface from MDCK cysts. Thus, similar to oncogenic mutations, structural centrosome aberrations can favour basal extrusion of damaged cells from polarized epithelia. Assuming that additional mutations may promote cell survival, this process could sensitize epithelia to disseminate potentially metastatic cells. © 2018 The Authors.

  7. SU-E-T-510: Interplay Between Spots Sizes, Spot / Line Spacing and Motion in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, TK

    Purpose In proton beam configuration for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT), one can define the spacing between spots and lines of scanning as a ratio of given spot size. If the spacing increases, the number of spots decreases which can potentially decrease scan time, and so can whole treatment time, and vice versa. However, if the spacing is too large, the uniformity of scanned field decreases. Also, the field uniformity can be affected by motion during SSPT beam delivery. In the present study, the interplay between spot/ line spacing and motion is investigated. Methods We used four Gaussian-shape spot sizesmore » with 0.5cm, 1.0cm, 1.5cm, and 2.0cm FWHM, three spot/line spacing that creates uniform field profile which are 1/3*FWHM, σ/3*FWHM and 2/3*FWHM, and three random motion amplitudes within, +/−0.3mm, +/−0.5mm, and +/−1.0mm. We planned with 2Gy uniform single layer of 10×10cm2 and 20×20cm2 fields. Then, mean dose within 80% area of given field size, contrubuting MU per each spot assuming 1cGy/MU calibration for all spot sizes, number of spots and uniformity were calculated. Results The plans with spot/line spacing equal to or smaller than 2/3*FWHM without motion create ∼100% uniformity. However, it was found that the uniformity decreases with increased spacing, and it is more pronounced with smaller spot sizes, but is not affected by scanned field sizes. Conclusion It was found that the motion during proton beam delivery can alter the dose uniformity and the amount of alteration changes with spot size which changes with energy and spot/line spacing. Currently, robust evaluation in TPS (e.g. Eclipse system) performs range uncertainty evaluation using isocenter shift and CT calibration error. Based on presented study, it is recommended to add interplay effect evaluation to robust evaluation process. For future study, the additional interplay between the energy layers and motion is expected to present volumetric effect.« less

  8. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  9. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller?

    SciTech Connect

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra

    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contributemore » to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.« less

  10. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Urvi, E-mail: urvi.vyas@gmail.com; Kaye, Elena; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focusedmore » ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus.« less

  11. Ambystoma maculatum (spotted salamander). Reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, Hardin; Hefner, Jeromi

    2012-01-01

    The Spotted Salamander is a wide-ranging salamander of the eastern United States that typically breeds in winter or early spring in ephemeral pools in lowland forests. Ambystoma maculatum is known to deposit 2-4 egg masses per year, each containing 1-250 eggs. As part of ongoing research into the ecology and reproductive biology of Spotted Salamanders in the Kisatchie District of Kisatchie National Forest in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, USA, we have been counting the number of embryos per egg mass. We captured seven female A. maculatum in a small pool, six of which were still gravid. We took standard measurements, including SVL, and then implanted a Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag) into each adult female as was the protocol. About an hour after processing these animals we marked new A. maculatum egg masses found in the same small pool using PVC pin flags pushed carefully through the outer jelly. We did not have enough time to process them that evening, and it was not until a few days later that we photographed those masses. We discovered that one of the masses contained a PIT tag in the outer jelly that corresponded to one of the six gravid females that were marked that same evening. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PIT tags being the means, albeit coincidentally, by which a particular egg mass of Ambystoma maculatum has been assigned to a particular female. For our purposes, losing the PIT tag from the adult female is counter to the goals of our study of this population, and we will no longer be implanting PIT tags into gravid females.

  12. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.415 Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low...

  13. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.415 Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low...

  14. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.415 Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low...

  15. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.412 Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is...

  16. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.411 Good Middling Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is...

  17. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.412 Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is...

  18. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.412 Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is...

  19. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.411 Good Middling Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is...

  20. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.411 Good Middling Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is...

  1. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.411 Good Middling Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is...

  2. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.412 Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is...

  3. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling...

  4. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.415 Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low...

  5. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  6. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  7. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  8. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling...

  9. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling...

  10. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling...

  11. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling...

  12. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    PubMed

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The biology of the California spotted owl

    Treesearch

    R.J. Gutiérrez; Douglas J. Tempel; M. Zachariah Peery

    2017-01-01

    The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is one of the most studied raptors in the world (Lõmus 2004) because forest management throughout its range has the potential to negatively affect owl populations. Information on the California spotted owl (S. o. occidentalis) has been summarized in several literature reviews (e.g.,...

  14. Spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe, control options

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spotted knapweed is a non native perennial forb that is spreading rapidly in the Western United States. This plant species produces a compound that retards the growth of many native plants, giving it a competitive advantage. Spotted knapweed has been identified in several areas of Alaska. A descript...

  15. Emmons spot forcing for turbulent drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    An Emmons spot-generation wind tunnel system has been designed to trigger closely spaced Emmons spots in the spanwise and longitudinal directions of an aerodynamic surface. For certain combinations of generator frequencies and amplitude, hole size, and hole spacing, experimental results indicate smaller turbulence scales and a reduction in skin friction of about 15 percent.

  16. Brown-Spot Needle Blight of Pines

    Treesearch

    W.R. Phelps; A.G. Kais; T.H. Nicholls

    1978-01-01

    Brown-spot needle blight, caused by Scirrhia acicola (Dearn.) Siggers, delays growth and causes mortality of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Brown spot reduces total annual growth of southern pines by more than 16 million cubic feet (0.453 million cubic meters) of timber. Damage is most severe on longleaf seedlings in the grass stage; i.e., those that have not...

  17. Front blind spot crashes in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuk Ki; Wong, Koon Hung; Tao, Chi Hang; Tam, Cheok Ning; Tam, Yiu Yan; Tsang, Cheuk Nam

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014, our laboratory had investigated a total of 9 suspected front blind spot crashes, in which the medium and heavy goods vehicles pulled away from rest and rolled over the pedestrians, who were crossing immediately in front of the vehicles. The drivers alleged that they did not see any pedestrians through the windscreens or the front blind spot mirrors. Forensic assessment of the goods vehicles revealed the existence of front blind spot zones in 3 out of these 9 accident vehicles, which were attributed to the poor mirror adjustments or even the absence of a front blind spot mirror altogether. In view of this, a small survey was devised involving 20 randomly selected volunteers and their goods vehicles and 5 out of these vehicles had blind spots at the front. Additionally, a short questionnaire was conducted on these 20 professional lorry drivers and it was shown that most of them were not aware of the hazards of blind spots immediately in front of their vehicles, and many did not use the front blind spot mirrors properly. A simple procedure for quick measurements of the coverage of front blind spot mirrors using a coloured plastic mat with dimensional grids was also introduced and described in this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... results as a result of testing of certified swine from that site at the slaughter facility. (b) All spot...

  19. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... results as a result of testing of certified swine from that site at the slaughter facility. (b) All spot...

  20. Assessing plant senescence reflectance index-retrieved vegetation phenology and its spatiotemporal response to climate change in the Inner Mongolian Grassland.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shilong; Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai

    2017-04-01

    Plant phenology is a key link for controlling interactions between climate change and biogeochemical cycles. Satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been extensively used to detect plant phenology at regional scales. Here, we introduced a new vegetation index, plant senescence reflectance index (PSRI), and determined PSRI-derived start (SOS) and end (EOS) dates of the growing season using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2011 in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. Then, we validated the reliability of PSRI-derived SOS and EOS dates using NDVI-derived SOS and EOS dates. Moreover, we conducted temporal and spatial correlation analyses between PSRI-derived SOS/EOS date and climatic factors and revealed spatiotemporal patterns of PSRI-derived SOS and EOS dates across the entire research region at pixel scales. Results show that PSRI has similar performance with NDVI in extracting SOS and EOS dates in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. Precipitation regime is the key climate driver of interannual variation of grassland phenology, while temperature and precipitation regimes are the crucial controlling factors of spatial differentiation of grassland phenology. Thus, PSRI-derived vegetation phenology can effectively reflect land surface vegetation dynamics and its response to climate change. Moreover, a significant linear trend of PSRI-derived SOS and EOS dates was detected only at small portions of pixels, which is consistent with that of greenup and brownoff dates of herbaceous plant species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. Overall, PSRI is a useful and robust metric in addition to NDVI for monitoring land surface grassland phenology.

  1. Assessing plant senescence reflectance index-retrieved vegetation phenology and its spatiotemporal response to climate change in the Inner Mongolian Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shilong; Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai

    2017-04-01

    Plant phenology is a key link for controlling interactions between climate change and biogeochemical cycles. Satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been extensively used to detect plant phenology at regional scales. Here, we introduced a new vegetation index, plant senescence reflectance index (PSRI), and determined PSRI-derived start (SOS) and end (EOS) dates of the growing season using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2011 in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. Then, we validated the reliability of PSRI-derived SOS and EOS dates using NDVI-derived SOS and EOS dates. Moreover, we conducted temporal and spatial correlation analyses between PSRI-derived SOS/EOS date and climatic factors and revealed spatiotemporal patterns of PSRI-derived SOS and EOS dates across the entire research region at pixel scales. Results show that PSRI has similar performance with NDVI in extracting SOS and EOS dates in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. Precipitation regime is the key climate driver of interannual variation of grassland phenology, while temperature and precipitation regimes are the crucial controlling factors of spatial differentiation of grassland phenology. Thus, PSRI-derived vegetation phenology can effectively reflect land surface vegetation dynamics and its response to climate change. Moreover, a significant linear trend of PSRI-derived SOS and EOS dates was detected only at small portions of pixels, which is consistent with that of greenup and brownoff dates of herbaceous plant species in the Inner Mongolian Grassland. Overall, PSRI is a useful and robust metric in addition to NDVI for monitoring land surface grassland phenology.

  2. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  3. Sixth-order wave aberration theory of ultrawide-angle optical systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lijun; Cao, Yiqing

    2017-10-20

    In this paper, we develop sixth-order wave aberration theory of ultrawide-angle optical systems like fisheye lenses. Based on the concept and approach to develop wave aberration theory of plane-symmetric optical systems, we first derive the sixth-order intrinsic wave aberrations and the fifth-order ray aberrations; second, we present a method to calculate the pupil aberration of such kind of optical systems to develop the extrinsic aberrations; third, the relation of aperture-ray coordinates between adjacent optical surfaces is fitted with the second-order polynomial to improve the calculation accuracy of the wave aberrations of a fisheye lens with a large acceptance aperture. Finally, the resultant aberration expressions are applied to calculate the aberrations of two design examples of fisheye lenses; the calculation results are compared with the ray-tracing ones with Zemax software to validate the aberration expressions.

  4. Hot SPOT Eclipses in Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smak, J.

    1996-10-01

    Eclipses of the hot spot in four dwarf novae: U Gem, IP Peg, Z Cha, and OY Car are re-analyzed, assuming two models for the shape of the spot. In Model 1 an elliptical spot is assumed, with the semi-axes s_a in the orbital plane and s_b perpendicular to the orbital plane, its center located on the stream trajectory. The results show that such an ellipse is, within errors, tangent to the disk's circumference. In all four cases the resulting dimensions of the spot s_a are larger than the theoretical cross-section of the stream. Accordingly, in Model2 the spot is assumed to consist of a head, centered on the stream trajectory, and a tail, extending downstream, ie., along disk's circumference. In some cases the resulting parameters, eg., mass ratios or disk radii, differ significantly from those obtained with Model 1.

  5. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.

    PubMed

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-10-15

    Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern.

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  7. Online gesture spotting from visual hull data.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Qian, Gang

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a robust framework for online full-body gesture spotting from visual hull data. Using view-invariant pose features as observations, hidden Markov models (HMMs) are trained for gesture spotting from continuous movement data streams. Two major contributions of this paper are 1) view-invariant pose feature extraction from visual hulls, and 2) a systematic approach to automatically detecting and modeling specific nongesture movement patterns and using their HMMs for outlier rejection in gesture spotting. The experimental results have shown the view-invariance property of the proposed pose features for both training poses and new poses unseen in training, as well as the efficacy of using specific nongesture models for outlier rejection. Using the IXMAS gesture data set, the proposed framework has been extensively tested and the gesture spotting results are superior to those reported on the same data set obtained using existing state-of-the-art gesture spotting methods.

  8. Improved MRF spot characterization with QIS metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Sandi; Hall, Christopher; DeMarco, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Careful characterization of the removal function of sub-aperture polishing tools is critical for optimum polishing results. Magnetorheological finishing (MRF®) creates a polishing tool, or "spot", that is unique both for its locally high removal rate and high slope content. For a variety of reasons, which will be discussed, longer duration spots are beneficial to improving MRF performance, but longer spots yield higher slopes rendering them difficult to measure with adequate fidelity. QED's Interferometer for Stitching (QIS™) was designed to measure the high slope content inherent to non-null sub-aperture stitching interferometry of aspheres. Based on this unique capability the QIS was recently used to measure various MRF spots in an attempt to see if there was a corresponding improvement in MRF performance as a result of improved knowledge of these longer duration spots. The results of these tests will be presented and compared with those of a standard general purpose interferometer.

  9. Neptune's small dark spot (D2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This bulls-eye view of Neptune's small dark spot (D2) was obtained by Voyager 2's narrow-angle camera. Banding surrounding the feature indicates unseen strong winds, while structures within the bright spot suggest both active upwelling of clouds and rotation about the center. A rotation rate has not yet been measured, but the V-shaped structure near the right edge of the bright area indicates that the spot rotates clockwise. Unlike the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, which rotates counterclockwise, if the D2 spot on Neptune rotates clockwise, the material will be descending in the dark oval region. The fact that infrared data will yield temperature information about the region above the clouds makes this observation especially valuable. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  10. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J M; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-03-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  11. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of train engine drivers.

    PubMed

    Nordenson, I; Mild, K H; Järventaus, H; Hirvonen, A; Sandström, M; Wilén, J; Blix, N; Norppa, H

    2001-07-01

    Studies of Swedish railway employees have indicated that railroad engine drivers have an increased cancer morbidity and incidence of chronic lymphatic leukemia. The drivers are exposed to relatively high magnetic fields (MF), ranging from a few to over a hundred microT. Although the possible genotoxic potential of MF is unclear, some earlier studies have indicated that occupational exposure to MF may increase chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Since an increased level of chromosomal aberrations has been suggested to predict elevated cancer risk, we performed a cytogenetic analysis on cultured (48 h) peripheral lymphocytes of Swedish train engine drivers. A pilot study of 18 engine drivers indicated a significant difference in the frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations (gaps included or excluded) in comparison with seven concurrent referents (train dispatchers) and a control group of 16 office workers. The engine drivers had about four times higher frequency of cells with chromosome-type aberrations (excluding gaps) than the office workers (P < 0.01) and the dispatchers (P < 0.05). Seventy-eight percent of the engine drivers showed at least one cell per 100 with chromosome-type aberrations compared with 29% among the dispatchers and 31% among the office workers. In a follow-up study, another 30 engine drivers showed an increase (P < 0.05) in the frequency of cells with chromosome-type aberrations (gaps excluded) as compared with 30 referent policemen. Sixty percent of the engine drivers had one or more cells (per 100 cells) with chromosome-type aberrations compared with 30% among the policemen. In conclusion, the results of the two studies support the hypothesis that exposure to MF at mean intensities of 2-15 microT can induce chromosomal damage. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Correcting highly aberrated eyes using large-stroke adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, Ramkumar; Ahmad, Kamran; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the optical performance of a large-stroke deformable mirror in correcting large aberrations in highly aberrated eyes. A large-stroke deformable mirror (Mirao 52D; Imagine Eyes) and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor were used in an adaptive optics system. Closed-loop correction of the static aberrations of a phase plate designed for an advanced keratoconic eye was performed for a 6-mm pupil. The same adaptive optics system was also used to correct the aberrations in one eye each of two moderate keratoconic and three normal human eyes for a 6-mm pupil. With closed-loop correction of the phase plate, the total root-mean-square (RMS) over a 6-mm pupil was reduced from 3.54 to 0.04 microm in 30 to 40 iterations, corresponding to 3 to 4 seconds. Adaptive optics closed-loop correction reduced an average total RMS of 1.73+/-0.998 to 0.10+/-0.017 microm (higher order RMS of 0.39+/-0.124 to 0.06+/-0.004 microm) in the three normal eyes and 2.73+/-1.754 to 0.10+/-0.001 microm (higher order RMS of 1.82+/-1.058 to 0.05+/-0.017 microm) in the two keratoconic eyes. Aberrations in both normal and highly aberrated eyes were successfully corrected using the large-stroke deformable mirror to provide almost perfect optical quality. This mirror can be a powerful tool to assess the limit of visual performance achievable after correcting the aberrations, especially in eyes with abnormal corneal profiles.

  13. Aberrant signature methylome by DNMT1 hot spot mutation in hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy 1E.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhifu; Wu, Yanhong; Ordog, Tamas; Baheti, Saurabh; Nie, Jinfu; Duan, Xiaohui; Hojo, Kaori; Kocher, Jean-Pierre; Dyck, Peter J; Klein, Christopher J

    2014-08-01

    DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is essential for DNA methylation, gene regulation and chromatin stability. We previously discovered DNMT1 mutations cause hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 with dementia and hearing loss (HSAN1E; OMIM 614116). HSAN1E is the first adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by a defect in a methyltransferase gene. HSAN1E patients appear clinically normal until young adulthood, then begin developing the characteristic symptoms involving central and peripheral nervous systems. Some HSAN1E patients also develop narcolepsy and it has recently been suggested that HSAN1E is allelic to autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness, with narcolepsy (ADCA-DN; OMIM 604121), which is also caused by mutations in DNMT1. A hotspot mutation Y495C within the targeting sequence domain of DNMT1 has been identified among HSAN1E patients. The mutant DNMT1 protein shows premature degradation and reduced DNA methyltransferase activity. Herein, we investigate genome-wide DNA methylation at single-base resolution through whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of germline DNA in 3 pairs of HSAN1E patients and their gender- and age-matched siblings. Over 1 billion 75-bp single-end reads were generated for each sample. In the 3 affected siblings, overall methylation loss was consistently found in all chromosomes with X and 18 being most affected. Paired sample analysis identified 564,218 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCs; P<0.05), of which 300 134 were intergenic and 264 084 genic CpGs. Hypomethylation was predominant in both genic and intergenic regions, including promoters, exons, most CpG islands, L1, L2, Alu, and satellite repeats and simple repeat sequences. In some CpG islands, hypermethylated CpGs outnumbered hypomethylated CpGs. In 201 imprinted genes, there were more DMCs than in non-imprinted genes and most were hypomethylated. Differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis identified 5649 hypomethylated and 1872 hypermethylated regions. Importantly, pathway analysis revealed 1693 genes associated with the identified DMRs were highly associated in diverse neurological disorders and NAD+/NADH metabolism pathways is implicated in the pathogenesis. Our results provide novel insights into the epigenetic mechanism of neurodegeneration arising from a hotspot DNMT1 mutation and reveal pathways potentially important in a broad category of neurological and psychological disorders.

  14. Aberrant signature methylome by DNMT1 hot spot mutation in hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy 1E

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhifu; Wu, Yanhong; Ordog, Tamas; Baheti, Saurabh; Nie, Jinfu; Duan, Xiaohui; Hojo, Kaori; Kocher, Jean-Pierre; Dyck, Peter J; Klein, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is essential for DNA methylation, gene regulation and chromatin stability. We previously discovered DNMT1 mutations cause hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 with dementia and hearing loss (HSAN1E; OMIM 614116). HSAN1E is the first adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by a defect in a methyltransferase gene. HSAN1E patients appear clinically normal until young adulthood, then begin developing the characteristic symptoms involving central and peripheral nervous systems. Some HSAN1E patients also develop narcolepsy and it has recently been suggested that HSAN1E is allelic to autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness, with narcolepsy (ADCA-DN; OMIM 604121), which is also caused by mutations in DNMT1. A hotspot mutation Y495C within the targeting sequence domain of DNMT1 has been identified among HSAN1E patients. The mutant DNMT1 protein shows premature degradation and reduced DNA methyltransferase activity. Herein, we investigate genome-wide DNA methylation at single-base resolution through whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of germline DNA in 3 pairs of HSAN1E patients and their gender- and age-matched siblings. Over 1 billion 75-bp single-end reads were generated for each sample. In the 3 affected siblings, overall methylation loss was consistently found in all chromosomes with X and 18 being most affected. Paired sample analysis identified 564,218 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCs; P < 0.05), of which 300 134 were intergenic and 264 084 genic CpGs. Hypomethylation was predominant in both genic and intergenic regions, including promoters, exons, most CpG islands, L1, L2, Alu, and satellite repeats and simple repeat sequences. In some CpG islands, hypermethylated CpGs outnumbered hypomethylated CpGs. In 201 imprinted genes, there were more DMCs than in non-imprinted genes and most were hypomethylated. Differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis identified 5649 hypomethylated and 1872 hypermethylated regions. Importantly, pathway analysis revealed 1693 genes associated with the identified DMRs were highly associated in diverse neurological disorders and NAD+/NADH metabolism pathways is implicated in the pathogenesis. Our results provide novel insights into the epigenetic mechanism of neurodegeneration arising from a hotspot DNMT1 mutation and reveal pathways potentially important in a broad category of neurological and psychological disorders. PMID:25033457

  15. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Aberrant O-GlcNAcylation of Extracellular Proteins from Breast Cancer Cell Secretion.

    PubMed

    Netsirisawan, Pukkavadee; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Champattanachai, Voraratt

    2015-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a unique intracellular protein modification; however, few extracellular O-GlcNAc-modified proteins have been discovered. We have previously demonstrated that many cellular proteins were aberrant in O-GlcNAcylation in breast cancer tissues. In the present study, therefore, we investigated whether O-GlcNAc-modified proteins were abnormally secreted from breast cancer cells. Intracellular and extracellular proteins were prepared from cell lysates of breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cells (HMEC) and from their serum-free media (SFM), respectively. O-GlcNAcylation level was examined by immunoblotting. O-GlcNAc-Modified proteins were identified using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry. O-GlcNAcylation level was significantly increased in the extracellular compartment of both types of cancer cells compared to normal cells. Interestingly, O-GlcNAc patterns differed between intracellular and extracellular proteins. Proteomic analysis revealed that many O-GlcNAc spots in MCF-7 secretions were abnormally increased in comparison to those in HMEC secretions. Among these, transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (TER ATPase) and heat-shock 70 kDa (HSP70) were confirmed to be O-GlcNAc-modified. The levels of O-GlcNAc-HSP70 and O-GlcNAc-TER ATPase were higher in SFM from MCF-7 cells than in that from HMEC. O-GlcNAcomic study of the extracellular compartments reveals aberrant O-GlcNAc-secreted proteins, which may be of interest as potential biomarkers in breast cancer. Copyright© 2015, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Nonlinear adaptive optics: aberration correction in three photon fluorescence microscopy for mouse brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinefeld, David; Paudel, Hari P.; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Mengran; Ouzounov, Dimitre G.; Bifano, Thomas G.; Xu, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy is a well-established technique for deep-tissue imaging with subcellular resolution. Three-photon microscopy (3PM) when combined with long wavelength excitation was shown to allow deeper imaging than two-photon microscopy (2PM) in biological tissues, such as mouse brain, because out-of-focus background light can be further reduced due to the higher order nonlinear excitation. As was demonstrated in 2PM systems, imaging depth and resolution can be improved by aberration correction using adaptive optics (AO) techniques which are based on shaping the scanning beam using a spatial light modulator (SLM). In this way, it is possible to compensate for tissue low order aberration and to some extent, to compensate for tissue scattering. Here, we present a 3PM AO microscopy system for brain imaging. Soliton self-frequency shift is used to create a femtosecond source at 1675 nm and a microelectromechanical (MEMS) SLM serves as the wavefront shaping device. We perturb the 1020 segment SLM using a modified nonlinear version of three-point phase shifting interferometry. The nonlinearity of the fluorescence signal used for feedback ensures that the signal is increasing when the spot size decreases, allowing compensation of phase errors in an iterative optimization process without direct phase measurement. We compare the performance for different orders of nonlinear feedback, showing an exponential growth in signal improvement as the nonlinear order increases. We demonstrate the impact of the method by applying the 3PM AO system for in-vivo mouse brain imaging, showing improvement in signal at 1-mm depth inside the brain.

  17. Dose response of Listeria monocytogenes invasion, fetal morbidity, and fetal mortality after oral challenge in pregnant and nonpregnant Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Roulo, Rebecca M; Fishburn, Jillian D; Amosu, Mayowa; Etchison, Ashley R; Smith, Mary Alice

    2014-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can result in adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth or premature delivery. The Mongolian gerbil was recently proposed as the most appropriate small-animal model of listeriosis due to its susceptibility to the same invasion pathways as humans. The objectives of this study were to investigate invasion and adverse pregnancy outcomes in gerbils orally exposed to L. monocytogenes, to compare the dose-response data to those of other animal models, and to investigate differences in the responses of pregnant versus nonpregnant gerbils. Gerbils were orally exposed to 0 (control), 10(3), 10(5), 10(7), or 10(9) CFU L. monocytogenes in whipping cream. L. monocytogenes was recovered in a dose-dependent manner from fecal samples, adult organs, and pregnancy-associated tissues. Dams exposed to 10(9) CFU had more invaded organs and higher concentrations of L. monocytogenes in almost all organs than nonpregnant animals, though no differences in fecal shedding were seen between the two groups. Adverse pregnancy outcomes occurred only in the dams treated with 10(9) CFU. A 50% infectivity dose (ID50) of 2.60 × 10(6) CFU for fetuses was calculated by fitting the data to a logistic model. Our results suggest that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) falls within the range of 5 × 10(6) to 5 × 10(8) CFU. This range includes the guinea pig and nonhuman primate LD50s, but the observation that L. monocytogenes-induced stillbirths can be seen in guinea pigs and primates exposed to lower doses than those at which stillbirths were seen in gerbils indicates that gerbils are not more sensitive to L. monocytogenes invasion. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Food hoarding, but not food intake, is attenuated by acute diazepam treatment in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Di; Wang, Qian; Wang, De-Hua

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on food hoarding are unknown in rodents, and the effects of energy balance and GABA have not been evaluated in females. To evaluate the role of food deprivation and GABA on food hoarding, female Mongolian gerbils were given i.p. injection of diazepam (1mg/kg and 3mg/kg, respectively), a GABAA receptor agonist. Among food-deprived females, there was a bimodal pattern in the frequency of gerbils with different levels of food hoarding. High food hoarding (HFH) and low food hoarding (LFH) gerbils were analyzed. Diazepam blocked food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, but not in LFH gerbils. This blockade was associated with increased cellular activation in selected brain areas, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), caudate putamen (CP) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), which suggested that direct activation of GABA in the brain reward circuitry decreased food hoarding in HFH females. Moreover, diazepam increased Fos expression in field CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus, but had no significant effect on Fos expression in field CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, indicating that the hippocampus has area-specific effects on food hoarding in HFH gerbils. Diazepam did not alter food intake in both HFH and LFH gerbils. In addition, serum corticosterone concentrations were higher in the HFH than in the LFH ones. Together, these data indicated that food deprivation increased food hoarding in female gerbils, diazepam reduced food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, and that GABA might influence food hoarding via classical reward circuitry via the mesolimbic dopamine system and specific hippocampal areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Shifts in vegetation growth in response to multiple factors on the Mongolian Plateau from 1982 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Lijuan; Liu, Qiang; Fraser, Richard; He, Bin; Cui, Xuefeng

    The Mongolian Plateau (MP) steppe is one of the largest steppe environments in the world. To monitor the terrestrial vegetation dynamics on the MP and to ascertain what the driving forces, this study examined the vegetation dynamics in Republic of Mongolia (M) and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IM) of China from the period 1982 to 2011, based on the satellite-derived GIMMS NDVI3g (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data across three biomes (desert, grassland and forest). The results are as followed: (1) Vegetation coverage in IM was generally greater than that in M. Before 2002, time series of NDVI over the MP increased at an average rate of 0.05% yr-1. Additionally, after 2002, the NDVI increased at a rate of 0.21% yr-1. From 1982 to 2011, the area of IM and M with positive anomalies in the NDVI increased at a separate rate of 1.82% yr-1 and 1.76% yr-1, respectively. (2) At the biome scale, the inter-annual forest NDVI variation in IM and desert NDVI for the entire MP had a significant increasing trend (0.06% yr-1 and 0.04% yr-1, respectively). (3) Climate forcing was a dominant controlling factor affecting the vegetation, and the anthropogenic behavior exhibited no significant value in the whole region. However, overgrazing was the most important reason for the regional degradation, particularly in IM. (4) In the future, the forest biome will go to recovery, whereas both the grassland and desert biomes are predicted to degrade continuously.

  20. Comparison of body image perception, nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes, and dietary habits between Korean and Mongolian college students.

    PubMed

    Erdenebileg, Zolzaya; Park, So Hyun; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2018-04-01

    College students are in transition from adolescence to adulthood, and it has been reported that they show poor dietary habits. This study was conducted to compare body image perception, nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes, dietary habits, and health-related lifestyles between Korean college students (KCS) and Mongolian college students (MCS). Subjects were 314 KCS and 280 MCS. The data includes results of self-administered questionnaires; statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 23.0 program. With regards to body image perception, KCS perceived themselves to be fatter on current body image than ideal body image compared to MCS; 64.0% of KCS and 34.6% of MCS desired to be thinner. Total score of nutrition knowledge in KCS (17.0) was significantly higher compared to MCS (8.4) ( P < 0.001), but total score of dietary attitudes in KCS (27.0) was significantly lower compared to MCS (31.2) ( P < 0.001). Nutrition knowledge had a significantly positive correlation with dietary attitudes in MCS ( P < 0.01). Meal consumption among male and female subjects was 2 and 3 times, respectively, in order in KCS, and 3 and 2 times, respectively, in order in MCS ( P < 0.001). Rate of skipping breakfast in both genders was significantly higher in KCS than in MCS (male: P < 0.05, female: P < 0.001). In health-related lifestyles, KCS had a significantly higher rate in frequency of alcohol drinking ( P < 0.001), exercise ( P < 0.01), and mobile phone usage ( P < 0.001), compared to MCS. This study suggests that development of nutrition education program which is effective and proper is required to improve healthy dietary habits among college students of both countries. Essential contents should include acquirement of nutrition knowledge and a motivation for its application to actual life for KCS, and improvement of healthy dietary habits for MCS.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Capsaicin and Piperine on Helicobacter pylori-Induced Chronic Gastritis in Mongolian Gerbils.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Takeshi; Shi, Liang; Takasu, Shinji; Cho, Young-Man; Kiriyama, Yuka; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko; Tatematsu, Masae; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    Spices have been used for thousands of years, and recent studies suggest that certain spices confer beneficial effects on gastric disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible chemopreventive effects of spice-derived compounds on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastritis. We examined the inhibitory effects of curcumin, capsaicin, and piperine on H. pylori in vitro by determining the colony-forming units and real-time RT-PCR in H. pylori stimulated AGS gastric cancer cells. For in vivo analysis, 6-week-old SPF male Mongolian gerbils were infected with H. pylori, fed diets containing 5000 ppm curcumin, 100 ppm capsaicin, or 100 ppm piperine, and sacrificed after 13 weeks. All three compounds inhibited in vitro proliferation of H. pylori, with curcumin being the most effective. Infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was suppressed by piperine both in the antrum and corpus of H. pylori-infected gerbils. Capsaicin also decreased neutrophils in the antrum and corpus and mononuclear cell infiltration and heterotopic proliferative glands in the corpus. mRNA expression of Tnf-α and formation of phospho-IκB-α in the antrum were reduced by both capsaicin and piperine. In addition, piperine suppressed expression of Il-1β, Ifn-γ, Il-6, and iNos, while H. pylori UreA and other virulence factors were not significantly attenuated by any compounds. These results suggest that capsaicin and piperine have anti-inflammatory effects on H. pylori-induced gastritis in gerbils independent of direct antibacterial effects and may thus have potential for use in the chemoprevention of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Higher climate warming sensitivity of Siberian larch in small than large forest islands in the fragmented Mongolian forest steppe.

    PubMed

    Khansaritoreh, Elmira; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Klinge, Michael; Ariunbaatar, Tumurbaatar; Bat-Enerel, Banzragch; Batsaikhan, Ganbaatar; Ganbaatar, Kherlenchimeg; Saindovdon, Davaadorj; Yeruult, Yolk; Tsogtbaatar, Jamsran; Tuya, Daramragchaa; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Forest fragmentation has been found to affect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in multiple ways. We asked whether forest size and isolation in fragmented woodlands influences the climate warming sensitivity of tree growth in the southern boreal forest of the Mongolian Larix sibirica forest steppe, a naturally fragmented woodland embedded in grassland, which is highly affected by warming, drought, and increasing anthropogenic forest destruction in recent time. We examined the influence of stand size and stand isolation on the growth performance of larch in forests of four different size classes located in a woodland-dominated forest-steppe area and small forest patches in a grassland-dominated area. We found increasing climate sensitivity and decreasing first-order autocorrelation of annual stemwood increment with decreasing stand size. Stemwood increment increased with previous year's June and August precipitation in the three smallest forest size classes, but not in the largest forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the tree growth dependence on summer rainfall was highest. Missing ring frequency has strongly increased since the 1970s in small, but not in large forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the increase was much greater than in the forest-dominated landscape. Forest regeneration decreased with decreasing stand size and was scarce or absent in the smallest forests. Our results suggest that the larch trees in small and isolated forest patches are far more susceptible to climate warming than in large continuous forests pointing to a grim future for the forests in this strongly warming region of the boreal forest that is also under high land use pressure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The development of new purification methods to assess the circadian rhythm of body temperature in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Weinert, D; Nevill, A; Weinandy, R; Waterhouse, J

    2003-03-01

    Six Mongolian gerbils were studied for 8-10d while housed in separate cages in a 12:12h light-dark (L-D) cycle (lights on at 07:00h). Recordings of body temperature, heart rate, and spontaneous activity were made throughout. The temperature and heart rate rhythms were "purified" to take into account the effects of activity, and then the rhythm of temperature was further purified to take into account other masking influences ("non-activity masking effects" or NAME,). The methods employed in the purification processes involved linear regression analysis or analysis of covariance, the latter using functions of activity and NAME as covariates. From these methods, it was possible to obtain not only an estimate of the endogenous component of the temperature rhythm but also a measure of circadian changes in the sensitivity of temperature to masking effects. Even though all purification methods removed many of the effects of spontaneous activity from the temperature record, there remained temperature fluctuations at the L-D and D-L transitions that appeared to be independent of activity. The NAME was of only very marginal value in the purification process. Comparison of the purification methods indicated that the linear methods were inferior (both from a biological viewpoint and when the results were compared mathematically) to those that allowed the rate of rise of temperature due to increasing amounts of activity to become progressively less. The sensitivity of temperature and heart rate to the masking effects of activity showed a circadian rhythm, with sensitivities in the resting phase being greater than those in the active phase. These findings are compatible with the view that thermoregulatory reflexes are induced by spontaneous activity of sufficient amount, and that there is a circadian rhythm in the body temperature at which these reflexes are initiated and in their effectiveness.

  4. Anti-atopic dermatitis effects and the mechanism of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Mongolian fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Atsushi; Kimura, Makoto; Nakamura, Yusaku; Yasui, Hisako

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the anti-allergic effects of one strain (T120) of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Mongolian fermented milk using atopic dermatitis (AD) model mice (NC/Nga mice). Strain T120 has already been identified as Enterococcus faecium and shown to induce strong production of IL-12 (Kimura et al. 2006). In in vitro studies, strain T120 suppressed total IgE production and induced IL-12 and IFN-gamma production by splenocytes of NC/Nga mice. The additional examination of various neutralization antibodies was performed to elucidate in detail the mechanism of depressed IgE production by strain T120. As a result, it became clear that IL-12 induced by strain T120 increased production of IFN-gamma and total IgE production was mainly controlled by the IFN-gamma. In order to define the cells which produce IL-12 powerfully by this strain, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) were removed from the splenocytes, and the reactivity of these cells to the strain was examined. Induction of IL-12 and IFN-gamma by strain T120 became significantly very low by removal of APCs from splenocytes. Therefore, it was clear that strain T120 acted on APCs and induced production of IL-12. Further, this strain enhanced the production of IL-10 by splenocytes. In in vivo studies, intraperitoneal injection of strain T120 inhibited serum IgE elevation and atopic dermatitis symptoms in NC/Nga mice. These results suggest that an anti-allergic effect of strain T120 depends on the increased production of IL-12 by APCs activated by the strain and following the increased production of IFN-gamma. Further, activation of regulatory T cells by strain T120 may inhibit atopic disease.

  5. Combined effects of family history of CVD and heart rate on ischemic stroke incidence among Inner Mongolians in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yipeng; Tian, Yunfan; Zhong, Chongke; Batu, Buren; Xu, Tian; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wang, Aili; Zhang, Yonghong

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the combined effects of family history of cardiovascular diseases (FHCVD) and heart rate on ischemic stroke incidence among Inner Mongolians in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted among 2589 participants aged 20 years and older from Inner Mongolia, China. The participants were divided into four groups according to status of FHCVD and heart rate and followed up from June 2002 to July 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the combined effects of FHCVD and heart rate on the incidence of ischemic stroke. A total of 76 ischemic stroke occurred during the follow-up period. The observed ischemic stroke cases tended to be older and male, and had higher prevalence of smoking, drinking, hypertension and FHCVD as well as higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures at baseline compared with those who did not experience ischemic stroke. Age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of ischemic stroke in the participants with both FHCVD and heart rate ≥ 80 were 2.89 (1.51-5.53), compared with those without FHCVD and heart rate < 80. After multiple adjustment, the association between ischemic stroke risk and both FHCVD and heart rate ≥ 80 remained statistically significant (hazard ratio, 2.47; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-5.01). Our main finding that participants with both FHCVD and faster heart rate have the highest risk of ischemic stroke suggests that faster heart rate may increase the risk of ischemic stroke among people with FHCVD.

  6. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the

  7. HPLC determination of flavonoid glycosides in Mongolian Dianthus versicolor Fisch. (Caryophyllaceae) compared with quantification by UV spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Obmann, Astrid; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Zehl, Martin; Kletter, Christa; Reznicek, Gottfried; Narantuya, Samdan; Glasl, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Dianthus versicolor is used in traditional Mongolian medicine against liver impairment. Fractions enriched in flavone-di- and triglycosides were shown to enhance bile secretion. Therefore, reliable and accurate analytical methods are needed for the determination of these flavonoids in the crude drug and extracts thereof. To provide a validated HPLC-DAD (diode array detector) method especially developed for the separation of polar flavonoids and to compare the data obtained with those evaluated by UV spectrophotometry. Separations were carried out on an Aquasil® C₁₈-column (4.6 mm × 250.0 mm, 5 µm) with a linear gradient of acetonitrile and water (adjusted to pH 2.8 with trifluoroacetic acid) as mobile phase. Rutoside was employed as internal standard with linear behavior in a concentration range of 0.007-3.5 mg/mL. Accuracy was determined by spiking the crude drug with saponarin resulting in recoveries between 92% and 102%. The method allows the quantification of highly polar flavonoid glycosides and the determination of their total content. For saponarin a linear response was evaluated within the range 0.007-3.5 mg/mL (R²  > 0.9999). It was proven that threefold sonication represents a time-saving, effective and cheap method for the extraction of the polar flavonoid glycosides. The contents determined by HPLC were shown to be in agreement with those obtained employing UV spectrophotometry. The study has indicated that the newly developed HPLC method represents a powerful technique for the quality control of D. versicolor. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry may be used alternatively provided that the less polar flavonoids are removed by purification. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  9. A model of chromosome aberration induction: applications to space research.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    2005-10-01

    A mechanistic model and Monte Carlo code simulating chromosome aberration induction in human lymphocytes is presented. The model is based on the assumption that aberrations arise from clustered DNA lesions and that only the free ends of clustered lesions created in neighboring chromosome territories or in the same territory can join and produce exchanges. The lesions are distributed in the cell nucleus according to the radiation track structure. Interphase chromosome territories are modeled as compact intranuclear regions with volumes proportional to the chromosome DNA contents. Both Giemsa staining and FISH painting can be simulated, and background aberrations can be taken into account. The good agreement with in vitro data provides validation of the model in terms of both the assumptions adopted and the simulation techniques. As an application in the field of space research, the model predictions were compared with aberration yields measured among crew members of long-term missions on board Mir and ISS, assuming an average radiation quality factor of 2.4. The agreement obtained also validated the model for in vivo exposure scenarios and suggested possible applications to the prediction of other relevant aberrations, typically translocations.

  10. Aberration Theory and Design Techniques for Refracting Prism Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bizri, N.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The general case of image formation by optical systems consisting of combinations of ordinary lens components and refracting prisms is studied in detail. Formulae for the sagittal and tangential magnifications, the pupil scale ratios, the image tilt, the positions of (newly defined) principal planes and the equivalent focal lengths have been derived. Formulae for the axial astigmatism, axial transverse chromatic aberration and the focal shift measure of the aberration due to the tilt of the image plane have also been obtained. All of these formulae are equally valid for any optical system which has a single plane of symmetry. The calculation of the wavefront aberration coefficients and of the variance of the aberration for such systems has been treated using the pre-inverted matrix method. In addition formulae for the numerical evaluation of the optical transfer function, the point spread function, the line spread function and the edge response function, have been obtained and programmed. First-order formulae, and a refinement technique, for the design of cemented refracting doublet prisms have been obtained, which ensure that the desired prismatic deviation of the axis is obtained, and that the axial astigmatism and the axial transverse chromatic aberration have stipulated target values. All of the above formulae have been carefully tested by numerical examples, and the design technique has been used to design endoscope objectives which provide small deviations (<10^circ ) of the optical axis.

  11. Primary chromatic aberration elimination via optimization work with genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Hsien-Lin; Chang, En-Hao

    2008-09-01

    Chromatic Aberration plays a part in modern optical systems, especially in digitalized and smart optical systems. Much effort has been devoted to eliminating specific chromatic aberration in order to match the demand for advanced digitalized optical products. Basically, the elimination of axial chromatic and lateral color aberration of an optical lens and system depends on the selection of optical glass. According to reports from glass companies all over the world, the number of various newly developed optical glasses in the market exceeds three hundred. However, due to the complexity of a practical optical system, optical designers have so far had difficulty in finding the right solution to eliminate small axial and lateral chromatic aberration except by the Damped Least Squares (DLS) method, which is limited in so far as the DLS method has not yet managed to find a better optical system configuration. In the present research, genetic algorithms are used to replace traditional DLS so as to eliminate axial and lateral chromatic, by combining the theories of geometric optics in Tessar type lenses and a technique involving Binary/Real Encoding, Multiple Dynamic Crossover and Random Gene Mutation to find a much better configuration for optical glasses. By implementing the algorithms outlined in this paper, satisfactory results can be achieved in eliminating axial and lateral color aberration.

  12. Ocular wavefront aberrations in patients with macular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bessho, Kenichiro; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe G.; Gomez, Laura; Cheng, Lingyun; Koh, Hyoung Jun; Freeman, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Background There have been reports that by compensating for the ocular aberrations using adaptive optical systems it may be possible to improve the resolution of clinical retinal imaging systems beyond what is now possible. In order to develop such system to observe eyes with retinal disease, understanding of the ocular wavefront aberrations in individuals with retinal disease is required. Methods 82 eyes of 66 patients with macular disease (epiretinal membrane, macular edema, macular hole etc.) and 85 eyes of 51 patients without retinal disease were studied. Using a ray-tracing wavefront device, each eye was scanned at both small and large pupil apertures and Zernike coefficients up to 6th order were acquired. Results In phakic eyes, 3rd order root mean square errors (RMS) in macular disease group were statistically greater than control, an average of 12% for 5mm and 31% for 3mm scan diameters (p<0.021). In pseudophakic eyes, there also was an elevation of 3rd order RMS, on average 57% for 5mm and 51% for 3mm scan diameters (p<0.031). Conclusion Higher order wavefront aberrations in eyes with macular disease were greater than in control eyes without disease. Our study suggests that such aberrations may result from irregular or multiple reflecting retinal surfaces. Modifications in wavefront sensor technology will be needed to accurately determine wavefront aberration and allow correction using adaptive optics in eyes with macular irregularities. PMID:19574950

  13. Minimum change in spherical aberration that can be perceived

    PubMed Central

    Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    It is important to know the visual sensitivity to optical blur from both a basic science perspective and a practical point of view. Of particular interest is the sensitivity to blur induced by spherical aberration because it is being used to increase depth of focus as a component of a presbyopic solution. Using a flicker detection-based procedure implemented on an adaptive optics visual simulator, we measured the spherical aberration thresholds that produce just-noticeable differences in perceived image quality. The thresholds were measured for positive and negative values of spherical aberration, for best focus and + 0.5 D and + 1.0 D of defocus. At best focus, the SA thresholds were 0.20 ± 0.01 µm and −0.17 ± 0.03 µm for positive and negative spherical aberration respectively (referred to a 6-mm pupil). These experimental values may be useful in setting spherical aberration permissible levels in different ophthalmic techniques. PMID:27699113

  14. Optical aberrations induced by subclinical decentrations of the ablation pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Kaemmerer, Maik; Riedel, Peter; Mierdel, Peter; Krinke, Hans-Eberhard; Seiler, Theo

    2000-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to study the effect of currently used ablation profiles along with eccentric ablations on the increase of higher order aberrations observed after PRK. Material and Methods: The optical aberrations of 10 eyes were tested before and after PRK. Refractive surgery was performed using a ArF-excimer laser system. In all cases, the ablation zone was 6 mm or larger. The spherical equivalent of the correction was ranging from -2.5 D to -6.0 D. The measured wavefront error was compared to numerical simulations done with the reduced eye model and currently used ablation profiles as well as compared with experimental results obtained from ablation on PMMA balls. Results: The aberration measurements result in a considerable change of the spherical- and coma-like wavefront errors. This result was in good correlation with the numerical simulations and the experimental results. Furthermore, it has been derived that the major contribution on the induced higher order aberrations are a result of the small decentration (less than 1.0 mm) of the ablation zone. Conclusions: Higher order spherical- and coma-like aberrations after PRK are mainly determined by the decentration of the ablation zone during laser refractive surgery. However, future laser systems should use efficient eye-tracking systems and aspherical ablation profiles to overcome this problem.

  15. Pump-induced phase aberrations in Yb3+-doped materials(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppler, Sebastian; Tamer, Issa; Hornung, Marco; Körner, Jörg; Liebetrau, Hartmut; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C.

    2017-05-01

    Optical pumping of laser materials is an effective way to create a population inversion necessary for laser operation. However, a fraction of the pump energy is always transfered as heat into the laser material, which is mainly caused by the quantum defect. For Yb3+-doped materials, the small energy difference between the pump level and the laser level and the pumping with narrowband high-power laser diodes result in a quantum defect of approx. 9%, which is significantly lower compared to other dopants e.g. Ti3+ (33%) or Nd3+ (24%). Due to the low heat introduction, high optical-to-optical efficiency and high repetition rate laser systems based on diode-pumping are well-suited for a number of applications. Here, however, laser beam quality is of crucial importance. Phase distortions and beam profile modulations can lead to optical damages as well as a significant reduction of the focal spot intensity. Pump-induced phase aberrations are the main cause for phase distortions of the amplified laser beam. The heat transferred to the material causes a change of the refractive index (dn/dT), thermal expansion and stress within the laser material, eventually leading to spatial phase aberrations (also called `thermal lens'). However, the spatially dependent distribution of the population inversion itself also leads to spatial phase aberrations. Since electron excitation directly leads to a change in the charge distribution of the laser active ions, the dynamic response of the material to external fields changes. These electronic phase aberrations (also called `population lens') are described by a change in the polarizability of the material. Due to the low quantum defect of Yb3+-doped materials, this effect becomes more important. We show the first comprehensive spatio-temporal characterization of the pump-induced phase aberration including both effects. A high-resolution interference measurement was carried out with time steps of 50µs for times during the pump period and

  16. HUBBLE FINDS NEW DARK SPOT ON NEPTUNE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

  17. G-spot anatomy: a new discovery.

    PubMed

    Ostrzenski, Adam

    2012-05-01

    The anatomic existence of the G-spot has not been documented yet. To identify the anatomic structure of the G-spot.   A stratum-by-stratum vaginal wall dissection on a fresh cadaver. Primary outcome is the identification of the G-spot and the secondary outcome is its measurements and anatomic description of the G-spot. The G-spot has a distinguishable anatomic structure that is located on the dorsal perineal membrane, 16.5 mm from the upper part of the urethral meatus, and creates a 35° angle with the lateral border of the urethra. The lower pole (tail) and the upper pole (head) were located 3 and 15 mm next to the lateral border of the urethra, respectively. Grossly, the G-spot appeared as a well-delineated sac with walls that resembled fibroconnective tissues and resembled erectile tissues. The superior surface of the sac had bluish irregularities visible through the coat. Upon opening the sac's upper coat, blue grape-like anatomic compositions of the G-spot emerged with dimensions of length (L) of 8.1 mm × width (W) of 3.6-1.5 mm × height (H) of 0.4 mm. The G-spot structure had three distinct areas: the proximal part (the head) L 3.4 mm × W 3.6 mm, the middle part L 3.1 mm × W 3.3 mm, and the distal part (tail) L 3.3 mm × W 3.0 mm. From the distal tail, a rope-like structure emerged, which was seen for approximately 1.6 mm and then disappeared into the surrounding tissue. The anatomic existence of the G-spot was documented with potential impact on the practice and clinical research in the field of female sexual function. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. [Frequency of chromosome aberrations in residents of the Semipalatinsk Oblast].

    PubMed

    Gubitskaia, E G; Akhmatullina, N B; Vsevolodov, E B; Bishnevskaia, S S; Sharipov, I K; Cherednichenko, O G

    1999-06-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of the population of the Beskaragai district of the Semipalatinsk oblast adjacent to the territory of the nuclear test site was conducted by means of an ecological genetic questionnaire and cytogenetic examination of metaphase chromosomes. An increase in the total mutation level in the region was observed. The frequency of chromosome aberrations among the population of the Beskaragai district (3.2%) was statistically significantly (about 1.5 times) higher than the background levels in the clear regions (from 1 to 2%). Furthermore, the frequency of aberrations in adolescents was comparable with that in the adults. The spectrum of chromosome aberrations pointed to a significant contribution of radiation component to the mutagenesis.

  19. An electron microscope for the aberration-corrected era.

    PubMed

    Krivanek, O L; Corbin, G J; Dellby, N; Elston, B F; Keyse, R J; Murfitt, M F; Own, C S; Szilagyi, Z S; Woodruff, J W

    2008-02-01

    Improved resolution made possible by aberration correction has greatly increased the demands on the performance of all parts of high-end electron microscopes. In order to meet these demands, we have designed and built an entirely new scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The microscope includes a flexible illumination system that allows the properties of its probe to be changed on-the-fly, a third-generation aberration corrector which corrects all geometric aberrations up to fifth order, an ultra-responsive yet stable five-axis sample stage, and a flexible configuration of optimized detectors. The microscope features many innovations, such as a modular column assembled from building blocks that can be stacked in almost any order, in situ storage and cleaning facilities for up to five samples, computer-controlled loading of samples into the column, and self-diagnosing electronics. The microscope construction is described, and examples of its capabilities are shown.

  20. Interocular high-order corneal wavefront aberration symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Marco; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Serrao, Sebastiano

    2006-04-01

    The interocular symmetry of the high-order corneal wavefront aberration (WA) in a population of myopic eyes was analyzed before and after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The preoperative and one-year postoperative corneal aberration data (from third to seventh Zernike orders) for 4- and 7-mm pupils from right and left eyes were averaged after correcting for the effects of enantiomorphism to test for mirror symmetry. Also, the mean corneal point-spread function (PSF) for right and left eyes was calculated. Preoperatively, a moderate and high degree of correlation in the high-order corneal WA between eyes was found for 4- and 7-mm pupils, respectively. Myopic PRK did not significantly change the interocular symmetry of corneal high-order aberrations. No discernible differences in the orientation PSF between eyes were observed one year after surgery in comparison with the preoperative state over the two analyzed pupils.

  1. Expressing freedom and taking liberties: the paradoxes of aberrant science.

    PubMed

    Little, M

    2006-06-01

    Complete freedom does not exist, despite people's preparedness to die for it. Scientific freedom is much defended and yet much misunderstood. Scientists have limits imposed on their freedom by the disciplines and discourse communities in which they place themselves. Freedom within these socially constructed constraints needs to be distinguished from taking liberties with the rules and practices that make up these constraints, and validate the activities of special groups within society. Scientists (and the public) perceive taking liberties with science's rules and practices as aberrant science, and they often react punitively. Aberrant science can be broadly examined under four headings: wicked science, naughty science, dysfunctional science, and ideologically unacceptable science. When we examine examples of perceived aberrant science, we find that these categories of "misconduct" are connected and often confused. Scientific freedom needs to be redefined with due regard to current understandings of scientists as human beings facing powerful social pressures to deliver results of a particular kind.

  2. Clinical anatomy of the G-spot.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu; Leung, Cynthia; Shah, Jaimin; Kilchevsky, Amichai

    2015-04-01

    The existence of the G-Spot has never been unequivocally confirmed. With increased public exposure and a trend towards sexual gratification, however, the impetus to elucidate this structure is greater than ever. This review will focus on research that has been conducted on the clinical anatomy of the G-Spot. Ultimately this review will show that while the distal area of the anterior vaginal wall appears to be the most sensitive region of the vagina, the existence of an anatomical "G-spot" remains to be demonstrated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. In vivo longitudinal chromatic aberration of pseudophakic eyes.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Damian; Jóźwik, Agnieszka; Zając, Marek; Hill-Bator, Aneta; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna

    2014-02-01

    To present the results of longitudinal chromatic aberration measurements on two groups of pseudophakic eyes in comparison to healthy eyes. The longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye, defined as chromatic difference of refraction with disabled accommodation, was measured with the use of a visual refractometer with a custom-designed target illuminator consisting of a narrow-band RGB diode (blue λb = 470 ± 15 nm; green λg = 525 ± 18 nm; red λr = 660 ± 10 nm). The measurements were performed on nine eyes implanted with AcrySof IQ SN60WF, 14 eyes implanted with AcrySof SA60AT, and 10 phakic eyes under cycloplegia. The mean values of the longitudinal chromatic aberration between 470 and 660 nm for the control group was 1.12 ± 0.14 D. For SA60AT group, it was 1.45 ± 0.42 D whereas for SN60WF it was 1.17 ± 0.52 D. The statistical test showed significant difference between SA60AT and the control group (p < 0.05) and no significant difference between SN60WF and the control groups (p = 0.64). The study showed that the longitudinal chromatic aberration in vivo can be easily and reliably estimated with an adapted visual refractometer. The two groups of pseudophakic eyes measured in this study showed different values of chromatic aberration. Its magnitude for SA60AT group was significantly larger than for the control group whereas for SN60WF the difference was not significant. The optical material used for intraocular lens design may have significant influence on the magnitude of the chromatic aberration of the pseudophakic eye, and therefore on its optical and visual performance in polychromatic light.

  4. In vivo chromatic aberration in eyes implanted with intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Llorente, Lourdes; Durán, Sonia; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana

    2013-04-12

    To measure in vivo and objectively the monochromatic aberrations at different wavelengths, and the chromatic difference of focus between green and infrared wavelengths in eyes implanted with two models of intraocular lenses (IOL). EIGHTEEN EYES PARTICIPATED IN THIS STUDY: nine implanted with Tecnis ZB99 1-Piece acrylic IOL and nine implanted with AcrySof SN60WF IOL. A custom-developed laser ray tracing (LRT) aberrometer was used to measure the optical aberrations, at 532 nm and 785 nm wavelengths. The monochromatic wave aberrations were described using a fifth-order Zernike polynomial expansion. The chromatic difference of focus was estimated as the difference between the equivalent spherical errors corresponding to each wavelength. Wave aberration measurements were highly reproducible. Except for the defocus term, no significant differences in high order aberrations (HOA) were found between wavelengths. The average chromatic difference of focus was 0.46 ± 0.15 diopters (D) in the Tecnis group, and 0.75 ± 0.12 D in the AcrySof group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Chromatic difference of focus in the AcrySof group was not statistically significantly different from the Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) previously reported in a phakic population (0.78 ± 0.16 D). The impact of LCA on retinal image quality (measured in terms of Strehl ratio) was drastically reduced when considering HOA and astigmatism in comparison with a diffraction-limited eye, yielding the differences in retinal image quality between Tecnis and AcrySof IOLs not significant. LRT aberrometry at different wavelengths is a reproducible technique to evaluate the chromatic difference of focus objectively in eyes implanted with IOLs. Replacement of the crystalline lens by the IOL did not increase chromatic difference of focus above that of phakic eyes in any of the groups. The AcrySof group showed chromatic difference of focus values very similar to physiological

  5. The BHVI-EyeMapper: peripheral refraction and aberration profiles.

    PubMed

    Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Holden, Brien A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article was to present the optical design of a new instrument (BHVI-EyeMapper, EM), which is dedicated to rapid peripheral wavefront measurements across the visual field for distance and near, and to compare the peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles obtained in myopic eyes with and without accommodation. Central and peripheral refractive errors (M, J180, and J45) and higher-order aberrations (C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0]) were measured in 26 myopic participants (mean [±SD] age, 20.9 [±2.0] years; mean [±SD] spherical equivalent, -3.00 [±0.90] diopters [D]) corrected for distance. Measurements were performed along the horizontal visual field with (-2.00 to -5.00 D) and without (+1.00 D fogging) accommodation. Changes as a function of accommodation were compared using tilt and curvature coefficients of peripheral refraction and aberration profiles. As accommodation increased, the relative peripheral refraction profiles of M and J180 became significantly (p < 0.05) more negative and the profile of M became significantly (p < 0.05) more asymmetric. No significant differences were found for the J45 profiles (p > 0.05). The peripheral aberration profiles of C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0] became significantly (p < 0.05) less asymmetric as accommodation increased, but no differences were found in the curvature. The current study showed that significant changes in peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles occurred during accommodation in myopic eyes. With its extended measurement capabilities, that is, permitting rapid peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration measurements up to visual field angles of ±50 degrees for distance and near (up to -5.00 D), the EM is a new advanced instrument that may provide additional insights in the ongoing quest to understand and monitor myopia development.

  6. Visually guided locomotion and computation of time-to-collision in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): the effects of frontal and visual cortical lesions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, S; Ellard, C

    2000-02-01

    Past research has indicated that many species use the time-to-collision variable but little is known about its neural underpinnings in rodents. In a set of three experiments we set out to replicate and extend the findings of Sun et al. (Sun H-J, Carey DP, Goodale MA. Exp Brain Res 1992;91:171-175) in a visually guided task in Mongolian gerbils, and then investigated the effects of lesions to different cortical areas. We trained Mongolian gerbils to run in the dark toward a target on a computer screen. In some trials the target changed in size as the animal ran toward it in such a way as to produce 'virtual targets' if the animals were using time-to-collision or contact information. In experiment 1 we confirmed that gerbils use time-to-contact information to modulate their speed of running toward a target. In experiment 2 we established that visual cortex lesions attenuate the ability of lesioned animals to use information from the visual target to guide their run, while frontal cortex lesioned animals are not as severely affected. In experiment 3 we found that small radio-frequency lesions, of either area VI or of the lateral extrastriate regions of the visual cortex also affected the use of information from the target to modulate locomotion.

  7. Remote sensing monitoring the spatio-temporal changes of aridification in the Mongolian Plateau based on the general Ts-NDVI space, 1981-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiaoming; Feng, Yiming; Wang, Juanle

    2017-06-01

    This paper has developed a general Ts-NDVI triangle space with vegetation index time-series data from AVHRR and MODIS to monitor soil moisture in the Mongolian Plateau during 1981-2012, and studied the spatio-temporal variations of drought based on the temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI). The results indicated that (1) the developed general Ts-NDVI space extracted from the AVHRR and MODIS remote sensing data would be an effective method to monitor regional drought, moreover, it would be more meaningful if the single time Ts-NDVI space showed an unstable condition; (2) the inverted TVDI was expected to reflect the water deficit in the study area. It was found to be in close negative agreement with precipitation and 10 cm soil moisture; (3) in the Mongolian Plateau, TVDI presented a zonal distribution with changes in land use/land cover types, vegetation cover and latitude. The soil moisture is low in bare land, construction land and grassland. During 1981-2012, drought was widely spread throughout the plateau, and aridification was obvious in the study period. Vegetation degradation, overgrazing, and climate warming could be considered as the main reasons.

  8. Ocular larva migrans caused by Toxocara cati in Mongolian gerbils and a comparison of ophthalmologic findings with those produced by T. canis.

    PubMed

    Akao, N; Takayanagi, T H; Suzuki, R; Tsukidate, S; Fujita, K

    2000-10-01

    To elucidate the pathogenic potential of Toxocara cari, we observed the ophthalmologic changes of the fundi in Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, after oral inoculation of 17 embryonated eggs/g body weight. Ophthalmic conditions in 8 T. cati-infected gerbils were monitored using an ophthalmoscope from day 0 to day 156 and were compared with those of 57 T. canis-infected gerbils. The results showed that T. cati larvae migrated into the eye of the gerbil and then elicited ophthalmic changes, including retinal (25%) and vitreous (50%) hemorrhaging, vasculitis (37.5%), and exudative lesions (25%). Lesions were less prevalent, however, in T. cati-infected than in T. canis-infected gerbils. Unlike in T. canis-infected gerbils, the hemorrhagic lesions did not reappear in T. cati-infected gerbils after they were absorbed. These findings suggested that T. cati larvae are a potentially hazardous pathogen for ocular toxocariasis and that Mongolian gerbils infected with T. cati may be a useful model for the study of human ocular toxocariasis caused by T. cati. This is the first study to report that T. cati larvae can induce ophthalmic lesions in the retina of gerbils.

  9. Dose Effect Evaluation and Therapeutic Window of the Neuro-EPO Nasal Application for the Treatment of the Focal Ischemia Model in the Mongolian Gerbil

    PubMed Central

    Teste, Iliana Sosa; Tamos, Yuneidys Mengana; Cruz, Yamila Rodríguez; Cernada, Adriana Muñoz; Rodríguez, Janette Cruz; Martínez, Nelvis Subirós; Antich, Rosa Maria Coro; González-Quevedo, Alina; Rodríguez, Julio Cesar García

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of disability in Cuba and in several developed countries. A possible neuroprotective agent is the rHu-EPO, whose effects have been demonstrated in models of brain ischemia. The Neuro-EPO is a derivative of the rHu-EPO that avoids the stimulation of erythropoiesis. The aim of this study was to determine the Neuro-EPO delivery into the central nervous system (CNS) to exert a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia model of the Mongolian gerbil. The Neuro-EPO in a rate of 249.4 UI every 8 hours for 4 days showed 25% higher viability efficacy (P > 0.01), improving neurological score and behavior of the spontaneous exploratory activity, the preservation of CA3 areas of the hippocampus, the cortex, and thalamic nuclei in the focal ischemia model of the Mongolian gerbil. In summary, this study, the average dose-used Neuro-EPO (249.4 UI/10 μL/every 8 hours for 4 days), proved to be valid indicators of viability, neurological status, and spontaneous exploratory activity, being significantly lower than that reported for the systemically use of the rHu-EPO as a neuroprotectant. Indeed, up to 12 h after brain ischemia is very positive Neuro-EPO administration by the nasal route as a candidate for neuroprotection. PMID:22701364

  10. Dose effect evaluation and therapeutic window of the neuro-EPO nasal application for the treatment of the focal ischemia model in the Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Teste, Iliana Sosa; Tamos, Yuneidys Mengana; Cruz, Yamila Rodríguez; Cernada, Adriana Muñoz; Rodríguez, Janette Cruz; Martínez, Nelvis Subirós; Antich, Rosa Maria Coro; González-Quevedo, Alina; Rodríguez, Julio Cesar García

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of disability in Cuba and in several developed countries. A possible neuroprotective agent is the rHu-EPO, whose effects have been demonstrated in models of brain ischemia. The Neuro-EPO is a derivative of the rHu-EPO that avoids the stimulation of erythropoiesis. The aim of this study was to determine the Neuro-EPO delivery into the central nervous system (CNS) to exert a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia model of the Mongolian gerbil. The Neuro-EPO in a rate of 249.4 UI every 8 hours for 4 days showed 25% higher viability efficacy (P > 0.01), improving neurological score and behavior of the spontaneous exploratory activity, the preservation of CA3 areas of the hippocampus, the cortex, and thalamic nuclei in the focal ischemia model of the Mongolian gerbil. In summary, this study, the average dose-used Neuro-EPO (249.4 UI/10 μL/every 8 hours for 4 days), proved to be valid indicators of viability, neurological status, and spontaneous exploratory activity, being significantly lower than that reported for the systemically use of the rHu-EPO as a neuroprotectant. Indeed, up to 12 h after brain ischemia is very positive Neuro-EPO administration by the nasal route as a candidate for neuroprotection.

  11. Increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in railroad car painters.

    PubMed

    Piña-Calva, A; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Fuentes, M V; Neria, P; Pérez-Lucio, C; Vélez-Zamora, N M

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to paints and solvents contributes to chromosomal alterations in occupationally exposed individuals. A total of 25 male railroad and underground railroad car painters were studied. This group had a mean age of 32.7 y and a mean exposure time of 5.2 y. The results were compared with those obtained for 25 healthy (unexposed) males. The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations clearly revealed an increase in the number of all types of aberrations considered in the population of painters. This suggests that exposure to a combination of chemicals may increase genotoxicity in industrial workers.

  12. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    SciTech Connect

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G

    2001-12-31

    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. [Prenatal diagnostics of chromosomal aberrations Czech Republic: 1994-2007].

    PubMed

    Gregor, V; Sípek, A; Sípek, A; Horácek, J '; Langhammer, P; Petrzílková, L; Calda, P

    2009-02-01

    An analysis of prenatal diagnostics efficiency of selected types of chromosomal aberrations in the Czech Republic in 2007. Update of 1994-2007 data according to particular selected diagnoses. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of pre- and postnatal chromosomal aberrations diagnostics and its efficiency. Data on pre- and postnatally diagnosed birth defects in the Czech Republic during 1994-2007 were used. Data on prenatally diagnosed birth defects (and for terminated pregnancies) were collected from particular departments of prenatal diagnostics, medical genetics and ultrasound diagnostics in the Czech Republic, data on birth defects in births from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics). Total numbers over the period under the study, mean incidences of selected types of chromosomal aberrations and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiencies were analyzed. Following chromosomal aberrations were studied: Down, Edwards, Patau, Turner and Klinefelter syndromes and syndromes 47,XXX and 47,XYY. A relative proportion of Down, Edwards and Patau syndromes as well as other autosomal and gonosomal aberration is presented in figures. Recently, trisomies 13, 18 and 21 present around 70% of all chromosomal aberrations in selectively aborted fetuses, in other pregnancies, "other chromosomal aberrations" category (mostly balanced reciprocal translocations and inversions) present more than 2/3 of all diagnoses. During the period under the study, following total numbers, mean relative incidences (per 10,000 live births, in brackets) and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiency (in %) were found in following chromosomal syndromes: Down syndrome 2,244 (16.58) and 63.37%, Edwards syndrome 521 (3.85) and 79.93%, Patau syndrome 201 (1.49) and 68.87%, Turner syndrome 380 (2.81) and 79.89%, 47,XXX syndrome 61 (0.45) and 59.74%, Klinefelter syndrome 163 (1.20) and 73.65% and 47,XYY syndrome 22 (0.16) and 54.76%. The study gives updated results of

  14. Genotoxicity of mercury used in chromosome aberration tests.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M; Oshima, H; Nakamura, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effects of Hg released from dental amalgams. The chromosome aberration test was conducted using original extracts and their diluted solutions of conventional type amalgam and high copper amalgam. The concentrations of Hg, Cu and Ag in the original extract of high copper amalgam were 17.64, 7.97 and 43.90 microM, respectively. Those in the original extract of conventional type amalgam were 20.63, 7.87 and 14.79 microM, respectively. 10 and 30 microM Hg(2+) were also used for comparison. The frequency of chromosome aberrations was below 5% with 0 microM Hg(2+) and with a triple dilution of high copper amalgam extract, containing 5.88 microM Hg, 14.63 microM Cu and 2.65 microM Ag. However, 9.5% of the cells showed chromosome aberrations with a quadruple dilution of conventional type amalgam, containing 5.15 microM Hg, 3.69 microM Cu and 1.96 microM Ag. The amount of Hg in the quadruple dilution of conventional type amalgam was less than that in the triple dilution of high copper amalgam extract and 10 microM Hg(2+). A concentration of 30 microM Hg(2+) caused 34.5% of the cells to show chromosome aberrations while with a two-thirds dilution of high copper amalgam extract, containing 11.76 microM Hg, 29.26 microM Cu and 5.31 microM Ag, 58.5% of the cells showed chromosome aberrations. A two-thirds dilution of high copper amalgam extract induced more chromosome aberrations than 30 microM Hg(2+), although the amount of Hg was less than 30 microM Hg(2+). A triple dilution of conventional type amalgam extract, original extracts of conventional type amalgam and high copper amalgam and 100 microM Hg(2+) were induced few metaphases. It was revealed that the conventional type amalgam induced chromosome aberrations with quadruple dilution where cell viability was about 80% and that the high copper amalgam induced a high level of chromosome aberrations with the two-thirds dilution. The effects of low level Hg on humans

  15. High resolution imaging and wavefront aberration correction in plenoptic systems.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Sevilla, J M; Rodríguez-Ramos, L F; Montilla, I; Rodríguez-Ramos, J M

    2014-09-01

    Plenoptic imaging systems are becoming more common since they provide capabilities unattainable in conventional imaging systems, but one of their main limitations is the poor bidimensional resolution. Combining the wavefront phase measurement and the plenoptic image deconvolution, we propose a system capable of improving the resolution when a wavefront aberration is present and the image is blurred. In this work, a plenoptic system is simulated using Fourier optics, and the results show that an improved resolution is achieved, even in the presence of strong wavefront aberrations.

  16. Static telescope aberration measurement using lucky imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Marrero, Marcos; Rodríguez-Ramos, Luis Fernando; Marichal-Hernández, José Gil; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    A procedure has been developed to compute static aberrations once the telescope PSF has been measured with the lucky imaging technique, using a nearby star close to the object of interest as the point source to probe the optical system. This PSF is iteratively turned into a phase map at the pupil using the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm and then converted to the appropriate actuation information for a deformable mirror having low actuator number but large stroke capability. The main advantage of this procedure is related with the capability of correcting static aberration at the specific pointing direction and without the need of a wavefront sensor.

  17. Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

  18. Papillary carcinoma in median aberrant thyroid (ectopic) - case report.

    PubMed

    Hebbar K, Ashwin; K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed.

  19. Selective corneal optical aberration (SCOA) for customized ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Benedikt J.; Bende, Thomas

    2001-06-01

    Wavefront analysis still have some technical problems which may be solved within the next years. There are some limitations to use wavefront as a diagnostic tool for customized ablation alone. An ideal combination would be wavefront and topography. Meanwhile Selective Corneal Aberration is a method to visualize the optical quality of a measured corneal surface. It is based on a true measured 3D elevation information of a video topometer. Thus values can be interpreted either using Zernike polynomials or visualized as a so called color coded surface quality map. This map gives a quality factor (corneal aberration) for each measured point of the cornea.

  20. Bilateral Symmetry before and Six Months after Aberration-Free™ Correction with the SCHWIND AMARIS TotalTech Laser: Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Arbelaez, Maria Clara; Vidal, Camila; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the preoperative and postoperative bilateral symmetry between OD and OS eyes that have undergone femto-LASIK using the Ziemer LDV femtosecond laser system, the SCHWIND AMARIS Excimer Laser and the Aberrationfree™ profiles implemented in the SCHWIND Custom Ablation Manager software. Methods A total of 25 LASIK patients were bilaterally evaluated at the six-month follow-up visit. In all cases standard examinations, pre- and postoperative analysis with corneal wavefront topography (OPTIKON Scout) were performed. Aberration-free™ aspheric treatments were devised using the Custom Ablation Manager software and ablations were performed by means of the SCHWIND AMARIS flying-spot excimer laser system (both SCHWIND eyetech- solutions). In all cases LASIK flaps were created using an LDV femtosecond laser (Ziemer Group). The OD/OS bilateral symmetry was evaluated in terms of corneal wavefront aberration. Results Preoperatively, 11 Zernike terms showed significant bilateral (OS-vs.-OD) symmetry, and only 6 Zernike terms were significantly different. Overall, 23 out of the 25 patients showed significant bilateral symmetry, and only 2 out of 25 patients showed significant differences. None of the aberration metrics changed from pre- to postoperative values by a clinically relevant amount. At the 6-month postoperative visit, 12 Zernike terms showed significant symmetry, and 8 terms were significantly different. Overall, 22 out of 25 patients showed significant bilateral symmetry (OS vs. OD), and only 3 out of 25 patients showed significant differences. Also, this postoperative examination revealed that 6 Zernike terms lost significant OS-vs.-OD symmetry, but 4 Zernike terms gained significant symmetry. Finally, 4 patients lost significant bilaterality, and 2 patients gained significant bilaterality: bilateral symmetry between eyes was better maintained in those patients with a clear preoperative bilateral symmetry. Conclusions Aberration-Free Treatments with

  1. Finding your innovation sweet spot.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Jacob; Horowitz, Roni; Levav, Amnon; Mazursky, David

    2003-03-01

    Most new product ideas are either uninspired or impractical. So how can developers hit the innovation sweet spot--far enough from existing products to attract real interest but close enough that they are feasible to make and market? They can apply five innovation patterns that manipulate existing components of a product and its immediate environment to come up with something both ingenious and viable, say the authors. The subtraction pattern works by removing product components, particularly those that seem desirable or indispensable. Think of the legless high chair that attaches to the kitchen table. The multiplication pattern makes one or more copies of an existing component, then alters those copies in some important way. For example, the Gillette double-bladed razor features a second blade that cuts whiskers at a slightly different angle. By dividing an existing product into its component parts--the division pattern--you can see something that was an integrated whole in an entirely different light. Think of the modern home stereo--it has modular speakers, tuners, and CD and tape players, which allow users to customize their sound systems. The task unification pattern involves assigning a new task to an existing product element or environmental attribute, thereby unifying two tasks in a single component. An example is the defrosting filament in an automobile windshield that also serves as a radio antenna. Finally, the attribute dependency pattern alters or creates the dependent relationships between a product and its environment. For example, by creating a dependent relationship between lens color and external lighting conditions, eyeglass developers came up with a lens that changes color when exposed to sunlight.

  2. A Dark Spot on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This view taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft of Jupiter's icy moon Europa focuses on a dark, smooth region whose center is the lowest area in this image. To the west (left), it is bounded by a cliff and terraces, which might have been formed by normal faulting. The slopes toward the east (right) leading into the dark spot are gentle.

    Near the center of the dark area, it appears the dark materials have covered some of the bright terrain and ridges. This suggests that when the dark material was deposited, it may have been a fluid or an icy slush.

    Only a few impact craters are visible, with some of them covered or flooded by dark material. Some appear in groups, which may indicate that they are secondary craters formed by debris excavated during a larger impact event. A potential source for these is the nearby crater Mannann`an.

    North is to the top of the picture which is centered at 1 degree south latitude and 225 degrees west longitude. The images in this mosaic have been re-projected to 50 meters (55 yards) per picture element. They were obtained by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on March 29, 1998, during Galileo's fourteenth orbit of Jupiter, at ranges as close as 1940 kilometers (1,200 miles) from Europa.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  3. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  4. Two New Hot Spots on Io

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-26

    The Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on Galileo obtained this image of half of Io's disk in darkness on September 19, 1997. This image, at 5 microns, shows several hot spots on Io, which are volcanic regions of enhanced thermal emission. The area shown is part of the leading hemisphere of Io. Two new hot spots are shown and indicated in the image (New, and Shamshu). Neither of these hot spots were seen by NIMS or the Solid State Imaging Experiment, (SSI) prior to this observation, becoming only recently active. Several other previously known hot spots are labelled in the image. Galileo was at a distance of 342,000 km from Io when this observation was made. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01226

  5. Ephemeral Dark Spots Associated with Martian Gullies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Titus, T. N.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2001-01-01

    Seasonal spots confined to the channels of the recently-discovered martian gullies are described and explanations offered for their origin. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Curiosity Spotted on Parachute by Orbiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-06

    NASA Curiosity rover and its parachute were spotted by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter as Curiosity descended to the surface. The HiRISE camera captured this image of Curiosity while the orbiter was listening to transmissions from the rover.

  7. Curiosity Spotted on Parachute by Orbiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-06

    NASA Curiosity rover and its parachute were spotted by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter as Curiosity descended to the surface on Aug. 5 PDT Aug. 6 EDT. Curiosity and its parachute are in the center of the white box.

  8. Hot spot formation from shock reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menikoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Heterogeneities sensitize an explosive to shock initiation. This is due to hot-spot formation and the sensitivity of chemical reaction rates to temperature. Here, we describe a numerical experiment aimed at elucidating a mechanism for hot-spot formation that occurs when a shock wave passes over a high-density impurity. The simulation performed is motivated by a physical experiment in which glass beads are added to liquid nitromethane. The impedance mismatch between the beads and the nitromethane results in shock reflections. These, in turn, give rise to transverse waves along the lead shock front. Hot spots arise on local portions of the lead front with a higher shock strength, rather than on the reflected shocks behind the beads. Moreover, the interactions generated by reflected waves from neighboring beads can significantly increase the peak hot-spot temperature when the beads are suitably spaced.

  9. A New Hot Spot on Northern Io

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-12-10

    In August 2001, NASA Galileo spacecraft has returned imagery of a hot spot on Jupiter moon Io that was the source of a towering plume indicating a sulfur-dioxide concentration that may have been fallout from the plume.

  10. White-spot disease of salmon fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazuranich, J.J.; Nielson, W.E.

    1959-01-01

     White-spot disease, sometimes referred to as coagulated-yolk disease, has been associated with excessive mortalities occurring among the fry and early fingerling stages of the fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytacha) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Stations at Carson, Cook, Underwood, and Willard, Washington. This disease of eggs and fry should not be confused with the "white-spot" infection that is caused in fingerlings by members of the protozoan genus Ichthyophthirius.

  11. The hot spot of vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myneni, Ranga B.; Kanemasu, Edward T.

    1988-01-01

    A conventional radiometer is used to identify the hot spot (the peak in reflected radiation in the retrosolar direction) of vegetation. A multiwavelength-band radiometer collected radiances on fully grown dense wheat and maize canopies on several clear sunny days. It is noted that the hot spot is difficult to detect in the near IR wavelengths because the shadows are much darker. In general, the retrosolar brightness is found to be higher for smaller sun polar angles than for larger angles.

  12. Aberration of a negative ion beam caused by space charge effect.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Wada, S; Hatayama, A

    2010-02-01

    Aberrations are inevitable when the charged particle beams are extracted, accelerated, transmitted, and focused with electrostatic and magnetic fields. In this study, we investigate the aberration of a negative ion accelerator for a neutral beam injector theoretically, especially the spherical aberration caused by the negative ion beam expansion due to the space charge effect. The negative ion current density profiles with the spherical aberration are compared with those without the spherical aberration. It is found that the negative ion current density profiles in a log scale are tailed due to the spherical aberration.

  13. Aberrant proteins featured in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers: an indication of early oral premalignancy?

    PubMed

    Jessie, Kala; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged chewing of betel quid is known to cause oral diseases, including cancer. The present study was performed to screen for aberrant proteins in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers compared to nonchewers. Saliva of female subjects (n = 10) who had been chewing betel quid for more than 20 years and nonbetel quid chewers (n = 10) of the same gender and range of age was analyzed by gel-based proteomics. Increased structural microheterogeneity of saliva haptoglobin beta chains indicated by shifts of focused spots similar to that earlier reported in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and their relatively higher abundance compared to nonbetel quid chewers, were detected in saliva protein profiles of all chewers. In addition, the majority of the betel quid chewers also showed significant higher abundance of hemopexin, alpha-1B glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, complement C3, and transthyretin. These proteins had previously been associated with several different cancers. Our data demonstrated different forms of protein aberration in the saliva of betel quid chewers, which may be indicative of early oral precancerous conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Modeling deflagration waves out of hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives comes about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping through an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step, deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in the cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighboring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration waves may depend on both pressure and temperature. It depends on pressure for quasistatic loading near ambient temperature, and on temperature at high temperatures resulting from shock loading. From the simulation we obtain deflagration fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For 8 to 13 GPa shocks, the emanating fronts propagate as deflagration waves to consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels deflagration waves may interact with the sweeping shock to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds.

  15. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix; Su, Shufang; ...

    2017-02-10

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the $Z$-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relicmore » DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. As a result, the dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.« less

  16. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix; Su, Shufang

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the $Z$-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relicmore » DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. As a result, the dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.« less

  17. Concentrator hot-spot testing, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the hot-spot susceptibility of concentrator cells, to provide a hot-spot qualification test for concentrator modules, and to provide guidelines for reducing hot-spot susceptibility are presented. Hot-spot heating occurs in a photovoltaic module when the short-circuit current of a cell is lower than the string operating current forcing the cell into reverse bias with a concurrent power dissipation. Although the basis for the concentrator module hot-spot qualification test is the test developed for flat-plate modules, issues, such as providing cell illumination, introduce additional complexities into the testing procedure. The same general guidelines apply for protecting concentrator modules from hot-spot stressing as apply to flat-plate modules. Therefore, recommendations are made on the number of bypass diodes required per given number of series cells per module or source circuit. In addition, a new method for determining the cell temperature in the laboratory or in the field is discussed.

  18. Rocket engine hot-spot detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collamore, F. N.

    1985-04-01

    On high performance devices such as rocket engines it is desirable to know if local hot spots or areas of reduced cooling margin exist. The objective of this program is to design, fabricate and test an electronic hot spot detector capable of sensing local hot spot on the exterior circumference of a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber in order to avoid hardware damage. The electronic hot spot sensor consists of an array of 120 thermocouple elements which are bonded in a flexible belt of polyimide film. The design temperature range is from +30 F to +400 F continuously with an intermittent temperature of 500 F maximum. The thermocouple belt consists of 120 equally spaced copper-Constantan thermocouple junctions which is wrapped around the OMS liquid rocket engine combustion chamber, to monitor temperatures of individual cooling channels. Each thermocouple is located over a cooling channel near the injector end of the combustion chamber. The thermocouple array sensor is held in place by a spring loaded clamp band. Analyses show that in the event of a blocked cooling channel the surface temperature of the chamber over the blocked channel will rise from a normal operating temperature of approx. 300 F to approx. 600 F. The hot spot detector will respond quickly to this change with a response time constant less than 0.05 seconds. The hot spot sensor assembly is fabricated with a laminated construction of layers of Kapton film and an outer protective layer of fiberglass reinforced silicone rubber.

  19. Interstitial telomeric repeats are not preferentially involved in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human cells.

    PubMed

    Desmaze, C; Pirzio, L M; Blaise, R; Mondello, C; Giulotto, E; Murnane, J P; Sabatier, L

    2004-01-01

    Telomeric repeat sequences, located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes, have been detected at intrachromosomal locations in many species. Large blocks of telomeric sequences are located near the centromeres in hamster cells, and have been reported to break spontaneously or after exposure to ionizing radiation, leading to chromosome aberrations. In human cells, interstitial telomeric sequences (ITS) can be composed of short tracts of telomeric repeats (less than twenty), or of longer stretches of exact and degenerated hexanucleotides, mainly localized at subtelomeres. In this paper, we analyzed the radiation sensitivity of a naturally occurring short ITS localized in 2q31 and we found that this region is not a hot spot of radiation-induced chromosome breaks. We then selected a human cell line in which approximately 800 bp of telomeric DNA had been introduced by transfection into an internal euchromatic chromosomal region in chromosome 4q. In parallel, a cell line containing the plasmid without telomeric sequences was also analyzed. Both regions containing the transfected plasmids showed a higher frequency of radiation-induced breaks than expected, indicating that the instability of the regions containing the transfected sequences is not due to the presence of telomeric sequences. Taken together, our data show that ITS themselves do not enhance the formation of radiation-induced chromosome rearrangements in these human cell lines. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Effects of ocular aberrations on contrast detection in noise.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bo; Liu, Rong; Dai, Yun; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Yudong

    2012-08-06

    We use adaptive optics (AO) techniques to manipulate the ocular aberrations and elucidate the effects of these ocular aberrations on contrast detection in a noisy background. The detectability of sine wave gratings at frequencies of 4, 8, and 16 circles per degree (cpd) was measured in a standard two-interval force-choice staircase procedure against backgrounds of various levels of white noise. The observer's ocular aberrations were either corrected with AO or left uncorrected. In low levels of external noise, contrast detection thresholds are always lowered by AO correction, whereas in high levels of external noise, they are generally elevated by AO correction. Higher levels of external noise are required to make this threshold elevation observable when signal spatial frequencies increase from 4 to 16 cpd. The linear-amplifier-model fit shows that mostly sampling efficiency and equivalent noise both decrease with AO correction. Our findings indicate that ocular aberrations could be beneficial for contrast detection in high-level noises. The implications of these findings are discussed.